WorldWideScience

Sample records for sub-saharan african population

  1. Training needs to support population education/communication activities in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlay, W

    1985-06-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has recently attracted the attention and concern of the international community because of the deepening economic crisis that has persisted since the mid-1970s. The quality of life and development of progress and improvement for the rural population will depend on the extent to which countries of the region appreciate the interrelationships between population and socioeconomic development and adopt strategies to influence population trends. At both regional and national levels, policy makers will have to take account of population characteristics in dealing with demand for 1) education; 2) health services, food, and nutritional needs; 3) demand and supply of labor; and 4) maternal and child health care. The 1984 Kilimanjaro Program of Action on Population emerged as a major document from the Arusha Population Conference; African states adopted the principle that improvement in the quality of life in the region reguires effective programs to reduce current high levels of fertility and mortality and alleviate the uneven distribution of population. This paper proposes the use of a multisectoral training strategy to integrate population education into rural development training programs as a step towards realizing desired national goals for economic growth and social development. Population education can be subdivided into 3 interrelated content areas: 1) population factors, 2) interrelationships between population factors, and 3) socioeconomic development at macro and micro levels. Although each population education program has its individual aims, at the national level it is necessary to identify criteria to guide the design and selection of content such as 1) a country's development goals and needs, 2) an institutional framework, 3) social and cultural factors, and 4) the availability of teaching materials. A Kenya case study is provided. PMID:12268117

  2. Genetics of Sub-Saharan African Human Population: Implications for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Mboowa

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has continued leading in prevalence and incidence of major infectious disease killers such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Epidemiological triad of infectious diseases includes susceptible host, pathogen, and environment. It is imperative that all aspects of vertices of the infectious disease triad are analysed to better understand why this is so. Studies done to address this intriguing reality though have mainly addressed pathogen and environmental components of th...

  3. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub-Saharan region, energy independent countries using indigenous coal and peat resources. These resources have the potential to replace wood and wood charcoal as domestic fueld in the urban centers, as well as producing electrical and industrial energy, thus reducing expensive oil imports and decreasing the rate of deforestation. ?? 1991.

  4. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. N.; Brownfield, M. E.; Bergin, M. J.

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub-Saharan region, energy independent countries using indigenous coal and peat resources. These resources have the potential to replace wood and wood charcoal as domestic fueld in the urban centers, as well as producing electrical and industrial energy, thus reducing expensive oil imports and decreasing the rate of deforestation.

  5. Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Martin; Rengo, Chiara; Cruciani, Fulvio; Gratrix, Fiona; Wilson, James F.; Scozzari, Rosaria; Macaulay, Vincent; Torroni, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    We have analyzed and compared mitochondrial DNA variation of populations from the Near East and Africa and found a very high frequency of African lineages present in the Yemen Hadramawt: more than a third were of clear sub-Saharan origin. Other Arab populations carried ∼10% lineages of sub-Saharan origin, whereas non-Arab Near Eastern populations, by contrast, carried few or no such lineages, suggesting that gene flow has been preferentially into Arab populations. Several lines of evidence su...

  6. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graft Aikins Ama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and related risk factors among populations of Sub-Sahara African descent (henceforth, African descent in comparison with the European populations in Europe. Results Compared with European populations, populations of African descent have an increased risk of stroke, whereas CHD is less common. They also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than European populations. Obesity is highly prevalent, but smoking rate is lower among African descent women. Older people of African descent have more favourable lipid profile and dietary habits than their European counterparts. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations of African descent. The rate of physical activity differs between European countries. Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among African populations, which may explain their high rate of stroke in Europe. The relatively low rate of CHD may be explained by the low rates of other risk factors including a more favourable lipid profile and the low prevalence of smoking. The risk factors are changing, and on the whole, getting worse especially among African women. Cohort studies and clinical trials are therefore needed among these groups to determine the relative contribution of vascular risk factors, and to help guide the prevention efforts. There is a clear need for intervention studies among these populations in Europe.

  7. Population growth and food supply in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerman, J; Cochrane, S H

    1982-09-01

    It is argued in this article that sub-Saharan Africa, given its present institutions and endowments of capital and technology, is already dangerously close to overpopulation. The rapid growth of its population projected for the next decades will greatly increase human misery and depress economic development. Specifically, rapid population growth will have disastrous effects on the region's ability to increase exports and provide people with food. There must be a search for new ways in which these effects could be mitigated. In sub-Saharan Africa fertility either continues to be very high or is increasing, in part due to some decline in traditional practices that reduce fertility, such as prolonged breastfeeding. This situation and the expectation of declining mortality imply that African population growth may increase further. Currently, population in sub-Saharan Africa is about half that of India and a third of China. There are 2 main reasons why reduced fertility in the next few decades is unlikely in sub-Saharan Africa as a whole: Africa has low literacy, high infant and child mortality, and low urbanization; and average African fertility rates may even increase for the next 20 years or so. The question that arises is what are the implications of continuing and rapid population growth for the African food supply. The region's cereal production is largely restricted to 4 grains, i.e., millet, sorghum, maize, and rice. The volume of grain production is less, by weight, than 60% of the production of roots and tubers. There are 2 main differences between the output of these crops in sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world: yields/hectare are lower in Africa than in elsewhere; and yields have generally been decreasing or largely constant in Africa. The low productivity has several causes. Today, population pressure has brought diminishing returns to traditional agriculture in much of the Sahel and the savanna, in parts of East Africa, Southern Africa, and parts of the West African forest belt. There is also the absence of the Green Revolution, i.e., the use of new high yielding seeds and new technologies in agriculture that has led to marked increases in yields in most other parts of the world. A totally different and more productive agriculture might evolve if African governments were to fundamentally change their vision. Existing production technology could allow substantial increases in the yields of many crops if some basic changes were made in the policies affecting agriculture. A way to achieve such change would be to make farming profitable. The effect of population growth in diminishing returns to agriculture also lends urgency to the need for family planning. Generally, population policy in Africa badly needs strengthening. PMID:12264271

  8. Mastalgia: Prevalence at a Sub-Saharan African Tertiary Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Makumbi, T.; Galukande, M.; Gakwaya, A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Mastalgia is a common breast condition among women referred to breast clinics worldwide. Whereas the prevalence is known in the Western world and Asia, the prevalence of the disease is unknown in many African countries. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence and describe factors associated with mastalgia among women attending a tertiary hospital in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. A cross-sectional study was done in Kampala, Uganda. Mastalgia was defined as ...

  9. A survey of Sub-Saharan African medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Candice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate. An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64 increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68. The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of graduates, and improving quality, related to infrastructure and faculty limitations, respectively. Significant correlations were seen between schools implementing increased faculty salaries and bonuses, and lower percentage loss of faculty over the previous five years (P = 0.018; strengthened institutional research tools (P = 0.00015 and funded faculty research time (P = 0.045 and greater faculty involvement in research; and country compulsory service requirements (P = 0.039, a moderate number (1-5 of post-graduate medical education programs (P = 0.016 and francophone schools (P = 0.016 and greater rural general practice after graduation. Conclusions The results of the SAMSS survey increases the level of data and understanding of medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. This data serves as a baseline for future research, policies and investment in the health care workforce in the region which will be necessary for improving health.

  10. The Ethics of Introducing GMOs into sub-Saharan Africa: Considerations from the sub-Saharan African Theory of Ubuntu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komparic, Ana

    2015-11-01

    A growing number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa are considering legalizing the growth of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Furthermore, several projects are underway to develop transgenic crops tailored to the region. Given the contentious nature of GMOs and prevalent anti-GMO sentiments in Africa, a robust ethical analysis examining the concerns arising from the development, adoption, and regulation of GMOs in sub-Saharan Africa is warranted. To date, ethical analyses of GMOs in the global context have drawn predominantly on Western philosophy, dealing with Africa primarily on a material level. Yet, a growing number of scholars are articulating and engaging with ethical theories that draw upon sub-Saharan African value systems. One such theory, Ubuntu, is a well-studied sub-Saharan African communitarian morality. I propose that a robust ethical analysis of Africa's agricultural future necessitates engaging with African moral theory. I articulate how Ubuntu may lead to a novel and constructive understanding of the ethical considerations for introducing GMOs into sub-Saharan Africa. However, rather than reaching a definitive prescription, which would require significant engagement with local communities, I consider some of Ubuntu's broader implications for conceptualizing risk and engaging with local communities when evaluating GMOs. I conclude by reflecting on the implications of using local moral theory in bioethics by considering how one might negotiate between universalism and particularism in the global context. Rather than advocating for a form of ethical relativism, I suggest that local moral theories shed light on salient ethical considerations that are otherwise overlooked. PMID:26481201

  11. Food shortages in sub-Saharan Africa and population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisi, S E

    1982-12-01

    Food problems faced by sub-Saharan African nations center around the widening gap between food needs and availablity. Food shortages are suggested to originate from poor distribution and as a result of natural disasters; not as a consequence of population growth. Imperialism, colonialism, and neocolonial exploitation has encouraged African economic and cultural backwardness; a situation in which high population growth can have grave consequences. Fertility control is promoted by industrialized governments as a means of solving socioeconomic problems. However, fertility control may not be justified in many African nations which experience high infant mortality and labor intensive agriculture. Although the number of people who can be fed in any circumstance is ultimately finite, Africa's situation could be improved. If presently uninhabitable land was made suitable for settlement, land shortage from overpopulation would not be problematic for a long time. Modernization of agricultural practices could have a substantial impact of food production. At present, innovations are largely associated with the production of export crops which has often necessitated food imports. Food aid for relief in emergencies or for support of regions with chronic shortages is appropriate and beneficial, however, in some cases food aid can be detrimental, e.g., by lowering food prices thus burdening small farmers. Food aid tends to create dependency, not self-sufficiency. Malnutrition and hunger are symptoms of underdevelopment. At the policy level, a food and nutrition strategy should include rural development designed to improve income redistribution, agricultural modernization, and measures to influence the production of various foods to ensure a balanced diet, and nutrition and health intervention programs for vulnerable groups. In addition to overall agricultural development, 2 general recommendations are offered: increased production of staple food stuffs and a concentrated effort to improve small farms. PMID:12264793

  12. Extensive female-mediated gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa into near eastern Arab populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Martin; Rengo, Chiara; Cruciani, Fulvio; Gratrix, Fiona; Wilson, James F; Scozzari, Rosaria; Macaulay, Vincent; Torroni, Antonio

    2003-04-01

    We have analyzed and compared mitochondrial DNA variation of populations from the Near East and Africa and found a very high frequency of African lineages present in the Yemen Hadramawt: more than a third were of clear sub-Saharan origin. Other Arab populations carried approximately 10% lineages of sub-Saharan origin, whereas non-Arab Near Eastern populations, by contrast, carried few or no such lineages, suggesting that gene flow has been preferentially into Arab populations. Several lines of evidence suggest that most of this gene flow probably occurred within the past approximately 2,500 years. In contrast, there is little evidence for male-mediated gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa in Y-chromosome haplotypes in Arab populations, including the Hadramawt. Taken together, these results are consistent with substantial migration from eastern Africa into Arabia, at least in part as a result of the Arab slave trade, and mainly female assimilation into the Arabian population as a result of miscegenation and manumission. PMID:12629598

  13. A survey of Sub-Saharan African medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Candice; Buch Eric; Wassermann Travis; Frehywot Seble; Mullan Fitzhugh; Omaswa Francis; Greysen S; Kolars Joseph C; Dovlo Delanyo; El Gali Abu Bakr Diaa; Haileamlak Abraham; Koumare Abdel; Olapade-Olaopa Emiola

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insuffici...

  14. Suicide Ideation and Psychosocial Distress in Sub-Saharan African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if there is an association between psychosocial distress, health-risk behaviors and 12-month suicidal ideation among sub-Saharan African adolescents. Methods: Subjects included a cross-national sample of adolescents (N25,568) representing 7 African countries who completed the Global School-based Student Health Survey…

  15. The Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans: Comments on Wicherts, Dolan, and van der Maas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Wicherts, Dolan, and van der Maas (2009) contend that the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans is about 80. A critical evaluation of the studies presented by WDM shows that many of these are based on unrepresentative elite samples. We show that studies of 29 acceptably representative samples on tests other than the Progressive Matrices give a

  16. The Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans: Comments on Wicherts, Dolan, and van der Maas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Wicherts, Dolan, and van der Maas (2009) contend that the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans is about 80. A critical evaluation of the studies presented by WDM shows that many of these are based on unrepresentative elite samples. We show that studies of 29 acceptably representative samples on tests other than the Progressive Matrices give a…

  17. Data Networks and Sustainability Education in African Universities: A Case Study for Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothun, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a case study report of the development of data networks and initial connectivity in the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region and how that development evolved into the formation of research and education (R&E) networks that enable new collaborations and curriculum potential.…

  18. [Families in crisis and population policies in Sub-Saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locoh, T

    1991-12-01

    During the 3 decades since independence, most sub-Saharan African countries have experienced accelerated demographic growth and increased migration from rural to urban areas. The 2 factors have considerably increased the costs of raising children, who have become more numerous and acquired new needs. In rural areas, families continue to fill much of their children's need for health care and employment. The declining ability of governments beset by economic crises and structural adjustment programs to do so has led some observers to predict that a new demand for smaller families and thus family planning will ensue. But in order for the declarations of intention made to foreign donors with increasing frequency by African governments to lead to significant fertility modifications, a combination of great political will, agreement of families with the new fertility objectives, and accessible family planning infrastructure would be required. Changes of this magnitude are at present difficult to visualize. Most African governments since the 1984 World Population Conference have stated their support of policies to slow demographic growth, but their true attitudes are often ambivalent. Many family planning programs receive only timid official help despite apparent encouragement. Authorities of some small countries concerned about the political implications of population size may hesitate to support family planning, and in all of Africa the desire to limit family size is contrary to deeply held social values. African family planning programs confront both political reticence and the fact that most Africans still consider a large family beneficial, not just through blind adherence to tradition but because for the 70% who support themselves in agriculture a large labor force is essential. Children provide security for the old and infirm. For much of the population, the conditions justifying high fertility in the past--high mortality rates and dependence of production on the available labor force--have changed too little to have caused profound modifications in family size preferences. Fertility surveys in sub-Saharan Africa show that family size desires remain high in most countries. In urban areas, demand for contraception is beginning to appear, but much of it is destined to replace traditional means of spacing that are falling into decline. The obvious potential demand for services from women at the beginning of their reproductive lives and from women lacking permission of their husbands is discouraged by most African family planning programs. Social progress and coercion appear to have been the 2 principal routes to fertility transition in the developing world. Social progress requires improved health and education, goals made more distant by structural adjustment programs. Diminished social investment in sub-Saharan countries appears much more likely to result in increased fertility than in smaller family sizes. PMID:12317456

  19. A Study of Institutional, Financial, and Regulatory Frameworks of Urban Transport in Large Sub-Saharan African Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Smith International

    2005-01-01

    This working paper presents the findings of "A Study of Urban Transport Institutional, Financial and Regulatory Frameworks in Large Sub-Saharan African Cites" and it was commissioned by the Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP). The study objective was to review the institutional, financial and regulatory frameworks for the provision of urban transport in four selected cities...

  20. Effective Coverage and Systems Effectiveness for Malaria Case Management in Sub-Saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactionova, Katya; Tediosi, Fabrizio; de Savigny, Don; Smith, Thomas; Tanner, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and intervening to tackle them become key priority areas for malaria control and elimination policies in the region. PMID:26000856

  1. Tracing enteric pathogen contamination in sub-Saharan African groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J P R; Lapworth, D J; Read, D S; Nkhuwa, D C W; Bell, R A; Chibesa, M; Chirwa, M; Kabika, J; Liemisa, M; Pedley, S

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can rapidly screen for an array of faecally-derived bacteria, which can be employed as tracers to understand groundwater vulnerability to faecal contamination. A microbial DNA qPCR array was used to examine 45 bacterial targets, potentially relating to enteric pathogens, in 22 groundwater supplies beneath the city of Kabwe, Zambia in both the dry and subsequent wet season. Thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms, sanitary risks, and tryptophan-like fluorescence, an emerging real-time reagentless faecal indicator, were also concurrently investigated. There was evidence for the presence of enteric bacterial contamination, through the detection of species and group specific 16S rRNA gene fragments, in 72% of supplies where sufficient DNA was available for qPCR analysis. DNA from the opportunistic pathogen Citrobacter freundii was most prevalent (69% analysed samples), with Vibrio cholerae also perennially persistent in groundwater (41% analysed samples). DNA from other species such as Bifidobacterium longum and Arcobacter butzleri was more seasonally transient. Bacterial DNA markers were most common in shallow hand-dug wells in laterite/saprolite implicating rapid subsurface pathways and vulnerability to pollution at the surface. Boreholes into the underlying dolomites were also contaminated beneath the city highlighting that a laterite/saprolite overburden, as occurs across much of sub-Saharan aquifer, does not adequately protect underlying bedrock groundwater resources. Nevertheless, peri-urban boreholes all tested negative establishing there is limited subsurface lateral transport of enteric bacteria outside the city limits. Thermotolerant coliforms were present in 97% of sites contaminated with enteric bacterial DNA markers. Furthermore, tryptophan-like fluorescence was also demonstrated as an effective indicator and was in excess of 1.4?g/L in all contaminated sites. PMID:26363144

  2. The European Horticulture Market : Opportunities for Sub-Saharan African Exporters

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Trade is an essential driver for sustained economic growth, and growth is necessary for poverty reduction. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where three-fourths of the poor live in rural areas, spurring growth and generating income and employment opportunities is critical for poverty reduction strategies. Seventy percent of the population lives in rural areas, where livelihoods are largely dependent ...

  3. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti-drug laws or legislation, or of establishing a drug control agency. They are also cooperating regionally to coordinate drug control measures and working with the Organization of African Unity (OAU). In addition, almost all the sub-Saharan African countries are signatories to all United Nations drug conventions. Since the drug problem in Africa has international origins, it will take concerted international cooperation and coordinated effort to combat the "social cancer" of drugs. PMID:11913904

  4. Impact of macroeconomic factors on total factor productivity in Sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Enisan Akinlo, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the effects of macroeconomic factors on total factor productivity (TFP) in 34 sub-Saharan African countries for the period 1980-2002. The econometric analysis shows that external debt is negatively and significantly related to TFP. Other factors that have significant negative effect include inflation rate, agricultural valueadded as a percentage of GDP, lending rate, and local price deviation from purchasing power parity. However, our result shows that human capital, expor...

  5. Exporting raises productivity in sub-Saharan African manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Jo VAN BIESEBROECK

    2005-01-01

    Proponents of trade liberalization argue that exporting helps firms to achieve higher productivity levels. This hypothesis is examined for a panel of manufacturing firms in nine African countries. The results indicate that exporters in these countries are more productive and, more importantly, exporters increase their productivity advantage after entry into the export market. While the first finding can be explained by selection–only the most productive firms engage in exporting–the latter ca...

  6. The migration of physicians from sub-Saharan Africa to the United States of America: measures of the African brain drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Karin E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this paper is to describe the numbers, characteristics, and trends in the migration to the United States of physicians trained in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We used the American Medical Association 2002 Masterfile to identify and describe physicians who received their medical training in sub-Saharan Africa and are currently practicing in the USA. Results More than 23% of America's 771 491 physicians received their medical training outside the USA, the majority (64% in low-income or lower middle-income countries. A total of 5334 physicians from sub-Saharan Africa are in that group, a number that represents more than 6% of the physicians practicing in sub-Saharan Africa now. Nearly 86% of these Africans practicing in the USA originate from only three countries: Nigeria, South Africa and Ghana. Furthermore, 79% were trained at only 10 medical schools. Conclusions Physician migration from poor countries to rich ones contributes to worldwide health workforce imbalances that may be detrimental to the health systems of source countries. The migration of over 5000 doctors from sub-Saharan Africa to the USA has had a significantly negative effect on the doctor-to-population ratio of Africa. The finding that the bulk of migration occurs from only a few countries and medical schools suggests policy interventions in only a few locations could be effective in stemming the brain drain.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Iron Homeostasis in Sub-Saharan African Children with Sickle Cell Disease and Their Unaffected Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Selma; Diawara, Assatou; Gbeha, Elias; Awadalla, Philip; Sanni, Ambaliou; Idaghdour, Youssef; Rahimy, M. Cherif

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential trace element subject to tight regulation to ensure adequate running of biological processes. In sub-Saharan Africa where hemoglobinopathies are common, iron homeostasis is likely to be impaired by these conditions. Here, we assessed and compared key serum proteins associated with iron metabolism between sub-Saharan African children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and their unaffected siblings. Complete blood counts and serum concentrations of four key proteins involved in iron regulation (ferritin, transferrin, sTfR, and hepcidin) were measured for 73 children with SCD and 68 healthy siblings in Benin, West Africa. We found significant differences in concentration of transferrin, sTfR, and ferritin between the two groups. Hepcidin concentrations were found at unusually high concentrations but did not differ among the two groups. We found a significant negative correlation between hepcidin levels and both MCH and MCV in the SCD group and report that sTfR concentrations show a correlation with MCV and MHC in opposite directions in the two groups. These results highlight the unusually high levels of hepcidin in the Beninese population and the patterns of differential iron homeostasis taking place under SCD status. These results lay the foundation for a systematic evaluation of the underlying mechanisms deregulating iron homeostasis in populations with SCD or high prevalence of iron deficiency. PMID:26942167

  8. Schooling Experiences and Perceptions of Resettled Sub-Saharan African Refugee Middle School Students in a Southwest U.S. State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallu, Adama

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the schooling experiences and perceptions of resettled sub-Saharan African middle school refugee students in a metropolitan area of the United States Southwest. The research questions underpinning this study included: What are the schooling experiences and perceptions of resettled sub-Saharan African middle school refugee

  9. Challenging the Concept of ''informal'' in Sub-Saharan African Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    Current definitions of urbanity lead to claims that a large proportion (75% according to UN Habitat) of Sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) urban population is housed in ‘informal’ settlements with almost all new housing stock provided ‘informally’ in contradiction to the “formal” that is defined as planned...... and regulated by the state. In most cases in SSA cities urban development has no professional assistance in the form of architects or engineers, and what is characterised as ‘disorder’, as is the case with informal urbanisation, is considered as undesirable, inappropriate, dangerous, unhealthy and un...

  10. Psychosocial Distress and Alcohol Use as Factors in Adolescent Sexual Behavior among Sub-Saharan African Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Hall, Cougar P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the relationship between sexual behavior, alcohol use, and indicators of psychosocial distress (mental health) of adolescents in 6 sub-Saharan African countries using the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). Methods: The sample consisted of 22,949 adolescents from Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda,

  11. Sub-Saharan African University Students Beliefs about Condoms, Condom-use Intention, and Subsequent Condom Use: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Heeren, G. Anita; Jemmott, John B.; Mandeya, Andrew; Tyler, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    Whether certain behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and control beliefs predict the intention to use condoms and subsequent condom use was examined among 320 undergraduates at a university in South Africa who completed confidential questionnaires on two occasions separated by three months. Participants mean age was 23.4 years, 47.8% were women, 48.9% were South Africans, and 51.1% were from other sub-Saharan African countries. Multiple regression revealed that condom-use intention was pre...

  12. Assessing Population Aging and Disability in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Malawi?

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Collin F.; Mkandawire, James; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background The population of the world is getting older. In almost every country, the over-60 age group is growing faster than any other age group. In 2000, globally, there were about 605 million people aged 60 years or more; by 2050, 2 billion people will be in this age group. Much of this increase in the elderly population will be in low-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, 10% of the population is currently aged 45 years or more, but by 2060, a quarter of ...

  13. National health policies: sub-Saharan African case studies (1980-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbatey, K

    1999-07-01

    Four countries, Botswana, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Zimbabwe, were chosen as cases to study the impact of national health policies on national health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Through a conceptual framework that covers health problem identification, policy formulation and implementation procedures, the study examined national translations of Primary Health Care (PHC) and Health for All by the Year 2000 (HFA/2000) strategies. A series of government measures, taken between 1980-1986 for health policy development and implementation in these countries, were treated as policy determinants of national health outcomes for the period ending 1990. The impact of these determinants on national health status was then analyzed through a comparative description and documentation of observable patterns and trends in infant mortality rates (IMR), under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) and life expectancy. Policy guidelines from PHC and HFA/2000 were used in conjunction with the respective per capita Gross National Products to categorize the four cases. Based on these guidelines, Botswana was ranked high, both in terms of policy development and the level of economic development, while Zimbabwe ranked high in terms of policy development but relatively low in economic terms. Cote d'Ivoire ranked high on economic development but low with regard to its policy framework. Ghana was at the other end of the spectrum, ranking low both in terms of its policy development and its economic performance. The comparative analysis revealed that Botswana and Zimbabwe performed better than Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana on the three outcome indicators. Despite Cote d'Ivoire's superior level of economic development, its health status fell behind that of Zimbabwe and even Ghana. The study concluded that policies formulated and implemented in accordance with key PHC principles could account for improvements in national health status. Since the end of the study period (1990), there have been significant political changes in the sub-Saharan African region as a whole and in some of the case countries in particular. Political leadership has changed in Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire with some course corrections in Ghana's health plans. Health sector financing in the region has become more dependent on external donors. The World Bank leads the external donor community in promoting policy-based lending. The complexity of a number of health problems has changed while the problems themselves remain the same as before. Essentially, building viable public health infrastructures to address basic public health needs must still be high on the agenda of action for most governments in the region. Thus, notwithstanding some course corrections and reasonable shifts in priorities, all the PHC principles are still applicable, indeed, much needed in the sub-Saharan African region. This study's findings, underscoring the fact that significant improvements in health are possible even where financial resources are limited, still hold true. PMID:10414831

  14. Who wants to adopt and who wants to be adopted: a sample of American families and sub-Saharan African orphans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balding, Christopher; Feng, Yan; Atashband, Armita

    2015-12-01

    The debate between pro- and anti-international adoption advocates relies heavily on rhetoric and little on data analysis. To better understand the state of orphans and potential adopters in this debate, we utilize the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to study who adopts internationally and the status of orphaned children in sub-Saharan Africa. According to NSFG data adopters are church going, highly educated, stable families aware of the challenges faced by international adoption, with high rates of infertility and rates of child abuse half the population average. According to the DHS data, orphans in sub-Saharan Africa suffer from significantly higher deprivation, reduced schooling and increased levels of stunting and underweight reported than their cohort. Using this data, we estimate conservatively that that 1?50?000 orphans from our sample of sub-Saharan African countries died from their 5-year birth cohort. Given the large number of families seeking to adopt and the high number of orphan deaths, it seems counterproductive to restrict international adoptions given the significantly lower risks faced by children in adopted families compared with remaining orphaned. PMID:25769738

  15. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart Kößler; Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut

    2015-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp.

  16. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Degboe Arnold N; Taylor Kelly D; Iwelunmor Juliet; Okoror Titilayo A; BeLue Rhonda; Agyemang Charles; Ogedegbe Gbenga

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of th...

  17. Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors from sub-Saharan African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fouchier, Capucine; Blanchet, Alain; Hopkins, William; Bui, Eric; Ait-Aoudia, Malik; Jehel, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Background To date no validated instrument in the French language exists to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of torture and organized violence. Objective The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) to this population. Method The adapted version was administered to 52 French-speaking torture survivors, originally from sub-Saharan African countries, receiving psychological treatment in specialized treatment centers. A structured clinical interview for DSM was also conducted in order to assess if they met criteria for PTSD. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the HTQ Part 4 was adequate (0.95). Criterion validity was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis that generated good classification accuracy for PTSD (0.83). At the original cut-off score of 2.5, the HTQ demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (0.87 and 0.73, respectively). Conclusion Results support the reliability and validity of the French version of the HTQ. PMID:23233870

  18. Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors from sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capucine de Fouchier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date no validated instrument in the French language exists to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in survivors of torture and organized violence. Objective: The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ to this population. Method: The adapted version was administered to 52 French-speaking torture survivors, originally from sub-Saharan African countries, receiving psychological treatment in specialized treatment centers. A structured clinical interview for DSM was also conducted in order to assess if they met criteria for PTSD. Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the HTQ Part 4 was adequate (0.95. Criterion validity was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis that generated good classification accuracy for PTSD (0.83. At the original cut-off score of 2.5, the HTQ demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (0.87 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusion: Results support the reliability and validity of the French version of the HTQ.

  19. Researching the Link Between Biomass Burning and Drought Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Savanna/Sahel Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded by the Sahara, Equator, and the West and East African coastlines, is subjected to intense biomass burning every year during the dry season. This is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle anomalies that probably contribute to drought and desertification. In this presentation, we will discuss a new multi-disciplinary research in the NSSA region, review progress, evaluate preliminary results, and interact with the research and user communities to examine how best to coordinate with other research activities in order to address related environmental issues most effectively.

  20. Complicated grief in help-seeking torture survivors in sub-Saharan African contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higson-Smith, Craig

    2014-09-01

    Many help-seeking torture survivors in sub-Saharan Africa report sudden or violent bereavements, as well as risk factors associated with complicated grief. This mixed-methods article reviews 85 therapeutic client files from torture treatment centers in 3 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Thirty-nine clients had lost loved ones and were at greater risk for depression (effect size 0.65) and thoughts of suicide (OR = 4.99). Qualitative analysis of case histories and interviews with clients elaborate the links between torture and complicated grief. Recommendations are offered for the treatment of complicated grief in sub-Saharan torture survivors, and implications for assessment, timing, and treatment duration are discussed. PMID:25089758

  1. Haplotype variation and genotype imputation in African populations

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lucy; Jakobsson, Mattias; Pemberton, Trevor J.; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Nyambo, Thomas; Omar, Sabah; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has been identified as the part of the world with the greatest human genetic diversity. This high level of diversity causes difficulties for genome-wide association (GWA) studies in African populations—for example, by reducing the accuracy of genotype imputation in African populations compared to non-African populations. Here, we investigate haplotype variation and imputation in Africa, using 253 unrelated individuals from 15 Sub-Saharan African populations. We identify the...

  2. 'Migrants from over there' or 'racial minority here'? Sexual networks and prevention practices among sub-Saharan African migrants in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Elise; Lydié, Nathalie; Bajos, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of HIV infection in Europe, with an increasing proportion of them acquiring HIV after migration. This transformation in the epidemic pattern has raised concerns about the sexual mixing and preventive behaviours of migrants. This paper aims at exploring how racial boundaries shape sexual networks and structure prevention practices among migrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Analyses are based on a French survey carried out among 1874 individuals born in sub-Saharan Africa, aged 18-49 and living in Paris and its surroundings. Our results provide evidence of the existence of African sexual networks, over and beyond those of national origin. The intra-African segregation of these sexual networks leads to sexual contacts between migrants from low- and high-HIV prevalence countries, which probably contribute to the development of the epidemic amongst these migrants. Moreover, racially-based perceptions of HIV-related risk seem to produce a specific attitude toward prevention practices as shown by higher rates of condom use among migrant women from sub-Saharan Africa with a partner born outside sub-Saharan Africa. As a consequence, community-based approaches to HIV prevention should take into account the identification of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa as a racial minority and not only focus on national borders. PMID:23659520

  3. From population to HIV: the organizational and structural determinants of HIV outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Rachel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There exists no consistent explanation for why some countries are successful in combating HIV/AIDS and others are not, and we need such an explanation in order to design effective policies and programmes. Research evaluating HIV interventions from a biomedical or public health perspective does not always take full account of the historical and organizational characteristics of countries likely to influence HIV outcomes. The analysis in this paper addresses this shortcoming by testing the impact of organizational and structural factors, particularly those resulting from population interventions, on HIV outcomes at the country level in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods The primary independent variables are factors that originated from efforts to slow population growth: whether a country has a long-time affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and whether a country has a population policy. Additional structural factors likely to impact HIV outcomes include the level of wealth, the level of cultural fractionalization, and the former colonial power. The present study uses multivariate regression techniques with countries in sub-Saharan Africa as the unit of analysis, and four measures of success in addressing HIV: the change in prevalence between 2001 and 2009; the change in incidence between 2001 and 2009; the level of overall antiretroviral coverage in 2009; and the level of antiretroviral coverage for prevention of vertical transmission in 2009. Results Countries with the greatest declines in HIV prevalence and incidence had older International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates and had adopted population policies, even after controlling for age of epidemic, level of antiretroviral coverage, and funding for HIV. Population policies are also important predictors of levels of overall antiretroviral coverage and of coverage of HIV-positive pregnant women to prevent vertical transmission. Structural factors with significant impacts include wealth, cultural fractionalization and former colonial power. Conclusions The organizational and structural context of African countries is strongly predictive of HIV outcomes. This finding implies that policy and programmatic efforts should be put towards strengthening existing organizations and perhaps even creating new ones. The fact that cultural fractionalization also influences HIV outcomes suggests that efforts must be put towards identifying ways to reach political consensus in diverse societies.

  4. Essays on sub-optimal fiscal policy responses in sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kufuor, Nana Kwabena

    2012-01-01

    The actions of governments are instrumental in economic development, and an important lever of policy is fiscal policy. Taxation and spending cannot only promote economic development but inhibit progress and retard the process, and nowhere is this most evident than in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which is the focus of this study. Promoting economic development therefore requires that policies that inhibit the process are identified and addressed. In this light, this thesis investigates two commo...

  5. Drivers of rice production: evidence from five Sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin, Sultana; Bergman-Lodin, Johanna; Jirstrm, Magnus; Holmquist, Bjrn; Andersson Djurfeldt, Agnes; Djurfeldt, Gran

    2015-01-01

    Background: In spite of considerable rice production gains over the past 50 years, Sub-Saharan Africa is becoming increasingly dependent on rice imports as demand is outpacing domestic supply. The serious economic and social strains caused by this have urged national leaders to address production deficits. The aim of this article is to analyse and discuss the drivers behind recent changes in rice production in Africa South of the Sahara, focusing on Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzani...

  6. Capital Flight Repatriation : Investigation of Its Potential Gains for Sub-Saharan African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fofack, Hippolyte; Ndikumana, Leonce

    2010-01-01

    Despite the substantial recent increase in capital flows to sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the sub-continent remains largely marginalized in financial globalization and chronically dependent on official development aid. The current debate on resource mobilization for development financing in Africa has overlooked the problem of capital flight, which constitutes an important untapped source of funds. This paper argues that repatriation of flight capital deserves more attention on economic as well a...

  7. Household transport expenditure in Sub-Saharan African cities: measurement and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Olvera, Lourdes; Plat, Didier; Pochet, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa the cost of transport faced by city dwellers, particularly the poor, tends to add to their travel and economic difficulties. Knowledge of the burden of transport expenditure in the household budget seems essential for passenger transport policy formulation in order to improve their travel conditions and social equity. The literature review and the three case studies (Dar es Salaam, Niamey, Ouagadougou) show that estimates of travel expenditure are partially conditioned b...

  8. Representing an "Authentic Ethnic Identity": Experiences of Sub-Saharan African Musicians in an Eastern German City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Carstensen-Egwuom

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how Sub-Saharan Africans present themselves as musicians in Chemnitz, an Eastern German town of around 200,000 citizens that is situated on the periphery of existing immigrant musicians' networks in Europe. Generally, immigration to Chemnitz has been rather limited; the quota of foreign nationals is 2.9 % for the whole city. I will explore what purposes Sub-Saharan African music and dance performances serve in this context both for the majority society as well as for the immigrants, individually and as a community. In so doing, I use a case study on the yearly local "intercultural festival" and analyze what kind of local power structures, institutional and informal, economic and political, influence the Nigerian cultural association's festival performance. This analysis shows how immigrant networks or associations relate to expectations and ascriptions of "authenticity" in a small-scale city. With its focus on the local situation and its effects on the representation of immigrant groups, this paper builds on the work that Nina Glick Schiller and Ayse Caglar (2006, 2009 have done on the importance of locality for research on migration and immigrant incorporation.

  9. Phylogeographical Structure in Mitochondrial DNA of Legume Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata) Population in Tropical Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Periasamy, Malini; Schafleitner, Roland; Muthukalingan, Krishnan; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and host plant races of M. vitrata population in South and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was used to understand the phylogenetic relationship of geographically different M. vitrata population, but previous studies did not include population from Southeast Asia, the probable center of origin for Maruca, and from east Africa. Extensive sampling was done from different host plant spe...

  10. Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles nili in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awono-Ambene Parfait H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles nili is a widespread efficient vector of human malaria parasites in the humid savannas and forested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding An. nili population structure and gene flow patterns could be useful for the development of locally-adapted vector control measures. Methods Polymorphism at eleven recently developed microsatelitte markers, and sequence variation in four genes within the 28s rDNA subunit (ITS2 and D3 and mtDNA (COII and ND4 were assessed to explore the level of genetic variability and differentiation among nine populations of An. nili from Senegal, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Results All microsatellite loci successfully amplified in all populations, showing high and very similar levels of genetic diversity in populations from West Africa and Cameroon (mean Rs = 8.10-8.88, mean He = 0.805-0.849 and much lower diversity in the Kenge population from DRC (mean Rs = 5.43, mean He = 0.594. Bayesian clustering analysis of microsatellite allelic frequencies revealed two main genetic clusters in the dataset. The first one included only the Kenge population and the second grouped together all other populations. High Fst estimates based on microsatellites (Fst > 0.118, P Conclusion Overall, high genetic homogeneity of the An. nili gene pool was found across its distribution range in West and Central Africa, although demographic events probably resulted in a higher level of genetic isolation in the marginal population of Kenge (DRC. The role of the equatorial forest block as a barrier to gene flow and the implication of such findings for vector control are discussed.

  11. Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Barasa, Felix A; Doll, Jacob A.; Velazquez, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulti...

  12. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Kößler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp.

  13. Sex Differences in HIV Prevalence, Behavioral Risks and Prevention Needs Among Anglophone and Francophone Sub-Saharan African Migrants Living in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa; Oumzil, Hicham; El Rhilani, Houssine; Latifi, Amina; Bennani, Aziza; Alami, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    Morocco has experienced a dramatic increase of migration from sub-Sahara Africa during the past decade. Recently included among the most vulnerable populations cited in the Morocco National Strategic Plans on HIV/TB for 2012-2016, sub-Saharan Africa migrants living in an irregular administrative situation participated in a survey to provide baseline data about their socio-demographic, sexual and HIV testing behaviors and HIV and syphilis prevalence. Two surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2013 among males and females, ≥18 years, originating from sub-Saharan African countries and living and/or working in an irregular administrative situation in Rabat and residing at least 3 months in Morocco. Analysis was conducted to evaluate differences between the two samples and between females and males within each sample using the successive sampling estimator in RDS Analyst. Roughly 3 % of francophone and anglophone migrants were infected with HIV, whereas a statistically significantly higher percentage of francophone (2.8 %), compared to anglophone (0.3 %), migrants were infected with syphilis. Females were found to have HIV infection rates three times higher and past year sexually transmitted infection signs and symptoms more than two times higher than their male counterparts. Female migrants also had statistically significantly higher percentages of ever testing for HIV and HIV testing and receiving results in the past year compared to males. We found distinct and important differences between migrants depending on whether they come from francophone versus anglophone countries and whether they were male or female. Future research should continue to explore these differences, while policies and programs should note these differences to best allocate resources in providing social and health services to these populations. PMID:26122648

  14. La construccin del proyecto migratorio y las razones para emigrar en la poblacin de frica subsahariana francfona. Un estudio intercontinental Europa - frica / Construction of migration project and reasons for emigrating in sub-Saharan African francophone population. An intercontinental study Europe-Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Roberto, Velandia Torres; Marie-Franoise, Lacassagne.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio da cuenta de las razones de los ciudadanos de frica subsahariana francfona para establecerse en Europa, y particularmente en Francia, mediante la creacin de un marco comprensivo innovador que vincula tres ejes temticos: la motivacin, las migraciones, y frica y sus relaciones con E [...] uropa. 155 participantes en ambos continentes respondieron a un cuestionario sobre su proyecto migratorio real o posible. Los resultados plantean un plano general de acercamiento a los imaginarios y la realidad de los migrantes en el contexto francs, marcado por la reflexin sobre la identidad nacional, los controles migratorios, un clima poltico reticente a la migracin y un tejido social caracterizado por un creciente multiculturalismo. Abstract in english This study describes the motivations of citizens of sub-Saharan Africa francophone to establish in France thanks to the creation of an innovative framework for understanding with three key themes: motivation, migration and Africa and their relations with Europe. 155 participants from both continents [...] responded to a questionnaire about their actual or potential migration project. The results presented raise a general plan of approach to reality and imaginary of sub-Saharan African migrants in the French current context, marked by reflection on national identity, immigration and customs controls, a political climate reticent to migration and a social network characterized by a growing multiculturalism.

  15. Bibliometric Assessment of European and Sub-Saharan African Research Output on Poverty-Related and Neglected Infectious Diseases from 2003 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Breugelmans, J. Gabrielle; Makanga, Michael M.; Cardoso, Ana Lúcia V.; Mathewson, Sophie B.; Sheridan-Jones, Bethan R.; Gurney, Karen A.; Mgone, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) is a partnership of European and sub-Saharan African countries that aims to accelerate the development of medical interventions against poverty-related diseases (PRDs). A bibliometric analysis was conducted to 1) measure research output from European and African researchers on PRDs, 2) describe collaboration patterns, and 3) assess the citation impact of clinical research funded by EDCTP. Methodology/Principal ...

  16. Estimating the hypothetical dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvundura M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercy Mvundura, Neeti Nundy, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Patricia S Coffey Technology Solutions Global Program, PATH, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Female condoms are the only currently available woman-initiated option that offers dual protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The Woman’s Condom is a new female condom designed to provide dual protection and to be highly pleasurable and acceptable. Objective: We sought to estimate the potential dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of a Woman’s Condom distribution program in 13 sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates >4% among adults aged 15–49 years. We used two separate, publicly available models for this analysis, the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International and the Population Services International disability-adjusted life years (DALY calculator program. We estimated the potential numbers of pregnancies and DALYs averted when the Woman’s Condom is used as a family planning method and the HIV infections and DALYs averted when it is used as an HIV prevention method. Results: Programming 100,000 Woman’s Condoms in each of 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa during a 1-year period could potentially prevent 194 pregnancies and an average of 21 HIV infections in each country. When using the World Health Organization CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective (WHO-CHOICE criteria as a threshold to infer the potential cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom, we found that the Woman’s Condom would be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: This was a first and successful attempt to estimate the impact of dual protection of female condoms. The health impact is greater for the use of the Woman’s Condom as an HIV prevention method than for contraception. Dual use of the Woman’s Condom increases the overall health impact. The Woman’s Condom was found to be very cost-effective in all 13 countries in our sample. Keywords: female condoms, unintended pregnancy, HIV prevention, contraception, sub-Saharan Africa, cost-effectiveness

  17. Estimating the hypothetical dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvundura, Mercy; Nundy, Neeti; Kilbourne-Brook, Maggie; Coffey, Patricia S

    2015-01-01

    Background Female condoms are the only currently available woman-initiated option that offers dual protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The Woman’s Condom is a new female condom designed to provide dual protection and to be highly pleasurable and acceptable. Objective We sought to estimate the potential dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of a Woman’s Condom distribution program in 13 sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates >4% among adults aged 15–49 years. We used two separate, publicly available models for this analysis, the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International and the Population Services International disability-adjusted life years (DALY) calculator program. We estimated the potential numbers of pregnancies and DALYs averted when the Woman’s Condom is used as a family planning method and the HIV infections and DALYs averted when it is used as an HIV prevention method. Results Programming 100,000 Woman’s Condoms in each of 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa during a 1-year period could potentially prevent 194 pregnancies and an average of 21 HIV infections in each country. When using the World Health Organization CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective (WHO-CHOICE) criteria as a threshold to infer the potential cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom, we found that the Woman’s Condom would be considered cost-effective. Conclusion This was a first and successful attempt to estimate the impact of dual protection of female condoms. The health impact is greater for the use of the Woman’s Condom as an HIV prevention method than for contraception. Dual use of the Woman’s Condom increases the overall health impact. The Woman’s Condom was found to be very cost-effective in all 13 countries in our sample. PMID:25784820

  18. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degboe Arnold N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and treatment efforts. Conclusion Using an African-centered cultural framework, the PEN3 model, we explore future directions and efforts to address the epidemic of CVD risk in SSA.

  19. Scale-up of HIV Viral Load Monitoring--Seven Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecher, Shirley; Ellenberger, Dennis; Kim, Andrea A; Fonjungo, Peter N; Agolory, Simon; Borget, Marie Yolande; Broyles, Laura; Carmona, Sergio; Chipungu, Geoffrey; De Cock, Kevin M; Deyde, Varough; Downer, Marie; Gupta, Sundeep; Kaplan, Jonathan E; Kiyaga, Charles; Knight, Nancy; MacLeod, William; Makumbi, Boniface; Muttai, Hellen; Mwangi, Christina; Mwangi, Jane W; Mwasekaga, Michael; Ng'Ang'A, Lucy W; Pillay, Yogan; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Singer, Daniel; Stevens, Wendy; Toure, Christiane Adje; Nkengasong, John

    2015-11-27

    To achieve global targets for universal treatment set forth by the Joint United Nations Programme on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (UNAIDS), viral load monitoring for HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) must become the standard of care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) (1). CDC and other U.S. government agencies, as part of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, are supporting multiple countries in sub-Saharan Africa to change from the use of CD4 cell counts for monitoring of clinical response to ART to the use of viral load monitoring, which is the standard of care in developed countries. Viral load monitoring is the preferred method for immunologic monitoring because it enables earlier and more accurate detection of treatment failure before immunologic decline. This report highlights the initial successes and challenges of viral load monitoring in seven countries that have chosen to scale up viral load testing as a national monitoring strategy for patients on ART in response to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Countries initiating viral load scale-up in 2014 observed increases in coverage after scale-up, and countries initiating in 2015 are anticipating similar trends. However, in six of the seven countries, viral load testing coverage in 2015 remained below target levels. Inefficient specimen transport, need for training, delays in procurement and distribution, and limited financial resources to support scale-up hindered progress. Country commitment and effective partnerships are essential to address the financial, operational, technical, and policy challenges of the rising demand for viral load monitoring. PMID:26605986

  20. Interactions and Feedbacks Between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

  1. High fertility in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P

    1990-05-01

    The persistence of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa, while all other world regions have been able to control population growth, represents a grave threat. Tradtional explanations for this phenomenon--e.g., lower levels of income, education, health, and urbanization--are not adequate, given the fact that many Asian countries have been able to reduce fertility in the face of the same obstacles. It is suggested, instead, that the primary cause of sub-Saharan Africa's high fertility can be found in its social and family patterns. Central cultural precepts include the notions that many descendents must be produced to ensure the survival of lineage, the equation of female virtue with the production of a large number of children, the stronger influence of the lineage than the nuclear family, and a belief in the power of ancestral spirits. Given the overriding importance of lineage and the relative weakness of emotional and economic conjugal links, the factors believed to be producing lowered birth rates in other developed countries (e.g., the high costs of child raising and the negative impact of large family size on the standard of living in that family) are not operable in sub-Saharan Africa. Most African fathers receive far more from their children, in terms of loyalty and support, than they expend on them, giving them little motivation to restrict fertility. Women's growing determination to extend their current economic independence into the domain of reproduction represents the most likely source of change in sub-Saharan Africa's fertility patterns. Also essential is reduced infant and child mortality through integrated health services-family planning programs. Progress can be expected to be slow, however, given the persistence of the African traditional social structure and belief system. PMID:2333491

  2. Sub-Saharan African Immigrant Activists in Europe: Transcultural Capital and Transcultural Community Building [please note slight change in new proposed title

    OpenAIRE

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that immigrant civic activism which may at first glance seem to focus on diasporic ties and ethnic community building, becomes often a lever for transcultural capital and transcultural community building. The study is explorative of new repertoires and forms of transnationalism among sub Saharan African immigrant activists in Europe. The findings suggest that immigrant civic activism even if limited in size proposes new types of transcultural societal net...

  3. Shaping the Role of sub-Saharan African Nurses and Midwives: Stakeholders perceptions of the Nurses and Midwives tasks and roles

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi M. Seboni; Mabel K.M. Magowe; Uys, Leana R; Mary Bi Suh; Komba N. Djeko; Haouaou Moumouni

    2013-01-01

    To explore the role expectations of different stakeholders in the health care system on the roles and tasks that nurses and midwives perform, in order to clarify and strengthen these roles and shape the future of nursing education and practice in sub-Saharan Africa. Qualitative focus group discussions were held with different stakeholders (nurses, health service managers, patients and their caregivers, community members and leaders and other health professionals) in eight African countries in...

  4. Estimating the hypothetical dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mvundura, Mercy; Nundy, Neeti; Kilbourne-Brook, Maggie; Coffey, Patricia S

    2015-01-01

    Background Female condoms are the only currently available woman-initiated option that offers dual protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The Woman’s Condom is a new female condom designed to provide dual protection and to be highly pleasurable and acceptable. Objective We sought to estimate the potential dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of a Woman’s Condom distribution program in 13 sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates >4% am...

  5. Effect of HIV status on fertility intention and contraceptive use among women in nine sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Mumah, Joyce N.; Ziraba, Abdhalah K.; Sidze, Estelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) means that HIV is no longer a death sentence. This change has implications for reproductive decisions and behaviors of HIV-infected individuals.Design: Using multiple rounds of biomarker data from Demographic and Health Surveys (2004–2012) in nine sub-Saharan African countries, we compare patterns of associations between HIV status and fertility intention and between current use of modern contraception and HIV status in the context ...

  6. "It's my secret": fear of disclosure among sub-Saharan African migrant women living with HIV/AIDS in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrey, Agnes Ebotabe; Bilsen, Johan; Lacor, Patrick; Deschepper, Reginald

    2015-01-01

    Patients with HIV not only have to deal with the challenges of living with an incurable disease but also with the dilemma of whether or not to disclose their status to their partners, families and friends. This study explores the extent to which sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrant women in Belgium disclose their HIV positive status, reasons for disclosure/non-disclosure and how they deal with HIV disclosure. A qualitative study consisting of interviews with twenty-eight SSA women with HIV/AIDS was conducted. Thematic content analysis was employed to identify themes as they emerged. Our study reveals that these women usually only disclose their status to healthcare professionals because of the treatment and care they need. This selective disclosure is mainly due to the taboo of HIV disease in SSA culture. Stigma, notably self-stigma, greatly impedes HIV disclosure. Techniques to systematically incorporate HIV disclosure into post-test counseling and primary care services are highly recommended. PMID:25781906

  7. A Comparative Study of Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke and Dust Direct Radiative Effects over Northern Sub-Saharan African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Y.; Wang, J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Zhang, F.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the radiative effects of smoke and dust aerosols and of the underlying surface in the Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We performed a yearlong (from September 2009 to September 2010) WRF-Chem simulation using hourly emissions from the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) emission dataset derived by multiplying emission coefficients based on aerosol and fire observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard Terra and Aqua with fire radiative energy (FRE) measurements from the geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). The geographic distribution and vertical profiles of simulated dust and smoke aerosols were evaluated with MODIS true color images and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) total attenuated backscatter, aerosol extinction coefficient and depolarization data. We found that simulated aerosol vertical concentration profiles are consistent with the above CALIPSO data. Surface albedo and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) sensitivity to smoke and dust simulations are performed with WRF-Chem. The simulated surface albedo and AOD were compared with MODIS albedo product (MODIS43) and AOD measurements from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The modeled smoke/dust clear-sky and all-sky radiative impacts were analyzed in this study and reveal interesting results that will be discussed.

