WorldWideScience
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Rapid population growth and fragile environments: the sub-Saharan African and south Asian experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Case studies of the world's two poorest regions, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, were used to illustrate the compromised standard of living of the poor and environmental damage due to continued rapid population growth. The conclusion was that the livelihoods of the poor should not be endangered for preserving the living standards of richer people. Nations must not ignore the challenges of reducing population growth as fast as can be achieved. The transitional period over the next 50 years is the main concern, because population growth rates will be slowing. Rural population growth is expected to decline from 60% of total population growth in South Asia to 7% between 2000 and 2025; similarly the decline in sub-Saharan Africa would be from 50% to 15%. Over the past 30 years, food production in South Asia has kept pace with population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa has adopted food importation to meet demand. African problems are a low resource base, faster population growth, and the fact that governments and individuals are too poor to maintain soil fertility. Long-term studies of how much soil depletion will occur are not available for these regions, and local area studies are not as pessimistic. Transition policies are needed to put "people first in terms of engineered or directed population and ecological change." The six main issues are the following: 1) the Brundtland Commission appropriately identified poverty as the main cause and effect of environmental degradation because of the threat to survival; 2) the verdict is still out about whether food production will keep pace with population growth through economic growth and investment in agriculture; 3) empirical research is needed to examine local social and regulatory institutions and the possibility of reinforcing these mechanisms rather than instituting central controls; 4) central coercion or modernizing economic policies can destroy local level controls; 5) famine is a complex ecological phenomenon and the product of political mismanagement and civil disorder; 6) deforestation is as important an issue as protection of the livelihoods of forest populations. Case studies were provided for Ekiti district of Nigeria, the West and East African Savannahs, Karnataka state in South India, arid South Asia, and Nepal. The protection of the most fragile environments subject to population pressure can be managed with respect for human dignity through general economic development and external assistance. PMID:8154727

Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P

1994-02-18

2

Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub-Saharan region, energy independent countries using indigenous coal and peat resources. These resources have the potential to replace wood and wood charcoal as domestic fueld in the urban centers, as well as producing electrical and industrial energy, thus reducing expensive oil imports and decreasing the rate of deforestation.

Weaver, J. N.; Brownfield, M. E.; Bergin, M. J.

3

Frequency variation among sub-Saharan populations in virus restriction gene, BST-2 proximal promoter polymorphisms: implications for HIV-1 prevalence differences among African countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reports promoter variants in four sub-Saharan African populations that may affect BST-2 gene regulation. Recently, an in/del within the BST-2 promoter has been associated with HIV-1 disease progression in a Spanish cohort. Hence, we sequenced the proximal promoter region of the BST-2 gene in 581 individuals from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Cameroon. Seven SNPs were identified: rs28413176 (+26i6/?6); rs28413175 (-160i1/?1), -187A>G (nucleotide position -17516614); rs28413174 (-193G>A); rs73921425 (-199G>A); rs12609479 (-201C>T); and rs112492472 (-225C>T). The -199A and -225T alleles showed interesting trends across the sub-Saharan continent. Using predictive bioinformatics tools, we show that allelic variation at -199 and -201 potentially affect key transcription factor binding sites including bHLH, c-Myb, and E47. Importantly, data available from the ENCODE study gave further credence to our hypothesis of transcriptional regulation of BST-2 by a bHLH TF such as Mxi1. The possible repressive transcriptional effect of Mxi1 combined with the allelic frequency trend seen at -199 between African populations overlays well with current HIV-1 prevalence data, and may be a contributing factor to this phenomenon. The differences in HIV-1 prevalence in African countries could be, in part, due to distribution of genetic variants that affect susceptibility to HIV-1. Our findings therefore have substantive value for the design of future diagnostics for global health oriented diagnostics for HIV-1 susceptibility, and rational therapeutics on the critical path to personalized medicine in the African continent. As HIV-1 epidemiology vastly impacts human populations around the world, the population genomics strategy we have utilized herein can have value for other global regions as well. PMID:24601767

Skelton, Michelle M; Kampira, Elizabeth E; Wonkam, Ambroise A; Mhandire, Kudakwashe K; Kumwenda, Johnstone J; Duri, Kerina K; Dandara, Collet C

2014-07-01

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Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and related risk factors among populations of Sub-Sahara African descent (henceforth, African descent in comparison with the European populations in Europe. Results Compared with European populations, populations of African descent have an increased risk of stroke, whereas CHD is less common. They also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than European populations. Obesity is highly prevalent, but smoking rate is lower among African descent women. Older people of African descent have more favourable lipid profile and dietary habits than their European counterparts. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations of African descent. The rate of physical activity differs between European countries. Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among African populations, which may explain their high rate of stroke in Europe. The relatively low rate of CHD may be explained by the low rates of other risk factors including a more favourable lipid profile and the low prevalence of smoking. The risk factors are changing, and on the whole, getting worse especially among African women. Cohort studies and clinical trials are therefore needed among these groups to determine the relative contribution of vascular risk factors, and to help guide the prevention efforts. There is a clear need for intervention studies among these populations in Europe.

de Graft Aikins Ama

2009-08-01

5

Population growth and food supply in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is argued in this article that sub-Saharan Africa, given its present institutions and endowments of capital and technology, is already dangerously close to overpopulation. The rapid growth of its population projected for the next decades will greatly increase human misery and depress economic development. Specifically, rapid population growth will have disastrous effects on the region's ability to increase exports and provide people with food. There must be a search for new ways in which these effects could be mitigated. In sub-Saharan Africa fertility either continues to be very high or is increasing, in part due to some decline in traditional practices that reduce fertility, such as prolonged breastfeeding. This situation and the expectation of declining mortality imply that African population growth may increase further. Currently, population in sub-Saharan Africa is about half that of India and a third of China. There are 2 main reasons why reduced fertility in the next few decades is unlikely in sub-Saharan Africa as a whole: Africa has low literacy, high infant and child mortality, and low urbanization; and average African fertility rates may even increase for the next 20 years or so. The question that arises is what are the implications of continuing and rapid population growth for the African food supply. The region's cereal production is largely restricted to 4 grains, i.e., millet, sorghum, maize, and rice. The volume of grain production is less, by weight, than 60% of the production of roots and tubers. There are 2 main differences between the output of these crops in sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world: yields/hectare are lower in Africa than in elsewhere; and yields have generally been decreasing or largely constant in Africa. The low productivity has several causes. Today, population pressure has brought diminishing returns to traditional agriculture in much of the Sahel and the savanna, in parts of East Africa, Southern Africa, and parts of the West African forest belt. There is also the absence of the Green Revolution, i.e., the use of new high yielding seeds and new technologies in agriculture that has led to marked increases in yields in most other parts of the world. A totally different and more productive agriculture might evolve if African governments were to fundamentally change their vision. Existing production technology could allow substantial increases in the yields of many crops if some basic changes were made in the policies affecting agriculture. A way to achieve such change would be to make farming profitable. The effect of population growth in diminishing returns to agriculture also lends urgency to the need for family planning. Generally, population policy in Africa badly needs strengthening. PMID:12264271

Meerman, J; Cochrane, S H

1982-09-01

6

A survey of Sub-Saharan African medical schools  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate. An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64 increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68. The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of graduates, and improving quality, related to infrastructure and faculty limitations, respectively. Significant correlations were seen between schools implementing increased faculty salaries and bonuses, and lower percentage loss of faculty over the previous five years (P = 0.018; strengthened institutional research tools (P = 0.00015 and funded faculty research time (P = 0.045 and greater faculty involvement in research; and country compulsory service requirements (P = 0.039, a moderate number (1-5 of post-graduate medical education programs (P = 0.016 and francophone schools (P = 0.016 and greater rural general practice after graduation. Conclusions The results of the SAMSS survey increases the level of data and understanding of medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. This data serves as a baseline for future research, policies and investment in the health care workforce in the region which will be necessary for improving health.

Chen Candice

2012-02-01

7

Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighbouring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin. 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub-Saharan region, energy independent countries using indigeneous coal and peat resources. These resources have the potential to replace wood and wood charcoal as domestic fuel in the urban centres, as well as producing electrical and industrial energy, thus reducing expensive oil imports and decreasing the rate of deforestation. 31 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J. (United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-01-01

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Development of a single base extension method to resolve Y chromosome haplogroups in sub-Saharan African populations  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of the Y chromosome to retain a record of its evolution has seen it become an essential tool of molecular anthropology. In the last few years, however, it has also found use in forensic genetics, providing information on the geographic origin of individuals. This has been aided by the development of efficient screening methods and an increased knowledge of geographic distribution. In this study, we describe the development of single base extension assays used to resolve 61 Y chromosome haplogroups, mainly within haplogroups A, B and E, found in Africa. Results Seven multiplex assays, which incorporated 60 Y chromosome markers, were developed. These resolved Y chromosomes to 61 terminal branches of the major African haplogroups A, B and E, while also including a few Eurasian haplogroups found occasionally in African males. Following its validation, the assays were used to screen 683 individuals from Southern Africa, including south eastern Bantu speakers (BAN, Khoe-San (KS and South African Whites (SAW. Of the 61 haplogroups that the assays collectively resolved, 26 were found in the 683 samples. While haplogroup sharing was common between the BAN and KS, the frequencies of these haplogroups varied appreciably. Both groups showed low levels of assimilation of Eurasian haplogroups and only two individuals in the SAW clearly had Y chromosomes of African ancestry. Conclusions The use of these single base extension assays in screening increased haplogroup resolution and sampling throughput, while saving time and DNA. Their use, together with the screening of short tandem repeat markers would considerably improve resolution, thus refining the geographic ancestry of individuals.

Naidoo Thijessen

2010-09-01

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Gender Gaps in Political Participation across Sub-Saharan African Nations  

Science.gov (United States)

A substantial literature has studied gender differences in political participation in Western industrialized democracies, but little is known about such gaps in sub-Saharan African nations. Using 2005 Afrobarometer data, this paper presents a systematic investigation of the gender gap in political participation across 18 sub-Saharan African…

Coffe, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine

2011-01-01

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Another Failure to Replicate Lynn's Estimate of the Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans  

Science.gov (United States)

In his comment on our literature review of data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices, Lynn (this issue) criticized our selection of samples of primary and secondary school students. On the basis of the samples he deemed representative, Lynn concluded that the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans stands at 67…

Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Carlson, Jerry S.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

2010-01-01

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Corporate governance and company performance across Sub-Saharan African countries  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the extent to which publicly listed companies across Sub-Saharan African countries have adopted “good corporate governance” practices. We investigate the association of these practices with companies’ accounting performance and market valuation. The findings indicate that companies across Sub-Saharan Africa have only partly implemented good corporate governance practices. We find a positive association between our constructed index of good corporate governance practi...

Munisi, Gibson; Randøy, Trond

2013-01-01

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FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE EXPERIENCE OF 10 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES REVISITED  

OpenAIRE

The paper examines the long run and causal relationship between financial developmentand economic growth for ten countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the vectorerror correction model (VECM), the study finds that financial development is cointegratedwith economic growth in the selected ten countries in sub-Saharan Africa. That is there isa long run relationship between financial development and economic growth in the selectedsub-Saharan African countries. The results show that financial deve...

Anthony Enisan Akinlo; Tajudeen Egbetunde

2010-01-01

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TB Diagnostic Capacity in Sub-Saharan African HIV Care Settings  

OpenAIRE

As HIV care services continue to scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa, adequate tuberculosis diagnostic capacity is vital to reduce mortality among HIV-infected persons. A structured survey was administered at 663 health facilities providing HIV care to 908,043 patients in across 9 sub-Saharan African countries to estimate the proportion of facilities and HIV patients at these facilities with access TB-related diagnostic tests. Sputum smear microscopy was available at 87% of facilities (representin...

Saito, Suzue; Howard, Andrea A.; Reid, Michael J. A.; Elul, Batya; Scardigli, Anna; Verkuijl, Sabine; Nyaruhirira, Alaine U.; Nash, Denis

2012-01-01

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Novel MASP2 variants detected among North African and Sub-Saharan individuals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The lectin pathway of the complement system is activated when mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in complex with MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) binds to carbohydrate structures on microorganisms. Structural gene mutations and promoter polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene responsible for low-MBL serum levels are present in all human populations and associate with increased risk of infection. Recently, investigations on Danes revealed the existence of a mutation on the MASP2 gene, which introduces an amino acid substitution in the CUB1 domain (Asp105Gly; numbering refers to the mature protein), and is associated with reduction in the level of MASP-2 in serum. Here, we present the results of a sequence-based typing analysis of the MBL2 and MASP2 gene polymorphisms in a group of 65 Africans (50 North Africans and 15 Sub-Saharan) and of 104 Spaniards. The analysis identified three novel exon 3 MASP2 variants introducing amino acid substitutions at positions 84 (Arg-->Gln), 103 (Arg-->Cys) and 111 (Pro-->Leu) in the CUB1 domain. None of these variants were identified in Spaniards. The Arg84Gln was detected in four of the 15 Sub-Saharans. The Arg103Cys and Pro111Leu variants were detected only among North Africans (two and four individuals, respectively). The Asp105Gly variant was similarly represented among Spaniards and North Africans (three and two individuals, respectively), which appears to be a lower frequency than that reported for Danes (5.5%). As reported for MBL2, the marked geographic distribution of the new MASP2 variants may represent an evolutionary adaptation to different environments.

Lozano, F; Suárez, B

2005-01-01

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Financial development and economic growth: Literature survey and empirical evidence from sub-Saharan African countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In this paper we review the literature on the finance-growth nexus and investigate the causality between financial development and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa for the period 1975-2005. Using panel co-integration and panel GMM estimation for causality, the results of the panel co-integratio [...] n analysis provide evidence of no long-run relationship between financial development and economic growth. The empirical findings in the paper show a bi-directional causal relationship between the growth of real GDP per capita and the domestic credit provided by the banking sector for the panels of 24 sub-Saharan African countries. The findings imply that African countries can accelerate their economic growth by improving their financial systems and vice versa.

Songul Kakilli, Acaravci; Ilhan, Ozturk; Ali, Acaravci.

2009-04-01

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Shocks, frictions, and business cycles in a developing Sub-Saharan African economy  

OpenAIRE

This thesis examines the sources of business cycle fluctuations in a developing Sub-Saharan African economy. We develop an open economy dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model (DSGE), which is log-linearized, calibrated, and estimated with Bayesian techniques using South Africa macroeconomic data. The model incorporates various features such as external habit formation, internal investment adjustment cost, variable capacity utilization, domestically produced goods prices and wages sticki...

Noah Ndela Ntsama, Jean Frederic

2011-01-01

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Ownership, board compensation and company performance in sub-Saharan African countries  

OpenAIRE

In countries with weak institutions board governance becomes more important. This study uses a unique dataset from listed Sub-Saharan African companies to examine the relationship between ownership composition and board compensation. It further analyses the association between board compensation and company performance. The findings indicate that board ownership and CEO ownership are positively associated while state ownership and concentrated ownership are negatively associated with board co...

Munisi, Gibson Hosea; Mersland, Roy

2013-01-01

18

Fragile States, Commodity Booms and Export Performance: An Analysis of the Sub-Saharan African Case  

OpenAIRE

Sub-Saharan Africa’s export performance over recent decades has typically been por-trayed as poor compared to other regions in developing countries. This paper takes a new look at the record, using data on the volume rather than the value of African ex-ports. When analysed in volume terms a different picture of African export performance emerges. Despite being confronted by sharply declining prices, between 1995-2001 Afri-can exports expanded by an average of 5.9 percent annuall...

Mold, Andrew; Prizzon, Annalisa

2010-01-01

19

Private capital inflows and macroeconomic stability in sub-Saharan African countries  

OpenAIRE

The 1990s have witnessed an increase in private capital inflows to sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Such capital flows are viewed as volatile and hence a threat to macroeconomic stability. A sudden reversal of capital inflows was one factor underlying the East Asian crisis of 1997. This paper begins with a brief review of theories of currency crises in the light of the East Asian financial crisis. From this, a number of 'crisis indicators', such as the rate of domestic credit expansion an...

Shibata, Miyuki; Morrissey, Oliver

2002-01-01

20

Screening of imported infectious diseases among asymptomatic sub-saharan african and latin american immigrants: a public health challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Migrants from developing countries are usually young and healthy but several studies report they may harbor asymptomatic infections for prolonged periods. Prevalence of infections were determined for asymptomatic immigrants from Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa who ettended to a European Tropical Medicine Referral Center from 2000 to 2009. A systematic screening protocol for selected infections was used. Data from 317 sub-Saharan Africans and 383 Latin Americans were analyzed. Patients were mostly young (mean age 29 years); there were significantly more males among sub-Saharan Africans (83% versus 31.6%) and pre-consultation period was longer for Latin Americans (5 versus 42 months). Diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection, and latent tuberculosis were significantly more frequent in sub-Saharan Africans (2.3% versus 0.3%; 14% versus 1.6%; 1.3 versus 0%; 71% versus 32.1%). There were no significant differences in prevalence for syphilis and intestinal parasites. Malaria and schistosomiasis prevalence in sub-Saharan Africans was 4.6% and 5.9%, respectively, and prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin Americans was 48.5%. Identifying and treating asymptomatic imported infectious diseases may have an impact both for the individual concerned and for public health. Based on these results, a systematic screening protocol for asymptomatic immigrants is proposed. PMID:25646257

Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Norman, Francesca F; Ferrere-González, Federico; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio

2015-04-01

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Why sub-Saharan African health workers migrate to European countries that do not actively recruit: a qualitative study post-migration  

OpenAIRE

Background: Many studies have investigated the migration intentions of sub-Saharan African medicalstudents and health professionals within the context of a legacy of active international recruitment byreceiving countries. However, many health workers migrate outside of this recruitment paradigm. This paperaims to explore the reasons for migration of health workers from sub-Saharan Africa to Belgium and Austria;European countries without a history of active recruitment in sub-Saharan Africa.Me...

Annelien Poppe; Elena Jirovsky; Claire Blacklock; Pallavi Laxmikanth; Shabir Moosa; Jan De Maeseneer; Ruth Kutalek; Wim Peersman

2014-01-01

22

Sub-Saharan African ground water protection-building on international experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sub-Saharan Africa faces significant challenges in dealing with ground water pollution. These countries can look to successes and missteps on other continents to help choose their own individual paths to ensuring reliable and clean supplies of ground water. In the large view, sub-Saharan Africa can define specific levels of acceptable risk in water quality that drive cleanup efforts and are amenable to acceptance across national and geographic boundaries. Ground water quality databases must be expanded, and data must be available in an electronic form that is flexible, expandable, and uniform, and that can be used over wide geographic areas. Guidance from other continents is available on well construction, sampling and monitoring, interim remediation, technical impracticability, monitored natural attenuation, and many specific issues such as how to deal with small waste generators and septic contamination of water supply wells. It is important to establish a common African view on the appropriateness of other nations' ground water quality guidance for African issues, economic conditions, and community circumstances. Establishing numerical, concentration-based, water quality action levels for pollutants in ground water, which many neighboring African nations could hold comparable, would set the stage for risk-based remediation of contaminated sites. Efforts to gain public, grass-roots understanding and support for stable and balanced enforcement of standards are also key. Finally, effective capacity building in the region could be an eventual solution to ground water quality problems; with increased numbers of trained environmental professionals, ground water throughout the region can be protected and contaminated sites cleaned up. PMID:19341368

Kreamer, David K; Usher, Brent

2010-01-01

23

Effects of Exchange Rate Volatility on Trade in Some Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries  

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Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of exchange rate volatility on trade in 40 selected sub-Saharan African countries for the period 1986-2005. The study employs a gravity model with pooled ordinary least square (POLS allowing for fixed effect and panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM techniques. The results of the analysis show that the net effect of exchange rate volatility on aggregate trade was positive using the two approaches. In the way the results show that there is not much difference between the impact of exchange rate volatility on primary and manufactured trade as well as between ECOWAS and non-ECOWAS countries. However, the results should be interpreted with caution as the history of exchange rate volatility is still relatively young compared with the developed countries.

David Olayungbo

2011-09-01

24

[The elderly in sub-Saharan Africa: a vulnerable population often ignored in public policy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Many people and financial institutions believe that the elderly are not a priority in sub-Saharan Africa, a region marked by serious economic, socio-political and health crises. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the assumptions and arguments underlying this view and to demonstrate that the elderly are a vulnerable priority population ignored by all stakeholders and primarily by technical and financial partners. The premise is that development must be viewed as a whole. In addition to improving the living conditions of children, youth and women, efforts to promote development in Africa must also take into account the needs of the elderly. The paper argues that there are four main reasons for focusing on the elderly in sub-Saharan Africa: systemic reasons, ethical/humanitarian reasons, developmental reasons and/or the interests and future of youth and adults. PMID:24007913

Berthé, Abdramane; Berthé-Sanou, Lalla; Konaté, Blahima; Hien, Hervé; Tou, Fatoumata; Drabo, Maxime; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

2013-01-01

25

Sub-Saharan early migrations as a means of african peoples’ initiative against colonial oppression: the Cape Verdean case  

OpenAIRE

Even before the beginning of liberation struggle, spontaneous migrations outside Sub- Saharan African lands can be described as an early initiative of resistance against material and ideological colonial oppression. The extended dispersion around the world of people of African roots has been usually associated to the European slave trade of pre-colonial times and to the renewed displacements that developed during the independent period -especially since the last decades of 20th...

Sparta, Luciana L. Contarino

2014-01-01

26

Tuberculosis and HIV control in sub-Saharan African prisons: "thinking outside the prison cell".  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis is one of the fastest-growing epidemics in prison populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), constituting a threat to both inmates and the wider community. Various factors have contributed to the breakdown of tuberculosis control in prison facilities in SSA, including slow and insensitive diagnostics, failing prison infrastructure, inadequate funding, and weak prevention and treatment interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this article, we describe the challenges inherent in current approaches to tuberculosis control in prisons and consider the alternatives. We argue that although improved implementation of conventional tuberculosis control activities is necessary, considerable investment in a broader range of public health interventions, including infrastructure and staffing upgrades, cutting-edge tuberculosis diagnostics, and combination prevention for HIV, will be equally critical. This combination response to tuberculosis in prisons will be essential for tackling existing and nascent prison tuberculosis epidemics and will require high-level political support and financing. PMID:22448015

Reid, Stewart E; Topp, Stephanie M; Turnbull, Eleanor R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Maggard, Katie R; Roberts, Sarah T; Krüüner, Annika; Morse, Jill C; Kapata, Nathan; Chisela, Chileshe; Henostroza, German

2012-05-15

27

Corporate Ownership, Corporate Control and Corporate Performance in Sub-Saharan African: Evidence from Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates the relation between corporate ownership and corporate performance of listed companies in Nigeria, a foremost Sub-Saharan African country during the period 2002-2007. The data is obtained from the firms’ annual reports and accounts and the Nigerian Stock Exchange daily performance reports. The combination of 70 firms and six-year period studied provides a balanced panel with 420 observations for panel data analysis. The results from the ordinary least square (OLS regression analyses show that there is a strong connection between foreign ownership structure and firm performance. Foreign ownership structure is found to exhibit significant improvements in firm performance; it adumbrates eclectic competitive advantages in ownership, control and internalization respects over other types of ownership structure. We find no statistically significant relation between concentrated ownership and firm performance. Insider or managerial ownership, however, exhibits significant decline in firm performance. These findings are consistent with the view that firm performance is a negative predictor of insider ownership. We also find support for the notion that management is apathetic to holding equity stakes in their underperforming firms.

Ioraver N. Tsegba

2014-10-01

28

Socio-demographic and clinical profile of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics in sub-Saharan African elderly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on characteristics of neuropathic pain (NP) in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce, especially in the elderly. We conducted this study to appreciate the socio-demographic and clinical profile of chronic pain (CP) with neuropathic characteristics in sub-Saharan African elderly with musculoskeletal pain. From January to December 2011, we performed a cross-sectional study in all Rheumatology outpatients over 60 years at the Center for Gerontology and Geriatrics, Dakar, Senegal. In this study, we included patients who experienced musculoskeletal pain for 3 months or longer (CP) and with a DN4 score???4 (NP). A complete clinical examination was performed to make the diagnosis of NP 'definite' or 'probable', and to identify the aetiologies of NP. During the study period, 698 outpatients were examined. There were 394 out of the 549 patients over 60 years who reported CP. Among them, 28 patients (7.1%) scored ?4 on the DN4 questionnaire. Female patients, low educational attainment, manual professions, non-workers and diabetes were associated with NP (p?syndrome (n?=?1), tarsal tunnel syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis (n?=?1) and bone metastasis (n?=?1). No aetiology was identified among three patients. Chronic spine diseases associated with radiculopathies and diabetic neuropathy are the main causes of NP, well detected by DN4 questionnaire and clinical examination in Senegalese sub-Saharan African elderly. PMID:23138975

Lekpa, F K; Ndongo, S; Ka, O; Zeba, D; Compaoré, C; Pouye, A; Ka, M M; Diop, T M

2013-07-01

29

Access to drinking water and health of populations in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is at the center of the plant and animal life, the foundation upon which the health of human settlement and development of civilizations rely on. In tropical regions, 80% of diseases are transmitted either by germs in the water, or by vectors staying in it. In Sub-Saharan Africa, statistics show particularly high levels of unmet needs of populations in access to drinking water in a context of socioeconomic development. For this purpose, this study aims to determine the influence of access to drinking water on the health of populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from Cameroon, Senegal and Chad, it is clear from the descriptive analysis that 60% (Cameroon), and 59% (Chad) of the cases of childhood diarrhea in these two countries are due to the consumption of dirty water. In terms of explanatory analysis, we note that when a household in Cameroon, Senegal or Chad does not have access to drinking water, children under 5 years old residing there are respectively 1.29, 1.27 and 1.03 times more likely to have diarrhea than those residing in households with easy access to drinking water. In view of these results, it is recommended to increase access to drinking water in particular by reducing disparities between the rich and poor people. PMID:23916208

Ntouda, Julien; Sikodf, Fondo; Ibrahim, Mohamadou; Abba, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

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Proportion of new HIV infections attributable to herpes simplex 2 increases over time: simulations of the changing role of sexually transmitted infections in sub-Saharan African HIV epidemics  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To understand the changing impact of herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV incidence over time in four sub-Saharan African cities, using simulation models. METHODS: An individual-based stochastic model was fitted to demographic, behavioural and epidemiological data from cross-sectional population-based surveys in four African cities (Kisumu, Kenya; Ndola, Zambia; Yaoundé, Cameroon; and Cotonou, Benin) in 1997. To estimate the proportion o...

Freeman, E. E.; Orroth, K. K.; White, R. G.; Glynn, J. R.; Bakker, R.; Boily, M. C.; Habbema, D.; Buve?, A.; Hayes, R. J.

2007-01-01

31

Signatures of Adaptation in Human Invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 Populations from Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Two lineages of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) of multi-locus sequence type ST313 have been linked with the emergence of invasive Salmonella disease across sub-Saharan Africa. The expansion of these lineages has a temporal association with the HIV pandemic and antibiotic usage. We analysed the whole genome sequence of 129 ST313 isolates representative of the two lineages and found evidence of lineage-specific genome degradation, with some similarities to that observed in S. Typhi. Individual ST313 S. Typhimurium isolates exhibit a distinct metabolic signature and modified enteropathogenesis in both a murine and cattle model of colitis, compared to S. Typhimurium outside of the ST313 lineages. These data define phenotypes that distinguish ST313 isolates from other S. Typhimurium and may represent adaptation to a distinct pathogenesis and lifestyle linked to an-immuno-compromised human population. PMID:25803844

Okoro, Chinyere K.; Barquist, Lars; Connor, Thomas R.; Harris, Simon R.; Clare, Simon; Stevens, Mark P.; Arends, Mark J.; Hale, Christine; Kane, Leanne; Pickard, Derek J.; Hill, Jennifer; Harcourt, Katherine; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A.

2015-01-01

32

Human Capital, Productivity and Economic Growth in 31 Sub-Saharan African Countries for the Period 1975–2008  

OpenAIRE

We evaluate the contributions of physical capital, human capital, and unskilled labor to economic growth for 31 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. We find that growth in physical capital accounts for 67 percent of growth in real GDP, whereas growth in human capital accounts for only 22 percent of real GDP growth and, the rest 11 percent is accounted for by growth of raw labor. When it comes to growth of productivity per employed worker, 90 percent is accounted for by growth rate of physical...

Girma Zelleke; Abdulwahab Sraiheen; Keshav Gupta

2013-01-01

33

From population to HIV: the organizational and structural determinants of HIV outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There exists no consistent explanation for why some countries are successful in combating HIV/AIDS and others are not, and we need such an explanation in order to design effective policies and programmes. Research evaluating HIV interventions from a biomedical or public health perspective does not always take full account of the historical and organizational characteristics of countries likely to influence HIV outcomes. The analysis in this paper addresses this shortcoming by testing the impact of organizational and structural factors, particularly those resulting from population interventions, on HIV outcomes at the country level in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods The primary independent variables are factors that originated from efforts to slow population growth: whether a country has a long-time affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and whether a country has a population policy. Additional structural factors likely to impact HIV outcomes include the level of wealth, the level of cultural fractionalization, and the former colonial power. The present study uses multivariate regression techniques with countries in sub-Saharan Africa as the unit of analysis, and four measures of success in addressing HIV: the change in prevalence between 2001 and 2009; the change in incidence between 2001 and 2009; the level of overall antiretroviral coverage in 2009; and the level of antiretroviral coverage for prevention of vertical transmission in 2009. Results Countries with the greatest declines in HIV prevalence and incidence had older International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates and had adopted population policies, even after controlling for age of epidemic, level of antiretroviral coverage, and funding for HIV. Population policies are also important predictors of levels of overall antiretroviral coverage and of coverage of HIV-positive pregnant women to prevent vertical transmission. Structural factors with significant impacts include wealth, cultural fractionalization and former colonial power. Conclusions The organizational and structural context of African countries is strongly predictive of HIV outcomes. This finding implies that policy and programmatic efforts should be put towards strengthening existing organizations and perhaps even creating new ones. The fact that cultural fractionalization also influences HIV outcomes suggests that efforts must be put towards identifying ways to reach political consensus in diverse societies.

Robinson Rachel

2011-09-01

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Urban Health and Welfare in Sub-Saharan Africa: Population Growth, Urbanisation, Water/Sanitation Services, Slumisation and Poverty  

OpenAIRE

Spatio-temporal analysis was applied on data representing urbanisation, slumisation, poverty, safe water/ sanitation in urban sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The findings include: rapid rates of national population growth and urbanisation throughout SSA from 1980 to 2005, averaging 93.8% (range: 90.5% points), lowest and highest rates being 40% (Lesotho) and 130.5% (Niger), respectively; high national poverty rates, widespread in SSA: (>50% in about seven countries; it might have been similar in mo...

RICHARD INGWE

2012-01-01

35

Why are virgin adolescents worried about contracting HIV/AIDS? Evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether well founded or not, perceptions of one's own HIV risk have been shown by health behavior models to be an important factor in determining individuals' sexual behavior. Although empirical studies on the determinants of HIV risk perception exist, only a few have focused on adolescents who are not yet sexually active. Using data from nationally-representative surveys of adolescents, we assess the factors associated with HIV risk perception among sexually inactive adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries at different stages of the HIV/AIDS epidemic (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi and Uganda). The results show that there is no single influence on adolescents' HIV risk perception, but rather a range of individual, environmental and community factors such as schooling, knowledge about HIV, regional HIV prevalence and adolescents' social networks. These results can help better calibrate programs and policies addressing sexual and reproductive health issues among adolescents, a group that is disproportionately affected by new HIV infections. PMID:24689315

Guiella, Georges; Bignami, Simona; LeGrand, Thomas K

2013-12-01

36

Sub-Saharan growth surprises: Geography, institutions and history in an all African data panel  

OpenAIRE

We use two types of cross-country growth regression models to revisit explanations of slow growth in Africa looking at growth rate variation among African countries only. Both sets of models produce results that are surprising given conclusions based on global sample: within Africa, we .nd greater coastal population negatively and greater ethnic heterogeneity positively associated with growth, while distance from the equator is at .rst negatively and only later positively associated with grow...

Cinyabuguma, Matthias; Putterman, Louis

2006-01-01

37

Source apportionment and seasonal variation of PM2.5 in a Sub-Saharan African city: Nairobi, Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

Sources of airborne particulate matter and their seasonal variation in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood due to lack of long-term measurement data. In view of this, filter samples of airborne particulate matter (particle diameter ?2.5 ?m, PM2.5) were collected between May 2008 and April 2010 at two sites (urban background site and suburban site) within the Nairobi metropolitan area. A total of 780 samples were collected and analyzed for particulate mass, black carbon (BC) and 13 trace elements. The average PM2.5 concentration at the urban background site was 21±9.5 ?g m-3, whereas the concentration at the suburban site was 13±7.3 ?g m-3. The daily PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 25 ?g m-3 (the World Health Organization 24 h guideline value) on 29% of the days at the urban background site and 7% of the days at the suburban site. At both sites, BC, Fe, S and Cl accounted for approximately 80% of all detected elements. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified five source factors that contribute to PM2.5 in Nairobi, namely traffic, mineral dust, industry, combustion and a mixed factor (composed of biomass burning, secondary aerosol and aged sea salt). Mineral dust and traffic factors were related to approximately 74% of PM2.5. The identified source factors exhibited seasonal variation, apart from the traffic factor, which was prominently consistent throughout the sampling period. Weekly variations were observed in all factors, with weekdays having higher concentrations than weekends. The results provide information that can be exploited for policy formulation and mitigation strategies to control air pollution in Sub-Saharan African cities.

Gaita, S. M.; Boman, J.; Gatari, M. J.; Pettersson, J. B. C.; Janhäll, S.

2014-09-01

38

Estimating the hypothetical dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom in selected sub-Saharan African countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mercy Mvundura, Neeti Nundy, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Patricia S Coffey Technology Solutions Global Program, PATH, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Female condoms are the only currently available woman-initiated option that offers dual protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The Woman’s Condom is a new female condom designed to provide dual protection and to be highly pleasurable and acceptable. Objective: We sought to estimate the potential dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of a Woman’s Condom distribution program in 13 sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates >4% among adults aged 15–49 years. We used two separate, publicly available models for this analysis, the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International and the Population Services International disability-adjusted life years (DALY calculator program. We estimated the potential numbers of pregnancies and DALYs averted when the Woman’s Condom is used as a family planning method and the HIV infections and DALYs averted when it is used as an HIV prevention method. Results: Programming 100,000 Woman’s Condoms in each of 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa during a 1-year period could potentially prevent 194 pregnancies and an average of 21 HIV infections in each country. When using the World Health Organization CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective (WHO-CHOICE criteria as a threshold to infer the potential cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom, we found that the Woman’s Condom would be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: This was a first and successful attempt to estimate the impact of dual protection of female condoms. The health impact is greater for the use of the Woman’s Condom as an HIV prevention method than for contraception. Dual use of the Woman’s Condom increases the overall health impact. The Woman’s Condom was found to be very cost-effective in all 13 countries in our sample. Keywords: female condoms, unintended pregnancy, HIV prevention, contraception, sub-Saharan Africa, cost-effectiveness

Mvundura M

2015-03-01

39

La construcción del proyecto migratorio y las razones para emigrar en la población de África subsahariana francófona. Un estudio intercontinental Europa - África / Construction of migration project and reasons for emigrating in sub-Saharan African francophone population. An intercontinental study Europe-Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudio da cuenta de las razones de los ciudadanos de África subsahariana francófona para establecerse en Europa, y particularmente en Francia, mediante la creación de un marco comprensivo innovador que vincula tres ejes temáticos: la motivación, las migraciones, y África y sus relaciones con E [...] uropa. 155 participantes en ambos continentes respondieron a un cuestionario sobre su proyecto migratorio real o posible. Los resultados plantean un plano general de acercamiento a los imaginarios y la realidad de los migrantes en el contexto francés, marcado por la reflexión sobre la identidad nacional, los controles migratorios, un clima político reticente a la migración y un tejido social caracterizado por un creciente multiculturalismo. Abstract in english This study describes the motivations of citizens of sub-Saharan Africa francophone to establish in France thanks to the creation of an innovative framework for understanding with three key themes: motivation, migration and Africa and their relations with Europe. 155 participants from both continents [...] responded to a questionnaire about their actual or potential migration project. The results presented raise a general plan of approach to reality and imaginary of sub-Saharan African migrants in the French current context, marked by reflection on national identity, immigration and customs controls, a political climate reticent to migration and a social network characterized by a growing multiculturalism.

Carlos Roberto, Velandia Torres; Marie-Françoise, Lacassagne.

2012-09-01

40

The status of basic design ground motion provisions in seismic design codes of sub-Saharan African countries: A critical review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Basic provisions for design ground motions in seismic design codes of sub-Saharan African countries are critically reviewed. The seismic codes of Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are selected to represent the eastern region, Ghana to represent the west and South Africa to represent the south. The specific [...] provisions considered are those pertaining to site effect and the recurrence period of the design earthquake. The codes are also compared with one another and with selected current international codes from the US and Europe, with respect to selected provisions. The provisions are further viewed from the perspective of the state of the art and the state of the practice. It has been concluded that these basic provisions in most of the sub-Saharan African codes considered are inadequate in guaranteeing safety of human life and limiting damage to property, suggesting a need for immediate updating, an exception being the South African code.

A, Worku.

2014-01-01

41

An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and treatment efforts. Conclusion Using an African-centered cultural framework, the PEN3 model, we explore future directions and efforts to address the epidemic of CVD risk in SSA.

Degboe Arnold N

2009-09-01

42

Interactions and Feedbacks Between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region  

Science.gov (United States)

The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

Ichoku, Charles

2012-01-01

43

Factors Contributing to Urban Malaria Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review  

OpenAIRE

Sub-Saharan Africa suffers by far the greatest malaria burden worldwide and is currently undergoing a profound demographic change, with a growing proportion of its population moving to urban areas. Urbanisation is generally expected to reduce malaria transmission; however the disease still persists in African cities, in some cases at higher levels than in nearby rural areas. Objective. This paper aims to collate and analyse risk factors for urban malaria transmission throughout sub-Saharan Af...

Silva, Prathiba M.; Marshall, John M.

2012-01-01

44

An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeholders. The GIS work revealed that Africa's drylands potentially have substantial areas available and agriculturally suitable for bioenergy feedstocks production. The other work showed that land-use and biomass dynamics in Africa's drylands are greatly influenced by the inherent 'disequilibrium' behaviour of these environments. This behaviour challenges the sustainability concept and perceptions regarding the drivers, nature and consequences of deforestation, land degradation and other factors. An assessment of the implications of this behaviour formed the basis for the practical guidance suggested for bioenergy feedstock producers and bioenergy policy makers. PMID:22482033

Watson, H K; Diaz-Chavez, R A

2011-04-01

45

Human Capital, Productivity and Economic Growth in 31 Sub-Saharan African Countries for the Period 1975–2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We evaluate the contributions of physical capital, human capital, and unskilled labor to economic growth for 31 Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries. We find that growth in physical capital accounts for 67 percent of growth in real GDP, whereas growth in human capital accounts for only 22 percent of real GDP growth and, the rest 11 percent is accounted for by growth of raw labor. When it comes to growth of productivity per employed worker, 90 percent is accounted for by growth rate of physical capital per employed worker, 46 percent by rate of increase in human capital per worker and negative 36 percent by rate of change of total factor of productivity (TFP. These findings are consistent with earlier studies. Negative contribution of growth rate in TFP may have to do with, poor governance, corruption, civil wars, draught and other adverse supply shocks to the production function. In addition, we find that the contributions of labor and human capital are positive but much lower in SSA countries than in high-income countries.

Girma Zelleke

2013-09-01

46

Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of alcohol is associated with acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. There is a paucity of studies that explore the determinants of alcohol use among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and, in particular, that examine the effects of adverse childhood experiences on alcohol use. Methods The paper draws on nationally-representative data from 9,819 adolescents aged 12-19 years from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. Logistic regression models were employed to identify correlates of self-reported past-year drunkenness. Exposure to four adverse childhood experiences comprised the primary independent variables: living in a food-insecure household, living with a problem drinker, having been physically abused, and having been coerced into having sex. We controlled for age, religiosity, current schooling status, the household head's sex, living arrangements, place of residence, marital status, and country of survey. All analyses were conducted separately for males and females. Results At the bivariate level, all independent variables (except for coerced sex among males were associated with the outcome variable. Overall, 9% of adolescents reported that they had been drunk in the 12 months preceding the survey. In general, respondents who had experienced an adverse event during childhood were more likely to report drunkenness. In the multivariate analysis, only two adverse childhood events emerged as significant predictors of self-reported past-year drunkenness among males: living in a household with a problem drinker before age 10, and being physically abused before age 10. For females, exposure to family-alcoholism, experience of physical abuse, and coerced sex increased the likelihood of reporting drunkenness in the last 12 months. The association between adverse events and reported drunkenness was more pronounced for females. For both males and females there was a graded relationship between the number of adverse events experienced and the proportion reporting drunkenness. Conclusions We find an association between experience of adverse childhood events and drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries. The complex impacts of adverse childhood experiences on young people's development and behavior may have an important bearing on the effectiveness of interventions geared at reducing alcohol dependence among the youth.

Crichton Joanna

2010-06-01

47

Communicating population issues in sub-Saharan Africa: a development policy for Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author proposes a strategy for the development of a communication policy that would slow population growth, with particular reference to the situation in Nigeria and other African countries. The focus is on the involvement of individuals at the local level in discussion groups to create the atmosphere for developing small family norms. PMID:12280677

Pratt, C

1986-01-01

48

Harnessing microbiome and probiotic research in sub-Saharan Africa: recommendations from an African workshop  

OpenAIRE

To augment capacity-building for microbiome and probiotic research in Africa, a workshop was held in Nairobi, Kenya, at which researchers discussed human, animal, insect, and agricultural microbiome and probiotics/prebiotics topics. Five recommendations were made to promote future basic and translational research that benefits Africans.

Swann, Jonathan R.; Reid, Gregor; Nduti, Nicholas; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Adam, Rod; Boga, Hamadi; Brown, Eric M.; Einerhand, Alexandra; El-nezami, Hani; Gloor, Gregory B.; Kavere, Irene I.; Lindahl, Johanna; Manges, Amee

2014-01-01

49

Challenging the Concept of ''informal'' in Sub-Saharan African Cities : the case of Maxaquene A, Maputo, Mozambique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Current definitions of urbanity lead to claims that a large proportion (75% according to UN Habitat) of Sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) urban population is housed in ‘informal’ settlements with almost all new housing stock provided ‘informally’ in contradiction to the “formal” that is defined as planned and regulated by the state. In most cases in SSA cities urban development has no professional assistance in the form of architects or engineers, and what is characterised as ‘disorder’, as is the case with informal urbanisation, is considered as undesirable, inappropriate, dangerous, unhealthy and un-modern (Folkers 2009, Hardoy 1990, Jenkins 2011, Nielsen 2008, Nguluma 2003, Mitlin, D. 2004, Koolhaas 2006). In 2003 the UN adopted a new terminology for what over decades used to be labelled as ‘informal’-, ‘squatter’-, ‘illegal’-, ‘unplanned’-, ‘spontaneous’ settlements, “shanty towns” with the term “slum” (UN habitat 2003). However, defining what slum implies is complex and this author consider the term as prejudiced and not covering the diversity most informal settlements represents Further the term stigmatises a remarkable share of any city population in SSA (Huchzermeyer 2011, Davis 2007, Harber 2011, Garau 2005).

Eskemose Andersen, JØrgen

2014-01-01

50

Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan African Universities: Recommendations and Monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Digital Divide prevents Africa from taking advantages of new information technologies. One of the most urgent priorities is to bring the Internet in African Universities, Research, and Learning Centers to the level of other regions of the world. eGY-Africa, and the Sharing Knowledge Foundation are two bottom-up initiatives by scientists to secure better cyber-infrastructure and Internet facilities in Africa. Recommendations by the present scientific communities are being formulated at national, regional and international levels. The Internet capabilities are well documented at country level overall, but this is not the case at the University level. The snapshot of the Internet status in universities in 17 African countries, obtained by a questionnaire survey, is consistent with measures of Internet penetration in the corresponding country. The monitoring of Internet performance has been proposed to those African universities to provide an information base for arguing the need to improve the coverage for Africa. A pilot program is recommended that will start scientific collaboration with Europe in western Africa using ICT. The program will lay the foundations for the arrival of new technologies like Grids.

Barry, Boubakar; /Assoc. Afr. Univ.; Chukwuma, Victor; /Olabisi Onabanjo U.; Petitdidier, Monique; /CEPT, Velizy; Cottrell, Les; /SLAC; Bartons, Charles; /Australian Natl. U., RSES

2009-12-17

51

A literature review of the impact of HIV and AIDS on the role of the elderly in the sub-Saharan African community  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The status of older adults in Africa occupies a small but rapidly expanding share of the global literature on ageing. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic has generated a new focus on the changing role of the elderly in communities that have [...] been affected. In sub-Saharan Africa, where millions are projected to be infected with HIV and about two million deaths are recorded annually amongst the traditionally productive adults, such loss of parents and breadwinners means children and the elderly have had to take up unusual responsibilities. A literature review on the elderly and HIV and AIDS provided the data analysed for this article. Access to databases was mainly via EBSCO (http://www.ebsco.co), which allowed searches in major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in health and health-related academic journals, repositories and archived reports. Results showed that the AIDS pandemic has direct and indirect effects which have manifested in a set of interrelated social, economic and psychological dimensions that could ultimately impact on the health and well-being of the elderly. It is concluded that more needs to be done to articulate the knowledge base of the impact of HIV and AIDS in order to inform social, economic and political policies for the purpose of alleviating the problems that the pandemic is wreaking on the elderly African population.

Eucebious, Lekalakala-Mokgele.

52

PEPFAR Funding and Reduction in HIV Infection Rates in 12 Focus Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Quantitative Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: HIV and AIDS continue to have a calamitous effect on individuals living on the continent of Africa. U.S. President George W. Bush implemented the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR with the objective of committing approximately $15 billion from 2004 through 2008 to assist with the reduction of the HIV pandemic worldwide. The majority of the PEPFAR policy and funding focused on 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The policy question this research paper seeks to analyze is whether the PEPFAR funding (as a % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP allocated to the 12 countries in Africa had any effect on the decrease of HIV infection rates of males and females between the ages of 15 and 49. Methods: A fixed-effects panel regression analysis was conducted to determine if this association exists. This study examined the 12 African countries that received PEPFAR funding over the years 2002 to 2010; even though PEPFAR was only active from 2004 through 2008, this research included two years prior and two years after this timeframe in order to better estimate the effect of PEPFAR funding on HIV reduction. Results: The results illustrate that on average, ceteris paribus, for every 1 percentage point increase in PEPFAR funding per GDP a country received, the country’s HIV infection rate decreased by 0.355 percentage points. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: While the empirical findings in this study suggested that the correlation between PEPFAR funding and HIV reduction is statistically significant, the practical significance is perhaps less obvious. Arguably, the reduction rate should be higher given the extent of funding targeted to this project. The conclusion of this research provides suggestions on future research and the policy implications of PEPFAR.

Roger J. Chin, MA, MPA

2015-04-01

53

Assessment of the Vulnerability of Water Resources to Seasonal Fires Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region  

Science.gov (United States)

The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, extending from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Equator, and stretching west to east from the Atlantic to the Indian ocean coasts, plays a prominent role in the distribution of Saharan dust and other airborne matter around the region and to other parts of the world, the genesis of global atmospheric circulation, and the birth of such major (and often catastrophic) events as hurricanes. Therefore, this NSSA region represents a critical variable in the global climate change equation. Recent satellite-based studies have revealed that the NSSA region has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be a major driver of the regional carbon, energy, and water cycles. We acknowledge that the rainy season in the NSSA region is from April to September while biomass burning occurs mainly during the dry season (October to March). Nevertheless, these two phenomena are indirectly coupled to each other through a chain of complex processes and conditions, including land-cover and surface-albedo changes, the carbon cycle, evapotranspiration, drought, desertification, surface water runoff, ground water recharge, and variability in atmospheric composition, heating rates, and circulation. In this presentation, we will examine the theoretical linkages between these processes, discuss the preliminary results based on satellite data analysis, and provide an overview of plans for more integrated research to be conducted over the next few years.

Ichoku, Charles M.

2010-01-01

54

Dosing of Praziquantel by Height in Sub-Saharan African Adults  

OpenAIRE

The cornerstone of schistosomiasis control is mass praziquantel treatment in high prevalence areas. Adults are an important target population, given increasing recognition of the burden of male and female genital schistosomiasis. However, use of weighing scales to calculate praziquantel dosing in rural areas can be challenging. For school-age children, the World Health Organization (WHO) has approved a dose pole to simplify praziquantel dosing based on height. We modified the pediatric dose p...

Palha Sousa, Chiquita A.; Brigham, Tracy; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Tielsch, James M.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Prendergast, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

55

The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also lint only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of stabilization and of structural adjustment are also presented with their effects on the different sectors. (J.S.)

56

Slum Areas and Insecure Tenure in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa : A Conceptual Review of African Best Practices  

OpenAIRE

Urbanisation processes in developing countries are resulting in a rapidly increasing proportion of habitants living in urban slum areas. In the international development debate the lack of tenure security for slum dwellers in developing countries is considered to be an essentially important problem. Within the framework of the UN Millennium Development Programme the necessity of efforts towards increased tenure security for marginalised urban residents was agreed upon. Sub-Saharan Africa is t...

Berger, Tania

2006-01-01

57

Population dynamics throughout the urban context: A case study in sub-Saharan Africa utilizing remotely sensed imagery and GIS  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristics of places where people live and work play an important role in explaining complex social, political, economic and demographic processes. In sub-Saharan Africa rapid urban growth combined with rising poverty is creating diverse urban environments inhabited by people with a wide variety of lifestyles. This research examines how spatial patterns of land cover in a southern portion of the West African country of Ghana are associated with particular characteristics of family organization and reproduction decisions. Satellite imagery and landscape metrics are used to create an urban context definition based on landscape patterns using a gradient approach. Census data are used to estimate fertility levels and household structure, and the association between urban context, household composition and fertility levels is modeled through OLS regression, spatial autoregressive models and geographically weighted regression. Results indicate that there are significant differences in fertility levels between different urban contexts, with below average fertility levels found in the most urbanized end of the urban context definition and above average fertility levels found on the opposite end. The spatial patterns identified in the association between urban context and fertility levels indicate that, within the city areas with lower fertility have significant impacts on the reproductive levels of adjacent neighborhoods. Findings also indicate that there are clear patterns that link urban context to living arrangements and fertility levels. Female- and single-headed households are associated with below average fertility levels, a result that connects dropping fertility levels with the spread of smaller nuclear households in developing countries. At the same time, larger extended family households are linked to below average fertility levels for highly clustered areas, a finding that points to the prevalence of extended family housing in the West African city.

Benza, Magdalena

58

Maternal nutrition among women from Sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on Nigeria, and potential implications for pregnancy outcomes among immigrant populations in developed countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant women in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are at risk of poor nutritional status and adverse outcomes as a result of poverty, food insecurity, sub-optimal healthcare facilities, frequent infections and frequent pregnancies. Studies from Nigeria, for example, have revealed a high prevalence of both under- and over-nutrition, as well as nutrient deficiencies, including iron, folate, vitamin D and vitamin A. Subsequently, obstetric complications, including hypertension, anaemia, neural tube defects, night-blindness, low birth weight and maternal and perinatal mortality, are common. Migration patterns from SSA to the Western world are on the rise in recent years, with Nigerians now representing the most prevalent immigrant African population in many developed countries. However, the effect of immigration, if any, on the nutritional status and pregnancy outcomes of these women in their host countries has not yet been studied. Consequently, it is unknown to what extent the nutritional deficiencies and pregnancy complications occurring in Nigeria, and other countries of SSA, present in these women post-emigration. This may result in missed opportunities for appropriate antenatal care of a potential high-risk group in pregnancy. The present review discusses the literature regarding nutrition in pregnancy among SSA women, using Nigeria as an example, the common nutrition-related complications that arise and the subsequent obstetric outcomes. The concept of dietary acculturation among immigrant groups is also discussed and deficiencies in the literature regarding studies on the diets of pregnant immigrant women are highlighted. PMID:22594552

Lindsay, K L; Gibney, E R; McAuliffe, F M

2012-12-01

59

Sustainable electricity generation for rural and peri-urban populations of sub-Saharan Africa: The 'flexy-energy' concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. Electrification rate of sub-Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However, this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy-energy' concept of hybrid solar PV/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is performed in this paper. This concept is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. For landlocked countries like Burkina Faso, this concept could help them reducing their electricity bill (then their fuel consumption) and accelerate their rural and peri-urban electrification coverage. - Research highlights: ? Design and load management Optimization are big concerns for hybrid systems. ? Hybrid solar PV/Diesel is economically viable for remote areas and environmental friendly. ? 'Flexy-energy' concept is a flexible hybrid solar PV/diesel/biomass suitable for remote areas. ? 'Flexy-energy' concept is a flexible hybrid solar PV/diesel/biomass suitable for remote areas.

60

Cultural and socio-economic conditions as factors contributing to chronic stress in sub-Saharan African communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stress is known to contribute to overall health status. Many individuals in sub-Saharan Africa are believed to be stressed about their employment, income, and health. This study aimed to investigate hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress in settlement communities in Kenya. Hair samples were collected from 108 volunteers from settlement communities in Kenya. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was used to measure hair cortisol concentrations. In parallel, a health survey was completed. The mean ± SD for the cortisol concentration in the hair of volunteers from the settlement communities in Naivasha was 639 ± 300 ng/g, which was higher than found for a Caucasian reference group (299 ± 110 ng/g; one-way ANOVA, P = 0.0003). There were no differences in hair cortisol concentrations between members of slum settlements adjacent to large floriculture farms in Naivasha (Karagita, Kamere/Kwa Muhia/DCK, and Kasarani) compared with those well-removed from all floriculture in Mogotio (Mogotio and Westlands/Katorongot). However, hair cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in females, divorced volunteers, those who made below minimum wage, and those who reported feeling unsafe collecting water or using sanitation facilities within these 2 settlement groups. We found no evidence for increased chronic stress (measured by hair cortisol content) between members of slum settlements adjacent to versus distant to large floriculture farms. Cultural and socio-economic conditions that prevail in much of sub-Saharan Africa were found to be factors contributing to chronic stress. PMID:25083791

Henley, Phaedra; Lowthers, Megan; Koren, Gideon; Fedha, Pamela Tsimbiri; Russell, Evan; VanUum, Stan; Arya, Sumedha; Darnell, Regna; Creed, Irena F; Trick, Charles G; Bend, John R

2014-09-01

61

Spondyloarthritis in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is generally uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa, in part because of the rarity of HLA-B27 in this region. However, the relationship between HLA-B27 and SpA, particularly ankylosing spondylitis (AS), is complex. Despite the HLA-B 27:05 risk allele occurring in some West African populations, associated AS is not seen. In fact, most patients with AS are HLA-B27-negative, although there is emerging evidence that another class I HLA molecule, HLA-B 14:03, is associated with AS in black Africans. The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria for detecting early axial disease are of limited value in sub-Saharan Africa, because of both the rarity of HLA-B27 and very limited access to magnetic resonance imaging. Reactive arthritis (ReA), psoriatic arthritis, and undifferentiated SpA are seen mainly in the context of HIV infection, although the exact effect of the virus in the pathogenesis of arthritis is unclear. In Zambia, ReA is associated with the HLA-B*57:03 allele, which is paradoxically also associated with slow progression of HIV infection. HIV-associated ReA has a more protracted and aggressive course than standard ReA. Enthesitis-related arthritis is more common in children infected with HIV by vertical mother-to child transmission. Use of TNF inhibitors for axial disease is problematic, mainly because of cost, but also because of potential safety problems, especially reactivation of tuberculosis. PMID:24744085

Tikly, Mohammed; Njobvu, Panganani; McGill, Paul

2014-06-01

62

Underdeveloped ICT areas in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

As universal service in terms of ICTs provision cannot be achieved in the times agreed for several international bilateral and multilateral aid organizations. It is important to create mechanisms to reduce the lack of use of ICTs in sub-Saharan African countries. This paper specifically analyses the different ICT underdeveloped areas in the sub-Saharan African countries and the factors explain such status. At the same time, the paper proposes a set of policy guidelines that might help improvi...

Avila, Alfonso

2009-01-01

63

Proportionate Target Population Estimates Used by National Immunization Programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Comparison with Values from an External Source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In order to effectively plan the delivery of immunization services, manage stock and supply levels and target interventions, national immunization programmes (NIP must have an estimate of the target population they serve. To overcome challenges with target population estimation, some NIPs apply “rule-of-thumb” conversion factors to total population estimates. We compare these proportionate target population values with those from an external source. Methods: Using data reported by national immunization programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, we computed the proportionate target population as the number of births, surviving infants and children under 5 years of age, respectively, as a proportion of the total population size. We compared these values with those estimates computed from United Nations Population Division (UNPD data. We then recomputed NIP target population sizes using the proportionate target population values from the UNPD applied to the total population size reported by NIP. Results: Data were available from 47 sub-Saharan Africa countries. Births as a proportion of the total population were greater within reports from NIP (median, 0.0400; IQR: 0.350 - 0.0437 compared to values from UNPD estimates (median, 0.0364; IQR: 0.0332 - 0.0406. Similar patterns were observed for surviving infants (median: NIP, 0.0360; UNPD, 0.0337 and children under 5 years of age (median: NIP, 0.1735; UNPD, 0.1594. The percent difference in proportionate target population ratios between reports from NIPs and the UNPD was >10% in 23 countries for births, in 18 countries for surviving infants, in 15 countries for children under 5 years of age. After re-computing target populations using UNPD proportionate target population values applied to NIP reported total population, recomputed administrative coverage levels for the third dose of DTP containing vaccine were higher in 32 of the 47 countries compared to reported administrative coverage levels. Conclusion: Because childhood immunization-related target populations are among the more difficult ones to accurately estimate and project, immunization programmes in sub-Saharan Africa are encouraged to include a critical assessment of the target population values, in conjunction with their national statistics system, as part of the on-going programme monitoring process.

David W. Brown

2014-08-01

64

Do the distribution patterns of polymorphisms at the thiopurine S-methyltransferase locus in sub-Saharan populations need revision? Hints from Cabinda and Mozambique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic data on the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) polymorphism were obtained in population samples from Cabinda and Mozambique (located in the western and eastern coasts of sub-Saharan Africa, respectively). The overall frequency of TPMT-deficient alleles was 5.6% in Mozambique and 6.3% in Cabinda. Accordingly, one out of the 103 individuals from Cabinda tested had a genotype associated with TPMT deficiency, yielding a frequency that is threefold higher than heretofore reported in any population. In addition, in both Cabinda or Mozambique, TPMT*8 accounted for a significant proportion of non-functional alleles (nearly 40% in Cabinda). Since the substitution defining TPMT*8 seems to be highly specific of sub-Saharan Africa populations and given the fact it has not been integrated into the set of single nucleotide polymorphisms routinely tested for TPMT, a re-design of molecular screenings should be considered in the future in order to avoid serious underestimates of TPMT deficiency when the enzymatic profiles in populations are unknown. PMID:17473918

Oliveira, E; Quental, S; Alves, S; Amorim, A; Prata, M J

2007-07-01

65

Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need to decompose CO2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO2ergy consumption intensity, CO2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO2 emission intensity in non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries, while the structural effect explained most of the increase in CO2 emission intensity among the oil-producing countries. Finally, for the period 1991-1998, structural effect accounted for much of the decrease in intensity among non-oil-producers, while CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was the major force driving the decrease among oil-producing countries. The dynamic changes in the CO2 emission intensity and energy intensity effects for the two groups of countries suggest that fuel switching had been predominantly towards more carbon-intensive production in oil-producing countries and less carbon-intensive production in non-oil-producing SSA countries. In addition to the decomposition analysis, the article discusses policy implications of the results. We hope that the information and analyses provided here would help inform national energy and climate policy makers in SSA of the relative weaknesses and possible areas of strategic emphasis in their planning processes for mitigating the effects of climate change

66

The effects of the African Green Revolution on nitrogen losses from two contrasting soil types in sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly 80% of countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face problems of nitrogen (N) scarcity, which together with poverty causes food insecurity and malnutrition. The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa has set a goal of increasing fertilizer use in the region six-fold by 2015. While there is substantial evidence that greater N fertilizer use will improve crop yields, it could lead to increased N leaching and elevated nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in surface water and groundwater reservoirs. However, it is unclear what the magnitude of impacts will be in SSA given historically low nutrient additions (of less than 5 kg N/ha/yr), highly degraded soils (due to years of nutrient and soil organic matter depletion), and a wide range of soil types on which increased fertilizer use is occurring. Current estimates of N dynamics and balances in SSA agriculture now rely on data from other regions with different soil types, soil fertility, and land management practices. To understand the influence of increased fertilizer use on water quality requires data from representative areas in SSA. Experimental maize plots were established in a randomized complete block design in both western Kenya (clayey soil) and mid-western Tanzania (sandy soil). Plots were amended with 0, 50, 75, and 200 kg N/ha/yr as mineral fertilizer. Tension lysimeters were installed at three depths in each treatment, and water was collected throughout the maize growing season. Soil water solutions were analyzed for NO3--N. Flow through the soil column at each soil depth, was modeled using VS2DT, a variably saturated flow and solute transport model, and water flux values were multiplied by measured NO3--N concentrations to estimate seasonal N leaching flux. Soil texture was a major driver of N losses, altering both the pathways and magnitude of losses. Clayey soils in western Kenya show an enormous potential for loss of NO3--N immediately following the onset of rains as they trigger high rates of N mineralization and nitrification in the topsoil (known as the 'birch effect'). We did not observe this pulse in the sandy soils of central Tanzania. However, NO3- N concentrations in leachate were three times lower at 200 cm in clayey soils compared to sandy soils as a result of higher anion exchange capacity in clays. We show that while clayey soils lose NO3--N in a large pulse at the onset of rains, sandy soils lose large quantities of NO3--N over the course of the maize growing season. Results from this study can help inform recommended N application rates in similar soils (tropical Ultisols and Oxisols), to optimize yields while minimizing N leaching losses.

Tully, K. L.; Russo, T.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

2013-12-01

67

“It’s My Secret”: Fear of Disclosure among Sub-Saharan African Migrant Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Belgium  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with HIV not only have to deal with the challenges of living with an incurable disease but also with the dilemma of whether or not to disclose their status to their partners, families and friends. This study explores the extent to which sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrant women in Belgium disclose their HIV positive status, reasons for disclosure/non-disclosure and how they deal with HIV disclosure. A qualitative study consisting of interviews with twenty-eight SSA women with HIV/AIDS was conducted. Thematic content analysis was employed to identify themes as they emerged. Our study reveals that these women usually only disclose their status to healthcare professionals because of the treatment and care they need. This selective disclosure is mainly due to the taboo of HIV disease in SSA culture. Stigma, notably self-stigma, greatly impedes HIV disclosure. Techniques to systematically incorporate HIV disclosure into post-test counseling and primary care services are highly recommended. PMID:25781906

Arrey, Agnes Ebotabe; Bilsen, Johan; Lacor, Patrick; Deschepper, Reginald

2015-01-01

68

Preventing Diabetes and Atherosclerosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Should the Metabolic Syndrome Have a Role?  

OpenAIRE

Obesity, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing in all regions of sub-Saharan Africa. The metabolic syndrome is a valuable tool in predicting atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes in populations in Europe and North America. However, the applicability of the metabolic syndrome to African populations has not been studied. Prior to investing scarce funds into diagnosing and treating the metabolic syndrome, primary research needs to be designed to determine the p...

Imoisili, Omoye E.; Sumner, Anne E.

2009-01-01

69

Intra-continental spread of human invasive Salmonella Typhimurium pathovariants in sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly invasive form of non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has been recently documented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common Salmonella enterica serovar causing this disease is Typhimurium. We applied whole-genome sequence-based phylogenetic methods to define the population structure of sub-Saharan African invasive Salmonella Typhimurium and compared these to global Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Notably, the vast majority of sub-Saharan invasive Salmonella Typhimurium fell within two closely-related, highly-clustered phylogenetic lineages that we estimate emerged independently ~52 and ~35 years ago, in close temporal association with the current HIV pandemic. Clonal replacement of isolates of lineage I by lineage II was potentially influenced by the use of chloramphenicol for the treatment of iNTS disease. Our analysis suggests that iNTS disease is in part an epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa caused by highly related Salmonella Typhimurium lineages that may have occupied new niches associated with a compromised human population and antibiotic treatment. PMID:23023330

Okoro, Chinyere K.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Connor, Thomas R.; Harris, Simon R.; Parry, Christopher M.; Al-Mashhadani, Manar N; Kariuki, Samuel; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gordon, Melita A.; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Wain, John; Heyderman, Robert S.; Obaro, Stephen; Alonso, Pedro L.; Mandomando, Inacio; MacLennan, Calman A.; Tapia, Milagritos D.; Levine, Myron M.; Tennant, Sharon M; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon

2012-01-01

70

A review on aflatoxin contamination and its implications in the developing world : a sub-Saharan African perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mycotoxins contamination in some agricultural food commodities seriously impact human and animal health and reduce the commercial value of crops. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that contaminate agricultural commodities pre- or postharvest. Africa is one of the continents where environmental, agricultural and storage conditions of food commodities are conducive of Aspergillus fungi infection and aflatoxin biosynthesis. This paper reviews the commodity-wise aetiology and contamination process of aflatoxins and evaluates the potential risk of exposure from common African foods. Possible ways of reducing risk for fungal infection and aflatoxin development that are relevant to the African context. The presented database would be useful as benchmark information for development and prioritization of future research. There is need for more investigations on food quality and safety by making available advanced advanced equipments and analytical methods as well as surveillance and awareness creation in the region.

Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Hell, K.

2013-01-01

71

The Realities of Community Based Natural Resource Management and Biodiversity Conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This is an historic overview of conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa from pre-colonial times through the present. It demonstrates that Africans practiced conservation that was ignored by the colonial powers. The colonial market economy combined with the human and livestock population explosion of the 21st century are the major factors contributing to the demise of wildlife and critical habitat. Unique insight is provided into the economics of a representative safari company, something that has ...

Brian Kevin Reilly; Paul Andre DeGeorges

2009-01-01

72

Factors contributing to urban malaria transmission in sub-saharan Africa: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sub-Saharan Africa suffers by far the greatest malaria burden worldwide and is currently undergoing a profound demographic change, with a growing proportion of its population moving to urban areas. Urbanisation is generally expected to reduce malaria transmission; however the disease still persists in African cities, in some cases at higher levels than in nearby rural areas. Objective. This paper aims to collate and analyse risk factors for urban malaria transmission throughout sub-Saharan Africa and to discuss their implications for control. Methods. A systematic search on malaria and urbanisation was carried out focusing on sub-Saharan Africa. Particular interest was taken in vector breeding sites in urban and periurban areas. Results. A variety of urban vector breeding sites were catalogued, the majority of which were artificial, including urban agriculture, tyre tracks, and ditches. Natural breeding sites varied according to location. Low socioeconomic status was a significant risk factor for malaria, often present in peri-urban areas. A worrying trend was seen in the adaptation of malaria vector species to the urban environment. Urban malaria is highly focused and control programs should reflect this. Conclusion. As urbanisation continues and vector species adapt, continued monitoring and control of urban malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is essential. PMID:23125863

De Silva, Prathiba M; Marshall, John M

2012-01-01

73

Water Poverty in Sub-Saharan African nation: GIS based index for assessing vulnerability in relation to climate change data  

OpenAIRE

Access to safe water is currently a privilege for the citizens of many developing countries in Asia and Africa. In the last few decades changes in climate have increased concentrations of greenhouse gasses. The results of global warming have had a significant impact upon the hydrological cycle from freshwater resources to rising sea levels, flooding and precipitation changes. Population concentration and growth have also placed additional pressures on water resources resulting in changes to e...

Trakosa, Anastasia

2008-01-01

74

Implementation of a socio-ecological system navigation approach to human development in sub-saharan african communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a framework for the development of socio-ecological systems towards enhanced sustainability. Emphasis is given to the dynamic properties of complex, adaptive social-ecological systems, their structure and to the fundamental role of agriculture. The tangible components that meet the needs of specific projects executed in Kenya and Ethiopia encompass project objectives, innovation, facilitation, continuous recording and analyses of monitoring data, that allow adaptive management and system navigation. Two case studies deal with system navigation through the mitigation of key constraints; they aim to improve human health thanks to anopheline malaria vectors control in Nyabondo (Kenya), and to improve cattle health through tsetse control and antitrypanosomal drug administration to cattle in Luke (Ethiopia). The second case deals with a socio-ecological navigation system to enhance sustainability, establishing a periurban diversified enterprise in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) and developing a rural sustainable social-ecological system in Luke (Ethiopia). The project procedures are briefly described here and their outcomes are analysed in relation to the stated objectives. The methodology for human and cattle disease vector control were easier to implement than the navigation of social-ecological systems towards sustainability enhancement. The achievements considerably differed between key constraints removal and sustainability enhancement projects. Some recommendations are made to rationalise human and cattle health improvement efforts and to smoothen the road towards enhanced sustainability: i) technology system implementation should be carried out through an innovation system; ii) transparent monitoring information should be continuously acquired and evaluated for assessing the state of the system in relation to stated objectives for (a) improving the insight into the systems behaviour and (b) rationalizing decision support; iii) the different views of all stakeholders should be reconciled in a pragmatic approach to social-ecological system management. Significance for public healthRecently, there is a growing interest in studying the link between human, animal and environmental health. The connection between these different dimensions is particularly important for developing countries in which people face the challenge of escaping vicious cycle of high diseases prevalence, food insecurity driven by absolute poverty and population growth, and natural capital as a poverty trap. The design and implementation of such efforts, aiming at human health improvement and poverty alleviation, should be framed into adaptive social-ecological system management perspectives. In this paper, we present few case studies dealing with human health improvement through anopheline malaria vectors control in Kenya, cattle health improvement through tsetse vectored nagana control, antitrypanosomal drug administration to cattle in Ethiopia and with the development of rural sustainable communities in Ethiopia. Some recommendations are given to rationalise human and cattle health improvement efforts and to smoothen the road towards enhanced sustainability. PMID:25170511

Gilioli, Gianni; Caroli, Anna Maria; Tikubet, Getachew; Herren, Hans R; Baumgärtner, Johann

2014-03-26

75

North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient population substructure. Thus, the study of North African populations is crucial for testing both hypotheses. We analyzed a total of 780,000 SNPs in 125 individuals representing seven different North African locations and searched for their ancestral/derived state in comparison to different human populations and Neandertals. We found that North African populations have a significant excess of derived alleles shared with Neandertals, when compared to sub-Saharan Africans. This excess is similar to that found in non-African humans, a fact that can be interpreted as a sign of Neandertal admixture. Furthermore, the Neandertal's genetic signal is higher in populations with a local, pre-Neolithic North African ancestry. Therefore, the detected ancient admixture is not due to recent Near Eastern or European migrations. Sub-Saharan populations are the only ones not affected by the admixture event with Neandertals.

Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R

2012-01-01

76

An approach to rural distribution network design for sub-Saharan Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bulk of rural populations in sub-Saharan Africa have no access to electricity and are under-served by any other form of modern infrastructure. The cost of infrastructure to mainly scattered communities has been perennially cited as largely to blame. Quite often rural networks are overdesigned, resulting in under utilization and, therefore, costly overheads. One reason often cited for the overspecification is anticipation of load growth. In most sub-Sahara African rural areas, however, economic growth rates are low, and a designer has no justification in specifying an infrastructure capacity exceeding more than a few percent of existing consumer requirements. This paper proposes methods that critically look at the geometry of small grid network designs to address the construction challenges in rural sub-Saharan Africa

77

Population Structure of Staphylococcus aureus from Remote African Babongo Pygmies  

OpenAIRE

Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that colonizes humans worldwide. The anterior nares are its main ecological niche. Carriers of S. aureus are at a higher risk of developing invasive infections. Few reports indicated a different clonal structure and profile of virulence factors in S. aureus isolates from Sub-Saharan Africa. As there are no data about isolates from remote indigenous African populations, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of S. aureus nasal carriage in Gabonese Babongo Py...

Schaumburg, Frieder; Ko?ck, Robin; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Soulanoudjingar, Solange; Ngoa, Ulysse Ateba; Von Eiff, Christof; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G.; Herrmann, Mathias; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

2011-01-01

78

[Epidemiology of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa: a review].  

Science.gov (United States)

Epilepsy is, above all tropical, moreover, very african in its frequency and gravity. Data on the prevalence of epilepsy shows it to be two or three times more prevalent in tropical zones than in industrialized countries in non tropical areas, however it is rare to find data on the incidence and prognosis of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. It is difficult to determine the relative contribution of each of the causes of epilepsy. Only a few case-control studies have been carried out in sub-Saharan Africa. Infectious diseases, in particular parasitic diseases such as neurocysticercosis or cerebral malaria, seem to be the cause of the majority of the cases of epilepsy. However it is necessary to do additional epidemiological studies to determine the etiologies of epilepsy more precisely in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17446155

Ngoungou, E B; Quet, F; Dubreuil, C M; Marin, B; Houinato, D; Nubukpo, P; Dalmay, F; Millogo, A; Nsengiyumva, G; Kouna-Ndouongo, P; Diagana, M; Ratsimbazafy, V; Druet-Cabanac, M; Preux, P M

2006-01-01

79

Oil and Gas Resources for Sub Saharan African Economic Development: Which One is the Best Approach? The Case of the Selected Approaches in Oil and Gas Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Oil and Gas Sector in Africa is growing so fast due to the new discovery of Oil and Gas reserves and therefore attract the huge amount of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. Considering its role in the African economy, several approaches both local and foreign have been introduced; however the anticipated economic benefits have not yet been realized. The study therefore focused on assessing the effectiveness of the selected approaches that were designed to ensure the economic benefits of oil and gas resources reach to the African local population, particularly the poor ones. The study surveyed various literatures to draw its conclusion. It was realized that the selected approaches have failed to ensure that Oil and Gas resources produce the anticipated economic benefits to the local African population. Among others, it was recommended that the approaches should be improved in order to promote the linkage between Oil and Gas Extractive firms and Small and Medium Enterprises. Additionally, they should be enforceable by law in order to ensure legal commitment among African governments and Oil and Gas Extractive firms to the local population.

Riziki M. Nyello

2015-02-01

80

Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian…

Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

81

Population-level effect of HSV-2 therapy on the incidence of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Background: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases acquisition and transmission of HIV, but the results of trials measuring the impact of HSV-2 therapy on HIV genital shedding and HIV acquisition are mixed, and the potential impact of HSV-2 therapy on the incidence of HIV at the population level is unknown. Methods: The effects of episodic and suppressive HSV-2 therapy were simulated using the individual-level model STDSIM fitted to data from Cotonou, ...

White, R. G.; Freeman, E. E.; Orroth, K. K.; Bakker, R.; Weiss, H. A.; O Farrell, N.; Buve?, A.; Hayes, R. J.; Glynn, J. R.

2008-01-01

82

Plant Variety Protection in Sub-Saharan Africa: Balancing Commercial and Smallholder Farmers’ Interests  

OpenAIRE

Sub-Saharan African countries, through their regional organizations, have embarked on the harmonisation of plant variety protection (PVP) systems. These initiatives are largely modelled on the UPOV 1991 act, which claims to incentivize plant breeding and facilitate agricultural development. Civil Society Organisations (CSO), however, strongly criticise this process for being out of step with Sub-Saharan African agricultural realities, undermining smallholder farmers’ agricultural practices ...

Bram De Jonge

2014-01-01

83

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR from Mediterranean to Sub-Saharan Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are differences in the allele frequency of MTHFR polymorphism between Western and African population. The aim of this study is to determinate the prevalence of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in young and old people living in different areas from Mediterranean to sub-Saharan areas. The observed vs expected genotype frequencies of 677T were in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, with the exception of old Sardinian subjects (P=0.02. Calculation of 677T allele frequency in young and old African subjects (8% and 3%, respectively indicated that the 677T allele was disadvantaged in old Africans (P=0.02. The difference among young and old Sardinians and Sicilians were not significant at the same degree (43% vs 37% P=0.07 and 46% vs 42% P=0.28, respectively. However, the reproducible trend that showed the prevalence of 677T allele in the young subjects of the three studied areas confirms the disadvantage of this polymorphism with the age. There was a significant difference (P=0.005 on the observed vs expected frequency of 1298C homozygosity in African old subjects compared to younger ones, while the observed vs expected genotype frequencies were in equilibrium in young and old Sardinian and Sicilian subjects. The frequencies of 1298C and 1298A alleles were comparable between young and old African, Sardinian and Sicilian subjects. The lower frequency of 677T allele in old African, Sardinian and Sicilian subjects compared to young ones and the absence of TT genotype among old African subjects, should be considered as a consequence of an elevated mortality of 677T carriers.

Rosa Chillemi

2006-01-01

84

Blood component use in a sub-saharan african country: results of a 4-year evaluation of diagnoses associated with transfusion orders in namibia.  

Science.gov (United States)

National blood use patterns in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly described. Although malaria and maternal hemorrhage remain important drivers of blood demand across Africa, economic growth and changes in malaria, HIV/AIDS, and noncommunicable disease epidemiology may contribute to changes in blood demand. We evaluated indications for blood use in Namibia, a country in southern Africa, using a nationally representative sample and discuss implications for the region. Clinical and demographic data related to the issuance of blood component units in Namibia were reviewed for a 4-year period (August 1, 2007-July 31, 2011). Variables included blood component type, recipient age and sex, and diagnosis. Diagnoses reported by clinicians were reclassified into International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision categories. Multiple imputation methods were used to complete a data set missing age, sex or diagnosis data. Descriptive analyses were conducted to describe indications for transfusions and use of red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and plasma. A total of 39 313 records accounting for 91 207 blood component units were analyzed. The median age of Namibian transfusion recipients was 45 years (SD, ±19). A total of 78 660 RBC units were issued in Namibia during the study period. Red blood cells transfused for "unspecified anemia" accounted for the single largest category of blood issued (24 798 units). Of the overall total, 38.9% were for diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (D50-D89). Infectious disease (A00-B99), pregnancy (O00-O99), and gastrointestinal (K20-K93) accounted for 14.8%, 11.1%, and 6.1% of RBC units issued, respectively. Although a specific diagnosis of malaria accounted for only 2.7% of pediatric transfusions, an unknown number of additional transfusions for malaria may have been categorized by requesting physicians as unspecified anemia and counted under diseases of blood forming organs. During the study period, 9751 units of fresh-frozen plasma were issued. Nearly one-quarter of these units (23.1%) were issued for gastrointestinal (K20-K93) diagnoses. Malignant neoplasms (C00-C97) accounted for 38.1% of 2978 platelet units issued. Blood use in Namibia reflects changes in the health care system due to economic development, improvement in HIV/AIDS and malaria epidemiology, high rates of health care facility-based childbirth, and access to noncommunicable disease treatment. However, better documentation of the indications for transfusion is needed to confirm these observations. Changing patterns of health care will result in changing demands for blood components. Improved methods to evaluate blood use patterns in sub-Saharan Africa may help set realistic national blood collection goals. PMID:25573416

Pitman, John P; Wilkinson, Robert; Liu, Yang; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th; Lowrance, David W; Marfin, Anthony A; Postma, Maarten J; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V

2015-01-01

85

Towards feasible social security systems in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

The international community is devoting increasing attention to social security issues in developing countries as part of its preoccupation with poverty reduction. This paper discusses social security arrangements in place in sub-Saharan African countries to mitigate the contingencies of their citizens, with emphasis on the masses of poor people, including the ways in which the poor themselves try to tackle unexpected adversity. The basic argument is that for a social security system to be fe...

Tostensen, Arne

2004-01-01

86

The national determinants of deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

For decades, the dynamics of tropical deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have defied easy explanation. The rates of deforestation have been lower than elsewhere in the tropics, and the driving forces evident in other places, government new land settlement schemes and industrialized agriculture, have largely been absent in SSA. The context and causes for African deforestation become clearer through an analysis of new, national-level data on forest cover change for SSA countries for the ...

Rudel, Thomas K.

2013-01-01

87

Finger ridge-count variability in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mean finger ridge-count data were obtained, primarily from literature sources, for 31 male and 24 female sub-Saharan African samples. The 10 finger ridge-counts and total ridge-count were used as independent variables in a multiple regression analysis, latitude and longitude serving in turn as the dependent variables. The results show that it is not the magnitude of the ridge-counts themselves that is important, but rather contrasts between groups of digits. The most important geographically patterned variation in ridge-counts consists of contrasts between digits 4 and 5 and digits 2 and 3. South and south-east African populations are characterized by low contrasts, west Africans by high contrasts and, south-west Africans are intermediate. The geographical patterning of the contrast agrees well with known patterns of gene flow into and within the continent as determined by serological genes. Principal components analysis was also carried out to determine whether within-group components corresponding to the geographically relevant between-group variation could be identified. The third, fourth and fifth components drew the same types of contrasts between the groups of digits identified in the multiple regression analysis, but they were relatively unimportant. The geographically important principal components would have been overlooked in a traditional multivariate analysis of finge ridge-counts, since the analysis would have been dominated by pattern size. We conclude that finger ridge-counts are potentially very useful in population studies, but account must be taken of their multicomponent nature. PMID:434765

Jantz, R L; Hawkinson, C H

1979-01-01

88

Stock Markets Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Business Regulations, Governance and Fiscal Policy  

OpenAIRE

This study examines the effectiveness of the state in stimulating stock market activity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using fiscal policy, governance quality and stock market as the main determinant variables. Using annual data from six selected sub-Saharan African economies and employing a dynamic panel data estimating technique, we find that government effectiveness stimulates capitalization while business regulations decrease it in SSA. In addition, we find that final consumption expenditure...

Afful, Kofi B.; Asiedu, Kofi F.

2013-01-01

89

THE IMPACT OF TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON PER CAPITA INCOME: EVIDENCE FROM SUB SAHARAN AFRICA  

OpenAIRE

Trade liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa has been implemented in the context of Structural Adjustment Program since late 1980. However, the empirical evidence on per-capita income and growth is mixed. This paper uses dynamic panel data and three indicators of trade liberalization to examine the relationship between trade liberalization and real per-capita income for Sub-Saharan African countries. The study finds that trade share has positive impact on per-capita income while tariff rates ar...

Seid Yimer

2011-01-01

90

The contribution of international health volunteers to the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In this paper, we aim to quantify the contribution of international health volunteers to the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa and to explore the perceptions of health service managers regarding these volunteers. METHODS: Rapid survey among organizations sending international health volunteers and group discussions with experienced medical officers from sub-Saharan African countries. RESULTS: We contacted 13 volunteer organizations having more than 10 full-time equi...

Laleman, G.; Kegels, G.; Marchal, B.; Roost, D.; Bogaert, I.; Damme, W.

2007-01-01

91

What lies behind gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately at risk for acquiring and having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is important to clarify whether gender inequalities in HIV prevalence in this region are explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors, differences in the effects of these risk factors or some combination of both. We used an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania using data from the demographic and health and AIDS indicator surveys. After adjusting for covariates using Poisson regression models, female gender was associated with a higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Kenya [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.33, 2.23 in 2003] and Lesotho (PR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.20, 1.62 in 2004/05), but not in Tanzania. Decomposition analyses demonstrated two distinct patterns over time. In Tanzania, the gender inequality in HIV/AIDS was explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors between men and women. In contrast, in Kenya and Lesotho, this inequality was partly explained by differences in the effects across men and women of measured HIV/AIDS risk factors, including socio-demographic characteristics (age and marital status) and sexual behaviours (age at first sex); these results imply that gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS would persist in Kenya and Lesotho even if men and women had similar distributions of HIV risk factors. The production of gender inequalities may vary across countries, with inequalities attributable to the unequal distribution of risk factors among men and women in some countries and the differential effect of these factors between groups in others. These different patterns have important implications for policies to reduce gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS. PMID:24345343

Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Nandi, Arijit; Foro, Anne; Brewer, Timothy

2014-10-01

92

What is the best strategy for the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria in sub-Saharan African countries where malaria is endemic?  

Science.gov (United States)

The transmission of malaria by blood transfusion was one of the first recorded incidents of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). Although the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that blood for transfusion should be screened for TTIs, malaria screening is not performed in most malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The transfusion of infected red blood cells may lead to severe post-transfusion clinical manifestations of malaria, which could be rapidly fatal. Ensuring that blood supply in endemic countries is free from malaria is highly problematical, as most of the donors may potentially harbour low levels of malaria parasites. Pre-transfusion screening within endemic settings has been identified as a cost-effective option for prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM). But currently, there is no screening method that is practical, affordable and suitably sensitive for use by blood banks in SSA. Even if this method was available, rejection of malaria-positive donors would considerably jeopardize the blood supply and increase morbidity and mortality, especially among pregnant women and children who top the scale of blood transfusion users in SSA. In this context, the systematic prophylaxis of recipients with anti-malarials could constitute a good alternative, as it prevents any deferral of donor units as well as the occurrence of TTM. With the on-going programme, namely the Affordable Medicine Facility - Malaria, there is an increase in the availability of low-priced artemisinin-based combination therapy that can be used for systematic prophylaxis. It appears nonetheless an urgent need to conduct cost-benefit studies in order to evaluate each of the TTM preventive methods. This approach could permit the design and implementation of an evidence-based measure of TTM prevention in SSA, advocating thereby its widespread use in the region. PMID:24373501

Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Ndoula, Shalom Tchokfe; Zeh, Albert Frank M; Monamele, Chavely Gwladys

2013-01-01

93

Introduction : New Avenues for Pastoral Development in sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

African pastoralism is a perplexing, controversial and misunderstood subject. Certainly, making sense of herders’ lifestyles and livelihoods is made especially difficult – if not impossible – by the marked absence of consensus between scholars of pastoralism. Sharp disagreements exist as to whether pastoralism in sub-Saharan Africa is on the verge of extinction, or whether it is a resilient livelihood strategy. Similarly, authors diverge on the question of whether drought cycles have become increasingly recurrent and lifethreatening, or whether they are part of the climatic variability that has always characterized arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Finally, different viewpoints exist concerning whether or not it is possible to maintain extensive production strategies and the mobility of herds and people in increasingly populous and circumscribed territories. Although a number of research fields and academic debates with regard to ‘new range ecology’, climate change, risk management or sustainable livelihoods have produced important insights for African drylands, there have been few attempts to conceptualize pastoral development more broadly and beyond disciplinary confines. This is precisely the objective of this special issue, which seeks to provide an overview of current research on the economic, ecological, political and social challenges and opportunities of pastoral societies in sub-Saharan Africa.