  8. Sub-Saharan African randomised clinical trials into male circumcision and HIV transmission: methodological, ethical and legal concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Gregory J; Hill, George

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, WHO/UNAIDS recommended male circumcision as an HIV-preventive measure based on three sub-Saharan African randomised clinical trials (RCTs) into female-to-male sexual transmission. A related RCT investigated male-to-female transmission. However, the trials were compromised by inadequate equipoise; selection bias; inadequate blinding; problematic randomisation; trials stopped early with exaggerated treatment effects; and not investigating non-sexual transmission. Several questions remain unanswered. Why were the trials carried out in countries where more intact men were HIV-positive than in those where more circumcised men were HIV-positive? Why were men sampled from specific ethnic subgroups? Why were so many participants lost to follow-up? Why did men in the male circumcision groups receive additional counselling on safe sex practices? While the absolute reduction in HIV transmission associated with male circumcision across the three female-to-male trials was only about 1.3%, relative reduction was reported as 60%, but, after correction for lead-time bias, averaged 49%. In the Kenyan trial, male circumcision appears to have been associated with four new incident infections. In the Ugandan male-to-female trial, there appears to have been a 61% relative increase in HIV infection among female partners of HIV-positive circumcised men. Since male circumcision diverts resources from known preventive measures and increases risk-taking behaviours, any long-term benefit in reducing HIV transmission remains uncertain. PMID:22320006

  9. Perspectives on African Studies and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa Perspektiven der Afrikaforschung und der Entwicklung im subsaharischen Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this farewell lecture on the occasion of his departure as Professor of Development in sub-Saharan Africa at Leiden University and Director of the African Studies Centre (ASC, Leiden, the author starts with the vuvuzela issue as an illustration of the lack of confidence the world has in South Africa organizing and running the World Cup smoothly. He takes that as a sign that there still exists a stereotype of African incompetence, despite the social and economic progress Africa has witnessed in the last decade. He does not want to argue that African Studies have not been able to offset such a stereotype. What he tries to show is that it is not clear from the wealth of actor-oriented research in African Studies what the main social, political and economic trends in Africa are. He argues that actor-oriented research in African Studies should try to increase its relevance by contributing through meta-analyses and comparative research to the discussion on social, political and economic trends in Africa. Special attention should be paid to the possible rise of the developmental state in Africa. In doing so, African Studies may also substantiate its claim that it is able to challenge the universal pretensions of mainstream social science. In seiner Abschiedsvorlesung als Professor fr Entwicklung im subsaharischen Afrika an der Universitt Leiden und als Direktor des African Studies Centre (ASC, Leiden illustriert der Autor unter Hinweis auf die Diskussionen um die Vuvuzelas, wie gering das Vertrauen weltweit ist, dass der World Cup in Sdafrika reibungslos organisiert und durchgefhrt werden kann. Er sieht dies als Beispiel dafr, dass das Stereotyp der Inkompetenz in Afrika trotz der sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Fortschritte auf dem Kontinent in der letzten Dekade immer noch weit verbreitet ist. Er mchte nicht darber klagen, dass die Afrikaforschung bislang nicht in der Lage war, ein solches Stereotyp zu beseitigen; vielmehr mchte er aufzeigen, dass die groe Zahl handlungsorientierter Studien in der Afrikaforschung die wesentlichen sozialen, politischen und konomischen Trends in Afrika nicht klar herausgestellt hat. Er pldiert fr eine Erhhung der Relevanz handlungsorientierter Forschungsanstze, indem sie durch Metaanalysen und vergleichende Forschung zur Diskussion der sozialen, politischen und wirtschaftlichen Trends in Afrika beitragen. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit solle dem mglichen Wiederaufstieg des Entwicklungsstaates in Afrika gewidmet werden. Damit knne die Afrikaforschung auch ihren Anspruch untermauern, den Universalanspruch des Mainstreams der Sozialwissenschaften infrage zu stellen.

  10. Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Joanna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of alcohol is associated with acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. There is a paucity of studies that explore the determinants of alcohol use among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and, in particular, that examine the effects of adverse childhood experiences on alcohol use. Methods The paper draws on nationally-representative data from 9,819 adolescents aged 12-19 years from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. Logistic regression models were employed to identify correlates of self-reported past-year drunkenness. Exposure to four adverse childhood experiences comprised the primary independent variables: living in a food-insecure household, living with a problem drinker, having been physically abused, and having been coerced into having sex. We controlled for age, religiosity, current schooling status, the household head's sex, living arrangements, place of residence, marital status, and country of survey. All analyses were conducted separately for males and females. Results At the bivariate level, all independent variables (except for coerced sex among males were associated with the outcome variable. Overall, 9% of adolescents reported that they had been drunk in the 12 months preceding the survey. In general, respondents who had experienced an adverse event during childhood were more likely to report drunkenness. In the multivariate analysis, only two adverse childhood events emerged as significant predictors of self-reported past-year drunkenness among males: living in a household with a problem drinker before age 10, and being physically abused before age 10. For females, exposure to family-alcoholism, experience of physical abuse, and coerced sex increased the likelihood of reporting drunkenness in the last 12 months. The association between adverse events and reported drunkenness was more pronounced for females. For both males and females there was a graded relationship between the number of adverse events experienced and the proportion reporting drunkenness. Conclusions We find an association between experience of adverse childhood events and drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries. The complex impacts of adverse childhood experiences on young people's development and behavior may have an important bearing on the effectiveness of interventions geared at reducing alcohol dependence among the youth.

  11. A new geography of preferences for Sub-Saharan African countries in a globalizing trading system

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Trade between developing countries, or South-South trade, has been growing rapidly in recent years following significant reductions in tariffs. However, significant barriers remain, and there is currently reluctance among many developing countries to undertake further reductions. In addition African countries and in particular least developed African countries are still marginal players in this reframing of geography of trade. The erosion of preferential access to Northern markets remains the...

  12. Factors Contributing to Urban Malaria Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    De Silva, Prathiba M.; Marshall, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa suffers by far the greatest malaria burden worldwide and is currently undergoing a profound demographic change, with a growing proportion of its population moving to urban areas. Urbanisation is generally expected to reduce malaria transmission; however the disease still persists in African cities, in some cases at higher levels than in nearby rural areas. Objective. This paper aims to collate and analyse risk factors for urban malaria transmission throughout sub-Saharan Af...

  13. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Barasa, Felix A; Doll, Jacob A; Velazquez, Eric J

    2013-05-01

    The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulting in a significant burden of both communicable and non-communicable etiologies. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa is notable for the range of etiologies that concurrently exist as well as the healthcare environment marked by limited resources, weak national healthcare systems and a paucity of national level data on disease trends. With the recent publication of the first and largest multinational prospective registry of acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa, it is timely to review the state of knowledge to date and describe the myriad forms of heart failure in the region. This review discusses several forms of heart failure that are common in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, pericardial disease, various dilated cardiomyopathies, HIV cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cor pulmonale) and presents each form with regard to epidemiology, natural history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic considerations and therapies. Areas and approaches to fill the remaining gaps in knowledge are also offered herein highlighting the need for research that is driven by regional disease burden and needs. PMID:23597299

  14. Implementing the Dementia Carers Support Initiative of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in a sub-Saharan African Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojagbemi, Akin; Daley, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Global estimates suggest that by 2040, over 71% of people living with dementia worldwide will reside in low- and middle-income countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In this region, informal caregivers, who are mostly close family members, may number over nine times the number of dementia patients. This group of carers often lacks the support they require for their exceptional effort. The United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) provides access to tailored psychosocial interventions as part of a comprehensive support for carers of patients with dementia. This paper appraises organizational considerations in introducing this initiative into the resource-poor health care delivery system typical of many sub-Saharan African settings. It concludes that one initial step in that direction may be the introduction--through a developmental change management framework led by all stakeholders--of a tailored carers' information package into the routine care for dementia. PMID:26548684

  15. Competency-based medical education in two Sub-Saharan African medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Kiguli-Malwadde E; Olapade-Olaopa EO; Kiguli S; Chen C; Sewankambo NK; Ogunniyi AO; Mukwaya S; Omaswa F

    2014-01-01

    Elsie Kiguli-Malwadde,1,2 E Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa,1,3 Sarah Kiguli,2 Candice Chen,4 Nelson K Sewankambo,2 Adesola O Ogunniyi,3 Solome Mukwaya,1 Francis Omaswa11African Centre for Global Health and Social Transformation, Kampala, Uganda; 2Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; 3College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; 4School of Public Health and Health Services, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Background: Rela...

  16. Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan African Universities: Recommendations and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Boubakar; /Assoc. Afr. Univ.; Chukwuma, Victor; /Olabisi Onabanjo U.; Petitdidier, Monique; /CEPT, Velizy; Cottrell, Les; /SLAC; Bartons, Charles; /Australian Natl. U., RSES

    2009-12-17

    The Digital Divide prevents Africa from taking advantages of new information technologies. One of the most urgent priorities is to bring the Internet in African Universities, Research, and Learning Centers to the level of other regions of the world. eGY-Africa, and the Sharing Knowledge Foundation are two bottom-up initiatives by scientists to secure better cyber-infrastructure and Internet facilities in Africa. Recommendations by the present scientific communities are being formulated at national, regional and international levels. The Internet capabilities are well documented at country level overall, but this is not the case at the University level. The snapshot of the Internet status in universities in 17 African countries, obtained by a questionnaire survey, is consistent with measures of Internet penetration in the corresponding country. The monitoring of Internet performance has been proposed to those African universities to provide an information base for arguing the need to improve the coverage for Africa. A pilot program is recommended that will start scientific collaboration with Europe in western Africa using ICT. The program will lay the foundations for the arrival of new technologies like Grids.

  17. African Aquaculture: A Regional Summary with Emphasis on Sub-Saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Moehl; Machena, C.

    2000-01-01

    The African Region consists of 48 countries and five island nations, most of which are practising some form of aquaculture, often at a very low level. Over half the countries report producing less than 100 mt annually. The largest producer is Nigeria (17 700 mt) followed by Madagascar (5 100 mt) and Zambia (4 700 mt). The 1997 combined aquaculture production of the region was 40 300 mt. Aquaculture is estimated to be 95 percent small scale, with fish ponds integrated into the m...

  18. Exfoliation syndrome in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawoye, Olusola O; Pasquale, Louis R; Ritch, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this review is to estimate the burden of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) in sub-Saharan Africa and to identify the gaps in knowledge of disease prevalence in this region. PubMed, Medline, African Journals Online and Google engine search were carried out using the following terms "pseudoexfoliation" or "exfoliation syndrome Africa", "pseudoexfoliation" or "exfoliation syndrome" + "glaucoma Africa," "glaucoma prevalence Africa," "pattern of glaucoma presentation Africa," "pseudoexfoliation" or "exfoliation syndrome" + "cataract Africa," "ophthalmic conditions Africa." Studies were included if they described the proportion or prevalence/incidence of XFG and XFS in sub-Saharan Africa or if they investigated lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) variants in XFS among Africans. 22 papers were identified and classified as clinic-based studies (n = 16) and population-based (n = 4) studies. Two other studies were considered important, and therefore, included in the review. Clinic-based studies demonstrate that XFS is a common cause of glaucoma, as is true in many other parts of the world. Furthermore, XFS often co-exists with cataract and climatic droplet keratopathy. Its prevalence ranged from 5.1 to 7.7 % in patients >40 years in population-based studies, a value that is considerably higher than that reported in African Americans. XFS was strongly associated with increasing age in the prevalence studies. The burden of XFS in sub-Saharan Africa is high. More investigation is needed to determine why clinic-based studies report virtually no XFS in some countries (Ghana and Tanzania), while nearby countries report greater proportions (Nigeria and Ethiopia). PMID:24844849

  19. Assessment of the Vulnerability of Water Resources to Seasonal Fires Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, extending from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Equator, and stretching west to east from the Atlantic to the Indian ocean coasts, plays a prominent role in the distribution of Saharan dust and other airborne matter around the region and to other parts of the world, the genesis of global atmospheric circulation, and the birth of such major (and often catastrophic) events as hurricanes. Therefore, this NSSA region represents a critical variable in the global climate change equation. Recent satellite-based studies have revealed that the NSSA region has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be a major driver of the regional carbon, energy, and water cycles. We acknowledge that the rainy season in the NSSA region is from April to September while biomass burning occurs mainly during the dry season (October to March). Nevertheless, these two phenomena are indirectly coupled to each other through a chain of complex processes and conditions, including land-cover and surface-albedo changes, the carbon cycle, evapotranspiration, drought, desertification, surface water runoff, ground water recharge, and variability in atmospheric composition, heating rates, and circulation. In this presentation, we will examine the theoretical linkages between these processes, discuss the preliminary results based on satellite data analysis, and provide an overview of plans for more integrated research to be conducted over the next few years.

  20. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  1. PEPFAR Funding and Reduction in HIV Infection Rates in 12 Focus Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger J. Chin, MA, MPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV and AIDS continue to have a calamitous effect on individuals living on the continent of Africa. U.S. President George W. Bush implemented the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR with the objective of committing approximately $15 billion from 2004 through 2008 to assist with the reduction of the HIV pandemic worldwide. The majority of the PEPFAR policy and funding focused on 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The policy question this research paper seeks to analyze is whether the PEPFAR funding (as a % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP allocated to the 12 countries in Africa had any effect on the decrease of HIV infection rates of males and females between the ages of 15 and 49. Methods: A fixed-effects panel regression analysis was conducted to determine if this association exists. This study examined the 12 African countries that received PEPFAR funding over the years 2002 to 2010; even though PEPFAR was only active from 2004 through 2008, this research included two years prior and two years after this timeframe in order to better estimate the effect of PEPFAR funding on HIV reduction. Results: The results illustrate that on average, ceteris paribus, for every 1 percentage point increase in PEPFAR funding per GDP a country received, the country’s HIV infection rate decreased by 0.355 percentage points. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: While the empirical findings in this study suggested that the correlation between PEPFAR funding and HIV reduction is statistically significant, the practical significance is perhaps less obvious. Arguably, the reduction rate should be higher given the extent of funding targeted to this project. The conclusion of this research provides suggestions on future research and the policy implications of PEPFAR.

  2. Is hardship during migration a determinant of HIV infection? Results from the ANRS PARCOURS study of sub-Saharan African migrants in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgrees-du-Lou, Annabel; Pannetier, Julie; Ravalihasy, Andrainolo; Le Guen, Mireille; Gosselin, Anne; Panjo, Henri; Bajos, Nathalie; Lydie, Nathalie; Lert, France; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In Europe, sub-Saharan African migrants are a key population for HIV infection. We analyse how social hardships during settlement in France shape sexual partnerships and HIV risk. Design: PARCOURS is a life-event survey conducted in 2012–2013 in 74 health-care facilities in the Paris region, among three groups of sub-Saharan migrants: 926 receiving HIV care (296 acquired HIV in France), 779 with chronic hepatitis B, and 763 with neither HIV nor hepatitis B (reference group). Methods: Hardships (lack of residence permit, economic resources and housing) and sexual partnerships were documented for each year since arrival in France. For each sex, reported sexual partnerships were compared by group and their associations with hardships each year analysed with mixed-effects logistic regression models. Results: Hardships were frequent: more than 40% had lived a year or longer without a residence permit, and more than 20% without stable housing. Most of the migrants had nonstable and concurrent partnerships, more frequent among those who acquired HIV in France compared with reference group, as were casual partnerships among men (76.7 vs. 54.2%; P = 0.004) and women (52.4 vs. 30.5%; P = 0.02), concurrent partnerships among men (69.9 vs. 45.8%; P = 0.02), and transactional partnerships among women (8.6 vs. 2.3%; P = 0.006). Hardship increased risky behaviours: in women, lacking a residence permit increased casual and transactional partnerships [resp. odds ratio (OR) = 2.01(1.48–2.72) and OR = 6.27(2.25–17.44)]. Same trends were observed for lacking stable housing [OR = 3.71(2.75–5.00) and OR = 10.58 (4.68–23.93)]. Conclusion: Hardships faced by migrants increase HIV risks. Women, especially during the period without stable housing, appear especially vulnerable. PMID:26558722

  3. [Comparative titration of three antivenin serums used against sub-Saharan African snakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikouk, G D; Ngoa, L S Etoundi; Thonnon, J; Dongmo, A B; Rakotonirina, V S; Rakotonirina, A; Chippaux, J P

    2002-08-01

    The standardisation of serotherapy is necessary in Africa mainly because of the frequency of envenomations and the lack of alternative treatments. Comparative titrations of FAV-Afrique (Aventis Pasteur), Polyvalent serum (Serum Institute of India = SII) and Polyvalent antivenin (South African Vaccine Fabricants Ltd = SAIMR) were carried out on venoms of Echis ocellatus from Cameroun, E. ocellatus from Mali, E. leucogaster and Naja melanoleuca. The 50% protective doses (ED50) of the antivenoms were given according either to i) the in vitro method which consists of inoculating 5 batches of 5 mice with a mixture containing 3 DL50 of venom and increasing volumes of antivenom incubated for 30 mn at 37 degrees C and ii) the in vivo method which consists of successive administration of venom and then antivenom after a 30 to 60 mn interval. The three antivenoms showed a similar efficacy against all the Echis venoms. Interestingly, the SAIMR proved to be effective against the venom of E. leucogaster and E. ocellatus although no venom of Echis was used to immunise horses during the preparation of antivenom. Conversely, this paraspecificity did not exist with the Naja melanoleuca venom against which FAV Afrique showed a higher efficacy. The electrophoresis pattern of FAV-Afrique performed on acetate gel strips showed only one protein fraction (76 g.l-1), whereas both the SII and SAIMR antivenoms showed four fractions whose protein concentrations was respectively 64 g.l-1 and 145 g.l-1. PMID:12404855

  4. Dosing of Praziquantel by Height in Sub-Saharan African Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Palha De Sousa, Chiquita A.; Brigham, Tracy; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mbuya, Mduduzi N.N.; Tielsch, James M; Humphrey, Jean H; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The cornerstone of schistosomiasis control is mass praziquantel treatment in high prevalence areas. Adults are an important target population, given increasing recognition of the burden of male and female genital schistosomiasis. However, use of weighing scales to calculate praziquantel dosing in rural areas can be challenging. For school-age children, the World Health Organization (WHO) has approved a dose pole to simplify praziquantel dosing based on height. We modified the pediatric dose p...

  5. The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of stabilization and of structural adjustment are also presented with their effects on the different sectors. (J.S.)

  6. Taxation and indigenous institutions in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Torrance, Samantha; Morrissey, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on tax performance in sub-Saharan African countries. A standard model of the determinants of tax revenue is augmented to include measures of indigenous pre-independence institutional structure constructed from anthropological data on the characteristics of ethnic group organisation. We posit that if the three largest ethnic groups characterised by a clan-based organisational structure are a sufficiently large share of the population they are more likel...

  7. Collection of passenger travel data in Sub-Saharan African cities: Towards improving survey instruments and procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Behrens, Roger; Diaz Olvera, Lourdes; Plat, Didier; Pochet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares experiences in the application of different approaches to passenger travel data collection in francophone and anglophone cities of West, Central and Southern Africa. Its aim is to identify possible improvements through which common problems might be addressed. The paper draws from the available French and English literature on survey methods applied in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as from the authors' experiences in designing and administering surveys in this context. Probl...

  8. Population dynamics throughout the urban context: A case study in sub-Saharan Africa utilizing remotely sensed imagery and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benza, Magdalena

    The characteristics of places where people live and work play an important role in explaining complex social, political, economic and demographic processes. In sub-Saharan Africa rapid urban growth combined with rising poverty is creating diverse urban environments inhabited by people with a wide variety of lifestyles. This research examines how spatial patterns of land cover in a southern portion of the West African country of Ghana are associated with particular characteristics of family organization and reproduction decisions. Satellite imagery and landscape metrics are used to create an urban context definition based on landscape patterns using a gradient approach. Census data are used to estimate fertility levels and household structure, and the association between urban context, household composition and fertility levels is modeled through OLS regression, spatial autoregressive models and geographically weighted regression. Results indicate that there are significant differences in fertility levels between different urban contexts, with below average fertility levels found in the most urbanized end of the urban context definition and above average fertility levels found on the opposite end. The spatial patterns identified in the association between urban context and fertility levels indicate that, within the city areas with lower fertility have significant impacts on the reproductive levels of adjacent neighborhoods. Findings also indicate that there are clear patterns that link urban context to living arrangements and fertility levels. Female- and single-headed households are associated with below average fertility levels, a result that connects dropping fertility levels with the spread of smaller nuclear households in developing countries. At the same time, larger extended family households are linked to below average fertility levels for highly clustered areas, a finding that points to the prevalence of extended family housing in the West African city.

  9. The health and wellbeing of young people in sub-Saharan Africa: an under-researched area?

    OpenAIRE

    Kabiru Caroline W; Izugbara Chimaraoke O; Beguy Donatien

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A third of sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) population comprises persons aged 10–24 years. These youth are growing up in a context marked by pervasive poverty, limited educational opportunities, high HIV/AIDS prevalence, widespread conflict, and weak social controls. Published research on the broad issues that affect youth health and wellbeing in SSA is limited and centers heavily on sexual and reproductive health. In this commentary, we provide a broad overview of sub-Saharan African yout...

  10. Maternal nutrition among women from Sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on Nigeria, and potential implications for pregnancy outcomes among immigrant populations in developed countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lindsay, K L

    2012-12-01

    Pregnant women in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are at risk of poor nutritional status and adverse outcomes as a result of poverty, food insecurity, sub-optimal healthcare facilities, frequent infections and frequent pregnancies. Studies from Nigeria, for example, have revealed a high prevalence of both under- and over-nutrition, as well as nutrient deficiencies, including iron, folate, vitamin D and vitamin A. Subsequently, obstetric complications, including hypertension, anaemia, neural tube defects, night-blindness, low birth weight and maternal and perinatal mortality, are common. Migration patterns from SSA to the Western world are on the rise in recent years, with Nigerians now representing the most prevalent immigrant African population in many developed countries. However, the effect of immigration, if any, on the nutritional status and pregnancy outcomes of these women in their host countries has not yet been studied. Consequently, it is unknown to what extent the nutritional deficiencies and pregnancy complications occurring in Nigeria, and other countries of SSA, present in these women post-emigration. This may result in missed opportunities for appropriate antenatal care of a potential high-risk group in pregnancy. The present review discusses the literature regarding nutrition in pregnancy among SSA women, using Nigeria as an example, the common nutrition-related complications that arise and the subsequent obstetric outcomes. The concept of dietary acculturation among immigrant groups is also discussed and deficiencies in the literature regarding studies on the diets of pregnant immigrant women are highlighted.

  11. Maternal nutrition among women from Sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on Nigeria, and potential implications for pregnancy outcomes among immigrant populations in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K L; Gibney, E R; McAuliffe, F M

    2012-12-01

    Pregnant women in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are at risk of poor nutritional status and adverse outcomes as a result of poverty, food insecurity, sub-optimal healthcare facilities, frequent infections and frequent pregnancies. Studies from Nigeria, for example, have revealed a high prevalence of both under- and over-nutrition, as well as nutrient deficiencies, including iron, folate, vitamin D and vitamin A. Subsequently, obstetric complications, including hypertension, anaemia, neural tube defects, night-blindness, low birth weight and maternal and perinatal mortality, are common. Migration patterns from SSA to the Western world are on the rise in recent years, with Nigerians now representing the most prevalent immigrant African population in many developed countries. However, the effect of immigration, if any, on the nutritional status and pregnancy outcomes of these women in their host countries has not yet been studied. Consequently, it is unknown to what extent the nutritional deficiencies and pregnancy complications occurring in Nigeria, and other countries of SSA, present in these women post-emigration. This may result in missed opportunities for appropriate antenatal care of a potential high-risk group in pregnancy. The present review discusses the literature regarding nutrition in pregnancy among SSA women, using Nigeria as an example, the common nutrition-related complications that arise and the subsequent obstetric outcomes. The concept of dietary acculturation among immigrant groups is also discussed and deficiencies in the literature regarding studies on the diets of pregnant immigrant women are highlighted. PMID:22594552

  12. Sustainable electricity generation for rural and peri-urban populations of sub-Saharan Africa: The 'flexy-energy' concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. Electrification rate of sub-Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However, this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy-energy' concept of hybrid solar PV/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is performed in this paper. This concept is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. For landlocked countries like Burkina Faso, this concept could help them reducing their electricity bill (then their fuel consumption) and accelerate their rural and peri-urban electrification coverage. - Research highlights: → Design and load management Optimization are big concerns for hybrid systems. → Hybrid solar PV/Diesel is economically viable for remote areas and environmental friendly. → 'Flexy-energy' concept is a flexible hybrid solar PV/diesel/biomass suitable for remote areas. → 'Flexy-energy' concept is a flexible hybrid solar PV/diesel/biomass suitable for remote areas.

  13. Health insurance systems in five Sub-Saharan African countries: medicine benefits and data for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapinha, Joo L; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Desta, Abayneh Tamer; Wagner, Anita K

    2011-03-01

    Medicine benefits through health insurance programs have the potential to improve access to and promote more effective use of affordable, high quality medicines. Information is lacking about medicine benefits provided by health insurance programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the structure of medicine benefits and data routinely available for decision-making in 33 health insurance programs in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda. Most programs surveyed were private, for profit schemes covering voluntary enrollees, mostly in urban areas. Almost all provide both inpatient and outpatient medicine benefits, with members sharing the cost of medicines in all programs. Some programs use strategies that are common in high-income countries to manage the medicine benefits, such as formularies, generics policies, reimbursement limits, or price negotiation. Basic data to monitor performance in delivering medicine benefits are available in most programs, but key data elements and the resources needed to generate useful management information from the available data are typically missing. Many questions remain unanswered about the design, implementation, and effects of specific medicines policies in the emerging and expanding health insurance programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. These include questions about the most effective medicines policy choices, given different corporate and organizational structures and resources; impacts of specific benefit designs on quality and affordability of care and health outcomes; and ways to facilitate use of routine data for monitoring. Technical capacity building, strong government commitment, and international donor support will be needed to realize the benefits of medicines coverage in emerging and expanding health insurance programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21167619

  14. Is the current decline in malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa due to a decrease in vector population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rwegoshora Rwehumbiza T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum has historically been a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Recent reports indicate a pronounced decline in infection and disease rates which are commonly ascribed to large-scale bed net programmes and improved case management. However, the decline has also occurred in areas with limited or no intervention. The present study assessed temporal changes in Anopheline populations in two highly malaria-endemic communities of NE Tanzania during the period 1998-2009. Methods Between 1998 and 2001 (1st period and between 2003 and 2009 (2nd period, mosquitoes were collected weekly in 50 households using CDC light traps. Data on rainfall were obtained from the nearby climate station and were used to analyze the association between monthly rainfall and malaria mosquito populations. Results The average number of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus per trap decreased by 76.8% and 55.3%, respectively over the 1st period, and by 99.7% and 99.8% over the 2nd period. During the last year of sampling (2009, the use of 2368 traps produced a total of only 14 Anopheline mosquitoes. With the exception of the decline in An. gambiae during the 1st period, the results did not reveal any statistical association between mean trend in monthly rainfall and declining malaria vector populations. Conclusion A longitudinal decline in the density of malaria mosquito vectors was seen during both study periods despite the absence of organized vector control. Part of the decline could be associated with changes in the pattern of monthly rainfall, but other factors may also contribute to the dramatic downward trend. A similar decline in malaria vector densities could contribute to the decrease in levels of malaria infection reported from many parts of SSA.

  15. Regulatory Advances in 11 Sub-Saharan Countries in Year 3 of the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives (ARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Michelle; Tison, Laura; Johnson, Carla; Verani, Andre; Zuber, Alexandra; Riley, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa carries the greatest burden of the HIV pandemic. Enhancing the supply and use of human resources through policy and regulatory reform is a key action needed to improve the quality of HIV services in this region. In year 3 of the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives (ARC), a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief initiative, 11 country teams of nursing and midwifery leaders ("Quads") received small grants to carry out regulatory improvement projects. Four countries advanced a full stage on the Regulatory Function Framework (RFF), a staged capability maturity model used to evaluate progress in key regulatory functions. While the remaining countries did not advance a full stage on the RFF, important gains were noted. The year-3 evaluation highlighted limitations of the ARC evaluation strategy to capture nuanced progress and provided insight into how the RFF might be adapted for future use. PMID:27086189

  16. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R; Civit, Sergi; Arenas, Conxita; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Bustamante, Carlos D; Comas, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2012-01-01

    . Furthermore, the Neandertal's genetic signal is higher in populations with a local, pre-Neolithic North African ancestry. Therefore, the detected ancient admixture is not due to recent Near Eastern or European migrations. Sub-Saharan populations are the only ones not affected by the admixture event with...

  17. Debt Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Battaile, William; Hernández, F. Leonardo; Norambuena, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries as a group showed a considerable reduction in public and external indebtedness in the early 2000s as a result of debt relief programs, higher economic growth, and improved fiscal management for some countries. More recently, however, vulnerabilities in some countries are on the rise, including a few with very rapid debt accumulation. This paper looks at the he...

  18. Estimating the impact of expanded access to antiretroviral therapy on maternal, paternal and double orphans in sub-Saharan Africa, 2009-2020

    OpenAIRE

    Vasarhelyi Krisztina; Kaida Angela; Joffres Michel; Au-Yeung Christopher G; Anema Aranka; Kanters Steve; Montaner Julio SG; Hogg Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV/AIDS has orphaned 11.6 million children in sub-Saharan Africa. Expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) use may reduce AIDS orphanhood by decreasing adult mortality and population-level HIV transmission. Methods We modeled two scenarios to measure the impact of adult ART use on the incidence of orphanhood in 10 sub-Saharan African countries, from 2009 to 2020. Demographic model data inputs were obtained from cohort studies, UNAIDS, UN Population Division, WHO and the US C...

  19. Medical schools in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Fitzhugh; Frehywot, Seble; Omaswa, Francis; Buch, Eric; Chen, Candice; Greysen, S Ryan; Wassermann, Travis; Abubakr, Diaa ElDin ElGaili; Awases, Magda; Boelen, Charles; Diomande, Mohenou Jean-Marie Isidore; Dovlo, Delanyo; Ferro, Josefo; Haileamlak, Abraham; Iputo, Jehu; Jacobs, Marian; Koumaré, Abdel Karim; Mipando, Mwapatsa; Monekosso, Gottleib Lobe; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi; Rugarabamu, Paschalis; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Ross, Heather; Ayas, Huda; Chale, Selam Bedada; Cyprien, Soeurette; Cohen, Jordan; Haile-Mariam, Tenagne; Hamburger, Ellen; Jolley, Laura; Kolars, Joseph C; Kombe, Gilbert; Neusy, Andre-Jacques

    2011-03-26

    Small numbers of graduates from few medical schools, and emigration of graduates to other countries, contribute to low physician presence in sub-Saharan Africa. The Sub-Saharan African Medical School Study examined the challenges, innovations, and emerging trends in medical education in the region. We identified 168 medical schools; of the 146 surveyed, 105 (72%) responded. Findings from the study showed that countries are prioritising medical education scale-up as part of health-system strengthening, and we identified many innovations in premedical preparation, team-based education, and creative use of scarce research support. The study also drew attention to ubiquitous faculty shortages in basic and clinical sciences, weak physical infrastructure, and little use of external accreditation. Patterns recorded include the growth of private medical schools, community-based education, and international partnerships, and the benefit of research for faculty development. Ten recommendations provide guidance for efforts to strengthen medical education in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21074256

  20. Coronary heart disease in sub-Saharan Africa: still rare, misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchuo, Engelbert B.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in developed countries, but it has generally been considered to be rare in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA is undergoing rapid epidemiological transition with an increasing prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors and consequential cardiovascular diseases such as stroke. However, CHD including myocardial infarction has generally been considered to be rare despite this deterioration in the risk factors profile. There is an urgent need to raise awareness about CHD both in the general population and healthcare professionals while making available simple, inexpensive screening and diagnostic tools in sub-Saharan African countries.

  1. The state, refugees and migration in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akokpari, J K

    1998-01-01

    Migration and refugee movements could significantly decline in sub-Saharan African countries. However, countries must redistribute meager resources equitably and engage in environmental protection. Refugee and migrant populations have increased in sub-Saharan Africa during 1969-95, from 700,000 to 6.8 million. This study examined the causes of migration and the implications for host countries. Doornbos (1990) identifies the root problem as the partisan nature of African politics and the incapacity to manage ecological degradation. The African state is wholly or partially responsible for the creation of conflicts. Examples abound in Zaire, South Africa, Sudan, Rwanda, Burundi, Somalia, Ethiopia, Liberia, Congo, and Chad. State partisanship is also evident in Angola, Mozambique, Uganda, and Sierra Leone. An estimated 10 million Africans, in 1985, left their homes due to wars, government repression, or the inability of land to support them. In 1994, USAID estimated that 11.6 million Africans in 10 countries were threatened by famine from drought. Environmental degradation has generated conflicts. Africa's marginalized economy results in recession, unemployment, inflation, and distributional conflicts. Democratization has brought conflicts between the state, civil society, and exiles. Refugees face homelessness, poverty, emotional distress, inadequate food, and disease. Host countries face security threats, pressure on limited resources, rebellions from refugees and their involvement with foreign mercenaries, local conflicts between native and refugee populations, and environmental degradation from refugees. PMID:12293796

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa's media and neocolonialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domatob, J K

    1988-01-01

    Given the heavy Western metropolitan bias of the media in sub-Saharan Africa, the ideology of neocolonialism continues to exert a dominant influence on economic, social, political, and cultural life. This neocolonial influence is further reinforced by advertising that champions a consumerist culture centered around Western goods. The capital of multinational firms plays a crucial role in the strategy of media imperialism. The dramatic growth of monopolies and the creation of military-industrial-information conglomerates in the 1970s and 1980s have been reflected in the international exchange of information and the interlinkage of mass communication systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Another media strategy that reinforces neocolonialism is the use of satellite communication. If cultural autonomy is defined as sub-Saharan Africa's capacity to decide on the allocation of its environmental resources, then cultural synchronization is a massive threat to that autonomy. Few African nations have the resources or expertise necessary to design, establish, or maintain communication systems that could accurately reflect their own culture. Nonetheless, there are some policy options. Personnel can be trained to respect African values and to recognize the dangers of neocolonial domination. The production of indigenous programs could reduce the media's foreign content. The incorporation of traditional drama and dance in the media could enhance this process. Above all, a high degree of planning is necessary if sub-Saharan African states intend to tackle the media and its domination by neocolonialist ideology. PMID:12281808

  3. The Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans Assessed by the Progressive Matrices: A Reply to Wicherts, Dolan, Carlson & van der Maas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Wicherts, Dolan, Carlson & van der Maas (WDCM) (2010) contend that the average IQ in sub-Saharan Africa is about 76 in relation to a British mean of 100 and sd of 15. This result is achieved by including many studies of unrepresentative elite samples. Studies of acceptably representative samples indicate a sub-Saharan Africa IQ of approximately

  4. The Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans Assessed by the Progressive Matrices: A Reply to Wicherts, Dolan, Carlson & van der Maas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Wicherts, Dolan, Carlson & van der Maas (WDCM) (2010) contend that the average IQ in sub-Saharan Africa is about 76 in relation to a British mean of 100 and sd of 15. This result is achieved by including many studies of unrepresentative elite samples. Studies of acceptably representative samples indicate a sub-Saharan Africa IQ of approximately…

  5. MtDNA haplogroup analysis of black Brazilian and sub-Saharan populations: implications for the Atlantic slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wilson Araújo; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Marrero, Andrea; Elion, Jacques; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Zago, Marco Antonio

    2006-02-01

    Seventy individuals from two African and four black Brazilian populations were studied for the first hypervariable segment of mtDNA. To delineate a more complete phylogeographic scenario of the African mtDNA haplogroups in Brazil and to provide additional information on the nature of the Atlantic slave trade, we analyzed our data together with previously published data. The results indicate different sources of African slaves for the four major Brazilian regions. In addition, the data revealed patterns that differ from those expected on the basis of historical registers, thus suggesting the role of ethnic sex differences in the slave trade. PMID:16900880

  6. Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to decompose CO2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO2 emission intensity in non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries, while the structural effect explained most of the increase in CO2 emission intensity among the oil-producing countries. Finally, for the period 1991-1998, structural effect accounted for much of the decrease in intensity among non-oil-producers, while CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was the major force driving the decrease among oil-producing countries. The dynamic changes in the CO2 emission intensity and energy intensity effects for the two groups of countries suggest that fuel switching had been predominantly towards more carbon-intensive production in oil-producing countries and less carbon-intensive production in non-oil-producing SSA countries. In addition to the decomposition analysis, the article discusses policy implications of the results. We hope that the information and analyses provided here would help inform national energy and climate policy makers in SSA of the relative weaknesses and possible areas of strategic emphasis in their planning processes for mitigating the effects of climate change

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of typhoid fever rapid antibody tests for laboratory diagnosis at two sub-Saharan African sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Keddy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate three commercial typhoid rapid antibody tests for Salmonella Typhi antibodies in patients suspected of having typhoid fever in Mpumalanga, South Africa, and Moshi, United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: The diagnostic accuracy of Cromotest® (semiquantitative slide agglutination and single tube Widal test,TUBEX®and Typhidot® was assessed against that of blood culture. Performance was modelled for scenarios with pretest probabilities of 5% and 50%. FINDINGS: In total 92 patients enrolled: 53 (57.6% from South Africa and 39 (42.4% from the United Republic of Tanzania. Salmonella Typhi was isolated from the blood of 28 (30.4% patients. The semiquantitative slide agglutination and single-tube Widal tests had positive predictive values (PPVs of 25.0% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.6-80.6 and 20.0% (95% CI: 2.5-55.6, respectively. The newer typhoid rapid antibody tests had comparable PPVs: TUBEX®, 54.1% (95% CI: 36.9-70.5; Typhidot® IgM, 56.7% (95% CI: 37.4-74.5; and Typhidot® IgG, 54.3% (95% CI: 36.6-71.2. For a pretest probability of 5%, PPVs were: TUBEX®, 11.0% (95% CI: 6.6-17.9; Typhidot® IgM, 9.1% (95% CI: 5.8-14.0; and Typhidot® IgG, 11.0% (6.3-18.4. For a pretest probability of 50%, PPVs were: TUBEX®, 70.2% (95% CI: 57.3-80.5; Typhidot® IgM, 65.6% (95% CI: 54.0-75.6; and Typhidot® IgG, 70.0% (95% CI: 56.0-81.1. CONCLUSION: Semiquantitative slide agglutination and single-tube Widal tests performed poorly. TUBEX® and Typhidot® may be suitable when pretest probability is high and blood cultures are unavailable, but their performance does not justify deployment in routine care settings in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. The effects of the African Green Revolution on nitrogen losses from two contrasting soil types in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, K. L.; Russo, T.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 80% of countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face problems of nitrogen (N) scarcity, which together with poverty causes food insecurity and malnutrition. The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa has set a goal of increasing fertilizer use in the region six-fold by 2015. While there is substantial evidence that greater N fertilizer use will improve crop yields, it could lead to increased N leaching and elevated nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in surface water and groundwater reservoirs. However, it is unclear what the magnitude of impacts will be in SSA given historically low nutrient additions (of less than 5 kg N/ha/yr), highly degraded soils (due to years of nutrient and soil organic matter depletion), and a wide range of soil types on which increased fertilizer use is occurring. Current estimates of N dynamics and balances in SSA agriculture now rely on data from other regions with different soil types, soil fertility, and land management practices. To understand the influence of increased fertilizer use on water quality requires data from representative areas in SSA. Experimental maize plots were established in a randomized complete block design in both western Kenya (clayey soil) and mid-western Tanzania (sandy soil). Plots were amended with 0, 50, 75, and 200 kg N/ha/yr as mineral fertilizer. Tension lysimeters were installed at three depths in each treatment, and water was collected throughout the maize growing season. Soil water solutions were analyzed for NO3--N. Flow through the soil column at each soil depth, was modeled using VS2DT, a variably saturated flow and solute transport model, and water flux values were multiplied by measured NO3--N concentrations to estimate seasonal N leaching flux. Soil texture was a major driver of N losses, altering both the pathways and magnitude of losses. Clayey soils in western Kenya show an enormous potential for loss of NO3--N immediately following the onset of rains as they trigger high rates of N mineralization and nitrification in the topsoil (known as the 'birch effect'). We did not observe this pulse in the sandy soils of central Tanzania. However, NO3- N concentrations in leachate were three times lower at 200 cm in clayey soils compared to sandy soils as a result of higher anion exchange capacity in clays. We show that while clayey soils lose NO3--N in a large pulse at the onset of rains, sandy soils lose large quantities of NO3--N over the course of the maize growing season. Results from this study can help inform recommended N application rates in similar soils (tropical Ultisols and Oxisols), to optimize yields while minimizing N leaching losses.

  9. Mesoscale modeling and satellite observation of transport and mixing of smoke and dust particles over northern sub-Saharan African region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifeng; Wang, Jun; Ichoku, Charles; Hyer, Edward; Zeng, Jing

    2013-11-01

    transport and vertical distribution of smoke and dust aerosols over the northern sub-Saharan African region are simulated in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), which uses hourly dynamic smoke emissions from the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions database derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. Model performance for February 2008 is evaluated using MODIS true color images, aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from the Aerosol Robotic Network, MODIS AOD retrievals, and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) atmospheric backscattering and extinction products. Specification of smoke injection height of 650 m in WRF-Chem yields aerosol vertical profiles that are most consistent with CALIOP observations of aerosol layer height. Between the equator and 10N, Saharan dust is often mixed with smoke near the surface, and their transport patterns manifest the interplay of trade winds, subtropical highs, precipitation associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the high mountains located near the Great Rift Valley region. At the 700 hPa level and above, smoke layers spread farther to the north and south and are often above the dust layers over the Sahel region. In some cases, transported smoke can also be mixed with dust over the Saharan region. Statistically, 5% of the CALIOP valid measurements in February 2007-2011 show aerosol layers either above or between the clouds, reinforcing the importance of the aerosol vertical distribution for quantifying aerosol impact on climate in the Sahel region.

  10. The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic growth and financial development in the Sub Saharan African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on GDP (gross domestic product) growth and the financial development in thirty Sub Saharan African Countries. The panel model was used in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. The results showed that energy consumption had played an important role to increase both economic growth and the financial development in the investigated economies but with the consequence of high po llution. This study recommended that these countries should increase energy productivity by increasing energy efficiency, implementation of energy savings projects, energy conservation, and energy infrastructure outsourcing to achieve its financial development and GDP growth and to increase their investment on energy projects to achieve the full energy potential. -- Highlights: ► The impact of energy consumption, CO2 emission on GDP and the financial development in the SSA countries was investigated. ► The panel model was implied in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. ► The results show energy consumption increased economic growth and the financial development but with higher pollution.

  11. Shaping the Role of sub-Saharan African Nurses and Midwives: Stakeholders perceptions of the Nurses and Midwives tasks and roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi M. Seboni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To explore the role expectations of different stakeholders in the health care system on the roles and tasks that nurses and midwives perform, in order to clarify and strengthen these roles and shape the future of nursing education and practice in sub-Saharan Africa. Qualitative focus group discussions were held with different stakeholders (nurses, health service managers, patients and their caregivers, community members and leaders and other health professionals in eight African countries in order to establish their role expectations of nurses and midwives. Three questions about their role expectations and the interviews were taped, transcribed, and translated into English and analysed. There was consensus amongst the stakeholders regarding eight role functions: taking care of patients; giving health information; managing the care environment; advocating for patients; services and policies; providing emergency care; collaborating with other stakeholders; and providing midwifery care to women, infants and their families. There was disagreement amongst the stakeholders about the role of diagnosis and prescribing treatment. Nursing derives its mandate from communities it serves, and the roles expected must therefore form part of nursing regulation, education and practice standards. Health planners must use these as a basis for job descriptions and rewards. Once these are accepted in the training and regulation of nursing, they must be marketed so that recipients are aware thereof.

  12. The migration of physicians from sub-Saharan Africa to the United States of America: measures of the African brain drain

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Karin E; Fordyce Meredith; Thompson Matthew J; Hagopian Amy; Hart L Gary

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this paper is to describe the numbers, characteristics, and trends in the migration to the United States of physicians trained in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We used the American Medical Association 2002 Masterfile to identify and describe physicians who received their medical training in sub-Saharan Africa and are currently practicing in the USA. Results More than 23% of America's 771 491 physicians received their medical training outside the USA, the maj...

  13. First evaluation of a population-based screen to detect emotional-behavior disorders in orphaned children in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Venta, Amanda; Marais, Lochner; Skinner, Donald; Lenka, Molefi; Serekoane, Joe

    2014-06-01

    Due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic which has left 12 million children orphaned in Sub-Saharan Africa, children are at increased risk for mental health problems. Currently, no validity data exist for any screening measure of emotional-behavior disorders in pre-adolescent children in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the construct validity of the caregiver-, teacher-, and self-report versions of the one-page Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in 466 orphans in South Africa between the ages of 7 and 11 (M age=9.23years, SD=1.33, 51.93% female) and to provide, for the first time, clinical cut-offs for this population. Findings demonstrated support for the caregiver SDQ, but not the teacher and self-report versions. We provide clinical cut-offs, but caution their use before further research is conducted. There remains a critical need for further psychometric studies of the SDQ in the developing world. PMID:24623068

  14. Sub-Saharan Africa descendents in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): population and mutational data for 12 Y-STR loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Patricia Mariana; Gusmão, Leonor; da Silva, Dayse Aparecida; Amorim, António; Pereira, Rinaldo W; de Carvalho, Elizeu F

    2007-05-01

    A male sample of 135 African descendents from the Rio de Janeiro population were typed for the 12 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex Y System. A high haplotype diversity was observed (0.9971), with 91% of haplotypes being unique, demonstrating the usefulness and informative power of this Y-STR set in male lineage identification. Samples with shared haplotypes were additionally typed with the Yfiler kit, which includes five extra markers. The haplotype diversity when using the 17-Yfiler loci increased to (0.9998) with 97% unique haplotypes. The same set of Y-STRs was also typed in 135 father/son pairs and three single-step mutations were observed: one at DYS19 and two at DYS385. Genetic distance analysis showed highly significant differences in all pairwise comparisons between this sample of African descendents and the general population from Rio de Janeiro, as well as with Iberian and African samples from Portugal, Mozambique, Angola and Equatorial Guinea. Comparisons with samples from other regions in Brazil showed that heterogeneity does exist, indicating that a Y-haplotype database for the whole country should take into account the population sub-structure. Moreover, a strong European influence was detected, and thus, a Y-chromosome STR profile proves a rather poor indicator for the ethnic origin of an individual in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:17334737

  15. Extended gene diversity at the FMR1 locus and neighbouring CA repeats in a sub-Saharan population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiurazzi, Genuardi, M.; Neri, G. [Instituto di Genetica Medica, Roma (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-12

    We report on the allele distributions in a normal black African population at two microsatellite loci neighbouring the FRAXA locus and at the CGG repeat in the 5{prime} end of the FMR1 gene, which causes the fragile X syndrome. The CGG repeat distribution was found to be similar to that of other ethnic groups, as well as to that of other non-human primates, possibly predicting a comparable prevalence of fragile X in Africa. Significant linkage disequilibrium has been observed between fragile X mutations and alleles of the DXS548 and FRAXAC1 loci in European and Asian populations, and some founder chromosomes may be extremely old. Those associated with FRAXAC1-A and DXS548-2 alleles are not present in the Asian fragile X samples. We searched for these alleles and their frequency in the well defined Bamileke population of Cameroon. All previously described alleles and some new ones were found in this sample, supporting the hypothesis of their pre-existence and subsequent loss in Asian populations. Finally, the heterozygosity of the Bamileke sample was significantly higher at both marker loci and comparable to that of Europeans at the CGG repeat, confirming the notion that genetic diversity is greater in Africans than in other groups and supporting the view that evolution of modern man started in Africa. 31 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Gender Inequality in Education in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Ombati; Ombati Mokua

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of gender inequality in education in sub-Saharan Africa. It argues that in sub-Saharan African countries, the provision of education for boys and girls is uneven, and biased through gender, location, class and region- resulting to high illiteracy rates for girls and women. The paper concludes that political instability and violence, poverty and economical challenges, negative cultural values, female genital mutilation, early marriage, and sexual harassment are so...

  17. Sustainable electricity generation for rural and peri-urban populations of sub-Saharan Africa. The 'flexy-energy' concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Ginies, P.; Coulibaly, Y.; Girard, P. [Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie d' Energie (LESEE), Fondation 2iE, 01 BP 594, Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso)

    2011-01-15

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. Electrification rate of sub-Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However, this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy-energy' concept of hybrid solar PV/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is performed in this paper. This concept is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. For landlocked countries like Burkina Faso, this concept could help them reducing their electricity bill (then their fuel consumption) and accelerate their rural and peri-urban electrification coverage. (author)

  18. Sensitivity of Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke Direct Radiative Effect to the Emission Inventory: a Case Study in Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Ichoku, Charles; Hyer, Edward J.; Yang, Zhifeng; Ge, Cui; Su, Shenjian; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; da Silva, Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15degW-42degE, 13degS-17degN) and monthly averages of column PM(sub 2.5) loading, surface PM(sub 2.5) concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA.

  19. Sensitivity of mesoscale modeling of smoke direct radiative effect to the emission inventory: a case study in northern sub-Saharan African region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15°W–42°E, 13°S–17°N) and monthly averages of column PM2.5 loading, surface PM2.5 concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA. (paper)

  20. Energy Security and Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meierding

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanOver the last decade the topic of energy security has reappeared on global policy agendas. Most analyses of international energy geopolitics examine the interests and behaviour of powerful energy-importing countries like the US and China. This chapter begins by examining foreign powers’ expanded exploitation of oil and uranium resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. It goes on to examine how energy importers’ efforts to enhance their energy security through Africa are impacting energy security within Africa. It assesses Sub-Saharan states’ attempts to increase consumption of local oil and uranium reserves. Observing the constraints on these efforts, it then outlines some alternative strategies that have been employed to enhance African energy security. It concludes that, while local community-based development projects have improved the well-being of many households, they are not a sufficient guarantor of energy security. Inadequate petroleum access, in particular, remains a development challenge. Foreign powers’ efforts to increase their oil security are undermining the energy security of Sub-Saharan African citizens.