Hagmann, Tobias; Ifejika-Speranza, Chinwe

2010-01-01

94

Extreme Population Differences in the Human Zinc Transporter ZIP4 (SLC39A4) Are Explained by Positive Selection in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Extreme differences in allele frequency between West Africans and Eurasians were observed for a leucine-to-valine substitution (Leu372Val) in the human intestinal zinc uptake transporter, ZIP4, yet no further evidence was found for a selective sweep around the ZIP4 gene (SLC39A4). By interrogating allele frequencies in more than 100 diverse human populations and resequencing Neanderthal DNA, we confirmed the ancestral state of this locus and found a strong geographical gradient for the derive...

Engelken, Johannes; Carnero-montoro, Elena; Pybus, Marc; Andrews, Glen K.; Lalueza-fox, Carles; Comas, David; Sekler, Israel; La Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Stoneking, Mark; Valverde, Miguel A.; Vicente, Rube?n; Bosch, Elena

2014-01-01

95

The impact of Christianity on sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the impact of Christianity on sub-Saharan Africa. I shall start by first examining the key words in the title of this article, and by briefly discussing the phenomenal growth of Christianity in sub-Saharan Africa. The article further describes the impact of Chr [...] istianity on sub-Saharan Africa in terms of education, socio-politics, and health; here I shall base my remarks on the history of Christian missions in the region since the late nineteen century. As far as education is concerned, this article recognises that education that focuses on holistic human development is a positive force, and a force that was introduced by Christianity. I shall also point out that Christianity initiated medical advances that improved the health of those who live in the region. Regeneration as espoused by Christianity constitutes something of great value. On the downside, Christianity led to the demise of the African customs, which it viewed as pagan and evil; the religion also led to the implementation of apartheid (to which it gave its theological support), and undermined the leadership role of women. Finally, Christianity has bedevilled race relations in Africa generally.

Matsobane J, Manala.

2013-02-01

96

Absence of Putative Artemisinin Resistance Mutations Among Plasmodium falciparum in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Molecular Epidemiologic Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmodium falciparum parasites that are resistant to artemisinins have been detected in Southeast Asia. Resistance is associated with several polymorphisms in the parasite's K13-propeller gene. The molecular epidemiology of these artemisinin resistance genotypes in African parasite populations is unknown. We developed an assay to quantify rare polymorphisms in parasite populations that uses a pooled deep-sequencing approach to score allele frequencies, validated it by evaluating mixtures of laboratory parasite strains, and then used it to screen P. falciparum parasites from >1100 African infections collected since 2002 from 14 sites across sub-Saharan Africa. We found no mutations in African parasite populations that are associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asian parasites. However, we observed 15 coding mutations, including 12 novel mutations, and limited allele sharing between parasite populations, consistent with a large reservoir of naturally occurring K13-propeller variation. Although polymorphisms associated with artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum in Southeast Asia are not prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, numerous K13-propeller coding polymorphisms circulate in Africa. Although their distributions do not support a widespread selective sweep for an artemisinin-resistant phenotype, the impact of these mutations on artemisinin susceptibility is unknown and will require further characterization. Rapid, scalable molecular surveillance offers a useful adjunct in tracking and containing artemisinin resistance. PMID:25180240

Taylor, Steve M; Parobek, Christian M; DeConti, Derrick K; Kayentao, Kassoum; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Greenwood, Brian M; Tagbor, Harry; Williams, John; Bojang, Kalifa; Njie, Fanta; Desai, Meghna; Kariuki, Simon; Gutman, Julie; Mathanga, Don P; Mårtensson, Andreas; Ngasala, Billy; Conrad, Melissa D; Rosenthal, Philip J; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Moormann, Ann M; Vulule, John M; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Meshnick, Steven R; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Juliano, Jonathan J

2015-03-01

97

Social, behavioural, and intervention research among people of Sub-Saharan African origin living with HIV in the UK and Europe: literature review and recommendations for intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Africans are the second largest group affected by HIV in Western Europe after men who have sex with men (MSM). This review describes and summarises the literature on social, behavioural, and intervention research among African communities affected by HIV in the UK and other European countries in order to make recommendations for future interventions. We conducted a keyword search using Embase, Medline and PsychInfo, existing reviews, 'grey literature', as well as expert working group reports. A total of 138 studies met our inclusion criteria; 31 were published in peer-reviewed journals, 107 in the grey literature. All peer-reviewed studies were observational or "descriptive," and none of them described HIV interventions with African communities. However, details of 36 interventions were obtained from the grey literature. The review explores six prominent themes in the descriptive literature: (1) HIV testing; (2) sexual lifestyles and attitudes; (3) gender; (4) use of HIV services; (5) stigma and disclosure (6) immigration status, unemployment and poverty. Although some UK and European interventions are addressing the needs of African communities affected by HIV, more resources need to be mobilised to ensure current and future interventions are targeted, sustainable, and rigorously evaluated. PMID:17497218

Prost, Audrey; Elford, Jonathan; Imrie, John; Petticrew, Mark; Hart, Graham J

2008-03-01

98

The Global Financial Meltdown of 2008, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Way Forward for Sustainable Economic Growth and Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author began the paper with a brief historical perspective of the global financial crisis. This was followed by the review of the literature. Next, the researcher outlined his findings preceded by some policy analyses and implications of the crisis for sub-Saharan African economies. The writer ended the paper with recommendations for both sub-Saharan African policymakers and the international finance and development community.

Ashford C. Chea

2011-12-01

99

Genomic Ancestry of North Africans Supports Back-to-Africa Migrations  

OpenAIRE

North African populations are distinct from sub-Saharan Africans based on cultural, linguistic, and phenotypic attributes; however, the time and the extent of genetic divergence between populations north and south of the Sahara remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate the multilayered history of North Africa by characterizing the effect of hypothesized migrations from the Near East, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa on current genetic diversity. We present dense, genome-wide SNP genotyping...

Henn, Brenna M.; Botigue?, Laura R.; Gravel, Simon; Wang, Wei; Brisbin, Abra; Byrnes, Jake K.; Fadhlaoui-zid, Karima; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Moreno-estrada, Andres; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Comas, David

2012-01-01

100

Management of Sickle Cell Disease: A Review for Physician Education in Nigeria (Sub-Saharan Africa)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sickle cell disease (SCD) predominates in sub-Saharan Africa, East Mediterranean areas, Middle East, and India. Nigeria, being the most populous black nation in the world, bears its greatest burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The last few decades have witnessed remarkable scientific progress in the understanding of the complex pathophysiology of the disease. Improved clinical insights have heralded development and establishment of disease modifying interventions such as chronic blood transfusions, hydroxyurea therapy, and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. Coupled with parallel improvements in general supportive, symptomatic, and preventive measures, current evidence reveals remarkable appreciation in quality of life among affected individuals in developed nations. Currently, in Nigeria and other West African states, treatment and control of SCD are largely suboptimal. Improved knowledge regarding SCD phenotypes and its comprehensive care among Nigerian physicians will enhance quality of care for affected persons. This paper therefore provides a review on the aetiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and management of SCD in Nigeria, with a focus on its local patterns and peculiarities. Established treatment guidelines as appropriate in the Nigerian setting are proffered, as well as recommendations for improving care of affected persons. PMID:25667774

Adewoyin, Ademola Samson

2015-01-01

101

Business in sub-Saharan Africa : A study on how MNCs can compete successfully in sub-­?Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This study examines how MNCs manage challenges when operating in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). These are challenges such as uncertain environment because of bureaucracy and corruption and also difficulties to reach consumers because of poor infrastructure, dispersed population and cultural differences. The analysis of our case company ABB suggests that firms operating in SSA need to build long-term relationships, as well as long experience and a brand with well-attached references in order to rea...

Ho?gfeldt, Amelie

2011-01-01

102

Sub-Saharan Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: forcing factors and climate change processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A regional climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, is forced with increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} and anomalous SSTs and lateral boundary conditions derived from nine coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models to produce an ensemble set of nine future climate simulations for northern Africa at the end of the twenty-first century. A well validated control simulation, agreement among ensemble members, and a physical understanding of the future climate change enhance confidence in the predictions. The regional model ensembles produce consistent precipitation projections over much of northern tropical Africa. A moisture budget analysis is used to identify the circulation changes that support future precipitation anomalies. The projected midsummer drought over the Guinean Coast region is related partly to weakened monsoon flow. Since the rainfall maximum demonstrates a southward bias in the control simulation in July-August, this may be indicative of future summer drying over the Sahel. Wetter conditions in late summer over the Sahel are associated with enhanced moisture transport by the West African westerly jet, a strengthening of the jet itself, and moisture transport from the Mediterranean. Severe drought in East Africa during August and September is accompanied by a weakened Indian monsoon and Somali jet. Simulations with projected and idealized SST forcing suggest that overall SST warming in part supports this regional model ensemble agreement, although changes in SST gradients are important over West Africa in spring and fall. Simulations which isolate the role of individual climate forcings suggest that the spatial distribution of the rainfall predictions is controlled by the anomalous SST and lateral boundary conditions, while CO{sub 2} forcing within the regional model domain plays an important secondary role and generally produces wetter conditions. (orig.)

Patricola, C.M. [Cornell University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Ithaca, NY (United States); Texas A and M University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College Station, TX (United States); Cook, K.H. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, Austin, TX (United States)

2011-09-15

103

Drug Interactions in the Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis of Malaria in HIV Infected Individuals in Sub Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Malaria and HIV/AIDS remain diseases of public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa as both infections are responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. Malaria disproportionately affects young children and pregnant women and HIV/AIDS affects mostly adolescents and young adults. The widespread nature of both infections has led to co-infection in many residents of sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-infected individuals are more susceptible to frequent attacks of malaria thus requiring...

Fehintola, Fatai A.; Akinyinka, Olusegun O.; Adewole, Isaac F.; Maponga, Chiedza C.; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D.

2011-01-01

104

The Vulnerability of Sub-Saharan Africa to the Financial Crisis: The Case of Trade  

OpenAIRE

In the early stage of the 2008-2009 financial crisis, the conventional wisdom was that financial underdevelopment of sub Saharan African economies may have been a bless-ing in disguise because it insulated them from the direct effects of the crisis. This paper argues that this may also make African exporters, dangerously more dependent on the health of financial institutions in countries where they export. In the 2008-2009 financial crisis, we find that African exports to the US h...

Berman, Nicolas; Martin, Philippe

2010-01-01

105

Characterization of hepatitis delta virus in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a satellite of hepatitis B virus (HBV), and infection with this virus aggravates acute and chronic liver disease. While HBV seroprevalence is very high across sub-Saharan Africa, much less is known about HDV in the region. In this study, almost 2,300 blood serum samples from Burkina Faso (n=1,131), Nigeria (n=974), Chad (n=50), and the Central African Republic (n = 118) were screened for HBV and HDV. Among 743 HBsAg-positive serum samples, 74 were positive for HDV antibodies and/or HDV RNA, with considerable differences in prevalence, ranging from <2% (pregnant women from Burkina Faso) to 50% (liver patients from Central African Republic). HDV seems to be much more common in chronic liver disease patients in the Central African Republic (CAR) than in similar cohorts in Nigeria. In a large nested mother-child cohort in Burkina Faso, the prevalence of HDV antibodies was 10 times higher in the children than in their mothers, despite similar HBsAg prevalences, excluding vertical transmission as an important route of infection. The genotyping of 16 full-length and 8 partial HDV strains revealed clade 1 (17/24) in three of the four countries, while clades 5 (5/24) and 6 (2/24) were, at least in this study, confined to Central Nigeria. On the amino acid level, almost all our clade 1 strains exhibited a serine at position 202 in the hepatitis D antigen, supporting the hypothesis of an ancient African HDV-1 subgroup. Further studies are required to understand the public health significance of the highly varied HDV prevalences in different cohorts and countries in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24599979

Andernach, Iris E; Leiss, Lukas V; Tarnagda, Zekiba S; Tahita, Marc C; Otegbayo, Jesse A; Forbi, Joseph C; Omilabu, Sunday; Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela; Komas, Narcisse P; Mbah, Okwen P; Muller, Claude P

2014-05-01

106

Association of HIV and ART with cardiometabolic traits in sub-Saharan Africa : a systematic review and meta-analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest burden of HIV in the world and a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic disease; however, the interrelationship between HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cardiometabolic traits is not well described in SSA populations.

Dillon, David G; Gurdasani, Deepti

2013-01-01

107

Urban malaria risk in sub-Saharan Africa: where is the evidence?  

Science.gov (United States)

It is essential that the precautions that are advisable for travel in sub-Saharan Africa, including antimalarial prophylaxis, are supported by evidence. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 90% of global malaria cases and the more serious falciparum form predominates. The risk of malaria transmission is qualitatively much greater in rural than urban areas. However, there is little quantitative data on the risk in urban areas on which to base a risk assessment. Rapid urban population growth and trends of tourism to urban-only (rather than rural) areas both support the need to focus attention on the level of risk in malaria endemic African cities. There is evidence in urban settings that the reduced intensity of malaria transmission is due to a decline in the level of parasitism in the local population and reduced anophelism. The most useful evidence for an urban risk assessment is the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) which is generally below 30 infective bites per person per year. Transmission is acknowledged to be much lower in central urban areas compared with peri-urban areas or rural areas. Transmission is local and focal because the anopheles mosquito has a limited flight range of several kilometres. The risk assessment should examine nocturnal activities outside an air-conditioned environment (because the anopheline mosquito only bites between dusk and dawn) and the level of adherence to accompanying protective measures. Several studies have noted the protection air-conditioning provides against malaria. Evidence of low occupational risk for airline crew, unprotected by prophylaxis, from brief layovers of several nights in quality hotels in 8 endemic cities is explored. A literature search examines the evidence of environmental surveys and entomological inoculation rates. The limitations of the available data are discussed, including the highly focal nature of malaria transmission. PMID:17298922

Byrne, Neville

2007-03-01

108

Low sodium and high potassium intake for cardiovascular prevention: evidence revisited with emphasis on challenges in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduction in dietary salt intake and increase in potassium intake can make a major contribution to the prevention and control of hypertension and consequential cardiovascular disease, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where prevalence rates are highest. African populations are going through a westernization of their traditional eating patterns, with a shift towards a US/Western-style diet, which contains an excessive amount of salt. Currently, the mean sodium intake in SSA populations is far above the recommended daily allowance. Besides, potassium intake is low, and, particularly, the supply of fruits and vegetables that are important sources of potassium is insufficient to meet current and growing population needs in SSA countries. Context-relevant strategies are needed for population-wide sodium intake reduction and increase in potassium intake. PMID:25382734

Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Bigna, Jean Joel R; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N

2015-01-01

109

Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally c...

de Graft Aikins Ama; Bhopal Raj; Addo Juliet; Agyemang Charles; Stronks Karien

2009-01-01

110

Development of a single base extension method to resolve Y chromosome haplogroups in sub-Saharan African populations  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The ability of the Y chromosome to retain a record of its evolution has seen it become an essential tool of molecular anthropology. In the last few years, however, it has also found use in forensic genetics, providing information on the geographic origin of individuals. This has been aided by the development of efficient screening methods and an increased knowledge of geographic distribution. In this study, we describe the development of single base extension assays used t...

Naidoo Thijessen; Schlebusch Carina M; Makkan Heeran; Patel Pareen; Mahabeer Rajeshree; Erasmus Johannes C; Soodyall Himla

2010-01-01

111

Proportionate Target Population Estimates Used by National Immunization Programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Comparison with Values from an External Source  

OpenAIRE

Background: In order to effectively plan the delivery of immunization services, manage stock and supply levels and target interventions, national immunization programmes (NIP) must have an estimate of the target population they serve. To overcome challenges with target population estimation, some NIPs apply “rule-of-thumb” conversion factors to total population estimates. We compare these proportionate target population values with those from an external source. Methods: Using data r...

Brown, David W.; Burton, Anthony H.; Marta Gacic Dobo; Richard Mihigo

2014-01-01

112

Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of pharmacogenetic variability in diverse populations is scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we characterised population frequencies of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African population groups. We genotyped 211 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs in 12 genes that influence antiretroviral drug disposition, in 176 South African individuals belonging to two distinct population groups residing in the Western Cape: the Xhosa (n = 109 and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA (n = 67 groups. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs of eight tagSNPs in six genes (those encoding the ATP binding cassette sub-family B, member 1 [ABCB1], four members of the cytochrome P450 family [CYP2A7P1, CYP2C18, CYP3A4, CYP3A5] and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 [UGT1A1] were significantly different between the Xhosa and CMA populations (Bonferroni p CYP2C18, CYP3A4, the gene encoding solute carrier family 22 member 6 [SLC22A6] and UGT1A1 between the two South African populations. Characterising the Xhosa and CMA population frequencies of variant alleles important for drug transport and metabolism can help to establish the clinical relevance of pharmacogenetic testing in these populations.

Ikediobi Ogechi

2011-05-01

113

Inequities in the Global Health Workforce: The Greatest Impediment to Health in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health systems played a key role in the dramatic rise in global life expectancy that occurred during the 20th century, and have continued to contribute enormously to the improvement of the health of most of the world’s population. The health workforce is the backbone of each health system, the lubricant that facilitates the smooth implementation of health action for sustainable socio-economic development. It has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that the density of the health workforce is directly correlated with positive health outcomes. In other words, health workers save lives and improve health. About 59 million people make up the health workforce of paid full-time health workers world-wide. However, enormous gaps remain between the potential of health systems and their actual performance, and there are far too many inequities in the distribution of health workers between countries and within countries. The Americas (mainly USA and Canada are home to 14% of the world’s population, bear only 10% of the world’s disease burden, have 37% of the global health workforce and spend about 50% of the world’s financial resources for health. Conversely, sub-Saharan Africa, with about 11% of the world’s population bears over 24% of the global disease burden, is home to only 3% of the global health workforce, and spends less than 1% of the world’s financial resources on health. In most developing countries, the health workforce is concentrated in the major towns and cities, while rural areas can only boast of about 23% and 38% of the country’s doctors and nurses respectively. The imbalances exist not only in the total numbers and geographical distribution of health workers, but also in the skills mix of available health workers. WHO estimates that 57 countries world wide have a critical shortage of health workers, equivalent to a global deficit of about 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Thirty six of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa. They would need to increase their health workforce by about 140% to achieve enough coverage for essential health interventions to make a positive difference in the health and life expectancy of their populations. The extent causes and consequences of the health workforce crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the various factors that influence and are related to it are well known and described. Although there is no “magic bullet” solution to the problem, there are several documented, tested and tried best practices from various countries. The global health workforce crisis can be tackled if there is global responsibility, political will, financial commitment and public-private partnership for country-led and country-specific interventions that seek solutions beyond the health sector. Only when enough health workers can be trained, sustained and retained in sub-Saharan African countries will there be meaningful socio-economic development and the faintest hope of attaining the Millennium Development Goals in the sub-continent.

Chipayeni Mtonga

2007-06-01

114

Inequities in the global health workforce: the greatest impediment to health in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health systems played a key role in the dramatic rise in global life expectancy that occurred during the 20th century, and have continued to contribute enormously to the improvement of the health of most of the world's population. The health workforce is the backbone of each health system, the lubricant that facilitates the smooth implementation of health action for sustainable socio-economic development. It has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that the density of the health workforce is directly correlated with positive health outcomes. In other words, health workers save lives and improve health. About 59 million people make up the health workforce of paid full-time health workers world-wide. However, enormous gaps remain between the potential of health systems and their actual performance, and there are far too many inequities in the distribution of health workers between countries and within countries. The Americas (mainly USA and Canada) are home to 14% of the world's population, bear only 10% of the world's disease burden, have 37% of the global health workforce and spend about 50% of the world's financial resources for health. Conversely, sub-Saharan Africa, with about 11% of the world's population bears over 24% of the global disease burden, is home to only 3% of the global health workforce, and spends less than 1% of the world's financial resources on health. In most developing countries, the health workforce is concentrated in the major towns and cities, while rural areas can only boast of about 23% and 38% of the country's doctors and nurses respectively. The imbalances exist not only in the total numbers and geographical distribution of health workers, but also in the skills mix of available health workers. WHO estimates that 57 countries world wide have a critical shortage of health workers, equivalent to a global deficit of about 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Thirty six of these countries are in sub- Saharan Africa. They would need to increase their health workforce by about 140% to achieve enough coverage for essential health interventions to make a positive difference in the health and life expectancy of their populations. The extent causes and consequences of the health workforce crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the various factors that influence and are related to it are well known and described. Although there is no "magic bullet" solution to the problem, there are several documented, tested and tried best practices from various countries. The global health workforce crisis can be tackled if there is global responsibility, political will, financial commitment and public-private partnership for country-led and country-specific interventions that seek solutions beyond the health sector. Only when enough health workers can be trained, sustained and retained in sub-Saharan African countries will there be meaningful socio-economic development and the faintest hope of attaining the Millennium Development Goals in the sub-continent. PMID:17617671

Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni

2007-06-01

115

The effects of HIV/AIDS on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

The primary means of HIV transmission – sexual intercourse – has been known for over two decades, but that information does not prevent thousands of men and women from contracting the virus every day. The AIDS epidemic creates a high and ongoing mortality in the economic and social active sector of populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The epidemic is being driven by inequities and uneven development, exacerbating existing poverty and human misery. In hard-hit countries in sub-Saharan Africa...

Fourie, D. J.; Schoeman, R. E.

2010-01-01

116

HIV and education:a multivariate analysis on macrodata from sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Problem The positive relationship between HIV-prevalence and education in sub-Saharan Africa has been verified by several studies. However, this hypothesis has been challenged recently, and it is in this context that I place my thesis. The HIV-epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is the only major epidemic that has rooted itself in the main population. The other large epidemics spread mainly in marginalized groups like injecting drug users, men who have sex with men and people involved in...

Myskja, Kristin Langballe

2006-01-01

117

[Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid gland diseases vary according to the environment. In sub-Saharan Africa, they are also influenced by population isolation and the absence of food self-sufficiency, both factors affecting the onset and persistence of iodine-deficiency goiters. More cosmopolitan diseases are now added to these thyroid disorders. Women are mainly affected (94.2%), most often with euthyroid goiters (54.7%), followed by Graves disease (13.1%), hypothyroidism (8.8%), thyroiditis (6.6%), toxic multinodular goiters (6.6 %) and unclassified goiters (10%) [Gabon]. The paucity of laboratories specializing in endocrinology and of nuclear medicine facilities, the delay in diagnosis that results in compressive or recurrent goiters, and endemic goiters are all typical in Africa. In children and adolescents, death rates increase with congenital or acquired thyroiditis as with delayed physical or mental development. In this environment, thyroiditis can also be pregnancy-related. Very recent surveys show a prevalence of endemic goiters of 28.6% in the community of Sekota, Ethiopia, 64-70% in Sahel-Sudan (population aged 10-20 years), 20-29% in KwaZulu-Natal (school children), 14.3-30.2% in Namibia (school children), 0.21% (congenital hypothyroidism or cretinism) in Plateau State, Nigeria, 55.2% at Zitenga, Burkina Faso (210 persons 0-45 years), and 10% in Hararé and Wedza, Zimbabwe (newborn TSH >10.1 microIU/mL). The prevalence of goiters is 43.6% in children emigrating from Ethiopia to Israel. Millet from semi-arid zones contains apigenin at a concentration of 150 mg/kg and luteolin at 350 mg/kg, both of which can interfere with thyroid function. The harmful effects of cassava (also known as manioc) are better known: milling cassava reduces its goitrogenic potential. In addition to iodine deficiency, selenium deficiency, and the effect of the thiocyanates in cassava, ion concentrations in soil and drinking water appear to play a role. The proportion of thyroid surgery indicated for hyperthyroidism has tripled, now accounting for 18.5% of all such operations. This disorder is found today in subjects older than 50 years, mainly from rural areas, and caused most often by Graves disease (25 of 51 cases). Graves disease in young women can cause serious problems during pregnancy; in such cases assessment of the minimal effective dose of antithyroid agents is essential. Carbimazole leads to remission in 61% of cases of Graves disease. Hypothyroidism can be auto-immune and often in patent forms because of insufficient screening in Africa: 24 cases in Dakar (1984) and 37 others noticed by us (1998). Single-nodule tumors were assessed in 89 patients in Khartoum: they were found to be simple goiters in 72% of cases, follicular adenoma in 13.5%, cancer in 13.5% (with 6 of the 12 cases follicular, 5 papillary, and 1 anaplastic). The sex ratio for thyroid cancer in Ouagadougou is 0.22, thus mainly women. It affects mainly women in their 30s. Thyroid cancer at Ibadan was found to be papillary carcinoma in 45.3% of cases; follicular forms were seen in 44.5% and this series includes 5% of medullary cancers (7 cases), with a mean age of 34 years. Already 4 other cases from Francophone sub-Saharan Africa have been noticed. Iodine deficiency is suggested to play a role because follicular cancer in southern Africa accounts for up to 55% of thyroid cancers. Thyroid cancers in Algeria are associated with low socioeconomic status and characterized by a high prevalence of cancers discovered at an advanced stage and of anaplastic carcinomas. Oral potassium iodate is recommended: 30 mg of iodate a month or 8 mg every two weeks. Iodized oil has been recommended by some authors, as well as a combination of iodine and sugar, and the iodation of drinking water; these are in addition to the proposed methods of opening up areas by new infrastructure). In conclusion, thyroid disease is due predominantly to iodine deficiency and goitrogenic products, but we also note the increasing emergence of hyperthyroidism, especially Graves disease, atrophic auto-immune hypothyroidism, an

Sidibé, El Hassane

2007-01-01

118

A brief history of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developments in medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past 100 years have been characterized by the continent's unique history. During the first half of the 20th century, the Europeans effectively installed medical education in their African colonies. The years 1950 to 1960 were distinguished by successful movements for independence, with new governments giving priority to medical education. By 1980, there were 51 medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. The period from 1975 to 1990 was problematic both politically and economically for Sub-Saharan Africa, and medical schools did not escape the general difficulties. War, corruption, mounting national debts, and political instability were characteristics of this period. In many countries, maintaining medical school assets--faculty members, buildings, laboratories, libraries--became difficult, and emigration became the goal of many health professionals. In contrast, the past 20 years have seen rapid growth in the number of medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. Economic growth and political stability in most Sub-Saharan African countries augur well for investment in health systems strengthening and in medical education. There are, nonetheless, major problem areas, including inadequate funding, challenges of sustainability, and the continuing brain drain. The 20th century was a time of colonialism and the struggle for independence during which medical education did not advance as quickly or broadly as it did in other regions of the world. The 21st century promises a different history, one of rapid growth in medical education, leading to better care and better health for the people of Africa. PMID:25072563

Monekosso, G L

2014-08-01

119

Opportunities and Challenges for Petroleum and LPG Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Petroleum products are the lifeblood of the economies of all Sub-Saharan African countries. They are key fuels used in road transport and power generation. Households use kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for lighting and cooking. In this era of high oil prices, if the product is state-subsidized, the government budget bears the brunt of price increases. If the price changes are passed through to consumers, the household budgets are impacted directly. The countries most vulnerable to oil price shocks are the low-income oil importers which are disproportionately concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa. End user prices are affected by several factors: market size and economies of scale, mode of product transport, controlled pricing, protection of inefficient domestic suppliers, degree of competition, clear and stable legal framework, effective monitoring and disclosure of industry statistics. This paper is based on two recent studies of the oil sectors of several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa which posed the following questions: Is each stage in the supply chain, from import of crude oil or refined products to retail, efficiently run and are the efficiency gains passed on to end-users? If not, what are the potential causes and possible means of remedying the problems? - Highlights: • Examines comparative efficiencies of oil product supply chains in twelve sub-Saharan countries. • Identifies areas for improvement towards “best practice”. • Objective is to reduce differential between international reference prices and consumer prices

120

Development progress in sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa are sub-Saharan African countries that stand out for their development progress. Each of these countries has succeeded against the odds, against expectations. This paper synthesizes the common ingredients of these countries' success, and derives lessons. It concludes that smallness, landlockedness, tropical location, distance from world markets, racism, colonialism and other challenges can be overcome through appropriate institutions, governance and...

Naude?, Wim

2010-01-01

121

Globalization, governance, and the economic performance of Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

I estimate and compare the effects of globalization, governance, and conventional factors and forces on the economic performance of Sub-Saharan African countries. The analysis finds that both physical and human capita as well as unexplained technical residuals affect economic performance, although human capital and technical change do not always have statistically significant impacts. The policy implication of these results calls for improvement of all three variables. Economic ...

Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

2009-01-01

122

Irish Foreign Policy and Sub-Saharan Africa 1956-1976  

OpenAIRE

Using a wide variety of sources, from archival and printed works to the interviews with those involved in policy-making, this project uses the example of sub-Saharan African policy to explore the internationalisation of Irish foreign policy and its interaction with global politics. The narrative of Ireland's involvement in the decolonisation of Africa, policy on apartheid and minority rule, the importance of missionaries, and the evolution of an Irish development aid programme is inter-woven ...

O Sullivan, Kevin

2007-01-01

123

Outsourcing agricultural advisory services : enhancing rural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

As a result of policies outlined under NEPAD, outsourcing advisory services has become a key component of rural innovation systems in many African countries. In Sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere, the public sector is looking for ways to involve the private sector in enhancing innovation systems with new knowledge, services and experiences. While it is generally thought that outsourcing will benefit poorer farmers by orienting services towards their needs, not much is known about the implicatio...

Heemskerk, W.; Nederlof, S.; Wennink, B.

2008-01-01

124

Does household income matter for children's schooling? Evidence for rural Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Household income has been shown to matter for children's school enrolment, in particular in settings where households face tight liquidity constraints caused by the lack of insurance and limited possibilities to smooth consumption through credit and savings. However, so far only few studies have made an effort to quantify the income elasticity of school enrolment, in particular in the Sub-Saharan African context. The empirical problem in identifying the causal impact of income on enrolment is...

Grimm, M.

2011-01-01

125

Do religious factors impact armed conflict? : Emiprical evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Theoretically, the “mobilization hypothesis” establishes a link between religion and conflict by arguing that particular religious structures are prone to mobilization; once politicized, escalation to violent conflict becomes more likely. Yet, despite the religious diversity in sub-Saharan Africa and the religious overtones in a number of African conflicts, this assumption has not yet been backed by systematic empirical research on the religion–conflict nexus in the region. The followin...

Basedau, Matthias; Stru?ver, Georg; Vu?llers, Johannes; Wegenast, Tim

2011-01-01

126

Do religious factors impact armed conflict? Empirical evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Theoretically, the 'mobilization hypothesis' establishes a link between religion and conflict by arguing that religious structures such as overlapping ethnic and religious identities are prone to mobilization; once politicized, escalation to violent conflict becomes likelier. Yet, despite the religious diversity in sub-Saharan Africa and the religious overtones in a number of African armed conflicts, this assumption has not yet been backed by systematic empirical research on the religion-conf...

Basedau, Matthias; Stru?ver, Georg; Vu?llers, Johannes; Wegenast, Tim

2011-01-01

127

The Impact of Trade Liberalisation on Export Growth and Import Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper adopts panel data methodologies to investigate the impact of trade liberalisation on export growth and import growth across 28 Sub-Saharan African countries from 1981 to 2010. We find that trade liberalisation increases the growth of exports, however, imports grow faster by approximately two percentage points which gives a prima facie evidence that the trade balance in the region deteriorated in the post-liberalisation era. We also find that trade liberalisation significantly raise...

Kassim, Lanre

2013-01-01

128

Foreign direct investment and local spillovers in the apparel sector in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Foreign direct investment (FDI) in the apparel sector in several Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries has experienced significant growth in the context of preferential market access. But expectations of FDI leading to spillovers to the local economy and the development of locally-embedded apparel export industries have not materialized. A shift from FDI attraction through fiscal incentives to more strategic industrial policies that target FDI spillovers, local value added and linkages is urgen...

Staritz, Cornelia

2013-01-01

129

An association between ethnic diversity and HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates whether ethnic diversity at the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) cluster level predicts HIV serostatus in three sub-Saharan African countries (Kenya, Malawi, and Zambia), using DHS household survey and HIV biomarker data for men and women ages 15–59 collected since 2006.. The analysis relates a binary dependent variable (HIV positive serostatus) and a weighted aggregate predictor variable representing the number of different ethnic groups within a DHS Statistical...

Brodish, Paul Henry

2013-01-01

130

Modelling HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa using seroprevalence data from antenatal clinics.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To improve the methodological basis for modelling the HIV/AIDS epidemics in adults in sub-Saharan Africa, with examples from Botswana, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe. Understanding the magnitude and trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is essential for planning and evaluating control strategies. METHODS: Previous mathematical models were developed to estimate epidemic trends based on sentinel surveillance data from pregnant women. In this project, we have extended ...

Salomon Joshua A; Murray Christopher J.L.

2001-01-01

131

Social Protection and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Evaluation of Cash Transfer Programmes  

OpenAIRE

This paper evaluates the effects of cash transfer (CT) programmes introduced during the 1990s and 2000s on food security in a sample of sub-Saharan African countries. We apply the synthetic control method to compare changes in the post-intervention food insecurity trajectories of economies affected by CT programmes relative to their unaffected counterparts. The results suggest that CT programmes exert differential effects on the prevalence of undernourishment. Although the estimates in the up...

D Agostino, Giorgio; Pieroni, Luca; Scarlato, Margherita

2013-01-01

132

Food Security, agricultural technology and policy – the case of maize in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses food security and the African food crisis. By means of data from a survey of over 3000 farm households in eight sub-Saharan countries, the authors conclude that food security requires a broad integration of smallholders in the market. Subsistence orientation does not promote food security, while seed fertilizer technology does. Market integration of maize producers seems to be driven by the State, not by the market on its own. The diffusion of technology is stimulated by ...

Djurfeldt, Go?ran; Larsson, Rolf

2005-01-01

133

Sub-Saharan Africa betwixt and between : rural livelihood practices and policies  

OpenAIRE

Drawing on research findings emanating from the De-Agrarianisation and Rural Employment (DARE) Research Programme, coordinated by the African Studies Centre, Leiden, this paper compares changing economic and social patterns in a wide variety of rural settlements in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently emerged or refashioned income diversification tendencies are highlighted and linked to the blurring of strong rural-urban contrasts. After a schematic consideration of continental trends, followed by a ...

Bryceson, Deborah Fahy

1999-01-01

134

Monetary Policy Shocks from the EU and US: Implications for Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper addresses the debate in the literature on how developing countries are affected by foreign monetary policy shocks. I analyze how contractionary monetary policy shocks originating in different regions, specifically the Euro Area (“EU”) and United States (“US”), affect a set of rarely investigated sub-Saharan African (“SSA”) countries. Foreign monetary policy shocks are identified using changes in central bank futures rates, and are inserted into a domestic structural vec...

Kronick, Jeremy

2014-01-01

135

Can the woodfuel supply in sub-Saharan Africa be sustainable? The case of N'Djamena, Chad  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chad, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, depends for most of its energy demand on woodfuels; 90% or more of the country's energy balance comes from biomass energy. Obvious environmental problems appear around cities because of their highly concentrated demand, and this threatens the sustainability of supply. But, this does not need to be a problem, and woodfuel can also be an engine of economic growth, particularly in rural areas. A few policy conditions will need to be satisfied and in Chad this appears to be the case. As a result, the woodfuel supply of the capital N'Djamena could become sustainable, thereby continuing to provide low-cost energy to the urban population for the foreseeable future while giving income generation opportunities in rural areas. A win-win situation?!

136

The heterogeneity of FDI in Sub-Saharan Africa: How do the horizontal productivity effects of emerging investors differ from those of traditional players?  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyzes the horizontal productivity effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) from industrialized and developing countries in 10 sub-Saharan African countries. We establish a unique data set by combining data from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys that allow us to distinguish between foreign investors from sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. We find strong evidence of horizontal productivity spillovers to domestic firms derived from foreign-firm p...

Pfeiffer, Birte; Go?rg, Holger; Perez-villar, Lucia

2015-01-01

137

Male partner involvement in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: Successes, challenges and way forward  

OpenAIRE

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest number of mother to child transmissions of HIV. PMTCT programme plays a big role in reducing the MTCT nevertheless its effectiveness in Sub-Saharan Africa depends on involvement of male partners considering the fact that men are decision makers in African families. They make important decisions that have big impact on women’s health. Male partner involvement has been seen to increase uptake of PMTCT services and their involvement underscores their importan...

Qiu Jun; Maggie Zgambo; Kalembo, Fatch W.; Du Yukai

2012-01-01

138

LPG market in sub Saharan Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article provides an overview of the current state of the liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) market in sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and analyses the supply and demand patterns, the constraints on supply imposed by the insufficient output from refineries unable to meet the increasing demand, and institutional and regulatory issues. Details are given of the pricing policies, the economic benefits that could be obtained by increasing the scale of operations, the use of subsidies, private sector participation, and LPG activities in Angola, Cameroon, the Congo, and the Ivory Coast. The role of the World Bank in the Africa Gas Initiative to promote the use of natural gas reserves in SSA, and requirements for developing the LPG market are discussed

139

The Practice of project management in new product development : A study of Microfinance Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Microfinance is the provision of credit/loans to poor individuals for the purpose of income generation. The Sub-Saharan African region which is among the poorest areas in the world is thought to be one of the regions where the microfinance industry is dynamic and growing in terms of acceptance and patronage. Even though microfinance in the Sub-Saharan Africa region has received a lot of research attention, most have focused largely on the financial performance whilst there is no available inf...

Ampomah, Monica

2011-01-01

140

Financing renewable energy in developing countries. Drivers and barriers for private finance in sub-Saharan Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focus of this report is to identify and portray current barriers to the scaling up of private investment and finance for electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the sub-Saharan region. Best practice in tackling these barriers is identified, partly from a literature review but especially from the results of a survey conducted among 36 financial institutions that are UNEP Finance Initiative members and two non-member banks (all survey respondents have experience in the field of energy infrastructure finance). Promising avenues in the areas of local policy reform, incentive mechanisms and international de-risking instruments are highlighted. In particular, this report addresses the following questions: (a) Why are sub-Saharan Africa and developing countries elsewhere failing to expand electricity generation from renewable sources? What are the barriers to such expansion? What is keeping the risk-return profile of renewable energy investments in sub-Saharan Africa unattractive and projects commercially unviable?; (b) What have been the experiences of private sector lenders and investors in the area of renewable energy projects in developing countries? What barriers and drivers have they encountered, and how can these experiences be of use in sub-Saharan Africa?; (c) What can be learned from the modest but encouraging successes of a few sub-Saharan African countries? Can these results be replicated? What was done in these countries to improve the risk-return profile of renewable energy and unlock private finance?.

NONE

2012-02-15

141

The national determinants of deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

For decades, the dynamics of tropical deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have defied easy explanation. The rates of deforestation have been lower than elsewhere in the tropics, and the driving forces evident in other places, government new land settlement schemes and industrialized agriculture, have largely been absent in SSA. The context and causes for African deforestation become clearer through an analysis of new, national-level data on forest cover change for SSA countries for the 2000-2005 period. The recent dynamic in SSA varies from dry to wet biomes. Deforestation occurred at faster rates in nations with predominantly dry forests. The wetter Congo basin countries had lower rates of deforestation, in part because tax receipts from oil and mineral industries in this region spurred rural to urban migration, declines in agriculture and increased imports of cereals from abroad. In this respect, the Congo basin countries may be experiencing an oil and mineral fuelled forest transition. Small farmers play a more important role in African deforestation than they do in southeast Asia and Latin America, in part because small-scale agriculture remains one of the few livelihoods open to rural peoples. PMID:23878341

Rudel, Thomas K

2013-01-01

142

Cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide internationally comparable data on the frequencies of different causes of death. METHODS: We analysed verbal autopsies obtained during 1999 -2002 from 12 demographic surveillance sites in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh to find cause-specific and age-specific mortality rates. The cause-of-death codes used by the sites were harmonized to conform to the ICD-10 system, and summarized with the classification system of the Global Burden of Disease 2000 (Version 2. FINDINGS: Causes of death in the African sites differ strongly from those in Bangladesh, where there is some evidence of a health transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, and little malaria. HIV dominates in causes of mortality in the South African sites, which contrast with those in highly malaria endemic sites elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa (even in neighbouring Mozambique. The contributions of measles and diarrhoeal diseases to mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are lower than has been previously suggested, while malaria is of relatively greater importance. CONCLUSION: The different patterns of mortality we identified may be a result of recent changes in the availability and effectiveness of health interventions against childhood cluster diseases.

Adjuik Martin

2006-01-01

143

The European Union and sub-Saharan Africa : from intervention towards deterrence?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article argues that aspirations of maintaining a dominant influence over sub-Saharan security issues has spurred the French and British leadership of European Union (EU) foreign and security policy integration, just as it has informed military capability expansions by the armed forces of the main EU powers. While Europe's initial African focus was on stabilising a continent marred by state failure, civil wars and genocides, changes in the global security context, especially the shift towards multipolarity manifest in China's growing engagement, has prompted a complementary focus on deterring other powers from making military inroads into the subcontinent. Hence Europe's sub-Saharan security focus is shifting from stabilisation towards deterrence. This helps explain recent military procurements which, in spite of the extremely challenging fiscal position of most EU member states, feature large-scale investments in long-range deterrence capabilities.

Kluth, Michael Friederich

2013-01-01

144

Rickettsia africae in Hyalomma dromedarii ticks from sub-Saharan Algeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are caused by obligate, intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. In recent years, several species and subspecies of rickettsias have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. We report here the detection of Rickettsia africae, the agent responsible for African tick-bite fever, by amplification of fragments of gltA and ompA genes and multi-spacer typing from Hyalomma dromedarii ticks collected from the camel Camelus dromedarius in the Adrar and Béchar region (sub-Saharan Algeria). To date, R. africae has been associated mainly with Amblyomma spp. The role of H. dromedarii in the epidemiology of R. africae requires further investigation. PMID:23164496

Kernif, Tahar; Djerbouh, Amel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Ayach, Bouhous; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

2012-12-01

145

Modelling HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa using seroprevalence data from antenatal clinics  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To improve the methodological basis for modelling the HIV/AIDS epidemics in adults in sub-Saharan Africa, with examples from Botswana, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe. Understanding the magnitude and trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is essential for planning and evaluating control strategies. METHODS: Previous mathematical models were developed to estimate epidemic trends based on sentinel surveillance data from pregnant women. In this project, we have extended these models in order to take full advantage of the available data. We developed a maximum likelihood approach for the estimation of model parameters and used numerical simulation methods to compute uncertainty intervals around the estimates. FINDINGS: In the four countries analysed, there were an estimated half a million new adult HIV infections in 1999 (range: 260 to 960 thousand, 4.7 million prevalent infections (range: 3.0 to 6.6 million, and 370 thousand adult deaths from AIDS (range: 266 to 492 thousand. CONCLUSION: While this project addresses some of the limitations of previous modelling efforts, an important research agenda remains, including the need to clarify the relationship between sentinel data from pregnant women and the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in the general population.

Salomon Joshua A.

2001-01-01

146

The Altruistic Motive of Remittances: A Panel Data Analysis of Economies in Sub Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Remittances have become an important source of foreign exchange earnings in many countries as migrants continue to send income to relatives at home. However, the main motives for sending remittances remain controversial. This paper examines the relative importance of the socio-political and economic determinants of remittance inflow using an unbalance panel data of 36 economies in the Sub Saharan African Region in an attempt to assess the altruistic motive of remittance inflow. The results using a random effect estimation technique show that altruism is important for remitting, as the per capita income differential between host and home country and the age dependency ratio are positive and statistically significant. The level of per capita income of the home country is also found to be negative and statistically significant which also supports the altruistic motive of remittances. The results further suggest that the development of the financial sector and the proportion of Catholics in the population will encourage remittance inflow. These results are robust to the different specifications and estimation methodology.