  1. Sub-Saharan Africa’s Lagging Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Vintar Mally

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is a very diverse region with extensive natural wealth, great human potential, and a rich history. However, the majority of its countries are among the poorest in the world and about half of its 800 million inhabitants live in extreme poverty. Sub-Saharan Africa produces only 1.5% of the world’s GDP and its share in world trade has fallen from 6% in 1980 to 2% today. The region’s exports remain dominated by primary goods (fuels, ores, and agricultural products. The roots of the region’s economic weakness lie variously in the past colonial relationships with European countries and in unjust global trade patterns as well as in misuse of power by ruling political elites in the post-independence era. Numerous civil wars and other conflicts have fragmented the sub-Saharan countries into many factions and parties fighting for domination. The region is lagging behind developed countries because of corruption, lack of infrastructure, weakness of its institutions, heavy indebtedness, lack of education and health services, and unfavorable natural conditions, among other factors. Subsistence agriculture is the source of livelihood for most Africans. Nevertheless, average yields per hectare are low and heavily dependent on climatic conditions. Compared to urban areas (except for slums, people living in rural areas have worse infrastructure and are further from achieving the UN’s Millennium Development Goals. The recent increase in food prices is threatening the limited progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition (28% of children under age five are underweight and particularly vulnerable to infectious diseases. Little progress has been made in reducing child and maternal mortality; mortality rates remain the highest in the world. In the previous decade, life expectancy in sub-Saharan countries has fallen due to the spread of HIV/AIDS and it still remains below fifty. In addition, many negative socioeconomic effects are the result of malaria, which kills approximately one million people every year, 91% of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to promote gender equality and empower women, education is of vital importance. Compared to other (especially developed regions, school enrollment rates are considerably lower and dropout rates considerably higher, particularly for girls. The majority of countries in subSaharan Africa will not be able to achieve their educational goals by 2015. Despite the fact that the region is not exceeding the carrying capacities of its environment (as measured by its ecological footprint, environmental problems in some areas are severe. Deforestation, desertification, coral bleaching, negative effects of climate changes (sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability, extreme weather events, etc., loss of biodiversity, and soil degradation are the most worrying. Population growth is exacerbating these environmental problems and is making it more difficult to achieve a higher standard of living for all. Owing to the complexity of developmental problems, sub-Saharan Africa will have to use its own resources very wisely and make the most of development aid from developed countries.

  2. The Realities of Community Based Natural Resource Management and Biodiversity Conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Kevin Reilly; Paul Andre DeGeorges

    2009-01-01

    This is an historic overview of conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa from pre-colonial times through the present. It demonstrates that Africans practiced conservation that was ignored by the colonial powers. The colonial market economy combined with the human and livestock population explosion of the 21st century are the major factors contributing to the demise of wildlife and critical habitat. Unique insight is provided into the economics of a representative safari company, something that has ...

  3. Glaucoma drainage implant surgery - An evidence-based update with relevance to Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Aminlari, Ardalan E.; Ingrid U. Scott; Aref, Ahmad A.

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma represents a leading cause of preventable vision loss in Sub-Saharan Africa. Recent studies evaluating outcomes of glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) surgery suggest an important role for this approach in the African patient population. The Tube Versus Trabeculectomy study demonstrated a higher success rate with non-valved GDI surgery compared to trabeculectomy with mitomycin C after five years. The Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison study showed no difference in surgical failure rates between ...

  4. Beyond test and treat : Malaria diagnosis for improved pediatric fever management in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Emily White

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examined malaria test use, adherence and integration into clinical practice for improved pediatric fever management in sub-Saharan African countries and explored Access, Facility Readiness and Clinical Practice bottlenecks to achieve this program goal. Study I examined diagnostic testing rates and its determinants for pediatric fevers across 13 countries in 2009-2012 including Access bottlenecks. Study II evaluated the effect of testing on treatment decisions at the population lev...

  5. Population Genomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia Contradicts the Virgin Soil Hypothesis for Human Tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Iaki; Hailu, Elena; Kiros, Teklu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Mekonnen, Wondale; Gumi, Balako; Tschopp, Rea; Ameni, Gobena; Hewinson, R Glyn; Robertson, Brian D; Goig, Galo A; Stucki, David; Gagneux, Sebastien; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas; Berg, Stefan

    2015-12-21

    Colonial medical reports claimed that tuberculosis (TB) was largely unknown in Africa prior to European contact, providing a "virgin soil" for spread of TB in highly susceptible populations previously unexposed to the disease [1, 2]. This is in direct contrast to recent phylogenetic models which support an African origin for TB [3-6]. To address this apparent contradiction, we performed a broad genomic sampling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia. All members of the M.tuberculosis complex (MTBC) arose from clonal expansion of a single common ancestor [7] with a proposed origin in East Africa [3,4, 8]. Consistent with this proposal, MTBC lineage 7 is almost exclusively found in that region [9-11]. Although a detailed medical history of Ethiopia supports the view that TB was rare until the 20(th) century [12], over the last century Ethiopia has become a high-burden TB country [13]. Our results provide further support for an African origin for TB, with some genotypes already present on the continent well before European contact. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a pattern of serial introductions of multiple genotypes into Ethiopia in association with human migration and trade. In place of a "virgin soil" fostering the spread of TBin a previously naive population, we proposethatincreased TB mortality in Africa was driven by theintroduction of European strains of M.tuberculosis alongside expansion of selected indigenous strains having biological characteristics that carry a fitness benefit in the urbanized settings of post-colonial Africa. PMID:26687624

  6. Population Genomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia Contradicts the Virgin Soil Hypothesis for Human Tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Iñaki; Hailu, Elena; Kiros, Teklu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Mekonnen, Wondale; Gumi, Balako; Tschopp, Rea; Ameni, Gobena; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Robertson, Brian D.; Goig, Galo A.; Stucki, David; Gagneux, Sebastien; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas; Berg, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Colonial medical reports claimed that tuberculosis (TB) was largely unknown in Africa prior to European contact, providing a “virgin soil” for spread of TB in highly susceptible populations previously unexposed to the disease [1, 2]. This is in direct contrast to recent phylogenetic models which support an African origin for TB [3, 4, 5, 6]. To address this apparent contradiction, we performed a broad genomic sampling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia. All members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) arose from clonal expansion of a single common ancestor [7] with a proposed origin in East Africa [3, 4, 8]. Consistent with this proposal, MTBC lineage 7 is almost exclusively found in that region [9, 10, 11]. Although a detailed medical history of Ethiopia supports the view that TB was rare until the 20th century [12], over the last century Ethiopia has become a high-burden TB country [13]. Our results provide further support for an African origin for TB, with some genotypes already present on the continent well before European contact. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a pattern of serial introductions of multiple genotypes into Ethiopia in association with human migration and trade. In place of a “virgin soil” fostering the spread of TB in a previously naive population, we propose that increased TB mortality in Africa was driven by the introduction of European strains of M. tuberculosis alongside expansion of selected indigenous strains having biological characteristics that carry a fitness benefit in the urbanized settings of post-colonial Africa. PMID:26687624

  7. Meningitis in HIV-positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Veltman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Meningitis is one of the leading causes of death among patients living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. There is no widespread tracking of the incidence rates of causative agents among patients living with HIV, yet the aetiologies of meningitis are different than those of the general population. Methods: We reviewed the scientific literature published in PubMed to determine the incidence rates of meningitis among hospitalized people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and report our findings from seven studies across sub-Saharan Africa. Results: We found high rates of cryptococcal meningitis (19–68%. Tuberculous meningitis was lower (1–36%, although some centres included possible cases as “other” meningitis; therefore, this may not be a true representation of the total cases. Pyogenic meningitis ranged from 6 to 30% and “other” meningitis ranged from 7 to 28% of all reported cases of meningitis. Mortality rates ranged from 25 to 68%. This review describes the most common aetiologies and provides practical diagnostic, treatment and prevention considerations as they apply to the individual living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusions: Diagnosis is often limited, and wider availability of accurate and low-cost laboratory diagnostics is desperately needed for prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. Wider acceptance and adoption of available preventative modalities can decrease the incidence of potentially fatal central nervous system infections in African patients living with HIV.

  8. Reconsidering the Evidence Base, Considering the Rural: Aiming for a Better Understanding of the Education and Training Needs of Sub-Saharan African teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Providing basic education for all children by 2015 is one of the world's major educational objectives and teachers are crucial to achieving this. This article argues that not enough attention has been paid to the specific training needs of teachers in rural areas. Focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa it argues (i) that large-scale statistical data…

  9. Potential Impact of the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief on the Tuberculosis/HIV Coepidemic in Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Viviane D.; Granich, Reuben; Phillips, Peter; Williams, Brian; Julio S.G. Montaner

    2013-01-01

    Background. There are limited data measuring the impact of expanded human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention activities on the tuberculosis epidemic at the country level. Here, we characterized the potential impact of the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) on the tuberculosis epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. Perception, experience, and indigenous knowledge of climate change and variability: the case of Accra, a sub-Saharan African city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codjoe, Samuel N.A.; Owusu, George; Burkett, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Several recent international assessments have concluded that climate change has the potential to reverse the modest economic gains achieved in many developing countries over the past decade. The phenomenon of climate change threatens to worsen poverty or burden populations with additional hardships, especially in poor societies with weak infrastructure and economic well-being. The importance of the perceptions, experiences, and knowledge of indigenous peoples has gained prominence in discussions of climate change and adaptation in developing countries and among international development organizations. Efforts to evaluate the role of indigenous knowledge in adaptation planning, however, have largely focused on rural people and their agricultural livelihoods. This paper presents the results of a study that examines perceptions, experiences, and indigenous knowledge relating to climate change and variability in three communities of metropolitan Accra, which is the capital of Ghana. The study design is based on a three-part conceptual framework and interview process involving risk mapping, mental models, and individual stressor cognition. Most of the residents interviewed in the three communities of urban Accra attributed climate change to the combination of deforestation and the burning of firewood and rubbish. None of the residents associated climate change with fossil fuel emissions from developed countries. Numerous potential adaptation strategies were suggested by the residents, many of which have been used effectively during past drought and flood events. Results suggest that ethnic residential clustering as well as strong community bonds in metropolitan Accra have allowed various groups and long-settled communities to engage in the sharing and transmission of knowledge of weather patterns and trends. Understanding and building upon indigenous knowledge may enhance the design, acceptance, and implementation of climate change adaptation strategies in Accra and urban regions of other developing nations.

  11. Achieving food security for one million sub-Saharan African poor through pushpull innovation by 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeyaur R.; Midega, Charles A. O.; Pittchar, Jimmy O.; Murage, Alice W.; Birkett, Michael A.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Pickett, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a chronic problem in Africa and is likely to worsen with climate change and population growth. It is largely due to poor yields of the cereal crops caused by factors including stemborer pests, striga weeds and degraded soils. A platform technology, pushpull, based on locally available companion plants, effectively addresses these constraints resulting in substantial grain yield increases. It involves intercropping cereal crops with a forage legume, desmodium, and planting Napier grass as a border crop. Desmodium repels stemborer moths (push), and attracts their natural enemies, while Napier grass attracts them (pull). Desmodium is very effective in suppressing striga weed while improving soil fertility through nitrogen fixation and improved organic matter content. Both companion plants provide high-value animal fodder, facilitating milk production and diversifying farmers income sources. To extend these benefits to drier areas and ensure long-term sustainability of the technology in view of climate change, drought-tolerant trap and intercrop plants are being identified. Studies show that the locally commercial brachiaria cv mulato (trap crop) and greenleaf desmodium (intercrop) can tolerate long droughts. New on-farm field trials show that using these two companion crops in adapted pushpull technology provides effective control of stemborers and striga weeds, resulting in significant grain yield increases. Effective multi-level partnerships have been established with national agricultural research and extension systems, non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders to enhance dissemination of the technology with a goal of reaching one million farm households in the region by 2020. These will be supported by an efficient desmodium seed production and distribution system in eastern Africa, relevant policies and stakeholder training and capacity development. PMID:24535391

  12. Implementation of a socio-ecological system navigation approach to human development in sub-saharan african communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilioli, Gianni; Caroli, Anna Maria; Tikubet, Getachew; Herren, Hans R; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2014-03-26

    This paper presents a framework for the development of socio-ecological systems towards enhanced sustainability. Emphasis is given to the dynamic properties of complex, adaptive social-ecological systems, their structure and to the fundamental role of agriculture. The tangible components that meet the needs of specific projects executed in Kenya and Ethiopia encompass project objectives, innovation, facilitation, continuous recording and analyses of monitoring data, that allow adaptive management and system navigation. Two case studies deal with system navigation through the mitigation of key constraints; they aim to improve human health thanks to anopheline malaria vectors control in Nyabondo (Kenya), and to improve cattle health through tsetse control and antitrypanosomal drug administration to cattle in Luke (Ethiopia). The second case deals with a socio-ecological navigation system to enhance sustainability, establishing a periurban diversified enterprise in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) and developing a rural sustainable social-ecological system in Luke (Ethiopia). The project procedures are briefly described here and their outcomes are analysed in relation to the stated objectives. The methodology for human and cattle disease vector control were easier to implement than the navigation of social-ecological systems towards sustainability enhancement. The achievements considerably differed between key constraints removal and sustainability enhancement projects. Some recommendations are made to rationalise human and cattle health improvement efforts and to smoothen the road towards enhanced sustainability: i) technology system implementation should be carried out through an innovation system; ii) transparent monitoring information should be continuously acquired and evaluated for assessing the state of the system in relation to stated objectives for (a) improving the insight into the systems behaviour and (b) rationalizing decision support; iii) the different views of all stakeholders should be reconciled in a pragmatic approach to social-ecological system management. Significance for public healthRecently, there is a growing interest in studying the link between human, animal and environmental health. The connection between these different dimensions is particularly important for developing countries in which people face the challenge of escaping vicious cycle of high diseases prevalence, food insecurity driven by absolute poverty and population growth, and natural capital as a poverty trap. The design and implementation of such efforts, aiming at human health improvement and poverty alleviation, should be framed into adaptive social-ecological system management perspectives. In this paper, we present few case studies dealing with human health improvement through anopheline malaria vectors control in Kenya, cattle health improvement through tsetse vectored nagana control, antitrypanosomal drug administration to cattle in Ethiopia and with the development of rural sustainable communities in Ethiopia. Some recommendations are given to rationalise human and cattle health improvement efforts and to smoothen the road towards enhanced sustainability. PMID:25170511

  13. Is Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa Different?

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, J.Vernon; Roberts, Mark; Storeygard, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In the past dozen years, a literature has developed arguing that urbanization has unfolded differently in post-independence Sub-Saharan Africa than in the rest of the developing world, with implications for African economic growth overall. While African countries are more urbanized than other countries at comparable levels of income, it is well-recognized that total and sector gross domest...

  14. Economic Globalisation, Democracy and Income in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Panel Cointegration Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakyi, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has been characterised by low-income levels for decades. This paper analyses the impact of economic globalisation and democracy on income in sub-Saharan Africa using panel cointegration techniques. The paper considers a composite indicator for economic globalisation and several alternative indicators of democracy and highlights the essence of the simultaneous adoption of economic globalisation and democracy for sub- Saharan African countries. The empirical results based on ...

  15. TOGETHER Project to Increase Understanding of the HIV Epidemic Among Sub-Saharan African Migrants: Protocol of Community-Based Participatory Mixed-Method Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuylsteke, Bea; Manirankunda, Lazare; Deblonde, Jessika; Kint, Ilse; Namanya, Fiona; Fransen, Katrien; Colebunders, Robert; Laga, Marie; Adobea, Dorothy; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan African Migrants (SAM) are the second largest group affected by HIV/AIDS in Belgium and the rest of Western Europe. Increasing evidence shows that, more than previously thought, SAM are acquiring HIV in their host countries. This calls for a renewed focus on primary prevention. Yet, knowledge on the magnitude of the HIV epidemic among SAM (HIV prevalence estimates and proportions of undiagnosed HIV infections) and underlying drivers are scarce and limit the development of such interventions. Objective By applying a community-based participatory and mixed-methods approach, the TOGETHER project aims to deepen our understanding of HIV transmission dynamics, as well as inform future primary prevention interventions for this target group. Methods The TOGETHER project consists of a cross-sectional study to assess HIV prevalence and risk factors among SAM visiting community settings in Antwerp city, Belgium, and links an anonymous electronic self-reported questionnaire to oral fluid samples. Three formative studies informed this method: (1) a social mapping of community settings using an adaptation of the PLACE method; (2) a multiple case study aiming to identify factors that increase risk and vulnerability for HIV infection by triangulating data from life history interviews, lifelines, and patient files; and (3) an acceptability and feasibility study of oral fluid sampling in community settings using participant observations. Results Results have been obtained from 4 interlinked studies and will be described in future research. Conclusions Combining empirically tested and innovative epidemiological and social science methods, this project provides the first HIV prevalence estimates for a representative sample of SAM residing in a West European city. By triangulating qualitative and quantitative insights, the project will generate an in-depth understanding of the factors that increase risk and vulnerability for HIV infection among SAM. Based on this knowledge, the project will identify priority subgroups within SAM communities and places for HIV prevention. Adopting a community-based participatory approach throughout the full research process should increase community ownership, investment, and mobilization for HIV prevention. PMID:26988266

  16. Improving influenza surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Steffen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PROBLEM: Little is known about the burden of influenza in sub-Saharan Africa. Routine influenza surveillance is key to getting a better understanding of the impact of acute respiratory infections on sub-Saharan African populations. APPROACH: A project known as Strengthening Influenza Sentinel Surveillance in Africa (SISA was launched in Angola, Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Zambia to help improve influenza sentinel surveillance, including both epidemiological and virological data collection, and to develop routine national, regional and international reporting mechanisms. These countries received technical support through remote supervision and onsite visits. Consultants worked closely with health ministries, the World Health Organization, national influenza laboratories and other stakeholders involved in influenza surveillance LOCAL SETTING: Influenza surveillance systems in the target countries were in different stages of development when SISA was launched. Senegal, for instance, had conducted virological surveillance for years, whereas Sierra Leone had no surveillance activity at all. RELEVANT CHANGES: Working documents such as national surveillance protocols and procedures were developed or updated and training for sentinel site staff and data managers was organized. LESSONS LEARNT: Targeted support to countries can help them strengthen national influenza surveillance, but long-term sustainability can only be achieved with external funding and strong national government leadership.

  17. What lies behind gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentma; Nandi, Arijit; Foro, Anne; Brewer, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Within sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately at risk for acquiring and having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is important to clarify whether gender inequalities in HIV prevalence in this region are explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors, differences in the effects of these risk factors or some combination of both. We used an extension of the BlinderOaxaca decomposition approach to explain gender inequalit...

  18. Foreign Direct Investments and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Comparative Analysis between Landlocked Countries and Countries Having Access to the Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Nembot Ndeffo; David Kamdem; Roger Tsafack Nanfosso

    2013-01-01

    Institutional reforms implemented since the beginning of the Nineties resulted in a substantial increase in Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) inflow into Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study uses data on 32 countries to evaluate the impact of FDI on economic growth through panel data regressions for the period 1988-2008. The study captures the incidence of commercial openness through a comparison between the landlocked countries and those having access to the sea. The results show that FDI ha...

  19. A Systematic Review of Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Description of Tobacco Control Strategies in Sub-Saharan African Countries; 2007 to 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Brathwaite, Rachel; Addo, Juliet; Smeeth, Liam; Lock, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries. Data Sources Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions. Study Selection 26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult popu...

  20. The role of partners’ educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Harling; Till Bärnighausen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15–34) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily) in 75,...

  1. The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Urban Access to Water Supply and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Background Report

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez Torres, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to explain the patterns of access to water supply and sanitation facilities in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa since the late 90's, and its relation with the performance of service providers in the case of improved water supply. It also seeks to explore the institutional context of the water supply and sanitation sectors. The paper concludes that service...

  2. Sustainable electricity generation for rural and peri-urban populations of sub-Saharan Africa: The 'flexy-energy' concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoumah, Y., E-mail: yao.azoumah@2ie-edu.or [Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie d' Energie (LESEE), Fondation 2iE, 01 BP 594, Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso); Yamegueu, D.; Ginies, P.; Coulibaly, Y.; Girard, P. [Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie d' Energie (LESEE), Fondation 2iE, 01 BP 594, Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso)

    2011-01-15

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. Electrification rate of sub-Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However, this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy-energy' concept of hybrid solar PV/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is performed in this paper. This concept is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. For landlocked countries like Burkina Faso, this concept could help them reducing their electricity bill (then their fuel consumption) and accelerate their rural and peri-urban electrification coverage. - Research highlights: {yields} Design and load management Optimization are big concerns for hybrid systems. {yields} Hybrid solar PV/Diesel is economically viable for remote areas and environmental friendly. {yields} 'Flexy-energy' concept is a flexible hybrid solar PV/diesel/biomass suitable for remote areas. {yields} 'Flexy-energy' concept is a flexible hybrid solar PV/diesel/biomass suitable for remote areas.

  3. An approach to rural distribution network design for sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk of rural populations in sub-Saharan Africa have no access to electricity and are under-served by any other form of modern infrastructure. The cost of infrastructure to mainly scattered communities has been perennially cited as largely to blame. Quite often rural networks are overdesigned, resulting in under utilization and, therefore, costly overheads. One reason often cited for the overspecification is anticipation of load growth. In most sub-Sahara African rural areas, however, economic growth rates are low, and a designer has no justification in specifying an infrastructure capacity exceeding more than a few percent of existing consumer requirements. This paper proposes methods that critically look at the geometry of small grid network designs to address the construction challenges in rural sub-Saharan Africa

  4. The Many Faces of Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    1995-01-01

    This report compares poverty levels and trends in sub - Saharan Africa with the rest of the world. It then uses national aggregate indicators to look at poverty trends and levels across African countries. This section makes use of demographic, economic and social indicators from the Bank's socioeconomic database and other international sources. The report then highlights the many faces of ...

  5. Sub-Saharan Africa - Improving Institutional and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank (WB)

    1996-01-01

    The institutional crisis affecting economic management in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a crisis of structural disconnect between formal institutions transplanted from outside and indigenous institutions born of the culture and traditional values of the African past. Building on the findings and recommendations of the new school of institutional economics, the study, Africa's management in t...

  6. Bibliography on Islam in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schrijver, P.

    2006-01-01

    This book has been nominated for the Conover-Porter Award 2008 - This bibliography on Islam in contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa has been prepared as part of the African Studies Centre/Centre d'Etude d'Afrique Noire project entitled "Islam, the Disengagement of the State, and Globalization in Sub-Saharan Africa" that was funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The present bibliography lists over 4,000 references to secondary literature in European languages about Islam in contemp...

  7. High prevalence and diversity of species D adenoviruses (HAdV-D) in human populations of four Sub-Saharan countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauly, M.; Hoppe, E.; Mugisha, L.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Akoua-Koffi, C.; Couacy-Hymann, E.; Anoh, A. E.; Mossoun, A.; Schubert, G.; Wiersma, L.; Pascale, S.; Muyembe, J.-J.; Karhemere, S.; Weiss, S.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.; Ehlers, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 25 (2014), s. 25. ISSN 1743-422X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Adenoviridae * Human adenovirus D * Genotype * Sub-Saharan Africa * PCR Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.181, year: 2014

  8. Oil and Gas Resources for Sub Saharan African Economic Development: Which One is the Best Approach? The Case of the Selected Approaches in Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riziki M. Nyello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Oil and Gas Sector in Africa is growing so fast due to the new discovery of Oil and Gas reserves and therefore attract the huge amount of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. Considering its role in the African economy, several approaches both local and foreign have been introduced; however the anticipated economic benefits have not yet been realized. The study therefore focused on assessing the effectiveness of the selected approaches that were designed to ensure the economic benefits of oil and gas resources reach to the African local population, particularly the poor ones. The study surveyed various literatures to draw its conclusion. It was realized that the selected approaches have failed to ensure that Oil and Gas resources produce the anticipated economic benefits to the local African population. Among others, it was recommended that the approaches should be improved in order to promote the linkage between Oil and Gas Extractive firms and Small and Medium Enterprises. Additionally, they should be enforceable by law in order to ensure legal commitment among African governments and Oil and Gas Extractive firms to the local population.

  9. Is the current decline in malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa due to a decrease in vector population?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Pedersen, Erling Møller; Alifrangis, Michael; Scheike, Thomas; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Magesa, Stephen M.; Derua, Yahya A.; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T.; Michael, Edwin; Simonsen, Paul Erik

    2011-01-01

    period) and between 2003 and 2009 (2nd period), mosquitoes were collected weekly in 50 households using CDC light traps. Data on rainfall were obtained from the nearby climate station and was used to analyze the association between monthly rainfall and malaria mosquito populations. RESULTS: The average...... number of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus per trap decreased by 76.8% and 55.3%, respectively over the 1st period, and by 99.7% and 99.8% over the 2nd period. During the last year of sampling (2009), the use of 2368 traps produced a total of only 14 Anopheline mosquitoes. With the exception of...... the decline in An. gambiae during the 1st period, the results did not reveal any statistical association between mean trend in monthly rainfall and declining malaria vector populations. CONCLUSION: A longitudinal decline in the density of malaria mosquito vectors was seen during both study periods...

  10. Population-level effect of HSV-2 therapy on the incidence of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    White, Richard; Freeman, E. E.; Orroth, Kate; Bakker, Roel; Weiss, Helen; O'Farrell, N.; Buvé, Anne; Hayes, Richard; Glynn, Judith

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases acquisition and transmission of HIV, but the results of trials measuring the impact of HSV-2 therapy on HIV genital shedding and HIV acquisition are mixed, and the potential impact of HSV-2 therapy on the incidence of HIV at the population level is unknown. Methods: The effects of episodic and suppressive HSV-2 therapy were simulated using the individual-level model STDSIM fitted to data from Cotonou, Benin (relat...

  11. Population-level effect of HSV-2 therapy on the incidence of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases acquisition and transmission of HIV, but the results of trials measuring the impact of HSV-2 therapy on HIV genital shedding and HIV acquisition are mixed, and the potential impact of HSV-2 therapy on the incidence of HIV at the population level is unknown. Methods: The effects of episodic and suppressive HSV-2 therapy were simulated using the individual-level model STDSIM fitted to data from Cotonou, Benin (relatively low HI...

  12. Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

    The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian

  13. Indigenous origins of institutions in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Torrance, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    By analysing the institutional structures of indigenous sub-Saharan African groups, this paper aims to highlight the effect that these institutions may have had, and continue to have, on contemporary institutional performance. Using ethnographic and anthropological data sources a set of variables are created that attempt to capture the institutional characteristics of indigenous African groups. These newly created variables aim to proxy for the deeper, underlying determinants of current insti...

  14. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Fatimah Adenowo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics.

  15. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ogunyinka, Bolajoko Idiat; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted life-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made significant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:25636189

  16. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abiola Fatimah, Adenowo; Babatunji Emmanuel, Oyinloye; Bolajoko Idiat, Ogunyinka; Abidemi Paul, Kappo.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of poverty ranks second among the most widespread parasitic disease in various nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases are causes of about 534,000 deaths annually in sub-Saharan Africa and an estimated 57 million disability-adjusted li [...] fe-years are lost annually due to the neglected tropical diseases. The neglected tropical diseases exert great health, social and ?nancial burden on economies of households and governments. Schistosomiasis has profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity, thus a key reason why the "bottom 500 million" inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa continue to live in poverty. In 2008, 17.5 million people were treated globally for schistosomiasis, 11.7 million of those treated were from sub-Saharan Africa. This enervating disease has been successfully eradicated in Japan, as well as in Tunisia. Morocco and some Caribbean Island countries have made signi?cant progress on control and management of this disease. Brazil, China and Egypt are taking steps towards elimination of the disease, while most sub-Saharan countries are still groaning under the burden of the disease. Various factors are responsible for the continuous and persistent transmission of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. These include climatic changes and global warming, proximity to water bodies, irrigation and dam construction as well as socio-economic factors such as occupational activities and poverty. The morbidity and mortality caused by this disease cannot be overemphasized. This review is an exposition of human schistosomiasis as it affects the inhabitants of various communities in sub-Sahara African countries. It is hoped this will bring a re-awakening towards efforts to combat this impoverishing disease in terms of vaccines development, alternative drug design, as well as new point-of-care diagnostics.

  17. Plants as antimalarial agents in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2015-12-01

    Although the burden of malaria is decreasing, parasite resistance to current antimalarial drugs and resistance to insecticides by vector mosquitoes threaten the prospects of malaria elimination in endemic areas. Corollary, there is a scientific departure to discover new antimalarial agents from nature. Because the two antimalarial drugs quinine and artemisinin were discovered through improved understanding of the indigenous knowledge of plants, bioprospecting Sub-Saharan Africa's enormous plant biodiversity may be a source of new and better drugs to treat malaria. This review analyses the medicinal plants used to manage malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Chemical compounds with antiplasmodial activity are described. In the Sub-Saharan African countries cited in this review, hundreds of plants are used as antimalarial remedies. While the number of plant species is not exhaustive, plants used in more than one country probably indicate better antimalarial efficacy and safety. The antiplasmodial data suggest an opportunity for inventing new antimalarial drugs from Sub-Saharan-African flora. PMID:26297798

  18. Emigration dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, A

    1995-01-01

    The introduction to this description of emigration dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa notes that the region is characterized by intensive migration caused by such factors as population growth, negative economic growth, ethnic conflict, and human rights abuses. The second section of the report discusses the fragmentary and incomplete nature of data on international migration in the region, especially data on conventional migration. Section 3 looks at demographic factors such as high population growth, illiteracy levels, HIV seroprevalence, and urbanization which lead to high unemployment and emigration. The fourth section considers the effects of the rapid expansion of education which is outstripping the absorptive capacity of the economies of many countries. Unemployment is a serious problem which is projected to become worse as increases in employment opportunities continue to lag behind increases in output. Sections five, six, and seven of the report describe relevant economic factors such as per capita income, income distribution, the economic resource base, and economic development; poverty; and the effects of economic adjustment programs, especially on employment opportunities and wages in the public and private sectors. The next section is devoted to sociocultural factors influencing migration both on the micro- and the macro-levels, including the influence of ethnicity and ethnic conflicts as well as the domination of leadership positions by members of minority groups. The political factors discussed in section 9 include women's status, repressive regimes, political instability which leads to underdevelopment, and the policies of the Organization of African Unity which broadened the definition of refugees and set inviolable borders of member states identical to those inherited upon independence. Section 10 outlines ecological factors contributing to migration, including the decline in acreage of arable land, soil deterioration, poor land management, and the effects of draught. The interaction of all of these factors has contributed to refugee flows of acute magnitude and complexity. The next major section of the report describes the migration situation in each subregion (Western Africa, Nigeria and Ghana, the Sahel, Mail, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, and Lesotho). The report concludes that migration in response to socioeconomic conditions will continue until conditions improve in the countries of origin. PMID:12347006

  19. Ageing in Sub-Saharan Africa. Spaces and Practices of Care

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A collection of in-depth ethnographic analysis on the impact of local and global transformations on the care, or lack of care, received by older people in Sub-Saharan Africa. This book provides the pan-African evidence and analysis needed to move forward debates about who and how to address the long term care needs of this vulnerable population. Case studies from different regions of the continent (Southern, Central, East and West Africa) examine formal and informal care, including inter- and...

  20. Infectious Diseases in Sub-Saharan Immigrants to Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre Delcor, Núria; Maruri, Begoña Treviño; Arandes, Antoni Soriano; Guiu, Isabel Claveria; Essadik, Hakima Ouaarab; Soley, Mateu Espasa; Romero, Israel Molina; Ascaso, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Immigrants may be carriers of infectious diseases because of the prevalence of these diseases in their country of origin, exposure during migration, or conditions during resettlement, with this prevalence being particularly high in sub-Saharan Africans. We performed a retrospective review of 180 sub-Saharan immigrants screened for infectious diseases at an International Health Center from January 2009 to December 2012. At least one pathogenic infectious disease was diagnosed in 72.8% patients: 60.6% latent tuberculosis infection, 36.8% intestinal parasites (intestinal protozoa or helminths), 28.1% helminths, 14.8% hepatitis B surface antigen positive, 1.2% anti-hepatitis C virus positive, 1.2% human immunodeficiency virus-positive, and 1.2% malaria. Coinfections were present in 28.4%. There was significant association between eosinophilia (absolute count or percentage) or hyper-IgE and the presence of helminths (P< 0.001). Relative eosinophilia and hyper-IgE were better indicators of helminth infection than absolute eosinophilia, particularly for schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis. We found a high prevalence of infectious diseases in sub-Saharan immigrants, which could lead to severe health problems (in the absence of prompt treatment), representing a high cost to the public health system and possible transmission in the host country. Accurate screening and tailored protocols for infectious diseases are recommended in sub-Saharan immigrants. PMID:26880782

  1. Sub-Saharan centralized biorepository for genetic and genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmelseed, Nagla; Elsir, Afrah Awad; Deblasio, Pasquale; Biunno, Ida

    2012-04-15

    Quality-assessed biomedical samples are essential for academia- and industry driven research on human diseases. The etiologies and the molecular genetic factors relevant in African diseases, including both infections and complex degenerative diseases as well as cancer, need to be studied using well annotated and well-preserved biosamples acquired from native African ethnic groups and compare the results with non-African populations and/or with Afro-Americans. However, a number of difficulties negatively impact on the possibility to obtain clinically annotated biological samples in most Sub-Saharan African countries. This is mainly due to major organizational problems, lack of clinical centres that can dedicate resources to research, as well as lack of facilities in which biomaterials can be properly processed and safely stored. Harmonization of biosample acquisition, storage phenotyping schemes and biocomputer infrastructures are the principal objectives of biological resource centers (BRCs). BRCs comprise biobanks of different formats (collection of blood, DNA, tissues, etc., annotated with medical, environmental, life-style and follow up data) a fundamental tool for molecular epidemiological studies aiming to increase excellence and efficacy of biomedical results, drug development and public health. BRCs provide large and highly controlled biomolecular resources necessary to meet the "omics" scientific platforms. Sudan may be a candidate nation to host such infrastructure, in view of its strategic geographical position and the already existing simple biobanking experiences connected with research groups in Central Sudan. Here, we describe the potential role of biobanks in African genetic studies aiming to dissect the eziopathogenesis of complex diseases in relation to environmental and life-style factors. PMID:21303714

  2. The national determinants of deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rudel, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    For decades, the dynamics of tropical deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have defied easy explanation. The rates of deforestation have been lower than elsewhere in the tropics, and the driving forces evident in other places, government new land settlement schemes and industrialized agriculture, have largely been absent in SSA. The context and causes for African deforestation become clearer through an analysis of new, national-level data on forest cover change for SSA countries for the ...

  3. Regional integration in sub-Saharan Africa : experience and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Foroutan, Faezeh

    1992-01-01

    After independence, every sub - Saharan African country, without exception, joined one or more regional integration schemes. Regional integration would have enabled the subcontinent to attain economic growth and prosperity by allowing individual countries to overcome the barriers of desperately small size and poor human and physical capital endowment - thus breaking away from the colonial pattern of trade, often characterized by a heavy reliance on an undiversified and vulnerable structure of...

  4. Impact of the Uruguay Round on Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Harrold, Peter

    1996-01-01

    There are six principal reasons why the Uruguay Round (UR) is of interest to Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries: it will be a boost to the world economy and to demand; It covers agriculture for the first time, especially temperate crops; Non-tariff barriers (NTBs) are critical for Africa, and these are to be abolished; tariff escalation comes down in the round, encouraging industrializati...

  5. Sub-Saharan Africa - Managing Land in a Changing Climate : An Operational Perspective for Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    Livelihoods, food security, and development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa are highly dependent on land management practices to generate natural ecosystem goods and services. Out of a total population of about 717 million people, almost 60 percent depend for their livelihood on agriculture, hunting, fishing, or forestry. However, unsustainable land management already is leading to large-s...

  6. Underdeveloped ICT areas in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso AVILA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As universal service in terms of ICTs provision cannot be achieved in the times agreed for several international bilateral and multilateral aid organizations. It is important to create mechanisms to reduce the lack of use of ICTs in sub-Saharan African countries. This paper specifically analyses the different ICT underdeveloped areas in the sub-Saharan African countries and the factors explain such status. At the same time, the paper proposes a set of policy guidelines that might help improving the current situation in several areas such as investment, employment, infrastructure and technology in order that some countries may overcome unfavourable ICT development. The main research question is: is there any chance that sub-Saharan African countries can overcome the critical situation in which they currently are? And if so, what are the key components and processes to develop and to do changes. In this way, a proposed framework is provided for the examination of policy makers, investors, and other stakeholders in the ICT field in these countries.

  7. Explaining Adherence Success in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Ethnographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Idoko, John; Kaaya, Sylvia; Biraro, Irene Andia; Agbaji, Oche; Beyrer, Chris; Ware, Norma Clara; Wyatt, Monique A; Chalamilla, Guerino E.; Bangsberg, David Roy

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individuals living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa generally take more than 90% of prescribed doses of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This number exceeds the levels of adherence observed in North America and dispels early scale-up concerns that adherence would be inadequate in settings of extreme poverty. This paper offers an explanation and theoretical model of ART adherence success based on the results of an ethnographic study in three sub-Saharan African countries. Methods a...

  8. National Systems of Innovation: Implications on Science and Technology Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Masinda, M. T.

    1998-01-01

    There is a widespread recognition that the circulation of resources between knowledge providers and user agents is very important in the process of innovation. In this article we theoretically explore the policy implications of the concept of national systems of innovation on science and technology in Sub-Saharan Africa. After identifying the systemic weaknesses of Sub-Saharan African national systems of innovation we conclude by formulating some propositions for a new agenda science and tech...

  9. Determinants of the Chinese footprint in sub Saharan Africa :the effects of energy resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mowatt, Therese Espeland; Syverud, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the determinants of the Chinese global economic footprint with a particular focus on Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). We argue that Chinas recent economic growth has created a booming demand for energy resources and that this is a significant determinant for Chinese foreign economic engagement (FEE). Sub Saharan African countries are attractive targets for energy investment because they have many of the resources that China needs. At the same time, China has had...

  10. Hunting and sale of Pangolins across Sub-Saharan Africa: a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Daniel J.; Coad, Lauren; Scharlemann, Jorn P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Pangolins (Pholidota: Manidae) are hunted and traded for their meat and scales. We conducted preliminary analyses on the hunting and sale at markets of four species of pangolin across Sub-Saharan Africa based on data from the OFFTAKE database. Our analyses show that all four species of African pangolin are hunted and sold at markets throughout much of Sub-Saharan Africa. The proportion of pangolins as part of the total vertebrates hunted has increased significantly during the 43 years, from 1...

  11. Development and biodiversity conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa: A spatial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Manuela AMIN; Choumert, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    The current study seeks to provide a sound analysis of the relationship between economic development and species loss in Sub-Saharan African countries. The motivation is that a better understanding of the impact of economic development on species loss is of great relevance, given the current rapid extinction of species along with challenges born from the context of economic development in poor countries. The analysis draws on the most up-to-date data on threatened species from 48 sub-Saharan ...

  12. Human genetic variation, relationships of peoples of sub- Saharan Africa and implications for healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari Pour, N.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is thought to have the most genetic variation of any continent and to be the place of origin of anatomically modern human. Nevertheless it is the subject of relatively few studies of human genetic variation. This thesis contributes to redressing this imbalance. Sex-specific genetic systems (non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)) along with functional nuclear loci were characterised in multiple sub-Saharan African popu...

  13. The paediatric surgeon and his working conditions in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    K Gnassingbé; H Tekou; S da Silva-Anoma; G K Akakpo-Numado; C Aguehounde; Dick, R.; R Bankole; H Abarchi; A. Wandaogo; O Ouattara; D B Kouame; M N′Doye

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study described the current conditions of work of paediatric surgeons in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSSA) and set the debate at the level of the humanist thinking in medicine. Patients and Methods: This was a multicentre study from 1 st May to 30 th October 2008. The African Society of paediatric surgeons′ directory was used to identify paediatric surgeons in the Francophone′s countries in Sub Saharan Africa. The parameters studied were number of surgeons per country, me...

  14. Monitoring parasite diversity for malaria elimination in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghansah, Anita; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Andagalu, Ben; Apinjoh, Tobias; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle; Cornelius, Victoria; Golassa, Lemu; Andrianaranjaka, Voahangy Hanitriniaina; Ishengoma, Deus; Johnson, Kimberly; Kamau, Edwin; Maïga-Ascofaré, Oumou; Mumba, Dieudonne; Tindana, Paulina; Tshefu-Kitoto, Antoinette; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; William, Yavo; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Djimde, Abdoulaye A

    2014-09-12

    The African continent continues to bear the greatest burden of malaria and the greatest diversity of parasites, mosquito vectors, and human victims. The evolutionary plasticity of malaria parasites and their vectors is a major obstacle to eliminating the disease. Of current concern is the recently reported emergence of resistance to the front-line drug, artemisinin, in South-East Asia in Plasmodium falciparum, which calls for preemptive surveillance of the African parasite population for genetic markers of emerging drug resistance. Here we describe the Plasmodium Diversity Network Africa (PDNA), which has been established across 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa to ensure that African scientists are enabled to work together and to play a key role in the global effort for tracking and responding to this public health threat. PMID:25214619

  15. Urban Labor Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    De Vreyer, Philippe; Roubaud, François (ed.)

    2013-01-01

    The population of Sub-Saharan Africa stood at 854 million in 2010. Annual population growth averaged 2.5 percent, with a relatively high sustained fertility rate, fostered by the fact that two-thirds of the population is under 25. The region has the highest proportion of poor people in the world, with 47.5 percent of its population living on less than $1.25 a day, as measured in terms of p...

  16. The Environmental and Social Influences of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Frei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS pandemic has caused far-reaching effects in sub-Saharan Africa. The pandemic has effectively diminished the workforce, increased poverty rates, reduced agricultural productivity, and transformed the structure of many rural households. HIV/AIDS further strains the already fragile relationship between livelihood and the natural and social environments of these regions. Therefore, the objective of this review is to characterize the impact of HIV/AIDS on the environment and the social infrastructure of rural sub-Saharan Africa. There are many aspects of rural life that contribute to disease transmission of HIV/AIDS and that pose unique challenges to the population dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. Widespread AIDS-related mortality has caused a decrease in population growth for many African countries. In turn, these alterations in population dynamics have resulted in a decrease in the percentage of prime-age working adults, as well as a gender disparity, whereby, females carry a growing burden of household responsibilities. There is a rising proportion of older adults, often females, who assume the role of provider and caretaker for other dependent family members. These changing dynamics have caused many to exploit their natural surroundings, adopting less sustainable land use practices and utilizing protected resources as a primary means of generating revenue.

  17. TRENDS IN STOCK MARKET IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okechukwu D. Anyamele, PhD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available his study uses a panel data, to study the recent contribution of stock markets in economic growth in 6 selected countries of sub-Saharan Africa from 1991-2009. Over the last two decades, most of the countries in sub-Sahara Africa have either gone through one form of Market oriented reform of its economy or trade liberalization. However, these market oriented reforms are just beginning to yield dividends in some areas of the economy. These results show that private capital stock market development measured by market capitalization and stock turnover ratio, and foreign direct investment have positive significant correlations with growth in per capita output in the selected sub-Saharan African countries. These results point to the positive correlation between market liberalization, economic reforms and increase in stock market capitalization as well as the liquidity measured by stock traded turnover ratio. More importantly, the negative correlation between financial crisis and growth in per capita GDP shows that sub-Saharan African economies are not immune to global market problems.

  18. A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Fulvio; Santolamazza, Piero; Shen, Peidong; Macaulay, Vincent; Moral, Pedro; Olckers, Antonel; Modiano, David; Holmes, Susan; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Coia, Valentina; Wallace, Douglas C.; Oefner, Peter J.; Torroni, Antonio; Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca; Scozzari, Rosaria; Underhill, Peter A.

    2002-01-01

    The variation of 77 biallelic sites located in the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome was examined in 608 male subjects from 22 African populations. This survey revealed a total of 37 binary haplotypes, which were combined with microsatellite polymorphism data to evaluate internal diversities and to estimate coalescence ages of the binary haplotypes. The majority of binary haplotypes showed a nonuniform distribution across the continent. Analysis of molecular variance detected a high level of interpopulation diversity (ΦST=0.342), which appears to be partially related to the geography (ΦCT=0.230). In sub-Saharan Africa, the recent spread of a set of haplotypes partially erased pre-existing diversity, but a high level of population (ΦST=0.332) and geographic (ΦCT=0.179) structuring persists. Correspondence analysis shows that three main clusters of populations can be identified: northern, eastern, and sub-Saharan Africans. Among the latter, the Khoisan, the Pygmies, and the northern Cameroonians are clearly distinct from a tight cluster formed by the Niger-Congo–speaking populations from western, central western, and southern Africa. Phylogeographic analyses suggest that a large component of the present Khoisan gene pool is eastern African in origin and that Asia was the source of a back migration to sub-Saharan Africa. Haplogroup IX Y chromosomes appear to have been involved in such a migration, the traces of which can now be observed mostly in northern Cameroon. PMID:11910562

  19. Tourism and microcredit for sustainable community development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve ten, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    Poverty reduction is one of the main Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000). Sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest prevalence of poverty. Almost half the population lives in extreme poverty (Chen & Ravillion, 2004; UN, 2005). Pove

  20. Oil and Gas Resources for Sub Saharan African Economic Development: Which One is the Best Approach? The Case of the Selected Approaches in Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Riziki M. Nyello; Abu Mvungi

    2015-01-01

    The Oil and Gas Sector in Africa is growing so fast due to the new discovery of Oil and Gas reserves and therefore attract the huge amount of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Considering its role in the African economy, several approaches both local and foreign have been introduced; however the anticipated economic benefits have not yet been realized. The study therefore focused on assessing the effectiveness of the selected approaches that were designed to ensure the economic benefits of oil...

  1. Association of HIV and ART with cardiometabolic traits in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, David G; Gurdasani, Deepti; Riha, Johanna; Ekoru, Kenneth; Asiki, Gershim; Mayanja, Billy N; Levitt, Naomi S; Crowther, Nigel J; Nyirenda, Moffat; Njelekela, Marina; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Nyan, Ousman; Adewole, Olanisun O; Anastos, Kathryn; Azzoni, Livio; Boom, W Henry; Compostella, Caterina; Dave, Joel A; Dawood, Halima; Erikstrup, Christian; Fourie, Carla M; Friis, Henrik; Kruger, Annamarie; Idoko, John A; Longenecker, Chris T; Mbondi, Suzanne; Mukaya, Japheth E; Mutimura, Eugene; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo E; Praygod, George Amani; Pefura Yone, Eric W; Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; Range, Nyagosya; Sani, Mahmoud U; Schutte, Aletta E; Sliwa, Karen; Tien, Phyllis C; Vorster, Este H; Walsh, Corinna; Zinyama, Rutendo; Mashili, Fredirick; Sobngwi, Eugene; Adebamowo, Clement; Kamali, Anatoli; Seeley, Janet; Young, Elizabeth H; Smeeth, Liam; Motala, Ayesha A; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Sandhu, Manjinder S

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest burden of HIV in the world and a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic disease; however, the interrelationship between HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cardiometabolic traits is not well described in SSA populations.......Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest burden of HIV in the world and a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic disease; however, the interrelationship between HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cardiometabolic traits is not well described in SSA populations....

  2. Economic Analysis of HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nýdrle, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a real threat for Sub-Saharan Countries. It increased adult mortality substantially. HIV/AIDS pandemic causes the death of the most productive part of affected population. Human capital passing on to future generations is limited. Low economic performance and income inequality induce higher HIV vulnerability. Contra wise HIV/AIDS has significant negative effect on the welfare of affected population. The sources of pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa are not only social and cultural. He...

  3. The impact of Christianity on sub-Saharan Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matsobane J, Manala.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the impact of Christianity on sub-Saharan Africa. I shall start by first examining the key words in the title of this article, and by briefly discussing the phenomenal growth of Christianity in sub-Saharan Africa. The article further describes the impact of Chr [...] istianity on sub-Saharan Africa in terms of education, socio-politics, and health; here I shall base my remarks on the history of Christian missions in the region since the late nineteen century. As far as education is concerned, this article recognises that education that focuses on holistic human development is a positive force, and a force that was introduced by Christianity. I shall also point out that Christianity initiated medical advances that improved the health of those who live in the region. Regeneration as espoused by Christianity constitutes something of great value. On the downside, Christianity led to the demise of the African customs, which it viewed as pagan and evil; the religion also led to the implementation of apartheid (to which it gave its theological support), and undermined the leadership role of women. Finally, Christianity has bedevilled race relations in Africa generally.

  4. Risk factors associated with abscess formation among patient with leg erysipelas (cellulitis) in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Pitché, Palokinam Vincent; Saka, Bayaki; Diatta, Ahy Boubacar; Faye, Ousmane; Diané, Boh Fanta; Sangaré, Abdoulaye; Niamba, Pascal; Mandengue, Christine; Kobengue, Léon; Diop, Assane; Ly, Fatimata; Dieng, Mame Thierno; Dicko, Alassane; Soumah, Maciré Mohamed; Cissé, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background Abscess formation is a frequent local complication of leg erysipelas. In this study we aimed at identifying factors associated with abscess formation of leg erysipelas in patients in sub-Saharan African countries. Method This is a multicenter prospective study conducted in dermatology units in eight sub-Saharan African countries from October 2013 to September 2014. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis to compare characteristics among the group of patients with leg erys...

  5. Perspectives on young people’s daily mobility, transport and service access in sub-Saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, G.; Hampshire, K; Abane, A.; Robson, E.; Munthali, A; Mashiri, M.; Tanle, A.; Maponya, A.; Dube, S

    2012-01-01

    Young people’s mobility challenges in Western contexts have been the focus of research for some decades, principally – but not only – with reference to the school journey. By contrast, young people’s mobility in sub-Saharan Africa is remarkably under-researched, despite the vital significance of mobility (and immobility) to so many children’s lives. This is an extremely important omission, given that over half the population of many African countries consists of children and young people. Im...

  6. Genomic Ancestry of North Africans Supports Back-to-Africa Migrations

    OpenAIRE

    Henn, Brenna M.; Botigué, Laura R.; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Comas, David

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] North African populations are distinct from sub-Saharan Africans based on cultural, linguistic, and phenotypic attributes; however, the time and the extent of genetic divergence between populations north and south of the Sahara remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate the multilayered history of North Africa by characterizing the effect of hypothesized migrations from the Near East, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa on current genetic diversity. We present dense, genome-wide SNP...

  7. Management of Sickle Cell Disease: A Review for Physician Education in Nigeria (Sub-Saharan Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Ademola Samson Adewoyin

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) predominates in sub-Saharan Africa, East Mediterranean areas, Middle East, and India. Nigeria, being the most populous black nation in the world, bears its greatest burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The last few decades have witnessed remarkable scientific progress in the understanding of the complex pathophysiology of the disease. Improved clinical insights have heralded development and establishment of disease modifying interventions such as chronic blood transfusions,...

  8. Cardiometabolic Health in African Immigrants to the United States: A Call to Re-examine Research on African-descent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison; Agyemang, Charles; Sumner, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century, Africans in Sub-Saharan Africa had lower rates of cardiometabolic disease than Africans who migrated. However, in the 21st century, beyond infectious diseases, the triple epidemics of obesity, diabetes and hypertension have taken hold in Africa. Therefore, Africans are acquiring these chronic diseases at different rates and different intensity prior to migration. To ensure optimal care and health outcomes, the United States practice of grouping all African-descent populations into the "Black/African American" category without regard to country of origin masks socioeconomic and cultural differences and needs re-evaluation. Overall, research on African-descent populations would benefit from a shift from a racial to an ethnic perspective. To demonstrate the value of disaggregating data on African-descent populations, the epidemiologic transition, social, economic, and health characteristics of African immigrants are presented. PMID:26675140

  9. Comparing genetic and linguistic diversity in African populations with a focus on the Khoisan of southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between disciplines in the study of human population history is of primary importance, profiting from the biological and cultural characteristics of humankind. In fact, data from genetics, linguistics, archaeology and cultural anthropology can be combined to allow for a broader research perspective. This multidisciplinary approach is here applied to the study of the prehistory of sub-Saharan African populations: in this continent, where Homo sapiens originally started his evol...

  10. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual pr...

  11. Prevalences of dementia and cognitive impairment among older people in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Mavrodaris

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To perform a systematic review of the literature on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for relevant abstracts and to identify papers eligible for full-text review. A study was included if two authors agreed that it had a cohort, case–control or cross-sectional design and reported population-level data; was limited to black African adults older than 50 years or described as “elderly” or “old”; reported data for individuals residing in sub-Saharan Africa; and reported at least one measure of cognitive impairment or clinical outcomes relevant to cognitive decline. References of papers included in our study were searched to identify additional candidate publications. Disagreements about inclusion were adjudicated during discussions involving all authors. Data were extracted independently by two authors, using a form developed by the authors and tested on a sample of papers. Findings A total of 2320 unique papers was found; the full text of 87 was reviewed. Nineteen papers featuring 11 cross-sectional studies were included; all were published during 1995–2011. Studies occurred in Benin, Botswana, the Central African Republic, the Congo and Nigeria and enrolled approximately 10 500 participants. The prevalence of dementia ranged from 0%, in Nigeria, to 10.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 8.6–11.8, also in Nigeria. The prevalence of cognitive impairment ranged from 6.3%, in Nigeria, to 25% (95% CI: 21.2–29.0, in the Central African Republic. Conclusion Prevalences of dementia and cognitive impairment in sub-Saharan Africa varied widely, with few published studies revealed by the literature search.

  12. Biotechnology Adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Midling, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Africans still live in rural areas, and an astonishing one in three Africans, or 215 million people, are malnourished. At the same time, eleven African countries use less than half the arable land within their borders (Economist). 62% of Africa’s population (excluding South Africa) works in agriculture, generating 27% of these countries’ GDP. An astonishing 80% of Africans depend on subsistence agriculture to provide food for their families (Bunting). An agriculture-led strate...

  13. Genome-Wide SNP Analysis of Southern African Populations Provides New Insights into the Dispersal of Bantu-Speaking Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzlez-Santos, Miguel; Montinaro, Francesco; Oosthuizen, Ockie; Oosthuizen, Erica; Busby, George B J; Anagnostou, Paolo; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Pascali, Vincenzo; Capelli, Cristian

    2015-09-01

    The expansion of Bantu-speaking agropastoralist populations had a great impact on the genetic, linguistic, and cultural variation of sub-Saharan Africa. It is generally accepted that Bantu languages originated in an area around the present border between Cameroon and Nigeria approximately 5,000 years ago, from where they spread South and East becoming the largest African linguistic branch. The demic consequences of this event are reflected in the relatively high genetic homogeneity observed across most of sub-Saharan Africa populations. In this work, we explored genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 28 populations to characterize the genetic components present in sub-Saharan African populations. Combining novel data from four Southern African populations with previously published results, we reject the hypothesis that the "non-Bantu" genetic component reported in South-Eastern Africa (Mozambique) reflects extensive gene flow between incoming agriculturalist and resident hunter-gatherer communities. We alternatively suggest that this novel component is the result of demographic dynamics associated with the Bantu dispersal. PMID:26363465

  14. Contemporary issues on the epidemiology and antiretroviral adherence of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olurotimi A Adejumo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents are a unique and sometimes neglected group in the planning of healthcare services. This is the case in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, where more than eight out of ten of the world's HIV-infected adolescents live. Although the last decade has seen a reduction in AIDS-related mortality worldwide, largely due to improved access to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART, AIDS remains a significant contributor to adolescent mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Although inadequate access to ART in parts of the subcontinent may be implicated, research among youth with HIV elsewhere in the world suggests that suboptimal adherence to ART may play a significant role. In this article, we summarize the epidemiology of HIV among sub-Saharan African adolescents and review their adherence to ART, emphasizing the unique challenges and factors associated with adherence behaviour. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of online databases for articles, relevant abstracts, and conference reports from meetings held between 2010 and 2014. Our search terms included adherence, compliance, antiretroviral use and antiretroviral adherence, in combination with adolescents, youth, HIV, Africa, interventions and the MeSH term Africa South of the Sahara. Of 19,537 articles and abstracts identified, 215 met inclusion criteria, and 148 were reviewed. Discussion: Adolescents comprise a substantial portion of the population in many sub-Saharan African countries. They are at particular risk of HIV and may experience worse outcomes. Although demonstrated to have unique challenges, there is a dearth of comprehensive health services for adolescents, especially for those with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. ART adherence is poorer among older adolescents than other age groups, and psychosocial, socio-economic, individual, and treatment-related factors influence adherence behaviour among adolescents in this region. With the exception of a few examples based on affective, cognitive, and behavioural strategies, most adherence interventions have been targeted at adults with HIV. Conclusions: Although higher levels of ART adherence have been reported in sub-Saharan Africa than in other well-resourced settings, adolescents in the region may have poorer adherence patterns. There is substantial need for interventions to improve adherence in this unique population.

  15. Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa: A practical-theological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petria M. Theron

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On the 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International, 89.6%of Sub-Saharan African countries received scores below 50, where a score of zero signifies that the country is highly corrupt and a score of 100 declares a country free of corruption. From these results, it seems as if Sub-Saharan African countries are quite vulnerable to corruption. In this article, the question whether certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture such as communalism, gift giving and a shame culture could in some situations influence people’s perception of, and their possible openness towards, certain forms of corruption was investigated. The research showed that cultural traits do influence people’s behaviour and that there are certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture that might sanction corruption. In response to these findings, some preliminary suggestions were proposed as to how Christians living in Africa could evaluate their cultural practices in the light of God’s Word and from a reformed theological paradigm. Instead of succumbing to the pressure posed by their culture to participate in immoral or corrupt activities, they could contribute to a moral regeneration on the African continent.

  16. Cherubism in Sub-Saharan Africa: A First Case-Report in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Kambere, Renault Sitwaminya; Molua, Antoine; Dilu, Joseph Nzinga; Tshibassu, Pierre Manianga; Kazadi-Lukusa, Aimé; Ngiyulu, René Makuala; Kalengayi, Raphael Mbona; Ehungu, Jean Lambert Gini

    2015-01-01

    Cherubism is rare disease and has been rarely reported in African pediatric population. We report here the case of a 10-year-old child who was referred to our hospital for bilateral jaws swelling. Physical examination revealed bilateral swelling symmetry of the face. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen showed loose fibrous stroma, proliferating fibrous connective with tissue interspersed with multinucleated giant cells, small thin walled blood vessels and scattered sparse mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. Our patient presented cherubism. Cherubism is rarely described in children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic and molecular investigations plays an important role in diagnosis but were not available in poor resources settings in developing countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo. PMID:25918610

  17. Cherubism in sub-Saharan Africa: a first case-report in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ntetani Aloni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cherubism is rare disease and has been rarely reported in African pediatric population. We report here the case of a 10-year-old child who was referred to our hospital for bilateral jaws swelling. Physical examination revealed bilateral swelling symmetry of the face. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen showed loose fibrous stroma, proliferating fibrous connective with tissue interspersed with multinucleated giant cells, small thin walled blood vessels and scattered sparse mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. Our patient presented cherubism. Cherubism is rarely described in children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic and molecular investigations plays an important role in diagnosis but were not available in poor resources settings in developing countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo.

  18. Supplementary polio immunization activities and prior use of routine immunization services in non-polio-endemic sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stephane Helleringer; Frimpong, Jemima A.; Jalaa Abdelwahab; Patrick Asuming; Hamadassalia Touré; John Koku Awoonor-Williams; Thomas Abachie; Flavia Guidetti

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine participation in polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in sub-Saharan Africa among users and non-users of routine immunization services and among users who were compliant or non-compliant with the routine oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) immunization schedule. METHODS: Data were obtained from household-based surveys in non-polio-endemic sub-Saharan African countries. Routine immunization service users were children (aged < 5 years) who had ever had a health c...

  19. Drug Interactions in the Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis of Malaria in HIV Infected Individuals in Sub Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fatai A Fehintola; Akinyinka, Olusegun O; Adewole, Isaac F; Maponga, Chiedza C.; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria and HIV/AIDS remain diseases of public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa as both infections are responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. Malaria disproportionately affects young children and pregnant women and HIV/AIDS affects mostly adolescents and young adults. The widespread nature of both infections has led to co-infection in many residents of sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-infected individuals are more susceptible to frequent attacks of malaria thus requiring...

  20. The Vulnerability of Sub-Saharan Africa to the Financial Crisis: The Case of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Nicolas; Martin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In the early stage of the 2008-2009 financial crisis, the conventional wisdom was that financial underdevelopment of sub Saharan African economies may have been a bless-ing in disguise because it insulated them from the direct effects of the crisis. This paper argues that this may also make African exporters, dangerously more dependent on the health of financial institutions in countries where they export. In the 2008-2009 financial crisis, we find that African exports to the US h...

  1. A multi-dimensional assessment of urban vulnerability to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lise Byskov Herslund, Fatemeh Jalayer, Nathalie Jean-Baptiste, Gertrud Jørgensen, Sigrun Kabisch, Wilbard Kombe , Sarah Lindley, Patrik Karlsson Nyed, Stephan Pauleit, Andreas Printz, Trond Vedeld

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and apply a multi-dimensional vulnerability assessment framework for understanding the impacts of climate change-induced hazards in Sub-Saharan African cities. The research was carried out within the European/African FP7 project CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, which investigated climate change-induced risks, assessed vulnerability and proposed policy initiatives in five African cities. Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) was used as a main case with a particul...

  2. Multidimensional Measurement of Poverty among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batana, Yele Maweki

    2013-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Sen, poverty has been recognized as a multidimensional phenomenon. The recent availability of relevant databases renewed the interest in this approach. This paper estimates multidimensional poverty among women in fourteen Sub-Saharan African countries using the Alkire and Foster multidimensional poverty measures, whose

  3. Institutional Arrangements for Transport Corridor Management in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adzibgey, Yao; Kunaka, Charles; Mitiku, Tesfamichael Nahusenay

    2007-01-01

    Corridor efficiency is important to the competitiveness of most of the African economies, especially those that are landlocked. Corridors can be defined as a collection of routes linking several economic centers, countries and ports. While some are only road transport corridors, most of them include more than one mode of transport. The Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) pl...

  4. Estimates of gender differences in firms access to credit in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    2014-01-01

    Based on firm level data from 16 Sub-Saharan African countries we show how three different measures of credit constraints lead to three different estimates of gender differences in manufacturing firms credit situation. Using a perception based credit constraint measure female owned firms appear ...

  5. Multidimensional Measurement of Poverty among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batana, Yele Maweki

    2013-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Sen, poverty has been recognized as a multidimensional phenomenon. The recent availability of relevant databases renewed the interest in this approach. This paper estimates multidimensional poverty among women in fourteen Sub-Saharan African countries using the Alkire and Foster multidimensional poverty measures, whose…

  6. Photovoltaic energy: an efficient development tool for Sub-Saharan economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the author aims at highlighting the main success factors for a photovoltaic program in sub-Saharan Africa, and the benefits of this technology for African electricity operators. He first presents the electricity sector of Sub-Saharan Africa, its current situation, its scenarios of evolution, and the limitations of scenarios based on conventional energies. In a second part, he discusses the role photovoltaic solar energy could have within the energy mix of Sub-Saharan countries. He discusses how to calculate the cost of photovoltaic electricity production, and the value of photovoltaic electricity, discusses the main influencing parameters, and tries to identify when it becomes worth to choose photovoltaic electricity. He describes the implementation of an adapted legal and economic framework, the 'feed-in-tariff'. An appendix contains a proposition for Western Africa and analyses the case of Benin

  7. Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikediobi Ogechi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of pharmacogenetic variability in diverse populations is scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we characterised population frequencies of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African population groups. We genotyped 211 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs in 12 genes that influence antiretroviral drug disposition, in 176 South African individuals belonging to two distinct population groups residing in the Western Cape: the Xhosa (n = 109 and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA (n = 67 groups. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs of eight tagSNPs in six genes (those encoding the ATP binding cassette sub-family B, member 1 [ABCB1], four members of the cytochrome P450 family [CYP2A7P1, CYP2C18, CYP3A4, CYP3A5] and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 [UGT1A1] were significantly different between the Xhosa and CMA populations (Bonferroni p CYP2C18, CYP3A4, the gene encoding solute carrier family 22 member 6 [SLC22A6] and UGT1A1 between the two South African populations. Characterising the Xhosa and CMA population frequencies of variant alleles important for drug transport and metabolism can help to establish the clinical relevance of pharmacogenetic testing in these populations.

  8. Prices of second-line antiretroviral treatment for middle-income countries inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony Simmons

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretrovirals are available at low prices in sub-Saharan Africa, but these prices may not be consistently available for middle-income countries in other regions with large HIV epidemics. Over 30% of HIV infected people live in countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. Several key antiretrovirals are still on patent, with generic production restricted. We assessed price variations for key antiretroviral drugs inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: HIV drug prices used in national programmes (2010–2014 were extracted from the WHO Global Price Reporting Mechanism database for all reporting middle-income countries as classified by the World Bank. Treatment costs (branded and generic were compared for countries inside sub-Saharan Africa versus those outside. Five key second-line antiretrovirals were analysed: abacavir, atazanavir, darunavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, raltegravir. Results: Prices of branded antiretrovirals were significantly higher outside sub-Saharan Africa (p<0.001, adjusted for year of purchase (see Table 1. For example, the median (interquartile range price of darunavir from Janssen was $732 (IQR $732-806 per person-year in sub-Saharan Africa versus $4689 (IQR $4075-5717 in non-African middle-income countries, an increase of 541%. However, when supplied by generic companies, most antiretrovirals were similarly priced between countries in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical companies are selling antiretrovirals to non-African middle-income countries at prices 74–541% higher than African countries with similar gross national incomes. However, generic companies are selling most of these drugs at similar prices across regions. Mechanisms to ensure fair pricing for patented antiretrovirals across both African and non-African middle-income countries need to be improved, to ensure sustainable treatment access.

  9. Inequality of child mortality among ethnic groups in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Brockerhoff

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of relatively small, clearly defined ethnic groups, as compared to the majority in the national population, according to fundamental indicators of wellbeing - child survival, education, housing, and so forth - suggests that many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, despite their widespread poverty, are as marked by social inequality as are countries in other regions in the world.

  10. Skills Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Richard K. Johanson; Adams, Arvil V.

    2004-01-01

    The review addresses a list of questions that seem especially pertinent for skills development in Sub-Saharan Africa today, namely: What should be the role of training when there is not enough modern sector employment? Given the widespread decay in public training systems, what should be the role of the public sector in training? Are private training providers more cost-effective than public ...

  11. Energy Security and Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Meierding

    2013-01-01

    Published by Palgrave Macmillan Over the last decade the topic of energy security has reappeared on global policy agendas. Most analyses of international energy geopolitics examine the interests and behaviour of powerful energy-importing countries like the US and China. This chapter begins by examining foreign powers’ expanded exploitation of oil and uranium resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. It goes on to examine how energy importers’ efforts to enhance their energy security through Africa are...

  12. The States of Sub Saharan Africa on the way to the Global Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Pantserev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper devotes to the problem of overcoming of the digital divide in the Sub Saharan African States. On the example of Kenya the author speaks about the comparative success of the development of the information technologies in Africa and in turn underlines the most significant obstacles on the way of African states to the global information society and suggests the means how to overcome them.

  13. Integrated soil fertility management in Sub-Saharan Africa: principles and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Traditional farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa depend primarily on mining soil nutrients. The African Green Revolution aims at intensifying agriculture through dissemination of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM). In this paper we develop a robust and operational definition of ISFM, based on detailed knowledge of African farming systems and their inherent variability and of optimal use of nutrients. We define ISFM as ‘A set of soil fertility management practices that necessarily in...

  14. The States of Sub Saharan Africa on the way to the Global Information Society

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin A. Pantserev

    2010-01-01

    The paper devotes to the problem of overcoming of the digital divide in the Sub Saharan African States. On the example of Kenya the author speaks about the comparative success of the development of the information technologies in Africa and in turn underlines the most significant obstacles on the way of African states to the global information society and suggests the means how to overcome them.

  15. Perception of Genetic Testing for Deafness and Factors Associated with Interest in Genetic Testing Among Deaf People in a Selected Population in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Babatunde O; Yusuf, Bidemi O; Lasisi, J Taye; Jinadu, A A; Sunmonu, M T; Ashanke, A F; Lasisi, O Akeem

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the perceptions of genetic testing by members of the deaf community may help in planning deafness genetics research, especially so in the context of strong adherence to cultural values as found among native Africans. Among Yorubas in Nigeria, deafness is perceived to be caused by some offensive actions of the mother during pregnancy, spiritual attack, and childhood infections. We studied attitudes towards, and acceptance of genetic testing by the deaf community in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to individuals sampled from the Vocational Training Centre for the Deaf, the religious Community, and government schools, among others. The main survey items elicited information about the community in which the deaf people participate, their awareness of genetic testing, whether or not they view genetic testing as acceptable, and their understanding of the purpose of genetic testing. There were 150 deaf participants (61.3 % males, 38.7 % females) with mean age of 26.7 years 9.8. A majority of survey respondents indicated they relate only with other members of the deaf community (78 %) and reported believing genetic testing does more good than harm (79.3 %); 57 % expressed interest in genetic testing. Interest in genetic testing for deafness or in genetic testing in pregnancy was not related to whether respondents relate primarily to the deaf or to the hearing community. However, a significantly higher number of male respondents and respondents with low education reported interest in genetic testing. PMID:25983050

  16. Power sector reform and distributed generation in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkson, J.K.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the current liberalisation process sweeping sub-Saharan Africa, power sectors across the region are being scrutinised and restructured. A critical aspect of the reform is improving access to electricity by large segments of the population. Many in the continent are, therefore,looking at...... is, on average, 30-40 per cent of the region's population, the authors discuss the issues involved, drawing on the experiences of other countries whether there are any apparent 'preconditions' for success. Second, the role renewable energy can play in this process and the extent to which lessons from...... other parts of the world might be transferable to the countries of sub-Saharan Africa is assessed. The paper concludes by investigating the prospects for distributed generation in power sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa, arguing that though lessons from other parts of the world will be helpful, they...

  17. Blood transfusions in the early years of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William H; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-06-01

    Blood transfusions transmit HIV more effectively than other means, yet there has been little examination of their role in the origins and early course of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. We review historical data in archives, government reports, and medical literature from African and European sources documenting the introduction, establishment, use, and growth of blood transfusions in sub-Saharan Africa. These data allow estimation of the geographic diffusion and growth of blood transfusions between 1940 and 1990. By 1955, 19 African colonies and countries reported transfusion programs-with national rates of 718 to 1372 per 100 000 by 1964, and urban rates similar to those in developed countries. We estimated 1 million transfusions per year in sub-Saharan Africa by 1970 and 2 million per year by the 1980s, indicating that transfusions were widely used throughout sub-Saharan Africa during the crucial period of 1950-1970, when all epidemic strains of HIV first emerged in this region. PMID:16670233

  18. Breast-feeding in sub-Saharan Africa: outlook for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A R; Adam, F I

    2000-09-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has stressed that 1.5 million infants die annually, unnecessarily, from deprival or from insufficiency of breast milk. Hence, the need for its maximal use, very particularly in impoverished populations, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa. In many developed populations, a generation ago the practice was very low, but now it has risen considerably. In contrast, in Africa and in most developing populations, despite the far greater need for breast-feeding, the practice is tending to decrease, especially among urban mothers. While the most common reasons given concern insufficiency of breast milk and employment of mothers, the latter, especially urban mothers, are under strong and increasing pressure to use proprietary replacement foods. These are often made up unsatisfactorily and are contaminated. Also influential are the often less than enthusiastic, and confusing, attitudes of staff at clinics and hospitals, albeit, due in part to their very heavy workloads. Additionally, there is society's relatively indifferent attitude to breast-feeding. Currently, a hugely adverse factor is the danger of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transference from seropositive mothers to their infants - in some African countries almost half of antenatal mothers are infected. Chances of early control of the infection are remote. However, apart from this danger, and from the pressure from replacement food companies, the outlook for breast-feeding practice in many African countries is unlikely to improve significantly until greater encouragement is given from State, local and other health authorities. PMID:10979148

  19. Inequities in the Global Health Workforce: The Greatest Impediment to Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipayeni Mtonga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Health systems played a key role in the dramatic rise in global life expectancy that occurred during the 20th century, and have continued to contribute enormously to the improvement of the health of most of the world’s population. The health workforce is the backbone of each health system, the lubricant that facilitates the smooth implementation of health action for sustainable socio-economic development. It has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that the density of the health workforce is directly correlated with positive health outcomes. In other words, health workers save lives and improve health. About 59 million people make up the health workforce of paid full-time health workers world-wide. However, enormous gaps remain between the potential of health systems and their actual performance, and there are far too many inequities in the distribution of health workers between countries and within countries. The Americas (mainly USA and Canada are home to 14% of the world’s population, bear only 10% of the world’s disease burden, have 37% of the global health workforce and spend about 50% of the world’s financial resources for health. Conversely, sub-Saharan Africa, with about 11% of the world’s population bears over 24% of the global disease burden, is home to only 3% of the global health workforce, and spends less than 1% of the world’s financial resources on health. In most developing countries, the health workforce is concentrated in the major towns and cities, while rural areas can only boast of about 23% and 38% of the country’s doctors and nurses respectively. The imbalances exist not only in the total numbers and geographical distribution of health workers, but also in the skills mix of available health workers. WHO estimates that 57 countries world wide have a critical shortage of health workers, equivalent to a global deficit of about 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Thirty six of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa. They would need to increase their health workforce by about 140% to achieve enough coverage for essential health interventions to make a positive difference in the health and life expectancy of their populations. The extent causes and consequences of the health workforce crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the various factors that influence and are related to it are well known and described. Although there is no “magic bullet” solution to the problem, there are several documented, tested and tried best practices from various countries. The global health workforce crisis can be tackled if there is global responsibility, political will, financial commitment and public-private partnership for country-led and country-specific interventions that seek solutions beyond the health sector. Only when enough health workers can be trained, sustained and retained in sub-Saharan African countries will there be meaningful socio-economic development and the faintest hope of attaining the Millennium Development Goals in the sub-continent.

  20. [Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidib, El Hassane

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid gland diseases vary according to the environment. In sub-Saharan Africa, they are also influenced by population isolation and the absence of food self-sufficiency, both factors affecting the onset and persistence of iodine-deficiency goiters. More cosmopolitan diseases are now added to these thyroid disorders. Women are mainly affected (94.2%), most often with euthyroid goiters (54.7%), followed by Graves disease (13.1%), hypothyroidism (8.8%), thyroiditis (6.6%), toxic multinodular goiters (6.6 %) and unclassified goiters (10%) [Gabon]. The paucity of laboratories specializing in endocrinology and of nuclear medicine facilities, the delay in diagnosis that results in compressive or recurrent goiters, and endemic goiters are all typical in Africa. In children and adolescents, death rates increase with congenital or acquired thyroiditis as with delayed physical or mental development. In this environment, thyroiditis can also be pregnancy-related. Very recent surveys show a prevalence of endemic goiters of 28.6% in the community of Sekota, Ethiopia, 64-70% in Sahel-Sudan (population aged 10-20 years), 20-29% in KwaZulu-Natal (school children), 14.3-30.2% in Namibia (school children), 0.21% (congenital hypothyroidism or cretinism) in Plateau State, Nigeria, 55.2% at Zitenga, Burkina Faso (210 persons 0-45 years), and 10% in Harar and Wedza, Zimbabwe (newborn TSH >10.1 microIU/mL). The prevalence of goiters is 43.6% in children emigrating from Ethiopia to Israel. Millet from semi-arid zones contains apigenin at a concentration of 150 mg/kg and luteolin at 350 mg/kg, both of which can interfere with thyroid function. The harmful effects of cassava (also known as manioc) are better known: milling cassava reduces its goitrogenic potential. In addition to iodine deficiency, selenium deficiency, and the effect of the thiocyanates in cassava, ion concentrations in soil and drinking water appear to play a role. The proportion of thyroid surgery indicated for hyperthyroidism has tripled, now accounting for 18.5% of all such operations. This disorder is found today in subjects older than 50 years, mainly from rural areas, and caused most often by Graves disease (25 of 51 cases). Graves disease in young women can cause serious problems during pregnancy; in such cases assessment of the minimal effective dose of antithyroid agents is essential. Carbimazole leads to remission in 61% of cases of Graves disease. Hypothyroidism can be auto-immune and often in patent forms because of insufficient screening in Africa: 24 cases in Dakar (1984) and 37 others noticed by us (1998). Single-nodule tumors were assessed in 89 patients in Khartoum: they were found to be simple goiters in 72% of cases, follicular adenoma in 13.5%, cancer in 13.5% (with 6 of the 12 cases follicular, 5 papillary, and 1 anaplastic). The sex ratio for thyroid cancer in Ouagadougou is 0.22, thus mainly women. It affects mainly women in their 30s. Thyroid cancer at Ibadan was found to be papillary carcinoma in 45.3% of cases; follicular forms were seen in 44.5% and this series includes 5% of medullary cancers (7 cases), with a mean age of 34 years. Already 4 other cases from Francophone sub-Saharan Africa have been noticed. Iodine deficiency is suggested to play a role because follicular cancer in southern Africa accounts for up to 55% of thyroid cancers. Thyroid cancers in Algeria are associated with low socioeconomic status and characterized by a high prevalence of cancers discovered at an advanced stage and of anaplastic carcinomas. Oral potassium iodate is recommended: 30 mg of iodate a month or 8 mg every two weeks. Iodized oil has been recommended by some authors, as well as a combination of iodine and sugar, and the iodation of drinking water; these are in addition to the proposed methods of opening up areas by new infrastructure). In conclusion, thyroid disease is due predominantly to iodine deficiency and goitrogenic products, but we also note the increasing emergence of hyperthyroidism, especially Graves disease, atrophic auto-immune hypothyroidism, an

  1. The sustainability of trade balances in Sub-Saharan Africa: panel cointegration tests with cross-section dependence

    OpenAIRE

    HASHIGUCHI, Yoshihiro; Hamori, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the sustainability of trade balances in the Sub-Saharan African regions, using both the panel unit root (IPS) test proposed by Im et al. (2003) and the cross-sectionally augmented version of the IPS (CIPS test) suggested by Pesaran (2007), where the former test is based on the assumption of cross-section independence and the latter allows for it. On the one hand, the empirical results based on the IPS test indicate that the balance of trade in Sub-Saharan African regio...

  2. A brief history of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monekosso, G L

    2014-08-01

    Developments in medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past 100 years have been characterized by the continent's unique history. During the first half of the 20th century, the Europeans effectively installed medical education in their African colonies. The years 1950 to 1960 were distinguished by successful movements for independence, with new governments giving priority to medical education. By 1980, there were 51 medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. The period from 1975 to 1990 was problematic both politically and economically for Sub-Saharan Africa, and medical schools did not escape the general difficulties. War, corruption, mounting national debts, and political instability were characteristics of this period. In many countries, maintaining medical school assets--faculty members, buildings, laboratories, libraries--became difficult, and emigration became the goal of many health professionals. In contrast, the past 20 years have seen rapid growth in the number of medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. Economic growth and political stability in most Sub-Saharan African countries augur well for investment in health systems strengthening and in medical education. There are, nonetheless, major problem areas, including inadequate funding, challenges of sustainability, and the continuing brain drain. The 20th century was a time of colonialism and the struggle for independence during which medical education did not advance as quickly or broadly as it did in other regions of the world. The 21st century promises a different history, one of rapid growth in medical education, leading to better care and better health for the people of Africa. PMID:25072563

  3. Opportunities and Challenges for Petroleum and LPG Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum products are the lifeblood of the economies of all Sub-Saharan African countries. They are key fuels used in road transport and power generation. Households use kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for lighting and cooking. In this era of high oil prices, if the product is state-subsidized, the government budget bears the brunt of price increases. If the price changes are passed through to consumers, the household budgets are impacted directly. The countries most vulnerable to oil price shocks are the low-income oil importers which are disproportionately concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa. End user prices are affected by several factors: market size and economies of scale, mode of product transport, controlled pricing, protection of inefficient domestic suppliers, degree of competition, clear and stable legal framework, effective monitoring and disclosure of industry statistics. This paper is based on two recent studies of the oil sectors of several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa which posed the following questions: Is each stage in the supply chain, from import of crude oil or refined products to retail, efficiently run and are the efficiency gains passed on to end-users? If not, what are the potential causes and possible means of remedying the problems? - Highlights: • Examines comparative efficiencies of oil product supply chains in twelve sub-Saharan countries. • Identifies areas for improvement towards “best practice”. • Objective is to reduce differential between international reference prices and consumer prices

  4. SOVEREIGNTY OF STATES IN THE POST COLD WAR ERA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jørgenson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations (UN was founded to ‘to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war’.1 However, the post-independence history of sub-Saharan Africa has demonstrated that the international community, or lack of an international society, has so far been unable to protect the African continent from this ‘scourge’, or indeed from itself. A number of reasons may be suggested for this, including the organisation of the international community into a number of sovereign independent states, the inability of some of these territorial sovereignties to act and function as states, the formal political and economic crisis and marginalisation of especially sub-Saharan Africa, and finally the history of the continent. Accordingly, this article has two major objectives. The article will illustrate how state failure and intrastate asymmetric warfare alters and undermines the Westphalian concept of state in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore it attempts to show that the way in which the concept of ‘national sovereignty’ is understood is changing, and that this might have instrumental implications for future interstate relations in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. The epidemiology of addiction in Sub-Saharan Africa: a synthesis of reports, reviews, and original articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuda, Wilson; Othieno, Caleb J; Obondo, Anne; Crome, Ilana B

    2011-01-01

    Use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances is associated with serious social and public health problems, but the extent of the problem in Sub-Saharan Africa is not well known. We set out to review epidemiological publications on alcohol and other psychoactive substances in Sub-Saharan Africa by performing a systematic search of electronic databases and paper records. Ten Sub-Saharan African countries are among the 22 in the world with the highest increase in per capita alcohol consumption. Cannabis, tobacco, and khat are widely used, and use of cocaine, stimulants, and heroin is increasing. More epidemiological research and implementation and evaluation of interventions is needed. Collaboration between African researchers and those in developed countries could help.? PMID:21314750

  6. Democratic consolidation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ngel Prez Gonzlez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The contributions made by theory on democratic consolidation in Eastern Europe are also pertinent to analysis of processes of democratization and democratic consolidation in other areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The parameters of analysis highlight the importance of a strong state (organized, with legitimated institutions and a structured society (whether multiethnic or not as necessary conditions for democratization. On the assumption that the colonizing powers basically used two models the French assimilationist model and the British indirect government model the study of how these conditions were fulfilled in various sub-Saharan states leads to two conclusions: the first, the possibility of a process of democratization in those states where European (French colonization produced a total assimilation of the colonized society, including above all the colonizers political values; and the second, the possibility of processes of democratization in states produced by British colonization where the indigenous structures and those of the metropolis were superimposed, a phenomenon which allowed the application of democratic values by legitimated local institutions.

  7. Financial Services to Improve Access to Water and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Biesinger, Brigitte; Richter, Maren

    2008-01-01

    Achieving the millennium development goals, particularly, reducing child mortality (the fourth), and halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water (the seventh) requires significant improvements in access to safe water and basic sanitation. In Sub-Saharan Africa a water and sanitation crisis looms. Forty-four percent of the population does not have reli...

  8. Toolkit for Programming Assistance to Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tovo, Maurizia; Prywes, Menahem; Kielland, Anne; Gibbons, Catherine; Saito, Junko

    2005-01-01

    Orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) are among the most vulnerable population groups in Africa. Without support and protection, they are exposed to the risk of abusive labor, lack of education, malnutrition, disease, and death. Estimates indicate that 20 percent of children in Sub-Saharan Africa are OVC. They constitute such a large group that, to achieve the Millennium Development ...

  9. History of blood transfusion in sub-saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William H

    2013-01-01

    The adequacy and safety of blood transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa is the subject of much concern, yet there have been very few studies of its history. An overview of that record finds that transfusions were first reported in Africa (sub-Saharan and excluding South Africa) in the early 1920s, and organized transfusion practices were established before the Second World War. Blood transfusion grew rapidly after 1945, along with the construction of new hospitals and expanded health services in Africa. Significant differences existed between colonial powers in the organization of transfusion services, but these converged after independence as their use continued to grow and decentralized and hospital-based practices were adopted. It was only after the oil crisis in the mid-1970s that health spending declined and the collection, testing, and transfusion of blood began to level off. Thus, when the AIDS crisis hit transfusion services, they were already struggling to meet the needs of patients. At this time, foreign assistance as well as the World Health Organization and the League of Red Cross Societies helped respond to both the immediate problem of testing blood, and for some countries, support existed for the broader reorganization of transfusion. Overall, the history shows that transfusion was adopted widely and quickly, limited mainly by the availability of knowledgeable doctors and hospital facilities. There was less resistance than expected by Africans to receive transfusions, and the record shows a remarkable flexibility in obtaining blood. The dangers of disease transmission were recognized from an early date but were balanced against the potential lifesaving benefits of transfusion. PMID:22981696

  10. The case for investing in secondary education in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Birger; Fossberg, Camilla Helgø

    2014-04-01

    Over the next two decades, sub-Saharan Africa will face substantial pressure to expand its secondary education system. This is driven by the current low development of secondary education compared to other world regions, continued rapid population growth, the increase in the enrolment and completion rates at the primary education level, and the upsurge in the demand for skills. This paper suggests that in order to help countries respond to these pressures, external partners should now increase their support for secondary education, in terms of academic as well as technical and vocational skills training. Given the attributes of the African economies and the continuing need for foundation skills, this paper argues that in the current situation, particularly the lower secondary level will have to be strengthened, in many cases through a longer basic education cycle for all. The necessary rapid expansion of secondary education will require substantial investments, and this paper discusses how aid allocation can be made more evidence-based and used in a more strategic way to make these investments more effective and sustainable. While aid will continue to have a role to play over the next decade especially in fragile states, in the long run it is African countries' capacity to achieve sustained economic growth which will be the single most important factor determining their ability to meet the financing needs.

  11. Polygynous Contexts, Family Structure, and Infant Mortality in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Contextual characteristics influence infant mortality above and beyond family-level factors. The widespread practice of polygyny is one feature of many sub-Saharan African contexts that may be relevant to understanding patterns of infant mortality. Building on evidence that the prevalence of polygyny reflects broader economic, social, and cultural features, and has implications for how families engage in the practice, we investigate whether and how the prevalence of polygyny (1) spills over t...

  12. Does Governance Impact on the Foreign Direct Investment- Growth Nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Ajide, Kazeem; Adeniyi, Oluwatosin; Raheem, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The central question this paper sought to tackle was “does the quality of institutions matter for the relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and economic growth?” Using macroeconomic data on 27 Sub Saharan African (SSA) economies and six distinct measures of governance the findings showed that control of corruption, political stability and government effectiveness matter for the influence of FDI on economic growth in SSA. This key fi nding was found to be robust even in model...

  13. Radiation of Pollination Systems in the Iridaceae of sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Goldblatt, Peter; Manning, John C.

    2006-01-01

    • Background Seventeen distinct pollination systems are known for genera of sub-Saharan African Iridaceae and recurrent shifts in pollination system have evolved in those with ten or more species. Pollination by long-tongued anthophorine bees foraging for nectar and coincidentally acquiring pollen on some part of their bodies is the inferred ancestral pollination strategy for most genera of the large subfamilies Iridoideae and Crocoideae and may be ancestral for the latter. Derived strategies...

  14. The Impact of Trade Liberalisation on Export Growth and Import Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Lanre

    2013-01-01

    This paper adopts panel data methodologies to investigate the impact of trade liberalisation on export growth and import growth across 28 Sub-Saharan African countries from 1981 to 2010. We find that trade liberalisation increases the growth of exports, however, imports grow faster by approximately two percentage points which gives a prima facie evidence that the trade balance in the region deteriorated in the post-liberalisation era. We also find that trade liberalisation significantly raise...

  15. The impact of exporting and export destination on manufacturing wages: Evidence for sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, Chris; Tandrayen, Verena

    2004-01-01

    Since the late 1980's many Sub-Saharan African governments, under the auspices of the World Bank and IMF, have embarked on substantial reform programmes aimed at liberalising trade and expanding exports. There has been a large literature exploring aggregate export and growth response to trade liberalisation, but relatively little empirical work on the labour market effects of these programmes. This paper seeks to provide insights into the individual wage effects of the trade-status of firms. ...

  16. Leveraging the Cultural Model for Opportunistic Networking in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ouoba, Jonathan; Bissyandé, Tegawendé F.

    2012-01-01

    The immense potential of ICT for improving users' livelihood has been discussed in a large body of literature and many instantiations in our daily life demonstrate this reality. In developing areas, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, ICT for development has become the frontrunner initiative that decision makers are pushing to bring millions of people out of poverty. Unfortunately, the majority of Africans, who live in rural areas, fail to identify with the existing various solutions. We propose the ...

  17. Monetary Policy Shocks from the EU and US: Implications for Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kronick, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the debate in the literature on how developing countries are affected by foreign monetary policy shocks. I analyze how contractionary monetary policy shocks originating in different regions, specifically the Euro Area (“EU”) and United States (“US”), affect a set of rarely investigated sub-Saharan African (“SSA”) countries. Foreign monetary policy shocks are identified using changes in central bank futures rates, and are inserted into a domestic structural vector autoregr...

  18. Modern BiotechnologyPotential Contribution and Challenges for Sustainable Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    E. Jane Morris

    2011-01-01

    Modern biotechnology, including the application of transgenic techniques to produce Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), can play a significant role in increasing agricultural production in a sustainable way, but its products need to be tailored for the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, the capacity to develop GMOs and ensure they meet stringent regulatory requirements is somewhat limited. Most African governments contribute little to science and technology either financially or thro...

  19. Financial Development, Institutions and Economic Growth: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Effiong, Ekpeno

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of financial development on economic growth conditional on the level of institutional quality for a panel of 21 Sub-Saharan African countries for the period 1986-2010. A standard growth regression is estimated with linear interaction between financial development and institutional quality. Our findings indicate that financial development has not significantly contributed to SSA economic growth, contrary to the significant positive effect of institutional qual...

  20. Epidemiology of neurodegenerative diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lekoubou, Alain; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Kengne, Andre P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are experiencing rapid transitions with increased life expectancy. As a result the burden of age-related conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases might be increasing. We conducted a systematic review of published studies on common neurodegenerative diseases, and HIV-related neurocognitive impairment in SSA, in order to identify research gaps and inform prevention and control solutions. Methods We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, ‘Banque de Donné...

  1. Outsourcing agricultural advisory services : enhancing rural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Heemskerk, W.; Nederlof, S.; Wennink, B.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of policies outlined under NEPAD, outsourcing advisory services has become a key component of rural innovation systems in many African countries. In Sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere, the public sector is looking for ways to involve the private sector in enhancing innovation systems with new knowledge, services and experiences. While it is generally thought that outsourcing will benefit poorer farmers by orienting services towards their needs, not much is known about the implicatio...

  2. Policy challenges facing integrated community case management in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Sara; George, Asha; Rodriguez, Daniela; Shearer, Jessica; Diallo, Brahima; Konate, Mamadou; Dalglish, Sarah; Juma, Pamela; Namakhoma, Ireen; Banda, Hastings; Chilundo, Baltazar; Mariano, Alda; Cliff, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report an in-depth analysis of policy change for integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) in six sub-Saharan African countries. We analysed how iCCM policies developed and the barriers and facilitators to policy change. Methods Qualitative retrospective case studies drawing from document reviews, semi-structured interviews and in-country validation workshops were conducted in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique and Niger. These countries were sel...

  3. Environmental Information Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa : From Innovation to Management

    OpenAIRE

    Prévost, Yves; Gilruth, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The development of Environmental Information Systems (EIS) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in the 1970s and 1980s was slow, in spite of several efforts to introduce the technology. However since 1990, growth has been phenomenal. Whereas, only one or two institutions in each country were previously active in EIS, over 500 EIS related projects are now under way, involving thousands of African ex...

  4. Knowledge transfer in global supply chains: Multinationals in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Villar, Lucia; Seric, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    We analyze in this paper determinants of voluntary knowledge transfer from foreign investors to their local suppliers in 19 Sub-Saharan African countries using data from the 2010 Africa Investor Survey by UNIDO. We argue that not all backward linkages entail the same potential for spillovers since not all local sourcing activities by multinationals involve a transfer of knowledge to suppliers. Our findings support the idea that foreign investor's heterogeneity and country environment are key ...

  5. Globalisation and the internationalisation of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzvinetsa Peter Dzvimbo; Kholeka Constance Moloi

    2013-01-01

    In a shrinking world, in which a neo-liberal discourse has permeated sub-Saharan African higher education, critical reflection is required to assess the merits and demerits of globalisation. Research, intensive discussion and hearings conducted over a two-year period by the Task Force on Higher Education and Society, convened by the World Bank and United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for the purpose of exploring the future of higher education in the devel...

  6. Food Security, agricultural technology and policy – the case of maize in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Djurfeldt, Göran; Larsson, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses food security and the African food crisis. By means of data from a survey of over 3000 farm households in eight sub-Saharan countries, the authors conclude that food security requires a broad integration of smallholders in the market. Subsistence orientation does not promote food security, while seed fertilizer technology does. Market integration of maize producers seems to be driven by the State, not by the market on its own. The diffusion of technology is stimulated by ...

  7. Are Remittances to Sub-Saharan Africa Altruistic or for Self-Interest? Evidence from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ping Chen; John Kagochi

    2013-01-01

    International remittances comprise significant financial inflow for many Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries and provide considerable disposable income for the receiving households. There has, however, been no consensus on the motivation in the part of sending migrants in which explanations are divided between altruism and self-interest. The study employs Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model with co-integration approach to investigate whether international remittances to Kenya can be ...

  8. Modelling HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa using seroprevalence data from antenatal clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon Joshua A.; Murray Christopher J.L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To improve the methodological basis for modelling the HIV/AIDS epidemics in adults in sub-Saharan Africa, with examples from Botswana, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe. Understanding the magnitude and trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is essential for planning and evaluating control strategies. METHODS: Previous mathematical models were developed to estimate epidemic trends based on sentinel surveillance data from pregnant women. In this project, we have extended ...

  9. HIV and Tuberculosis Trends in the United States and Select Sub-Saharan Africa Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ousman Mahmud; Centdrika Dates; Ahmad, Hafiz A.; Luma Akil

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are two catastrophic diseases affecting millions of people worldwide every year; and are considered to be pandemic by the World Health Organization. This study aims to compare the recent trends in TB and HIV in the United States and Sub-Saharan African Countries. Data (incidence, prevalence and death rates of HIV and TB) for the United States, Cameroon, Nigeria, and South Africa were collected from The Joint United Nations Programme for...

  10. Democratization in sub-Saharan Africa (1989-1992): an overview of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Buijtenhuijs, Rob; Rijnierse, Elly

    1993-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the literature on recent democratization processes in sub-Saharan Africa (1989-1992). The authors first deal with the basic features of African politics that can serve as a framework within which present-day democratization developments can be comprehended. Then they describe the fundamental debates on democracy in Africa which took place in the academic community in the period 1960-1989. These debates, whose origins lie in the independence movements, focused ...

  11. Managing Sovereignty : The World Bank And Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    David Williams

    2003-01-01

    At the heart of state sovereignty is a tension. On one hand it promises collective freedom and autonomy. On the other hand, sovereignty is laden with expectations. One of the most important of these, which comes from international society itself, is that states will pursue a project of national development. When the states of Sub-Saharan African achieved formal independence, they therefore became enmeshed in institutions and practices that demanded of them that they pursued a national develop...

  12. Molecular characterization of Wilms tumor from a resource-constrained region of sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J Murphy; Axt, Jason R.; de Caestecker, Christian; Pierce, Janene; Correa, Hernan; Seeley, Erin H.; Richard M. Caprioli; Newton, Mark W.; Mark P. de Caestecker; Lovvorn, Harold N.

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African children have an increased incidence of Wilms tumor (WT) and experience alarmingly poor outcomes. Although these outcomes are largely due to inadequate therapy, we hypothesized that WT from this region exhibit features of biologic aggressiveness that may warrant broader implementation of high-risk therapeutic protocols. We evaluated 15 Kenyan WT (KWT) for features of aggressive disease (blastemal predominance, Ki67/cellular proliferation) and treatment resistance (anaplasi...

  13. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence, Incidence and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Kyari; Mohammed M Abdull; Andrew Bastawrous; Gilbert, Clare E; Hannah Faal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the foll...

  14. Educational attainment and adult literacy: A descriptive account of 31 Sub-Saharan Africa countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 60 years ago the international community declared literacy a basic human right. Recognition of its intrinsic value and evidence of its social and economic benefits have motivated an expansive international effort to estimate the percentage of adults that can read, especially in low-income countries where educational opportunities are limited. Population data on adults' educational attainment is commonly used to approximate adult literacy rates. Though increasing evidence from school-based studies of pupils confirm literacy achievement is not universal - even at advanced grades - it remains unclear whether adults' educational attainment is reflective of their literacy. Objective This study leverages population-based data that include direct assessments of adults' literacy skills to provide a descriptive account of the proportion of adults that can read at each level of educational attainment. The study focuses on the Sub-Saharan African context, a world region where school participation has expanded rapidly in the last three decades. Because many African adults have discontinued their education at the primary level, the study focuses on basic reading skills at each level of primary school. The study focuses specifically on women, whose literacy has garnered extensive international interest. Results Demographic and Health Survey data from 31 African countries confirm that there are many instances in which women have several years of primary school but cannot read. In fact, in some countries, large proportions of African women who never went to school can read, even as some of their peers who have completed primary school cannot. The weak correlation between educational attainment and literacy is not specific to older cohorts of women, but is also observed among younger women. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that educational attainment is generally a poor proxy for literacy, highlighting the need to measure, theorize, and study literacy as empirically distinct from education.

  15. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup X in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnememel, Alain; Hong, Eva; Giorgini, Dario; Nuñez-Samudio, Viginia; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2016-04-01

    The epidemiology of meningococcal disease varies by geography and time. Whole-genome sequencing of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X isolates from sub-Saharan Africa and Europe showed that serogroup X emergence in sub-Saharan Africa resulted from expansion of particular variants within clonal complex 181. Virulence of these isolates in experimental mouse models was high. PMID:26982628

  16. Can the woodfuel supply in sub-Saharan Africa be sustainable? The case of N'Djamena, Chad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chad, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, depends for most of its energy demand on woodfuels; 90% or more of the country's energy balance comes from biomass energy. Obvious environmental problems appear around cities because of their highly concentrated demand, and this threatens the sustainability of supply. But, this does not need to be a problem, and woodfuel can also be an engine of economic growth, particularly in rural areas. A few policy conditions will need to be satisfied and in Chad this appears to be the case. As a result, the woodfuel supply of the capital N'Djamena could become sustainable, thereby continuing to provide low-cost energy to the urban population for the foreseeable future while giving income generation opportunities in rural areas. A win-win situation?!

  17. Cutting bread or cutting throats? Findings from a new database on religion, violence and peace in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1990 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Basedau, Matthias; Strver, Georg; Vllers, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Despite the religious diversity in sub-Saharan Africa and the religious overtones in a number of African conflicts, social science research has inadequately addressed the question of how and to what extent religion matters for conflict in Africa. This paper presents an innovative data inventory on religion and violent conflict in all sub-Saharan countries for the period 1990-2008 that seeks to contribute to filling the gap. The data underscore that religion has to be accounted for in conflict...

  18. [African population in history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S

    1984-11-29

    The growth rate of the African population has been fluctuating throughout history, affected by political, social, and economic events. 6000 years ago, the majority of the population was based in North Africa, because farming had been developed there. However, between the 11th and the 16th centuries, there was a constant decline in the population of that region, due to invasions from Europe and the black plague. During the same period, the population in the area south of the Sahara grew rapidly, as people there had gone into the iron tool period and farming had been developed. From the 16th to the mid-17th Century, population growth was considerable in Africa; more people had learned the technology of irrigation, corn and potatoes had been introduced from South America, and colonialism was not yet an issue. From the mid-17th to the mid-19th Century, there was no growth, due to the slave trade and wars between tribes. One estimate sets the direct and indirect loss during this period, as a result of the slave trade, at 100 million people. From the 1850s to the end of World War I, population growth started up again, chiefly influenced by the fact that the slave trade had essentially come to a half and modern medical care had become available on the continent. However, in central Africa, the region which suffered the worst blow from the slave trade, growth was very slow, while in East Africa the population was declining because of wars between colonists and natives, as well as natural disasters. Increases in population during this period were a result of immigration from Europe and India. From the end of World War I to the present, growth has been rapid, given improvements in medical services and standards of living, while most of the former colonies became independent after the 1950s. Consequently, almost all African countries are under great pressure now with regard to their populations. PMID:12159345

  19. Energy Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Kathleen B.

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest rates of electrification and some of the worst education statistics worldwide. In the absence of strong infrastructure for a reliable grid system and quality universal primary schooling, the poor suffer significantly. Though substantial research has been done on both issues separately, the relationship between the two has yet to be explored. This thesis uses social justice theories to introduce the connections between energy poverty and an individual's education capabilities through a case study in Zambia. Case study research was carried out in the urban low-resource settlements of Lusaka, Zambia over a period of two months with Lifeline Energy, using methods of participant observation. Drawing on trends discovered in survey responses, interviews and feedback from a distribution of renewable technologies, this study demonstrates that a lack of modern forms of energy detracts from education. By synthesizing the data with Martha Nussbaum's capabilities approach and Sendhil Mullainathan and Eldar Shafir's scarcity theory, the research reveals that energy poverty hinders an individual's ability to study and gain a quality education and diminishes their available cognitive capacity to learn by tunneling attention to the resource deficit. Furthermore, it supports the claim that energy poverty is not gender neutral. The research concludes that the scarcity caused by energy poverty can be lessened by the investment in and use of small-scale renewable technologies which alleviates some of the daily stress and grind of poverty. This thesis lays the groundwork to recognize energy poverty as an injustice. Keywords: Energy Poverty, Education, Gender, Sub-Saharan Africa, Scarcity, Capabilities Approach..