Dobdinga Cletus Fonchamnyo

2012-09-01

147

Urbanization in sub-saharan Africa and implication for malaria control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria not only remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, but it also impedes socioeconomic development, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Rapid and unprecedented urbanization, going hand-in-hand with often declining economies, might have profound implications for the epidemiology and control of malaria, as the relative disease burden increases among urban dwellers. Reviewing the literature and using a modeling approach, we find that entomologic inoculation rates in cities range from 0 to 54 per year, depending on the degree of urbanization, the spatial location within a city, and overall living conditions. Using the latest United Nations figures on urbanization prospects, nighttime light remotely sensed images, and the "Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa" results on climate suitability for stable malaria transmission, we estimate that 200 million people (24.6% of the total African population) currently live in urban settings where they are at risk of contracting the disease. Importantly, the estimated total surface area covered by these urban settings is only approximately 1.1-1.6% of the total African surface. Considering different plausible scenarios, we estimate an annual incidence of 24.8-103.2 million cases of clinical malaria attacks among urban dwellers in Africa. These figures translate to 6-28% of the estimated global annual disease incidence. Against this background, basic health care delivery systems providing early diagnosis and early treatment and preventive actions through mother and child health programs and the promotion of insecticide-treated bed nets for the rapidly growing numbers of the urban poor must be improved alongside well-tailored and integrated malaria control strategies. We propose environmental management and larviciding within well-specified productive sites as a main feature for such an integrated control approach. Mitigation of the current burden of malaria in urban African settings, in turn, is a necessity for stimulating environmentally and socially sustainable development. PMID:15331827

Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jurg; Caldas de Castro, Marcia; Smith, Thomas A; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

2004-08-01

148

Tobacco Use and Mass Media Utilization in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Media utilization has been identified as an important determinant of tobacco use. We examined the association between self-reported tobacco use and frequency of mass media utilization by women and men in nine low-to middle-income sub-Saharan African countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Data for the study came from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Liberia, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe over the period 2006–2011. Each survey population was a cross-sectional sample of women aged 15–49 years and men aged 15–59 years, with information on tobacco use and media access being obtained by face-to-face interviews. An index of media utilization was constructed based on responses to questions on the frequency of reading newspapers, frequency of watching television and frequency of listening to the radio. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were considered as potentially confounding covariates. Logistic regression models with country and cluster specific random effects were estimated for the pooled data. Results The risk of cigarette smoking increased with greater utilization to mass media. The use of smokeless tobacco and tobacco use in general declined with greater utilization to mass media. The risk of tobacco use was 5% lower in women with high media utilization compared to those with low media utilization [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.82–1.00]. Men with a high media utilization were 21% less likely to use tobacco compared to those with low media utilization [AOR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.73–0.85]. In the male sample, tobacco use also declined with the increased frequency of reading newspapers (or magazines), listening to radio and watching television. Conclusions Mass media campaigns, conducted in the context of comprehensive tobacco control programmes, can reduce the prevalence of tobacco smoking in sub-Saharan Africa. The reach, intensity, duration and type of messages are important aspects of the campaigns but need to also address all forms of tobacco use. PMID:25706131

Achia, Thomas N. O.

2015-01-01

149

Progress report on the first sub-Saharan trial of newer versus older antihypertensive drugs in native black patients  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The epidemic surge in hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa is not matched by clinical trials of antihypertensive agents in Black patients recruited in this area of the world. We mounted the Newer versus Older Antihypertensive agents in African Hypertensive patients (NOAAH) trial to compare, in native African patients, a single-pill combination of newer drugs, not involving a diuretic, with a combination of older drugs including a diuretic. METHODS: Patients aged 30 to 69 y...

Odili, Augustine N.; Ezeala-adikaibe, Birinus; Anisiuba, Benedict C.; Kamdem, Marius M.; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou B.; Ijoma, Chinwuba K.; Kaptue, Joseph; Boombhi, Hilaire J.; Kolo, Philip M.; Shu, Elvis N.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.; Omotoso, Babatunde A.; Kingue, Samuel; Lemogoum, Daniel

2012-01-01

150

Protection of Personal Data in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Africa is by far the least developed continent in terms of protection of personal data. At present there are 11 countries out of 54 which have implemented comprehensive data privacy legislation. Nine of them namely, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gabon, Ghana, Mauritius, Senegal and Seychelles belong to sub-Saharan Africa. The other two countries, Morocco and Tunisia, belong to North Africa. Yet, there are seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa with either Bills or drafts on data pri...

Makulilo, Alex B.

2012-01-01

151

Assessing and forecasting groundwater development costs in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Greater use of groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa is a pre-requisite for improved human welfare; however, the costs associated with groundwater development are prohibitively high and poorly defined. This study identifies and disaggregates the costs of groundwater development in 11 Sub-Saharan African [...] countries, while the cost factors that most strongly affect drilling expenditures are traced. Further, the institutional and technical constraints impeding groundwater development are also explored while a time-series analysis forecasts future drilling expenditures. The results indicate that mobilisation and demobilisation costs, together with well development costs, factors that are difficult to change, are most significantly affecting the total costs of drilling. Further, the nature of the hydrogeological formation (which is largely a site characteristic), along with the often-aged machinery (which can be controlled), are also major impediments to lowering the cost of drilling. All countries are forecasted to have a slight to considerable drilling cost decrease for the next decade which offers encouragement for future groundwater development. Greater attention to the individual cost factors and to forecasting analysis could help to design more coherent and consistent groundwater development policies in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Stefanos, Xenarios; Paul, Pavelic.

152

Nutrient composition of selected indigenous fruits from sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous fruits constitute an important part of human diets in many sub-Saharan African countries, particularly in rural areas and during droughts. In order to promote and expand the utilisation of these fruits, knowledge on their nutritional composition is essential. This review presents the results of a literature research of the nutritional composition of ten selected indigenous fruits from sub-Saharan Africa. Species were selected based on their current importance as well as their future potential for nutrition, processing and cash income generation. Compositional data were compiled and mean values of components per species were calculated. Most papers were compiled for Adansonia digitata (26) and Dacryodes edulis (16), followed by Tamarindus indica (ten), Balanites aegyptiaca (nine), Sclerocarya birrea (nine), Ziziphus mauritiana (nine), Vitex doniana (seven) and Irvingia gabonensis (five), and least for Uapaca kirkiana (three) and Syzygium guineense (three). Fruits were found to be mainly analysed for macronutrients and minerals. Vitamins, apart from vitamin C, were rarely reported. Substantial compositional differences were found among as well as within the different fruit species. The results of this study emphasise the need to generate more high-quality data on a wider spectrum of components of the selected indigenous fruits in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23633245

Stadlmayr, Barbara; Charrondière, U Ruth; Eisenwagen, Sandra; Jamnadass, Ramni; Kehlenbeck, Katja

2013-08-30

153

People in sub-Saharan Africa rate their health and health care among the lowest in the world.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health of people in sub-Saharan Africa is a major global concern. However, data are weak, and little is known about how people in the region perceive their health or their health care. We used data from the Gallup World Poll in 2012 to document sub-Saharan Africans' perceived health status, their satisfaction with health care, their contact with medical professionals, and the priority they attach to health care. In comparison to other regions of the world, sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest ratings for well-being and the lowest satisfaction with health care. It also has the second-lowest perception of personal health, after only the former Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites. HIV prevalence is positively correlated with perceived improvements in health care in countries with high prevalence. This is consistent with an improvement in at least some health care services as a result of the largely aid-funded rollout of antiretroviral treatment. Even so, sub-Saharan Africans do not prioritize health care as a matter of policy, although donors are increasingly shifting their aid efforts in the region toward health. PMID:25715657

Deaton, Angus S; Tortora, Robert

2015-03-01

154

Climate Change and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review  

OpenAIRE

In recent years it has become clear that climate change is an inevitable process. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the expectation is that climate change will have an especially negative impact, not only a result of projected warming and rainfall deficits, but also because of the vulnerability of the population. The impact upon food security will be of great significance, and may be defined as being composed of three components: availability, access, and utilization. To further investigate the link, a ...

Thompson, Heather E.; Ford, James D.; Lea Berrang-Ford

2010-01-01

155

Epidemiology of Dementia among the Elderly in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Objectives. To review epidemiologic studies on the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of dementia in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods. A MEDLINE search (from January 1992 to December 31, 2013) of epidemiologic studies, with no language restriction, was conducted using the keywords “dementia” or “Alzheimer's” and “Africa.” We selected for review population and hospital-based studies that reported the prevalence, incidence, or risk factors of dementia in SSA in people aged 60 ...

Olayinka, Olaniyi O.; Mbuyi, Nadine N.

2014-01-01

156

Perinatally acquired HIV infection in adolescents from sub-Saharan Africa: a review of emerging challenges  

OpenAIRE

Worldwide, more than three million children are infected with HIV, 90% of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. As the HIV epidemic matures and antiretroviral treatment is scaled up, children with HIV are reaching adolescence in large numbers. The growing population of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection living within this region presents not only unprecedented challenges but also opportunities to learn about the pathogenesis of HIV infection. In this Review, we discuss the changin...

Lowenthal, Elizabeth D.; Bakeera-kitaka, Sabrina; Marukutira, Tafireyi; Chapman, Jennifer; Goldrath, Kathryn; Ferrand, Rashida A.

2014-01-01

157

The absence of adult mortality data for sub-Saharan Africa: a practical solution.  

OpenAIRE

Information on cause of death among adults in sub-Saharan Africa is essentially nonexistent. Published sources provide statistics on both cause-specific and overall rates of mortality, but closer examination reveals that these data consist mostly of extrapolations and outright guesses. In the absence of accurate and comprehensive registries of vital events for the majority of the region's inhabitants, longitudinal studies of defined population-based cohorts represent the only realistic strate...

Kaufman, J. S.; Asuzu, M. C.; Rotimi, C. N.; Johnson, O. O.; Owoaje, E. E.; Cooper, R. S.

1997-01-01

158

A review of co-morbidity between infectious and chronic disease in Sub Saharan Africa: TB and Diabetes Mellitus, HIV and Metabolic Syndrome, and the impact of globalization  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa is facing a rapidly growing chronic non-communicable disease burden whilst at the same time experiencing continual high rates of infectious disease. It is well known that some infections increase the risk of certain chronic diseases and the converse. With an increasing dual burden of disease in Sub Saharan Africa the associations between diseases and our understanding of them will become of increased public health importance. Aims In this review we explore the relationships reported between tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus, its treatment and metabolic risk. We aimed to address the important issues surrounding these associations within a Sub Saharan African setting and to describe the impact of globalization upon them. Findings Diabetes has been associated with a 3-fold incident risk of tuberculosis and it is hypothesised that tuberculosis may also increase the risk of developing diabetes. During co-morbid presentation of tuberculosis and diabetes both tuberculosis and diabetes outcomes are reported to worsen. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV has been associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome and HIV has been linked with an increased risk of developing both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Globalization is clearly related to an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It may be exerting other negative and positive impacts upon infectious and chronic non-communicable disease associations but at present reporting upon these is sparse. Conclusion The impact of these co-morbidities in Sub Saharan Africa is likely to be large. An increasing prevalence of diabetes may hinder efforts at tuberculosis control, increasing the number of susceptible individuals in populations where tuberculosis is endemic, and making successful treatment harder. Roll out of anti-retroviral treatment coverage within Sub Saharan Africa is an essential response to the HIV epidemic however it is likely to lead to a growing number of individuals suffering adverse metabolic consequences. One of the impacts of globalization is to create environments that increase both diabetes and cardiovascular risk but further work is needed to elucidate other potential impacts. Research is also needed to develop effective approaches to reducing the frequency and health impact of the co-morbidities described here.

Johnstone Lucy K

2009-09-01

159

Men who have sex with men and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.  

OpenAIRE

Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to bear a high burden of HIV infection. In sub-Saharan Africa, same-sex behaviours have been largely neglected by HIV research up to now. The results from recent studies, however, indicate the widespread existence of MSM groups across Africa, and high rates of HIV infection, HIV risk behaviour, and evidence of behavioural links between MSM and heterosexual networks have been reported. Yet most African MSM have no safe access to relevant HIV/A...

Smith, Ad; Tapsoba, P.; Peshu, N.; Sanders, Ej; Jaffe, Hw

2009-01-01

160

Estimates of gender differences in firm’s access to credit in Sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on firm level data from 16 Sub-Saharan African countries we show how three different measures of credit constraints lead to three different estimates of gender differences in manufacturing firms’ credit situation. Using a perception based credit constraint measure female owned firms appear relatively more constrained than male owned firms. Using formal financial access data we find no gender effect. Finally, using direct information on credit constraints, male owned small firms appear disadvantaged. Furthermore we show a strong size gradient in the gender gap for the two measures for which we find significant gender differences.

Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

2014-01-01

161

The contribution of international health volunteers to the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we aim to quantify the contribution of international health volunteers to the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa and to explore the perceptions of health service managers regarding these volunteers. Methods Rapid survey among organizations sending international health volunteers and group discussions with experienced medical officers from sub-Saharan African countries. Results We contacted 13 volunteer organizations having more than 10 full-time equivalent international health volunteers in sub-Saharan Africa and estimated that they employed together 2072 full-time equivalent international health volunteers in 2005. The numbers sent by secular non-governmental organizations (NGOs is growing, while the number sent by development NGOs, including faith-based organizations, is mostly decreasing. The cost is estimated at between US$36 000 and US$50 000 per expatriate volunteer per year. There are trends towards more employment of international health volunteers from low-income countries and of national medical staff. Country experts express more negative views about international health volunteers than positive ones. They see them as increasingly paradoxical in view of the existence of urban unemployed doctors and nurses in most countries. Creating conditions for employment and training of national staff is strongly favoured as an alternative. Only in exceptional circumstances is sending international health volunteers viewed as a defendable temporary measure. Conclusion We estimate that not more than 5000 full-time equivalent international health volunteers were working in sub-Saharan Africa in 2005, of which not more than 1500 were doctors. A distinction should be made between (1 secular medical humanitarian NGOs, (2development NGOs, and (3 volunteer organizations, as Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO and United Nations volunteers (UNV. They have different views, undergo different trends and are differently appreciated by government officials. International health volunteers contribute relatively small numbers to the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa, and it seems unlikely that they will do more in the future. In areas where they play a role, their contribution to service delivery is sometimes very significant.

Bogaert Isa

2007-07-01

162

Pharmacogenomics of warfarin in populations of African descent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant worldwide despite its narrow therapeutic index and the notorious inter- and intra-individual variability in dose required for the target clinical effect. Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms are major determinants of warfarin pharmacokinetic and dynamics and included in several warfarin dosing algorithms. This review focuses on warfarin pharmacogenomics in sub-Saharan peoples, African Americans and admixed Brazilians. These 'Black' populations differ in several aspects, notably their extent of recent admixture with Europeans, a factor which impacts on the frequency distribution of pharmacogenomic polymorphisms relevant to warfarin dose requirement for the target clinical effect. Whereas a small number of polymorphisms in VKORC1 (3673G > A, rs9923231), CYP2C9 (alleles *2 and *3, rs1799853 and rs1057910, respectively) and arguably CYP4F2 (rs2108622), may capture most of the pharmacogenomic influence on warfarin dose variance in White populations, additional polymorphisms in these, and in other, genes (e.g. CALU rs339097) increase the predictive power of pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms in the Black populations examined. A personalized strategy for initiation of warfarin therapy, allowing for improved safety and cost-effectiveness for populations of African descent must take into account their pharmacogenomic diversity, as well as socio-economical, cultural and medical factors. Accounting for this heterogeneity in algorithms that are 'friendly' enough to be adopted by warfarin prescribers worldwide requires gathering information from trials at different population levels, but demands also a critical appraisal of racial/ethnic labels that are commonly used in the clinical pharmacology literature but do not accurately reflect genetic ancestry and population diversity. PMID:22676711

Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Botton, Mariana R

2013-02-01

163

Modern Biotechnology—Potential Contribution and Challenges for Sustainable Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Modern biotechnology, including the application of transgenic techniques to produce Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs, can play a significant role in increasing agricultural production in a sustainable way, but its products need to be tailored for the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, the capacity to develop GMOs and ensure they meet stringent regulatory requirements is somewhat limited. Most African governments contribute little to science and technology either financially or through strong policies. This leaves the determination of research and development priorities in the hands of international funding agencies. Whereas funding from the United States is generally supportive of GM technology, the opposite is true of funding from European sources. African countries are thus pulled in two different directions. One alternative to this dilemma might be for countries in the sub-Saharan Africa region to develop stronger South-South collaborations, but these need to be supported with adequate funding. African governments as well as external funding agencies are urged to consider the important role that biotechnology, including GM technology, can play in contributing to sustainable development in Africa, and to provide adequate support to the development of capacity to research, develop and commercialize GMOs in the region.

E. Jane Morris

2011-06-01

164

Waist circumference does not predict circulating adiponectin levels in sub-Saharan women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of previously reported ethnic differences in determinants and markers of obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to investigate circulating levels of adiponectin and their correlates in a sub-Saharan African (sSA population. Subjects and Methods We studied 70 non-diabetic volunteers (33M/37F living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, aged 24–69 yr, with BMI 20–42 kg/m2. In all participants we measured waist circumference and total body fat by bioimpedance, and obtained a fasting venous blood sample for measurement of plasma glucose, serum insulin and adiponectin concentrations. We performed a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in 1/4 subjects, and HOMAIR was used as surrogate of fasting insulin sensitivity index since it best correlates to clamp measurements. Results Males had lower adiponectin levels than females (8.8 ± 4.3 vs. 11.8 ± 5.5 ?g/L. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and total body fat (rs = -0.03; NS, whereas adiponectin was inversely correlated with waist circumference (rs = -0.39; p = 0.001. Adiponectin correlated negatively with insulin resistance (rs = -0.35; p = 0.01. In a regression analysis using fasting adiponectin concentration as the dependent variable, and age, HOMAIR, waist circumference, and fat mass as predictors, waist circumference (? = -3.30; p = 0.002, fat mass (? = -2.68; p = 0.01, and insulin resistance (? = -2.38; p = 0.02 but not age (? = 1.11; p = 0.27 were independent predictors of adiponectin. When considering gender, these relations persisted with the exception of waist circumference in females. Conclusion Adiponectin correlates in this study population are comparable to those observed in Caucasians with the exception of waist circumference in women. The metabolic significance of waist circumference is therefore questioned in sSA women.

Gautier Jean-François

2007-10-01

165

The Realities of Community Based Natural Resource Management and Biodiversity Conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available This is an historic overview of conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa from pre-colonial times through the present. It demonstrates that Africans practiced conservation that was ignored by the colonial powers. The colonial market economy combined with the human and livestock population explosion of the 21st century are the major factors contributing to the demise of wildlife and critical habitat. Unique insight is provided into the economics of a representative safari company, something that has not been readily available to Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM practitioners. Modern attempts at sharing benefits from conservation with rural communities will fail due to the low rural resource to population ratio regardless of the model, combined with the uneven distribution of profits from safari hunting that drives most CBNRM programs, unless these ratios are changed. Low household incomes from CBNRM are unlikely to change attitudes of rural dwellers towards Western approaches to conservation. Communities must sustainably manage their natural areas as "green factories" for the multitude of natural resources they contain as a means of maximizing employment and thus household incomes, as well as meeting the often overlooked socio-cultural ties to wildlife and other natural resources, which may be as important as direct material benefits in assuring conservation of wildlife and its habitat. For CBNRM to be successful in the long-term, full devolution of ownership over land and natural resources must take place. In addition, as a means of relieving pressure on the rural resource base, this will require an urbanization process that creates a middleclass, as opposed to the current slums that form the majority of Africa‘s cities, through industrialization that transforms the unique natural resources of the subcontinent (e.g., strategic minerals, petroleum, wildlife, hardwoods, fisheries, wild medicines, agricultural products, etc. in Africa.

Brian Kevin Reilly

2009-09-01

166

Regionalism, end markets and ownership matter: Shifting dynamics in the apparel export industry in Sub Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper shows the importance of ownership, end markets and regionalism within the global value chain (GVC) conceptual framework. This is done through unpacking the development trajectories of the major Sub Saharan African (SSA) apparel export industries (Mauritius, Madagascar, Kenya, Lesotho, Swaziland) against the backdrop of global and regional trade regime changes and the manner in which different supplier firms react to these opportunities and/or constraints. These trajectories demonst...

Morris, Mike; Staritz, Cornelia; Plank, Leonhard

2014-01-01

167

Hospital based palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa; a six month review from Malawi  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organisation recognises the importance of palliative care in an African setting. Despite this services are often patchy and inconsistent, and many operate at health centre and/or community level. Few reports from hospital based palliative care services in sub-Saharan Africa exist in the current literature. As part of its activities Tiyanjane Clinic has been providing hospital based palliative care to patients at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, a large government tertiary referral institution, in the Southern region of Malawi since 2003, caring for patients with HIV, cancer and other non-malignant palliative diagnoses. Methods A retrospective review of case notes for all in-patients seen by Tiyanjane Clinic over a six month period (April-Sept 2009 was undertaken. Results A total of 177 patients were seen, for whom 137 case notes were available (77%. 58% of patients were male, 42% female. The average age of patients was 39.1 years (range 15-92 years. 54% of patients were HIV positive, with 34% on ARV drugs at the time of care. 42% of patients had HIV related diagnoses, including AIDS defining malignancies, 48% had (non AIDS related cancers and 9% had other palliative diagnoses. The mean age of patients with HIV related diagnoses was 34 years, for cancer patients it was 48 years. Pain was the most commonly reported symptom (74%, with 56% of patients requiring oral morphine. The mean daily dose of morphine was 30 mg/day (range 9-100 mg. 65% of patients were discharged home, 26% of patients died during admission. Conclusions The palliative care population in this setting is relatively young, especially among patients with HIV related diagnoses. HIV and cancer are the main diagnostic groups. Pain is the most commonly reported symptom, with oral morphine frequently required. Health workers require access to and knowledge of oral morphine in order to provide appropriate assistance to patients under their care.

Jane Bates M

2011-07-01

168

Developing and Deploying OERs in sub-Saharan Africa: Building on the Present  

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Full Text Available Open educational resources (OERs have the potential to reduce costs, improve quality, and increase access to educational opportunities. OER development and deployment is one path that could contribute to achieving education for all. This article builds on existing information and communication technology (ICT implementation plans in Africa and on the experiences of organizations and initiatives such as the African Virtual University (AVU, OER Africa, the South African Institute of Distance Education (SAIDE, and the Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA Project, to present one view of the benefits, challenges, and steps that could be taken to realize the potential of OERs in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, the article focuses on the factors necessary for creating and sustaining a vision for OER development and deployment; developing and distributing resources with an open license; improving technology infrastructure and reducing the cost of Internet access; establishing communities of educational collaborators; sustaining involvement in the OER initiative; producing resources in interoperable and open formats; establishing and maintaining the quality of OERs; providing local context to address national and regional needs and conditions; informing the public about OERs; and taking the initiative to build on the knowledge, skills, and experiences of others. In order to assist educators and decision makers, links to a variety of resources are provided.

Sunday A. Reju

2012-04-01

169

From Theory to Practice: Exploring the Organised Crime-Terror Nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available  A growing body of scholarly literature suggests confluence or even convergence of organized crime and terrorism in various parts of the world. However, links remain somewhat nebulous at this stage and vary considerably, based on region and context. Africa has come under the spotlight due to perceived weaknesses in the criminal justice sector, limited law enforcement capacity, political and systemic corruption, poor border patrol and weak anti-terror and organized crime laws which are believed to provide an ideal environment for the terror-crime nexus to flourish. This article provides an African perspective on the links between organized crime and terror networks in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a particular focus on Southern Africa. The discussion begins with an overview of the theoretical discourse on the subject – relying on African definitions of the contested concepts of ‘terrorism’ and ‘organized crime’ – and will then narrow the analysis on the sub-Saharan case. It relies on an extensive literature review and concludes with empirical findings of a research project on organized crime in Southern Africa, which found no strong empirical links between criminal and terrorist organizations.

Annette Hübschle

2011-09-01

170

Plant Variety Protection in Sub-Saharan Africa: Balancing Commercial and Smallholder Farmers’ Interests  

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Full Text Available Sub-Saharan African countries, through their regional organizations, have embarked on the harmonisation of plant variety protection (PVP systems. These initiatives are largely modelled on the UPOV 1991 act, which claims to incentivize plant breeding and facilitate agricultural development. Civil Society Organisations (CSO, however, strongly criticise this process for being out of step with Sub-Saharan African agricultural realities, undermining smallholder farmers’ agricultural practices and, ultimately, threatening food security. Among their main concerns are the fear that the proposed regimes facilitate biopiracy and lack recognition of farmers’ rights. This article discussed three of the main CSO concerns in tandem with examples of alternative provisions from PVP systems from around the world. While it will be shown that the CSO concerns are not likely to be acted upon, this article aims to answer the pressing question whether a UPOV ’91 based PVP system hampers farming practices in developing countries, and explores several legal avenues to accommodate the needs and traditions of smallholder farmers.

Bram De Jonge

2014-08-01

171

Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999-2011: Epidemiology and public health implications. a systematic review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes prevalence is increasing globally, and Sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. With diverse health challenges, health authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa and international donors need robust data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in order to plan and prioritise their health programmes. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the epidemiological trends and public health implications of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of papers published on diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa 1999-March 2011, providing data on diabetes prevalence, outcomes (chronic complications, infections, and mortality, access to diagnosis and care and economic impact. Results Type 2 diabetes accounts for well over 90% of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa, and population prevalence proportions ranged from 1% in rural Uganda to 12% in urban Kenya. Reported type 1 diabetes prevalence was low and ranged from 4 per 100,000 in Mozambique to 12 per 100,000 in Zambia. Gestational diabetes prevalence varied from 0% in Tanzania to 9% in Ethiopia. Proportions of patients with diabetic complications ranged from 7-63% for retinopathy, 27-66% for neuropathy, and 10-83% for microalbuminuria. Diabetes is likely to increase the risk of several important infections in the region, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and sepsis. Meanwhile, antiviral treatment for HIV increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. Five-year mortality proportions of patients with diabetes varied from 4-57%. Screening studies identified high proportions (> 40% with previously undiagnosed diabetes, and low levels of adequate glucose control among previously diagnosed diabetics. Barriers to accessing diagnosis and treatment included a lack of diagnostic tools and glucose monitoring equipment and high cost of diabetes treatment. The total annual cost of diabetes in the region was estimated at US$67.03 billion, or US$8836 per diabetic patient. Conclusion Diabetes exerts a significant burden in the region, and this is expected to increase. Many diabetic patients face significant challenges accessing diagnosis and treatment, which contributes to the high mortality and prevalence of complications observed. The significant interactions between diabetes and important infectious diseases highlight the need and opportunity for health planners to develop integrated responses to communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Henriksen Ole

2011-07-01

172

Sub-Saharan Africa: An Interdisciplinary Curriculum Unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes how four teachers from different subjects in a New York high school developed an interdisciplinary curriculum unit on Sub-Saharan Africa that integrated English, Studio in Art, and Global Studies for ninth graders. Shows how the unit helped students see connections between subjects. (HB)

Oster, Leslie

1993-01-01

173

Improvement of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the coming decades, cancer will be a major clinical and public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. However, clinical and public health infrastructure and services in many countries are not positioned to deal with the growing cancer burden. Pathology is a core service required to serve many needs related to cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. Cancer diagnosis, treatment, and research all depend on adequate pathology. Pathology is also necessary for cancer registration, which is needed to accurately estimate cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer registry data directly guide policy-makers' decisions for cancer control and the allocation of clinical and public health services. Despite the centrality of pathology in many components of cancer care and control, countries in sub-Saharan Africa have at best a tenth of the pathology coverage of that in high-income countries. Equipment, processes, and services are lacking, and there is a need for quality assurance for the definition and implementation of high-quality, accurate diagnosis. Training and advocacy for pathology are also needed. We propose approaches to improve the status of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa to address the needs of patients with cancer and other diseases. PMID:23561746

Adesina, Adekunle; Chumba, David; Nelson, Ann M; Orem, Jackson; Roberts, Drucilla J; Wabinga, Henry; Wilson, Michael; Rebbeck, Timothy R

2013-04-01

174

Risk Factor or Social Vaccine? The Historical Progression of the Role of Education in HIV and AIDS Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous epidemiological studies from the early years of the tragic HIV and AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa identified formal education as a risk factor increasing the chance of infection. Instead of playing its usual role as a preventative factor, as has been noted in many other public health cases, until the mid-1990s educated African men…

Baker, David P.; Collins, John M.; Leon, Juan

2008-01-01

175

Male partner involvement in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa: Successes, challenges and way forward  

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Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest number of mother to child transmissions of HIV. PMTCT programme plays a big role in reducing the MTCT nevertheless its effectiveness in Sub-Saharan Africa depends on involvement of male partners considering the fact that men are decision makers in African families. They make important decisions that have big impact on women’s health. Male partner involvement has been seen to increase uptake of PMTCT services and their involvement underscores their importance in reducing HIV infection in children. Recently many sub-Saharan countries adopted male partner involvement in PMTCT programme with an aim of increasing the uptake of PMTCT services. The programme has made some progress in improving the effectiveness of PMTCT services. On the other hand the strategy is facing a lot of challenges, the biggest being low male partner involvement. This article therefore seeks to review the successes and challenges faced by male involvement in Sub-Saharan Africa. It also proposes the way forward in order to improve its effectiveness. We used peer reviewed articles of research studies conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa and other related reliable sources of data to write the paper.

Qiu Jun

2012-02-01

176

Progress report on the first sub-Saharan Africa trial of newer versus older antihypertensive drugs in native black patients  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic surge in hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa is not matched by clinical trials of antihypertensive agents in Black patients recruited in this area of the world. We mounted the Newer versus Older Antihypertensive agents in African Hypertensive patients (NOAAH trial to compare, in native African patients, a single-pill combination of newer drugs, not involving a diuretic, with a combination of older drugs including a diuretic. Methods Patients aged 30 to 69?years with uncomplicated hypertension (140 to 179/90 to 109?mmHg and ?2 associated risk factors are eligible. After a four week run-in period off treatment, 180 patients have to be randomized to once daily bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide 5/6.25?mg (R or amlodipine/valsartan 5/160?mg (E. To attain blood pressure Results At the time of writing of this progress report, of 206 patients enrolled in the run-in period, 140 had been randomized. At randomization, the R and E groups were similar (P???0.11 with respect to mean age (50.7?years, body mass index (28.2?kg/m2, blood pressure (153.9/91.5?mmHg and the proportions of women (53.6% and treatment naïve patients (72.7%. After randomization, in the R and E groups combined, blood pressure dropped by 18.2/10.1?mmHg, 19.4/11.2?mmHg, 22.4/12.2?mmHg and 25.8/15.2?mmHg at weeks two (n?=?122, four (n?=?109, eight (n?=?57, and 12 (n?=?49, respectively. The control rate was >65% already at two weeks. At 12?weeks, 12 patients (24.5% had progressed to the higher dose of R or E and/or had ?-methyldopa added. Cohort analyses of 49 patients up to 12?weeks were confirmatory. Only two patients dropped out of the study. Conclusions NOAAH (NCT01030458 demonstrated that blood pressure control can be achieved fast in Black patients born and living in Africa with a simple regimen consisting of a single-pill combination of two antihypertensive agents. NOAAH proves that randomized clinical trials of cardiovascular drugs in the indigenous populations of sub-Saharan Africa are feasible.

Odili Augustine N

2012-05-01

177

Coronary heart disease risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa: studies in Tanzanian adolescents.  

OpenAIRE

STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the level of cardiovascular risk factors in young people in sub-Saharan Africa living in rural and urban settings. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey of the population aged 15 to 19 years. SETTING--Eight rural Tanzanian villages in three regions, and two districts in Dar es Salaam. PARTICIPANTS--664 males and 803 females in rural villages and 85 males and 121 females in the city. Response rates for total population were 74% to 94% in the rural areas and 60% in the city....

Kitange, H. M.; Swai, A. B.; Masuki, G.; Kilima, P. M.; Alberti, K. G.; Mclarty, D. G.

1993-01-01

178

The Impact of Urbanization on GDP per Capita : A Study of Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This thesis examines whether urbanization affects GDP per capita positively in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further investigations are done to study how the size of the prime city affects GDP per capita, as well as how the prime city as a percentage of urban population interacts with GDP per capita. The results show that urbaization and GDP per capita interact positively - that is, increase in urbaization increases GDP per capita. We also find that size of the prime city as a percentage of total popul...

Hytenget, Eva

2011-01-01

179

Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA methodology aims to provide a cost-effective tool to conduct rapid assessments of the malaria situation in urban sub-Saharan Africa and to improve the understanding of urban malaria epidemiology. Methods This work was done in Yopougon municipality (Abidjan, Cotonou, Dar es Salaam and Ouagadougou. The study design consists of six components: 1 a literature review, 2 the collection of available health statistics, 3 a risk mapping, 4 school parasitaemia surveys, 5 health facility-based surveys and 6 a brief description of the health care system. These formed the basis of a multi-country evaluation of RUMA's feasibility, consistency and usefulness. Results A substantial amount of literature (including unpublished theses and statistics was found at each site, providing a good overview of the malaria situation. School and health facility-based surveys provided an overview of local endemicity and the overall malaria burden in different city areas. This helped to identify important problems for in-depth assessment, especially the extent to which malaria is over-diagnosed in health facilities. Mapping health facilities and breeding sites allowed the visualization of the complex interplay between population characteristics, health services and malaria risk. However, the latter task was very time-consuming and required special expertise. RUMA is inexpensive, costing around 8,500–13,000 USD for a six to ten-week period. Conclusion RUMA was successfully implemented in four urban areas with different endemicity and proved to be a cost-effective first approach to study the features of urban malaria and provide an evidence basis for planning control measures.

Akogbeto Martin

2005-09-01

180

The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa  

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Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa.

Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O.; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A.; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S.

2015-01-01

181

A Dragon and a Dove? A Comparative Overview of Chinese and European Trade Relations with Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available As China’s footprint in African trade grows larger by the day, the need to contextualize this rise through comparative analysis becomes ever more necessary. This paper contrasts the sub-Saharan trade relations of both China and Europe with their respective designated stereotypes: those of a dragon and a dove. The article compares the trade dynamics on four levels: the policies and institutional mechanisms that shape the relationship; the composition of the trade flows; the geographic distribution of trade dominance; and the influence of norms and values on the trade pattern. It concludes that although there are empirical grounds behind these stereotypes, Chinese and European trade relations with sub-Saharan Africa are becoming more similar, partly due to a more hawkish European stance.

Bert Jacobs

2011-01-01

182

The African Financial Development Gap  

OpenAIRE

Economic growth in Africa has long been disappointing. We document that the financial sectors of most sub-Saharan African countries remain significantly underdeveloped by the standards of other developing countries. We examine the factors that are associated with financial development in Africa and compare them with those in other developing countries. Population density appears to be considerably more important for banking sector development in Africa than elsewhere. Given the high costs ...

Allen, Franklin; Carletti, Elena; Cull, Robert; Qian, Jun Qj; Senbet, Lemma

2010-01-01

183

The blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa: needs, challenges, and solutions.  

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Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is burdened with a growing population and poor health care resources. Transfusion medicine is uniquely affected for SSA as a result of a combination of factors which put tremendous pressure on the blood supply. In this review, we consider these factors including: malaria, sickle cell anemia, transfusion medicine infrastructure, and past transfusion medicine policies including those which are tied to foreign aid, such as a VNRD-only practice. We also consider how SSA can overcome some of these hurdles to achieve a safe and adequate blood supply for its people through the advent of new vaccines, medications, infrastructure development, policy changes, and education. PMID:23871466

Lund, Troy C; Hume, Heather; Allain, Jean P; McCullough, Jeffrey; Dzik, Walter

2013-12-01

184

Divided We Fall: Rethinking Biodiversity Planning in the Context of Development in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available The signatory countries of the Convention on Biological Diversity set the objective of halting the decline of biodiversity by 2010, but as the target date arrived and passed, the status of biodiversity on the planet remained dismal. With the dawn of the UN Decade for Biodiversity at the Rio+20 Earth Summit in June 2012 and as the UN Biodiversity Strategic Plan moves forward, this article contextualizes biodiversity prospects in sub-Saharan Africa by examining the history of interactions between African communities and the environment, from the pre-colonial period to today. It provides a critical analysis of the current biodiversity conservation planning methodologies and pinpoints several inherent obstacles, including the neo-Malthusianism that dominates the thinking of certain wildlife experts. Setting out an argument with far-reaching implications for the success of future conservation efforts all over the world, the author examines the basis of emerging conservation approaches in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on the need to forge a more inclusive conservation practice and open up to the perceptions, representations and cultural universe of the Other.

Robert Kasisi

2012-08-01

185

Stock Markets Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Business Regulations, Governance and Fiscal Policy  

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Full Text Available This study examines the effectiveness of the state in stimulating stock market activity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA using fiscal policy, governance quality and stock market as the main determinant variables. Using annual data from six selected sub-Saharan African economies and employing a dynamic panel data estimating technique, we find that government effectiveness stimulates capitalization while business regulations decrease it in SSA. In addition, we find that final consumption expenditure, interest rate spread and credit to the state increase capitalization whereas credit to the private sector and inflation had adverse effects. With respect to business regulations, our study reveals that starting a business, closing it and enforcing contracts engender stock market activity in SSA. Among the several variables that stimulate stock market activity; only foreign direct investment (FDI did increase capitalization. Thus, the study concludes that since not all government institutions and business regulations are critical to stock market development, various governments should be careful and selective in their economic stimulants if they want to develop their stock markets. 

Kofi B. Afful

2013-12-01

186

Projected climate change impacts and short term predictions on staple crops in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) drives the economy of many African countries and it is mainly rain-fed agriculture used for subsistence. Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns and more frequent droughts may lead to a substantial decrease of crop yields. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture are expected to be significant and extensive in the SSA due to the shortening of the growing seasons and the increasing of water-stress risk. Differences in Agro-Ecological Zones and geographical characteristics of SSA influence the diverse impacts of climate change, which can greatly differ across the continent and within countries. The vulnerability of African Countries to climate change is aggravated by the low adaptive capacity of the continent, due to the increasing of its population, the widespread poverty, and other social factors. In this contest, the assessment of climate change impact on agricultural sector has a particular interest to stakeholder and policy makers, in order to identify specific agricultural sectors and Agro-Ecological Zones that could be more vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and to develop the most appropriate policies to cope with these threats. For these reasons, the evaluation of climate change impacts for key crops in SSA was made exploring climate uncertainty and focusing on short period monitoring, which is particularly useful for food security and risk management analysis. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT-CSM are tools that allow to simulate physiological process of crop growth, development and production, by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were used, after a parameterization phase, to evaluate climate change impacts on crop phenology and production. Multiple combinations of soils and climate conditions, crop management and varieties were considered for the different Agro-Ecological Zones. The climate impact was assessed using future climate prediction, statistically and/or dynamically downscaled, for specific areas. Direct and indirect effects of different CO2 concentrations projected for the future periods were separately explored to estimate their effects on crops. Several adaptation strategies (e.g., introduction of full irrigation, shift of the ordinary sowing/planting date, changes in the ordinary fertilization management) were also evaluated with the aim to reduce the negative impact of climate change on crop production. The results of the study, analyzed at local, AEZ and country level, will be discussed.

Mereu, V.; Spano, D.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.

2013-12-01

187

IPPs in Sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants of success  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyses the outcomes of independent power projects (IPPs) across Sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately 20 such projects have taken root to date, concentrated mainly in 8 countries. A suite of country level and project level factors play a critical role in determining project success, chief among them: the manner in which planning, procurement and contracting are coherently linked, the role of development finance institutions along with the development origins of firms and credit enhancements. - Highlights: > We analyse the outcomes of independent power projects (IPPs) across Sub-Saharan Africa. > Approximately 20 IPPs have taken root to date, concentrated mainly in 8 countries. > A suite of country level and project level factors play a critical role in determining project success. > Key success factors are the coherence of planning, procurement and contracting. > Also important is the role of DFIs, the development origins of firms, and credit enhancements.

Eberhard, Anton, E-mail: eberhard@gsb.uct.ac.za [University of Cape Town' s Graduate School of Business, Cape Town 8001 (South Africa); Gratwick, Katharine Nawaal [University of Cape Town' s Graduate School of Business, Cape Town 8001 (South Africa)

2011-09-15

188

IPPs in Sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants of success  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study analyses the outcomes of independent power projects (IPPs) across Sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately 20 such projects have taken root to date, concentrated mainly in 8 countries. A suite of country level and project level factors play a critical role in determining project success, chief among them: the manner in which planning, procurement and contracting are coherently linked, the role of development finance institutions along with the development origins of firms and credit enhancements. - Highlights: ? We analyse the outcomes of independent power projects (IPPs) across Sub-Saharan Africa. ? Approximately 20 IPPs have taken root to date, concentrated mainly in 8 countries. ? A suite of country level and project level factors play a critical role in determining project success. ? Key success factors are the coherence of planning, procurement and contracting. ? Also important is the role of DFIs, the development origins of firms, and credit enhancements.

189

Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa and import substitution policy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This article aims to contribute to the understanding of the process of import substitution in Sub-Saharan Africa. The process of industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa occurred in two phases: a first step, even very early during the colonial regime began around the 1920s and ended in the late forti [...] es; a second phase of industrialization began in the late fifties and gained momentum in the sixties, when import substitution was implemented more widely. Although these countries were the last to embark on the strategy of import substitution, they followed the same steps of Latin American countries, and as the structural domestic and external constraints were too strong, the failure of the policy of import substitution arrived early and the negative impact on these economies had a greater magnitude.

Ana Paula F., Mendes; Mário A., Bertella; Rudolph F. A. P., Teixeira.

2014-03-01

190

Economic geography and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

The physical or absolute geography of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A country's location however not only determines its absolute geography, it also pins down its relative position on the globe vis-à-vis other countries. This paper assesses the importance of relative geography, and access to foreign markets in particular, in explaining the substantial income differences between SSA countries. We base our empirical analysis on a new economic geogr...

Bosker, E. Maarten; Garretsen, Harry

2008-01-01

191

Migration and development in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Migration in sub-Saharan Africa, as in the rest of the world, has always been an essential element in the historical processes of social, political and economic change. Development (however defined) and migration are intertwined in a set of complex, heterogeneous, and changing relationships in which causality is never one way. In short, migration can be seen as a both a cause and consequence of development and, equally, development is both a cause and consequence of migration. ...

Bakewell, Oliver; Phillips, Nicola

2011-01-01

192

Is Aid Really Dead? Evidences from Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the relationship between foreign aid and economic development in Sub Saharan Africa. The study seeks to examine the role of institutions in aid effectiveness in SSA countries by adopting a theoretical framework similar to the Endogenous/New Growth model and the System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) technique of estimation in order to overcome the challenge of endogeneity perceived in the institution variables and Aid-Growth argument. It was observed that foreign aid d...