  20. The Practice of Conservation of Library Materials in Sub-Saharan Africa. Monograph on Africana Librarianship No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

    This document is concerned with the practice of conservation of library materials in African university libraries south of the Sahara and north of the Limpopo. Data were collected using a questionnaire mailed to 42 university libraries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Responses were received from 27 libraries for a 64% response rate. Data analysis was…

  1. Developing Post-Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa : Assessing the Financial Sustainability of Alternative Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Mingat, Alain; Ledoux, Blandine; Rakotomalala, Ramahatra

    2010-01-01

    All countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face the prospect of a substantial increase in the number of primary school completers in the coming years. Although initial conditions vary widely from country to country, this increase will inevitably intensify pressure on the education system, particularly at the secondary and tertiary levels. African countries may thus find it timely to align t...

  2. Phase-Out of Leaded Gasoline in Oil Importing Countries of Sub-Saharan Africa : The Case of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bultynck, Patrick; Reliquet, Chantal

    2003-01-01

    This is one of four documents of a series presenting the results of studies, workshops and action plans recently undertaken for four sub-Saharan African countries (Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania and Tanzania) on the elimination of lead in gasoline. This document describes the work realized in Ethiopia. These four countries have the particularity of being oil importing countries without local r...

  3. Phase-Out of Leaded Gasoline in Oil Importing Countries of Sub-Saharan Africa : The Case of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bultynck, Patrick; Reliquet, Chantal

    2003-01-01

    This is one of four documents of a series presenting the results of studies, workshops and action plans recently undertaken for four sub-Saharan African countries (Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania and Tanzania) on the elimination of lead in gasoline. This document describes the work realized in Tanzania. These four countries have the particularity of being oil importing countries without local r...

  4. Outcomes of acute kidney injury in children and adults in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Wasiu A Olowu, MBBS; Prof. Abdou Niang, MD; Charlotte Osafo, MBChB; Prof. Gloria Ashuntantang, MD; Prof. Fatiu A Arogundade, MBBS; Prof. John Porter, MD; Prof. Saraladevi Naicker, MBChB; Dr. Valerie A Luyckx, MBBCh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Access to diagnosis and dialysis for acute kidney injury can be life-saving, but can be prohibitively expensive in low-income settings. The burden of acute kidney injury in sub-Saharan Africa is presumably high but remains unknown. We did a systematic review to assess outcomes of acute kidney injury in sub-Saharan Africa and identify barriers to care. Methods: We searched PubMed, African Journals Online, WHO Global Health Library, and Web of Science for articles published betwe...

  5. The Practice of project management in new product development : A study of Microfinance Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ampomah, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Microfinance is the provision of credit/loans to poor individuals for the purpose of income generation. The Sub-Saharan African region which is among the poorest areas in the world is thought to be one of the regions where the microfinance industry is dynamic and growing in terms of acceptance and patronage. Even though microfinance in the Sub-Saharan Africa region has received a lot of research attention, most have focused largely on the financial performance whilst there is no available inf...

  6. The national determinants of deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Thomas K

    2013-01-01

    For decades, the dynamics of tropical deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have defied easy explanation. The rates of deforestation have been lower than elsewhere in the tropics, and the driving forces evident in other places, government new land settlement schemes and industrialized agriculture, have largely been absent in SSA. The context and causes for African deforestation become clearer through an analysis of new, national-level data on forest cover change for SSA countries for the 2000-2005 period. The recent dynamic in SSA varies from dry to wet biomes. Deforestation occurred at faster rates in nations with predominantly dry forests. The wetter Congo basin countries had lower rates of deforestation, in part because tax receipts from oil and mineral industries in this region spurred rural to urban migration, declines in agriculture and increased imports of cereals from abroad. In this respect, the Congo basin countries may be experiencing an oil and mineral fuelled forest transition. Small farmers play a more important role in African deforestation than they do in southeast Asia and Latin America, in part because small-scale agriculture remains one of the few livelihoods open to rural peoples. PMID:23878341

  7. Financing renewable energy in developing countries. Drivers and barriers for private finance in sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The focus of this report is to identify and portray current barriers to the scaling up of private investment and finance for electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the sub-Saharan region. Best practice in tackling these barriers is identified, partly from a literature review but especially from the results of a survey conducted among 36 financial institutions that are UNEP Finance Initiative members and two non-member banks (all survey respondents have experience in the field of energy infrastructure finance). Promising avenues in the areas of local policy reform, incentive mechanisms and international de-risking instruments are highlighted. In particular, this report addresses the following questions: (a) Why are sub-Saharan Africa and developing countries elsewhere failing to expand electricity generation from renewable sources? What are the barriers to such expansion? What is keeping the risk-return profile of renewable energy investments in sub-Saharan Africa unattractive and projects commercially unviable?; (b) What have been the experiences of private sector lenders and investors in the area of renewable energy projects in developing countries? What barriers and drivers have they encountered, and how can these experiences be of use in sub-Saharan Africa?; (c) What can be learned from the modest but encouraging successes of a few sub-Saharan African countries? Can these results be replicated? What was done in these countries to improve the risk-return profile of renewable energy and unlock private finance?.

  8. Trends in caesarean delivery by country and wealth quintile: cross-sectional surveys in southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca L Cavallaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine temporal trends in caesarean delivery rates in southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, by country and wealth quintile. Methods Cross-sectional data were extracted from the results of 80 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 26 countries in southern Asia or sub-Saharan Africa. Caesarean delivery rates were evaluated as percentages of the deliveries that ended in live births for each wealth quintile in each survey. The annual rates recorded for each country were then compared to see if they had increased over time. Findings Caesarean delivery rates had risen over time in all but 6 study countries but were consistently found to be lower than?5% in 18 of the countries and 10% or less in the other eight countries. Among the poorest 20% of the population, caesarean sections accounted for less than?1% and less than?2% of deliveries in 12 and 21 of the study countries, respectively. In each of 11 countries, the caesarean delivery rate in the poorest 40% of the population remained under?1%. In Chad, Ethiopia, Guinea, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Nigeria, the rate remained under?1% in the poorest 80%. Compared with the 22 African study countries, the four study countries in southern Asia experienced a much greater rise in their caesarean delivery rates over time. However, the rates recorded among the poorest quintile in each of these countries consistently fell below?2%. Conclusion Caesarean delivery rates among large sections of the population in sub-Saharan Africa are very low, probably because of poor access to such surgery.

  9. Harnessing Open Educational Resources to the Challenges of Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Thakrar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges to teacher educators in sub-Saharan Africa are acute. This paper describes how the Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA consortium is working within institutional and national policy systems to support school-based teacher professional development. The TESSA consortium (13 African institutions and 5 international organisations delivering teacher education across 9 countries designed and produced a bank of open educational resources (OERs to guide teachers classroom practices in school-based teacher education. Drawing on examples from the TESSA consortium and from the University of Fort Hare, South Africa, the authors categorize the forms of TESSA OER integration as highly structured, loosely structured, or guided use. The paper concludes by outlining success factors for the integration of OERs: accessibility, adequate resources, support for teachers, accommodation of local cultural and institutional practices, and sustainable funding.

  10. AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: the epidemiology of heterosexual transmission and the prospects for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, D J

    1993-01-01

    As the epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in sub-Saharan Africa enters its second decade, much has been learned about the distribution and determinants of the disease and its causative agent, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Over 6 million people, or 2.5% of the adult population, are thought to be infected with HIV. The distribution of HIV is largely determined by sexual behavior; as for other sexually transmitted diseases, the characteristics of sexual networks determine the extent and rate of spread of HIV. Female sex workers and their male clients are at high risk for HIV and have been important in initiating the epidemic in many African countries. The dynamics of HIV in the rest of the population are complex; men with multiple sexual partners are largely responsible for transmission of HIV to women in the general population. Other sexually transmitted diseases and lack of male circumcision may increase the probability of transmission of HIV during sexual intercourse and probably are partially responsible for the rapid diffusion of HIV in Africa. Interventions among high-risk groups are needed, but they must be accompanied by attempts to induce behavior change among men and women in the general population. Epidemiologic studies of the determinants of sexual behavior and sexual contact patterns, as well the design and evaluation of interventions, are urgently needed. Key areas for development are the study of behavioral exposures and outcomes, the evaluation of interventions, developing new methods for conducting interventions in resource-poor environments, and increasing the number of African scientists with the skills and resources to conduct epidemiologic studies. PMID:8420583

  11. Does the orphan disadvantage "spill over"? An analysis of whether living in an area with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with children's school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Smith Greenaway

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Despite considerable concern regarding the social consequences of sub-Saharan Africa's high orphan prevalence, there has been no research investigating how living in a community densely populated with orphans is more broadly associated with children's - including nonorphans' - acquisition of human capital. OBJECTIVE We provide a new look at the implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa by examining whether living in an area with a high concentration of orphans is associated with children's likelihood of school enrollment. METHODS We use data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS and the Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS among 383,010 children in 336 provinces in 34 sub-Saharan African countries to estimate multilevel logistic regression models to assess whether living in a setting with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with school enrollment. RESULTS Orphan concentration has a curvilinear association with children's school enrollment in western and eastern Africa: The initially positive association becomes negative at higher levels. In central and southern Africa, orphan concentration has a positive linear association with children's school enrollment. CONCLUSIONS In western and eastern Africa, the negative association between living in a setting more densely populated with orphans and children's school enrollment provides suggestive evidence that the orphan disadvantage "spills over" in those communities most heavily affected. Conversely, in central and southern Africa, the positive association between living in a setting more densely populated with orphans and children's school enrollment highlights the resiliency of these relatively wealthier communities with high levels of orphans. Although longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings and clarify the underlying mechanisms, this study lays the groundwork for a new body of research aimed at understanding the broader social implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Independent Power Projects in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhard, Anton; Gratwick, Katharine; Morella, Elvira; Antmann, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate electricity services pose a major impediment to reducing extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Simply put, Africa does not have enough power. Despite the abundant low-carbon and low-cost energy resources available to Sub-Saharan Africa, the region’s entire installed electricity capacity, at a little over 80 GW, is equivalent to that of the Republic of Korea. Looking ahead, Sub-Saharan Africa will need to ramp-up its power generation capacity sub...

  13. Neoliberal Globalization and the Politics of Migration in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Tobias

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, many states in sub-Saharan Africa have adopted draconian anti-migrant policies, leaving refugees and migrants vulnerable to violence, harassment, and economic exploitation. These policies represent a shift from the relatively hospitable attitude shown by many African nations in the immediate post-colonial period. Explanations at the local level do not adequately explain the pervasiveness of these changes or why many developing states are now replicating the migration discourse and practices of the global north. Drawing on scholarship and data from a number of states in the region, including Tanzania, Kenya, Ghana, and South Africa, this paper argues that owing to the widespread implementation of neoliberal economic policies, these states are now subject to many of the same incentives and constraints that operate in the developed north. As a result, political parties and business elites have used national migration policy as an instrument for enhancing their political and economic positions. Insofar as neoliberal globalization continues to exacerbate inequality within the developing world, the harsh measures taken by governments of developing countries against their refugee and migrant populations are likely to increase. It is therefore important that scholars of migration and human rights begin to reassess the prevailing, nearly exclusive emphasis in many globalization studies on the dehumanizing policies and exploitation of southern migrants by states in the global north, as such an emphasis risks obscuring the emergence of more complex patterns of migration and anti-migrant practices in the developing world.

  14. Shocks, civil war and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Foreign aid, low institutional quality and civil wars are associated with slow economic development in many Sub-Sahara African countries. I aim to identify causal relations and mechanisms that explain significant correlations. I use both macro- and micro-economic data and show that results are not necessarily far apart. I assess the influence of foreign aid using macro-level data of 30 Sub-Saharan African countries. Opponents argue that foreign aid corrupts, and will end up in the hands of a ...

  15. Sexually transmitted infections in an African migrant population in Portugal: A baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Távora-Tavira, Rosa Teodósio, Jorge Seixas, Emília Prieto, Rita Castro, Filomena Exposto, Jorge Atouguia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: For geographical and recent historic reasons, Portugal is a gateway and home for immigration from sub-Saharan countries. Misconceptions related to these populations often lead to consider them as high-frequency clusters for dissemination of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Epidemiological evidence-based data is needed to elucidate these issues and baseline prevalence studies are the starting point for this.Methodology: A prospective study was conducted in 220 African migrants (171 men and 49 women, recently arrived in Portugal, at the time of their first consultation. The presence of STIs was evaluated using a clinical syndromic approach and biological confirmation for gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection, syphilis, Hepatitis B and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection.Results: Global prevalence of the targeted infections were 1.8% for gonorrhoea, 0 % for Chlamydia infection, 4.1% for Syphilis, 5.9% for HBsAg presence and 7.3% for HIV infection. Globally, 16.4% of the studied persons had at least one sexually transmitted infection.Conclusions: We concluded that prevalence rates encountered in this population is similar to that of non-migrant Portuguese populations with a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Therefore migration from sub-Saharan Africa doesn’t seem to constitute a particularly critical isolated factor for public health risk of STIs in the community.

  16. Trypanosomes of some sub-Saharan birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G F; Earl, R A; Squires-Parsons, D

    1994-09-01

    Linear measurements and derived indices from striated trypanosomes in nine species of sub-Saharan birds representing seven families of the Passeriformes, were compared. The dimensions of the striated trypomastigotes from the Carduelinae, Estrildidae, Nectarinidae, Passeridae, Pycnonotidae, Turdinae and Zosteropidae were similar to each other as well as to those of the striated trypanosomes from the boreal owl (Strigidae). All these trypanosomes were considered to be Trypanosoma avium Danilewsky, 1885. A further 20 avian species were considered to harbour T. avium, thus greatly extending the reported host range of this trypanosome. Non-striated trypanosomes from the estrildid Uraeginthus angolensis closely resembled Trypanosoma bouffardi Leger & Blanchard, 1911 in appearance and dimensions, and were considered to be of this species. Additional host records for T. bouffardi from an additional nine avian species have been reported. The uniquely small and stumpy Trypanosoma everetti Molyneux, 1973 was reported from an additional 18 avian species. A large non-striated trypanosome from the laughing dove, Streptopelia senegalensis, was identified as Trypanosoma hannae Pittaluga, 1905 and this species was re-described. An infection of this parasite was also found in a single Streptopelia capicola and a single Streptopelia semitorquata. Two trypanosomes seen in the francolin, Francolinus natalensis, were identified as Trypanosoma calmettei Mathis & Lger, 1909. PMID:7596580

  17. Sub-Saharan Africa's HIV pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies and household surveys suggest that sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA's) HIV/AIDS crisis is not a pandemic of the poor but rather one of inequalities, where wealthier individuals are more likely to be infected as a result of greater mobility and multiple relationships (Fox, 2012). This is in sharp contrast to the situation in the United States, where HIV infections "are concentrated among the poor with very few people in the middle and upper social strata contracting HIV" (Pellowski, Kalichman, Matthews, & Adler, May-June 2013, p. 199). Yet from a global perspective, wherein SSA is the poorest region in the world, the pandemic is of course one of poverty as well as one with pronounced racial and gender disparities. Both the May-June 2013 special issue of the American Psychologist ("HIV/AIDS: Social Determinants and Health Disparities") and another American Psychologist special issue 25 years earlier ("Psychology and AIDS," November 1988) help shed light on Africa's HIV/AIDS crisis. PMID:24446856

  18. Condoms in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2012-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world's highest rates of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs), yet numerous studies show that condom use is generally rare. This suggests a need for a better understanding of how condoms fit within sexual practices and relationships in SSA. This paper seeks to address this need by reviewing research published between the late 1980s and 2011 on use and factors influencing use of male condoms in SSA. What is evident from this research is that condom use involves complex social and interpersonal dynamics, with structural and cultural conditions exerting an influence through framing social cognitions and setting boundaries on autonomy that make the apparently irrational choice of eschewing condoms a rational decision. The influences of poverty; relationships with parents, peers and partners; limited, insufficient or absent information especially in rural areas and among men who have sex with men; gender and sexual norms, and the dynamics of gendered power; and beliefs and attitudes about HIV, condoms and sexuality all have been shown to work against condom use for a large proportion of Africa's people. However, promising results are shown in trends towards increased condom use among single women in numerous countries, increasing acceptance and use of condoms among some university students, successes in producing potentially sustainable condom use resulting from select interventions, and resistance to succumbing to the dominant gender-power dynamics and structural-cultural impediments that women in groups have mobilised. PMID:22348634

  19. Epilepsy treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: closing the gap

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, JH

    2012-01-01

    According to World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence of epilepsy is highest in low- and lower middle-income countries, which include over eighty percent of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of people with epilepsy are not receiving appropriate care. In sub-Saharan Africa, shortages of trained health workers, limited diagnostic equipment, inadequate anti-epileptic drug supplies, cultural beliefs, and social stigma contribute to the large treatment gap for epilepsy...

  20. How crude oil consumption impacts on economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the causality relationship between crude oil consumption and economic growth in twenty three Sub-Saharan African countries. We applied a multivariate panel Granger causality framework during 1985–2011 and we included crude oil price as the control variable of the model. The results indicate that in the short-run, there is a bi-directional causality relationship between crude oil consumption and economic growth in oil importing region and there is a uni-directional causality relationship from crude oil consumption to GDP in oil exporting region. However, in the long-run there is a bi-directional causality relationship between them in both regions. Therefore, reducing crude oil consumption without employing appropriate policies adversely impacts on economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, in order to reduce crude oil dependency of the region policymakers should pay more attention to the issue of energy efficiency programs. - Highlights: ► We examined Granger causality among oil consumption and GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa. ► Crude oil price is the control variable of the model. ► There is short run bi-directional causality among oil and GDP (oil importing). ► There is short run uni-directional causality from oil to GDP (oil exporting). ► There is a long run bi-directional causality among oil and GDP in both regions

  1. Nutrient composition of selected indigenous fruits from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlmayr, Barbara; Charrondière, U Ruth; Eisenwagen, Sandra; Jamnadass, Ramni; Kehlenbeck, Katja

    2013-08-30

    Indigenous fruits constitute an important part of human diets in many sub-Saharan African countries, particularly in rural areas and during droughts. In order to promote and expand the utilisation of these fruits, knowledge on their nutritional composition is essential. This review presents the results of a literature research of the nutritional composition of ten selected indigenous fruits from sub-Saharan Africa. Species were selected based on their current importance as well as their future potential for nutrition, processing and cash income generation. Compositional data were compiled and mean values of components per species were calculated. Most papers were compiled for Adansonia digitata (26) and Dacryodes edulis (16), followed by Tamarindus indica (ten), Balanites aegyptiaca (nine), Sclerocarya birrea (nine), Ziziphus mauritiana (nine), Vitex doniana (seven) and Irvingia gabonensis (five), and least for Uapaca kirkiana (three) and Syzygium guineense (three). Fruits were found to be mainly analysed for macronutrients and minerals. Vitamins, apart from vitamin C, were rarely reported. Substantial compositional differences were found among as well as within the different fruit species. The results of this study emphasise the need to generate more high-quality data on a wider spectrum of components of the selected indigenous fruits in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23633245

  2. People in sub-Saharan Africa rate their health and health care among the lowest in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Angus S; Tortora, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The health of people in sub-Saharan Africa is a major global concern. However, data are weak, and little is known about how people in the region perceive their health or their health care. We used data from the Gallup World Poll in 2012 to document sub-Saharan Africans' perceived health status, their satisfaction with health care, their contact with medical professionals, and the priority they attach to health care. In comparison to other regions of the world, sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest ratings for well-being and the lowest satisfaction with health care. It also has the second-lowest perception of personal health, after only the former Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites. HIV prevalence is positively correlated with perceived improvements in health care in countries with high prevalence. This is consistent with an improvement in at least some health care services as a result of the largely aid-funded rollout of antiretroviral treatment. Even so, sub-Saharan Africans do not prioritize health care as a matter of policy, although donors are increasingly shifting their aid efforts in the region toward health. PMID:25715657

  3. [Will climate and demography have a major impact on malaria in sub-Saharan Africa in the next 20 years?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugeon, C; Baldet, T; Akogbeto, M; Henry, M C

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this review of the literature is to present factors possibly affecting the spread of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa over the next 20 years. Malaria is a vector-borne disease that depends on environmental and human constraints. The main environmental limitations involve susceptibility of the vector (mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus) and parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) to climate. Malaria is a stable, endemic disease over most of the African continent. Climatic change can only affect a few regions on the fringes of stable zones (e.g. altitude areas or Sahel) where malaria is an unstable, epidemic disease. Higher temperatures could induce a decrease of malaria transmission in regions of the Sahel or an increase in the highlands. The extent of these overall trends will depend on the unpredictable occurrence of major meteorological phenomenon as well as on human activities affecting the environment that could lead to dramatic but limited outbreaks in some locations. The most influential human factors could be runaway demographic growth and urban development. Estimations based on modeling studies indicate that urbanization will lead to a 53.5% drop in exposure to malaria by 2030. However this reduction could be less than expected because of adaptation of Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis, the main vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, to the urban environment as well as increasing vector resistance to insecticides. Another unforeseeable factor that could induce unexpected malaria epidemics is mass migration due to war or famine. Finally immunosuppressive illnesses (e.g. HIV and malnutrition) could alter individual susceptibility to malaria. Social constraints also include human activities that modify land use. In this regard land use (e.g. forest clearance and irrigation) is known to influence the burden of malaria that is itself dependent on local determinants of transmission. Overall the most important social constraint for the population will be access to malarial prevention and implementation action to control this scourge. PMID:19545045

  4. Climate Change and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Heather E. Thompson; Ford, James D.; Lea Berrang-Ford

    2010-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that climate change is an inevitable process. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the expectation is that climate change will have an especially negative impact, not only a result of projected warming and rainfall deficits, but also because of the vulnerability of the population. The impact upon food security will be of great significance, and may be defined as being composed of three components: availability, access, and utilization. To further investigate the link, a ...

  5. Sustainability of Water Safety Plans Developed in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Rondi; Sabrina Sorlini; Maria Cristina Collivignarelli

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, the drinking water supply is still an open issue. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 68% of the population has access to improved sources of drinking water. Moreover, some regions are affected by geogenic contaminants (e.g., fluoride and arsenic) and the lack of access to sanitation facilities and hygiene practices causes high microbiological contamination of drinking water in the supply chain. The Water Safety Plan (WSP) approach introduced by the World Health Organisation...

  6. The Long-Term Effects of the Printing Press in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cage, Julia; Rueda, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    This article delves into the relationship between newspaper readership and civic attitudes, and its effect on economic development. To this end, we investigate the long-term consequences of the introduction of the printing press in the 19th century. In sub-Saharan Africa, Protestant missionaries were the first both to import the printing press technology and to allow the indigenous population to use it. We build a new geocoded dataset locating Protestant missions in 1903. This dataset include...

  7. The LongTerm Effects of the Printing Press in SubSaharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cage, Julia; Rueda, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    This article delves into the relationship between newspaper readership and civic attitudes, and its effect on economic development. To this end, we investigate the long-term consequences of the introduction of the printing press in the 19th century. In sub-Saharan Africa, Protestant missionaries were the first both to import the printing press technology and to allow the indigenous population to use it. We build a new geocoded dataset locating Protestant missions in 1903. This dataset include...

  8. The long Term Effects of the Printing Press in Sub Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cagé, Julia; Rueda, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    This article delves into the relationship between newspaper readership and civic attitudes, and its e↵ect on economic development. To this end, we investigate the long-term consequences of the introduction of the printing press in the 19th century. In sub-Saharan Africa, Protestant missionaries were the first both to import the printing press technology and to allow the indigenous population to use it. We build a new geocoded dataset locating Protestant missions in 1903. This dataset includes...

  9. Evaluating Spatial Interaction Models for Regional Mobility in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Amy; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme; Eagle, Nathan; Tatem, Andrew J; Buckee, Caroline O

    2015-07-01

    Simple spatial interaction models of human mobility based on physical laws have been used extensively in the social, biological, and physical sciences, and in the study of the human dynamics underlying the spread of disease. Recent analyses of commuting patterns and travel behavior in high-income countries have led to the suggestion that these models are highly generalizable, and as a result, gravity and radiation models have become standard tools for describing population mobility dynamics for infectious disease epidemiology. Communities in Sub-Saharan Africa may not conform to these models, however; physical accessibility, availability of transport, and cost of travel between locations may be variable and severely constrained compared to high-income settings, informal labor movements rather than regular commuting patterns are often the norm, and the rise of mega-cities across the continent has important implications for travel between rural and urban areas. Here, we first review how infectious disease frameworks incorporate human mobility on different spatial scales and use anonymous mobile phone data from nearly 15 million individuals to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of the Kenyan population. We find that gravity and radiation models fail in systematic ways to capture human mobility measured by mobile phones; both severely overestimate the spatial spread of travel and perform poorly in rural areas, but each exhibits different characteristic patterns of failure with respect to routes and volumes of travel. Thus, infectious disease frameworks that rely on spatial interaction models are likely to misrepresent population dynamics important for the spread of disease in many African populations. PMID:26158274

  10. The position of the Nazlet Khater specimen among prehistoric and modern African and Levantine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhasi, R; Semal, P

    2000-09-01

    The morphometric affinities of the 33,000 year old skeleton from Nazlet Khater, Upper Egypt are examined using multivariate statistical procedures. In the first part, principal components analysis is performed on a dataset of mandible dimensions of 220 fossils, sub-fossils and modern specimens, ranging in time from the Late Pleistocene to recent and restricted in space to the African continent and Southern Levant. In the second part, mean measurements for various prehistoric and modern African and Levantine populations are incorporated in the statistical analysis. Subsequently, differences between male and female means are examined for some of the modern and prehistoric populations. The results indicate a strong association between some of the sub-Saharan Middle Stone Age (MSA) specimens, and the Nazlet Khater mandible. Furthermore, the results suggest that variability between African populations during the Neolithic and Protohistoric periods was more pronounced than the range of variability observed among recent African and Levantine populations. Results also demonstrate a general reduction in the degree of sexual dimorphism during the Holocene. However, this pattern of reduction pattern varies by geographic location and is not uniform across the African continent. PMID:10964529

  11. Future prospectives of sub-Saharan women living with HIV residing in France for more than seven years: prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlane Dimi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 2011, a French national survey of people living with HIV (PLHIV has shown that 40% of persons diagnosed since 2003 are originated from sub-Saharan Africa, two thirds of them being women. For them, in the short term, access to social rights is a priority. Today, over 90% of PLHIV are treated effectively and with the aging of this population, questions about their future perspectives arise. Our service provides a multidisciplinary (medical, psychological, social approach to PLHIV. The aim of our study is to describe the future perspectives of sub-Saharan women living with HIV residing in France for more than 7 years, because it is the time required for the implementation of fundamental rights and social insertion. Do they plan to return to their country of origin after their retirement? Does the HIV infection force them to stay in France? Materials and Methods: Prospective pilot mono-centric study. Between January and April 2014, every HIV-infected woman born in a sub-Saharan country, resident in France for at least 7 years, attending for their routine outpatient visit was consecutively included. Data were collected through a structured, semi-directed interview made by their usual hospital physician or social worker. Results: Consecutively, 76 women agreed to participate to the interview, none refused. Mean age: 42 years [26–70], time since HIV diagnosis: 12 years [1–25]. HIV diagnosis was made before arriving in France for 3% of them; in 33% diagnosis was made in the year of arrival; diagnosis made several years after arrival in 63%. Even if 69% of these women had been irregularly residing in France for a period, all of them had obtained a regular situation for residence and 50% acquired the French nationality. Mean duration of residence was 15 years [7–33]. Two thirds of them are employed. In the future, although 50% plan to have a shared residence between France and Africa, only 20% of them plan to settle back definitely in Africa and no woman declared that she would look for a medical follow up in Africa for their HIV infection. Conclusions: This study shows a good integration in France of HIV-infected sub-Saharan woman. Their links with Africa remain strong but very few plan to return in their country of origin due to lack of confidence in the African health infrastructures.

  12. DNA 'barcoding' of Schistosoma mansoni across sub-Saharan Africa supports substantial within locality diversity and geographical separation of genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Bonnie L; Webster, Joanne P; Gouvras, Anouk N; Garba, Amadou; Lamine, Mariama S; Diaw, Oumar T; Seye, Mohmoudane M; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Simoonga, Christopher; Mubila, Likezo; Mwanga, Joseph R; Lwambo, Nicholas J S; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Lange, Charles N; Kariuki, Curtis; Mkoji, Gerald M; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J Russell

    2013-11-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is a widespread human helminth and causes intestinal schistosomiasis in 54 countries, mainly across Africa but also in Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula and the neotropics. The geographical range of this parasite relies on the distribution of certain species of freshwater pulmonate snails of the genus Biomphalaria. Whilst S. mansoni is known to exhibit high population diversity the true extent of this diversity is still to be fully elucidated as sampling of this taxon progressively accrues. Here a DNA 'barcoding' approach is taken using sequence analysis of a 450bp region within the mitochondrial cox1 gene to assess the genetic diversity within a large number of S. mansoni larval stages collected from their natural human hosts across sub-Saharan Africa. Five hundred and sixty one individual parasite samples were examined from 22 localities and 14 countries. Considerable within-species diversity was found with 120 unique haplotypes splitting geographically into five discrete lineages. The highest diversity was found in East Africa with samples forming three of the five lineages. Less diversity was found in the Far and Central Western regions of Africa with haplotypes from the New World showing a close affinity to the Far Western African S. mansoni populations supporting the hypothesis of a colonisation of South America via the West African slave trade. The data are discussed in relation to parasite diversity and disease epidemiology. PMID:22935316

  13. Estimates of gender differences in firm’s access to credit in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

    2014-01-01

    Based on firm level data from 16 Sub-Saharan African countries we show how three different measures of credit constraints lead to three different estimates of gender differences in manufacturing firms’ credit situation. Using a perception based credit constraint measure female owned firms appear...... relatively more constrained than male owned firms. Using formal financial access data we find no gender effect. Finally, using direct information on credit constraints, male owned small firms appear disadvantaged. Furthermore we show a strong size gradient in the gender gap for the two measures for which we...

  14. China´s Foreign Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa through Material and Ideational perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kolokouris, Kyriakos; Dietz, Heine

    2012-01-01

    The recent Chinese engagement in Africa has been on the focal point of a heated debate not only within the academia but also in the public dialogue as it has paid generous attention by the international media outlets sometimes in the wrong direction, though. This paper is aiming at shed a light on the factors which led to the contemporary Sino-African approach. More specifically, this will take place by analyzing the today´s Chinese foreign policy towards Sub-Saharan Africa by taking into acc...

  15. International migration and the propagation of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docquier, F; Vasilakis, Ch; Tamfutu Munsi, D

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we identify and quantify the role of international migration in the propagation of HIV across sub-Saharan African countries. We use panel data on bilateral migration flows and HIV prevalence rates covering 44 countries after 1990. Controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, reverse causality, reflection issues, incorrect treatment of country fixed effects and spatial autocorrelation, we find evidence of a highly robust emigration-induced propagation mechanism. On the contrary, immigration has no significant effect. Numerical experiments reveal that the long-run effect of emigration accounts for more than 4 percent of the number of HIV cases in 15 countries (and more than 20 percent in 6 countries). PMID:24647086

  16. SOVEREIGNTY OF STATES IN THE POST COLD WAR ERA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Jørgenson

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) was founded to ‘to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war’.1 However, the post-independence history of sub-Saharan Africa has demonstrated that the international community, or lack of an international society, has so far been unable to protect the African continent from this ‘scourge’, or indeed from itself. A number of reasons may be suggested for this, including the organisation of the international community into a number of sovereign independent states...

  17. What Drives HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Chrystelle Tsafack Temah

    2009-01-01

    This paper decomposes the impact of the determinants of the evolution of HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa from 1997 to 2005. We classify our set of determinants into socioeconomic, epidemiological, sociologic and cultural and we try to assess the importance of each group of determinants in the spread of the epidemic across the continent. Using a panel data of 42 African countries from the 1997-2005 period, we examine the link between the three categories of determinants and HIV/AIDS ep...

  18. Searching for Opportunities for Sub-Saharan Africa's Renewal in the Era of Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2000-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries rely heavily on donor assistance and international borrowing. The Official Development Assistance (ODA)/GNP ratio in SSA is expected to rise well into the next century. Increases or decreases of ODA, which is known to be the main source of SSA's investment, may...... depend on the type of global settlement expected to emerge in the post-cold war world. SSA has therefore a stake on the type of globalisation which may frame world economic policy and financial aid to it. Neo-liberal globalisation has no enthusiasm for massive financial transfers. The incipient...

  19. The contribution of international health volunteers to the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogaert Isa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we aim to quantify the contribution of international health volunteers to the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa and to explore the perceptions of health service managers regarding these volunteers. Methods Rapid survey among organizations sending international health volunteers and group discussions with experienced medical officers from sub-Saharan African countries. Results We contacted 13 volunteer organizations having more than 10 full-time equivalent international health volunteers in sub-Saharan Africa and estimated that they employed together 2072 full-time equivalent international health volunteers in 2005. The numbers sent by secular non-governmental organizations (NGOs is growing, while the number sent by development NGOs, including faith-based organizations, is mostly decreasing. The cost is estimated at between US$36 000 and US$50 000 per expatriate volunteer per year. There are trends towards more employment of international health volunteers from low-income countries and of national medical staff. Country experts express more negative views about international health volunteers than positive ones. They see them as increasingly paradoxical in view of the existence of urban unemployed doctors and nurses in most countries. Creating conditions for employment and training of national staff is strongly favoured as an alternative. Only in exceptional circumstances is sending international health volunteers viewed as a defendable temporary measure. Conclusion We estimate that not more than 5000 full-time equivalent international health volunteers were working in sub-Saharan Africa in 2005, of which not more than 1500 were doctors. A distinction should be made between (1 secular medical humanitarian NGOs, (2development NGOs, and (3 volunteer organizations, as Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO and United Nations volunteers (UNV. They have different views, undergo different trends and are differently appreciated by government officials. International health volunteers contribute relatively small numbers to the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa, and it seems unlikely that they will do more in the future. In areas where they play a role, their contribution to service delivery is sometimes very significant.

  20. Modern Biotechnology—Potential Contribution and Challenges for Sustainable Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jane Morris

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern biotechnology, including the application of transgenic techniques to produce Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs, can play a significant role in increasing agricultural production in a sustainable way, but its products need to be tailored for the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, the capacity to develop GMOs and ensure they meet stringent regulatory requirements is somewhat limited. Most African governments contribute little to science and technology either financially or through strong policies. This leaves the determination of research and development priorities in the hands of international funding agencies. Whereas funding from the United States is generally supportive of GM technology, the opposite is true of funding from European sources. African countries are thus pulled in two different directions. One alternative to this dilemma might be for countries in the sub-Saharan Africa region to develop stronger South-South collaborations, but these need to be supported with adequate funding. African governments as well as external funding agencies are urged to consider the important role that biotechnology, including GM technology, can play in contributing to sustainable development in Africa, and to provide adequate support to the development of capacity to research, develop and commercialize GMOs in the region.

  1. Food Aid and the African Food Crisis. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 221.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapouri, Shahla; And Others

    Nine of 11 low and medium income Sub-Saharan African countires studied may face even greater problems feeding their populations if recent trends continue. These countries rely on food imports and, increasingly, on food aid to meet minimum nutritional requirements for their populations. Food production is hampered by droughts which hit about every

  2. Waist circumference does not predict circulating adiponectin levels in sub-Saharan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of previously reported ethnic differences in determinants and markers of obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to investigate circulating levels of adiponectin and their correlates in a sub-Saharan African (sSA population. Subjects and Methods We studied 70 non-diabetic volunteers (33M/37F living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, aged 24–69 yr, with BMI 20–42 kg/m2. In all participants we measured waist circumference and total body fat by bioimpedance, and obtained a fasting venous blood sample for measurement of plasma glucose, serum insulin and adiponectin concentrations. We performed a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in 1/4 subjects, and HOMAIR was used as surrogate of fasting insulin sensitivity index since it best correlates to clamp measurements. Results Males had lower adiponectin levels than females (8.8 ± 4.3 vs. 11.8 ± 5.5 μg/L. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and total body fat (rs = -0.03; NS, whereas adiponectin was inversely correlated with waist circumference (rs = -0.39; p = 0.001. Adiponectin correlated negatively with insulin resistance (rs = -0.35; p = 0.01. In a regression analysis using fasting adiponectin concentration as the dependent variable, and age, HOMAIR, waist circumference, and fat mass as predictors, waist circumference (β = -3.30; p = 0.002, fat mass (β = -2.68; p = 0.01, and insulin resistance (β = -2.38; p = 0.02 but not age (β = 1.11; p = 0.27 were independent predictors of adiponectin. When considering gender, these relations persisted with the exception of waist circumference in females. Conclusion Adiponectin correlates in this study population are comparable to those observed in Caucasians with the exception of waist circumference in women. The metabolic significance of waist circumference is therefore questioned in sSA women.

  3. The Realities of Community Based Natural Resource Management and Biodiversity Conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kevin Reilly

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This is an historic overview of conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa from pre-colonial times through the present. It demonstrates that Africans practiced conservation that was ignored by the colonial powers. The colonial market economy combined with the human and livestock population explosion of the 21st century are the major factors contributing to the demise of wildlife and critical habitat. Unique insight is provided into the economics of a representative safari company, something that has not been readily available to Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM practitioners. Modern attempts at sharing benefits from conservation with rural communities will fail due to the low rural resource to population ratio regardless of the model, combined with the uneven distribution of profits from safari hunting that drives most CBNRM programs, unless these ratios are changed. Low household incomes from CBNRM are unlikely to change attitudes of rural dwellers towards Western approaches to conservation. Communities must sustainably manage their natural areas as "green factories" for the multitude of natural resources they contain as a means of maximizing employment and thus household incomes, as well as meeting the often overlooked socio-cultural ties to wildlife and other natural resources, which may be as important as direct material benefits in assuring conservation of wildlife and its habitat. For CBNRM to be successful in the long-term, full devolution of ownership over land and natural resources must take place. In addition, as a means of relieving pressure on the rural resource base, this will require an urbanization process that creates a middleclass, as opposed to the current slums that form the majority of Africa‘s cities, through industrialization that transforms the unique natural resources of the subcontinent (e.g., strategic minerals, petroleum, wildlife, hardwoods, fisheries, wild medicines, agricultural products, etc. in Africa.

  4. A Machine Learning Approach to Mapping Agricultural Fields Across Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, S. R.; Fuchs, T. J.; Thompson, D. R.; Estes, L. D.; Evans, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Food production in sub-Saharan Africa is dominated by smallholder agriculture. Rainfed farming practices and the prevailing dryland conditions render crop yields vulnerable to increasing climatic variability. As a result, smallholder farmers are among the poorest and most food insecure groups among the region's population. Quantifying the distribution of smallholder agriculture across sub-Saharan Africa would greatly assist efforts to boost food security. Existing agricultural land cover data sets are limited to estimating the percentage of cropland within a coarse grid cell. The goal of this research is to develop a statistical machine learning algorithm to map individual agricultural fields, mirroring the accuracy of hand-digitization. For the algorithm, a random forest pixel-wise classifier learns by example from training data to distinguish between fields and non-fields. The algorithm then applies this training to classify previously unseen data. These classifications can then be smoothed into coherent regions corresponding to agricultural fields. Our training data set consists of hand-digitized boundaries of agricultural fields in South Africa, commissioned by its government in 2008. Working with 1 km x 1 km scenes across South Africa, the hand-digitized field boundaries are matched with satellite images extracted from Google Maps. To highlight different information contained within the images, several image processing filters are applied. The inclusion of Landsat images for additional training information is also explored. After training and testing the algorithm in South Africa, we aim to expand our mapping efforts across sub-Saharan Africa. Through Princeton's Mapping Africa project, crowdsourcing will produce additional training data sets of hand-digitized field boundaries in new areas of interest. This algorithm and the resulting data sets will provide previously unavailable information at an unprecedented level of detail on the largest and most vulnerable group of farmers in sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Men's Attitudes Towards Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietsch, Kristin E

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines male attitudes towards family planning in Sub-Saharan Africa. Studying attitudes is ideal as they can be calculated for all men, at any point in their lives, regardless of marital status, sexual activity, or fertility desires. We find that positive attitudes towards family planning have increased across Sub-Saharan Africa in the last two decades. We analyze both the association of positive attitudes with a variety of demographic characteristics (age, marital status, education, and religion) and the relationships with multiple forms of discussion about family planning (radio, television, friends, and partners). We find higher approval at older ages and higher levels of education, and lower levels of approval among Muslims compared to Christians. Interactions between characteristics and discussion of family planning. demonstrate that hearing or talking about contraception has different associations for different groups. This paper offers a new way to explore fertility and reproductive health in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26897912

  6. What would it take to prevent stunted growth in children in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Anna

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing agreement among the nutrition community about the use of length/height-for-age as the indicator to monitor the long-term impact of chronic nutritional deficiencies. Stunting, an indicator of linear growth failure, has both long- and short-term consequences affecting growth and development and adult work potential. The number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to increase by 2025 if the current trends remain. Stunting among African children peaks during the complementary feeding period, which coincides with the period when children are no longer on exclusive breastfeeding and infections are frequent. Addressing stunting has become the focus of global efforts. The World Health Assembly in 2012 set a 40 % reduction in the number of stunted children by 2025. To effectively address the issues of stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is it appropriate to examine the issue of what it takes. The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) conducted in several regions of the world, including Africa has lessons on what it would take to prevent in African children. The children in the MGRS had good socioeconomic background characteristics reflected by years of maternal education and availability of basic amenities, such as potable water and sanitary conditions. The prescription of exclusive breastfeeding, high-quality diversified diets and attention to care were critical factors contributing to healthy growth for the African children. Preventing stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is possible. It requires governments to put in place policies that would create the conducive environment needed. The complex and multiple causes of stunting offer the opportunity to address stunting in a multisectoral and within a food systems approach. The global resolve to make food systems deliver on healthy diet requires all stakeholders to work together to achieve the global goal of reducing stunting. This review highlights the key elements contributing to adequate growth in the Africa cohort of the WHO-MGRS and how these provide lessons for addressing stunting in children in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25908310

  7. Sub-Saharan Africa’s Lagging Development

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Vintar Mally

    2009-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a very diverse region with extensive natural wealth, great human potential, and a rich history. However, the majority of its countries are among the poorest in the world and about half of its 800 million inhabitants live in extreme poverty. Sub-Saharan Africa produces only 1.5% of the world’s GDP and its share in world trade has fallen from 6% in 1980 to 2% today. The region’s exports remain dominated by primary goods (fuels, ores, and agricultural products). The roots o...

  8. Does Renewable Energy Consumption and Health Expenditure Decrease Carbon Dioxide Emissions? Evidence for sub-Saharan Africa Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Apergis, Nicholas; Ben Jebli, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs a number of panel methodological approaches to explore the link between per capita carbon dioxide emissions, per capita real income, renewable energy consumption and health expenditures for a panel of 42 sub-Saharan African countries, spanning the period 1995-2011. The empirical findings provide supportive of a long-run relationship among the variables. Granger causality reveals the presence of a short-run unidirectional causality running from real GDP to CO2 emissions, a b...

  9. Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew F Chersich; Stanley Luchters; Innocent Ntaganira; Antonio Gerbase; Ying-Ru Lo; Fiona Scorgie; Richard Steen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Virtually no African country provides HIV prevention services in sex work settings with an adequate scale and intensity. Uncertainty remains about the optimal set of interventions and mode of delivery. Methods: We systematically reviewed studies reporting interventions for reducing HIV transmission among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa between January 2000 and July 2011. Medline (PubMed) and non-indexed journals were searched for studies with quantitative study outcomes...

  10. Effect of Media Use on HIV-Related Stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    It is known that HIV-related stigma hinders prevention efforts. Previous studies have documented that HIV-related stigma may be associated with socioeconomic and socioecological factors. Mass media use may moderate this association, but there is limited research addressing that possibility. In this study, based on cross-sectional data pooled from the 2006–2011 Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 sub-Saharan African countries (N = 204,343), we investigated the moderating effects of exposure t...

  11. A multi-dimensional assessment of urban vulnerability to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jalyer, Fatameh; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Kabisch, Sigrun; Kombe, Wilbard; Lindley, Sarah J.; Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Pauleit, Stephan; Printz, Andreas; Vedeld, Trond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and apply a multi-dimensional vulnerability assessment framework for understanding the impacts of climate change-induced hazards in Sub- Saharan African cities. The research was carried out within the European/African FP7 project CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in...... Africa, which investigated climate change-induced risks, assessed vulnerability and proposed policy initiatives in five African cities. Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) was used as a main case with a particular focus on urban flooding. The multi-dimensional assessment covered the physical, institutional......, attitudinal and asset factors influencing urban vulnerability. Multiple methods were applied to cover the full range of vulnerabilities and to identify potential response strategies, including: model-based forecasts, spatial analyses, document studies, interviews and stakeholder workshops. We demonstrate the...

  12. The post-2015 development agenda for diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre M. N. Renzaho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the non-communicable diseases (NCDs which is rising significantly across sub-Saharan African (SSA countries and posing a threat to the social, economic, and cultural fabric of the SSA population. The inclusion of NCDs into the post-2015 development agenda along with the global monitoring framework provides an opportunity to monitor progress of development programmes in developing countries. This paper examines challenges associated with dealing with diabetes within the development agenda in SSA and explores some policy options. Design: This conceptual review draws from a range of works published in Medline and the grey literature to advance the understanding of the post-2015 development agenda and how it relates to NCDs. The paper begins with the burden of diabetes in sub-Sahara Africa and then moves on to examine challenges associated with diabetes prevention, treatment, and management in Africa. It finishes by exploring policy implications. Results: With regards to development programmes on NCDs in the SSA sub-continent, several challenges exist: 1 poor documentation of risk factors, 2 demographic transitions (rapid urbanisation and ageing, 3 the complementary role of traditional healers, 4 tuberculosis and the treatment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as risk factors for diabetes, 5 diabetes in complex emergencies, 6 diabetes as an international development priority and not a policy agenda for many SSA countries, and 7 poorly regulated food and beverage industry. Conclusion: For the post-2015 development agenda for NCDs to have an impact, sufficient investments will be needed to address legislative, technical, human, and fiscal resource constraints through advocacy, accountability, political leadership, and effective public–private partnership. Striking the right balance between competing demands and priorities, policies, and implementation strategies hold the key to an effective response to diabetes in SSA countries.

  13. Social Innovation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwuemeka Afigbo; Steven Muegge

    2008-01-01

    SW Global is an African-based application service provider of information technology infrastructure and software. This article describes how SW Global, a for-profit private sector company, creates high-impact value at universities and governments in developing countries through an innovative business model anchored around service subscriptions, open source software, and open content.

  14. Developing and Deploying OERs in sub-Saharan Africa: Building on the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A. Reju

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Open educational resources (OERs have the potential to reduce costs, improve quality, and increase access to educational opportunities. OER development and deployment is one path that could contribute to achieving education for all. This article builds on existing information and communication technology (ICT implementation plans in Africa and on the experiences of organizations and initiatives such as the African Virtual University (AVU, OER Africa, the South African Institute of Distance Education (SAIDE, and the Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA Project, to present one view of the benefits, challenges, and steps that could be taken to realize the potential of OERs in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, the article focuses on the factors necessary for creating and sustaining a vision for OER development and deployment; developing and distributing resources with an open license; improving technology infrastructure and reducing the cost of Internet access; establishing communities of educational collaborators; sustaining involvement in the OER initiative; producing resources in interoperable and open formats; establishing and maintaining the quality of OERs; providing local context to address national and regional needs and conditions; informing the public about OERs; and taking the initiative to build on the knowledge, skills, and experiences of others. In order to assist educators and decision makers, links to a variety of resources are provided.

  15. Peculiarities of the Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to argue that the peculiarities of sub-Saharan Africa, in terms of its socio-cultural diversity, low economic development, linguistic factors, HIV/AIDS pandemic, gender discrimination, low ICT awareness and so on, demand a new model of addressing the digital divide. Design/methodology/approach: Paper largely based on literature…

  16. Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa : Issues and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    1996-01-01

    This report, taking action for poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa, commissioned in 1993 by the Bank's Africa region differs from others in that it focuses on the Bank's operational program to reduce poverty. It analyses the connections between its poverty assessments, country assistance strategies and the content of the lending program. It also examines actions that the Bank, in partn...

  17. Peculiarities of the Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to argue that the peculiarities of sub-Saharan Africa, in terms of its socio-cultural diversity, low economic development, linguistic factors, HIV/AIDS pandemic, gender discrimination, low ICT awareness and so on, demand a new model of addressing the digital divide. Design/methodology/approach: Paper largely based on literature

  18. SME Adoption of Enterprise Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adisa, Femi; Isabalija, Stephen R.

    This paper discusses the need for IS research with a focus on SME adoption of enterprise systems in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous IS research into general adoption in several developing countries have shown that local context play a significant role in the successful implementation of...

  19. The European Union and sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that aspirations of maintaining a dominant influence over sub-Saharan security issues has spurred the French and British leadership of European Union (EU) foreign and security policy integration, just as it has informed military capability expansions by the armed forces of the...

  20. Priorities for Boosting Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Should policy-makers, including foreign donors, focus employment strategies in sub-Saharan Africa on strengthening access to formal wage employment or on raising productivity in the informal sector? We examine the evidence in Mozambique and show that crude distinctions between formality and...

  1. Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999-2011: Epidemiology and public health implications. a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksen Ole

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes prevalence is increasing globally, and Sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. With diverse health challenges, health authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa and international donors need robust data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in order to plan and prioritise their health programmes. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the epidemiological trends and public health implications of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of papers published on diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa 1999-March 2011, providing data on diabetes prevalence, outcomes (chronic complications, infections, and mortality, access to diagnosis and care and economic impact. Results Type 2 diabetes accounts for well over 90% of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa, and population prevalence proportions ranged from 1% in rural Uganda to 12% in urban Kenya. Reported type 1 diabetes prevalence was low and ranged from 4 per 100,000 in Mozambique to 12 per 100,000 in Zambia. Gestational diabetes prevalence varied from 0% in Tanzania to 9% in Ethiopia. Proportions of patients with diabetic complications ranged from 7-63% for retinopathy, 27-66% for neuropathy, and 10-83% for microalbuminuria. Diabetes is likely to increase the risk of several important infections in the region, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and sepsis. Meanwhile, antiviral treatment for HIV increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. Five-year mortality proportions of patients with diabetes varied from 4-57%. Screening studies identified high proportions (> 40% with previously undiagnosed diabetes, and low levels of adequate glucose control among previously diagnosed diabetics. Barriers to accessing diagnosis and treatment included a lack of diagnostic tools and glucose monitoring equipment and high cost of diabetes treatment. The total annual cost of diabetes in the region was estimated at US$67.03 billion, or US$8836 per diabetic patient. Conclusion Diabetes exerts a significant burden in the region, and this is expected to increase. Many diabetic patients face significant challenges accessing diagnosis and treatment, which contributes to the high mortality and prevalence of complications observed. The significant interactions between diabetes and important infectious diseases highlight the need and opportunity for health planners to develop integrated responses to communicable and non-communicable diseases.

  2. Risk Factor or Social Vaccine? The Historical Progression of the Role of Education in HIV and AIDS Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David P.; Collins, John M.; Leon, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies from the early years of the tragic HIV and AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa identified formal education as a risk factor increasing the chance of infection. Instead of playing its usual role as a preventative factor, as has been noted in many other public health cases, until the mid-1990s educated African men…

  3. Sociocognitive Predictors of Condom Use and Intentions Among Adolescents in Three Sub-Saharan Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Sander M; Aar, Leif E; Bos, Arjan E R; Mathews, Catherine; Kaaya, Sylvia F; Onya, Hans; de Vries, Hein

    2016-02-01

    Many HIV intervention programs in sub-Saharan Africa have applied social cognitive theories such as the theory of planned behavior. However, a recent sub-Saharan African review was unable to show increased effectiveness for theory-based interventions. This study assessed whether the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and intention was similar to studies in Europe and the U.S., and whether there were differences between three sub-Saharan sites. Longitudinal multigroup structural equation modeling was used to assess whether attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy predicted condom use intentions and condom use (after 6months) among adolescents in three sites, namely Cape Town (South Africa; N=625), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania; N=271), and Mankweng (South Africa; N=404). Condom use intentions were predicted by subjective norms and self-efficacy in all three sites. Attitudes were not related to intentions in Dar es Salaam and were moderately related to intentions in Cape Town and Mankweng. The proportions of explained variance in intentions and behavior were decent (37-52 and 9-19%, respectively). Although significant differences in predictive value were found between sites and in comparison to European and U.S. studies, intentions could adequately be explained by attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. However, the limited proportions of variance in behavior explained by intentions could signify the importance of contextual and environmental factors. Future studies are recommended to use an integrative approach that takes into account both individual and contextual factors, as well as social and environmental differences. PMID:25925898

  4. Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akogbeto Martin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA methodology aims to provide a cost-effective tool to conduct rapid assessments of the malaria situation in urban sub-Saharan Africa and to improve the understanding of urban malaria epidemiology. Methods This work was done in Yopougon municipality (Abidjan, Cotonou, Dar es Salaam and Ouagadougou. The study design consists of six components: 1 a literature review, 2 the collection of available health statistics, 3 a risk mapping, 4 school parasitaemia surveys, 5 health facility-based surveys and 6 a brief description of the health care system. These formed the basis of a multi-country evaluation of RUMA's feasibility, consistency and usefulness. Results A substantial amount of literature (including unpublished theses and statistics was found at each site, providing a good overview of the malaria situation. School and health facility-based surveys provided an overview of local endemicity and the overall malaria burden in different city areas. This helped to identify important problems for in-depth assessment, especially the extent to which malaria is over-diagnosed in health facilities. Mapping health facilities and breeding sites allowed the visualization of the complex interplay between population characteristics, health services and malaria risk. However, the latter task was very time-consuming and required special expertise. RUMA is inexpensive, costing around 8,50013,000 USD for a six to ten-week period. Conclusion RUMA was successfully implemented in four urban areas with different endemicity and proved to be a cost-effective first approach to study the features of urban malaria and provide an evidence basis for planning control measures.

  5. Combating sexual violence in schools in sub-Saharan Africa: Legal strategies under regional and international human rights law

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christina, Beninger.

    Full Text Available Although schools are generally regarded as a 'safe haven' for children, the reality for many girls is that schools can be a place of sexual discrimination, harassment and violence, perpetrated by fellow male students and teachers alike. The widespread problem of sexual and gender-based violence, par [...] ticularly sexual violence, in schools has been well-documented in a range of studies and reports in sub-Saharan Africa. Sexual and gender-based violence in schools not only violates girls' fundamental rights to dignity and equality, and their rights to be free from violence, but it also undermines their rights to education, particularly when, as is often the case, states fail to take measures to protect girls. Although there is a growing body of empirical research documenting the nature and extent of this problem, particularly in various sub-Saharan African countries, how regional and international human rights law applies to protect girls in this situation appears to have received limited consideration. This article attempts to fill this gap in the literature, by providing an analysis of the problem of sexual and gender-based violence in schools within the framework of regional and international human rights law. The article's objective is to identify and discuss rights-based legal strategies to combat this pervasive human rights violation, specifically within the sub-Saharan African context, with an emphasis on regional developments and regional responses.

  6. A Dragon and a Dove? A Comparative Overview of Chinese and European Trade Relations with Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As China’s footprint in African trade grows larger by the day, the need to contextualize this rise through comparative analysis becomes ever more necessary. This paper contrasts the sub-Saharan trade relations of both China and Europe with their respective designated stereotypes: those of a dragon and a dove. The article compares the trade dynamics on four levels: the policies and institutional mechanisms that shape the relationship; the composition of the trade flows; the geographic distribution of trade dominance; and the influence of norms and values on the trade pattern. It concludes that although there are empirical grounds behind these stereotypes, Chinese and European trade relations with sub-Saharan Africa are becoming more similar, partly due to a more hawkish European stance.

  7. Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey W Eaton; Rehle, Thomas M.; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Andrea A Kim; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Design: Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. Methods: We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15–49 year...

  8. The Sub-Saharan Africa carbon balance, an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombelli, A.; Henry, M.; Castaldi, S.; Adu-Bredu, S.; Arneth, A.; de Grandcourt, A.; Grieco, E.; Kutsch, W. L.; Lehsten, V.; Rasile, A.; Reichstein, M.; Tansey, K.; Weber, U.; Valentini, R.

    2009-02-01

    This study presents a summary overview of the carbon balance of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by synthesizing the available data from national communications to UNFCCC and first results from the project CarboAfrica (net ecosystem productivity and emissions from fires, deforestation and forest degradation, by field and model estimates). According to these preliminary estimates the overall carbon balance of SSA varies from 0.43 Pg C y-1 (using in situ measurements for savanna NEP) to a much higher sink of 2.53 Pg C y-1 (using model estimates for savanna NEP). UNFCCC estimates lead to a moderate carbon sink of 0.58 Pg C y-1. Excluding anthropogenic disturbance and intrinsic episodic events, the carbon uptake by forests (0.98 Pg C y-1) and savannas (from 1.38 to 3.48 Pg C y-1, depending on the used methodology) are the main components of the SSA sink effect. Fires (0.72 Pg C y-1), deforestation (0.25 Pg C y-1) and forest degradation (0.77 Pg C y-1) are the main contributors to the SSA carbon emissions, while the agricultural sector contributes only with 0.12 Pg C y-1. Notably, the impact of forest degradation is higher than that caused by deforestation, and the SSA forest net carbon balance is close to equilibrium. Savannas play a major role in shaping the SSA carbon balance, due to their large areal extent, their fire regime, and their strong interannual NEP variability, but they are also a major uncertainty in the overall budget. This paper shows that Africa plays a key role in the global carbon cycle system and probably could have a potential for carbon sequestration higher than expected, even if still highly uncertain. Further investigations are needed, particularly to better address the role of savannas and tropical forests. The current CarboAfrica network of carbon measurements could provide future unique data sets for better estimating the African carbon balance.

  9. The Sub-Saharan Africa carbon balance, an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bombelli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a summary overview of the carbon balance of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA by synthesizing the available data from national communications to UNFCCC and first results from the project CarboAfrica (net ecosystem productivity and emissions from fires, deforestation and forest degradation, by field and model estimates. According to these preliminary estimates the overall carbon balance of SSA varies from 0.43 Pg C y−1 (using in situ measurements for savanna NEP to a much higher sink of 2.53 Pg C y−1 (using model estimates for savanna NEP. UNFCCC estimates lead to a moderate carbon sink of 0.58 Pg C y−1. Excluding anthropogenic disturbance and intrinsic episodic events, the carbon uptake by forests (0.98 Pg C y−1 and savannas (from 1.38 to 3.48 Pg C y−1, depending on the used methodology are the main components of the SSA sink effect. Fires (0.72 Pg C y−1, deforestation (0.25 Pg C y−1 and forest degradation (0.77 Pg C y−1 are the main contributors to the SSA carbon emissions, while the agricultural sector contributes only with 0.12 Pg C y−1. Notably, the impact of forest degradation is higher than that caused by deforestation, and the SSA forest net carbon balance is close to equilibrium. Savannas play a major role in shaping the SSA carbon balance, due to their large areal extent, their fire regime, and their strong interannual NEP variability, but they are also a major uncertainty in the overall budget. This paper shows that Africa plays a key role in the global carbon cycle system and probably could have a potential for carbon sequestration higher than expected, even if still highly uncertain. Further investigations are needed, particularly to better address the role of savannas and tropical forests. The current CarboAfrica network of carbon measurements could provide future unique data sets for better estimating the African carbon balance.

  10. An outlook on the Sub-Saharan Africa carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bombelli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an outlook on the carbon balance of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA by presenting a summary of currently available results from the project CarboAfrica (namely net ecosystem productivity and emissions from fires, deforestation and forest degradation, by field and model estimates supplemented by bibliographic data and compared with a new synthesis of the data from national communications to UNFCCC. According to these preliminary estimates the biogenic carbon balance of SSA varies from 0.16 Pg C y−1 to a much higher sink of 1.00 Pg C y−1 (depending on the source data. Models estimates would give an unrealistic sink of 3.23 Pg C y−1, confirming their current inadequacy when applied to Africa. The carbon uptake by forests and savannas (0.34 and 1.89 Pg C y−1, respectively, are the main contributors to the resulting sink. Fires (0.72 Pg C y−1 and deforestation (0.25 Pg C y−1 are the main contributors to the SSA carbon emissions, while the agricultural sector and forest degradation contributes only with 0.12 and 0.08 Pg C y−1, respectively. Savannas play a major role in shaping the SSA carbon balance, due to their large extension, their fire regime, and their strong interannual NEP variability, but they are also a major uncertainty in the overall budget. Even if fossil fuel emissions from SSA are relative low, they can be crucial in defining the sign of the overall SSA carbon balance by reducing the natural sink potential, especially in the future. This paper shows that Africa plays a key role in the global carbon cycle system and probably could have a potential for carbon sequestration higher than expected, even if still highly uncertain. Further investigations are needed, particularly to better address the role of savannas and tropical forests and to improve biogeochemical models. The CarboAfrica network of carbon measurements could provide future unique data sets for better estimating the African carbon balance.

  11. Policy and regulatory framework conditions for small hydro power in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelling, Fritz [Sustainable Energy and Environment, Karlsruhe (Germany); Gaul, Mirco; Schroeder, Miriam [SiNERGi Consultancy for Renewable Energies, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The vast potential of mini and micro hydro power (MHP) in Sub-Saharan African countries is one promising option to cover increasing energy demand and to enable electricity access for remote rural communities. Based on the analysis of 6 African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa), this study sheds light on some of the main barriers on the level of political and regulatory framework conditions which include gap between the national-level policies and regulations and local MHP project implementation, lack of financing and limited capacities for project planning, building and operation. The paper also identifies some promising practices employed in several SSA countries of how to overcome these barriers and concludes with recommendations of how to create positive feed-backs between ambitious policies and regulations and MHP financing and capacity development needs in order to scale up MHP deployment and MHP sector development. (orig.)

  12. End of life care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the qualitative literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pool Robert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background End of life (EoL care in sub-Saharan Africa still lacks the sound evidence-base needed for the development of effective, appropriate service provision. It is essential to make evidence from all types of research available alongside clinical and health service data, to ensure that EoL care is ethical and culturally appropriate. This article aims to synthesize qualitative research on EoL care in sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy, practice and further research. It seeks to identify areas of existing research; describe findings specifically relevant to the African context; and, identify areas lacking evidence. Methods Relevant literature was identified through eight electronic databases: AMED, British Nursing Index & Archive, CINAHL, EMBASE, IBSS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Social Sciences Citation Index; and hand searches. Inclusion criteria were: published qualitative or mixed-method studies in sub-Saharan Africa, about EoL care. Study quality was assessed using a standard grading scale. Relevant data including findings and practice recommendations were extracted and compared in tabular format. Results Of the 407 articles initially identified, 51 were included in the qualitative synthesis. Nineteen came from South Africa and the majority (38 focused on HIV/AIDS. Nine dealt with multiple or unspecified conditions and four were about cancer. Study respondents included health professionals, informal carers, patients, community members and bereaved relatives. Informal carers were typically women, the elderly and children, providing total care in the home, and lacking support from professionals or the extended family. Twenty studies focused on home-based care, describing how programmes function in practice and what is needed to make them effective. Patients and carers were reported to prefer institutional care but this needs to be understood in context. Studies focusing on culture discussed good and bad death, culture-specific approaches to symptoms and illness, and the bereavement process. Conclusions The data support or complement the findings from quantitative research. The review prompts a reconsideration of the assumption that in Africa the extended family care for the sick, and that people prefer home-based care. The review identifies areas relevant for a research agenda on socio-cultural issues at the EoL in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Experiences of leadership in health care in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry Leslie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leadership is widely regarded as central to effective health-care systems, and resources are increasingly devoted to the cultivation of strong health-care leadership. Nevertheless, the literature regarding leadership capacity building has been developed primarily in the context of high-income settings. Less research has been done on leadership in low-income settings, including sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in health care, with attention to historical, political and sociocultural context. We sought to characterize the experiences of individuals in key health-care leadership roles in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using in-person interviews with individuals (n = 17 in health-care leadership roles in four countries in sub-Saharan Africa: the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, the Republic of Ghana, the Republic of Liberia and the Republic of Rwanda. Individuals were identified by their country’s minister of health as key leaders in the health sector and were nominated to serve as delegates to a global health leadership conference in June 2010, at Yale University in the United States. Interviews were audio recorded and professionally transcribed. Data analysis was performed by a five-person multidisciplinary team using the constant comparative method, facilitated by ATLAS.ti 5.0 software. Results Five key themes emerged as important to participants in their leadership roles: having an aspirational, value-based vision for improving the future health of the country, being self-aware and having the ability to identify and use complementary skills of others, tending to relationships, using data in decision making, and sustaining a commitment to learning. Conclusions Current models of leadership capacity building address the need for core technical and management competencies. While these competencies are important, skills relevant to managing relationships are also critical in the sub-Saharan African context. Developing such skills may require more time and a deeper level of engagement and collaboration than is typically invested in efforts to strengthen health systems.

  14. Scaling up delivery of contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa: operational experiences of Marie Stopes International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Susan; Thurston, Sarah; Weinberger, Michelle; Nuccio, Olivia; Fuchs-Montgomery, Nomi

    2014-02-01

    Contraceptive implants offer promising opportunities for addressing the high and growing unmet need for modern contraceptives in sub-Saharan Africa. Marie Stopes International (MSI) offers implants as one of many family planning options. Between 2008 and 2012, MSI scaled up voluntary access to implants in 15 sub-Saharan African countries, from 80,041 implants in 2008 to 754,329 implants in 2012. This 9-fold increase amounted to more than 1.7 million implants delivered cumulatively over the 5-year period. High levels of client satisfaction were attained alongside service provision scale up by using existing MSI service delivery channels-mobile outreach, social franchising, and clinics-to implement strategies that broadened access for underserved clients and maintained service quality. Use of adaptive and context-specific service delivery models and attention to key operational components, including sufficient numbers of trained providers, strong supply chains, diverse financing mechanisms, and implant removal services, underpinned our service delivery efforts. Accounting for 70% of the implants delivered by MSI in 2012, mobile outreach services through dedicated MSI provider teams played a central role in scale-up efforts, fueled in part by the provision of free or heavily subsidized services. Social franchising also demonstrated promise for future program growth, along with MSI clinics. Continued high growth in implant provision between 2011 and 2012 in all sub-Saharan African countries indicates the region's capacity for further service delivery expansion. Meeting the expected rising demand for implants and ensuring long-term sustainable access to the method, as part of a comprehensive method mix, will require continued use of appropriate service delivery models, effective operations, and ongoing collaboration between the private, public, and nongovernmental sectors. MSI's experience can be instructive for future efforts to ensure contraceptive access and choice in sub-Saharan Africa, especially as the global health community works to achieve its Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) commitments to expand family planning access to 120 million new users. PMID:25276564

  15. EU Development Aid towards Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring the Normative Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios K. Bountagkidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU and most aid donors invoke a strong normative power face by explicitly connecting foreign aid with human and social development. However, how well the EU’s rhetoric is consistent with its practices as a multilateral development actor has not been explored extensively. In this study, we challenge the normative dimension of the EU’s development policy and explore whether the EU’s Official Development Assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa is based on objective deprivation on the part of recipient countries or whether it is “interest driven”. We use a least squares dummy variable model regression to examine aid flows from the EU to all 48 Sub-Saharan African states for the period 2000 to 2010. The evidence found indicates that in certain instances, aid allocation contradicts the normative rhetoric that the EU uses to describe its development policy, as the donor’s own interests in the region seem to supersede priority given to the needs of the aid recipient states. A limitation to the findings is the fact that normative values and strategic interests are not mutually exclusive. Nevertheless, the present study suggests that the EU’s portrayal as a force for good in international relations requires cautious critique.

  16. Extending freight flow modelling to sub-Saharan Africa to inform infrastructure investments - trade data issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the first attempt by researchers at Stellenbosch University to model freight flows between and for 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The model will be informed by and linked to the South African surface Freight Demand Model (FDM given these dimensions. By analysing and collating available datasets and developing a freight flow model, a better understanding of freight movements between countries can be obtained and then used for long-term planning efforts. A simple methodology is envisaged that will entail a high-level corridor classification that links a major district in the country with a similar district in another country. Existing trade data will be used to corroborate new base-year economic demand and supply volumetric data that will be generated from social accounting matrices for each country. The trade data will also provide initial flow dynamics between countries that will be refined according to the new volumes. The model can then generate commodity-level corridor flows between SSA countries, and between SSA countries and the rest of the world, as well as intra-country rural and metropolitan flows, using a gravity-based modelling approach. This article outlines efforts to harmonise trade data between the 17 countries identified, as well as between these countries and the rest of the world as a first step towards developing a freight demand model for sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. The paediatric surgeon and his working conditions in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gnassingb

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study described the current conditions of work of paediatric surgeons in Francophone sub-Saharan Africa (FSSA and set the debate at the level of the humanist thinking in medicine. Patients and Methods: This was a multicentre study from 1 st May to 30 th October 2008. The African Society of paediatric surgeons? directory was used to identify paediatric surgeons in the Francophone?s countries in Sub Saharan Africa. The parameters studied were number of surgeons per country, means of training, working conditions, remunerations, needs for continuous training and the research. Results: A total of 41 paediatric surgeons (68.33% responded. The average number of paediatric surgeons per country was 5. The means of training included government scholarships among 7 paediatric surgeons (17.07%, scholarship from a non-governmental organisations in 14 (34.15% and self-sponsorships in 20 (48.78%. The average salary was 450 Euros ( (range: 120-1 400 Euros. Most of the paediatric surgeons (68.29% had internet services for continuous update courses and research. Thirty six paediatric surgeons (87.80% had no subscription to specialised scientific journals. Conclusion: The paediatric surgeon in FSSA faces many problems related to his working and living conditions that may have a negative impact on their competences.

  18. Hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Contextual View of Patterns of Disease, Best Management, and Systems Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulu, Shanti; Aronow, Wilbert S; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) bears the highest burden of both communicable and noncommunicable disease and has the weakest health systems. Much attention is directed toward a rising burden of chronic disease in the setting of epidemiologic transition and urbanization. Indeed, the highest prevalence of hypertension globally is in the World Health Organization's African region at 46% of adults aged 25 and above. And while hypertension in SSA is common, its prevalence varies significantly between urban and rural settings. Although there is evidence for epidemiologic transition in urban areas, there is also evidence of static levels of hypertension within rural areas, which comprise more than 70% of the population of SSA. Furthermore, overall cardiovascular (CV) risk in rural areas remains low. The mean age of hypertensives in SSA is approximately 30s to 40s, burdening those at peak productivity. Complications of hypertension are frequent, given the poor levels of awareness and treatment (calcium channel blocker. Despite these recommendations, the major obstacles to hypertension treatment are systemic and include the availability and cost of medications, the adequacy of health facilities and systems, and the lack of health insurance to address affordability. New and innovative systems-oriented approaches are needed to address the burden of hypertension on a platform of global equity. PMID:26284525

  19. Metric dental variation of major human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Ishida, Hajime

    2005-10-01

    Mesiodistal and buccolingual crown diameters of all teeth recorded in 72 major human population groups and seven geographic groups were analyzed. The results obtained are fivefold. First, the largest teeth are found among Australians, followed by Melanesians, Micronesians, sub-Saharan Africans, and Native Americans. Philippine Negritos, Jomon/Ainu, and Western Eurasians have small teeth, while East/Southeast Asians and Polynesians are intermediate in overall tooth size. Second, in terms of odontometric shape factors, world extremes are Europeans, aboriginal New World populations, and to a lesser extent, Australians. Third, East/Southeast Asians share similar dental features with sub-Saharan Africans, and fall in the center of the phenetic space occupied by a wide array of samples. Fourth, the patterning of dental variation among major geographic populations is more or less consistent with those obtained from genetic and craniometric data. Fifth, once differences in population size between sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, South/West Asia, Australia, and Far East, and genetic drift are taken into consideration, the pattern of sub-Saharan African distinctiveness becomes more or less comparable to that based on genetic and craniometric data. As such, worldwide patterning of odontometric variation provides an additional avenue in the ongoing investigation of the origin(s) of anatomically modern humans. PMID:15838862

  20. Mapping Agricultural Fields in Sub-Saharan Africa with a Computer Vision Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, S. R.; Luo, D.; Estes, L. D.; Fuchs, T.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is an important focus for food security research, because it is experiencing unprecedented population growth, agricultural activities are largely dominated by smallholder production, and the region is already home to 25% of the world's undernourished. One of the greatest challenges to monitoring and improving food security in this region is obtaining an accurate accounting of the spatial distribution of agriculture. Households are the primary units of agricultural production in smallholder communities and typically rely on small fields of less than 2 hectares. Field sizes are directly related to household crop productivity, management choices, and adoption of new technologies. As population and agriculture expand, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the distribution of field sizes as well as how agricultural communities are spatially embedded in the landscape. In addition, household surveys, a common tool for tracking agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa, would greatly benefit from spatially explicit accounting of fields. Current gridded land cover data sets do not provide information on individual agricultural fields or the distribution of field sizes. Therefore, we employ cutting edge approaches from the field of computer vision to map fields across Sub-Saharan Africa, including semantic segmentation, discriminative classifiers, and automatic feature selection. Our approach aims to not only improve the binary classification accuracy of cropland, but also to isolate distinct fields, thereby capturing crucial information on size and geometry. Our research focuses on the development of descriptive features across scales to increase the accuracy and geographic range of our computer vision algorithm. Relevant data sets include high-resolution remote sensing imagery and Landsat (30-m) multi-spectral imagery. Training data for field boundaries is derived from hand-digitized data sets as well as crowdsourcing.

  1. Projected climate change impacts and short term predictions on staple crops in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, V.; Spano, D.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) drives the economy of many African countries and it is mainly rain-fed agriculture used for subsistence. Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns and more frequent droughts may lead to a substantial decrease of crop yields. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture are expected to be significant and extensive in the SSA due to the shortening of the growing seasons and the increasing of water-stress risk. Differences in Agro-Ecological Zones and geographical characteristics of SSA influence the diverse impacts of climate change, which can greatly differ across the continent and within countries. The vulnerability of African Countries to climate change is aggravated by the low adaptive capacity of the continent, due to the increasing of its population, the widespread poverty, and other social factors. In this contest, the assessment of climate change impact on agricultural sector has a particular interest to stakeholder and policy makers, in order to identify specific agricultural sectors and Agro-Ecological Zones that could be more vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and to develop the most appropriate policies to cope with these threats. For these reasons, the evaluation of climate change impacts for key crops in SSA was made exploring climate uncertainty and focusing on short period monitoring, which is particularly useful for food security and risk management analysis. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT-CSM are tools that allow to simulate physiological process of crop growth, development and production, by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were used, after a parameterization phase, to evaluate climate change impacts on crop phenology and production. Multiple combinations of soils and climate conditions, crop management and varieties were considered for the different Agro-Ecological Zones. The climate impact was assessed using future climate prediction, statistically and/or dynamically downscaled, for specific areas. Direct and indirect effects of different CO2 concentrations projected for the future periods were separately explored to estimate their effects on crops. Several adaptation strategies (e.g., introduction of full irrigation, shift of the ordinary sowing/planting date, changes in the ordinary fertilization management) were also evaluated with the aim to reduce the negative impact of climate change on crop production. The results of the study, analyzed at local, AEZ and country level, will be discussed.

  2. IPPs in Sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants of success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the outcomes of independent power projects (IPPs) across Sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately 20 such projects have taken root to date, concentrated mainly in 8 countries. A suite of country level and project level factors play a critical role in determining project success, chief among them: the manner in which planning, procurement and contracting are coherently linked, the role of development finance institutions along with the development origins of firms and credit enhancements. - Highlights: → We analyse the outcomes of independent power projects (IPPs) across Sub-Saharan Africa. → Approximately 20 IPPs have taken root to date, concentrated mainly in 8 countries. → A suite of country level and project level factors play a critical role in determining project success. → Key success factors are the coherence of planning, procurement and contracting. → Also important is the role of DFIs, the development origins of firms, and credit enhancements.

  3. Association studies in QTL regions linked to bovine trypanotolerance in a West African crossbred population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayo, G K; Gautier, M; Berthier, D; Poivey, J P; Sidibe, I; Bengaly, Z; Eggen, A; Boichard, D; Thevenon, S

    2012-04-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a parasitic blood disease transmitted by tsetse flies and is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. West African taurine breeds have the ability, known as trypanotolerance, to limit parasitaemia and anaemia and remain productive in enzootic areas. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying traits related to trypanotolerance have been identified in an experimentally infected F(2) population resulting from a cross between taurine and zebu cattle. Although this information is highly valuable, the QTL remain to be confirmed in populations subjected to natural conditions of infection, and the corresponding regions need to be refined. In our study, 360 West African cattle were phenotyped for the packed cell volume control under natural conditions of infection in south-western Burkina Faso. Phenotypes were assessed by analysing data from previous cattle monitored over 2 years in an area enzootic for trypanosomosis. We further genotyped for 64 microsatellite markers mapping within four previously reported QTL on BTA02, BTA04, BTA07 and BTA13. These data enabled us to estimate the heritability of the phenotype using the kinship matrix between individuals computed from genotyping data. Thus, depending on the estimators considered and the method used, the heritability of anaemia control ranged from 0.09 to 0.22. Finally, an analysis of association identified an allele of the MNB42 marker on BTA04 as being strongly associated with anaemia control, and a candidate gene, INHBA, as being close to that marker. PMID:22404348

  4. Gender, Time Use, and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Blackden, C. Mark; Wodon, Quentin

    2006-01-01

    The papers in this volume examine the links between gender, time use, and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. They contribute to a broader definition of poverty to include time poverty, and to a broader definition of work to include household work. The papers present a conceptual framework linking both market and household work, review some of the available literature and surveys on time use in ...

  5. Testing the PPP hypothesis in the sub-Saharan countries

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, GM; Gil-Alana, LA

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the PPP hypothesis in a number of Sub-Saharan countries by testing the order of integration in the log of their real exchange rate vis--vis the US dollar. I(d) techniques based on both asymptotic and finite sample results are used. The test results lead to the rejection of PPP in all cases: although orders of integration below 1 are found in fourteen countries, the unit root null cannot be rejected.

  6. Community responses to malaria: interventions in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pell, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents data from two multi-site programmes of research that have examined the social responses to malaria interventions in sub -Saharan Africa. The first dealt specifically with the attitudes and behaviours linked to a single intervention aimed at reducing malaria morbidity and mortality amongst infants (intermittent preventive treatment, IPTi). The subsequent research addressed more broadly the social and cultural context to malaria during pregnancy (MiP), but also encompassed ...

  7. Crop-Livestock Interaction in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    McIntire, J.; Bourzat, D.; Prabhu, P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite the theoretical benefits of crop-livestock interaction, crop and animal production are not well integrated in sub-Saharan Africa. The transition from separate, extensive crop and animal production to integrated, more intensive forms has been difficult to achieve via projects. The mixed record of projects suggests that the way to achieve greater interaction is not well understood. In attempting to understand crop livestock relations, three basic ideas are proposed in this study: (1) cr...

  8. mHealth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Betjeman, Thomas J.; Soghoian, Samara E.; Foran, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone penetration rates have reached 63% in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and are projected to pass 70% by 2013. In SSA, millions of people who never used traditional landlines now use mobile phones on a regular basis. Mobile health, or mHealth, is the utilization of short messaging service (SMS), wireless data transmission, voice calling, and smartphone applications to transmit health-related information or direct care. This systematic review analyzes and summarizes key articles from the c...

  9. Access to Optometric Education: Challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Loughman, James; Moodley, V.R.; Holden, Brien; Naidoo, K.

    2014-01-01

    Access to education was identified as a key international priority by UNESCO as far back as 1998 when it called for “equality of access”. The profession of optometry has been challenged to educate practitioners in increasing numbers in order to meet the eye care needs. The World Health Organization reported that globally, an estimated 285 million people are visually impaired and in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) uncorrected refractive error is the main cause of visual impairment. The number of opto...

  10. The Sub-Saharan Africa carbon balance, an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bombelli, A.; Henry, M.; Castaldi, S.; Adu-Bredu, S.; Arneth, A; De Grandcourt, A.; Grieco, E.; Kutsch, W. L.; Lehsten, V.; A. Rasile; Reichstein, M.; Tansey, K.; Weber, U.; Valentini, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a summary overview of the carbon balance of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by synthesizing the available data from national communications to UNFCCC and first results from the project CarboAfrica (net ecosystem productivity and emissions from fires, deforestation and forest degradation, by field and model estimates). According to these preliminary estimates the overall carbon balance of SSA varies from 0.43 Pg C y?1 (using in situ measurements fo...

  11. Indigenous Knowledge and Public Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Munyaradzi Mawere; University of Cape Town

    2015-01-01

    The discourse on indigenous knowledge has incited a debate of epic proportions across the world over the years. In Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region, while the so-called indigenous communities have always found value in their own local forms of knowledge, the colonial administration and its associates viewed indigenous knowledge as unscientific, illogical, anti-development, and/or ungodly. The status and importance of indigenous knowledge has changed in the wake of the landmark 199...

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Prasad, A.M.G.; Ranney, J.W.; Waddle, D.B.

    1990-11-01

    Current and future carbon emissions from land-use change and energy consumption were analyzed for Sub-Saharan Africa. The energy sector analysis was based on UN energy data tapes while the land-use analysis was based on a spatially-explicit land-use model developed specifically for this project. The impacts of different energy and land-use strategies on future carbon emissions were considered. (A review of anthropogenic emissions of methane, nitrous oxides, and chlorofluorocarbons in Sub-Saharan Africa indicated that they were probably minor in both a global and a regional context. The study therefore was focused on emissions of carbon dioxide.) The land-use model predicts carbon emissions from land use change and the amount of carbon stored in vegetation (carbon inventory) on a yearly basis between 1985 and 2001. Emissions and inventory are modeled at 9000 regularly-spaced point locations in Sub-Saharan Africa using location-specific information on vegetation type, soils, climate and deforestation. Vegetation, soils, and climate information were derived from continental-scale maps while relative deforestation rates(% of forest land lost each year) were developed from country-specific forest and deforestation statistics (FAO Tropical Forest Resources Assessment for Africa, 1980). The carbon emissions under different land use strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa were analyzed by modifying deforestation rates and altering the amount of carbon stored under different land uses. The considered strategies were: preservation of existing forests, implementation of agroforestry, and establishment of industrial tree plantations. 82 refs., 16 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Seaweed diversity patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    De Clerck, O.; Bolton, J.J.; John, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    A proper understanding of inshore marine ecosystems cannot be obtained without a thorough knowledge of marine vegetation. This paper summarises our knowledge of species diversity patterns of marine macroalgae in Sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting gaps. In Tropical East Africa the seaweed floras of Somalia and Mozambique are not well known. In Tropical West Africa, only a small number of countries are well-collected, although recent advances, including web-based systems, are ensuring that the in...

  14. Forced Displacement and Refugees in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Verwimp, Philip; Maystadt, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    Most reports on refugees deal with the immediate needs of displaced people. This paper seeks to go beyond the emergency phase and explore the challenges surrounding protracted refugee situations. The paper examines the refugee situation in Sub-Saharan Africa from a long-term angle, from the perspective of refugees own agency as well as from the perspective of the host community. The paper ...

  15. Food trade and urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyses a selection of the literature that has been published on the relationship between the development of food trade and urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa. The evolution of food marketing systems and the urbanization process are described in three phases: the precolonial period, the colonial period, and the postindependence period. The paper concludes that the evolution of food trade and urbanization have been closely interlinked from the beginning. Sometimes urbanization was ...

  16. Towards universal health coverage: the role of within-country wealth-related inequality in 28 countries in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To measure within-country wealth-related inequality in the health service coverage gap of maternal and child health indicators in sub-Saharan Africa and quantify its contribution to the national health service coverage gap. METHODS: Coverage data for child and maternal health services in 28 sub-Saharan African countries were obtained from the 2000-2008 Demographic Health Survey. For each country, the national coverage gap was determined for an overall health service coverage index and select individual health service indicators. The data were then additively broken down into the coverage gap in the wealthiest quintile (i.e. the proportion of the quintile lacking a required health service and the population attributable risk (an absolute measure of within-country wealth-related inequality. FINDINGS: In 26 countries, within-country wealth-related inequality accounted for more than one quarter of the national overall coverage gap. Reducing such inequality could lower this gap by 16% to 56%, depending on the country. Regarding select individual health service indicators, wealth-related inequality was more common in services such as skilled birth attendance and antenatal care, and less so in family planning, measles immunization, receipt of a third dose of vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus and treatment of acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age. CONCLUSION: The contribution of wealth-related inequality to the child and maternal health service coverage gap differs by country and type of health service, warranting case-specific interventions. Targeted policies are most appropriate where high within-country wealth-related inequality exists, and whole-population approaches, where the health-service coverage gap is high in all quintiles.

  17. How do African populations perceive corruption: microeconomic evidence from Afrobarometer data in twelve countries

    OpenAIRE

    Attila, Gbewopo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the microeconomic determinants of the perception of corruption in twelve Sub-Saharan African countries. Unlike the indicators of corruption based on the opinion of international experts, the study focuses on corrupt practices as experienced by the African people themselves. The results of our estimates, using an ordered probit indicate that the individual characteristics such as age and sex significantly affect the perception people have of corruption as do social an...

  18. The Economics of the African Media

    OpenAIRE

    Cage, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the economics of sub-Saharan African media. Using the history of sub-Saharan African newspapers as well as historical evidence from Europe and the United States, I study the emergence of market-oriented journalism and of an independent and informative press in sub-Saharan Africa. I document the extent to which sub-Saharan African newspapers have followed the same development steps than newspapers in other countries, moving from living off patronage and governme...

  19. Large-scale selective sweep among Segregation Distorter chromosomes in African populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presgraves, Daven C; Gérard, Pierre R; Cherukuri, Anjuli; Lyttle, Terrence W

    2009-05-01

    Segregation Distorter (SD) is a selfish, coadapted gene complex on chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster that strongly distorts Mendelian transmission; heterozygous SD/SD(+) males sire almost exclusively SD-bearing progeny. Fifty years of genetic, molecular, and theory work have made SD one of the best-characterized meiotic drive systems, but surprisingly the details of its evolutionary origins and population dynamics remain unclear. Earlier analyses suggested that the SD system arose recently in the Mediterranean basin and then spread to a low, stable equilibrium frequency (1-5%) in most natural populations worldwide. In this report, we show, first, that SD chromosomes occur in populations in sub-Saharan Africa, the ancestral range of D. melanogaster, at a similarly low frequency (approximately 2%), providing evidence for the robustness of its equilibrium frequency but raising doubts about the Mediterranean-origins hypothesis. Second, our genetic analyses reveal two kinds of SD chromosomes in Africa: inversion-free SD chromosomes with little or no transmission advantage; and an African-endemic inversion-bearing SD chromosome, SD-Mal, with a perfect transmission advantage. Third, our population genetic analyses show that SD-Mal chromosomes swept across the African continent very recently, causing linkage disequilibrium and an absence of variability over 39% of the length of the second chromosome. Thus, despite a seemingly stable equilibrium frequency, SD chromosomes continue to evolve, to compete with one another, or evade suppressors in the genome. PMID:19412335

  20. Effect of variable transmission rate on the dynamics of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Sarah L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of the high HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is incompletely understood, with heterosexual penile-vaginal transmission proposed as the main mechanism. Heterosexual HIV transmission has been estimated to have a very low probability; but effects of cofactors that vary in space and time may substantially alter this pattern. Methods To test the effect of individual variation in the HIV infectiousness generated by co-infection, we developed and analyzed a mathematical sexual network model that simulates the behavioral components of a population from Malawi, as well as the dynamics of HIV and the co-infection effect caused by other infectious diseases, including herpes simplex virus type-2, gonorrhea, syphilis and malaria. Results The analysis shows that without the amplification effect caused by co-infection, no epidemic is generated, and HIV prevalence decreases to extinction. But the model indicates that an epidemic can be generated by the amplification effect on HIV transmission caused by co-infection. Conclusion The simulated sexual network demonstrated that a single value for HIV infectivity fails to describe the dynamics of the epidemic. Regardless of the low probability of heterosexual transmission per sexual contact, the inclusion of individual variation generated by transient but repeated increases in HIV viral load associated with co-infections may provide a biological basis for the accelerated spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, our work raises the possibility that the natural history of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa cannot be fully understood if individual variation in infectiousness is neglected.

  1. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa: A literature review with emphasis on individuals with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Pascal Kengne

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Andre Pascal Kengne1, Anastase Dzudie2, Eugene Sobngwi31The George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Heart failure and transplantation Unit, Louis Pradels Cardiovascular Hospital, Lyon, France; 3National Obesity Centre, Yaounde Central Hospital, CameroonPurpose: Heart failure is the ultimate complication of cardiac involvements in diabetes. The purpose of this review was to summarize current literature on heart failure among people with diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Method: Bibliographic search of published data on heart failure and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa over the past 26 years.Results: Heart failure remains largely unexplored in general population and among people with diabetes in Africa. Heart failure accounts for over 30% of hospital admission in specialized cardiovascular units and 3%7% in general internal medicine. Over 11% of adults with heart failure have diabetes. Risk factors for heart failure among those with diabetes include classical cardiovascular risk factors, without evidence of diabetes distinctiveness for other predictors common in Africa. Prevention, management, and outcomes of heart failure are less well known; recent data suggest improvement in the management of risk factors in clinical settings.Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is growing in SSA. Related cardiovascular diseases are emerging as potential health problem. Heart failure as cardiovascular complication remains largely unexplored. Efforts are needed through research to improve our knowledge of heart failure at large in Africa. Multilevel preventive measures, building on evidences from other parts of the world must go along side.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, sub-Saharan Africa

  2. Assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources of sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) World Petroleum Resources Project is to assess the potential for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural gas resources of the world, exclusive of the United States (U.S. Geological Survey World Conventional Resources Assessment Team, 2012). The USGS updated assessments that were completed during the USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000 (U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000) and conducted new assessments in areas around the world that were not previously examined (U.S. Geological Survey World Conventional Resources Assessment Team, 2012). These assessments used the latest geology-based assessment methodology for conventional oil and gas resources. As part of this project, the USGS assessed 13 geologic provinces located in sub-Saharan Africa (U.S. Geological Survey World Conventional Resources Assessment Team, 2012). Coastal provinces were extended offshore to water depths ranging from 2,000 to 4,000 meters (m). Within these 13 geologic provinces, 18 assessment units were identified. The west Africa provinces are (1) the Senegal, containing the passive-margin Senegal Basin of Middle Jurassic to Holocene age; (2) the West African Coastal, characterized by rift, passive-margin, and transform tectonics; (3) the Gulf of Guinea, characterized by transform tectonics; (4) the Niger Delta, containing more than 9,100 m of sedimentary rock and recent sediments; (5) the West-Central Coastal, which contains the Aptian salt basin and is dominated by both rift and sag tectonics, and which includes the Congo Basin; and (6) the Orange River Coastal, containing more than 7,000 m of syn-rift and post-rift sedimentary rock. The West African Coastal Province was assessed for the first time, whereas the other five west Africa provinces were reassessed for the 2012 World Oil and Gas Resource Assessment (fig. 1 of U.S. Geological Survey World Conventional Resources Assessment Team, 2012). More than 275 new oil and gas fields have been discovered in the six west Africa provinces (IHS Energy, 2008, 2009) since the USGS World Petroleum Assessment in 2000 (U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000). These provinces were assessed because of increased energy exploration activity and new oil and gas discoveries within the provinces. Seven provinces not assessed as part of the World Petroleum Assessment 2000 (U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000) were assessed by the USGS as part of the World Assessment 2012 (U.S. Geological Survey World Conventional Resources Assessment Team, 2012). These provinces are (1) the Chad Province, containing Cretaceous and Cenozoic-age lacustrine, continental, and minor marine rocks; (2) the Sud Province, containing Cretaceous and Paleogene age lacustrine, continental, and minor marine rocks; (3) the South Africa Coastal Province, which contains rift, transform, and passive-margin rocks; (4) the Mozambique Coastal Province, containing rift, drift, and passive-margin rocks; (5) the Morondava Province, which contains failed rift, drift, and passive-margin rocks; (6) the Tanzania Coastal Province, containing rift, drift, and passive-margin rocks; and (7) the Seychelles Province, which contains rift and drift rocks. At the time of this assessment 157 oil and gas fields had been discovered in the seven provinces (IHS Energy, 2009). These provinces were assessed because of increased interest and new oil and gas discoveries within the provinces.

  3. Independent introduction of two lactase-persistence alleles into human populations reflects different history of adaptation to milk culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enattah, Nabil Sabri; Jensen, Tine G K; Boyd, Mette; Lewinski, Rikke; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Rasinpera, Heli; El-Shanti, Hatem; Seo, Jeong Kee; Alifrangis, Michael; Khalil, Insaf F; Natah, Abdrazak; Ali, Ahmed; Natah, Sirajedin; Comas, David; Mehdi, S Qasim; Groop, Leif; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Imtiaz, Faiqa; Rashed, Mohamed S; Meyer, Brian; Troelsen, Jesper; Peltonen, Leena

    2008-01-01

    The T(-13910) variant located in the enhancer element of the lactase (LCT) gene correlates perfectly with lactase persistence (LP) in Eurasian populations whereas the variant is almost nonexistent among Sub-Saharan African populations, showing high prevalence of LP. Here, we report identification...

  4. Progress toward prevention of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection--sub-Saharan Africa, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apata, Ibironke W; Averhoff, Francisco; Pitman, John; Bjork, Adam; Yu, Junping; Amin, Noryati Abu; Dhingra, Neelam; Kolwaite, Amy; Marfin, Anthony

    2014-07-25

    Infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally, primarily because of sequelae of chronic liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The risks for HBV and HCV transmission via blood transfusions have been described previously and are believed to be higher in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing the risk for transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HBV, and HCV infection is a priority for international aid organizations, such as the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Fund to Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis, and the World Health Organization (WHO). Over the last decade, PEPFAR and the Global Fund have supported blood safety programs in many sub-Saharan African countries with heavy burdens of HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis, malaria, and maternal mortality. This report summarizes HBV- and HCV-related surveillance data reported by the blood transfusion services of WHO member states to WHO's Global Database on Blood Safety (GDBS) (4). It also evaluates the performance of blood safety programs in screening for HBV and HCV in 38 sub-Saharan Africa countries. Selected GDBS indicators were compared for the years 2000 and 2004 (referred to as the 2000/2004 period) and 2010 and 2011 (referred to as the 2010/2011 period). From 2000/2004 to 2010/2011, the median of the annual number of units donated per country increased, the number of countries screening at least 95% of blood donations for HBV and HCV increased, and the median of the national prevalence of HBV and HCV marker-reactive blood donations decreased. These findings suggest that during the past decade, more blood has been donated and screened for HBV and HCV, resulting in a safer blood supply. Investments in blood safety should be continued to further increase the availability and safety of blood products in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25055184

  5. The energy ladder: A valid model for household fuel transitions in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, Rebecca

    This thesis explores the determinants of household cooking fuel use within the context of the energy ladder hypothesis. Rooted in economic theory, the hypothesis constructs a linear model of household energy use in developing countries. I draw on existing survey data assembled by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to construct a dataset of 26 sub-Saharan African countries. Using this, I assess the validity of the energy ladder in this geographical context. My analysis examines the relationship between wealth and cooking fuel use, as measured by the shares of households reporting the use of traditional, transitional or modern cooking fuels at the enumeration level, an administrative definition created for census sampling. I additionally test for the effects of other characteristics, such as asset ownership and demographic characteristics. Furthermore, I explore the differences in effects between rural and urban areas. I conclude that wealth is not the sole influencer of cooking fuel choice.

  6. Traditional burn care in sub-Saharan Africa: a long history with wide acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertyn, R; Berg, A; Numanoglu, A; Rode, H

    2015-03-01

    Burns are very common in sub-Saharan Africa and are considered to be a major health care problem. The management of burns in many African countries is challenged by limited financial resources, inaccessible health care facilities, lack of trained professionals and superstition. These limitations are related to the many burned patients seeking treatment from traditional healers. The use of traditional remedies, plant and animal products are seen as an important aspect of burn management as it is both an affordable and respected treatment modality. Despite its popularity, the use of traditional burn care remedies is faced with many challenges as little research has been done on its effectiveness, dosage and adverse reactions. This paper reviewed the traditions and customs associated with traditional burn care as well as the use of plant, animal and mineral products used by traditional healers. PMID:25062977

  7. Irrigation with saline water using low-cost drip-irrigation systems in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Karlberg, Louise

    2005-01-01

    In the scope of future population support, agricultural productivity, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa, has to increase drastically to meet the UN’s millennium development goals of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Water availability in the root-zone limits crop production in large parts of the developing world. As competition for fresh water increases, water of lower quality, for example saline or polluted water, is often used for irrigation. Low-cost drip systems are suitab...

  8. HIV Prevention and Research Considerations for Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: Moving toward Biobehavioral Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses current and emerging HIV prevention strategies for women in Sub-Saharan Africa, in light of recent trial results and ongoing research. What are the major opportunities and challenges for widespread implementation of new and emerging HIV prevention strategies? The paper discusses the major individual, social and structural factors that underpin women's disproportionate risk for HIV infection, with attention to gender, adolescents as a vulnerable population, and the need to...

  9. Optimizing cropland cover for stable food production in Sub-Saharan Africa using simulated yield and Modern Portfolio Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bodin, P; Olin, S.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A

    2014-01-01

    Food security can be defined as stable access to food of good nutritional quality. In Sub Saharan Africa access to food is strongly linked to local food production and the capacity to generate enough calories to sustain the local population. Therefore it is important in these regions to generate not only sufficiently high yields but also to reduce interannual variability in food production. Traditionally, climate impact simulation studies have focused on fac...

  10. Association of HIV and ART with cardiometabolic traits in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, David G; Gurdasani, Deepti; Riha, Johanna; Ekoru, Kenneth; Asiki, Gershim; Mayanja, Billy N.; Levitt, Naomi S; Crowther, Nigel J.; Nyirenda, Moffat; Njelekela, Marina; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Nyan, Ousman; Adewole, Olanisun O; Anastos, Kathryn; Azzoni, Livio

    2014-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest burden of HIV in the world and a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic disease; however, the interrelationship between HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cardiometabolic traits is not well described in SSA populations. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis through MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to January 2012), as well as direct author contact. Eligible studies provided summary or individual-level data on one or more of the f...

  11. A systematic review of missed opportunities for improving tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS control in Sub-saharan Africa: what is still missed by health experts?

    OpenAIRE

    Keugoung, Basile; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fotsing, Richard; Macq, Jean; Meli, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis are major public health problems. In 2010, 64% of the 34 million of people infected with HIV were reported to be living in sub-Saharan Africa. Only 41% of eligible HIV-positive people had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Regarding tuberculosis, in 2010, the region had 12% of the world's population but reported 26% of the 8.8 million incident cases and 254000 tuberculosis-related deaths. This paper aims to review missed opportunities for ...

  12. Measuring improvements in sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seims, Sara; Khadduri, Rolla

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies on development aid from European donors revealed that their funding of the health sector in sub-Saharan Africa rarely includes performance measures suitable for tracking operational progress in improving sexual and reproductive health and rights. Analysis of health sector agreements verifies this. Particularly lacking are metrics related to four critically important areas: (1) reducing mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion, (2) preventing and treating gender-based violence, (3) reducing unwanted pregnancies among the poorest women, and (4) reducing unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. During 2011 and the first half of 2012, the authors interviewed 85 experts in health service delivery, ministries of health, human rights, development economics and social science from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and the United States. We asked them to identify measures to assess progress in these areas, and built on their responses to propose up to four practical performance measures for each of the areas, for inclusion in health sector support agreements. These measures are meant to supplement, not replace, current population-based measures such as changes in maternal mortality ratios. The feasibility of using these performance measures requires political commitment from donors and governments, investment in baseline data, and expanding the role of sexual and reproductive health and rights civil society in determining priorities. PMID:23245424

  13. AIDS in the countries of sub-saharan Africa: causes, state and impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Bouřilová, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    In the first part of the work are described the most frequent causes of the origin and spread of HIV/AIDS in sub-saharan Africa. The second part of the work summarizes the state of infection in sub-saharan Africa from quantitative and qualitative aspect and adumbration of AIDS outlook. The last part is focusing on the most serious impacts of illness for sub-saharan Africa and the whole world with emphasis on economic, demographic and social impacts.