Ogundipe, Adeyemi; Ogundipe, Oluwatomisin

2013-01-01

193

Efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-centre analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Artesunate and amodiaquine (AS&AQ is at present the world's second most widely used artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. It was necessary to evaluate the efficacy of ACT, recently adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO and deployed over 80 countries, in order to make an evidence-based drug policy. Methods An individual patient data (IPD analysis was conducted on efficacy outcomes in 26 clinical studies in sub-Saharan Africa using the WHO protocol with similar primary and secondary endpoints. Results A total of 11,700 patients (75% under 5 years old, from 33 different sites in 16 countries were followed for 28 days. Loss to follow-up was 4.9% (575/11,700. AS&AQ was given to 5,897 patients. Of these, 82% (4,826/5,897 were included in randomized comparative trials with polymerase chain reaction (PCR genotyping results and compared to 5,413 patients (half receiving an ACT. AS&AQ and other ACT comparators resulted in rapid clearance of fever and parasitaemia, superior to non-ACT. Using survival analysis on a modified intent-to-treat population, the Day 28 PCR-adjusted efficacy of AS&AQ was greater than 90% (the WHO cut-off in 11/16 countries. In randomized comparative trials (n = 22, the crude efficacy of AS&AQ was 75.9% (95% CI 74.6–77.1 and the PCR-adjusted efficacy was 93.9% (95% CI 93.2–94.5. The risk (weighted by site of failure PCR-adjusted of AS&AQ was significantly inferior to non-ACT, superior to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP, in one Ugandan site, and not different from AS+SP or AL (artemether-lumefantrine. The risk of gametocyte appearance and the carriage rate of AS&AQ was only greater in one Ugandan site compared to AL and DP, and lower compared to non-ACT (p = 0.001, for all comparisons. Anaemia recovery was not different than comparator groups, except in one site in Rwanda where the patients in the DP group had a slower recovery. Conclusion AS&AQ compares well to other treatments and meets the WHO efficacy criteria for use against falciparum malaria in many, but not all, the sub-Saharan African countries where it was studied. Efficacy varies between and within countries. An IPD analysis can inform general and local treatment policies. Ongoing monitoring evaluation is required.

Same-Ekobo Albert

2009-08-01

194

Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa: A literature review with emphasis on individuals with diabetes  

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Full Text Available Andre Pascal Kengne1, Anastase Dzudie2, Eugene Sobngwi31The George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Heart failure and transplantation Unit, Louis Pradel’s Cardiovascular Hospital, Lyon, France; 3National Obesity Centre, Yaounde Central Hospital, CameroonPurpose: Heart failure is the ultimate complication of cardiac involvements in diabetes. The purpose of this review was to summarize current literature on heart failure among people with diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Method: Bibliographic search of published data on heart failure and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa over the past 26 years.Results: Heart failure remains largely unexplored in general population and among people with diabetes in Africa. Heart failure accounts for over 30% of hospital admission in specialized cardiovascular units and 3%–7% in general internal medicine. Over 11% of adults with heart failure have diabetes. Risk factors for heart failure among those with diabetes include classical cardiovascular risk factors, without evidence of diabetes distinctiveness for other predictors common in Africa. Prevention, management, and outcomes of heart failure are less well known; recent data suggest improvement in the management of risk factors in clinical settings.Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is growing in SSA. Related cardiovascular diseases are emerging as potential health problem. Heart failure as cardiovascular complication remains largely unexplored. Efforts are needed through research to improve our knowledge of heart failure at large in Africa. Multilevel preventive measures, building on evidences from other parts of the world must go along side.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, sub-Saharan Africa

Andre Pascal Kengne

2008-03-01

195

Family medicine training in sub-Saharan Africa: South–South cooperation in the Primafamed project as strategy for development  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Health-care systems based on primary health care (PHC) are more equitable and cost effective. Family medicine trains medical doctors in comprehensive PHC with knowledge and skills that are needed to increase quality of care. Family medicine is a relatively new specialty in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. To explore the extent to which the Primafamed South–South cooperative project contributed to the development of family medicine in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. The Primafamed (Primary Health Care and Family Medicine Education) project worked together with 10 partner universities in sub-Saharan Africa to develop family medicine training programmes over a period of 2.5 years. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis was done and the training development from 2008 to 2010 in the different partner universities was analysed. Results. During the 2.5 years of the Primafamed project, all partner universities made progress in the development of their family medicine training programmes. The SWOT analysis showed that at both national and international levels, the time is ripe to train medical doctors in family medicine and to integrate the specialty into health-care systems, although many barriers, including little awareness, lack of funding, low support from other specialists and reserved support from policymakers, are still present. Conclusions. Family medicine can play an important role in health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa; however, developing a new discipline is challenging. Advocacy, local ownership, action research and support from governments are necessary to develop family medicine and increase its impact. The Primafamed project showed that development of sustainable family medicine training programmes is a feasible but slow process. The South–South cooperation between the ten partners and the South African departments of family medicine strengthened confidence at both national and international levels. PMID:24857843

Flinkenflögel, Maaike; Essuman, Akye; Chege, Patrick; Ayankogbe, Olayinka; De Maeseneer, Jan

2014-01-01

196

The impact of HIV-1 on the malaria parasite biomass in adults in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to the emergence of antimalarial drug resistance  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-related immune-suppression increases the risk of malaria (infection, disease and treatment failure and probably the circulating parasite biomass, favoring the emergence of drug resistance parasites. Methods The additional malaria parasite biomass related to HIV-1 co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa was estimated by a mathematical model. Parasite biomass was computed as the incidence rate of clinical malaria episodes multiplied by the number of parasites circulating in the peripheral blood of patients at the time symptoms appear. A mathematical model estimated the influence of HIV-1 infection on parasite density in clinical malaria by country and by age group, malaria transmission intensity and urban/rural area. In a multivariate sensitivity analysis, 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation. Results The model shows that in 2005 HIV-1 increased the overall malaria parasite biomass by 18.0% (95%CI: 11.6–26.9. The largest relative increase (134.9–243.9% was found in southern Africa where HIV-1 prevalence is the highest and malaria transmission unstable. The largest absolute increase was found in Zambia, Malawi, the Central African Republic and Mozambique, where both malaria and HIV are highly endemic. A univariate sensitivity analysis shows that estimates are sensitive to the magnitude of the impact of HIV-1 infection on the malaria incidence rates and associated parasite densities. Conclusion The HIV-1 epidemic by increasing the malaria parasite biomass in sub-Saharan Africa may also increase the emergence of antimalarial drug resistance, potentially affecting the health of the whole population in countries endemic for both HIV-1 and malaria.

Korenromp Eline

2008-07-01

197

Irrigation with saline water using low-cost drip-irrigation systems in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

In the scope of future population support, agricultural productivity, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa, has to increase drastically to meet the UN’s millennium development goals of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Water availability in the root-zone limits crop production in large parts of the developing world. As competition for fresh water increases, water of lower quality, for example saline or polluted water, is often used for irrigation. Low-cost drip systems are suit...

Karlberg, Louise

2005-01-01

198

Traditional burn care in sub-Saharan Africa: a long history with wide acceptance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Burns are very common in sub-Saharan Africa and are considered to be a major health care problem. The management of burns in many African countries is challenged by limited financial resources, inaccessible health care facilities, lack of trained professionals and superstition. These limitations are related to the many burned patients seeking treatment from traditional healers. The use of traditional remedies, plant and animal products are seen as an important aspect of burn management as it is both an affordable and respected treatment modality. Despite its popularity, the use of traditional burn care remedies is faced with many challenges as little research has been done on its effectiveness, dosage and adverse reactions. This paper reviewed the traditions and customs associated with traditional burn care as well as the use of plant, animal and mineral products used by traditional healers. PMID:25062977

Albertyn, R; Berg, A; Numanoglu, A; Rode, H

2015-03-01

199

Are Remittances to Sub-Saharan Africa Altruistic or for Self-Interest? Evidence from Kenya  

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Full Text Available International remittances comprise significant financial inflow for many Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries and provide considerable disposable income for the receiving households. There has, however, been no consensus on the motivation in the part of sending migrants in which explanations are divided between altruism and self-interest. The study employs Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model with co-integration approach to investigate whether international remittances to Kenya can be explained by either altruistic or self-interest motive. We process the World Bank annual data from 1970 to 2010 and find that self-interest, not altruism, as the dominant motivation to determine remittances. The analysis also indicates that demand on housing and exchange rates are the two strong drivers of international remittances to Kenya in both short-run and long-run. The Kenyan government is supposed to facilitate savings from remittances through financial institutions to invest more in the small business sector for economic growth.

Chien-Ping Chen

2013-11-01

200

Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa : policy and trade issues  

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Full Text Available The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated ; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs, extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1 implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2 amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE] so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for southern African countries and enable conservation and livestock production to be more effectively integrated, to the benefit of both.

G.R. Thomson

2010-09-01

201

Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone) is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1) implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2) amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for southern African countries and enable conservation and livestock production to be more effectively integrated, to the benefit of both. PMID:19967938

Thomson, G R

2009-03-01

202

How do African populations perceive corruption: microeconomic evidence from Afrobarometer data in twelve countries  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we examine the microeconomic determinants of the perception of corruption in twelve Sub-Saharan African countries. Unlike the indicators of corruption based on the opinion of international experts, the study focuses on corrupt practices as experienced by the African people themselves. The results of our estimates, using an ordered probit indicate that the individual characteristics such as age and sex significantly affect the perception people have of corruption as do social an...

Attila, Gbewopo

2011-01-01

203

Measuring improvements in sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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Recent studies on development aid from European donors revealed that their funding of the health sector in sub-Saharan Africa rarely includes performance measures suitable for tracking operational progress in improving sexual and reproductive health and rights. Analysis of health sector agreements verifies this. Particularly lacking are metrics related to four critically important areas: (1) reducing mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion, (2) preventing and treating gender-based violence, (3) reducing unwanted pregnancies among the poorest women, and (4) reducing unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. During 2011 and the first half of 2012, the authors interviewed 85 experts in health service delivery, ministries of health, human rights, development economics and social science from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and the United States. We asked them to identify measures to assess progress in these areas, and built on their responses to propose up to four practical performance measures for each of the areas, for inclusion in health sector support agreements. These measures are meant to supplement, not replace, current population-based measures such as changes in maternal mortality ratios. The feasibility of using these performance measures requires political commitment from donors and governments, investment in baseline data, and expanding the role of sexual and reproductive health and rights civil society in determining priorities. PMID:23245424

Seims, Sara; Khadduri, Rolla

2012-12-01

204

Mothers, midwives, and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

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This article reviews clinical and program issues in the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Topics include prevention of infection, voluntary counseling and testing, prenatal care, labor and birth, postpartum, family planning, infant feeding, and the role of traditional birth attendants. Programs providing short-course antiretroviral therapy to prevent infant infection are contrasted with comprehensive programs offering antiretroviral therapy and medical care to mothers, children, and families. Feminization of the epidemic is related to gender inequalities that facilitate the spread of HIV and make pregnant women an especially vulnerable group. Nurses and midwives are the primary health care providers for most of the population in sub-Saharan Africa. They are the backbone of the new PMTCT programs and will be the largest group of health workers available to diagnose and treat opportunistic infections and dispense antiretroviral therapy. But they have received little training and support to provide AIDS care and treatment and are rarely consulted when plans are made about workforce issues and capacity development in the health sector. Clinical training, leadership skills, salary support, expansion of the nursing workforce, and development of expanded roles for nurses and midwives in AIDS care are needed to help them turn the tide of the epidemic. PMID:15973262

Raisler, Jeanne; Cohn, Jonathan

2005-01-01

205

Population-Based Biochemistry, Immunologic and Hematological Reference Values for Adolescents and Young Adults in a Rural Population in Western Kenya  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: There is need for locally-derived age-specific clinical laboratory reference ranges of healthy Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. Reference values from North American and European populations are being used for African subjects despite previous studies showing significant differences. Our aim was to establish clinical laboratory reference values for African adolescents and young adults that can be used in clinical trials and for patient management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A panel of 29...

Zeh, C.; Amornkul, P. N.; Inzaule, S.; Ondoa, P.; Oyaro, B.; Mwaengo, D. M.; Vandenhoudt, H.; Gichangi, A.; Williamson, J.; Thomas, T.; Decock, K. M.; Hart, C.; Nkengasong, J.; Laserson, K.

2011-01-01

206

Drought and Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we show that drought has a positive effect on the incidence of civil war over the 1945-2005 period in Sub-Saharan Africa. We use the Palmer Drought Severity Index which is a richer measurement of drought than the measures used in the literature (rainfall and temperature) as it measures the accumulation of water in the soil in taking into account the temperature and the geological characteristics of the soil. We show that the risk of civil war increases by more than 42% from a '...

Couttenier, Mathieu; Soubeyran, Raphae?l

2011-01-01

207

The current bioenergy production potential of semi-arid and arid regions in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This article assesses the current technical and economic potential of three bioenergy production systems (cassava ethanol, jatropha oil and fuelwood) in semi-arid and arid regions of eight sub-Saharan African countries. The results indicate that the availability of land for energy production ranges from 2% (1.3 Mha) of the total semi-arid and arid area in South Africa to 21% (12 Mha) in Botswana. Land availability for bioenergy production is restricted mainly by agricultural land use, but als...

Wicke, B.; Smeets, E. M. W.; Watson, H.; Faaij, A. P. C.

2011-01-01

208

Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines.

Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde

2014-01-01

209

Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review  

Science.gov (United States)

Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

2014-01-01

210

Comparing the impact of artemisinin-based combination therapies on malaria transmission in sub-saharan Africa.  

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Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are currently considered the first-line treatments for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Among these, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) has been the most widely prescribed ACT in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent clinical trials conducted in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), a most recent ACT, may have a longer post-treatment prophylactic period and post-treatment infection period (duration of gametocyte carriage) than AL. Using epidemiological and clinical data on the efficacy of AL and DP, we developed and parameterized a mathematical transmission model that we used to compare the population-level impact of AL and DP for reducing P. falciparum malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Our results showed that DP is likely to more effectively reduce malaria incidence of clinical episodes than AL. However in low P. falciparum transmission areas, DP and AL are likely to be equally effective in reducing malaria prevalence. The predictions of our model were shown to be robust to the empirical uncertainty summarizing the epidemiological parameters. DP should be considered as a replacement for AL as first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria in highly endemic P. falciparum communities. To optimize the effectiveness of ACTs, it is necessary to tailor treatment policies to the transmission intensity in different settings. PMID:25624402

Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Parikh, Sunil; Galvani, Alison P

2015-03-01

211

Cosmovisión de emigrantes subsaharianos y cuidados de enfermería / Worldview of Sub-Saharan emigrants and nursing care  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Justificación: La población inmigrante subsahariana es la más desconocida para los profesionales de la salud. Objetivo: Conocer, a través de sus voces, su cosmovisión que enmarca valores, creencias y prácticas sobre salud y enfermedad, centrándonos en el ser humano con enfoque holístico. Metodología [...] : Cualitativa, fenomenología. Resultados: Su concepción de la vida y del universo está impregnada de la religión más antigua del mundo: el animismo. Los antepasados que murieron siguen estando para protegerles. Aprecian la atención sanitaria española pero hay padecimientos que resuelve mejor la medicina tradicional africana. Aunque la atención es correcta puede despertarse susceptibilidad al no conocer los códigos culturales de la nueva sociedad. La solidaridad familiar es el valor fundamental. Conclusión: La solidaridad, valor ancestral en los humanos, debe seguir guiando a los profesionales de la salud comprometidos con la salud de la población, defendiendo el Estado de Bienestar frente a las voces que pretenden desmantelarlo. Abstract in english The population of sub-Saharan immigrants is unknown by health care professionals. Objective: know, across his voices, his cosmovision that frames values, beliefs and practices on health and disease, centring on the human being with holistic approach. Methodology qualitative, phenomenology. Results: [...] His conception of the life and of the universe is impregnated with the most ancient religion of the world: the animism. The forbears who died continue being to protect them. They estimate the sanitary Spanish attention though there are sufferings that there solves better the traditional African medicine. Though the attention is correct one can wake susceptibility up on not having known all the cultural codes of the new company. The familiar solidarity is a fundamental value. Conclusions: the ancient solidarity in the human beings must continue guiding the professionals of the health compromised with the health of the population, defending the Welfare state opposite to the voices they it tries to dismantle.

Isabel, Gentil García.

2012-09-01

212

Adjustment, social sectors, and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

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This discussion concludes that the economic crises of the 1980s resulted in a halt to the social and economic development of sub-Saharan Africa. Employment, health, and education sectors all deteriorated under structural adjustment programs (SAPs) and poor economic performance. SAPs are considered inadequate solutions to long-term problems. Economic crises were found to affect countries differently in their demographic impact. Delayed demographic transition occurred both through economic development as a prerequisite and as a result of poor economic development. Case studies of each country are considered the appropriate geographic unit of analysis of demographic change rather than regional or comparative studies. The economic crises in sub-Saharan Africa occurred due to both external (commodity prices, high real interest rates, and decreasing net capital flows) and internal distortions (strategies of development such as import substitution, neglect of the agricultural sector, and government control of prices and trade). The unfavorable external context reduced export prices and earnings while increasing the costs of imports. Internal controls were detrimental to farmers. During the 1970s and 1980s African countries experienced declines in both the volume and value of exports, increases in import volume, and imbalances in the balance of payments. Large domestic borrowing and foreign borrowing was done by governments, which was at the expense of the private sector. Economic management and corruption were rampant. SAPs restrained demand, reduced public expenditures, adjusted exchange rates, contracted the size of the public sector, liberalized trade, deregulated the interest rate, stimulated domestic production, and used market forces for balancing optimum allocation of resources. SAPs were the fix for trade imbalances and government debt. Development was slowed or stopped. During 1980-87 spending on health care, education, and infrastructure was drastically reduced. These already weak sectors were further weakened. Inflation rose. Public sector employment was reduced. Wages declined, which resulted in a massive demoralization, unemployment, and poverty. Manpower development was threatened by declines in education. PMID:12319912

Ekouevi, K; Adepoju, A

1995-01-01

213

High prevalence of the GSTM3*A/B polymorphism in sub-Sarahan African populations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A 3-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in intron 6 of GSTM3 (rs1799735, GSTM3*A/*B) affects the activity of the phase 2 xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme GSTM3 and has been associated with increased cancer risk. The GSTM3*B allele is rare or absent in Southeast Asians, occurs in 5-20% of Europeans but [...] was detected in 80% of Bantu from South Africa. The wide genetic diversity among Africans led us to investigate whether the high frequency of GSTM3*B prevailed in other sub-Saharan African populations. In 168 healthy individuals from Angola, Mozambique and the São Tomé e Príncipe islands, the GSTM3*B allele was three times more frequent (0.74-0.78) than the GSTM3*A allele (0.22-0.26), with no significant differences in allele frequency across the three groups. We combined these data with previously published results to carry out a multidimensional scaling analysis, which provided a visualization of the worldwide population affinities based on the GSTM3 *A/*B polymorphism.

D., Teixeira; D., Vargens; A., Príncipe; E., Oliveira; A., Amorim; M.J., Prata; G., Suarez-Kurtz.

2010-07-01

214

Challenges of Economic Growth, Poverty and Development: Why Are the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) not Fair to Sub-Saharan Africa?  

OpenAIRE

Sub-Saharan African countries report high levels of growth and GDP per capita and yet they are unable to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) such as quality education and health. The paper argued that GDP might not be sufficient for measuring development because the funds obtained may not necessarily be used to improve the quality of life of worse off communities. Even with a constituent level of GDP, the problem of poverty and underdevelopment is becoming more intractable in Sub-...

Kanayo Ogujiuba; Fadila Jumare

2012-01-01

215

The International Connections of Religious Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Rationales and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, the largest growth in Sub-Saharan Africa's private higher education has been among institutions with religious affiliations. This article examines the rise of private, religious higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa with international affiliations. Using an analysis of multiple stakeholders from the region and international…

Karram, Grace

2011-01-01

216

Foreign aid, fertility and populations growth: Evidence from Africa  

OpenAIRE

This article investigates the relationship between foreign aid and population growth in sub-Saharan Africa. The work considers population growth rate and a directly related to fertility demographic indicator - total fertility rate. Using a panel of 43 African countries over the last four decades of the 20th century, it demonstrates the positive association between foreign aid and population growth and suggests that foreign aid affects population growth primarily through its effect on fertilit...

Azarnert, Leonid V.

2009-01-01

217

Health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent population studies demonstrate an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The mitigation or reversal of this trend calls for effective health promotion and preventive interventions. In this article, we review the core principles, challenges, and progress in promoting cardiovascular health with special emphasis on interventions to address physical inactivity, poor diet, tobacco use, and adverse cardiometabolic risk factor trends in SSA. We focus on the five essential strategies of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Successes highlighted include community-based interventions in Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, and Mauritius and school-based programs in Kenya, Namibia, and Swaziland. We address the major challenge of developing integrated interventions, and showcase partnerships opportunities. We conclude by calling for intersectoral partnerships for effective and sustainable intervention strategies to advance cardiovascular health promotion and close the implementation gap in accordance with the 2009 Nairobi Call to Action on Health Promotion. PMID:24267442

Sampson, Uchechukwu K A; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Mensah, George A

2013-01-01

218

Tuberculosis and poverty: the contribution of patient costs in sub-Saharan Africa – a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is known to disproportionately affect the most economically disadvantaged strata of society. Many studies have assessed the association between poverty and TB, but only a few have assessed the direct financial burden TB treatment and care can place on households. Patient costs can be particularly burdensome for TB-affected households in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty levels are high; these costs include the direct costs of medical and non-medical expenditures and the indirect costs of time utilizing healthcare or lost wages. In order to comprehensively assess the existing evidence on the costs that TB patients incur, we undertook a systematic review of the literature. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, EconLit, Dissertation Abstracts, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched, and 5,114 articles were identified. Articles were included in the final review if they contained a quantitative measure of direct or indirect patient costs for treatment or care for pulmonary TB in sub-Saharan Africa and were published from January 1, 1994 to Dec 31, 2010. Cost data were extracted from each study and converted to 2010 international dollars (I$. Results Thirty articles met all of the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one studies reported both direct and indirect costs; eight studies reported only direct costs; and one study reported only indirect costs. Depending on type of costs, costs varied from less than I$1 to almost I$600 or from a small fraction of mean monthly income for average annual income earners to over 10 times average annual income for income earners in the income-poorest 20% of the population. Out of the eleven types of TB patient costs identified in this review, the costs for hospitalization, medication, transportation, and care in the private sector were largest. Conclusion TB patients and households in sub-Saharan Africa often incurred high costs when utilizing TB treatment and care, both within and outside of Directly Observed Therapy Short-course (DOTS programs. For many households, TB treatment and care-related costs were considered to be catastrophic because the patient costs incurred commonly amounted to 10% or more of per capita incomes in the countries where the primary studies included in this review were conducted. Our results suggest that policies to decrease direct and indirect TB patient costs are urgently needed to prevent poverty due to TB treatment and care for those affected by the disease.

Barter Devra M

2012-11-01

219

SUCCESSFUL DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explains the purposes, delivery methods, and program characteristics of successful distance education (DE in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. This paper investigates the design and delivery systems of these programs and identifies ways the DE programs are working to improve. There are about 150 formidable distance education programs working in SSA. They aim to increase and improve a variety of existing programs, including primary and high school education, college-level and graduate programs, language training, teacher training, and continuing education for adults. The primary delivery system used by most institutions consists of printed manuals and texts that are distributed to all students. Despite the continued development of information and communication technology (ICT, including videos, online training modules, and web-based training (WBT systems, traditional DE delivery methods continue to prove as the most reliable, most sustainable, and most widely used.

Zane BERGE

2007-04-01

220

10-daily soil erosion modelling over sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil erosion is considered to be one of the greatest environmental problems of sub-Saharan Africa. This paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of modelling soil erosion at the continental scale and suggests an operational methodology for mapping and quantifying 10-daily water runoff and soil erosion over this scale using remote sensing data in a geographical information system framework. An attempt is made to compare the estimates of this study with general data on the severity of soil erosion over Africa and with measured rates of soil loss at different locations over the continent. The results show that the measured and estimated rates of erosion are in some areas very similar and in general within the same order of magnitude. The importance and the potential of using the soil erosion estimates with simple models and easily accessible free data for various continental-scale environmental applications are also demonstrated. PMID:19259776

Symeonakis, Elias; Drake, Nick

2010-02-01

221

Epidemiology of health and vulnerability among children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa has already orphaned a generation of children, and it is projected that by 2010, 18 million African children under the age of 18 are likely to be orphans from this single cause (UNICEF, 2005, The state of the Worlds Children: Childhood under threat. New York: UNICEF). Results from a Kellogg funded OVC project (Skinner et al., 2004, Definition of orphaned and vulnerable children. Cape Town: HSRC) supported the construct that the loss of either or both parents would indicate a situation of likely vulnerability of children. A key problem in the literature on the impact of orphanhood on the well-being of children, families and communities, is that the focus of assertions and predictions is often on the negative impact on 'AIDS orphans', or households. There are hardly any studies that compare the experiences of orphans with non-orphans. This paper thus attempts to fill that gap. It uses epidemiological data to explore the epidemiology of health and vulnerability of children within the context of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Because of data limitations, only the following aspects are examined: (i) orphan status; (ii) household structure (in particular, grandparent headedness and female-headedness); (iii) illness of parents; (iv) poverty; and (v) access to services, especially schooling, health, social services. While recognizing the limitations of the analysis, data presented in this paper indicates that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are more vulnerable than non-orphans. The authors conclude with some suggestions for policy makers and programme implementers, highlighting the importance of focusing on interventions that will have maximum impact on the health and well-being of children. PMID:16546789

Andrews, Gail; Skinner, Donald; Zuma, Khangelani

2006-04-01

222

Effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that HIV-related stigma hinders prevention efforts. Previous studies have documented that HIV-related stigma may be associated with socioeconomic and socioecological factors. Mass media use may moderate this association, but there is limited research addressing that possibility. In this study, based on cross-sectional data pooled from the 2006-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 sub-Saharan African countries (N?=?204,343), we investigated the moderating effects of exposure to mass media on HIV-related stigma. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma tends to be higher among rural residents and individuals with low levels of education and HIV knowledge, as well as those who do not know people living with HIV. Media use was generally associated with low levels of HIV-related stigma, and attenuated the gap between individuals with high and low educational levels. However, the effect of mass media was found to be stronger among urbanites rather than among rural residents, which could lead to a widening gap between the two groups in endorsement of HIV-related stigma. The implication of this study regarding the effect of media use on HIV-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa is twofold: 1) mass media may have the potential to minimize the gap in HIV-related stigma between individuals with high and low educational levels, and hence future efforts of reducing HIV-related stigma in the region may benefit from utilizing media; 2) due perhaps to low media penetration to rural sub-Saharan Africa, mass media could have the unintended effect of widening the urban-rural gap further unless other more customized and rural-focused communication interventions are put in place. PMID:24945251

Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2014-01-01

223

78 FR 36749 - Determination Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act  

Science.gov (United States)

...be treated as ``folklore articles'' and...treatment under the African Growth and Opportunity...beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries, including...handmade, or folklore articles of a beneficiary...beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries and to...handloomed, handmade, folklore articles, or...

2013-06-19

224

75 FR 40774 - Determination Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act  

Science.gov (United States)

...be treated as ``folklore articles'' and...treatment under the African Growth and Opportunity...beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries, including...handmade, or folklore articles of a beneficiary...beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries and to...handloomed, handmade, folklore articles, or...

2010-07-14

225

Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework...

Gulinck Hubert; Peterson Andrew T; Neerinckx Simon B; Deckers Jozef; Leirs Herwig

2008-01-01

226

Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV1 (R0a was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. Results The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%, similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%. In addition, a small Indian influence (3% was also detected. Conclusion The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85% have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia.

Bosley Thomas M

2007-03-01

227

Earthquake and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation and Capacity Building in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The East African Rift System (EARS) is a classic example of active continental rifting, and a natural laboratory setting to study initiation and early stage evolution of continental rifts. The EARS is at different stages of development that varies from relatively matured rift (16 mm/yr) in the Afar to a weakly extended Okavango Delta in the south with predicted opening velocity < 3 mm/yr. Recent studies in the region helped researchers to highlight the length and timescales of magmatism and faulting, the partitioning of strain between faulting and magmatism, and their implications for the development of along-axis segmentation. Although the human resource and instrument coverage is sparse in the continent, our understanding of rift processes and deep structure has improved in the last decade after the advent of space geodesy and broadband seismology. The recent major earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mega dike intrusions that occurred along the EARS attracted several earth scientist teams across the globe. However, most African countries traversed by the rift do not have the full capacity to monitor and mitigate earthquake and volcanic hazards. Few monitoring facilities exist in some countries, and the data acquisition is rarely available in real-time for mitigation purpose. Many sub-Saharan Africa governments are currently focused on achieving the millennium development goals with massive infrastructure development scheme and urbanization while impending natural hazards of such nature are severely overlooked. Collaborations with overseas researchers and other joint efforts by the international community are opportunities to be used by African institutions to best utilize limited resources and to mitigate earthquake and volcano hazards.

Ayele, A.

2012-04-01

228

Harnessing Poverty Alleviation to Reduce the Stigma of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Alexander Tsai and colleagues highlight the complex relationship between poverty and HIV stigma in sub-Saharan Africa, and discuss possible ways to break the cycle. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Tsai, Alexander C.; Bangsberg, David R.; Weiser, Sheri D.

2013-01-01

229

mHealth in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Mobile phone penetration rates have reached 63% in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and are projected to pass 70% by 2013. In SSA, millions of people who never used traditional landlines now use mobile phones on a regular basis. Mobile health, or mHealth, is the utilization of short messaging service (SMS), wireless data transmission, voice calling, and smartphone applications to transmit health-related information or direct care. This systematic review analyzes and summarizes key articles from the current body of peer-reviewed literature on PubMed on the topic of mHealth in SSA. Studies included in the review demonstrate that mHealth can improve and reduce the cost of patient monitoring, medication adherence, and healthcare worker communication, especially in rural areas. mHealth has also shown initial promise in emergency and disaster response, helping standardize, store, analyze, and share patient information. Challenges for mHealth implementation in SSA include operating costs, knowledge, infrastructure, and policy among many others. Further studies of the effectiveness of mHealth interventions are being hindered by similar factors as well as a lack of standardization in study design. Overall, the current evidence is not strong enough to warrant large-scale implementation of existing mHealth interventions in SSA, but rapid progress of both infrastructure and mHealth-related research in the region could justify scale-up of the most promising programs in the near future. PMID:24369460

Betjeman, Thomas J.; Soghoian, Samara E.; Foran, Mark P.

2013-01-01

230

Antibacterial resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: an underestimated emergency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibacterial resistance-associated infections are known to increase morbidity, mortality, and cost of treatment, and to potentially put others in the community at higher risk of infections. In high-income countries, where the burden of infectious diseases is relatively modest, resistance to first-line antibacterial agents is usually overcome by use of second- and third-line agents. However, in developing countries where the burden of infectious diseases is high, patients with antibacterial-resistant infections may be unable to obtain or afford effective second-line treatments. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the situation is aggravated by poor hygiene, unreliable water supplies, civil conflicts, and increasing numbers of immunocompromised people, such as those with HIV, which facilitate both the evolution of resistant pathogens and their rapid spread in the community. Because of limited capacity for disease detection and surveillance, the burden of illnesses due to treatable bacterial infections, their specific etiologies, and the awareness of antibacterial resistance are less well established in most of SSA, and therefore the ability to mitigate their consequences is significantly limited. PMID:24628272

Kariuki, Samuel; Dougan, Gordon

2014-09-01

231

Searching for Opportunities for Sub-Saharan Africa's Renewal in the Era of Globalisation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries rely heavily on donor assistance and international borrowing. The Official Development Assistance (ODA)/GNP ratio in SSA is expected to rise well into the next century. Increases or decreases of ODA, which is known to be the main source of SSA's investment, may depend on the type of global settlement expected to emerge in the post-cold war world. SSA has therefore a stake on the type of globalisation which may frame world economic policy and financial aid to it. Neo-liberal globalisation has no enthusiasm for massive financial transfers. The incipient globalising ideas which emerged from the Rio Summit in 1992 have suggested to increase ODAs in real terms and debt relief to control crushing debt service payments. Agenda 21 has created new and additional facilities formally for increasing donor assistance in the form of financial and investment transfers. The question is whether this new mechanism will make any difference to stem the SSA decline and can "incentivise" the region's renewal or renaissance. This article will focus on how globalisation may be related to increase or decrease of financial transfer to SSA. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Muchie, Mammo

2000-01-01

232

Impact of Schistosoma mansoni on Malaria Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Malaria and Schistosoma mansoni are co-endemic in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies support the hypothesis that concurrent infection with S. mansoni is associated with greater malaria incidence among school-age children. We use mathematical modeling to evaluate the epidemiological impact of S. mansoni infection on malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Using epidemiological data on the increased risk of malaria incidence in S. mansoni ...

Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L.; Skrip, Laura; Greenhalgh, Scott; Hotez, Peter; Galvani, Alison P.

2014-01-01

233

Remittances and the Dutch disease in sub-Saharan Africa: A dynamic panel approach  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the effect of remittance inflows on real exchange rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using annual data from 1980 to 2008 for 34 countries, the method of moments estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995) and the feasible generalized least squares estimator developed by Parks (1967) and Kmenta (1986). We find that when cross-sectional dependence and individual effects are controlled for, remittances to sub-Saharan Africa as a whole increase the underlying real exch...

Owusu-sekyere, Emmanuel; Eyden, Renee?; Kemegue, Francis M.

2014-01-01

234

State of business ethics and field of teaching, training and research in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This article provides a comparative summary of the findings of the survey of Business Ethics as field of Teaching, Training and Reserach across the four sub-regions in Sub-Saharan Africa ( Western Africa, Southern Africa, Eastern Africa and Francophone Africa). The article commences with a discussion on the terminology that is used to refer to Business and Economic Ethics in Sub-Saharan Africa. It Then provides an overview of the prevalence and distribution of Business Ethics as field of Teac...

Rossouw, Deon

2011-01-01

235

Scholarly publishing in sub-Saharan Africa in the twenty-first century: Challenges and opportunities  

OpenAIRE

A free flow of ideas and information is vital to the process of scientific inquiry, and in turn to the ability to address economic, environmental and social development issues both in the sub?Saharan Africa region and globally. Most of the challenges facing scholarly publishing in sub?Saharan Africa are global and do not respect national boundaries. Scholarly publishing enables research findings of scholars to cross international boundaries to provide strong, positive connections be...

Ondari-okemwa, Ezra

2007-01-01

236

De-agrarianization and rural employment generation in sub-Saharan Africa : process and prospects  

OpenAIRE

Sub-Saharan Africa is steadily becoming less rural in character. For decades development thinking has prescribed industrialization as the virtuous path leading away from economic dependence on agriculture. The present paper rejects the view that rural or even national industrialization has taken place or is likely to take place in sub-Saharan Africa in the immediate future. The author argues that the preconditions for this happening are largely absent. She proposes an alternative perspective ...

Bryceson, D. F.

1993-01-01

237

The effect of climate change on economic growth: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper is a contribution to the empirics of climate change and its effect on sustainable economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using data on two climate variables, temperature and precipitation, and employing panel cointegration techniques, we estimate the short- and long-run effects of climate change on growth. We establish that an increase in temperature significantly reduces economic performance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, we show that the relationship between real gross domes...

Alagidede, Paul; Adu, George; Frimpong, Prince Boakye

2014-01-01

238

Rent seeking and hubs : towards a new economic geography of sub saharan africa  

OpenAIRE

This thesis is a modest attempt to uncover the main features and the underlying drives of Sub Saharan urbanization process. We begin by describing the stylized facts of urbanization in that region. Sub Saharan Africa’s urban pattern features urban bias and urban primacy. Locational advantages and political effects have induced a bias in favor of political capitals and ports. Thus, literature seems to emphasize rent-seeking and hubs determinants at the expense of agglomeration economies stre...

Pholo Bala, Alain

2009-01-01

239

A KIR B centromeric region present in Africans but not Europeans protects pregnant women from pre-eclampsia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In sub-Saharan Africans, maternal mortality is unacceptably high, with >400 deaths per 100,000 births compared with KIR) to recognize the fetal HLA-C molecules on invading trophoblast. We analyzed genetic polymorphisms of maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C in 484 normal and 254 pre-eclamptic pregnancies at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. The combination of maternal KIR AA genotypes and fetal HLA-C alleles encoding the C2 epitope associates with pre-eclampsia [P = 0.0318, odds ratio (OR) = 1.49]. The KIR genes associated with protection are located in centromeric KIR B regions that are unique to sub-Saharan African populations and contain the KIR2DS5 and KIR2DL1 genes (P = 0.0095, OR = 0.59). By contrast, telomeric KIR B genes protect Europeans against pre-eclampsia. Thus, different KIR B regions protect sub-Saharan Africans and Europeans from pre-eclampsia, whereas in both populations, the KIR AA genotype is a risk factor for the syndrome. These results emphasize the importance of undertaking genetic studies of pregnancy disorders in African populations with the potential to provide biological insights not available from studies restricted to European populations. PMID:25561558

Nakimuli, Annettee; Chazara, Olympe; Hiby, Susan E; Farrell, Lydia; Tukwasibwe, Stephen; Jayaraman, Jyothi; Traherne, James A; Trowsdale, John; Colucci, Francesco; Lougee, Emma; Vaughan, Robert W; Elliott, Alison M; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mirembe, Florence; Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Parham, Peter; Norman, Paul J; Moffett, Ashley

2015-01-20

240

Traditional herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa, and rates of hypertension control are low. Use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) is common among adults in sub-Saharan Africa and may affect hypertension therapy. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge in June 2013 to find studies about THM use among hypertensive patients living in sub-Saharan Africa. Two independent reviewers evaluated titles and abstracts. Qualifying references were reviewed in full text. Data were extracted using a standardized questionnaire. Four hundred and eighty-one references were retrieved, and four articles from two countries met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of THM use was 25-65% (average 38.6%). THM was the most common type of complementary and alternative medicines used by patients (86.7-96.6%). Among THM users, 47.5% concomitantly used both allopathic medicine and THM. Increased age (psupernatural cause of hypertension (RR 2.11), and family history of hypertension (OR 1.78) were positively associated with THM use, while belief that hypertension is preventable was negatively associated with THM use (OR 0.57). More than one-third of adults with hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa use THM. Half of these patients use THM concurrently with allopathic medicine. Healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa must discuss THM use with their hypertensive patients. More research is urgently needed to define the impact of THM use on hypertension control and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24764197

Liwa, Anthony C; Smart, Luke R; Frumkin, Amara; Epstein, Helen-Ann B; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Peck, Robert N

2014-06-01

241

Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Sub-Saharan Africa: current status of the Global Earthquake model (GEM) initiative in the region  

Science.gov (United States)

Large magnitude earthquakes have been observed in Sub-Saharan Africa in the recent past, such as the Machaze event of 2006 (Mw, 7.0) in Mozambique and the 2009 Karonga earthquake (Mw 6.2) in Malawi. The December 13, 1910 earthquake (Ms = 7.3) in the Rukwa rift (Tanzania) is the largest of all instrumentally recorded events known to have occurred in East Africa. The overall earthquake hazard in the region is on the lower side compared to other earthquake prone areas in the globe. However, the risk level is high enough for it to receive attention of the African governments and the donor community. The latest earthquake hazard map for the sub-Saharan Africa was done in 1999 and updating is long overdue as several development activities in the construction industry is booming allover sub-Saharan Africa. To this effect, regional seismologists are working together under the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) framework to improve incomplete, inhomogeneous and uncertain catalogues. The working group is also contributing to the UNESCO-IGCP (SIDA) 601 project and assessing all possible sources of data for the catalogue as well as for the seismotectonic characteristics that will help to develop a reasonable hazard model in the region. In the current progress, it is noted that the region is more seismically active than we thought. This demands the coordinated effort of the regional experts to systematically compile all available information for a better output so as to mitigate earthquake risk in the sub-Saharan Africa.

Ayele, Atalay; Midzi, Vunganai; Ateba, Bekoa; Mulabisana, Thifhelimbilu; Marimira, Kwangwari; Hlatywayo, Dumisani J.; Akpan, Ofonime; Amponsah, Paulina; Georges, Tuluka M.; Durrheim, Ray

2013-04-01

242

The modern pre-levodopa era of Parkinson's disease: insights into motor complications from sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past decade, a number of large drug trials suggested that the initiation of levodopa therapy should be delayed to reduce the risk of motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the relative contribution of the cumulative exposure to levodopa and of disease progression to the pathophysiology of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias is still poorly understood. In this 4-year multicentre study, we investigated a large cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease in a sub-Saharan African country (Ghana), where access to medication is limited and the initiation of levodopa therapy often occurs many years after onset. The primary objective was to investigate whether the occurrence of motor complications is primarily related to the duration of levodopa therapy or to disease-related factors. Study design included a cross-sectional case-control analysis of data collected between December 2008 and November 2012, and a prospective study of patients followed-up for at least 6 months after the initiation of levodopa therapy. Ninety-one patients fulfilled criteria for clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (58 males, mean age at onset 60.6 ± 11.3 years). Demographic data were compared to those of 2282 consecutive Italian patients recruited during the same period, whereas nested matched subgroups were used to compare clinical variables. Demographic features, frequency and severity of motor and non-motor symptoms were comparable between the two populations, with the only exception of more frequent tremor-dominant presentation in Ghana. At baseline, the proportion of Ghanaian patients with motor fluctuations and dyskinesias was 56% and 14%, respectively. Although levodopa therapy was introduced later in Ghana (mean disease duration 4.2 ± 2.8 versus 2.4 ± 2.1 years, P < 0.001), disease duration at the occurrence of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias was similar in the two populations. In multivariate analysis, disease duration and levodopa daily dose (mg/kg of body weight) were associated with motor complications, while the disease duration at the initiation of levodopa was not. Prospective follow-up for a mean of 2.6 ± 1.3 years of a subgroup of 21 patients who were drug-naïve at baseline [median disease duration 4.5 (interquartile range, 2.3-5) years] revealed that the median time to development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias after initiation of levodopa therapy was 6 months. We conclude that motor fluctuations and dyskinesias are not associated with the duration of levodopa therapy, but rather with longer disease duration and higher levodopa daily dose. Hence, the practice to withhold levodopa therapy with the objective of delaying the occurrence of motor complications is not justified. PMID:25034897

Cilia, Roberto; Akpalu, Albert; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Cham, Momodou; Amboni, Marianna; Cereda, Emanuele; Fabbri, Margherita; Adjei, Patrick; Akassi, John; Bonetti, Alba; Pezzoli, Gianni

2014-10-01

243

Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops--green manures--and agroforestry--legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers, green manures, or improved tree fallows will remain low without policies that address access, costs, and lack of incentives. Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region. PMID:20453198

Palm, Cheryl A; Smukler, Sean M; Sullivan, Clare C; Mutuo, Patrick K; Nyadzi, Gerson I; Walsh, Markus G

2010-11-16

244

Poverty reduction in rural areasof low-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa: Assessing the role of agricultural productivity and socio-economic environment  

OpenAIRE

Nowadays, agricultural prices are highlighted combined with, as alleged collateral effects, hunger and malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, today, SSA has around 47,5 percent of rural population in extreme poverty and between 1990 and 2005 when the food prices was stable and with low prices, extreme poverty in SSA involved around 64.6 percent. We assumed that the undernourishment or starvation continued in SSA because there the misery persisted. Poverty reduction is the only ...