  14. Sources of HIV incidence among stable couples in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hiam Chemaitelly; Susanne F Awad; James D. Shelton; Laith J. Abu-Raddad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The recent availability of efficacious prevention interventions among stable couples offers new opportunities for reducing HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the dynamics of HIV incidence among stable couples is critical to inform HIV prevention strategy across sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We quantified the sources of HIV incidence arising among stable couples in sub-Saharan Africa using a cohort-type mathematical model parameterized by nationally representative ...

  15. At the southeast fringe of the Bantu expansion: genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships to other sub-Saharan tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rowold

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present 12 loci paternal haplotypes (Y-STR profiles against the backdrop of the Y-SNP marker system of Bantu males from the Maputo Province of Southeast Africa, a region believed to represent the southeastern fringe of the Bantu expansion. Our Maputo Bantu group was analyzed within the context of 27 geographically relevant reference populations in order to ascertain its genetic relationship to other Bantu and non Bantu (Pygmy, Khoisan and Nilotic sub-equatorial tribes from West and East Africa. This study entails statistical pair wise comparisons and multidimensional scaling based on YSTR Rst distances, network analyses of Bantu (B2a-M150 and Pygmy (B2b-M112 lineages as well as an assessment of Y-SNP distribution patterns. Several notable findings include the following: 1 the Maputo Province Bantu exhibits a relatively close paternal affinity with both east and west Bantu tribes due to high proportion of Bantu Y chromosomal markers, 2 only traces of Khoisan (1.3% and Pygmy (1.3% markers persist in the Maputo Province Bantu gene pool, 3 the occurrence of R1a1a-M17/M198, a member of the Eurasian R1a-M420 branch in the population of the Maputo Province, may represent back migration events and/or recent admixture events, 4 the shared presence of E1b1b1-M35 in all Tanzanian tribes examined, including Bantu and non-Bantu groups, in conjunction with its nearly complete absence in the West African populations indicate that, in addition to a shared linguistic, cultural and genetic heritage, geography (e.g., east vs. west may have impacted the paternal landscape of sub-Saharan Africa, 5 the admixture and assimilation processes of Bantu elements were both highly complex and region-specific.

  16. At the southeast fringe of the Bantu expansion: genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships to other sub-Saharan tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowold, Diane; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Rivera, Luis; Benedico, David Perez; Alfonso Sanchez, Miguel A; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Varela, Mangela; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-12-01

    Here, we present 12 loci paternal haplotypes (Y-STR profiles) against the backdrop of the Y-SNP marker system of Bantu males from the Maputo Province of Southeast Africa, a region believed to represent the southeastern fringe of the Bantu expansion. Our Maputo Bantu group was analyzed within the context of 27 geographically relevant reference populations in order to ascertain its genetic relationship to other Bantu and non Bantu (Pygmy, Khoisan and Nilotic) sub-equatorial tribes from West and East Africa. This study entails statistical pair wise comparisons and multidimensional scaling based on YSTR Rst distances, network analyses of Bantu (B2a-M150) and Pygmy (B2b-M112) lineages as well as an assessment of Y-SNP distribution patterns. Several notable findings include the following: 1) the Maputo Province Bantu exhibits a relatively close paternal affinity with both east and west Bantu tribes due to high proportion of Bantu Y chromosomal markers, 2) only traces of Khoisan (1.3%) and Pygmy (1.3%) markers persist in the Maputo Province Bantu gene pool, 3) the occurrence of R1a1a-M17/M198, a member of the Eurasian R1a-M420 branch in the population of the Maputo Province, may represent back migration events and/or recent admixture events, 4) the shared presence of E1b1b1-M35 in all Tanzanian tribes examined, including Bantu and non-Bantu groups, in conjunction with its nearly complete absence in the West African populations indicate that, in addition to a shared linguistic, cultural and genetic heritage, geography (e.g., east vs. west) may have impacted the paternal landscape of sub-Saharan Africa, 5) the admixture and assimilation processes of Bantu elements were both highly complex and region-specific. PMID:25606451

  17. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde R; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

  18. Genomic ancestry of North Africans supports back-to-Africa migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Brenna M; Botigué, Laura R; Gravel, Simon; Wang, Wei; Brisbin, Abra; Byrnes, Jake K; Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Zalloua, Pierre A; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bustamante, Carlos D; Comas, David

    2012-01-01

    North African populations are distinct from sub-Saharan Africans based on cultural, linguistic, and phenotypic attributes; however, the time and the extent of genetic divergence between populations north and south of the Sahara remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate the multilayered history of North Africa by characterizing the effect of hypothesized migrations from the Near East, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa on current genetic diversity. We present dense, genome-wide SNP genotyping array data (730,000 sites) from seven North African populations, spanning from Egypt to Morocco, and one Spanish population. We identify a gradient of likely autochthonous Maghrebi ancestry that increases from east to west across northern Africa; this ancestry is likely derived from "back-to-Africa" gene flow more than 12,000 years ago (ya), prior to the Holocene. The indigenous North African ancestry is more frequent in populations with historical Berber ethnicity. In most North African populations we also see substantial shared ancestry with the Near East, and to a lesser extent sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. To estimate the time of migration from sub-Saharan populations into North Africa, we implement a maximum likelihood dating method based on the distribution of migrant tracts. In order to first identify migrant tracts, we assign local ancestry to haplotypes using a novel, principal component-based analysis of three ancestral populations. We estimate that a migration of western African origin into Morocco began about 40 generations ago (approximately 1,200 ya); a migration of individuals with Nilotic ancestry into Egypt occurred about 25 generations ago (approximately 750 ya). Our genomic data reveal an extraordinarily complex history of migrations, involving at least five ancestral populations, into North Africa. PMID:22253600

  19. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  20. Analytically Derived Neighborhoods in a Rapidly Growing West African City: The Case of Accra, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Getis, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of people are currently migrating from the poor, inland areas of West Coast Africa to the major cities of Lagos, Accra, Abidjan, and other budding metropolises (Figures 1 and 2). The infrastructure of the Sub-Saharan African cities is inadequate to service their burgeoning populations. An argument is presented for using scientifically derived neighborhoods as the building blocks for current African urban understanding and planning. In this paper, I will explore the neighborhood ...

  1. Human papillomavirus prevalence among men in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Munk, Christian; Christensen, Jane; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Kjaer, Susanne K.

    2014-01-01

    was 78.2% (95% CI 54.2 to 91.6) among HIV-positive and 49.4% (95% CI 30.4 to 68.6) among HIV-negative men (p=0.0632). When restricting the analyses to PCR-based studies, the pooled prevalence of any HPV was 84.5% (95% CI 74.2 to 91.2) among HIV-positive and 56.4% (95% CI 49.7 to 62.9) among HIV......-negative men (p<0.0001). Of the HPV types included in the nine-valent HPV vaccine, the most common HR HPV types were HPV16 and HPV52, and HPV6 was the most common low-risk HPV type. When examining the prevalence of HPV in relation to age no clear trend was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HPV is high...... among men in sub-Saharan Africa, which could contribute to the high rates of penile and cervical cancer in this part of the world. Implementation of the prophylactic HPV vaccines could potentially help prevent this large burden of HPV and HPV-associated disease in sub-Saharan Africa. CLINICALTRIALS...

  2. Cosmovisin de emigrantes subsaharianos y cuidados de enfermera Worldview of Sub-Saharan emigrants and nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gentil Garca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Justificacin: La poblacin inmigrante subsahariana es la ms desconocida para los profesionales de la salud. Objetivo: Conocer, a travs de sus voces, su cosmovisin que enmarca valores, creencias y prcticas sobre salud y enfermedad, centrndonos en el ser humano con enfoque holstico. Metodologa: Cualitativa, fenomenologa. Resultados: Su concepcin de la vida y del universo est impregnada de la religin ms antigua del mundo: el animismo. Los antepasados que murieron siguen estando para protegerles. Aprecian la atencin sanitaria espaola pero hay padecimientos que resuelve mejor la medicina tradicional africana. Aunque la atencin es correcta puede despertarse susceptibilidad al no conocer los cdigos culturales de la nueva sociedad. La solidaridad familiar es el valor fundamental. Conclusin: La solidaridad, valor ancestral en los humanos, debe seguir guiando a los profesionales de la salud comprometidos con la salud de la poblacin, defendiendo el Estado de Bienestar frente a las voces que pretenden desmantelarlo.The population of sub-Saharan immigrants is unknown by health care professionals. Objective: know, across his voices, his cosmovision that frames values, beliefs and practices on health and disease, centring on the human being with holistic approach. Methodology qualitative, phenomenology. Results: His conception of the life and of the universe is impregnated with the most ancient religion of the world: the animism. The forbears who died continue being to protect them. They estimate the sanitary Spanish attention though there are sufferings that there solves better the traditional African medicine. Though the attention is correct one can wake susceptibility up on not having known all the cultural codes of the new company. The familiar solidarity is a fundamental value. Conclusions: the ancient solidarity in the human beings must continue guiding the professionals of the health compromised with the health of the population, defending the Welfare state opposite to the voices they it tries to dismantle.

  3. United States aid policy and induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Bendavid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the Mexico City Policy, a United States government policy that prohibits funding to nongovernmental organizations performing or promoting abortion, was associated with the induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Women in 20 African countries who had induced abortions between 1994 and 2008 were identified in Demographic and Health Surveys. A country's exposure to the Mexico City Policy was considered high (or low if its per capita assistance from the United States for family planning and reproductive health was above (or below the median among study countries before the policy's reinstatement in 2001. Using logistic regression and a difference-in-difference design, the authors estimated the differential change in the odds of having an induced abortion among women in high exposure countries relative to low exposure countries when the policy was reinstated. FINDINGS: The study included 261 116 women aged 15 to 44 years. A comparison of 1994-2000 with 2001-2008 revealed an adjusted odds ratio for induced abortion of 2.55 for high-exposure countries versus low-exposure countries under the policy (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.76-3.71. There was a relative decline in the use of modern contraceptives in the high-exposure countries over the same time period. CONCLUSION: The induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa rose in high-exposure countries relative to low-exposure countries when the Mexico City Policy was reintroduced. Reduced financial support for family planning may have led women to substitute abortion for contraception. Regardless of one's views about abortion, the findings may have important implications for public policies governing abortion.

  4. Earthquake and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation and Capacity Building in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, A.

    2012-04-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is a classic example of active continental rifting, and a natural laboratory setting to study initiation and early stage evolution of continental rifts. The EARS is at different stages of development that varies from relatively matured rift (16 mm/yr) in the Afar to a weakly extended Okavango Delta in the south with predicted opening velocity teams across the globe. However, most African countries traversed by the rift do not have the full capacity to monitor and mitigate earthquake and volcanic hazards. Few monitoring facilities exist in some countries, and the data acquisition is rarely available in real-time for mitigation purpose. Many sub-Saharan Africa governments are currently focused on achieving the millennium development goals with massive infrastructure development scheme and urbanization while impending natural hazards of such nature are severely overlooked. Collaborations with overseas researchers and other joint efforts by the international community are opportunities to be used by African institutions to best utilize limited resources and to mitigate earthquake and volcano hazards.

  5. Challenges of Economic Growth, Poverty and Development: Why Are the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) not Fair to Sub-Saharan Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Kanayo Ogujiuba; Fadila Jumare

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries report high levels of growth and GDP per capita and yet they are unable to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) such as quality education and health. The paper argued that GDP might not be sufficient for measuring development because the funds obtained may not necessarily be used to improve the quality of life of worse off communities. Even with a constituent level of GDP, the problem of poverty and underdevelopment is becoming more intractable in Sub-...

  6. “Quality of prenatal and maternal care: bridging the know-do gap” (QUALMAT study): an electronic clinical decision support system for rural Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Antje; Prytherch, Helen; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Krings, Andreas; Sukums, Felix; Mensah, Nathan; Zakane, Alphonse; Loukanova, Svetla; Gustafsson, Lars L.; Sauerborn, Rainer; Haefeli, Walter E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite strong efforts to improve maternal care, its quality remains deficient in many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa as persistently high maternal mortality rates testify. The QUALMAT study seeks to improve the performance and motivation of rural health workers and ultimately quality of primary maternal health care services in three African countries Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania. One major intervention is the introduction of a computerized Clinical Decision Support System (C...

  7. Impact of Contextual Factors on the Effect of Interventions to Improve Health Worker Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa : Review of Randomised Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Blacklock, Claire; Gonalves Bradley, Daniela C; Mickan, Sharon; Willcox, Merlin; Roberts, Nia; Bergstro?m, Anna; Mant, David

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Africa bears 24% of the global burden of disease but has only 3% of the world's health workers. Substantial variation in health worker performance adds to the negative impact of this significant shortfall. We therefore sought to identify interventions implemented in sub-Saharan African aiming to improve health worker performance and the contextual factors likely to influence local effectiveness. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic search for randomised controlled trials of interven...

  8. Modelling the impact of tectonics, surface conditions and sea surface temperatures on Saharan and sub-Saharan climate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulchre, Pierre; Ramstein, Gilles; Schuster, Mathieu

    2009-08-01

    Using an Atmospheric Global Circulation Model, we assess the relevance of selected atmospheric mechanisms for climate evolution of Saharan and sub-Saharan regions since the Miocene. First, we test the influence of the East-African Rift System uplift on atmospheric dynamics. Although the uplift played an important role in triggering East-African rainfall, no significant impact over central and western Africa has been detected. We also analyse the feedbacks of a giant lake on the climate of Chad basin. First results infer a negative feedback of the giant lake on the water balance, as convection is weakened by the cold water surface and as water evaporated from the lake does not feed the basin hydrological cycle. Lastly, we suggest that colder than present sea surface temperatures over the Gulf of Guinea reinforce the West-African monsoon, by enhancing the moisture advection engine via stronger thermal contrast between the ocean and the continent.

  9. Sub-Saharan Africa Refinery Project, Volume II-A : Refinery Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2009-01-01

    The Sub-Saharan Africa Refinery Study evaluates the effects of improved fuel specifications on refiningoperations and air quality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The improved fuel specifications would reduce the levels of certain pollutants in fuels, in turn reducing human exposure to these pollutants in ambient air. The health study estimates the health impacts and associated monetary benefi...

  10. Assessing Non-CO2 Climate-Forcing Emissions and Mitigation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Jonathan E.; Scholes, Robert J.; Rosenstock, Todd E.; Garcia-Pando, C. Perez; Nyamangara, Justice

    2014-01-01

    There are few direct measurements of anthropogenic climate-forcing emissions in Africa, making it difficult to accurately assess current emissions and to anticipate changes in future emissions. Emissions databases suggest that sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), home to less than 15 of the world's population, is responsible for 11 of anthropogenic methane (CH4) and 18 of anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions globally, though this includes substantial emissions from biomass burning that would occur in the absence of contemporary anthropogenic activity, and which may be over-estimated. SSA is also an important source of precursors to the greenhouse gas tropospheric ozone, and of mineral dust, which has a range of impacts on climate. Eliminating food insecurity and poverty is likely to take priority over greenhouse gas mitigation in the region, so innovations in mitigation must focus on ways to reduce emissions as an ancillary benefit of improving livelihoods.

  11. Doctors and vampires in sub-Saharan Africa: ethical challenges in clinical trial research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Ribera, Joan Muela; Erhart, Annette; Hoibak, Sarah; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Gryseels, Charlotte; Dierickx, Susan; O'Neill, Sarah; Muela, Susanna Hausmann; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2014-08-01

    Collecting blood samples from individuals recruited into clinical research projects in sub-Saharan Africa can be challenging. Strikingly, one of the reasons for participant reticence is the occurrence of local rumors surrounding "blood stealing" or "blood selling." Such fears can potentially have dire effects on the success of research projects--for example, high dropout rates that would invalidate the trial's results--and have ethical implications related to cultural sensitivity and informed consent. Though commonly considered as a manifestation of the local population's ignorance, these rumors represent a social diagnosis and a logical attempt to make sense of sickness and health. Born from historical antecedents, they reflect implicit contemporary structural inequalities and the social distance between communities and public health institutions. We aim at illustrating the underlying logic governing patients' fear and argue that the management of these beliefs should become an intrinsic component of clinical research. PMID:24821846

  12. Does HIV/AIDS matter for economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis; Skovsgaard, Christian; Lesner, Tine

    Estimating the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on economic growth is challenging because of endogeneity concerns. In this paper, we use novel data on male circumcision and distance from the first HIV outbreak as instrumental variables for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in 241 regions across 25 countries in sub-Saharan...... Africa during 2003–12. Our main finding shows that the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on economic growth is negative but statistically insignificant. Further investigation on the main channels through which HIV/AIDS may affect economic growth—namely human capital, population growth, and productivity......—finds no impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on these channels....

  13. SUCCESSFUL DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane BERGE

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the purposes, delivery methods, and program characteristics of successful distance education (DE in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. This paper investigates the design and delivery systems of these programs and identifies ways the DE programs are working to improve. There are about 150 formidable distance education programs working in SSA. They aim to increase and improve a variety of existing programs, including primary and high school education, college-level and graduate programs, language training, teacher training, and continuing education for adults. The primary delivery system used by most institutions consists of printed manuals and texts that are distributed to all students. Despite the continued development of information and communication technology (ICT, including videos, online training modules, and web-based training (WBT systems, traditional DE delivery methods continue to prove as the most reliable, most sustainable, and most widely used.

  14. Unconsummated marriage in sub-Saharan Africa: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Valentino M

    2014-09-01

    Unconsummated marriage is a condition where newly married couples are unable to achieve penile-vaginal intercourse for variable periods despite desire and several attempts to do so. Its exact cause(s) is/are unknown, but performance anxiety resulting from or leading to other conditions is reportedly the major etiological factor. It is thought to be more prevalent in traditional and conservative religious communities where premarital sexual exposure is strictly prohibited. Most publications on unconsummated marriage have originated from North America, European and Middle Eastern countries. There have not been any such reports from sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to diverse cultures and traditions regarding premarital sex and marriage. This paper presents a sample of four cases with unconsummated marriage managed by the author in his private clinic based in the city of Nairobi Kenya, over the past five years. Possible etiological factors and management approaches are discussed, with a review of relevant literature. PMID:25508052

  15. Understanding the Environmental and Climate Impacts of biomass burning in Northern sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, C. M.; Gatebe, C. K.; Lee, J.; Wang, J.; Bolten, J. D.; Wilcox, E. M.; Policelli, F.; Habib, S.; Adegoke, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

  16. Epidemiology of health and vulnerability among children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gail; Skinner, Donald; Zuma, Khangelani

    2006-04-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa has already orphaned a generation of children, and it is projected that by 2010, 18 million African children under the age of 18 are likely to be orphans from this single cause (UNICEF, 2005, The state of the Worlds Children: Childhood under threat. New York: UNICEF). Results from a Kellogg funded OVC project (Skinner et al., 2004, Definition of orphaned and vulnerable children. Cape Town: HSRC) supported the construct that the loss of either or both parents would indicate a situation of likely vulnerability of children. A key problem in the literature on the impact of orphanhood on the well-being of children, families and communities, is that the focus of assertions and predictions is often on the negative impact on 'AIDS orphans', or households. There are hardly any studies that compare the experiences of orphans with non-orphans. This paper thus attempts to fill that gap. It uses epidemiological data to explore the epidemiology of health and vulnerability of children within the context of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Because of data limitations, only the following aspects are examined: (i) orphan status; (ii) household structure (in particular, grandparent headedness and female-headedness); (iii) illness of parents; (iv) poverty; and (v) access to services, especially schooling, health, social services. While recognizing the limitations of the analysis, data presented in this paper indicates that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are more vulnerable than non-orphans. The authors conclude with some suggestions for policy makers and programme implementers, highlighting the importance of focusing on interventions that will have maximum impact on the health and well-being of children. PMID:16546789

  17. Remote sensing applications in African agriculture and natural resources: Highlighting and managing the stress of increasing population pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amissah-Arthur, Abigail; Balstad Miller, Roberta

    Given current population trends and projections in sub-Saharan Africa, it is anticipated that substantial intensification of agricultural cropland is certain within the next decades. In the absence of adoption of improved technologies poor rural populations in this region will continue to degrade and mine the natural resources to ensure their survival. All these actions will have far-reaching implications for environmental quality and human health. However, only through the integration of environment and development concerns with greater attention to these link can we achieve the goal of fulfilling the basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed eco-systems and a safer, more prosperous future. The paper reviews case studies and provides examples of the integration, analysis, and visualization of information from remotely sensed, biophysical and socioeconomic information to assess the present situation hindering agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies show the interactions between socio-economic and environmental factors that can help governments and policy-makers assess the scope of the problems, examine alternatives and decide on a course of action. Sound decisions depend on accurate information, yet most African countries face severe competing demands for the financial and human commitments necessary to staff an information system equal to its policy-making requirements. The role of international data centers is reviewed in terms of their abilities to develop and maintain information systems that bring together available accumulated knowledge and data. This permits comparative studies, which make it possible to develop a better understanding of the relationships among demographic dynamics, technology, cultural behavioral norms, and land resources and hence better decision making for sustainable development.

  18. Managing health professional migration from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada: a stakeholder inquiry into policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klassen Nathan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada is a major recipient of foreign-trained health professionals, notably physicians from South Africa and other sub-Saharan African countries. Nurse migration from these countries, while comparatively small, is rising. African countries, meanwhile, have a critical shortage of professionals and a disproportionate burden of disease. What policy options could Canada pursue that balanced the right to health of Africans losing their health workers with the right of these workers to seek migration to countries such as Canada? Methods We interviewed a small sample of émigré South African physicians (n = 7 and a larger purposive sample of representatives of Canadian federal, provincial, regional and health professional departments/organizations (n = 25; conducted a policy colloquium with stakeholder organizations (n = 21; and undertook new analyses of secondary data to determine recent trends in health human resource flows between sub-Saharan Africa and Canada. Results Flows from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada have increased since the early 1990s, although they may now have peaked for physicians from South Africa. Reasons given for this flow are consistent with other studies of push/pull factors. Of 8 different policy options presented to study participants, only one received unanimous strong support (increasing domestic self-sufficiency, one other received strong support (increased health system strengthening in source country, two others mixed support (voluntary codes on ethical recruitment, bilateral or multilateral agreements to manage flows and four others little support or complete rejection (increased training of auxiliary health workers in Africa ineligible for licensing in Canada, bonding, reparation payments for training-cost losses and restrictions on immigration of health professionals from critically underserved countries. Conclusion Reducing pull factors by improving domestic supply and reducing push factors by strengthening source country health systems have the greatest policy traction in Canada. The latter, however, is not perceived as presently high on Canadian stakeholder organizations' policy agendas, although support for it could grow if it is promoted. Canada is not seen as "actively' recruiting" ("poaching" health workers from developing countries. Recent changes in immigration policy, ongoing advertising in southern African journals and promotion of migration by private agencies, however, blurs the distinction between active and passive recruitment.

  19. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gulinck Hubert; Peterson Andrew T; Neerinckx Simon B; Deckers Jozef; Leirs Herwig

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework t...

  20. Factors affecting job satisfaction and retention of medical laboratory professionals in seven countries of Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Effective implementation and sustainability of quality laboratory programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa relies on the development of appropriate staff retention strategies. Assessing the factors responsible for job satisfaction and retention is key for tailoring specific interventions aiming at improving the overall impact of health programmes. A survey was developed to assess these factors among 224 laboratorians working in the laboratory programme the University of Maryland implemented in seven Sub-Saharan African countries. Lack of professional development was the major reason for leaving the previous job for 28% of interviewees who changed jobs in the past five years. Professional development/training opportunities was indicated by almost 90% (195/224) of total interviewees as the most important or a very important factor for satisfaction at their current job. Similarly, regular professional development/opportunities for training was the highest rated incentive to remain at their current job by 80% (179/224). Laboratory professionals employed in the private sector were more likely to change jobs than those working in the public sector (P = 0.002). The findings were used for developing specific strategies for human resources management, in particular targeting professional development, aiming at improving laboratory professionals within the University of Maryland laboratory programme and hence its long-term sustainability. PMID:23958152

  1. A comparative study of the socioeconomic factors associated with childhood sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Ismail; Soares, Joaquim; De Leon, Antonio Ponce; Macassa, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a problem of considerable proportion in Africa where up to one-third of adolescent girls report their first sexual experience as being forced. The impact of child hood sexual abuse resonates in all areas of health. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and variations across socioeconomic status in six sub-Saharan countries. Methods Datasets from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in six sub-Saharan African countries conducted between 2003 and 2007 were used to access the relationship between CSA and socio economic status using multiple logistic regression models. Results There was no association between CSA and education, wealth and area of settlement. However, there was contrasting association between CSA and working status of women. Conclusion This study concurs with other western studies which indicate that CSA transcends across all socio economic group. It is therefore important that effective preventive strategies are developed and implemented that will cross across all socio-economic groups. PMID:22593787

  2. Supplementary polio immunization activities and prior use of routine immunization services in non-polio-endemic sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Helleringer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine participation in polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs in sub-Saharan Africa among users and non-users of routine immunization services and among users who were compliant or non-compliant with the routine oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV immunization schedule. METHODS: Data were obtained from household-based surveys in non-polio-endemic sub-Saharan African countries. Routine immunization service users were children (aged 85% in 12 SIAs but non-user participation was > 85% in only 5 SIAs. In 18 SIAs, participation was greater among users (P < 0.01 in 16, 0.05 in 1 and < 0.10 in 1 than non-users. In 14 SIAs, adjusted analyses revealed lower participation among non-compliant users than among compliant users (P < 0.01 in 10, < 0.05 in 2 and < 0.10 in 2. CONCLUSION: Large percentages of children participated in SIAs. Prior use of routine immunization services and compliance with the routine OPV schedule showed a strong positive association with SIA participation.

  3. Factors affecting job satisfaction and retention of medical laboratory professionals in seven countries of Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinucci, Francesco; Majigo, Mtebe; Wattleworth, Matthew; Paterniti, Antonio Damiano; Hossain, Mian Bazle; Redfield, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Effective implementation and sustainability of quality laboratory programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa relies on the development of appropriate staff retention strategies. Assessing the factors responsible for job satisfaction and retention is key for tailoring specific interventions aiming at improving the overall impact of health programmes. A survey was developed to assess these factors among 224 laboratorians working in the laboratory programme the University of Maryland implemented in seven Sub-Saharan African countries. Lack of professional development was the major reason for leaving the previous job for 28% of interviewees who changed jobs in the past five years. Professional development/training opportunities was indicated by almost 90% (195/224) of total interviewees as the most important or a very important factor for satisfaction at their current job. Similarly, regular professional development/opportunities for training was the highest rated incentive to remain at their current job by 80% (179/224). Laboratory professionals employed in the private sector were more likely to change jobs than those working in the public sector (P = 0.002). The findings were used for developing specific strategies for human resources management, in particular targeting professional development, aiming at improving laboratory professionals within the University of Maryland laboratory programme and hence its long-term sustainability. PMID:23958152

  4. Health transitions in sub-Saharan Africa: overview of mortality trends in children under 5 years old (1950-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Garenne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To reconstruct and analyse mortality trends in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa between 1950 and 2000. METHODS: We selected 66 Demographic and Health Surveys and World Fertility Surveys from 32 African countries for analysis. Death rates were calculated by yearly periods for each survey. When several surveys were available for the same country, overlapping years were combined. Country-specific time series were analysed to identify periods of monotonic trends, whether declining, steady or increasing. We tested changes in trends using a linear logistic model. FINDINGS: A quarter of the countries studied had monotonic declining mortality trends: i.e. a smooth health transition. Another quarter had long-term declines with some minor rises over short periods of time. Eight countries had periods of major increases in mortality due to political or economic crises, and in seven countries mortality stopped declining for several years. In eight other countries mortality has risen in recent years as a result of paediatric AIDS. Reconstructed levels and trends were compared with other estimates made by international organizations, usually based on indirect methods. CONCLUSION: Overall, major progress in child survival was achieved in sub-Saharan Africa during the second half of the twentieth century. However, transition has occurred more slowly than expected, with an average decline of 1.8% per year. Additionally, transition was chaotic in many countries. The main causes of mortality increase were political instability, serious economic downturns, and emerging diseases.

  5. The genetic impact of the lake chad basin population in North Africa as documented by mitochondrial diversity and internal variation of the L3e5 haplogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorná, Eliška; Soares, Pedro; Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor

    2013-11-01

    The presence of sub-Saharan L-type mtDNA sequences in North Africa has traditionally been explained by the recent slave trade. However, gene flow between sub-Saharan and northern African populations would also have been made possible earlier through the greening of the Sahara resulting from Early Holocene climatic improvement. In this article, we examine human dispersals across the Sahara through the analysis of the sub-Saharan mtDNA haplogroup L3e5, which is not only commonly found in the Lake Chad Basin (∼17%), but which also attains nonnegligible frequencies (∼10%) in some Northwestern African populations. Age estimates point to its origin ∼10 ka, probably directly in the Lake Chad Basin, where the clade occurs across linguistic boundaries. The virtual absence of this specific haplogroup in Daza from Northern Chad and all West African populations suggests that its migration took place elsewhere, perhaps through Northern Niger. Interestingly, independent confirmation of Early Holocene contacts between North Africa and the Lake Chad Basin have been provided by craniofacial data from Central Niger, supporting our suggestion that the Early Holocene offered a suitable climatic window for genetic exchanges between North and sub-Saharan Africa. In view of its younger founder age in North Africa, the discontinuous distribution of L3e5 was probably caused by the Middle Holocene re-expansion of the Sahara desert, disrupting the clade's original continuous spread. PMID:25069842

  6. An evaluation of clinical laboratory services in sub-Saharan Africa. Ex africa semper aliquid novi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, I P; Carter, J Y

    1997-11-01

    Pathology services represent the rational, scientific basis of the practice of clinical care. It does not represent deus ex machina, an implausible solution to a complex plot, but rather the way in which clinical care can be audited, controlled, guided and kept appropriate to the funds and the skills available. Arguments are presented to support this statement as well as to analyse what is wrong with health care, from the point of view of laboratory medicine, in sub-Saharan Africa. In most African countries 'first world' technology has to be imported by economies barely able to sustain the basic requirements of human life. Badly needed foreign exchange is obtained by growing export crops at the cost of traditional lifestyle, disenfranchising communities, urbanisation, and even at the cost not being able to grow food. War, corruption, lack of accountability even in the Western sense of being able to go to the polls every so often, lack of empowerment, low literacy rate etc all debase the communities, with minimal exceptions, of Africa. Health care is under the same capricious rule as all other public services: investment in laboratories is poor and most have no access to a professional laboratory at all. More investment, not less; expansion of pathology services not restricting them, is needed throughout the continent. PMID:9469247

  7. The EU as an emerging coordinator in development cooperation: perspectives from sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delputte, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the proceedings of the field research conducted in the framework of a doctoralresearch on the European Union (EU as an emerging coordinator in development cooperation.This research aims to seek in-depth and interpreted understanding of the paradox betweenthe EU’s ambitions on the one hand and practice on the ground on the other by investigating theEU’s role in four sub-Saharan African countries (Tanzania, Zambia, Burkina Faso and Senegal.As such, it aims to add empirical evidence to the debate on the role of the EU as a developmentactor. More specifically, it investigates how the ambitions of the EU are translated at country leveland in which situations the EU is more/less likely to act as a coordinator, making use of a pragmatistresearch approach. This approach is especially suited to problem-driven research that aims tounderstand a complex phenomenon. The article introduces the research question and the rationale,gives an overview of the research approach and the methodological considerations and endswith a summary of the research process and the preliminary findings of the field research.

  8. Atrial fibrillation in Sub-Saharan Africa: epidemiology, unmet needs, and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stambler BS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bruce Sheldon Stambler,1 Leonard M Ngunga2 1Department of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Piedmont Heart Institute Cardiology/Electrophysiology, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Department of Cardiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: Health care in Sub-Saharan Africa is being challenged by a double burden of disease as lifestyle diseases common in the developed world, such as stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF, increase, while, simultaneously, health issues of the developing world in terms of communicable disease persist. The prevalence of AF is lower in Africa than in the developed world but is expected to increase significantly over the next few decades. Patients with AF in Africa tend to be younger and have a higher prevalence of rheumatic valvular heart disease than patients with AF in other regions. Permanent AF is the most prevalent type of AF in Africa, possibly due to the lower use of rhythm control strategies than in the developed world. Mortality rates of patients with AF in Africa are high, due largely to poor health care access and suboptimal therapy. The risk of stroke in AF, which is moderate to high in Africans as in the developed world, contributes to the high mortality rate. Patients with AF in Africa are often undertreated with antithrombotics, as cost and access to monitoring are major barriers. Vitamin K antagonists, including warfarin, are the most commonly available oral anticoagulants, but regular monitoring can be challenging, especially for patients in remote areas. Several non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs have been approved for use in countries across Sub-Saharan Africa and have the potential to reduce stroke burden. The higher cost of newer agents may be offset by the reduced need for regular monitoring, fixed dosing, and lower risk of intracranial bleeding; NOACs could provide a treatment option for patients in remote areas with limited access to regular monitoring. However, NOACs are not indicated in valvular AF. More work is needed to increase understanding of the epidemiology of AF and stroke, as well as to improve management strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease predicted for Africa. Keywords: stroke, real-world treatment, treatment guidelines, barriers to care, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

  9. Globalisation and the internationalisation of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzvinetsa Peter Dzvimbo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a shrinking world, in which a neo-liberal discourse has permeated sub-Saharan African higher education, critical reflection is required to assess the merits and demerits of globalisation. Research, intensive discussion and hearings conducted over a two-year period by the Task Force on Higher Education and Society, convened by the World Bank and United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO for the purpose of exploring the future of higher education in the developing world, led to the conclusion that without more and better higher education, developing countries would find it increasingly difficult to benefit from the global knowledge economy. A decade later, we argue for a radical change in the traditional discourse on globalisation because of the emergence of countries such as China, South Africa, India, and Brazil as global players in the world economy. These emerging global powers, reframe the political and imperial philosophy at the epicentre of globalisation discourse - an economic creed, through their mutual consultation and coordination on significant political issues. Their economic and military capabilities enable them to influence the trade regime and thereby strengthen the voice of the developing world as a whole. In relation to this paper's inquiry, the cooperation of these emerging powers gives the free enfranchised people of the world an opportunity to choose a different path of international relations (internationalisation formed on more liberal lines, as opposed to the neo-liberal economic rationality of globalisation. This paper therefore examines globalisation and internationalisation of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa, a field in which increased knowledge production and distribution open up opportunities for users, institutions and societies. Against a background of chronic economic uncertainty we examine the influence of major international institutions on the direction of higher education, in particular teacher education. Drawing on relevant literature and our own experience, reflexively, we argue that the tendency, towards free market regulation ideologies, privileges neo-liberal global knowledge discourses, such that they impose on higher education a need to respond across a range of fields.

  10. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests......Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of...... plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We...

  11. Harnessing Poverty Alleviation to Reduce the Stigma of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Bangsberg, David R; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    Alexander Tsai and colleagues highlight the complex relationship between poverty and HIV stigma in sub-Saharan Africa, and discuss possible ways to break the cycle. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

  12. External financial aid to blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ala, Fereydoun; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Bates, Imelda; Boukef, Kamel; Boulton, Frank; Brandful, James; Dax, Elizabeth M; El Ekiaby, Magdy; Farrugia, Albert; Gorlin, Jed; Hassall, Oliver; Lee, Helen; Loua, André; Maitland, Kathryn; Mbanya, Dora; Mukhtar, Zainab; Murphy, William; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Reesink, Henk; Roberts, David; Torres, Oscar; Totoe, Grace; Ullum, Henrik; Wendel, Silvano

    2012-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking....

  13. Perspectives on key principles of generalist medical practice in public service in sub-saharan africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downing Raymond V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The principles and practice of Family Medicine that arose in developed Western countries have been imported and adopted in African countries without adequate consideration of their relevance and appropriateness to the African context. In this study we attempted to elicit a priori principles of generalist medical practice from the experience of long-serving medical officers in a variety of African counties, through which we explored emergent principles of Family Medicine in our own context. Methods A descriptive study design was utilized, using qualitative methods. 16 respondents who were clinically active medical practitioners, working as generalists in the public services or non-profit sector for at least 5 years, and who had had no previous formal training or involvement in academic Family Medicine, were purposively selected in 8 different countries in southern, western and east Africa, and interviewed. Results The respondents highlighted a number of key issues with respect to the external environment within which they work, their collective roles, activities and behaviours, as well as the personal values and beliefs that motivate their behaviour. The context is characterized by resource constraints, high workload, traditional health beliefs, and the difficulty of referring patients to the next level of care. Generalist clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa need to be competent across a wide range of clinical disciplines and procedural skills at the level of the district hospital and clinic, in both chronic and emergency care. They need to understand the patient's perspective and context, empowering the patient and building an effective doctor-patient relationship. They are also managers, focused on coordinating and improving the quality of clinical care through teamwork, training and mentoring other health workers in the generalist setting, while being life-long learners themselves. However, their role in the community, was found to be more aspirational than real. Conclusions The study derived a set of principles for the practice of generalist doctors in sub-Saharan Africa based on the reported activities and approaches of the respondents. Patient-centred care using a biopsychosocial approach remains as a common core principle despite wide variations in context. Procedural and hospital care demands a higher level of skills particularly in rural areas, and a community orientation is desirable, but not widely practiced. The results have implications for the postgraduate training of family physicians in sub-Saharan Africa, and highlight questions regarding the realization of community-orientated primary care.

  14. Five challenges for disability-related research in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Swartz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disability research in contemporary sub-Saharan Africa is developing rapidly, and this is something to be celebrated. This article reviews some contemporary developments and suggests that there are five central, and interrelated, challenges for the field. These challenges – experience, expertise, enumeration, evidence, and expectations – go to the heart of thinking about disability research in sub-Saharan Africa. An optimistic but appropriately critical approach to addressing these issues is suggested.

  15. Rising Food Prices in Sub-Saharan Africa : Poverty Impact and Policy Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin WODON; Zaman, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    The increase in food prices represents a major crisis for the world's poor. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential impact of higher food prices on poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, and examines the extent to which policy responses will benefit the poor. The paper shows that rising food prices are likely to lead to higher poverty in sub-Saharan Africa as the negative impact on...

  16. Not just minor wild edible forest products: consumption of pteridophytes in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Background Gathering of wild edible plant resources by people in sub-Saharan Africa is discussed with reference to pteridophytes, which is an ancient plant group. Pteridophytes are crucial to food diversity and security in sub-Saharan Africa, although they are notably neglected as a result of inadequate research and agricultural development. Current research and agricultural development agenda still appear to focus on the popular and commonly used food crops, vegetables and fruits; ignoring m...

  17. Impact of Schistosoma mansoni on Malaria Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L.; Skrip, Laura; Greenhalgh, Scott; Hotez, Peter; GALVANI, ALISON P.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and Schistosoma mansoni are co-endemic in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies support the hypothesis that concurrent infection with S. mansoni is associated with greater malaria incidence among school-age children. We use mathematical modeling to evaluate the epidemiological impact of S. mansoni infection on malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Using epidemiological data on the increased risk of malaria incidence in S. mansoni ...

  18. De-agrarianization and rural employment generation in sub-Saharan Africa: process and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Bryceson, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is steadily becoming less rural in character. For decades development thinking has prescribed industrialization as the virtuous path leading away from economic dependence on agriculture. The present paper rejects the view that rural or even national industrialization has taken place or is likely to take place in sub-Saharan Africa in the immediate future. The author argues that the preconditions for this happening are largely absent. She proposes an alternative perspective ...

  19. Print media reporting of male circumcision for preventing HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Alberta L; William Duke; Schmid, George P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the types, content and accuracy of print media reports on male circumcision for preventing HIV infection among men in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a trilingual search (English, French, Portuguese) of LexisNexis® with the phrase "male circumcision" for the period from 28 March 2007 to 30 June 2008. The articles identified were screened for the central theme of male circumcision for preventing HIV infection in men in sub-Saharan Africa and for publication types...

  20. Neurocysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of prevalence, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis has been recognized as a major cause of secondary epilepsy worldwide. So far, most of the knowledge about the disease comes from Latin America and the Indian subcontinent. Unfortunately, in sub-Saharan Africa the condition was neglected for a long time, mainly owing to the lack of appropriate diagnostic tools. This review therefore focuses on the prevalence of neurocysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa, the clinical picture with emphasis on epilepsy, as well as the diagnosis ...

  1. Drivers and deterrents of facility delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Moyer, Cheryl A.; Mustafa, Aesha

    2013-01-01

    While the most important factors associated with facility-based delivery (FBD) have been explored within individual countries in Africa, no systematic review has explored the factors associated with FBD across sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted to identify articles published in English from 1/1995-12/2011 that reported on original research conducted entirely or in part in sub-Saharan Africa and included a primary outcome variable of FBD, deli...

  2. Sustainable agricultural intensification in Sub-Saharan Africa : design of an assessment tool

    OpenAIRE

    Verzandvoort, S.J.E.; Beek, C.L.; Conijn, J.G.; J. Froebrich; Jansen, H.C.; Noij, I.G.A.M.; Roest, C.W.J.; Vreke, J.; Mansfeld, van, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for agricultural products (food, feed, fibre, and biomass for other purposes) produced in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) will increase for the coming decades. In addition, the global climate change will largely impact on the agricultural sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. Major challenges for the agricultural sector in SSA are that agricultural production systems depend on resources that are for a large part non-renewable, and that the current agricultural practices in SSA are major contribut...

  3. Impact of Placental Plasmodium falciparum Malaria on Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcome in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Uneke, Chigozie J.

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infections of the placenta remain a major medical challenge among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. A number of factors influence the prevalence of placental malaria in pregnant women, including maternal age, gravidity, use of prophylaxis, nutrition, host genetics, and level of anti-parasite immunity, as well as parasite genetics and transmission rates [1]. Maternal anemia has been shown to be one of the major complications of placental malaria in sub-Saharan Africa....

  4. Gender differences in immune reconstitution: a multicentric cohort analysis in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maman, David; Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; Subtil, Fabien; Pinoges, Loretxu; McGuire, Megan; Ecochard, Rene; Etard, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, men living with HIV often start ART at more advanced stages of disease and have higher early mortality than women. We investigated gender difference in long-term immune reconstitution. Methods/Principal Findings: Antiretroviral-naive adults who received ART for at least 9 months in four HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa were included. Multivariate mixed linear models were used to examine gender differences in immune reconstitution on first line ART. A total...

  5. Neuromeningeal cryptococcosis in sub-Saharan Africa: Killer disease with sparse data

    OpenAIRE

    Komi Assogba; Mofou Belo; Majeste Ihou Wateba; Dieu Donné Gnonlonfoun; Paul M Ossou-Inguiet; Berenger B.C Tsanga; Moustapha Ndiaye; Eric K Grunitzky

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The extent of neuromeningeal cryptococcosis (NMC) has increased since the advent of HIV/AIDS. It has non-specific clinical signs but marked by high mortality. Objective: To analyze the characteristics of the NMC in sub-Saharan Africa. Materials and Methods: We have conducted a literature reviewed on the NMC in sub-Saharan Africa from the publications available on the basis of national and international data with keywords such as "Cryptococcus, Epidemiology, Symptoms, Outcomes an...

  6. Why is Development in Sub-Saharan Africa so Difficult? Challenges and Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Franz Heidhues

    2009-01-01

    Economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa has been lagging behind. At the time of independence, a number of Sub-Saharan countries had relatively favourable development prospects and income levels comparable with those in Southeast Asian countries. Yet, many Southeast Asian countries today have far higher development and income levels, some even entering the group of semi-industrialized or emerging economies. The logical question that emerges is: why? The paper highlights the rising gap in ec...

  7. Effects of malnutrition among children in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Fynn-Sackey, Uty Ama; Abdul Salam , Mawiya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to verify and describe the effects of malnutrition among children in Sub Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. The research question was; what are the effects of malnutrition among children in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia? The aim of this study was to find out and describe why developing countries are associated with malnutrition complications and the impact is having in the health and lives of children. Although rare in developed countries, malnutrition ...

  8. Population genetics of African ungulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline

    Molecular genetic techniques were used to gain insights into the evolutionary forces that have shaped the present day diversity of African savannah ungu-lates, which constitute the most species-rich mega faunal assemblage on earth. The studies included in this thesis represent individual species-...

  9. A cross-sectional study of vascular risk factors in a rural South African population: data from the Southern African Stroke Prevention Initiative (SASPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tollman Stephen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural sub-Saharan Africa is at an early stage of economic and health transition. It is predicted that the 21st century will see a serious added economic burden from non-communicable disease including vascular disease in low-income countries as they progress through the transition. The stage of vascular disease in a population is thought to result from the prevalence of vascular risk factors. Already hypertension and stroke are common in adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Using a multidisciplinary approach we aimed to assess the prevalence of several vascular risk factors in Agincourt, a rural demographic surveillance site in South Africa. Methods We performed a cross sectional random sample survey of adults aged over 35 in Agincourt (population ≈ 70 000. Participants were visited at home by a trained nurse who administered a questionnaire, carried out clinical measurements and took a blood sample. From this we assessed participants' history of vascular risk, blood pressure using an OMRON 705 CP monitor, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, ankle brachial index (ABI, and total and HDL cholesterol. Results 402 people (24% men participated. There was a high prevalence of smoking in men, but the number of cigarettes smoked was small. There was a striking difference in mean BMI between men and women (22.8 kg/m2 versus 27.2 kg/m2, but levels of blood pressure were very similar. 43% of participants had a blood pressure greater than 140/90 or were on anti-hypertensive treatment and 37% of participants identified with measured high blood pressure were on pharmacological treatment. 12% of participants had an ABI of 5 mmol/l. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of hypertension, obesity in women, and a suggestion of subclinical atheroma despite relatively favourable cholesterol levels in a rural South African population. South Africa is facing the challenge of an emerging epidemic of vascular disease. Research to establish the social determinates of these risk factors and interventions to reduce both individual and population risk are required.

  10. Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Cheryl A; Smukler, Sean M; Sullivan, Clare C; Mutuo, Patrick K; Nyadzi, Gerson I; Walsh, Markus G

    2010-11-16

    Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops--green manures--and agroforestry--legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers, green manures, or improved tree fallows will remain low without policies that address access, costs, and lack of incentives. Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region. PMID:20453198

  11. Gender and Law Initiatives in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa : Gender and Law Workshop in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa (March 1998)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    1999-01-01

    As a result of two years of constructive dialogue between the World Bank (WB), government agencies and grassroots' associations involved in the advancement of women, a workshop for the Promotion of the societal status of women in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa was organized in March 1998 in Cotonou by the Association of Women Jurists (AFJB) with WB technical and financial assistance. From ...

  12. Building the evidence base for urgent action: HIV epidemiology and innovative programming for men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    R Cameron Wolf; Alison Surdo Cheng; Laurent Kapesa; Delivette Castor

    2013-01-01

    While still an understudied area, there is a growing body of studies highlighting epidemiologic data on men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) which challenge the attitudes of complacency and irrelevancy among donors and country governments that are uncomfortable in addressing key populations (KPs). While some of the past inaction may be explained by ignorance, new data document highly elevated and sustained HIV prevalence that is seemingly isolated from recent overall de...

  13. Long-Term Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment and Program Drop-Out in a High-Risk Urban Setting in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Unge, Christian; Södergård, Björn; Marrone, Gaetano; Thorson, Anna; Lukhwaro, Abigael; Carter, Jane; Ilako, Festus; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2010-01-01

    Background Seventy percent of urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa live in slums. Sustaining HIV patients in these high-risk and highly mobile settings is a major future challenge. This study seeks to assess program retention and to find determinants for low adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) and drop-out from an established HIV/ART program in Kibera, Nairobi, one of Africa's largest informal urban settlements. Methods and Findings A prospective open cohort study of 800 patients w...

  14. Factors affecting cataract surgical coverage and outcomes: a retrospective cross-sectional study of eye health systems in sub-Saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewallen, S; Schmidt, E.; Jolley, E.; Lindfield, R; Dean, WH; Cook, C.; Mathenge, W; Courtright, P.

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been a great deal of new population based evidence on visual impairment generated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), thanks to the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) survey methodology. The survey provides information on the magnitude and causes of visual impairment for planning services and measuring their impact on eye health in administrative "districts" of 0.5-5 million people. The survey results describing the quantity and quality of cataract surgeries vary widel...

  15. Factors affecting cataract surgical coverage and outcomes: a retrospective cross-sectional study of eye health systems in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lewallen, Susan; Schmidt, Elena; Jolley, Emma; Lindfield, Robert; Dean, William H.; Cook, Colin; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Courtright, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently there has been a great deal of new population based evidence on visual impairment generated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), thanks to the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) survey methodology. The survey provides information on the magnitude and causes of visual impairment for planning services and measuring their impact on eye health in administrative “districts” of 0.5–5 million people. The survey results describing the quantity and quality of cataract surgeries...

  16. Cultural phylogeography of the Bantu Languages of sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Meade, Andrew; Guillon, Myrtille; Mace, Ruth

    2013-07-01

    There is disagreement about the routes taken by populations speaking Bantu languages as they expanded to cover much of sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we build phylogenetic trees of Bantu languages and map them onto geographical space in order to assess the likely pathway of expansion and test between dispersal scenarios. The results clearly support a scenario in which groups first moved south through the rainforest from a homeland somewhere near the Nigeria-Cameroon border. Emerging on the south side of the rainforest, one branch moved south and west. Another branch moved towards the Great Lakes, eventually giving rise to the monophyletic clade of East Bantu languages that inhabit East and Southeastern Africa. These phylogenies also reveal information about more general processes involved in the diversification of human populations into distinct ethnolinguistic groups. Our study reveals that Bantu languages show a latitudinal gradient in covering greater areas with increasing distance from the equator. Analyses suggest that this pattern reflects a true ecological relationship rather than merely being an artefact of shared history. The study shows how a phylogeographic approach can address questions relating to the specific histories of certain groups, as well as general cultural evolutionary processes. PMID:23658203

  17. Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Chersich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Virtually no African country provides HIV prevention services in sex work settings with an adequate scale and intensity. Uncertainty remains about the optimal set of interventions and mode of delivery. Methods: We systematically reviewed studies reporting interventions for reducing HIV transmission among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa between January 2000 and July 2011. Medline (PubMed and non-indexed journals were searched for studies with quantitative study outcomes. Results: We located 26 studies, including seven randomized trials. Evidence supports implementation of the following interventions to reduce unprotected sex among female sex workers: peer-mediated condom promotion, risk-reduction counselling and skills-building for safer sex. One study found that interventions to counter hazardous alcohol-use lowered unprotected sex. Data also show effectiveness of screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs and syndromic STI treatment, but experience with periodic presumptive treatment is limited. HIV testing and counselling is essential for facilitating sex workers’ access to care and antiretroviral treatment (ART, but testing models for sex workers and indeed for ART access are little studied, as are structural interventions, which create conditions conducive for risk reduction. With the exception of Senegal, persistent criminalization of sex work across Africa reduces sex workers’ control over working conditions and impedes their access to health services. It also obstructs health-service provision and legal protection. Conclusions: There is sufficient evidence of effectiveness of targeted interventions with female sex workers in Africa to inform delivery of services for this population. With improved planning and political will, services – including peer interventions, condom promotion and STI screening – would act at multiple levels to reduce HIV exposure and transmission efficiency among sex workers. Initiatives are required to enhance access to HIV testing and ART for sex workers, using current CD4 thresholds, or possibly earlier for prevention. Services implemented at sufficient scale and intensity also serve as a platform for subsequent community mobilization and sex worker empowerment, and alleviate a major source of incident infection sustaining even generalized HIV epidemics. Ultimately, structural and legal changes that align public health and human rights are needed to ensure that sex workers on the continent are adequately protected from HIV.

  18. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Bonham, Mateyo; Rahman, Zarah; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-01-01

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety. PMID:26950135

  19. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Peletz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies, served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p < 0.05. Our results indicate that smaller water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety.

  20. New technologies to diagnose and monitor infectious diseases of livestock: Challenges for sub-Saharan Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Donald P., King; Miki, Madi; Valerie, Mioulet; Jemma, Wadsworth; Caroline F., Wright; Bego& #241; a, Valdazo-Gonzlez; Nigel P., Ferris; Nick J., Knowles; Jef, Hammond.

    Full Text Available Using foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) as an example, this review describes new tools that can be used to detect and characterise livestock diseases. In recent years, molecular tests that can detect and characterise pathogens in a diverse range of sample types have revolutionised laboratory diagnostics. [...] In addition to use in centralised laboratories, there are opportunities to locate diagnostic technologies close to the animals with suspected clinical signs. Work in this area has developed simple-to-use lateral-flow devices for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV), as well as new hardware platforms to allow molecular testing to be deployed into the field for use by non-specialists. Once FMDV has been detected, nucleotide sequencing is used to compare field strains with reference viruses. Transboundary movements of FMDV are routinely monitored using VP1 sequence data, while higher resolution transmission trees (at the farm-to-farm level) can be reconstructed using full-genome sequencing approaches. New technologies such as next-generation sequencing technologies are now being applied to dissect the viral sequence populations that exist within single samples. The driving force for the use of these technologies has largely been influenced by the priorities of developed countries with FMD-free (without vaccination) status. However, it is important to recognise that these approaches also show considerable promise for use in countries where FMD is endemic, although further modifications (such as sample archiving and strain and serotype characterisation) may be required to tailor these tests for use in these regions. Access to these new diagnostic and sequencing technologies in sub-Saharan Africa have the potential to provide novel insights into FMD epidemiology and will impact upon improved strategies for disease control. Effective control of infectious diseases is reliant upon accurate diagnosis of clinical cases using laboratory tests, together with an understanding of factors that impact upon the epidemiology of the infectious agent. A wide range of new diagnostic tools and nucleotide sequencing methods are used by international reference laboratories to detect and characterise the agents causing outbreaks of infectious diseases. In the past, high costs (initial capital expenses, as well as day-to-day maintenance and running costs) and complexity of the protocols used to perform some of these tests have limited the use of these methods in smaller laboratories. However, simpler and more cost-effective formats are now being developed that offer the prospect that these technologies will be even more widely deployed into laboratories particularly those in developing regions of the world such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Structure of African elephant populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegismund, H R; Arctander, P

    1996-01-01

    The structure of elephant populations from east and south Africa has been analyzed by Georgiadis et al. (1994) on the basis of restriction site variation of mitochondrial DNA. They used F statistics based on identity by descent in tests for subdivision and reached the conclusion that there was a...... significant differentiation at the continental level, but that "populations were not significantly subdivided at the regional levels." The data were reanalyzed by Monte-Carlo permutation tests where population subdivision was tested by using F statistics based on partitioning the total haplotype diversity...... among populations. This resulted in identical conclusions at the continental level, but revealed in addition a significant subdivision at the regional level indicating haplotype frequency differences among the populations....

  2. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulinck Hubert

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

  3. Modelling social vulnerability in sub-Saharan West Africa using a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, disasters and risk management have gained significant attention, especially with increasing awareness of the risks and increasing impact of natural and other hazards especially in the developing world. Vulnerability, the potential for loss of life or property from disaster, has biophysical or social dimensions. Social vulnerability relates to societal attributes which has negative impacts on disaster outcomes. This study sought to develop a spatially explicit index of social vulnerability, thus addressing the dearth of research in this area in sub-Saharan Africa. Nineteen variables were identified covering various aspects. Descriptive analysis of these variables revealed high heterogeneity across the South West region of Nigeria for both the state and the local government areas (LGAs. Feature identification using correlation analysis identified six important variables. Factor analysis identified two dimensions, namely accessibility and socioeconomic conditions, from this subset. A social vulnerability index (SoVI showed that Ondo and Ekiti have more vulnerable LGAs than other states in the region. About 50% of the LGAs in Osun and Ogun have a relatively low social vulnerability. Distribution of the SoVI shows that there are great differences within states as well as across regions. Scores of population density, disability and poverty have a high margin of error in relation to mean state scores. The study showed that with a geographical information system there are opportunities to model social vulnerability and monitor its evolution and dynamics across the continent.

  4. Energy services in sub-Saharan Africa: how conducive is the environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk of rural populations in sub-Saharan Africa have no access to electricity and are under-served by any other form of modern infrastructure. The cost of infrastructure to mainly scattered communities has been perennially cited as largely to blame. This is an undeniable truth, but only part of it. There are in addition, myriads of social, economic and political obstacles that play an unquantified and frequently unrecognized negative role. At the route of the problem lies a subdued role of the would-be recipients who in fact, unlike anybody else, are conversant with their problems. Consequently, a number of products may come as impositions or misplaced priorities. Consumer participation for sustainable development has been articulated at international forums and in publications as being advantageous. In practice however, the concept appears to be generally shunned and even when, occasionally, tried the needs of the consumers are presumed and their roles prescribed. This paper discusses a range of social, economic and political issues that constitute major obstacles to the realisation of sustainable rural development

  5. Energy services in sub-Saharan Africa: how conducive is the environment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebitosi, A.B.; Pillay, P

    2005-11-01

    The bulk of rural populations in sub-Saharan Africa have no access to electricity and are under-served by any other form of modern infrastructure. The cost of infrastructure to mainly scattered communities has been perennially cited as largely to blame. This is an undeniable truth, but only part of it. There are in addition, myriads of social, economic and political obstacles that play an unquantified and frequently unrecognized negative role. At the route of the problem lies a subdued role of the would-be recipients who in fact, unlike anybody else, are conversant with their problems. Consequently, a number of products may come as impositions or misplaced priorities. Consumer participation for sustainable development has been articulated at international forums and in publications as being advantageous. In practice however, the concept appears to be generally shunned and even when, occasionally, tried the needs of the consumers are presumed and their roles prescribed. This paper discusses a range of social, economic and political issues that constitute major obstacles to the realisation of sustainable rural development.

  6. Sustainability of Water Safety Plans Developed in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rondi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the drinking water supply is still an open issue. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 68% of the population has access to improved sources of drinking water. Moreover, some regions are affected by geogenic contaminants (e.g., fluoride and arsenic and the lack of access to sanitation facilities and hygiene practices causes high microbiological contamination of drinking water in the supply chain. The Water Safety Plan (WSP approach introduced by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2004 is now under development in several developing countries in order to face up to these issues. The WSP approach was elaborated within two cooperation projects implemented in rural areas of Burkina Faso and Senegal by two Italian NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations. In order to evaluate its sustainability, a questionnaire based on five different sustainability elements and a cost and time consumption evaluation were carried out and applied in both the case studies. Results demonstrated that the questionnaire can provide a useful and interesting overview regarding the sustainability of the WSP; however, further surveys in the field are recommended for gathering more information. Time and costs related to the WSP elaboration, implementation, and management were demonstrated not to be negligible and above all strongly dependent on water quality and the water supply system complexity.

  7. Trends in the control of theileriosis in sub-Saharan Africa : tick-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. McKeever

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The declining efficacy of acaricide treatment as a means of reducing the prevalence of Theileria parva infections in sub-Saharan Africa has intensified efforts to achieve control through immunization of susceptible cattle. The infection and treatment method of immunization has enjoyed a resurgence with the availability of more effective cold chain facilities, although concerns remain regarding the possibility of vaccine strains spreading in local tick populations. In addition, an in-depth understanding of protective mechanisms deployed by immune cattle and the antigens targeted by them has led to substantial progress in the development of candidate subunit vaccines against both sporozoite and schizont stages of the parasite. The likely success of these vaccines, as well as infection and treatment immunization, will ultimately depend on the extent to which they disturb the endemic status of the parasite. These issues are discussed in the light of recent information on the genotypic diversity of T. parva in the field and the extent to which this is compromised by the immune response.

  8. Macro-level drivers of multidimensional poverty in sub-Saharan Africa: Explaining change in the Human Poverty Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Prince

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is increasingly recognised as a multidimensional phenomenon in the development literature, encompassing not only income, but also a range of factors related to broadening an individual’s freedoms to live a life of their own choosing. Poverty so understood suggests that alternative approaches to poverty measurement reflecting this multidimensionality may point towards alternative policies for poverty alleviation. The imperative to reinforce pro-poor policy development in sub-Saharan Africa with evaluation findings that reflect improvements in well-being, rather than solely improvements in national economies, has become self-evident as, despite decades of market-led development policies, much of the subcontinent remains mired in deprivation. As recognised by the 2014 African Evaluation Association’s biannual conference, fresh thinking and new evaluation metrics are required in order to create policies that more effectively increase well-being. This article explores the factors that may account for changes in one metric of multidimensional poverty in developing countries, the United Nation Development Program’s Human Poverty Index (HPI, and will be primarily concerned with measuring the effects on the HPI of policies and activities that relate to, or are explicitly meant to encourage, economic growth, increased literacy and improved health. The study focuses on the outcomes of a panel data set, created for the purpose of this study, of HPI scores for a set of 47 sub-Saharan countries, between 1990 and 2010, and a range of indicators that the development literature and theory suggest should have an effect on income poverty, asking, what is the relationship between these indicators and multidimensional poverty? A parallel set of models has been developed to measure the response of household consumption expenditure to changes in economic growth and human capabilities indicators. All models are estimated using fixed effects estimators and cluster robust standard errors in Stata 12. Consistent with the development literature, household expenditure appears to be significantly and positively related to changes in gross domestic product (GDP per capita. However, when the HPI is regressed on GDP per capita, no statistically significant relationshipis observed, even when controlling for a range of other indicators, calling into question the relationship between economic growth and well-being in much of sub-Saharan Africa. This finding suggests that development policies that focus primarily on economic growth as a means to addressing multidimensional deprivation may be misplaced.

  9. Black or African American Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... had the largest incidence and death rates from colorectal cancer in 2008 compared with all other racial and ... and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Division of Population Health Preventive Health & Health Services Block Grant Promoting Health Equity ...

  10. Fire-Induced Variation of Essential Climate Variables in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.; Willmot, K. E.; Gatebe, C. K.; Matsui, T.; Wang, J.; Okonkwo, C.; Damoah, R.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.; Bolten, J. D.; Policelli, F. S.; Wilcox, E. M.; Habib, S.

    2014-12-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching East-West across Africa, is very vulnerable because of the highly active environmental and meteorological processes associated with its unique location and human activities. Over the years, this region has suffered frequent severe droughts that have caused tremendous hardship and loss of life to millions of its inhabitants due to the rapid depletion of the regional water resources. On the other hand, the NSSA region shows one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle and climate. An interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand possible connections between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the water cycle, through associated changes in certain essential climate variables (ECVs) including land-cover, albedo, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and atmospheric composition, which can drive changes in additional ECVs such as atmospheric water vapor and wind patterns, precipitation, surface runoff, and groundwater recharge. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized to investigate these multiple processes to clarify possible links between them. We are finding significant relationships between biomass burning and many of the above-listed ECVs. In this presentation, we will discuss interesting results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the water cycle components and the environmental change dynamics due to biomass burning and related processes in the NSSA region.

  11. Making Mechanization Accessible to Smallholder Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Sims

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the deliberations at a meeting convened by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation held in Beijing in October 2015. Farm power and mechanization are agricultural production inputs that will be essential to raise the labor and land productivity required if Sustainable Development Goals 1 and 2 (ending poverty and hunger are to be achieved. The smallholder farm sector demand for mechanization needs to be raised to stimulate the product value chain and activate input supply (that is to raise farm productivity, stimulate value addition, and encourage private sector custom hire service provision. The sustainability of mechanization from a natural resource conservation point of view is discussed with reference to conservation agriculture principles. Mechanization appropriate for the smallholder sector covers the range of possible power sources human, draft animal and motorized. The key is to engage all the stakeholders in the supply chain and offer a range of suitable options from which the user can select. Sustainability of mechanization includes financial and social, as well as environmental factors. Local manufacturers should be supported where feasible as they can provide implements and machines adapted to local conditions—and better technical service and replacement part supply. The public sector role in providing access to mechanization should be restricted to promulgating enabling policies, building technical and business management skills and stimulating demand. The lessons to be learnt from Chinese experience in making mechanization available to smallholder farmers include subsidies, strong extension services, infrastructure development and a solid manufacturing sector that prioritizes the smallholder sector. The implications for sub-Saharan Africa appear to be that group ownership and custom hire service provision are the models to follow. Finally, the relevance of an African Center for Sustainable Agricultural Mechanization, on the model of CSAM in Beijing, is considered and recommended.

  12. Foreign Agricultural Land Acquisition and the Visibility of Water Resource Impacts in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Woodhouse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The many headlines focusing on 'land grabbing' have distracted attention from the role that access to water plays in underpinning the projected productivity of foreign direct investment in acquisition of agricultural land in developing countries. This paper identifies questions that arise about the explicit and implicit water requirements for irrigation in agricultural projects on land that is subject to such foreign investment deals. It focuses particularly on land acquisition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where, for savanna ecosystems that cover some two thirds of the region, rainfall uncertainty is the principal constraint to increased agricultural productivity. The paper argues that, even where land acquisition deals do not specify irrigation, choice of location and/or crop type indicates this is invariably an implicit requirement of projects. It is arguable that private investment in water infrastructure (e.g. for water storage could provide wider benefits to neighbouring small-scale producers, thus reducing the risk inherent in much of African agriculture. However, it is also possible that foreign investment may compete with existing water use, and some land deals have included provisions for priority access to water in cases of scarcity. Empirical studies are used to identify the mechanisms through which large-scale land investments influence water availability for smaller-scale land users. The paper concludes that, although effects on water resources may constitute one of the main impacts of land deals, this is likely to be obscured by the lack of transparency over water requirements of agricultural projects and the invisibility of much existing local agricultural water management to government planning agencies.

  13. An association between neighbourhood wealth inequality and HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodish, Paul Henry

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates whether community-level wealth inequality predicts HIV serostatus using DHS household survey and HIV biomarker data for men and women ages 15-59 pooled from six sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates exceeding 5%. The analysis relates the binary dependent variable HIV-positive serostatus and two weighted aggregate predictors generated from the DHS Wealth Index: the Gini coefficient, and the ratio of the wealth of households in the top 20% wealth quintile to that of those in the bottom 20%. In separate multilevel logistic regression models, wealth inequality is used to predict HIV prevalence within each statistical enumeration area, controlling for known individual-level demographic predictors of HIV serostatus. Potential individual-level sexual behaviour mediating variables are added to assess attenuation, and ordered logit models investigate whether the effect is mediated through extramarital sexual partnerships. Both the cluster-level wealth Gini coefficient and wealth ratio significantly predict positive HIV serostatus: a 1 point increase in the cluster-level Gini coefficient and in the cluster-level wealth ratio is associated with a 2.35 and 1.3 times increased likelihood of being HIV positive, respectively, controlling for individual-level demographic predictors, and associations are stronger in models including only males. Adding sexual behaviour variables attenuates the effects of both inequality measures. Reporting eleven plus lifetime sexual partners increases the odds of being HIV positive over five-fold. The likelihood of having more extramarital partners is significantly higher in clusters with greater wealth inequality measured by the wealth ratio. Disaggregating logit models by sex indicates important risk behaviour differences. Household wealth inequality within DHS clusters predicts HIV serostatus, and the relationship is partially mediated by more extramarital partners. These results emphasize the importance of incorporating higher-level contextual factors, investigating behavioural mediators, and disaggregating by sex in assessing HIV risk in order to uncover potential mechanisms of action and points of preventive intervention. PMID:24406021

  14. Epidemiology, management and outcome of gastroschisis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Results of an international survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi J Wright

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to compare gastroschisis (GS epidemiology, management and outcome in low-income countries (LIC in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA with middle- (MIC and high-income countries (HIC. Materials and Methods: A 10-question survey was administered at the 2012 Pan-African Paediatric Surgery Association Congress. Results are presented as median (range; differences were analysed using contingency tests. Results: A total of 82 delegates (28 countries [66 institutions] were divided into LIC (n = 11, MIC (n = 6 and HIC (n = 11. In LIC, there were fewer surgeons and more patients. LIC reported 22 cases (1-184 GS/institution/year, compared to 12 cases (3-23/institution/year in MICs and 15 cases (1-100/institution/year in HICs. Antenatal screening was less readily available in LIC. Access to parenteral nutrition and neonatal intensive care in LIC was 36% and 19%, compared to 100% in HIC. Primary closure rates were similar in LIC and HIC at 58% and 54%, respectively; however, the majority of staged closure utilised custom silos in LIC and preformed silos in HIC. In LIC, mortality was reported as >75% by 61% delegates and 50-75% by 33%, compared to <25% by 100% of HIC delegates (P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Gastroschisis is a problem encountered by surgeons in SSA. Mortality is high and resources in many centres inadequate. We propose the implementation of a combined epidemiological research, service delivery training and resource provision programme to help improve our understanding of GS in SSA whilst attempting to improve outcome.

  15. Possible Links Between Biomass Burning And The Water Cycle In Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, C. M.; Gatebe, C. K.; Lee, J.; Wang, J.; Bolten, J. D.; Policelli, F.; Wilcox, E. M.; Adegoke, J. O.; Habib, S.

    2012-12-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching East-West across Africa, is very vulnerable because of the highly active environmental and meteorological processes associated with its unique location and human activities that potentially impact the regional water cycle. Over the years, this region has suffered frequent severe droughts that have caused tremendous hardship and loss of life to millions of its inhabitants due to the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. On the other hand, the NSSA region shows one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. An interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand possible connections between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the water cycle, through associated changes in land-cover, albedo, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, emissions, atmospheric processes, precipitation, surface runoff, and groundwater recharge. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized to investigate these multiple processes to clarify possible links between them. We are finding significant covariance (positive or negative) between them, although we are yet to establish cause-and-effect relationships. In this presentation, we will discuss interesting results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the water cycle components and the environmental change dynamics due to biomass burning and related processes in the NSSA region.

  16. An association between neighborhood wealth inequality and HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodish, Paul Henry

    2016-01-01

    Summary This paper investigates whether community-level wealth inequality predicts HIV serostatus, using DHS household survey and HIV biomarker data for men and women ages 15-59 pooled from six sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates exceeding five percent. The analysis relates the binary dependent variable HIV positive serostatus and two weighted aggregate predictors generated from the DHS Wealth Index: the Gini coefficient, and the ratio of the wealth of households in the top 20% wealth quintile to that of those in the bottom 20%. In separate multilevel logistic regression models, wealth inequality is used to predict HIV prevalence within each SEA, controlling for known individual-level demographic predictors of HIV serostatus. Potential individual-level sexual behavior mediating variables are added to assess attenuation, and ordered logit models investigate whether the effect is mediated through extramarital sexual partnerships. Both the cluster-level wealth Gini coefficient and wealth ratio significantly predict positive HIV serostatus: a 1 point increase in the cluster-level Gini coefficient and in the cluster-level wealth ratio is associated with a 2.35 and 1.3 times increased likelihood of being HIV positive, respectively, controlling for individual-level demographic predictors, and associations are stronger in models including only males. Adding sexual behavior variables attenuates the effects of both inequality measures. Reporting 11 plus lifetime sexual partners increases the odds of being HIV positive over five-fold. The likelihood of having more extramarital partners is significantly higher in clusters with greater wealth inequality measured by the wealth ratio. Disaggregating logit models by sex indicates important risk behavior differences. Household wealth inequality within DHS clusters predicts HIV serostatus, and the relationship is partially mediated by more extramarital partners. These results emphasize the importance of incorporating higher-level contextual factors, investigating behavioral mediators, and disaggregating by sex in assessing HIV risk in order to uncover potential mechanisms of action and points of preventive intervention PMID:24406021

  17. Dynamic Predictions of Crop Yield and Irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa Due to Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Wittig, T.

    2012-12-01

    The highest damages from climate change are predicted to be in the agricultural sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Agriculture is predicted to be especially vulnerable in this region because of its current state of high temperature and low precipitation and because it is usually rain-fed or relies on relatively basic technologies which therefore limit its ability to sustain in increased poor climatic conditions [1]. The goal of this research is to quantify the vulnerability of this ecosystem by projecting future changes in agriculture due to IPCC predicted climate change impacts on precipitation and temperature. This research will provide a better understanding of the relationship between precipitation and rain-fed agriculture in savannas. In order to quantify the effects of climate change on agriculture, the impacts of climate change are modeled through the use of a land surface vegetation dynamics model previously developed combined with a crop model [2,4]. In this project, it will be used to model yield for point cropland locations within sub-Saharan Africa between Kenya and Botswana with a range of annual rainfall. With this model, future projections are developed for what can be anticipated for the crop yield based on two precipitation climate change scenarios; (1) decreased depth and (2) decreased frequency as well as temperature change scenarios; (3) only temperature increased, (4) temperature increase dand decreased precipitation depth, and (5) temperature increased and decreased precipitation frequency. Therefore, this will allow conclusions to be drawn about how mean precipitation and a changing climate effect food security in sub-Saharan Africa. As an additional analysis, irrigation is added to the model as it is thought to be the solution to protect food security by maximizing on the potential of food production. In water-limited areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa, it is important to consider water efficient irrigation techniques such as demand-based micro-irrigation where less water is lost to evaporative demand. Demand-based irrigation is based on two main parameters; a trigger level, to initiate the irrigation, and a target level to calculate the amount of irrigation [3]. In order to understand the impact of these two parameters on amount of irrigated water and yield, irrigation is added to the model with variations of these two parameters considered. This analysis will provide the information needed to understand whether irrigation is a feasible and sustainable solution to the loss of food production due to climate change. Resources: [1]Kurukulasuriya, P., and Mendelsohn, Robert (2008). "A Ricardian analysis of the impact of climate change on African cropland." African Journal Agriculture and Resource Economics 02(1). [2]Raes, D., Steduto, P., Hsiao, T., and Fereres, E. (2011). Chapter 3: Calculation Procedure. . AquaCrop Reference Manual Version 3.1 Plus. [3]Vico, G. and A. Porporato (2011). "From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: I. A generalized irrigation scheme with stochastic soil moisture." Advances in Water Resources 34(2): 263-271. [4]Williams, C., and Albertson, J. (2005). "Contrasting Short- and Long-Timescale Effects of Vegetation Dynamics on Water and Carbon Fluxes in Water-Limited Ecosystems." Water Resources Research. 41: 1-13

  18. The road half traveled: agricultural market reform in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kherallah Mylne

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the extensive evidence on agricultural market reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa and summarises the impact reforms have had on market performance, agricultural production, use of modern inputs, and poverty. It offers eight recommendations for completing the reform process and developing a new agenda for agricultural markets in Sub-Saharan Africa. The reform experience in Sub-Saharan Africa has varied widely across countries and crop subsectors. The available evidence shows clear progress in some areas and mixed results in others. Most reforms were only partially implemented and policy reversal was common. Once implemented, however, reforms have increased competition and reduced marketing margins, benefiting both producers and consumers. Reforms have also boosted export crop production. On the other hand, food crop production has stagnated and yields have not improved. Further expansion of private trade is constrained by lack of access to credit, uncertainty about the governments commitment to reform, and high transaction costs.

  19. An evaluation of a morphine public health programme for cancer and AIDS pain relief in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harding Richard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite growing HIV and cancer prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa, and WHO advocacy for a public health approach to palliative care provision, opioid availability is severely limited. Uganda has achieved a morphine roll-out programme in partnership with the Ministry of Health. This study aimed to evaluate that programme by identifying challenges to implementation that may inform replication. Methods A multi-methods protocol appraised morphine regulation, storage, prescribing, and consumption in three phases: key informant interviews throughout the opioid supply chain, and direct observation and audit of clinical practice. Results Regulation had achieved its goal of preventing misuse and leakage from the supply chain. However, the Government felt that relaxation of regulation was now appropriate. Confusion and complexity in storage and authorisation rules led to discontinuation of opioid pain management at the patient level and also wasted service time in trying to obtain supplies to which they were entitled. Continued neglect to prescribe among clinicians and public fear of opioids led to under prescribing, and clinical skills showed some evidence of need for improvement with respect to physical assessment and follow-up. Conclusion The Ugandan programme offers a successful model for both advocacy and Governmental support in achieving opioid roll-out across health districts. Despite initial concerns, abuse of opioids has not been evident. Further work is required to ensure that available supplies of opioids are prescribed to those in need, and that clinical standards are met. However, the programme for roll-out has proved a useful model to expand opioid availability as the first step in improving patient care, and may prove a useful template for other Sub-Saharan African countries.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of malaria diagnostic methods in sub-Saharan Africa in an era of combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Shillcutt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness in different sub-Saharan African settings of presumptive treatment, field-standard microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs to diagnose malaria. METHODS: We used a decision tree model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis applied to outpatients presenting at rural health facilities with suspected malaria. Costs and effects encompassed those for both patients positive on RDT (assuming artemisinin-based combination therapy and febrile patients negative on RDT (assuming antibiotic treatment. Interventions were defined as cost-effective if they were less costly and more effective or had an incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year averted of less than US$ 150. Data were drawn from published and unpublished sources, supplemented with expert opinion. FINDINGS: RDTs were cost-effective compared with presumptive treatment up to high prevalences of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia. Decision-makers can be at least 50% confident of this result below 81% malaria prevalence, and 95% confident below 62% prevalence, a level seldom exceeded in practice. RDTs were more than 50% likely to be cost-saving below 58% prevalence. Relative to microscopy, RDTs were more than 85% likely to be cost-effective across all prevalence levels, reflecting their expected better accuracy under real-life conditions. Results were robust to extensive sensitivity analysis. The cost-effectiveness of RDTs mainly reflected improved treatment and health outcomes for non-malarial febrile illness, plus savings in antimalarial drug costs. Results were dependent on the assumption that prescribers used test results to guide treatment decisions. CONCLUSION: RDTs have the potential to be cost-effective in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Appropriate management of malaria and non-malarial febrile illnesses is required to reap the full benefits of these tests.

  1. Factors associated with attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women: a comparative analysis of 17 sub-Saharan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawoko Stephen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against women, especially by intimate partners, is a serious public health problem that is associated with physical, reproductive and mental health consequences. Even though most societies proscribe violence against women, the reality is that violations against women's rights are often sanctioned under the garb of cultural practices and norms, or through misinterpretation of religious tenets. Methods We utilised data from 17 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS conducted between 2003 and 2007 in sub-Saharan Africa to assess the net effects of socio-demographic factors on men's and women's attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW using multiple logistic regression models estimated by likelihood ratio test. Results IPVAW was widely accepted under certain circumstances by men and women in all the countries studied. Women were more likely to justify IPVAW than men. "Neglecting the children" was the most common reason agreed to by both women and men for justifying IPVAW followed by "going out without informing husband" and "arguing back with the husband". Increasing wealth status, education attainment, urbanization, access to media, and joint decision making were associated with decreased odds of justifying IPVAW in most countries. Conclusion In most Sub-Saharan African countries studied where IPVAW is widely accepted as a response to women's transgressing gender norms, men find less justification for the practice than do women. The present study suggests that proactive efforts are needed to change these norms, such as promotion of higher education and socio-demographic development. The magnitude and direction of factors associated with attitudes towards IPVAW varies widely across the countries, thus suggesting the significance of capitalizing on need-adapted interventions tailored to fit conditions in each country.

  2. Regional economic integration in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Konings, P.J.J.; Meilink, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of regional integration has acquired a new relevance and urgency in Africa due to wide-reaching national and global changes. African leaders' commitment to regional economic integration was clearly expressed during the June 1991 OAU summit meeting in Abuja, Nigeria. On that occasion, they signed a treaty to establish an African Economic Community (AEC) by the year 2025. This chapter reviews the various regional integration schemes that came into existence in the aftermath of indepen...

  3. Human Heredity and Health (H3) in Africa Kidney Disease Research Network: A Focus on Methods in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo, Charlotte; Raji, Yemi Raheem; Burke, David; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tiffin, Nicki; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Rasooly, Rebekah S; Kimmel, Paul L; Ojo, Akinlolu; Adu, Dwomoa; Parekh, Rulan S

    2015-12-01

    CKD affects an estimated 14% of adults in sub-Saharan Africa, but very little research has been done on the cause, progression, and prevention of CKD there. As part of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium, the H3Africa Kidney Disease Research Network was established to study prevalent forms of kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa and increase the capacity for genetics and genomics research. The study is performing comprehensive phenotypic characterization and analyzing environmental and genetic factors from nine clinical centers in four African countries (Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Kenya) over a 5-year period. Approximately 4000 participants with specified kidney disease diagnoses and 4000 control participants will be enrolled in the four African countries. In addition, approximately 50 families with hereditary glomerular disease will be enrolled. The study includes both pediatric and adult participants age <1 to 74 years across a broad spectrum of kidney diseases secondary to hypertension-attributed nephropathy, diabetes, HIV infection, sickle cell disease, biopsy-proven glomerular disease, and CKD of unknown origin. Clinical and demographic data with biospecimens are collected to assess clinical, biochemical, and genetic markers of kidney disease. As of March 2015, a total of 3499 patients and controls have been recruited and 1897 had complete entry data for analysis. Slightly more than half (50.2%) of the cohort is female. Initial quality control of clinical data collection and of biosample and DNA analysis is satisfactory, demonstrating that a clinical research infrastructure can be successfully established in Africa. This study will provide clinical, biochemical, and genotypic data that will greatly increase the understanding of CKD in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26138261

  4. Relationship between Economic Growth and Debt: An Empirical Analysis for Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Ershad HUSSAIN; Haque, Mahfuzul; IGWIKE, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine the connection between economic growth and debt, with the question in mind -“Is debt a burden and bad for economic growth? Employing several sophisticated statistical approaches to investigate the problem and to assess the impact of debt on economic growth in 48 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa from 1995 to 2012, we find evidence of Granger causality between debt and economic growth in 8 out of the 48 sub-Saharan countries during the period of study and validate for t...

  5. Understanding the Scourge of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inungu Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa is the part of the world that has been hit hardest by the HIV epidemic. To fight the spread of HIV in the continent, it is necessary to know and effectively address the factors that drive the spread of HIV. The purpose of this article is to review the factors associated with the spread of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa and to propose 6 essential activities, which we refer to by the acronym "ESCAPER," to help curb the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa.

  6. HIV/AIDS Drugs for Sub-Saharan Africa: How Do Brand and Generic Supply Compare?

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Colleen V.

    2007-01-01

    Background Significant quantities of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to treat HIV/AIDS have been procured for Sub-Saharan Africa for the first time in their 20-year history. This presents a novel opportunity to empirically study the roles of brand and generic suppliers in providing access to ARVs. Methodology/Principal Findings An observational study of brand and generic supply based on a dataset of 2,162 orders of AIDS drugs for Sub-Saharan Africa reported to the Global Price Reporting Mechanism...

  7. Is HIV/AIDS Epidemic Outcome of Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Dzimnenani Mbirimtengerenji, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Undisputable fact is that 14 000 people in Sub-Saharan Africa are being infected daily with HIV and 11 000 are dying every day due to HIV/AIDS related illnesses. In this region more than 60% of the people live below UN poverty line of US$ 1 per day. Some studies have shown that poverty and HIV infection are in correlation, but none has shown whether HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa is an outcome of poverty. This article, therefore, shows that HIV is an important outcome of poverty, with sexual ...

  8. Demand for products of irrigated agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Riddell, P. J.; Westlake, Michael; Burke, Jacob J.

    2012-01-01

    If irrigated production is to make a significant contribution to food security and economic growth in Sub Saharan Africa, it will have to be re-structured across the region as a whole. This is the main conclusion of a study undertaken by FAO to analyse the drivers of demand for irrigated production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Steeply rising commercial food import bills for staple crops across SSA are indicative of the level demand that is not being met from domestic production. The increase ...

  9. Stigma of People with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, Nanne K. de; Bart van den Borne; Mbonu, Ngozi C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to elucidate what is known about HIV/AIDS and stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa. Literature about HIV/AIDS and stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa was systematically searched in Pubmed, Medscape, and Psycinfo up to March 31, 2009. No starting date limit was specified. The material was analyzed using Gilmore and Somerville's (1994) four processes of stigmatizing responses: the definition of the problem HIV/AIDS, identification of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), li...

  10. Understanding the Scourge of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Inungu Joseph; Karl Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa is the part of the world that has been hit hardest by the HIV epidemic. To fight the spread of HIV in the continent, it is necessary to know and effectively address the factors that drive the spread of HIV. The purpose of this article is to review the factors associated with the spread of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa and to propose 6 essential activities, which we refer to by the acronym "ESCAPER," to help curb the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa.

  11. The relationship between orphanhood and child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, 1990s–2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Monica J.; Yeatman, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In countries most afflicted by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, orphanhood has increased dramatically, but the potential consequences of the increase have been mitigated by the ability of households to absorb orphans. This paper examines what the rising levels of orphanhood mean for the common practice of non-orphan child fostering in regions of high and low HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, which has a long history of child fostering. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 135 regi...

  12. The Decline and Rise of Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa Since 1961

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Block

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural productivity growth in sub-Saharan Africa has been a qualified success. Total factor productivity growth has increased rapidly since the early 1980s. By the early 2000s, average annual TFP growth was roughly four times faster than it had been 25 years earlier. This period of accelerated growth, however, followed nearly 20 years of declining rates of TFP growth subsequent to independence in the early 1960s. Average agricultural TFP growth for sub-Saharan Africa was 0.14% per year ...

  13. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Aguocha Chinyere M; Okoroikpa Ifeoma N; Ubochi Vincent N; Bakare Muideen O; Ebigbo Peter O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intell...

  14. Eutrophication and nutrient release in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P M; Foppen, J W; Uhlenbrook, S; Kulabako, R; Muwanga, A

    2010-01-01

    Eutrophication is an increasing problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and, as a result, the ecological integrity of surface waters becomes compromised, fish populations become extinct, toxic cyanobacteria blooms are abundant, and oxygen levels reduce. In this review we establish the relationship between eutrophication of fresh inland surface waters in SSA and the release of nutrients in their mega-cities. Monitoring reports indicate that the population of mega-cities in SSA is rapidly increasing, and so is the total amount of wastewater produced. Of the total amounts produced, at present, less than 30% is treated in sewage treatment plants, while the remainder is disposed of via onsite sanitation systems, eventually discharging their wastewater into groundwater. When related to the urban water balance of a number of SSA cities, the total amount of wastewater produced may be as high as 10-50% of the total precipitation entering these urban areas, which is considerable, especially since in most cases, precipitation is the most important, if not only the 'wastewater diluting agent' present. The most important knowledge gaps include: (1) the fate and transport mechanisms of nutrients (N and P) in soils and aquifers, or, conversely, the soil aquifer treatment characteristics of the regoliths, which cover a large part of SSA, (2) the effect of the episodic and largely uncontrolled removal of nutrients stored at urban surfaces by runoff from precipitation on nutrient budgets in adjacent lakes and rivers draining the urban areas, and (3) the hydrology and hydrogeology within the urban area, including surface water and groundwater flow patterns, transport velocities, dynamics of nutrient transport, and the presence of recharge and discharge areas. In order to make a start with managing this urban population-related eutrophication, many actions are required. As a first step, we suggest to start systematically researching the key areas identified above. PMID:19889445

  15. North African Populations Carry the Signature of Admixture with Neandertals

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R.; Civit, Sergi; Arenas, Conchita; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Bustamante, Carlos, D.; Comas, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2012-01-01

    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient population substructure. Thus, the study of North African populations is crucial for testing both hypotheses. We analyzed a total of 780,000 SNPs in 125 individuals representing seven different North Afri...

  16. Polymorphisms at 17 Y-STR loci in Botswana populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tau, Tiroyamodimo; Davison, Sean; D'Amato, María Eugenia

    2015-07-01

    Seventeen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (YSTRs)-DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS385a/b, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, and Y-GATA-H4-were analyzed in 252 unrelated male individuals from Botswana. A total of 238 unique haplotypes were identified. The discrimination capacity (DC) was 0.9444 whereas the haplotype diversity (HD) was 0.9990. A database search of the 238 unique haplotypes in the Y chromosome haplogroup database (YHRD) yielded three African American, six Sub-Saharan African, and two admixed South American matches. Five additional African-American matches were detected in the Applied Biosystems Y-STR database. RST, multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and AMOVA were used to investigate population differentiation in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Botswana. The populations in Sub-Saharan Africa were found to be heterogeneous, with Botswana showing significant differences from its neighbors. No geographic regional or ethnic differentiation was observed within Botswana. Regional and ethnic variation can be useful in forensic working hypotheses. PMID:25817844

  17. Differential Narrow Focusing of Immunodominant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Gag-Specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses in Infected African and Caucasoid Adults and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Goulder, Philip J. R.; Brander, C; K. Annamalai; Mngqundaniso, N.; Govender, U.; Tang, Y; He, S.; Hartman, K E; O'Callaghan, C. A.; Ogg, G S; Altfeld, M. A.; Rosenberg, E S.; Cao, H.; Kalams, S. A.; Hammond, M.

    2000-01-01

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity plays a central role in control of viral replication and in determining outcome in cases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Incorporation of important CTL epitope sequences into candidate vaccines is, therefore, vital. Most CTL studies have focused upon small numbers of adult Caucasoid subjects infected with clade-B virus, whereas the global epidemic is most severe in sub-Saharan African populations and predominantly involves clade-...

  18. 78 FR 56702 - Notice of Open Special Meeting of the Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee (SAAC) of the Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... on Strategy Recommendations for Increasing Export-Import Bank Transactions in Sub-Saharan Africa... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Notice of Open Special Meeting of the Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee (SAAC) of the Export-Import...

  19. Smallholder groundwater irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa: an interdisciplinary framework applied to the Usangu plains, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villholth, Karen G.; Ganeshamoorthy, Jegan; Rundblad, Christian M.; Knudsen, Theis S.

    2013-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive framework for analysing the potential for and constraints to groundwater development for irrigated agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is proposed. The framework, based on food value chain principles, is applied to the sub-Saharan context and a specific catchment in Tanza...... groundwater irrigation in the Usangu plains rather than hydrogeological conditions....

  20. Smallholder Irrigation and Crop Diversification under Climate Change in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence and Potential for Simultaneous Food Security, Adaptation, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, R.; Burney, J. A.; Postel, S.

    2011-12-01

    The poorest populations in sub-Saharan Africa live in rural areas and depend on smallholder agricultural production for their livelihoods. Over 90% of all farmed area in Sub-Saharan Africa is rainfed, with crop production centering on 3-5 months of rainfall. Rapid population growth is reducing land per capita ratios, and low yields for staple crops make food security an increasingly challenging goal. Malnutrition, most noticeable among children, peaks during the dry season. Recent data on aggregate economic growth and investment in Africa hide these patterns of seasonal hunger and income disparity. Perhaps most perversely, smallholder farmers in the dry tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa are (and will continue to be) some of the earliest and hardest hit by climate change. Our research focuses on the role distributed, small-scale irrigation can play in food security and climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa. As Asia's agricultural success has demonstrated, irrigation, when combined with the availability of inputs (fertilizer) and improved crop varieties, can enable year-round production, growth in rural incomes, and a dramatic reduction in hunger. The situation in Africa is markedly different: agroecological conditions are far more heterogeneous than in Asia and evaporation rates are relatively high; most smallholders lack access to fertilizers; and market integration is constrained by infrastructure, information, and private sector incentives. Yet from a resource perspective, national- and regional-level estimates suggest that Internal Renewable Water Resources (IRWR) are nowhere near fully exploited in Sub-Saharan Africa -- even in the Sudano-Sahel, which is considered to be one of the driest regions of the continent. Irrigation can thus be implemented on a much larger scale sustainably. We will present (a) results from controlled, experimental field studies of solar-powered drip irrigation systems in the rural Sudano-Sahel region of West Africa. We have shown that such systems can be implemented in a cost-competitive and environmentally responsible manner, with significant and sustained impact on livelihoods. These findings will be coupled with (b) case studies of successful and failed irrigation projects across the continent that reveal technical and institutional requirements for success; and (c) regional and continental data that quantify the larger-scale food security, development, adaptation, and mitigation potentials of these types of smallholder systems.

  1. Sickle Cell Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas N

    2016-04-01

    In Africa, at least 240,000 children are born each year with sickle cell disease. Historically, in the absence of newborn screening and appropriate treatment, most such children died undiagnosed in early childhood. However, with increasing awareness of the condition and economic and epidemiologic transition, increasing numbers are surviving. Greater investments in basic and applied research in the African context, and increased sensitization or African ministries of health regarding the importance of this condition, could make a substantial difference to the lives and livelihoods of millions of people living with sickle cell disease on the continent and their families. PMID:27040958

  2. Clean and Improved Cooking in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) survey on the global burden of disease shows that nearly 600,000 Africans die annually and millions more suffer from chronic illnesses caused by air pollution from inefficient and dangerous traditional cooking fuels and stoves. This tragic and avoidable first-order public health crisis disproportionately harms women and children...

  3. Environmental Economics in Sub-Saharan Africa : Towards Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Convery, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental concerns must be integrated into the development process, but African countries still face many challenges as they work to achieve development that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Many countries have already launched National Environmental Action Plans (NEAPs) and National Conservation Strategies; however, in preparing and implementing them, econom...

  4. [The Lebanese emigration in Sub-Saharan western Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaki, B

    1993-01-01

    The author examines the history of Lebanese migration to western Africa. Aspects considered include changes in countries of origin and destination, Africanization policies, wars in Lebanon, independence movements, economic status of migrants, temporary and return migration, and the brain drain. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12287075

  5. Control and non-progression of HIV-1 infection in sub-Saharan Africa: A case and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Patel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Elite and viraemic controllers represent unique subsets of HIV-infected patients who may also be long-term non-progressors (LTNPs. LNTPs constitute an estimated 1 - 15% of the total HIV-positive population in the USA and Europe, but less is known about their epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. Though the exact mechanisms for long-term non-progression appear to be numerous and are still under investigation, research on elite controllers may hold the key to new therapeutics and vaccine development. The clinical management of such patients can be challenging, as there are no standard guidelines for treatment, particularly in resource-limited settings. We describe the case of an HIV-infected Botswanan man who is likely an elite or viraemic controller.

  6. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Bonham, Mateyo; Rahman, Zarah; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-01-01

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety. PMID:26950135

  7. Tuberculosis and poverty: the contribution of patient costs in sub-Saharan Africa – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barter Devra M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is known to disproportionately affect the most economically disadvantaged strata of society. Many studies have assessed the association between poverty and TB, but only a few have assessed the direct financial burden TB treatment and care can place on households. Patient costs can be particularly burdensome for TB-affected households in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty levels are high; these costs include the direct costs of medical and non-medical expenditures and the indirect costs of time utilizing healthcare or lost wages. In order to comprehensively assess the existing evidence on the costs that TB patients incur, we undertook a systematic review of the literature. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, EconLit, Dissertation Abstracts, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched, and 5,114 articles were identified. Articles were included in the final review if they contained a quantitative measure of direct or indirect patient costs for treatment or care for pulmonary TB in sub-Saharan Africa and were published from January 1, 1994 to Dec 31, 2010. Cost data were extracted from each study and converted to 2010 international dollars (I$. Results Thirty articles met all of the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one studies reported both direct and indirect costs; eight studies reported only direct costs; and one study reported only indirect costs. Depending on type of costs, costs varied from less than I$1 to almost I$600 or from a small fraction of mean monthly income for average annual income earners to over 10 times average annual income for income earners in the income-poorest 20% of the population. Out of the eleven types of TB patient costs identified in this review, the costs for hospitalization, medication, transportation, and care in the private sector were largest. Conclusion TB patients and households in sub-Saharan Africa often incurred high costs when utilizing TB treatment and care, both within and outside of Directly Observed Therapy Short-course (DOTS programs. For many households, TB treatment and care-related costs were considered to be catastrophic because the patient costs incurred commonly amounted to 10% or more of per capita incomes in the countries where the primary studies included in this review were conducted. Our results suggest that policies to decrease direct and indirect TB patient costs are urgently needed to prevent poverty due to TB treatment and care for those affected by the disease.

  8. Rural Transport : Improving its Contribution to Growth and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Banjo, George; Gordon, Henry; Riverson, John

    2012-01-01

    Poverty reduction is a long-standing development objective of many developing countries and their aid donors, including the World Bank. To achieve this goal, these countries and organizations have sought to improve smallholder agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as part of a broader rural development agenda aimed at providing a minimal basket of goods and services in rural ...

  9. Overseas Training and National Development Objectives in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moock, Joyce Lewinger

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on the impact of overseas training on national development objectives in Sub-Saharan Africa. Reviews the current economic crisis in Africa and the need for high-level, skilled workers. Examines the advantages and disadvantages of foreign study as a means of developing competent indigenous professionals. Notes pertinent research issues. (SB)

  10. Nonformal Education and Informal Economies in Sub-Saharan Africa: Finding the Right Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Education policy in sub-Saharan Africa is predicated on human capital assumptions and therefore promotes the expansion of formal education as a way to promote economic growth. As a result, formal education is valued primarily as a private consumer good, a form of cultural capital that allows some to get ahead and stay ahead, rather than as a

  11. Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, S

    2003-01-01

    A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

  12. The impact of solar ultraviolet radiation on human health in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoprotection messages and ‘SunSmart’ programmes exist mainly to prevent skin cancers and, more recently, to encourage adequate personal sun exposure to elicit a vitamin D response for healthy bone and immune systems. Several developed countries maintain intensive research networks and monitor solar UV radiation to support awareness campaigns and intervention development. The situation is different in sub-Saharan Africa. Adequate empirical evidence of the impact of solar UV radiation on human health, even for melanomas and cataracts, is lacking, and is overshadowed by other factors such as communicable diseases, especially HIV, AIDS and tuberculosis. In addition, the established photoprotection messages used in developed countries have been adopted and implemented in a limited number of sub-Saharan countries but with minimal understanding of local conditions and behaviours. In this review, we consider the current evidence for sun-related effects on human health in sub-Saharan Africa, summarise published research and identify key issues. Data on the prevalence of human diseases affected by solar UV radiation in all subpopulations are not generally available, financial support is insufficient and the infrastructure to address these and other related topics is inadequate. Despite these limitations, considerable progress may be made regarding the management of solar UV radiation related health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, provided researchers collaborate and resources are allocated appropriately.

  13. Effect of health development assistance on health status in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negeri, Keneni Gutema; Halemariam, Damen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effect of health development aid in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Using panel data analytic method, as well as infant mortality rate as a proxy for health status, this study examines the effect of health aid on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel was constructed from data on 43 countries for the period 1990–2010. Fixed effect, random effect, and first difference generalized method of moments estimator were used for estimation. Results Health development aid has a statistically significant positive effect. A 1% increase of health development assistance per capita saves the lives of two infants per 1,000 live births (P=0.000) in the region. Conclusion Contrary to health aid pessimists’ view, this study observes the fact that health development assistance has strong favorable effect in improving health status in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Incentives, Exports and International Competitiveness in Sub-Saharan Africa : Lessons from the Apparel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Patrick; Shah, Manju

    2011-01-01

    This country-level analysis of international trading patterns examines all sub-Saharan (SSA) countries for which trade data exist. Firm-level analysis is restricted to five countries: Kenya, Mauritius, Madagascar, Swaziland, and Lesotho, for which enterprise surveys are available from the period just before or after the elimination of the final quotas in 2005, under the Agreement for Texti...

  15. Challenging Educational Injustice: "Grassroots" Privatisation in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of low-cost private schools "mushrooming" in poor areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and elsewhere, is now well-documented. Findings from research by the author's teams and others show that these schools are serving a majority (urban and peri-urban) or significant minority (rural) of the poor, including

  16. The Economics of Renewable Energy Expansion in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe DEICHMANN; Meisner, Craig; Murray, Siobhan; Wheeler, David

    2010-01-01

    Accelerating development in Sub-Saharan Africa will require massive expansion of access to electricity -- currently reaching only about one-third of households. This paper explores how essential economic development might be reconciled with the need to keep carbon emissions in check. The authors develop a geographically explicit framework and use spatial modeling and cost estimates from re...

  17. Africa - Making Development Climate Resilient : A World Bank Strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2009-01-01

    This strategy for making development Climate-Resilient in Sub-Saharan Africa is the World Bank's operational response to climate variability and change on the continent. Grounded in a climate risk review of the Africa Region's sustainable development portfolio, it adds the climate change dimension to the Region's development strategy and business plan, the Africa Action Plan (AAP, 2009-201...

  18. Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Need for Better Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kula, Nothemba; Haines, Andy; Fryatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Robert Fryatt and colleagues argue for more attention to climate change in sub-Saharan Africa, a region that has contributed the least greenhouse gas emissions to the world's total but is more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change than any other.

  19. Strengthening Auditing and Accounting Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa : The Education and Training Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sonia R.

    1996-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the accounting profession and the education and training of accountants in Sub-Saharan Anglophone Africa. It looks at: the profession; accounting examinations; accounting degrees; the education of accountants and accounting technicians; the training of accountants and accounting technicians; and continuing professional education (CPE). This study provides ...

  20. Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews the English-language literature on child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The focus is on the sexual abuse of children in the home/community, as opposed to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Methods: English language, peer-reviewed papers cited in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) are…