Godinho Bertoncello, Alexandre

2013-01-01

245

Mitochondrial DNA and ancient population growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has entered a new phase with an increasing emphasis on interpretations of demographic, rather than phylogenetic, history. Human mtDNA variation fits a "sudden expansion" model, where the human species expanded rapidly in size during the Late Pleistocene. This paper examines the sudden expansion model with the goal of partitioning total mtDNA diversity in contemporary populations into two components--diversity that existed prior to the population expansion and diversity that arose after the expansion. A method is developed for estimating these components. Analysis of mtDNA diversity within selected human populations shows that 64-80% of mtDNA diversity in contemporary populations arose after the expansion, a consequence of a high mutation rate relative to the number of generations since expansion. The basic model is extended to two components of excess diversity in sub-Saharan Africa--differences in population size before the expansion and differences in the timing of expansion. Results suggest that excess sub-Saharan African mtDNA diversity is due to the combined effects of the sub-Saharan African population being larger in size prior to the expansion and expanding earlier. PMID:9537924

Relethford, J H

1998-01-01

246

Estimate of the burden of snakebites in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analytic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Snakebites represent an important neglected public health problem in many developing countries. There is a lack of epidemiological data, which would be very useful for the organisation of snakebite management and provision of antivenom. An extensive literature search for the years 1970-2010 was performed. Data were analysed using meta-analysis to take into account the heterogeneity between the studies and their respective weight. Incidence, mortality and population at risk were estimated after stratification according to the environment (urban or rural) and survey methodologies (national, hospital or community studies). The incidence of snakebite was inversely correlated with population density. The number of envenomings was estimated at 314,078 [CI95% = 251,513-377,462], of which 95% occurred in rural areas. The remainder occurred in cities. The annual mortality was estimated at 7,331 [5,148-9,568], of which 97% occurred in a rural environment. The annual number of amputations ranged from 5,908 to 14,614. The population most at risk was young men engaged in agricultural or pastoral labours. Household surveys indicated that actual incidence and mortality were likely 3-5 times higher. The difference maybe explained by treatment seeking behaviour. However, incidences and mortalities reported here reflect the number of patients who attend modern health facilities, giving underestimated figures of the burden of snakebites in sub-Saharan Africa but realistic current requirements for antivenoms. PMID:21223975

Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

2011-03-15

247

Environmental heterogeneity predicts species richness of freshwater mollusks in sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Species diversity and how it is structured on a continental scale is influenced by stochastic, ecological, and evolutionary driving forces, but hypotheses on determining factors have been mainly examined for terrestrial and marine organisms. The extant diversity of African freshwater mollusks is in general well assessed to facilitate conservation strategies and because of the medical importance of several taxa as intermediate hosts for tropical parasites. This historical accumulation of knowledge has, however, not resulted in substantial macroecological studies on the spatial distribution of freshwater mollusks. Here, we use continental distribution data and a recently developed method of random and cohesive allocation of species distribution ranges to test the relative importance of various factors in shaping species richness of Bivalvia and Gastropoda. We show that the mid-domain effect, that is, a hump-shaped richness gradient in a geographically bounded system despite the absence of environmental gradients, plays a minor role in determining species richness of freshwater mollusks in sub-Saharan Africa. The western branch of the East African Rift System was included as dispersal barrier in richness models, but these simulation results did not fit observed diversity patterns significantly better than models where this effect was not included, which suggests that the rift has played a more complex role in generating diversity patterns. Present-day precipitation and temperature explain richness patterns better than Eemian climatic condition. Therefore, the availability of water and energy for primary productivity during the past does not influence current species richness patterns much, and observed diversity patterns appear to be in equilibrium with contemporary climate. The availability of surface waters was the best predictor of bivalve and gastropod richness. Our data indicate that habitat diversity causes the observed species-area relationship, and hence, that environmental heterogeneity is a principal driver of freshwater mollusk richness on a continental scale.

Hauffe, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Van Bocxlaer, B.; Prömmel, K.; Albrecht, C.

2014-12-01

248

Climate Change and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years it has become clear that climate change is an inevitable process. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the expectation is that climate change will have an especially negative impact, not only a result of projected warming and rainfall deficits, but also because of the vulnerability of the population. The impact upon food security will be of great significance, and may be defined as being composed of three components: availability, access, and utilization. To further investigate the link, a systematic literature review was done of the peer-reviewed literature related to climate change and food security, employing the realist review method. Analysis of the literature found consistent predictions of decreased crop productivity, land degradation, high market prices, negative impacts on livelihoods, and increased malnutrition. Adaptation strategies were heavily discussed as a means of mitigating a situation of severe food insecurity across the entire region. This is linked to issues of development, whereby adaptation is essential to counteract the negative impacts and improve the potential of the population to undergo development processes. Findings additionally revealed a gap in the literature about how nutrition will be affected, which is of importance given the links between poor nutrition and lack of productivity.

Heather E. Thompson

2010-08-01

249

Cultural phylogeography of the Bantu Languages of sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is disagreement about the routes taken by populations speaking Bantu languages as they expanded to cover much of sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we build phylogenetic trees of Bantu languages and map them onto geographical space in order to assess the likely pathway of expansion and test between dispersal scenarios. The results clearly support a scenario in which groups first moved south through the rainforest from a homeland somewhere near the Nigeria-Cameroon border. Emerging on the south side of the rainforest, one branch moved south and west. Another branch moved towards the Great Lakes, eventually giving rise to the monophyletic clade of East Bantu languages that inhabit East and Southeastern Africa. These phylogenies also reveal information about more general processes involved in the diversification of human populations into distinct ethnolinguistic groups. Our study reveals that Bantu languages show a latitudinal gradient in covering greater areas with increasing distance from the equator. Analyses suggest that this pattern reflects a true ecological relationship rather than merely being an artefact of shared history. The study shows how a phylogeographic approach can address questions relating to the specific histories of certain groups, as well as general cultural evolutionary processes. PMID:23658203

Currie, Thomas E; Meade, Andrew; Guillon, Myrtille; Mace, Ruth

2013-07-01

250

Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Virtually no African country provides HIV prevention services in sex work settings with an adequate scale and intensity. Uncertainty remains about the optimal set of interventions and mode of delivery. Methods: We systematically reviewed studies reporting interventions for reducing HIV transmission among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa between January 2000 and July 2011. Medline (PubMed and non-indexed journals were searched for studies with quantitative study outcomes. Results: We located 26 studies, including seven randomized trials. Evidence supports implementation of the following interventions to reduce unprotected sex among female sex workers: peer-mediated condom promotion, risk-reduction counselling and skills-building for safer sex. One study found that interventions to counter hazardous alcohol-use lowered unprotected sex. Data also show effectiveness of screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs and syndromic STI treatment, but experience with periodic presumptive treatment is limited. HIV testing and counselling is essential for facilitating sex workers’ access to care and antiretroviral treatment (ART, but testing models for sex workers and indeed for ART access are little studied, as are structural interventions, which create conditions conducive for risk reduction. With the exception of Senegal, persistent criminalization of sex work across Africa reduces sex workers’ control over working conditions and impedes their access to health services. It also obstructs health-service provision and legal protection. Conclusions: There is sufficient evidence of effectiveness of targeted interventions with female sex workers in Africa to inform delivery of services for this population. With improved planning and political will, services – including peer interventions, condom promotion and STI screening – would act at multiple levels to reduce HIV exposure and transmission efficiency among sex workers. Initiatives are required to enhance access to HIV testing and ART for sex workers, using current CD4 thresholds, or possibly earlier for prevention. Services implemented at sufficient scale and intensity also serve as a platform for subsequent community mobilization and sex worker empowerment, and alleviate a major source of incident infection sustaining even generalized HIV epidemics. Ultimately, structural and legal changes that align public health and human rights are needed to ensure that sex workers on the continent are adequately protected from HIV.

Matthew F Chersich

2013-03-01

251

A cross-sectional study of vascular risk factors in a rural South African population: data from the Southern African Stroke Prevention Initiative (SASPI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural sub-Saharan Africa is at an early stage of economic and health transition. It is predicted that the 21st century will see a serious added economic burden from non-communicable disease including vascular disease in low-income countries as they progress through the transition. The stage of vascular disease in a population is thought to result from the prevalence of vascular risk factors. Already hypertension and stroke are common in adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Using a multidisciplinary approach we aimed to assess the prevalence of several vascular risk factors in Agincourt, a rural demographic surveillance site in South Africa. Methods We performed a cross sectional random sample survey of adults aged over 35 in Agincourt (population ? 70 000. Participants were visited at home by a trained nurse who administered a questionnaire, carried out clinical measurements and took a blood sample. From this we assessed participants' history of vascular risk, blood pressure using an OMRON 705 CP monitor, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, ankle brachial index (ABI, and total and HDL cholesterol. Results 402 people (24% men participated. There was a high prevalence of smoking in men, but the number of cigarettes smoked was small. There was a striking difference in mean BMI between men and women (22.8 kg/m2 versus 27.2 kg/m2, but levels of blood pressure were very similar. 43% of participants had a blood pressure greater than 140/90 or were on anti-hypertensive treatment and 37% of participants identified with measured high blood pressure were on pharmacological treatment. 12% of participants had an ABI of 5 mmol/l. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of hypertension, obesity in women, and a suggestion of subclinical atheroma despite relatively favourable cholesterol levels in a rural South African population. South Africa is facing the challenge of an emerging epidemic of vascular disease. Research to establish the social determinates of these risk factors and interventions to reduce both individual and population risk are required.

Tollman Stephen

2007-11-01

252

The role of ‘hidden’ community volunteers in community-based health service delivery platforms: examples from sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Community-based research on child survival in sub-Saharan Africa has focussed on the increased provision of curative health services by a formalised cadre of lay community health workers (CHWs, but we have identified a particular configuration, that deserves closer scrutiny. We identified a two-tiered CHW system, with the first tier being the lessor known or ‘hidden’ community/village level volunteers and the second tier being formal, paid CHWs, in Ethiopia, Mali, and Niger. Whilst the disease-focussed tasks of the formal CHW tier may be more amenable to classic epidemiological surveillance, we postulate that understanding the relationship between formalised CHWs and volunteer cadres, in terms of scope, location of practice and ratio to population, would be important for a comprehensive evaluation of child survival in these countries. We report on the findings from our joint qualitative and quantitative investigations, highlighting the need to recognise the ‘hidden’ contribution of volunteers. We need to better characterize the volunteers’ interaction with community-based and primary care services and to better understand ways to improve the volunteer systems with the right type of investments. This is particularly important for considering the models for scale-up of CHWs in sub-Saharan Africa.

Natalie Leon

2015-03-01

253

New technologies to diagnose and monitor infectious diseases of livestock: challenges for sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) as an example, this review describes new tools that can be used to detect and characterise livestock diseases. In recent years, molecular tests that can detect and characterise pathogens in a diverse range of sample types have revolutionised laboratory diagnostics. In addition to use in centralised laboratories, there are opportunities to locate diagnostic technologies close to the animals with suspected clinical signs. Work in this area has developed simple-to-use lateral-flow devices for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV), as well as new hardware platforms to allow molecular testing to be deployed into the field for use by non-specialists. Once FMDV has been detected, nucleotide sequencing is used to compare field strains with reference viruses. Transboundary movements of FMDV are routinely monitored using VP1 sequence data, while higher resolution transmission trees (at the farm-to-farm level) can be reconstructed using full-genome sequencing approaches. New technologies such as next-generation sequencing technologies are now being applied to dissect the viral sequence populations that exist within single samples. The driving force for the use of these technologies has largely been influenced by the priorities of developed countries with FMD-free (without vaccination) status. However, it is important to recognise that these approaches also show considerable promise for use in countries where FMD is endemic, although further modifications (such as sample archiving and strain and serotype characterisation) may be required to tailor these tests for use in these regions. Access to these new diagnostic and sequencing technologies in sub-Saharan Africa have the potential to provide novel insights into FMD epidemiology and will impact upon improved strategies for disease control.Effective control of infectious diseases is reliant upon accurate diagnosis of clinical cases using laboratory tests, together with an understanding of factors that impact upon the epidemiology of the infectious agent. A wide range of new diagnostic tools and nucleotide sequencing methods are used by international reference laboratories to detect and characterise the agents causing outbreaks of infectious diseases. In the past, high costs (initial capital expenses, as well as day-to-day maintenance and running costs) and complexity of the protocols used to perform some of these tests have limited the use of these methods in smaller laboratories. However, simpler and more cost-effective formats are now being developed that offer the prospect that these technologies will be even more widely deployed into laboratories particularly those in developing regions of the world such as sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23327376

King, Donald P; Madi, Miki; Mioulet, Valerie; Wadsworth, Jemma; Wright, Caroline F; Valdazo-González, Begoña; Ferris, Nigel P; Knowles, Nick J; Hammond, Jef

2012-01-01

254

Health Services Utilization Among South African Women Living with HIV and Reporting Sexual and Substance-Use Risk Behaviors  

OpenAIRE

HIV health services are critical in sub-Saharan African where the burden of the HIV pandemic is devastating. Existing studies suggest that HIV-infected individuals from marginalized populations who know their status do not seek health services because they are unaware of available treatment and care options, may not understand how to access services, or have poor access to and utilization of health care services. This study examined factors associated with health service utilization in a samp...

Luseno, Winnie K.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Kline, Tracy L.; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt

2010-01-01

255

A global approach to the management of EMR (Electronic Medical Records) of patients with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: the experience of DREAM Software  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The DREAM Project operates within the framework of the national health systems of several sub-Saharan African countries and aims to introduce the essential components of an integrated strategy for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. The project is intended to serve as a model for a wide-ranging scale-up in the response to the epidemic. This paper aims to show DREAM's challenges and the solutions adopted. One of the solutions is the efficient management of the clinica...

Peroni Marco; Giglio Pietro; Masi Fabio; Bartolo Michelangelo; Bernava Giuseppe M; Nucita Andrea; Pizzimenti Giovanni; Palombi Leonardo

2009-01-01

256

Operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa: constraints, dilemmas and strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The continued poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa highlight the difficulties in reforming policies and laws, and implementing effective programmes. This paper uses one international and two national case studies to reflect on the challenges, dilemmas and strategies used in operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR in different African contexts. Methods The international case study focuses on the progress made by African countries in implementing the African Union’s Maputo Plan of Action (for the Operationalisation of the Continental Policy Framework for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights and the experiences of state and non-state stakeholders in this process. The case was developed from an evaluation report of the progress made by nine African countries in implementing the Plan of Action, qualitative interviews exploring stakeholders’ experiences and perceptions of the operationalisation of the plan (carried out as part of the evaluation in Botswana and Nigeria, and authors’ reflections. The first national case study explores the processes involved in influencing Ghana’s Domestic Violence Act passed in 2007; developed from a review of scientific papers and organisational publications on the processes involved in influencing the Act, qualitative interview data and authors’ reflections. The second national case study examines the experiences with introducing the 2006 Sexual Offences Act in Kenya, and it is developed from organisational publications on the processes of enacting the Act and a review of media reports on the debates and passing of the Act. Results Based on the three cases, we argue that prohibitive laws and governments’ reluctance to institute and implement comprehensive rights approaches to SRH, lack of political leadership and commitment to funding SRHR policies and programmes, and dominant negative cultural framing of women’s issues present the major obstacles to operationalising SRH rights. Analysis of successes points to the strategies for tackling these challenges, which include forming and working through strategic coalitions, employing strategic framing of SRHR issues to counter opposition and gain support, collaborating with government, and employing strategic opportunism. Conclusion The strategies identified show future pathways through which challenges to the realisation of SRHR in Africa can be tackled.

Oronje Rose

2011-12-01

257

Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T

2008-01-01

258

Grandmothers' productivity and the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic has left large numbers of orphans in sub-Saharan Africa. Botswana has an HIV prevalence rate of approximately 40% in adults. Morbidity and mortality are high, and in a population of a 1.3 million there are nearly 50,000 children who have lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS. The extended family, particularly grandparents, absorbs much of the childrearing responsibilities. This creates large amounts of additional work for grandmothers especially. The embodied capital model and the grandmother hypothesis are both derived from life history theory within evolutionary ecology, and both predict that one important factor in the evolution of the human extended family structure is that postreproductive individuals such as grandmothers provide substantial support to their grandchildren's survival. Data collected in the pre-pandemic context in a traditional multi-ethnic community in the Okavango Delta of Botswana are analyzed to calculate the amount of work effort provided to a household by women of different ages. Results show that the contributions of older and younger women to the household in term of both productivity and childrearing are qualitatively and quantitatively different. These results indicate that it is unrealistic to expect older women to be able to compensate for the loss of younger women's contributions to the household, and that interventions be specifically designed to support older women based on the type of activities in which they engage that affect child survival, growth, and development. PMID:18193346

Bock, John; Johnson, Sara E

2008-06-01

259

Environmental and economic impacts of livestock productivity increase in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not matching the annual 2.5 % growth of its population. Regional per capita meat and milk production corresponds, respectively, to about 13 and 8 % of developed countries indicators. Livestock performances in this region have decreased within the last 30 years. In fact, SSA, with a 12 % bovine extraction rate against a world average of 21 %, includes about 16 % of world cattle, only producing 6 and 2.6 % of global meat and milk, respectively. These low performances have economic and environmental consequences reflecting the necessity for upgrading livestock managing skills in the region. This effort includes various components such as sanitary prophylaxis, reproduction, nutrition, and in particular, substantial increase in livestock yield for human consumption. This will allow for an improved animal and pasture management and soil preservation, enhancing meat production and decreasing methane and nitrogen emissions from enteric fermentation and manure processing. These environmental gains due to increased livestock off-take rates can represent relevant credits in the global Environmental Carbon Market under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Kyoto protocol. These credits can be used for investments in livestock essential services and marketing facilities leading to improved productivity. PMID:22528537

Cardoso, Luis Alfaro

2012-12-01

260

Energy services in sub-Saharan Africa: how conducive is the environment?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bulk of rural populations in sub-Saharan Africa have no access to electricity and are under-served by any other form of modern infrastructure. The cost of infrastructure to mainly scattered communities has been perennially cited as largely to blame. This is an undeniable truth, but only part of it. There are in addition, myriads of social, economic and political obstacles that play an unquantified and frequently unrecognized negative role. At the route of the problem lies a subdued role of the would-be recipients who in fact, unlike anybody else, are conversant with their problems. Consequently, a number of products may come as impositions or misplaced priorities. Consumer participation for sustainable development has been articulated at international forums and in publications as being advantageous. In practice however, the concept appears to be generally shunned and even when, occasionally, tried the needs of the consumers are presumed and their roles prescribed. This paper discusses a range of social, economic and political issues that constitute major obstacles to the realisation of sustainable rural development

261

An association between neighbourhood wealth inequality and hiv prevalence in sub-saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates whether community-level wealth inequality predicts HIV serostatus using DHS household survey and HIV biomarker data for men and women ages 15-59 pooled from six sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates exceeding 5%. The analysis relates the binary dependent variable HIV-positive serostatus and two weighted aggregate predictors generated from the DHS Wealth Index: the Gini coefficient, and the ratio of the wealth of households in the top 20% wealth quintile to that of those in the bottom 20%. In separate multilevel logistic regression models, wealth inequality is used to predict HIV prevalence within each statistical enumeration area, controlling for known individual-level demographic predictors of HIV serostatus. Potential individual-level sexual behaviour mediating variables are added to assess attenuation, and ordered logit models investigate whether the effect is mediated through extramarital sexual partnerships. Both the cluster-level wealth Gini coefficient and wealth ratio significantly predict positive HIV serostatus: a 1 point increase in the cluster-level Gini coefficient and in the cluster-level wealth ratio is associated with a 2.35 and 1.3 times increased likelihood of being HIV positive, respectively, controlling for individual-level demographic predictors, and associations are stronger in models including only males. Adding sexual behaviour variables attenuates the effects of both inequality measures. Reporting eleven plus lifetime sexual partners increases the odds of being HIV positive over five-fold. The likelihood of having more extramarital partners is significantly higher in clusters with greater wealth inequality measured by the wealth ratio. Disaggregating logit models by sex indicates important risk behaviour differences. Household wealth inequality within DHS clusters predicts HIV serostatus, and the relationship is partially mediated by more extramarital partners. These results emphasize the importance of incorporating higher-level contextual factors, investigating behavioural mediators, and disaggregating by sex in assessing HIV risk in order to uncover potential mechanisms of action and points of preventive intervention. PMID:24406021

Brodish, Paul Henry

2015-05-01

262

The relationship between female genital mutilation and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an age-old practice that has since been linked with many health problems. This review aims to highlight some of the controversies trailing the relationship between FGM and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. A literature search was conducted on the subject matter. This was done using articles published in English while limiting the geographical coverage to sub-Saharan Africa. Three themes were noted. These themes include: Direct causal link between FGM and HIV transmission; indirect causal link between FGM and HIV transmission and a negative or no association between FGM and HIV transmission. While many of the arguments are within scientific reasoning, the researches supporting the views seem to lack the necessary objectivity. This study underscored the need for a more objective lens in viewing and conducting research on the relationship between FGM and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24689327

Olaniran, Abimbola A

2013-12-01

263

State Recognition and Democratization in Sub-Saharan Africa : A New Dawn for Chiefs?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

State Recognition and Democractization in Sub-Saharan Africa? explores the link between liberal-style democratization and state recognition of traditional authority in Sub-Saharan Africa. Being critical and empirically grounded, the book explores the complex, often counter-balancing consequences of the involvement of traditional authority in the wave of democratization and liberal-style state-building that has rolled over sub-Saharan Africa in the past decade. It scrutinizes how, in practice, traditional leaders are being drawn into governance in Mozambique, Zambia, Namibia, Malawi, Burkina Faso, and the Somali region of Ethiopia, and relates these developments to state governance in the declining democracy of Zimbabwe and the emerging state of Northern Somalia.

Buur, Lars; Kyed, Helene Maria

2007-01-01

264

A review of parasite studies of commercially important marine fishes in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scattered records of parasitic species infecting commercially important marine fishes in sub-Saharan Africa are known from just a few countries where concerted efforts have been made by local parasitologists (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, South Africa). Most of these consist of taxonomic records or general surveys of parasite faunas associated with marine hosts, which may or may not have been of commercial value. Little to no multi-disciplinary research is conducted in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa and hence parasitological data are not commonly used to advise fisheries management procedures. This review summarizes current knowledge on all parasitological research associated with commercially important marine fish species in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24785716

Reed, Cecile C

2015-01-01

265

An evaluation of a morphine public health programme for cancer and AIDS pain relief in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite growing HIV and cancer prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa, and WHO advocacy for a public health approach to palliative care provision, opioid availability is severely limited. Uganda has achieved a morphine roll-out programme in partnership with the Ministry of Health. This study aimed to evaluate that programme by identifying challenges to implementation that may inform replication. Methods A multi-methods protocol appraised morphine regulation, storage, prescribing, and consumption in three phases: key informant interviews throughout the opioid supply chain, and direct observation and audit of clinical practice. Results Regulation had achieved its goal of preventing misuse and leakage from the supply chain. However, the Government felt that relaxation of regulation was now appropriate. Confusion and complexity in storage and authorisation rules led to discontinuation of opioid pain management at the patient level and also wasted service time in trying to obtain supplies to which they were entitled. Continued neglect to prescribe among clinicians and public fear of opioids led to under prescribing, and clinical skills showed some evidence of need for improvement with respect to physical assessment and follow-up. Conclusion The Ugandan programme offers a successful model for both advocacy and Governmental support in achieving opioid roll-out across health districts. Despite initial concerns, abuse of opioids has not been evident. Further work is required to ensure that available supplies of opioids are prescribed to those in need, and that clinical standards are met. However, the programme for roll-out has proved a useful model to expand opioid availability as the first step in improving patient care, and may prove a useful template for other Sub-Saharan African countries.

Harding Richard

2005-08-01

266

Independent Introduction of Two Lactase-Persistence Alleles into Human Populations Reflects Different History of Adaptation to Milk Culture  

OpenAIRE

The T?13910 variant located in the enhancer element of the lactase (LCT) gene correlates perfectly with lactase persistence (LP) in Eurasian populations whereas the variant is almost nonexistent among Sub-Saharan African populations, showing high prevalence of LP. Here, we report identification of two new mutations among Saudis, also known for the high prevalence of LP. We confirmed the absence of the European T?13910 and established two new mutations found as a compound allele: T/G?139...

Enattah, Nabil Sabri; Jensen, Tine G. K.; Nielsen, Mette; Lewinski, Rikke; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Rasinpera, Heli; El-shanti, Hatem; Seo, Jeong Kee; Alifrangis, Michael; Khalil, Insaf F.; Natah, Abdrazak; Ali, Ahmed; Natah, Sirajedin; Comas, David; Mehdi, S. Qasim

2008-01-01

267

"In the Fell Clutch of Circumstance": HIV and Men Who Have Sex With Men in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have been repeatedly found to have high risk of HIV infection, and in spite of the differing nature of the HIV epidemic in the general population between East and Southern Africa, and West and Central Africa, MSM are disproportionately affected by HIV across the entire region. Recent research has examined the drivers of HIV risk, and the dynamics of the MSM HIV epidemic in greater detail. However, this growing knowledge has generally not been translated into effective HIV prevention interventions. In part, this is due to the highly stigmatised and frequently criminalised nature of same-sex sexualities in much of the region. Without human-rights-based advocacy targeting governments and interventions aiming to decrease stigma and homophobia, translating research into effective HIV interventions for MSM in SSA at the scale needed to reduce HIV transmission in this population remains highly unlikely. PMID:25637162

Jobson, Geoffrey; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James

2015-03-01

268

Unraveling the unsustainability spiral in sub-Saharan Africa: an agent based modelling approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is trapped in a complex unsustainability spiral with demographic, biophysical, technical and socio-political dimensions. Unravelling the spiral is vital to perceive which policy actions are needed to reverse it and initiate sustainable pro-poor growth. The article presents an evolutionary, multi-agent modelling framework that marries a socio-ecological approach to a world system perspective and takes agriculture as the engine for sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa. A number of possibilities for empirical validation are proposed.

Joep A. van den Broek

2007-10-01

269

Is HIV/AIDS Epidemic Outcome of Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa?  

OpenAIRE

Undisputable fact is that 14?000 people in Sub-Saharan Africa are being infected daily with HIV and 11?000 are dying every day due to HIV/AIDS related illnesses. In this region more than 60% of the people live below UN poverty line of US$ 1 per day. Some studies have shown that poverty and HIV infection are in correlation, but none has shown whether HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa is an outcome of poverty. This article, therefore, shows that HIV is an important outcome of poverty, with sex...

Dzimnenani Mbirimtengerenji, Noel

2007-01-01

270

Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intell...

Aguocha Chinyere M; Okoroikpa Ifeoma N; Ubochi Vincent N; Bakare Muideen O; Ebigbo Peter O

2009-01-01

271

The African Development Bank and women's health: A cross-national analysis of structural adjustment and maternal mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment lending adversely impacts maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We analyze data for thirty-five Sub-Saharan African nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005) with generalized least squares random effects regression models and modified two-step Heckman models that correct for potential endogeneity regarding whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nations receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We find support for our hypothesis that indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of maternal mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for endogeneity. We conclude by talking about the theoretical and methodological implications along with possible directions for future research. PMID:25769869

Coburn, Carolyn; Restivo, Michael; Shandra, John M

2015-05-01

272

Smallholder Irrigation and Crop Diversification under Climate Change in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence and Potential for Simultaneous Food Security, Adaptation, and Mitigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The poorest populations in sub-Saharan Africa live in rural areas and depend on smallholder agricultural production for their livelihoods. Over 90% of all farmed area in Sub-Saharan Africa is rainfed, with crop production centering on 3-5 months of rainfall. Rapid population growth is reducing land per capita ratios, and low yields for staple crops make food security an increasingly challenging goal. Malnutrition, most noticeable among children, peaks during the dry season. Recent data on aggregate economic growth and investment in Africa hide these patterns of seasonal hunger and income disparity. Perhaps most perversely, smallholder farmers in the dry tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa are (and will continue to be) some of the earliest and hardest hit by climate change. Our research focuses on the role distributed, small-scale irrigation can play in food security and climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa. As Asia's agricultural success has demonstrated, irrigation, when combined with the availability of inputs (fertilizer) and improved crop varieties, can enable year-round production, growth in rural incomes, and a dramatic reduction in hunger. The situation in Africa is markedly different: agroecological conditions are far more heterogeneous than in Asia and evaporation rates are relatively high; most smallholders lack access to fertilizers; and market integration is constrained by infrastructure, information, and private sector incentives. Yet from a resource perspective, national- and regional-level estimates suggest that Internal Renewable Water Resources (IRWR) are nowhere near fully exploited in Sub-Saharan Africa -- even in the Sudano-Sahel, which is considered to be one of the driest regions of the continent. Irrigation can thus be implemented on a much larger scale sustainably. We will present (a) results from controlled, experimental field studies of solar-powered drip irrigation systems in the rural Sudano-Sahel region of West Africa. We have shown that such systems can be implemented in a cost-competitive and environmentally responsible manner, with significant and sustained impact on livelihoods. These findings will be coupled with (b) case studies of successful and failed irrigation projects across the continent that reveal technical and institutional requirements for success; and (c) regional and continental data that quantify the larger-scale food security, development, adaptation, and mitigation potentials of these types of smallholder systems.

Naylor, R.; Burney, J. A.; Postel, S.

2011-12-01

273

Nonformal Education and Informal Economies in Sub-Saharan Africa: Finding the Right Match  

Science.gov (United States)

Education policy in sub-Saharan Africa is predicated on human capital assumptions and therefore promotes the expansion of formal education as a way to promote economic growth. As a result, formal education is valued primarily as a private consumer good, a form of cultural capital that allows some to get ahead and stay ahead, rather than as a…

Minnis, John R.

2006-01-01

274

The impact of solar ultraviolet radiation on human health in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Photoprotection messages and ‘SunSmart’ programmes exist mainly to prevent skin cancers and, more recently, to encourage adequate personal sun exposure to elicit a vitamin D response for healthy bone and immune systems. Several developed countries maintain intensive research networks and monitor solar UV radiation to support awareness campaigns and intervention development. The situation is different in sub-Saharan Africa. Adequate empirical evidence of the impact of solar UV radiation on human health, even for melanomas and cataracts, is lacking, and is overshadowed by other factors such as communicable diseases, especially HIV, AIDS and tuberculosis. In addition, the established photoprotection messages used in developed countries have been adopted and implemented in a limited number of sub-Saharan countries but with minimal understanding of local conditions and behaviours. In this review, we consider the current evidence for sun-related effects on human health in sub-Saharan Africa, summarise published research and identify key issues. Data on the prevalence of human diseases affected by solar UV radiation in all subpopulations are not generally available, financial support is insufficient and the infrastructure to address these and other related topics is inadequate. Despite these limitations, considerable progress may be made regarding the management of solar UV radiation related health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, provided researchers collaborate and resources are allocated appropriately.

Caradee Y. Wright

2012-10-01

275

Strategies for Managing Digital Records and Documents in the Public Sector in Sub Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The government is the largest collector and disseminator of records and documents in Sub Saharan Africa. Traditionally, the bulk of the information has been paper-based. The advent of information technology brought about digital formats. Plans for ensuring the survival of digital information are inadequate. In fact, instances have been reported…

Ngulube, Patrick

276

An estimate of the prevalence of epilepsy in Sub–Saharan Africa: A systematic analysis  

OpenAIRE

Epilepsy is a leading serious neurological condition worldwide and has particularly significant physical, economic and social consequences in Sub–Saharan Africa. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of epilepsy prevalence in this region and how this varies by age and sex so as to inform understanding of the disease characteristics as well as the development of infrastructure, services and policies.

Abigail Paul; Davies Adeloye; Rhiannon George-Carey; Ivana Kolci?; Liz Grant; Kit Yee Chan

2012-01-01

277

Higher Education Strategic Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Cameroon.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues that a framework for strategic planning in universities in Sub-Saharan Africa can be developed with the background of global, regional, and institutional realities. Using the specific case of the University of Buea in Cameroon, the paper attempts to expose the global trends of polarization in knowledge production capacity as an…

Ngwana, Terfot Augustine

278

Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations  

CERN Document Server

A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

Blaha, S

2003-01-01

279

Library Automation in Sub Saharan Africa: Case Study of the University of Botswana  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This article aims to present experiences and the lessons learned from the University of Botswana (UB) library automation project. The implications of the project for similar libraries planning automation in sub Saharan Africa and beyond are adduced. Design/methodology/approach: The article is a case study of library automation at the…

Mutula, Stephen Mudogo

2012-01-01

280

Population genetics of African ungulates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Molecular genetic techniques were used to gain insights into the evolutionary forces that have shaped the present day diversity of African savannah ungu-lates, which constitute the most species-rich mega faunal assemblage on earth. The studies included in this thesis represent individual species-specific data sets, which are used to elucidate evolutionary processes of importance to the savannah ungulate community. Patterns of DNA variation were analyzed to assess the genetic signatures of Pleistocene refugia and investigate aspects of speciation, intraspecific structuring, hybridization, and historic migration pat-terns.

Lorenzen, Eline

2009-01-01

281

Mobile Phone-Based mHealth Approaches for Public Health Surveillance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM, BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC, the Public Library of Science (PLoS and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3, tuberculosis (n = 1 and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1 as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2, maternal health (n = 1 and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1. Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

Johanna Brinkel

2014-11-01

282

Easing rural womens' working day in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the interface between work conditions of rural women in Africa and Western perceptions and interventions to address them. From a schematic review of Western attitudes towards African rural women's work, the paper moves on to consider donor intervention directed at improving rural women's status. The central question posed is how external donor agenciescan extend beyond localized project efforts to provide the material foundation for facilitating widespread change in women'...

Bryceson, D. F.

1993-01-01

283

Social Capital and Agricultural Innovation in Sub Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we use a novel and extensive dataset to explore the association between different forms of social capital and innovation in agriculture, for a sample of African countries. We find mixed evidence. While structural social capital, especially in the form of connections beyond the village, is associated with more extensive adoption of innovations, the reverse is true for cognitive social capital (capturing shared norms and trust within the local community).

Rijn, F. C.; Bulte, E. H.; Adekunle, A.

2012-01-01

284

Novel IRF6 mutations in families with Van Der Woude syndrome and popliteal pterygium syndrome from sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Orofacial clefts (OFC) are complex genetic traits that are often classified as syndromic or nonsyndromic clefts. Currently, there are over 500 types of syndromic clefts in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, of which Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is one of the most common (accounting for 2% of all OFC). Popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) is considered to be a more severe form of VWS. Mutations in the IRF6 gene have been reported worldwide to cause VWS and PPS. Here, we report studies of families with VWS and PPS in sub-Saharan Africa. We screened the DNA of eight families with VWS and one family with PPS from Nigeria and Ethiopia by Sanger sequencing of the most commonly affected exons in IRF6 (exons 3, 4, 7, and 9). For the VWS families, we found a novel nonsense variant in exon 4 (p.Lys66X), a novel splice-site variant in exon 4 (p.Pro126Pro), a novel missense variant in exon 4 (p.Phe230Leu), a previously reported splice-site variant in exon 7 that changes the acceptor splice site, and a known missense variant in exon 7 (p.Leu251Pro). A previously known missense variant was found in exon 4 (p.Arg84His) in the PPS family. All the mutations segregate in the families. Our data confirm the presence of IRF6-related VWS and PPS in sub-Saharan Africa and highlights the importance of screening for novel mutations in known genes when studying diverse global populations. This is important for counseling and prenatal diagnosis for high-risk families. PMID:24936515

Butali, Azeez; Mossey, Peter A; Adeyemo, Wasiu L; Eshete, Mekonen A; Gaines, LauRen A; Even, Dee; Braimah, Ramat O; Aregbesola, Babatunde S; Rigdon, Jennifer V; Emeka, Christian I; James, Olutayo; Ogunlewe, Mobolanle O; Ladeinde, Akinola L; Abate, Fikre; Hailu, Taye; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Gravem, Paul E; Deribew, Milliard; Gesses, Mulualem; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Murray, Jeffrey C

2014-01-01

285

Novel IRF6 mutations in families with Van Der Woude syndrome and popliteal pterygium syndrome from sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orofacial clefts (OFC) are complex genetic traits that are often classified as syndromic or nonsyndromic clefts. Currently, there are over 500 types of syndromic clefts in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, of which Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is one of the most common (accounting for 2% of all OFC). Popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) is considered to be a more severe form of VWS. Mutations in the IRF6 gene have been reported worldwide to cause VWS and PPS. Here, we report studies of families with VWS and PPS in sub-Saharan Africa. We screened the DNA of eight families with VWS and one family with PPS from Nigeria and Ethiopia by Sanger sequencing of the most commonly affected exons in IRF6 (exons 3, 4, 7, and 9). For the VWS families, we found a novel nonsense variant in exon 4 (p.Lys66X), a novel splice-site variant in exon 4 (p.Pro126Pro), a novel missense variant in exon 4 (p.Phe230Leu), a previously reported splice-site variant in exon 7 that changes the acceptor splice site, and a known missense variant in exon 7 (p.Leu251Pro). A previously known missense variant was found in exon 4 (p.Arg84His) in the PPS family. All the mutations segregate in the families. Our data confirm the presence of IRF6-related VWS and PPS in sub-Saharan Africa and highlights the importance of screening for novel mutations in known genes when studying diverse global populations. This is important for counseling and prenatal diagnosis for high-risk families. PMID:24936515

Butali, Azeez; Mossey, Peter A; Adeyemo, Wasiu L; Eshete, Mekonen A; Gaines, LauRen A; Even, Dee; Braimah, Ramat O; Aregbesola, Babatunde S; Rigdon, Jennifer V; Emeka, Christian I; James, Olutayo; Ogunlewe, Mobolanle O; Ladeinde, Akinola L; Abate, Fikre; Hailu, Taye; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Gravem, Paul E; Deribew, Milliard; Gesses, Mulualem; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Murray, Jeffrey C

2014-05-01

286

Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation. This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation. The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania, Acorn Technologies (South Africa, Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa, the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar, the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya, and Niprisan’s development by Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria. All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems. For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While this is a long-term strategy, this series shows the potential of African-led innovation, and indicates how it might balance realism against opportunity. There is ample scope to learn lessons more systematically from cases like those we discuss; to link entrepreneurs, scientists, funders, and policy-makers into a network to share opportunities and challenges; and ultimately to better support and stimulate African-led health innovation.

Daar Abdallah S

2010-12-01

287

African Art, African Voices  

Science.gov (United States)

This website created by the Philadelphia Museum of Art complements an exhibition that "surveys the artistic achievements of just a few of the many cultures of sub-Saharan Africa" organized by the Seattle Art Museum, using artifacts from its African collections. The largest section of the Web site, African Voices, features interviews with African artists, art historians and others, focusing on particular aspects of African cultures. For example, Hannah Kema Foday, a Mende woman from Segbwema, southwestern Sierra Leone, now living in New York city, speaks about Sowei masks and initiation for girls into womanhood. The other two sections - African Art in Motion and Contemporary African Art, show the expressive use of figures in African sculpture and the work of modern African artists, living in Africa and all over the world, respectively.

288

Cutaneous Horns in an African Population  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Cutaneous horns are hard, yellowish gray cornified skin growths. They are more common in white races and believed to be rare in Africans. There are few case reports of the lesion in African populations in the English literature. Materials and Methods: This report documents six patients with this lesion seen over a fourteen month period. There were three males and three females, aged 22 to 62 (mean= 47). Results: One lesion was on the scalp, the remaining on the extremities. The underlying pathologies were squamous cell carcinoma (1), Kaposi sarcoma (1), cutaneous myxoma (1), eccrine poroma (1) and the remaining two showed only chronic inflammatory changes with subepidermal lymphocytic and macrophage cell infiltrates. Conclusion: Unless cases are well documented, the perception of rarity in Africans will most likely persist. The risk of underling malignancy underscores the need for detailed evaluation and prompt management. PMID:22279387

Oludiran, Olugbenga O; Ekanem, Victor J

2011-01-01

289

Giving tranexamic acid to reduce surgical bleeding in sub-Saharan Africa: an economic evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of safe and effective alternatives to blood transfusion is a public health priority. In sub-Saharan Africa, blood shortage is a cause of mortality and morbidity. Blood transfusion can also transmit viral infections. Giving tranexamic acid (TXA to bleeding surgical patients has been shown to reduce both the number of blood transfusions and the volume of blood transfused. The objective of this study is to investigate whether routinely administering TXA to bleeding elective surgical patients is cost effective by both averting deaths occurring from the shortage of blood, and by preventing infections from blood transfusions. Methods A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of providing TXA compared with no TXA in patients with surgical bleeding in four African countries with different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence and blood donation rates (Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Botswana. The principal outcome measures were cost per life saved and cost per infection averted (HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C averted in 2007 International dollars ($. The probability of receiving a blood transfusion with and without TXA and the risk of blood borne viral infection were estimated. The impact of uncertainty in model parameters was explored using one-way deterministic sensitivity analyses. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation. Results The incremental cost per life saved is $87 for Kenya and $93 for Tanzania. In Botswana and South Africa, TXA administration is not life saving but is highly cost saving since fewer units of blood are transfused. Further, in Botswana the administration of TXA averts one case of HIV and four cases of Hepatitis B (HBV per 1,000 surgical patients. In South Africa, one case of HBV is averted per 1,000 surgical patients. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the model. Conclusion An economic argument can be made for giving TXA to bleeding elective surgical patients. In countries where there is a blood shortage, TXA would be a cost effective way to reduce mortality. In countries where there is no blood shortage, TXA would reduce healthcare costs and avert blood borne infections.

Perel Pablo

2010-02-01

290

Efficacy of newer versus older antihypertensive drugs in black patients living in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

To address the epidemic of hypertension in blacks born and living in sub-Saharan Africa, we compared in a randomised clinical trial (NCT01030458) single-pill combinations of old and new antihypertensive drugs in patients (30-69 years) with uncomplicated hypertension (140-179/90-109?mm?Hg). After ?4 weeks off treatment, 183 of 294 screened patients were assigned to once daily bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide 5/6.25?mg (n=89; R) or amlodipine/valsartan 5/160?mg (n=94; E) and followed up for 6 months. To control blood pressure (<140/<90?mm?Hg), bisoprolol and amlodipine could be doubled (10?mg per day) and ?-methyldopa (0.5-2?g per day) added. Sitting blood pressure fell by 19.5/12.0?mm?Hg in R patients and by 24.8/13.2?mm?Hg in E patients and heart rate decreased by 9.7 beats per minute in R patients with no change in E patients (-0.2 beats per minute). The between-group differences (R minus E) were 5.2?mm?Hg (P<0.0001) systolic, 1.3?mm?Hg (P=0.12) diastolic, and 9.6 beats per minute (P<0.0001). In 57 R and 67 E patients with data available at all visits, these estimates were 5.5?mm?Hg (P<0.0001) systolic, 1.8?mm?Hg (P=0.07) diastolic and 9.8 beats per minute (P<0.0001). In R compared with E patients, 45 vs 37% (P=0.13) proceeded to the higher dose of randomised treatment and 33 vs 9% (P<0.0001) had ?-methyldopa added. There were no between-group differences in symptoms except for ankle oedema in E patients (P=0.012). In conclusion, new compared with old drugs lowered systolic blood pressure more and therefore controlled hypertension better in native African black patients. PMID:23803591

M'Buyamba-Kabangu, J R; Anisiuba, B C; Ndiaye, M B; Lemogoum, D; Jacobs, L; Ijoma, C K; Thijs, L; Boombhi, H J; Kaptue, J; Kolo, P M; Mipinda, J B; Osakwe, C E; Odili, A; Ezeala-Adikaibe, B; Kingue, S; Omotoso, B A; Ba, S A; Ulasi, I I; Staessen, J A

2013-12-01

291

Analytically Derived Neighborhoods in a Rapidly Growing West African City: The Case of Accra, Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large numbers of people are currently migrating from the poor, inland areas of West Coast Africa to the major cities of Lagos, Accra, Abidjan, and other budding metropolises (Figures 1 and 2). The infrastructure of the Sub-Saharan African cities is inadequate to service their burgeoning populations. An argument is presented for using scientifically derived neighborhoods as the building blocks for current African urban understanding and planning. In this paper, I will explore the neighborhood concept and use available data and new heterogeneity statistics to derive homogeneous neighborhoods. The statistics are explained and maps of Accra neighborhoods are given. PMID:25435640

Getis, Arthur

2015-01-01

292

The History of African Gene Flow into Southern Europeans, Levantines, and Jews  

OpenAIRE

Previous genetic studies have suggested a history of sub-Saharan African gene flow into some West Eurasian populations after the initial dispersal out of Africa that occurred at least 45,000 years ago. However, there has been no accurate characterization of the proportion of mixture, or of its date. We analyze genome-wide polymorphism data from about 40 West Eurasian groups to show that almost all Southern Europeans have inherited 1%–3% African ancestry with an average mixture date of aroun...

Moorjani, Priya; Patterson, Nick; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Keinan, Alon; Hao, Li; Atzmon, Gil; Burns, Edward; Ostrer, Harry; Price, Alkes L.; Reich, David

2011-01-01

293

Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia  

OpenAIRE

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to a...

Ben Chirwa; Chipayeni Mtonga; Anyangwe, Stella C. E.

2006-01-01

294

Migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists within Africa based on population structure of Chad Basin and phylogeography of mitochondrial L3f haplogroup  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Chad Basin, lying within the bidirectional corridor of African Sahel, is one of the most populated places in Sub-Saharan Africa today. The origin of its settlement appears connected with Holocene climatic ameliorations (aquatic resources) that started ~10,000 years before present (YBP). Although both Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo language families are encountered here, the most diversified group is the Chadic branch belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. In this art...

Mulligan Connie J; Hájek Martin; Costa Marta D; Fernandes Verónica; ?erný Viktor; Pereira Luísa

2009-01-01

295

Quantitative urban classification for malaria epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is rapidly urbanizing, the terms used to classify urban ecotypes are poorly defined in the context of malaria epidemiology. Lack of clear definitions may cause misclassification error, which likely decreases the accuracy of continent-wide estimates of malaria burden, limits the generalizability of urban malaria studies, and makes identification of high-risk areas for targeted interventions within cities more difficult. Accordingly, clustering techniques were applied to a set of urbanization- and malaria-related variables in Kisumu, Kenya, to produce a quantitative classification of the urban environment for malaria research. Methods Seven variables with a known or expected relationship with malaria in the context of urbanization were identified and measured at the census enumeration area (EA level, using three sources: a the results of a citywide knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP survey; b a high-resolution multispectral satellite image; and c national census data. Principal components analysis (PCA was used to identify three factors explaining higher proportions of the combined variance than the original variables. A k-means clustering algorithm was applied to the EA-level factor scores to assign EAs to one of three categories: "urban," "peri-urban," or "semi-rural." The results were compared with classifications derived from two other approaches: a administrative designation of urban/rural by the census or b population density thresholds. Results Urban zones resulting from the clustering algorithm were more geographically coherent than those delineated by population density. Clustering distributed population more evenly among zones than either of the other methods and more accurately predicted variation in other variables related to urbanization, but not used for classification. Conclusion Effective urban malaria epidemiology and control would benefit from quantitative methods to identify and characterize urban areas. Cluster analysis techniques were used to classify Kisumu, Kenya, into levels of urbanization in a repeatable and unbiased manner, an approach that should permit more relevant comparisons among and within urban areas. To the extent that these divisions predict meaningful intra-urban differences in malaria epidemiology, they should inform targeted urban malaria interventions in cities across SSA.

Slutsker Laurence

2008-02-01

296

K13-Propeller Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller domain have recently been shown to be important determinants of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia. This study investigated the prevalence of K13-propeller polymorphisms across sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 1212 P. falciparum samples collected from 12 countries were sequenced. None of the K13-propeller mutations previously reported in Southeast Asia were found, but 22 unique mutations were detected, of which 7 were nonsynonymous. Allele frequencies ranged between 1% and 3%. Three mutations were observed in >1 country, and the A578S was present in parasites from 5 countries. This study provides the baseline prevalence of K13-propeller mutations in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25367300

Kamau, Edwin; Campino, Susana; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Drury, Eleanor; Ishengoma, Deus; Johnson, Kimberly; Mumba, Dieudonne; Kekre, Mihir; Yavo, William; Mead, Daniel; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle; Apinjoh, Tobias; Golassa, Lemu; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Andagalu, Ben; Maiga-Ascofare, Oumou; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Tindana, Paulina; Ghansah, Anita; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Djimde, Abdoulaye A

2015-04-15

297

A Concept for a Flexible Rehabilitation Tool for sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This concept paper explores a technological building block approach to the development of a flexible rehabilitation tool that may address some of the needs in sub-Saharan Africa. We briefly outline some of the health challenges that lead us to suggest a concept for physical rehabilitation solutions to address many diverse patient groups (e.g. disabled children, cardiac, and stroke patients), to be used in both urban and rural areas, to be easily used in community based rehabilitation (e.g. by community rehabilitation workers), to motivate the users, and to be robust to failure (e.g. power failure) in remote areas. The concept leads to the implementation of modular interactive tiles for rehabilitation, and suggestions for future use in sub-Saharan Africa.

Lund, Henrik Hautop

2012-01-01

298

SME Adoption of Enterprise Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa : A Clarion Call to Action  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the need for IS research with a focus on SME adoption of enterprise systems in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous IS research into general adoption in several developing countries have shown that local context play a significant role in the successful implementation of any information system. SMEs constitute a majority of all organizations in most Sub Saharan economies, thus their importance to the socioeconomic development and empowerment of the region cannot be overemphasized. However, the absence of literature and focused research into factors that influence enterprise systems adoption and use that are particular to this region represents a huge gap for both researchers and practitioners. This call to action paper will attempt to present the implications of this deficiency and outline areas where future research can be most beneficial to stakeholders.

Adisa, Femi; Isabalija, Stephen R.

299

Determining Effective Spraying Periods to Control Malaria via Indoor Residual Spraying in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Indoor residual spraying—spraying insecticide inside houses to kill mosquitoes—is an important method for controlling malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. We propose a mathematical model for both regular and non-fixed spraying, using impulsive differential equations. First, we determine the stability properties of the nonimpulsive system. Next, we derive minimal effective spraying intervals and the degree of spraying effectiveness required to control mosquitoes wh...

Smith, Robert J.; Hove-musekwa, Senelani D.

2008-01-01

300

A climate-based distribution model of malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.  

OpenAIRE

Malaria remains the single largest threat to child survival in sub-Saharan Africa and warrants long-term investment for control. Previous malaria distribution maps have been vague and arbitrary. Marlies Craig, Bob Snow and David le Sueur here describe a simple numerical approach to defining distribution of malaria transmission, based upon biological constraints of climate on parasite and vector development. The model compared well with contemporary field data and historical 'expert opinion' m...

Craig, Mh; Snow, Rw; Le Sueur, D.

1999-01-01

301

Strategy framework for sustainable industrial development in sub-Saharan Africa: Systems-evolutionary approach  

OpenAIRE

The principal objectives of this research were: · to develop a conceptual framework on sustainability and sustainable development and · to propose a strategy framework for sustainable industrial development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The research was done based on systems evolutionary approach having the following methodological principles as a guide. · The dynamic complexity of environmental and developmental issues can be better understood by utilizing transdisciplinary theories such a...

Mebratu, Desta

2000-01-01

302

Divided We Fall: Rethinking Biodiversity Planning in the Context of Development in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

The signatory countries of the Convention on Biological Diversity set the objective of halting the decline of biodiversity by 2010, but as the target date arrived and passed, the status of biodiversity on the planet remained dismal. With the dawn of the UN Decade for Biodiversity at the Rio+20 Earth Summit in June 2012 and as the UN Biodiversity Strategic Plan moves forward, this article contextualizes biodiversity prospects in sub-Saharan Africa by examining the history of interactions betwe...

Robert Kasisi

2012-01-01

303

Inequality of child mortality among ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa.  

OpenAIRE

Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 cou...

Brockerhoff, M.; Hewett, P.

2000-01-01

304

Conflict, disasters and no jobs: Reasons for international migration from Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest growth rate in net international migration in the world. The reasons for this migration are investigated in this paper. First, a survey of the literature on the profile and determinants of international migration in SSA is given. Second, panel data on 45 countries spanning the period 1965 to 2005 are used to determine that the main reasons for international migration from SSA are armed conflict and lack of job opportunities. An additional year of confl...

Naude?, Wim

2008-01-01

305

Gender inequality, health expenditure and maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: A secondary data analysis  

OpenAIRE

Background: This article provided an analysis of gender inequality, health expenditure and itsrelationship to maternal mortality. Objective: The objective of this article was to explore gender inequality and its relationship with health expenditure and maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A unique analysis was used to correlate the Gender Inequality Index (GII), Health Expenditure and Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR). The GII captured inequalities across three dimensions – Reproduc...

Frank Chirowa; Stephen Atwood; Marc Van der Putten

2013-01-01

306

Gender and growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Issues and evidence  

OpenAIRE

The study suggests that gender inequality acts as a significant constraint to growth in sub-Saharan Africa, and that removing gender-based barriers to growth will make a substantial contribution to realizing Africa’s economic potential. In particular we highlight gender gaps in education, related high fertility levels, gender gaps in formal sector employment, and gender gaps in access to assets and inputs in agricultural production as particular barriers reducing the ability of women to con...

Blackden, Mark; Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Klasen, Stephan; Lawson, David

2006-01-01

307

Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub-Saharan Africa: investment priorities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In numerous countries of Sub-Saharan Africa the strategic agenda of the water-sector is undergoing substantial change because of demographic pressure, climate change and economic transformation. Two new policy questions are arising from the need to make better use of available groundwater storage to [...] improve water-supply security:

Stephen, Foster; Albert, Tuinhof; Frank van, Steenbergen.

308

Rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa in a context of fluctuating oil-prices  

OpenAIRE

Solar PV is one among other low carbon technologies for rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Solar PV systems have for almost 30 years been disseminated in SSA, resulting in more than half a million installations concentrated in a few countries. While PV systems have technically matured and markets have gradually developed, PV for rural electrification has often been perceived with scepticism from potential users, donors, government officials and researchers, and ...

Nygaard, Ivan; Bindner, Henrik W.; Katic, Ivan

2009-01-01

309

Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa : policy and trade issues  

OpenAIRE

The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated ; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical ...

Thomson, G. R.

2010-01-01

310

Terms of Trade Volatility and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigated the effect of terms of trade growth and its volatility on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. I employed dynamic panel data models of difference and system GMM that could account biases associated with endogeneity of explanatory variables and problems induced by unobserved country specific characteristics. I used both net barter terms of trade and income terms of trade as a measure of terms of trade for the entire analysis of this paper. Using data from 1985 to 2010...

Awel, Ahmed Mohammed

2012-01-01

311

The structural anatomy and institutional architecture of inclusive growth in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

The distinct features of inclusive growth within the context of sub-Saharan Africa are identified. The anatomy of growth is analysed by exploring the interrelationship among growth, inequality, and poverty. The present growth spell appears to have been relatively inclusive. The recent structural transformation has led to a more normal and desirable migration process. Two alternatives development strategies are described: pro-poor growth and pro-growth poverty reduction. The finding that high ...

Thorbecke, Erik

2014-01-01

312

Tuberculosis and poverty: the contribution of patient costs in sub-Saharan Africa – a systematic review  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) is known to disproportionately affect the most economically disadvantaged strata of society. Many studies have assessed the association between poverty and TB, but only a few have assessed the direct financial burden TB treatment and care can place on households. Patient costs can be particularly burdensome for TB-affected households in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty levels are high; these costs include the direct costs of medical and non-medical expend...

Barter Devra M; Agboola Stephen O; Murray Megan B; Bärnighausen Till

2012-01-01

313

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in sub-Saharan Africa: a pilot study in Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The disease burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is highest in sub-Saharan Africa but there are few studies on the associated neurocognitive disorders in this region. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Western neuropsychological (NP) methods are appropriate for use in Cameroon, and to evaluate cognitive function in a sample of HIV-infected adults. Methods We used a battery of 19 NP measures in a cross-...

Ellis Ronald J; Franklin Donald R; Nchindap Emilienne; Njamnshi Dora M; Doh Roland; Eta Sabine; Fonsah Julius Y; Cysique Lucette A; Kuate Callixte T; Kanmogne Georgette D; McCutchan John A; Binam Fidele; Mbanya Dora; Heaton Robert K; Njamnshi Alfred K

2010-01-01

314

Foreign direct investment in emerging economies: Lessons from sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyses prospects for foreign direct investment (FDI) in Africa. The problems with regard to attracting FDI in small economies are not that different than those in larger economies in the developing world. In particular, lack of infrastructure, cumbersome government regulations and restrictions on equity holdings by foreigners are common to both large and small countries. FDI flows could be a lot higher in sub- Saharan Africa if governments implemented a proper set of regulations ...

Cotton, Linda; Ramachandran, Vijaya

2001-01-01

315

Does the WTO agreement on agricultural endanger food security in Sub-Saharan Africa?  

OpenAIRE

The paper examines the state of food security in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), based on an analysis of a selection of indicators of food security and nutritional wellbeing during the period 1990-2002 within the context of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture. It argues that it may be advisable for those SSA countries with both static and dynamic comparative advantage in agriculture to pursue policies towards ‘food self-sufficiency’ as a means to attaining food security, considering their large ru...

Gayi, Samuel K.

2006-01-01

316

Resource rents, democracy and corruption: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

We examine the effect of the interaction between resource rents and democracy on corruption for a panel of 29 Sub-Saharan countries during the period from 1985 to 2007. We find that higher resource rents lead to more corruption and that the effect is significantly stronger in less democratic countries. Surprisingly, we also find that higher resource rents lead to fewer internal conflicts and that less democratic countries face not a higher but a lower likelihood of conflicts following an incr...

Arezki, Rabah; Gylfason, Thorvaldur

2011-01-01

317

Why should sub-Saharan Africa care about the Doha development round?  

OpenAIRE

In recent years sub-Saharan Africa, notwithstanding the global financial crisis, has increased its share in global trade and investment flows. This has led to an appreciable improvement in development levels, albeit off a small base. However, these patterns are still dominated by commodity flows and investment, and remain marginal on the global stage. Increased trade and investment flows, particularly related to network services, would be of great benefit to the sub-continent. Yet many domest...

Draper, Peter; Freytag, Andreas; Al Doyaili, Sarah

2012-01-01

318

Building social capital for agricultural innovation : experiences with farmer groups in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this bulletin is to help in laying a stronger foundation for the generation of truly client-driven agricultural innovation systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in order to facilitate greater efficiency and effectiveness in achieving the overarching agricultural development objectives of sustained productivity gains, improved profitability, and poverty alleviation. Pioneering experiences with the Farmer Research Group (FRG) approach in many parts of SSA show that the build...

Heemskerk, W.; Wennink, B.

2004-01-01

319

Rural development from a territorial perspective: lessons and potential in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

The paper analyzes the lessons and potential poverty impacts involved in the application of approaches for building socially inclusive, decentralized and spatially accented approaches to rural (and rural-urban) economic development in South Africa and other experiences making a preliminary assessment of the transferability of LED / RTD approaches to other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa such as Mozambique, Zambia and Ghana. In each case the role of the drivers of change, the rural-urban lin...

Quan, Julian; Davis, Junior; Proctor, Felicity

2006-01-01

320

Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.

Hernández Valentín

2009-12-01

321

An estimate of the prevalence of epilepsy in Sub–Saharan Africa: A systematic analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epilepsy is a leading serious neurological condition worldwide and has particularly significant physical, economic and social consequences in Sub–Saharan Africa. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of epilepsy prevalence in this region and how this varies by age and sex so as to inform understanding of the disease characteristics as well as the development of infrastructure, services and policies.

Abigail Paul

2012-12-01

322

Doctors and Vampires in Sub-Saharan Africa: Ethical Challenges in Clinical Trial Research  

OpenAIRE

Collecting blood samples from individuals recruited into clinical research projects in sub-Saharan Africa can be challenging. Strikingly, one of the reasons for participant reticence is the occurrence of local rumors surrounding “blood stealing” or “blood selling.” Such fears can potentially have dire effects on the success of research projects—for example, high dropout rates that would invalidate the trial's results—and have ethical implications related to cultural sensitivity an...

Peeters Grietens, Koen; Ribera, Joan Muela; Erhart, Annette; Hoibak, Sarah; Ravinetto, Raffaella M.; Gryseels, Charlotte; Dierickx, Susan; O Neill, Sarah; Muela, Susanna Hausmann; D Alessandro, Umberto

2014-01-01

323

Striga hermonthica SEED GERMINATION THROUGH ROOT EXUDATES OF INDIGENOUS SUB-SAHARAN WEED SPECIES  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to evaluate root exudates from sub-Saharan indigenous weed species to induce germination of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Beth., a root parasitic weed. Significant variation in Striga seed germination was observed, ranging from an absence to the induction of 74.1% Striga seeds. Direct compa-rison of Striga germination was obscured by differences in weed root biomass as within most of the species, a direct proportional relation between Striga seed germination and weed root...

Randy Trinity Nijkamp; Somporn Na Nakorn

2012-01-01

324

Features of agricultural extension models and policy in selected sub - Saharan Africa countries  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews the features of agricultural extension models and policy in selected sub- Saharan Africa countries. This is based on the premise that the discussion of extension policy in SSA countries can not be isolated from the extension models that are applied in these countries. While the models are direct products of the type of policy that has been adopted, the policy dictates the models to be used in each country. A major problem of organizing agricultural extension in developing c...

Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

2011-01-01

325

Role of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa: An example from Sudan  

OpenAIRE

Khalid Dafaallah, Awadelkarim1, Ahmed Abdalla, Mohamedani2, Massimo Barberis31Department of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan; 3Department of Pathology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, ItalyAbstract: In sub-Saharan Africa there is an extreme shortage of pathology services and, when provided, they are of unacceptable standard. Specimen handling and storage are very poor, and render this im...

Khalid Dafaallah; Awadelkarim; Ahmed Abdalla; et al.

2010-01-01

326

The impact of Remittances and Foreign Aid on Savings/Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Migrant remittances reached $21 billion in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2008 according to the World Bank estimates. Despite these important flows, few macroeconomic studies have been conducted on this topic in SSA compared to other developing regions. The existing studies on the impact of remittances in SSA have been mostly in the form of case studies at the microeconomic level or reports. The objective of this study is to fill in this gap by investigating the impact of remittances on savings ...

Balde?, Ye?ro

2011-01-01

327

Technologies for heating, cooling and powering rural health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines technical and economic choices for rural electrification in Africa and presents the rationale for trigeneration (capability for electricity, heating, and cooling) in health and education applications. An archetypal load profile for a rural health clinic (25 kWhe/day and 118–139 kWht) is described, and a regional analysis is performed for sub-Saharan Africa by aggregating NASA meteorological data (insolation, temperature, and heating and cooling degree-days) using correla...

Orosz, Matthew; Quoilin, Sylvain; Hemond, Harold

2013-01-01

328

A Theoretical Model for Telemedicine : Social and Value Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

The Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region is faced with limited medical personnel and healthcare services to address the many healthcare problems of the region. Poor health indicators reflect the overall decline in socio-economic development. Shortages of access to health services in the region is further complicated by the concentration of health services in urban areas, the region’s multiple medical problems (over 70% of HIV/AIDS cases in the world); and the brain drain phenomenon – it is est...

Kifle Gelan, Mengistu

2006-01-01

329

Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition (ICD - 10 criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. Results A total of forty-four (44 children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001. First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children showed higher correlation score between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and 'ratio IQ' scores (r = 0.75, df = 41, p = 0.000. Conclusion Agreement between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and 'ratio IQ' scores was good. 'Ratio IQ' test would provide a viable option of assessing IQ scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability in the absence of culture-appropriate standardized intelligence scales, which is often the case because of great diversity in socio-cultural structures of sub-Saharan Africa.

Aguocha Chinyere M

2009-09-01

330

Factors cost effectively improved using computer simulations of maize yields in semi-arid Sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Achieving food security is a challenge for the developed and developing world. These challenges are greater for developing nations such as in Africa because of the severity of the problems. An important aspect of this is poor agricultural productivity. Worldwide, technology is being developed to inc [...] rease agricultural production. One aspect of this is the development of predictive computer models that enable farmers to optimise crops using management decision based on simulation scenarios. Most African farmers do not have the computer resources or expertise to implement these types of technology. Even extension offices in Africa, who provide much needed advice, can be under resourced in this way. We suggest here that simpler computer models that are cheaper and easier to use need to be developed. As a first step in this process we investigate here which factors are most cost effectively managed using computer simulations in semi-arid conditions pertinent to much of sub-Saharan Africa. Factors known to be important in crop farming are planting date, sowing density, variety, weeding, soils and fertiliser. We use qualitative arguments with simulations and conclude that interactions between rainfall, soil condition and fertiliser can benefitfrom simulations and thus should help in their management.

T. P., Masere; K. J., Duffy.

2014-12-01

331

Role of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa: An example from Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Khalid Dafaallah, Awadelkarim1, Ahmed Abdalla, Mohamedani2, Massimo Barberis31Department of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan; 3Department of Pathology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, ItalyAbstract: In sub-Saharan Africa there is an extreme shortage of pathology services and, when provided, they are of unacceptable standard. Specimen handling and storage are very poor, and render this important aspect of medicinal practice rudimentary. The situation on the ground reflects the full spectrum of the educational, cultural, political, and economical challenges that must be confronted in building basic scientific capabilities in the life sciences, including medicine, in such countries. It is a difficult and often discouraging situation, however, several constructive initiatives have been promoted to address this problem. In this paper we describe the current state of pathology services in sub-Saharan Africa, documenting our experience in Sudan. We also report some of the results obtained by others and our future goals, and propose how pathology-related problems could be addressed in sub-Saharan Africa, by focusing on specific critical points, which may also be considered for other developing countries outside Africa.Keywords: pathology, Africa, networks, standard operative procedures, telepathology

Khalid Dafaallah

2010-05-01

332

Single motherhood and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: a life course perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single motherhood in sub-Saharan Africa has received surprisingly little attention, although it is widespread and has critical implications for children's well-being. Using survival analysis techniques, we estimate the probability of becoming a single mother over women's life course and investigate the relationship between single motherhood and child mortality in 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Although a mere 5 % of women in Ethiopia have a premarital birth, one in three women in Liberia will become mothers before first marriage. Compared with children whose parents were married, children born to never-married single mothers were significantly more likely to die before age 5 in six countries (odds ratios range from 1.36 in Nigeria to 2.61 in Zimbabwe). In addition, up to 50 % of women will become single mothers as a consequence of divorce or widowhood. In nine countries, having a formerly married mother was associated with a significantly higher risk of dying (odds ratios range from 1.29 in Zambia to 1.75 in Kenya) relative to having married parents. Children of divorced women typically had the poorest outcomes. These results highlight the vulnerability of children with single mothers and suggest that policies aimed at supporting single mothers could help to further reduce child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23839100

Clark, Shelley; Hamplová, Dana

2013-10-01

333

Diverging Pathways : Young Female Employment and Entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Shrinking public sectors and limited opportunities for gaining formal wage employment in the private sector have resulted in entrepreneurship being promoted as a means of generating youth employment. This discourse is being widely promoted within sub-Saharan Africa despite little being known about how best to support youth employment and entrepreneurship. This paper focuses on two of the main trades which young women in sub-Saharan Africa have typically entered: hairdressing and dressmaking. Through drawing on a qualitative case study of hairdressers and seamstresses in Ghana, it is shown how the two professions have fared quite differently in recent years: whereas hairdressing has boomed, dressmaking has been stagnating. The paper shows how these diverging trajectories can be attributed to three related factors. First, globalisation has affected the two trades differently; second, their respective trade associations have reacted differently to the new constraints and opportunities generated by globalisation and their training systems have undergone different degrees of professionalisation; and third, the prestige associated with the two professions has changed affecting the aspirations of young women to enter the professions and the experiences of those that do. As the paper shows, geographers potentially have much to contribute to employment and entrepreneurship debates by providing more contextualised studies which recognise the complex interplay between globalisation, institutions and individuals in particular places and acknowledge the ensuing diverse employment experiences. Such studies are highly relevant for policymakers who are facing the difficult challenge of how to create employment and stimulate entrepreneurship in sub-Saharan Africa.

Langevang, Thilde; Gough, Katherine

2012-01-01

334

Role and outcomes of community health workers in HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: The provision of HIV treatment and care in sub-Saharan Africa faces multiple challenges, including weak health systems and attrition of trained health workers. One potential response to overcome these challenges has been to engage community health workers (CHWs). Methodology: A systematic literature search for quantitative and qualitative studies describing the role and outcomes of CHWs in HIV care between inception and December 2012 in sub-Saharan Africa was performed in the fo...

Mwai, Grace W.; Gitau Mburu; Kwasi Torpey; Peter Frost; Nathan Ford; Janet Seeley

2013-01-01

335

The role of schools in supporting HIV-affected children in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review  

OpenAIRE

Aim: To establish an overview of school-based interventions carried out to support the health and well-being of vulnerable children in Zimbabwe and similar socio-economic contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: A literature search was carried out in Web of Knowledge using combinations of the following search terms: support, intervention, school, child, Zimbabwe, sub-Saharan Africa, health, well-being, inclusion and enrolment. A total of 12 articles were identified as relevant to the resea...

Andersen, Louise Buhl

2012-01-01

336

Effects of temperature and precipitation variability on the risk of violence in sub-Saharan Africa, 1980–2012  

OpenAIRE

A robust debate about the effects of climate change on conflict occurrences has attained wide public and policy attention, with sub-Saharan Africa generally viewed as most susceptible to increased conflict risk. Using a new disaggregated dataset of violence and climate anomaly measures (temperature and precipitation variations from normal) for sub-Saharan Africa 1980–2012, we consider political, economic, and geographic factors, not only climate metrics, in assessing the chances of increase...

O’loughlin, John; Linke, Andrew M.; Witmer, Frank D. W.

2014-01-01

337

Comparative analysis of the government’s role in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa since 1960  

OpenAIRE

This thesis looks at the differences in economic growth between Sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia in the time period from 1960 until today. Three major causes are assessed which all are attempted linked to the government’s role; i) Structural causes; ii) Economic policy; and iii) Institutional causes. The main results indicate that Sub-Saharan Africa suffered from worse structural effects than East Asia; and that East Asia had a more favourable institutional environment. The role of economic...

Bruno, Lars C.

2006-01-01

338

A review of studies of parent-child communication about sexuality and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Parent-child sexuality communication has been identified as a protective factor for adolescent sexual and reproductive health, including HIV infection. The available literature on this topic in sub-Saharan Africa is increasing; however a systematic review of studies has not been conducted. This article reviews the literature in the area of parental or caregiver and child communication about sexuality and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. A review of peer reviewed literature published b...

Ww, Muhwezi; Lj, Kajula; Bastien S

2011-01-01

339

The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?  

OpenAIRE

The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily oper...

Emma Leonard

2011-01-01

340

Antimicrobial peptide killing of African trypanosomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diseases caused by trypanosomes are medically and economically devastating to the population of Sub-Saharan Africa. Parasites of the genus Trypanosoma infect both humans, causing African sleeping sickness, and livestock, causing Nagana. The development of effective treatment strategies has suffered from severe side effects of approved drugs, resistance and major difficulties in delivering drugs. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ubiquitous components of immune defence and are being rigorously pursued as novel sources of new therapeutics for a variety of pathogens. Here, we review the role of AMPs in the innate immune response of the tsetse fly to African trypanosomes, catalogue trypanocidal AMPs from diverse organisms and highlight the susceptibility of bloodstream form African trypanosomes to killing by unconventional toxic peptides. PMID:21517904

Harrington, J M

2011-08-01

341

Does education represent a social protection for lifetime in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

We provide evidence on the distribution of school attendance and educational attainment across African countries, focusing on the correlation with literacy rates in the population, level of resources and country institutional features. We also estimate sample correlations between enrolment and macro-aggregates, related to resources (GDP per capita, student/teacher ratio), computing some counterfactuals. We then move to micro-data, selecting three African countries as representative e...

Checchi, Daniele

2010-01-01

342

Early detection and response to meningococcal disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa: appraisal of the WHO strategy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of the WHO threshold strategy for detecting meningococcal disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa and to estimate the impact of the strategy on an epidemic at district level. METHODS: Data on meningitis cases at the district level were collected weekly from health ministries, WHO country and regional offices, and nongovernmental organizations in countries where there were epidemics of meningococcal disease in 1997. An epidemic was defined as a cumulative district attack rate of at least 100 cases per 100 000 population from January to May, the period of epidemic risk. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of the WHO threshold rate were calculated, and curves of sensitivity against (1 - specificity were compared with alternatively defined threshold rates and epidemic sizes. The impact of the WHO strategy on a district epidemic was estimated by comparing the numbers of epidemic cases with cases estimated to have been prevented by vaccination. FINDINGS: An analysis was made of 48 198 cases reported in 174 districts in Benin, Burkina Faso, the Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Togo. These cases were 80.3% of those reported from Africa to WHO during the 1997 epidemic period. District populations ranged from 10 298 to 573 908. The threshold rate was crossed during two consecutive weeks in 69 districts (39.7% and there were epidemics in 66 districts (37.9%. Overall, the sensitivity of the threshold rate for predicting epidemics was 97%, the specificity was 95%, and the predictive value positive was 93%. Taken together, these values were equivalent or better than the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of alternatively defined threshold rates and epidemics, and remained high regardless of district size. The estimated number of potential epidemic cases decreased by nearly 60% in the age group targeted for vaccination in one district where the guidelines were followed in a timely manner. CONCLUSION: The use of the WHO strategy was sensitive and specific for the early detection of meningococcal disease epidemics in countries of sub-Saharan Africa during 1997 and had a substantial impact on a district epidemic. Nevertheless, the burden of meningococcal disease in these countries remains formidable and additional control measures are needed.

Leake J.A.D.

2002-01-01

343

Indian Siddis: African descendants with Indian admixture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Siddis (Afro-Indians) are a tribal population whose members live in coastal Karnataka, Gujarat, and in some parts of Andhra Pradesh. Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the Siddis to India from Africa about 300-500 years ago; however, there is little information about their more precise ancestral origins. Here, we perform a genome-wide survey to understand the population history of the Siddis. Using hundreds of thousands of autosomal markers, we show that they have inherited ancestry from Africans, Indians, and possibly Europeans (Portuguese). Additionally, analyses of the uniparental (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA) markers indicate that the Siddis trace their ancestry to Bantu speakers from sub-Saharan Africa. We estimate that the admixture between the African ancestors of the Siddis and neighboring South Asian groups probably occurred in the past eight generations (?200 years ago), consistent with historical records. PMID:21741027

Shah, Anish M; Tamang, Rakesh; Moorjani, Priya; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Mustak, Mohammed S; Bhaskar, L V K S; Reddy, Alla G; Gadhvi, Dharmendra; Gai, Pramod B; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2011-07-15

344

Indian Siddis: African Descendants with Indian Admixture  

Science.gov (United States)

The Siddis (Afro-Indians) are a tribal population whose members live in coastal Karnataka, Gujarat, and in some parts of Andhra Pradesh. Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the Siddis to India from Africa about 300–500 years ago; however, there is little information about their more precise ancestral origins. Here, we perform a genome-wide survey to understand the population history of the Siddis. Using hundreds of thousands of autosomal markers, we show that they have inherited ancestry from Africans, Indians, and possibly Europeans (Portuguese). Additionally, analyses of the uniparental (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA) markers indicate that the Siddis trace their ancestry to Bantu speakers from sub-Saharan Africa. We estimate that the admixture between the African ancestors of the Siddis and neighboring South Asian groups probably occurred in the past eight generations (?200 years ago), consistent with historical records. PMID:21741027

Shah, Anish M.; Tamang, Rakesh; Moorjani, Priya; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Mustak, Mohammed S.; Bhaskar, L.V.K.S.; Reddy, Alla G.; Gadhvi, Dharmendra; Gai, Pramod B.; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2011-01-01

345

Disparities in Access to Prenatal Care Services for African Immigrant Women in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

This retrospective cohort study compares the utilization of prenatal care between African immigrant and native Spanish women. For 2007-2010, we identified 231 pregnant African immigrant women. The native-born population sample was obtained by simple random sampling in a 1:3 ratio. The Kessner Index (KI) and our Own Index (OI) were applied to rate prenatal care adequacy in three categories (adequate, intermediate, and inadequate). Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using non-conditional logistic regression. Prenatal care was adequate according to the indexes (KI or OI) in 21.3 and 25.8 % of North Africans and in 22.5 and 30.4 % of sub-Saharan Africans. The ORs of inadequacy when adjusted for maternal age, social risk factors, and previous reproductive outcomes were 30.32 and 35.47 (KI or OI) in North and 64.43 and 67.93 in sub- Saharan Africans. These results suggest significant differences in obtaining adequate prenatal care between immigrant and native Spanish women. PMID:25138137

Paz-Zulueta, María; Llorca, Javier; Santibáñez, Miguel

2014-08-20

346

Pattern of presentation of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TS Oluleye, Y Babalola Retina and Vitreous Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria Background: Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy is an abnormal choroidal vascular pathology similar to age-related macular degeneration. It may present with sudden visual loss from hemorrhagic retinal pigment epithelial detachment and breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage or with chronic recurrent episodes. The condition is not uncommon in the retina clinic at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa. This study presents the pattern of presentation in Ibadan. Methods: We review all cases of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy seen from 2007 to 2012 in the retina clinic at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, to determine the major pattern of presentations, available treatment modalities, and visual outcomes. Results: Ten cases were seen during the study period. Their mean age was 58 years, with a male to female ratio of 1:4. The most common presenting complaint was sudden visual loss. Major examination findings were retinal pigment epithelial detachment, orange subretinal lesions, and breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage. The modalities of treatment available included vitrectomy to clear vitreous hemorrhage. Intravitreal bevacizumab reduced the height of the pigment epithelial detachment and cleared vitreous hemorrhage. Thermal laser was applied for extrafoveal lesions. Two patients with subfoveal lesions were referred abroad for photodynamic therapy. Visual outcome showed significant improvement in vitrectomized patients who presented with vitreous hemorrhage. Presenting vision of hand motion and light perception improved to vision ranging from counting fingers to 6/12 after vitrectomy. Conclusion: Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy may not be uncommon in Sub-Saharan Africa. A high index of suspicion is warranted in the diagnosis so as to provide timely intervention. Keywords: idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, retinal pigment epithelial detachment, presentations, Sub-Saharan Africa

Oluleye TS

2013-07-01

347

Inequality and the impact of growth on poverty: Comparative evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This study explores the extent to which inequality affects the impact of income growth on the rates of poverty changes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) comparatively with non-SSA, based on a global sample of 1977-2004 unbalanced panel data. For both regions and all three measures of poverty - headcount, gap, and squared gap - the paper finds the impact of GDP growth on poverty reduction as a decreasing function of initial inequality. The impacts are similar in direction for SSA and non-SSA, so tha...

Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

2008-01-01

348

ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the causality relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in four low-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using the econometrics in time-series methods. Along the estimation process, I use the annual data on energy consumption and real GDP per capita over the years of 1971 and 2011. The results of the ADF unit root test show that the time series are not stationary for all countries at levels, but log of economic growth in Ben...

Eyup Dogan

2014-01-01

349

Agricultural commodity price shocks and their effect on growth in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Commodity price shocks are an important type of external shock and are often cited as a problem for economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper quantifies the impact of agricultural commodity price shocks using a near vector autoregressive model. The novel aspect of this model is that we define an auxiliary variable that can potentially capture the definition of a price shock that allows us to determine whether the response of per capita Gross domestic product (GDP) growth in sub-Sahara...

Addison, Tony; Ghoshray, Atanu

2013-01-01

350

Taking Stock of Research on Regional Migration in Sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

This study reviews a host of issues related to international migration in Sub-Saharan Africa and presents an overview of the state of the art of research and knowl-edge. Its aim is to identify policies and research areas that will improve understanding and management of migration in Sub-Sahara Africa and help maximize the potential benefits of migration, especially for poor people, while minimizing its risks and costs. The study covers a broad range of issues in the migration literature, but ...

Nkamleu, Guy Blaise; Fox, Louise

2006-01-01

351

Using observable trade data to measure bilateral trade costs in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Following closely the analytical approach adopted by Head and Mayer (2004) and Novy (2010), this paper derives a micro-founded bilateral trade cost measure for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a function of observable domestic and inter-national trade data. The derived measure of trade cost by Novy (2010), consistent with the Ricardian and heterogeneous firm's models of trade, enables us to track changes in trade costs in SSA over time. This is a significant contribution to the trade cost literatu...

Turkson, Festus Ebo

2012-01-01

352

Policies, Programmes and Institutions of Water Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Meaningful investment in the water sector can easily increase food production and productivity of human resources and thus stimulate economic growth, human and environmental health. The author indicates that, the Mar del Plata Action Plan (1977), the New Delhi Statement (1990), Dublin Statement (1991)and the Agenda 21 Chapter 18 of UNCED (1992) emphasise the urgent need for integrated, sustainable water resources management. The publication looks at the policy development in the water sector, the disparities in the allocation of water supplies in the urban and the rural areas, the importance of water in the development of the industrial sector and how to manage the demand for water in sub-Saharan Africa

353

Efficacy of newer versus older antihypertensive drugs in black patients living in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

To address the epidemic of hypertension in blacks born and living in sub-Saharan Africa, we compared in a randomised clinical trial (NCT01030458) single-pill combinations of old and new antihypertensive drugs in patients (30-69 years) with uncomplicated hypertension (140-179/90-109?mm?Hg). After ?4 weeks off treatment, 183 of 294 screened patients were assigned to once daily bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide 5/6.25?mg (n=89; R) or amlodipine/valsartan 5/160?mg (n=94; E) and followed up...

M Buyamba-kabangu, J. R.; Anisiuba, B. C.; Ndiaye, M. B.; Lemogoum, D.; Jacobs, Lotte; Ijoma, C. K.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boombhi, H. J.; Kaptue, J.; Kolo, P. M.; Mipinda, J. B.; Osakwe, C. E.; Odili, A.; Ezeala-adikaibe, B.; Kingue, S.

2013-01-01

354

An analysis of off grid electrical systems in rural Sub-Saharan Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decade leading up to the end of the last millennium saw systematic unbundling and privatisation of power utility companies in Sub-Saharan Africa. The new profit driven entrepreneurs have swiftly moved to consolidate in urban enclaves and put paid to any remote hope for future rural electrification. Consequently, rural communities have resorted to fending for themselves by adapting to off grid electrification. Most of these emerging installations are individual isolated units. This paper looks at various off gird electric system configurations in rural Kenya and suggests ways in which they could be reconfigured to be more energy efficient

355

A global approach to the management of EMR (Electronic Medical Records of patients with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: the experience of DREAM Software  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The DREAM Project operates within the framework of the national health systems of several sub-Saharan African countries and aims to introduce the essential components of an integrated strategy for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. The project is intended to serve as a model for a wide-ranging scale-up in the response to the epidemic. This paper aims to show DREAM's challenges and the solutions adopted. One of the solutions is the efficient management of the clinical data regarding the treatment of the patients and epidemiological analyses. Methods Specific software for the management of the patients' EMR has been created within the DREAM programme in order to deal with the challenges deriving from the context in which DREAM operates. Setting up a computer infrastructure in health centres, providing a power supply, as well as managing the data and the project resources efficiently and reliably, are some of the questions that have been analysed in this study. Results Over the years this software has proved that it is able to respond to the need for efficient management of the clinical data and organization of the health centres. Today it is used in 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa by thousands of professionals and by now it has reached its fourth version. The medical files of over 73,000 assisted patients are managed by this software and the data collected with it have become essential for the epidemiological research that is carried out to improve the effectiveness of the therapy. Conclusion Sub-Saharan Africa is the region hardest hit by HIV and AIDS in the world. However, the resources and responses adopted so far, to confront the epidemic, have at times been rather minimalist. The DREAM project has faced the battle against the epidemic by equipping itself with qualitative standards comparable to Western ones. The experience of DREAM has revealed that it is indeed possible to guarantee levels of excellence in developing countries, also in the sphere of ICT (Information and Communication Technology, thus making the intervention even more effective and contributing to bridging the digital divide.

Peroni Marco

2009-09-01

356

Urbanization Drift and Obesity Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of the Situation in Nigeria.  

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Full Text Available The growing trend of obesity worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa can be linked to theurbanization drift experienced in recent years both in developed and developing countrieslike Nigeria, at four pivotal points namely: physical activity level, socio-economic status(SES, nutritional and psychosocial factors. Literature search was done usingMedline/PubMed and Google Scholar for published studies on the urbanization rate, andthe prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria. The socio-demographic determinantsof obesity among adults in the Nigerian population were female gender, marriage, lowphysical activity level, positive family history, urban area of residence and age ? 40 years.Obesity was more prevalent among women of low SES living in the urban area than thoseof high SES. Also overweight and obesity was more prevalent among young children (girlsthan boys living in an urban than rural area and attending private than public schools. Inorder to prevent a higher trend of obesity in future, more of awareness/attitudinalreorientation programmes need to be created by health based action groups incollaboration with government agencies on perception, risky lifestyles and culturesassociated with excessive weight gain.

E.E Akpan

2013-06-01

357

APOL1 kidney risk alleles: population genetics and disease associations.  

Science.gov (United States)

APOL1 kidney disease is a unique case in the field of the genetics of common disease: 2 variants (termed G1 and G2) with high population frequency have been repeatedly associated with nondiabetic CKDs, with very strong effect size (odds ratios 3-29) in populations of sub-Saharan African descent. This review provides an update on the spectrum of APOL1 kidney disease and on the worldwide distribution of these kidney risk variants. We also summarize the proper way to run a recessive analysis on joint and independent effects of APOL1 G1 and G2 kidney risk variants. PMID:25168832

Limou, Sophie; Nelson, George W; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Winkler, Cheryl A

2014-09-01

358

Enhancing global control of alcohol to reduce unsafe sex and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV and alcohol disease in these setting is not surprising given patterns of heavy-episodic drinking and that drinking contexts are often coterminous with opportunities for sexual encounters. HIV and alcohol also share common ground with sexual violence. Both perpetrators and victims of sexual violence have a high likelihood of having drunk alcohol prior to the incident, as with most forms of violence and injury in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing alcohol harms necessitates multi-level interventions and should be considered a key component of structural interventions to alleviate the burden of HIV and sexual violence. Brief interventions for people with problem drinking (an important component of primary health care, must incorporate specific discussion of links between alcohol and unsafe sex, and consequences thereof. Interventions to reduce alcohol harm among HIV-infected persons are also an important element in positive-prevention initiatives. Most importantly, implementation of known effective interventions could alleviate a large portion of the alcohol-attributable burden of disease, including its effects on unsafe sex, unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission.

Rees Helen V

2009-11-01

359

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in sub-Saharan Africa: a pilot study in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The disease burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is highest in sub-Saharan Africa but there are few studies on the associated neurocognitive disorders in this region. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Western neuropsychological (NP methods are appropriate for use in Cameroon, and to evaluate cognitive function in a sample of HIV-infected adults. Methods We used a battery of 19 NP measures in a cross-sectional study with 44 HIV+ adults and 44 demographically matched HIV- controls, to explore the validity of these NP measures in Cameroon, and evaluate the effect of viral infection on seven cognitive ability domains. Results In this pilot study, the global mean z-score on the NP battery showed worse overall cognition in the HIV+ individuals. Significantly lower performance was seen in the HIV+ sample on tests of executive function, speed of information processing, working memory, and psychomotor speed. HIV+ participants with AIDS performed worse than those with less advanced HIV disease. Conclusions Similar to findings in Western cohorts, our results in Cameroon suggest that HIV infection, particularly in advanced stages, is associated with worse performance on standardized, Western neurocognitive tests. The tests used here appear to be promising for studying NeuroAIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

Ellis Ronald J

2010-07-01

360

Sensitivity of the Investments of Sub-Saharan Firms to Financial Constraints  

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Full Text Available Investment is an important instrument of growth and competitiveness for non financial firms. However, these firms have limited financial resources (or liquidity at their disposal. The financial constraint is defined as a conditionality to be met in order to have access to liquidity by assuming that the information held by shareholders is perfect, and that financial markets are efficient. We have attempted in this study to analyze empirically the impact of these financial constraint on the investments of Sub-Saharan manufacturing firms. We carried out an empirical analysis of a sample of 73 firms belonging to the different manufacturing sectors listed on the stock market during the period 1998-2009, and by taking inspiration from panel data methodology. The empirical tests emphasize the fact that the manufacturing firms of Sub-Saharan countries, including the smallest ones and those with which financial institutions have no close relations, witness an environment with a strong information asymmetry between borrowers and lenders. These firms are constrained in their access to external indebtedness due to the levelling-off of indebtedness. However, taking account of uncertainty could enrich the extension of this study.

Elie Ngongang

2013-03-01

361

The economics of renewable energy expansion in rural Sub-Saharan Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerating development in Sub-Saharan Africa will require massive expansion of access to electricity-currently reaching only about one third of households. This paper explores how essential economic development might be reconciled with the need to keep carbon emissions in check. We develop a geographically explicit framework and use spatial modeling and cost estimates from recent engineering studies to determine where stand-alone renewable energy generation is a cost effective alternative to centralized grid supply. Our results suggest that decentralized renewable energy will likely play an important role in expanding rural energy access. However, it will be the lowest cost option for a minority of households in Africa, even when likely cost reductions over the next 20 years are considered. Decentralized renewables are competitive mostly in remote and rural areas, while grid connected supply dominates denser areas where the majority of households reside. These findings underscore the need to decarbonize the fuel mix for centralized power generation as it expands in Africa. - Research highlights: ? Expansion of electricity access in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a development priority. ? Low carbon options are important to reduce GHG emissions growth and avoid lock-ins. ? Spatially explicit cost modeling guides choice of supply options. ? Decentralized renewables are lowest cost for a significant minority of households. ? Grid supply remains attractive, suggesupply remains attractive, suggesting focus on decarbonizing centralized supply.

362

Biofuels development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Are the policies conducive?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses national, regional and international biofuels policies and strategies to assess whether these policies promote or undermine the development of biofuels sector in Africa. Despite having a huge comparative advantage in land, labour and good climatic conditions favourable for the growing of energy crops, few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have included biofuels strategies in their energy or national development policies. Further results show that while developed countries commit huge financial resources for research, technology development and the provision of tax-incentives to both producers and consumers, there is little government support for promoting biofuels in Africa. Although the consequences of biofuels on food supply remain uncertain, the mandatory blending of biofuels with fossil fuels by industrialized countries will create demand for land in Africa for the growing of energy crops for biofuels. This paper urgently calls upon national governments in Sub-Saharan Africa to develop appropriate strategies and regulatory frameworks to harness the potential economic opportunities from biofuels sector development, while protecting the environment and rural communities from the adverse effects of land alienation from the mainstream agriculture towards the growing of energy crops for biofuels at the expense of traditional food crops.

363

The socioeconomic implications of HIV / AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the socioeconomic implications of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Statistics show that more than two-thirds of the global 34 million HIV/AIDS infected are living in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the region has also experienced more AIDS related deaths than any other region in the world, with an adult prevalence rate of 8%. This situation generates several policy concerns since the socioeconomic development at household, community, national and global levels are affected. The increase in AIDS-related illness and deaths also puts an additional burden on constrained social services. HIV/AIDS is expected to affect various institutions in several ways: increased sick leave and absenteeism, high medical expenses, low productivity, higher worker turnover, loss of skilled labor force, increased training costs, and increased expenditure on health and death benefits. Coordinated HIV/AIDS programs by the government, nongovernmental and community-based organizations, and religious institutions could bring about positive socioeconomic developments. The regional bodies should facilitate the establishment of a well-equipped clinic to provide screening, treatment and counseling in border areas. To effectively implement these measures, health programs and personnel should be reoriented. PMID:12179460

Malungo, J R

2000-06-01

364

Biofuels development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Are the policies conducive?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyses national, regional and international biofuels policies and strategies to assess whether these policies promote or undermine the development of biofuels sector in Africa. Despite having a huge comparative advantage in land, labour and good climatic conditions favourable for the growing of energy crops, few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have included biofuels strategies in their energy or national development policies. Further results show that while developed countries commit huge financial resources for research, technology development and the provision of tax-incentives to both producers and consumers, there is little government support for promoting biofuels in Africa. Although the consequences of biofuels on food supply remain uncertain, the mandatory blending of biofuels with fossil fuels by industrialized countries will create demand for land in Africa for the growing of energy crops for biofuels. This paper urgently calls upon national governments in Sub-Saharan Africa to develop appropriate strategies and regulatory frameworks to harness the potential economic opportunities from biofuels sector development, while protecting the environment and rural communities from the adverse effects of land alienation from the mainstream agriculture towards the growing of energy crops for biofuels at the expense of traditional food crops.

Jumbe, Charles B.L., E-mail: charlesjumbe@bunda.unima.m [University of Malawi, Centre for Agricultural Research and Development, Bunda College, P.O. Box 219, Lilongwe (Malawi); Msiska, Frederick B.M., E-mail: frederickmsiska@yahoo.co [Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, P.O. Box 30134, Lilongwe 3 (Malawi); Madjera, Michael, E-mail: michael.madjera@onlinehome.d [Evangelical Church in Middle Germany, P.O. Box 1424, 39004 Magdeburg (Germany)

2009-11-15

365

Biofuels development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Are the policies conducive?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyses national, regional and international biofuels policies and strategies to assess whether these policies promote or undermine the development of biofuels sector in Africa. Despite having a huge comparative advantage in land, labour and good climatic conditions favourable for the growing of energy crops, few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have included biofuels strategies in their energy or national development policies. Further results show that while developed countries commit huge financial resources for research, technology development and the provision of tax-incentives to both producers and consumers, there is little government support for promoting biofuels in Africa. Although the consequences of biofuels on food supply remain uncertain, the mandatory blending of biofuels with fossil fuels by industrialized countries will create demand for land in Africa for the growing of energy crops for biofuels. This paper urgently calls upon national governments in Sub-Saharan Africa to develop appropriate strategies and regulatory frameworks to harness the potential economic opportunities from biofuels sector development, while protecting the environment and rural communities from the adverse effects of land alienation from the mainstream agriculture towards the growing of energy crops for biofuels at the expense of traditional food crops. (author)

Jumbe, Charles B.L. [University of Malawi, Centre for Agricultural Research and Development, Bunda College, P.O. Box 219, Lilongwe (Malawi); Msiska, Frederick B.M. [Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, P.O. Box 30134, Lilongwe 3 (Malawi); Madjera, Michael [Evangelical Church in Middle Germany, P.O. Box 1424, 39004 Magdeburg (Germany)

2009-11-15

366

Controlling iodine deficiency disorders : Studies for program management in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Studies were performed to improve iodine deficiency control programs. Goitre rates and cassava processing practices were compared in three Central African Republic (CAR) populations. Short-cuts in cassava processing were associated with elevated urinary thiocyanate and increased goitre rates, suggesting a goitrogenic effect in one population. While improved cassava processing may be beneficial, the priority is to correct the iodine deficiency. The use of the urinary iodine/tiocyanate ratio a...

Peterson, Stefan

2000-01-01

367

Development of Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Production Under Low Soil Phosphorus and Drought in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review  

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Full Text Available Owing to its nutritional value, especially proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and micronutrients, common bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. has been recognised as a crop that could ensure food security mostly, in Sub-Saharan Africa, where its productivity is low. Its low productivity is attributed to a milliard of constraints, of which low plant-available phosphorus (P and limited moisture in soil are among the major limiting factors. Synergistic effects of the two factors are accentuated in Sub-Saharan African region. This paper discloses the importance of the synergistic effects of plant-available P and moisture in soils on common bean production. It has been observed that studies investigating impacts of interactions of low P levels and moisture deficit conditions in soils are yet to be conducted. Identification of traits that contribute to high performance under low P availability and moisture deficit in the same genotypes remains a major research and development challenge. However, engineering new genotypes alone may not alleviate the problem of ensuring improvement of high bean yields. Root architecture and root exploration of the soil that enable the plant to access the two soil resources, traditional methods that preserve good status of organic matter in soils and moisture and soil preparation techniques are equally important. This, calls for holistic investigations that include soil plant-available P and moisture, common bean genotypes and their root systems, and agronomic measures to facilitate a comprehensive evaluation of impacts of deficiencies in soils on common bean yields. This paper explores and synthesizes existing research and development of common bean grown in soils deficient in plant-available P and moisture, aiming at designing future research to enhance common bean productivity.

Margaret Namugwanya

2014-09-01

368

Clinical presentations of severe cutaneous drug reactions in HIV-infected Africans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV pandemic and HIV-infected people are more susceptible to inflammatory dermatoses, infections, and drug eruptions. Many of the drugs used for HIV-associated opportunistic infections are associated with a higher incidence of drug-related toxicities and drug interactions. This article discusses the epidemiology, pharmacogenetics, and clinical features of idiosyncratic drug reactions in HIV-infected Africans. Special considerations in this population, including immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, multiple drug hypersensitivity syndrome, drug reactions in pregnancy, drug rechallenge in lichenoid drug eruptions, and anxiety/depression after cutaneous adverse drug reactions, are also briefly discussed. PMID:24680008

Lehloenya, Rannakoe J; Kgokolo, Mahlatse

2014-04-01

369

Regulation and policy initiatives for sustainable energy in sub-Saharan Africa. Chapter 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental change and sustainable development present a challenge for all nations. Developed countries have to dismantle and change historic practice before progressing, whereas developing countries can move directly to new technology and new institutional frameworks. This chapter seeks to identify trends in energy supply and use that both improve sustainability and provide opportunities for commerce and industry. Worldwide experience is studied for application in sub-Saharan Africa (abbreviated as 'Africa' henceforward). Such application is central to UNIDO's programmes in energy and environment. These programmes consider both the supply and the demand sides, by the provision of energy for industry, use of renewable energy resources and improved industrial energy end-use efficiency. Key factors are de-linking intensity of energy use from economic growth and reducing environmental damage from energy supply and use The background for this chapter is 'Sustainable Energy Regulation and Policy-making for Africa', a set of 20 training-modules produced for UNIDO and REEEP (the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership). The modules will be used by governments, regulatory offices and industry in Africa for stimulating policy and commercial development in renewable energy and energy efficiency. Of particular relevance is the general trend to more liberalized electricity supplies, as regulated within new legislation. Within each country, institutional frameworks ca each country, institutional frameworks can be changed and improved for the benefit of both citizens and commerce alike. There is a common trend worldwide to include institutional mechanisms for the increase of renewable energy generation and the efficient use of energy within regulatory legislation, e.g. (Harrington et al., 2007). Government involvement and ministerial regulation is most common for electricity. In all countries, the introductory stages of electricity supply have been strongly influenced by national and local government action and ownership. However, once initiated, an established market economy, involving many competitive private companies, should produce electricity at less cost to the consumer and the nation, than if wholly owned and operated by government. Such improvement requires a carefully constructed legal framework, especially because there are many monopoly aspects of electricity supply. The administration and control of the legal objectives requires jurisdiction, usually by the appointment of a Regulator with a specialist and independent staff. Thus, hand-in-hand with the liberalization of energy supplies is the requirement for regulation. Since 1990, liberalization of energy supply, especially of electricity, has been introduced throughout Europe. The main actions have been at national level; consequently, individual national policies and methods dominate. Nevertheless, having an integrated European electricity grid encourages commonality throughout Europe. Associated with liberalization is the growth of private company participation and hence the need for legally enforceable regulation by a Regulator. The pattern of development in Europe is similar to many other world regions including North America. However, European electricity supply is older and the population more concentrated than in most other regions, therefore the opportunity for structured liberalization came first in Europe. Consequently, the European experience is important for formulating policy elsewhere, including Africa. However, without competition from several private companies for each contract, liberalization may well fail to deliver the improved services and reduced energy tariffs expected; chapter three considers such experience. Coincidentally with the trend to energy supply liberalization, has come the need for renewable energy supplies and increased energy efficiency. This change is promoted by several factors, including: sustainable development, new technology, reduced emissions and climate change. New technology enables improvements in the efficient g

370

Limited effectiveness of HIV prevention for young people in sub-Saharan Africa: studying the role of intervention and evaluation  

OpenAIRE

On average, 2,500 young people (15-24 years) get ­infected with HIV every day; 80% of which live in sub-Saharan Africa. Since no cure or vaccine is available, reducing sexual risk behaviour in this group is crucial in tackling the epidemic. The general objective of this doctoral study was to improve the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions for young people in sub-Saharan Africa. First, we assessed the overall effectiveness of such interventions (systematic literature review, meta-an...

Michielsen, K.

2013-01-01

371

3 CFR 8468 - Proclamation 8468 of December 23, 2009. To Take Certain Actions Under the African Growth and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...I have determined that the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (Mauritania) meets the eligibility requirements set forth or referenced therein, and I have decided to designate Mauritania as an eligible sub-Saharan African country...

2010-01-01

372

Timing of Orphanhood, Early Sexual Debut, and Early Marriage in Four Sub-Saharan African Countries  

OpenAIRE

According to a growing body of literature, some orphans are at heightened risk of early sexual debut and early marriage. This study examines a rarely explored aspect of orphanhood: the timing and type of parental death and their relationship to these outcomes. The study also explores whether education mediates orphans’ risk of early sexual initiation and early marriage. The data are drawn from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents, which includes interviews with 12–19-year-old adolescen...

Chae, Sophia

2013-01-01

373

Pattern and determinants of BCG immunisation delays in a sub-Saharan African community  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Childhood immunisation is recognised worldwide as an essential component of health systems and an indispensable indicator of quality of care for vaccine-preventable diseases. While performance of immunisation programmes is more commonly measured by coverage, ensuring that every child is immunised at the earliest/appropriate age is an important public health goal. This study therefore set out to determine the pattern and predictors of Bacille de Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immun...

Olusanya Bolajoko O

2010-01-01

374

Assessment of mercury contamination in African sub-Saharan freshwater reservoirs (Burkina Faso)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite an increase in artisanal gold mining with metallic mercury (Hg) amalgamation in Burkina Faso since 1990, there is no data on the potential impact of Hg contamination on aquatic systems. This presentation reported on a study that evaluated environmental mercury contamination by determining the total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in water and 350 muscle tissues of fish samples from 13 reservoirs in Burkina Faso. Mercury was analyzed by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry technique using Tekran 2600 mercury analyzer (CV-AFS) after oxidization by BrCl and reduction by SnCl{sub 2}. The range of Hg concentration for THg and MeHg in water was presented along with the Fish THg level range. The study showed that most mercury was in the particulate form as a result of rainfall runoff. Most fish mercury concentrations were below the Health Canada guideline limit. However, the Hg level in one fish species (Bagrus bajad) was above the World Health Organization (WHO) international trade guideline limit. The study showed that in general, most fish species are not highly contaminated by Hg, with the exception of Bagrus bajad. It was concluded that future studies should consider consumption patterns of different subpopulations in order to evaluate risk and develop policy recommendations.

Ousseni, O.; Marc, A. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada)

2010-07-01

375

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN WOMEN AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A CASE OF GHANAIAN WOMEN  

OpenAIRE

The general purpose of this project is two in one; to analyze and assess gender mainstreaming and sustainable women development policies of the two main political parties in Ghana, and to evaluate the contribution of gender biased NGOs to the course of women empowerment in Ghana. This thesis, by applying the methodological techniques of qualitative content analysis and discourse analysis explores and examines the strength and weakness of the parties’ political manifestoes. It also explores...

Kamaldeen, Yakubu Zahrrah

2005-01-01

376

Sub-Saharan African Students’ Experiences, Perceptions, and Expectations with American Health Services: An Intercultural Challenge  

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Full Text Available Understanding patients? cultural expectations could contribute to better health outcomes and decrease cultural health disparities. This qualitative pilot study objective was to explore experiences, perceptions, and expectations of males and females Angolan students as patients in America. Eighteen face-to-face interviews were conducted at a Midwestern university. Burgoon?s expectancy violation theory (1991 was the theoretical background. Results revealed as positive expectation violations an advanced technology, quality of services, medicine availability, and emphasis on preventive care. Negative expectation violations included high service costs, complicated insurance system, short medical encounters, and difficulty in building relational history with providers. The study also revealed that culturally related communication barriers as well as negative violations of expectations hinder the quality of intercultural clinical encounters and can affect health outcomes. Participants emphasized the importance of these interpersonal relations and their connection with perceptions of caregivers? professional competence. International patients/students revealed that they believe friendliness on the part of the caregiver is a signal that they are dealing with a “good” doctor or nurse. Intercultural competence is an important asset of caregivers who work in multicultural clinics and in college health. Practical implications emerged in international advising and clinician?s education.

Claudia L. McCalman

2009-12-01

377

How much do blood exposures contribute to HIV prevalence in female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa, Thailand and India?  

Science.gov (United States)

Female sex workers (FSWs) are subject to frequent invasive procedures in health care and cosmetic services. When infection control is deficient, these procedures not only put FSWs at risk to acquire HIV, but are also risks for FSWs to transmit HIV to the general population. Direct information about blood exposures other than injection drug use as risks for HIV infection in FSWs has been too limited to test the hypothesis that unsterile health-care procedures have infected large numbers of FSWs in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. However, indirect evidence suggests that blood exposures might account for an important proportion of their HIV infections. This indirect evidence includes: higher prevalence of hepatitis C infection among sex workers than among other women; continuing HIV acquisition among FSWs despite high rates of condom use and surprisingly high ratios of incidence of HIV compared with incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia. PMID:17784998

Gisselquist, David

2007-09-01

378

An evaluation of the prevalence of HIV/AIDS on selected economies of sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV whose full-blown period is called acquired immunity deficiency syndrome (AIDS is today a terminal disease. While one weakens the body hormones, the other comes to claim the life with its accompanying opportunistic diseases. Several factors have been reviewed to be causing the infection and its prevalence as well as its socio-economic, scientific and cultural dimensions. The cost implication of this ailment is enormous when considered from individual, national or global perspective, especially when the cost of treatment and the cost of the disability adjusted life years (DALYs lost to incapacitation from HIV/AIDS is considered. This study has investigated the financial implications of treatment and the DALYs lost to HIV/AIDS from the perspective of sub-Saharan Africa covering thirty-five countries. Infected population of age 15-49 years were considered, being the active life year age group. Applying Morrow’s DALYs measurement, and Ainsworth’s per capita general rule method of costing HIV/AIDS, it was found that the cost of treatment of HIV/AIDS in any country depends on her economic strength on the one hand and the size of the infected population on the other, to the extent that no country spends or loses less than 3 percent of her national income on treatment and to DALYs. To any country, the financial cost of the DALYs lost to HIV/AIDS is much more than the cost of treatment per episode, mostly huge enough to develop a sector of the country’s economy. However, a single recommendation could be difficult as individual countries experience different effect, but different countries must pursue long-run anti-prevalence policies individually and as economic region or bloc.

Raji Abdulghafar Bello

2012-10-01

379

Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia  

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Full Text Available The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia’s MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia’s systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource “brain drain”, among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or “quick wins” that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

Ben Chirwa

2006-09-01

380

Prevalences of dementia and cognitive impairment among older people in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review / : / Prevalence de la demence et des troubles cognitifs chez les personnes agees en Afrique sub-saharienne : une etude systematique / : / : / La prevalencia de la demencia y el deterioro cognitivo en las personas mayores en el Africa subsahariana: una revision sistematica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Resumen Objetivo Realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura sobre la prevalencia del deterioro cognitivo y la demencia en el África subsahariana. Métodos Se hicieron búsquedas en cinco bases de datos electrónicas a fin de hallar resúmenes pertinentes e identificar los documentos que cumpl [...] ieran con los requisitos para una revisión del texto completo. Los estudios se incluyeron cuando dos autores coincidían en que el diseño era de cohorte, de casos y controles o transversal y si presentaban los datos a nivel de población, si se limitaban a los adultos africanos negros mayores de 50 años o descritos como "personas mayores" o "ancianas", si incluían datos correspondientes a las personas que residen en el África subsahariana y si presentaban, al menos, un grado de deterioro cognitivo o resultados clínicos relevantes sobre el deterioro cognitivo. Se realizaron búsquedas de las referencias de los artículos incluidos en nuestro estudio a fin de identificar más publicaciones que cumplieran los requisitos, se arbitraron los desacuerdos sobre la inclusión en las discusiones que involucraban a todos los autores y se recogieron los datos de forma independiente por dos autores mediante un formulario desarrollado por los autores y probado en una muestra de trabajos. Resultados Se halló un total de 2320 documentos únicos y se revisó el texto completo de 87 de ellos. Se seleccionaron diecinueve documentos que incluían 11 estudios transversales, todos ellos publicados entre 1995 y 2011. Los estudios tuvieron lugar en Benin, Botswana, la República Centroafricana, el Congo y Nigeria, en los que se registraron aproximadamente 10 500 participantes. La prevalencia de la demencia varió del 0 % en Nigeria, al 10,1 % (intervalo de confianza del 95 %, IC: 8,06-11,08), también en Nigeria. La prevalencia del deterioro cognitivo varió del 6,3 % en Nigeria, al 25 % (IC del 95 %: 21,2 a 29,0) en la República Centroafricana. Conclusión La prevalencia de la demencia y el deterioro cognitivo en el África subsahariana variaron mucho, y fueron pocos los estudios publicados que se revelaron mediante la búsqueda bibliográfica. Abstract in english Objective To perform a systematic review of the literature on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for relevant abstracts and to identify papers eligible for full-text review. A study was included if two authors [...] agreed that it had a cohort, case–control or cross-sectional design and reported population-level data; was limited to black African adults older than 50 years or described as “elderly” or “old”; reported data for individuals residing in sub-Saharan Africa; and reported at least one measure of cognitive impairment or clinical outcomes relevant to cognitive decline. References of papers included in our study were searched to identify additional candidate publications. Disagreements about inclusion were adjudicated during discussions involving all authors. Data were extracted independently by two authors, using a form developed by the authors and tested on a sample of papers. Findings A total of 2320 unique papers was found; the full text of 87 was reviewed. Nineteen papers featuring 11 cross-sectional studies were included; all were published during 1995–2011. Studies occurred in Benin, Botswana, the Central African Republic, the Congo and Nigeria and enrolled approximately 10?500 participants. The prevalence of dementia ranged from 0%, in Nigeria, to 10.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 8.6–11.8), also in Nigeria. The prevalence of cognitive impairment ranged from 6.3%, in Nigeria, to 25% (95% CI: 21.2–29.0), in the Central African Republic. Conclusion Prevalences of dementia and cognitive impairment in sub-Saharan Africa varied widely, with few published studies revealed by the literature search.

Angelique, Mavrodaris; John, Powell; Margaret, Thorogood.

2013-10-10

381

Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa  

OpenAIRE

Although considerable achievements in the global reduction of hunger and poverty have been made, progress in Africa so far has been very limited. At present, a third of the African population faces widespread hunger and chronic malnutrition and is exposed to a constant threat of acute food crisis and famine. The most affected are rural households whose livelihood is heavily dependent on traditional rainfed agriculture. Rainfall plays a major role in determining agricultural production and hen...

Haile, Menghestab

2005-01-01

382

Planning and Implementing Policies for Special Education and Rehabilitation Services in Sub-Saharan Africa: Problems and Suggestions  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite genuine efforts, countries in sub-Saharan Africa significantly lag behind sister nations of the world in providing basic education and more so in providing special education and rehabilitation services for students with disabilities. This work gives an overview of the magnitude of this problem and outlines some of its causes. In addition,…

Malakpa, Sakui W. G.

2009-01-01

383

Scaling up delivery of contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa: operational experiences of Marie Stopes International  

OpenAIRE

Between 2008 and 2012, Marie Stopes International (MSI) provided 1.7 million contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa as part of a comprehensive method mix, primarily through mobile outreach using dedicated MSI providers and also through social franchising and MSI-run clinics. Large-scale access, quality, and informed choice were key elements of MSI's strategy.

Duvall, Susan; Thurston, Sarah; Weinberger, Michelle; Nuccio, Olivia; Fuchs-montgomery, Nomi

2014-01-01

384

Knowledge Production and Distribution by Institutions of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities and Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on available opportunities and challenges which institutions of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa face in producing and distributing knowledge. Institutions of higher education are also expected to produce knowledge workers for the knowledge economy. Knowledge production falls into Mode 1, in which problems are set and…

Ondari-Okemwa, E.

2011-01-01

385

The need for integration of drought monitoring tools for proactive food security management in sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing the impact of drought and famine remains a challenge in sub-Saharan Africa despite ongoing drought relief assistance in recent decades. This is because drought and famine are primarily addressed through a crisis management approach when a disaster occurs, rather than stressing preparedness and risk management. Moreover, drought planning and food security efforts have been hampered by a lack of integrated drought monitoring tools, inadequate early warning systems (EWS), and insufficient information flow within and between levels of government in many sub-Saharan countries. The integration of existing drought monitoring tools for sub-Saharan Africa is essential for improving food security systems to reduce the impacts of drought and famine on society in this region. A proactive approach emphasizing integration requires the collective use of multiple tools, which can be used to detect trends in food availability and provide early indicators at local, national, and regional scales on the likely occurrence of food crises. In addition, improving the ability to monitor and disseminate critical drought-related information using available modern technologies (e.g., satellites, computers, and modern communication techniques) may help trigger timely and appropriate preventive responses and, ultimately, contribute to food security and sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa. ?? 2008 United Nations.

Tadesse, T.; Haile, M.; Senay, G.; Wardlow, B.D.; Knutson, C.L.

2008-01-01

386

Assessing the Impact of Privatization Policy on Telecommunications Sector Effectiveness and Economic Activity in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, privatization has been a growing phenomenon in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is viewed as an instrument used by the public sector to reduce the role of the state in the economies while enhancing the scope of private ownership and participation of goods and services (Akram et al, 2011). Researchers have noted that the telecommunication…

Ngwa, Oneurine B.

2012-01-01

387

A Theoretical Framework on the Antecedents of E-Medicine Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Mixed Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Although e-medicine, just as with all information technology (IT), was developed and piloted in developed countries, it has not been successfully applied to address pressing medical problems in SSA (Mbarika & Okoli, 2003; Maher, et al., 2010). There is a lot of research that has been conducted in the last decade on telemedicine in sub-Saharan…

Isabalija, Stephen Robert

2011-01-01

388

North-South Rivalry and Offshore Balancing in Sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sub-Saharan Africa constitutes a distinct security region and hosts a high proportion of fragile and failed states presiding over territories with abundant resources – but no indigenous great powers! Following offensive neorealist logic, the absence of local great powers explains the continued benign neglect of the US. External influence from European powers is nonetheless significant, albeit several BRIC countries are challenging the position of the former colonial masters. In response France and the United Kingdom (UK) have turned to European foreign and security policy integration to pool resources and promote burden sharing with other EU partners, in order to maintain power in the region. This European mobilization has kept rivals at bay but has also instigated balancing behaviour as revisionist suitors boost their conventional power projection capabilities.

Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

389

Applicability of Ground-based Remote Sensors for Crop N Management in Sub Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote sensors have a growing legacy for improving crop N use efficiency (NUE in several parts of the world. The technology employs crop spectral properties to determine fertilizer rates by matching crop N requirement based on midseason yield potential. Conclusions that the technology is inappropriate for Sub Saharan Africa (SSA because the farmers use little or no fertilizer, or cannot afford it, are reviewed. Opportunities and applicability using a model concept from the GreenSeeker® sensor ($4000 are presented. Because farmers in SSA inefficiently apply fertilizer through blanket recommendations, they must improve crop NUE to minimize cost. Application of this technology would enable refinement or development of N recommendation protocols for target groups of farmers based on site and delineated management field zones. With new developments of a prototype GreenSeeker®, the Optical Pocket Sensor (<$250, this technology will definitely be affordable and applicable, at least for institutional research purposes in SSA.

Jasper M. Teboh

2012-01-01

390

Millennium Development Goals progress: a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Sub-Saharan Africa is a highly diverse geo-political region. Any brief discussion of the progress made over the last 15?years towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will therefore not do justice to the true complexity of context and events. Our focus will be MDG4—to reduce child mortality by 66% from 1990 levels. We will touch briefly on MDG1, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, MDG2, to achieve universal primary education, and MDG5, to improve maternal health, which are inextricably linked with child well-being. We will also draw on an eclectic mix of additional global indicators. Acknowledging the limitations of this approach, we first offer a summary of expected progress and then point to debates on future goals. PMID:25613971

English, Mike; English, Rex; English, Atti

2015-01-01

391

Water-balance approach for assessing potential for smallholder groundwater irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Strategies for increasing the development and use of groundwater for agriculture over much of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are urgently needed. Expansion of small-scale groundwater irrigation offers an attractive option to smallholder farmers to overcome unreliable wet-season rainfall and enhance dry-se [...] ason production. This paper presents a simple, generic groundwater-balance-based methodology that uses a set of type-curves to assist with decision making on the scope for developing sustainable groundwater irrigation supplies, and to help understand how cropping choices influence the potential areal extent of irrigation. Guidance to avoid over-exploitation of the resource is also provided. The methodology is applied to 2 sites in West Africa with contrasting climatic and subsurface conditions. At both sites the analysis reveals that there is significant potential for further groundwater development for irrigation whilst allowing provisions for other sectoral uses, including basic human needs and the environment.

P, Pavelic; V, Smakhtin; G, Favreau; KG, Villholth.

392

Palynology of Sub-Saharan Karoo Basins: Key to Early Mesozoic palaeoclimate reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Palynological data of Permian-Triassic formations of the Sub-Saharan Karoo basins play a crucial role in the study and for the understanding of Gondwana's climate history and biodiversity in this time of major global changes in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The palynological record reflects changes in land plant communities and vegetational patterns related to climate change and thus provides significant data for high-resolution palaeoclimate reconstructions in deep time. Recent palynological investigations of Triassic successions of South Africa, Mozambique and Tanzania document major changes in palaeoclimate. The spore/pollen ratios are used as a proxy for humidity changes. Stratal variations in the composition of the pollen group indicate warming and cooling phases. Variations in the amount and in the type, size and shape of phytoclasts reflect short-term changes in transport and weathering. The detected palaeoclimate signals are used for high-resolution correlation on basin-wide, intercontinental and intra-Gondwanic scales.

Götz, Annette E.

2014-05-01

393

Chronic Disease Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Whose Business Is It?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public health specialists and clinicians alike agree that Humanity faces a global pandemic of chronic diseases in the 21st century. In this article we discuss the implications of this pandemic on another global issue, the health workforce. Because both issues are particularly acute in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, we will focus on this region and use Cameroon as a case in point. We first gauge the epidemic of chronic conditions in SSA. We then discuss the implications of chronic conditions for the reshaping of health systems and the health workforce. We conclude by making a strong case for the building up and strengthening the health workforce, insisting on the crucial role of nurses, their training, and involvement in chronic disease management.

Slim Slama

2009-08-01

394

Recombination gives a new insight in the effective population size and the history of the old world human populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The information left by recombination in our genomes can be used to make inferences on our recent evolutionary history. Specifically, the number of past recombination events in a population sample is a function of its effective population size (Ne). We have applied a method, Identifying Recombination in Sequences (IRiS), to detect specific past recombination events in 30 Old World populations to infer their Ne. We have found that sub-Saharan African populations have an Ne that is approximately four times greater than those of non-African populations and that outside of Africa, South Asian populations had the largest Ne. We also observe that the patterns of recombinational diversity of these populations correlate with distance out of Africa if that distance is measured along a path crossing South Arabia. No such correlation is found through a Sinai route, suggesting that anatomically modern humans first left Africa through the Bab-el-Mandeb strait rather than through present Egypt. PMID:21890475

Melé, Marta; Javed, Asif; Pybus, Marc; Zalloua, Pierre; Haber, Marc; Comas, David; Netea, Mihai G; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Jin, Li; Yang, Yajun; Pitchappan, R M; Arunkumar, G; Parida, Laxmi; Calafell, Francesc; Bertranpetit, Jaume

2012-01-01

395

Facilitating the financing of bioenergy projects in sub-Saharan Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to identify and develop potential solutions on how to facilitate the financing of bioenergy projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. We focus on four main areas that have been identified from empirical research in achieving this objective; these are: (i) financing, (ii) markets; (iii) trade and (iv) policy. The sources utilised consist of primary and secondary data compilation and analysis. Of particular relevance are the results of a market survey undertaken on funding opportunities, where the perspectives of both, project developers as well as project financiers are taken into account. Results indicate that the four areas cannot be treated autonomously, as they not only overlap but impact each other. There are a number of difficulties for biofuel ventures, not least the nature of the projects themselves, but also around the financing and political landscape of these enterprises. Common solutions which cross cut the four areas are the need to raise awareness and the skillsets, in areas including, financing opportunities, markets, policy, technical aspects among a range of stakeholders involved in biofuel ventures. There is also a necessity to create a supporting framework for the emerging carbon trading-related activities in Africa. - Highlights: ? We identify and develop potential solutions towards facilitating the financing of bioenergy projects in sub-Saharan Africa. ? We focus on four areas to achieve this objective; these are: (i) financithis objective; these are: (i) financing, (ii) markets; (iii) trade and (iv) policy. ? Common solutions which cross cut the four areas are the need to raise awareness and develop skillsets of stakeholders involved.

396

Spousal agreement on preferred waiting time to next birth in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates how various social, demographic and economic factors affect spousal agreement on preferred waiting time to next birth. Data for matched cohabiting couples from ten Demographic and Health Surveys in sub-Saharan Africa (Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe), conducted between 2003 and 2006, were analysed to compare reported waiting time to next birth by the husband and the wife. Couples where the reported waiting time to next birth was the same for both partners (difference is 0 months) were defined as having agreement on waiting time to next birth. In sub-Saharan Africa, spousal agreement on waiting time to next birth was found to be associated with wanting the next child sooner. When the spouses disagree on waiting time to next birth, the wives want to wait longer than their husbands in most cases. Additionally, the study found that demographic factors are the primary determinants of spousal agreement on waiting time to next birth, not socioeconomic factors. The strongest predictors of spousal agreement on waiting time to next birth were number of living children, difference between the number of ideal and living children and wife's age. Couples with fewer children, a younger wife and those with a difference of five or more children between ideal and living number of children were more likely to agree on waiting time to next birth. Effects of socioeconomic factors, such as education and wealth status, on spousal agreement on waiting time to next birth were generally weak and inconsistent. The findings highlight some of the challenges in developing programmes to promote spousal communication and birth spacing and underscore the need for programmes to be gender-sensitive. PMID:21450119

Gebreselassie, Tesfayi; Mishra, Vinod

2011-07-01

397

Addressing the HIV/AIDS-food insecurity syndemic in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently a few vocal health experts have suggested that some of the billions of dollars currently used to prevent and treat HIV and AIDS be reallocated to address more basic problems such as malnutrition, tuberculosis, malaria, and enteric and diarrheal disease caused by lack of access to clean water. While not universally agreed upon, this reassessment of policy priorities acknowledges that there are multiple other health problems that deserve renewed attention from the international community. It also highlights the fact that the impacts of the HIV pandemic are exacerbated by widespread poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition, and gender inequality. Nowhere is this more evident than in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple epidemics conflate and seriously compromise the survival of individuals and communities. Given the widespread occurrence of famine in sub-Saharan Africa, issues of food and economic security become of paramount importance in efforts to address the region's HIV epidemics. This paper examines the historical, political-economic, and cultural dimensions of the HIV epidemic in the context of the growing problem of food and economic insecurity. Furthermore, using theoretical frameworks that emphasize the dynamic interrelation between HIV/AIDS and food insecurity, we present suggestions for combining traditional HIV-prevention strategies with food production and nutritioneducation programming. In light of the complex interactions between HIV/AIDS and food insecurity and the lack of accessible treatment modalities, such programming could potentially reduce the risk for transmission of HIV through behavioural changes and improved nutritional and immune status, and increase the life expectancy of people living with HIV or AIDS. PMID:25875704

Himmelgreen, David A; Romero-Daza, Nancy; Turkon, David; Watson, Sharon; Okello-Uma, Ipolto; Sellen, Daniel

2009-12-01

398

Market Barriers to Clean Cooking Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Literature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the developing nations of sub-Saharan Africa, providing households with modern energy services is a critical step towards development. A large majority of households in the region rely on traditional biomass fuels for cooking, which represent a significant proportion of energy used in the domestic setting. The disadvantages of these fuels are many: they are inefficient energy carriers and their heat is difficult to control; they produce dangerous emissions; and their current rate of extraction is not sustainable for forests. Transition to clean cooking fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or ethanol would resolve many of these issues as they do not produce dangerous particulate emissions, and are commercially viable, offering a number of socio-economic advantages over traditional options. Despite the benefits of fuel switching, clean cooking fuels are rarely used in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Their failure to attain widespread use can be attributed to a number of market barriers. One of the major issues is cost: clean cooking fuels are prohibitively expensive for many households, and the high price of compatible stoves further discourages their use. Besides the expense, many consumers are hesitant to adopt the new technology, reflecting the lack of public awareness of the relevant issues. At the same time, Africa's underdeveloped infrastructure prevents these fuels from being made available in many local marketplaces. To date, this combination of factors has largely stifled the transition to clean cooking fuels. National governments can adopt a number of strategies to address these issues. The creation of clean cooking-fuel initiatives at the national level would be an important first step, after which governments can begin to address the issues more effectively. The introduction of relevant financial instruments would help to tackle the economic barriers to clean cooking fuels, and public outreach and education could overcome socio-cultural obstacles. Through such a policy framework, national governments can play a significant role in encouraging the transition to clean cooking fuels

Schlag, Nicolai; Zuzarte, Fiona

2008-04-15

399

The Encyclopaedia of Literature in African Languages  

OpenAIRE

The Encyclopaedia of Literature in African Languages (ELLAF) project focuses on oral and written literature in African languages. The ELLAF project proposes the creation of a website presenting and analysing literary texts in African languages, in order to make a wide range of these written or oral texts, in Sub-Saharan African and Malagasy languages, available to enthusiasts, students and specialists from around the world. The project aims to build up a research database based on literary wo...

Baumgardt, Ursula; Lorin, Marie

2012-01-01

400

Development of a Fetal Weight Chart Using Serial Trans-Abdominal Ultrasound in an East African Population: A Longitudinal Observational Study  

OpenAIRE

To produce a fetal weight chart representative of a Tanzanian population, and compare it to weight charts from Sub-Saharan Africa and the developed world. A longitudinal observational study in Northeastern Tanzania. Pregnant women were followed throughout pregnancy with serial trans-abdominal ultrasound. All pregnancies with pathology were excluded and a chart representing the optimal growth potential was developed using fetal weights and birth weights. The weight chart was compared to a char...

Schmiegelow, Christentze; Scheike, Thomas; Oesterholt, Mayke; Minja, Daniel; Pehrson, Caroline; Magistrado, Pamela; Lemnge, Martha; Rasch, Vibeke; Lusingu, John; Theander, Thor G.; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun

2012-01-01

401

Comparing changes in haematologic parameters occurring in patients included in randomized controlled trials of artesunate-amodiaquine vs single and combination treatments of uncomplicated falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS&AQ is a widely used artemisinin combination therapy (ACT for falciparum malaria. A comprehensive appreciation of its effects on haematology vs other anti-malarials is needed in view of potential safety liabilities. Methods Individual-patient data analysis conducted on a database from seven randomized controlled trials conducted in sub-Saharan African comparing AS&AQ to reference treatments in uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients of all ages. Haematologic values (white cells total and neutrophil counts, haemoglobin/haematocrit, platelets were analysed as both continuous and categorical variables for their occurrence, (severity grade 1-4 and changes during follow-up. Risks and trends were calculated using multivariate logistic random effect models. Results 4,502 patients (72% p = 0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, and leucopaenia decreased with follow-up time, while neutropaenia increased; the risk of anaemia and thrombocytopaenia increased with higher baseline parasitaemia and parasitological reappearance. White cells total count was not a good surrogate for neutropaenia. No systematic significant difference between treatments was detected. Older patients were at lower risks. Conclusion The effects of AS&AQ on haematologic parameters were not different from those of other anti-malarial treatments used in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis provides the basis for a broader evaluation of haematology following anti-malarial treatment. Continuing monitoring of haematologic safety on larger databases is required.

Zwang Julien

2012-01-01

402

Deployment of community health workers across rural sub-Saharan Africa: financial considerations and operational assumptions / Déploiement des agents de santé communautaires en Afrique rurale subsaharienne: considérations financières et hypothèses opérationnelles / Despliegue de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud en zonas rurales del África subsahariana: consideraciones financieras y supuestos operativos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Facilitar asesoramiento sobre los costes necesarios para desarrollar un sistema de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud (TCS) con capacidad para adaptarse a ámbitos locales y con flexibilidad a nivel nacional, en el marco de los sistemas sanitarios de atención primaria en el África subsah [...] ariana. MÉTODOS: Se estimaron los gastos anuales para la capacitación, el equipamiento y el despliegue de los trabajadores comunitarios de la salud en las zonas rurales del África subsahariana mediante el análisis de datos procedentes de la literatura, así como del Proyecto Aldeas del Milenio. Los supuestos del modelo son adecuados para permitir a los gobiernos nacionales adaptar el subsistema de los trabajadores comunitarios de la salud a las necesidades nacionales, así como para realizar un despliegue medio de un trabajador comunitario de la salud por cada 650 habitantes en las zonas rurales antes de 2015. El subsistema de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud descrito se calculó mediante el análisis de datos del sistema de información geográfica (GIS, por sus siglas en inglés) sobre la población, los territorios urbanos, la incidencia de enfermedades a nivel nacional y subnacional, así como los costes unitarios (en el campo de salarios y necesidades básicas). El modelo puede configurarse y reproducirse con facilidad. Los países pueden adaptarlo a los precios, los salarios, la densidad demográfica, así como a la carga de enfermedades locales en distintas áreas geográficas. RESULTADOS: Se estima que el coste medio anual por el despliegue de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud para prestar atención a toda la población de las zonas rurales del África subsahariana antes de 2015 sería de unos 2,6 billones (es decir, 2 600 millones) de dólares estadounidenses (US$). Dicha suma, que será cubierta tanto por los gobiernos nacionales como por los socios donantes, se traduce en US$ 6,86 anuales por habitante, cubierta por el subsistema de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud, y en US$ 2,72 anuales por habitante. Asimismo, la capacitación, el equipamiento y el apoyo a cada TCS supondría una media anual de US$ 3750. CONCLUSIÓN: Se pueden desplegar subsistemas integrales de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud en todo el África subsahariana por un coste modesto, si se compara con los costes previstos para un sistema de atención sanitaria primaria. A juzgar por los éxitos documentados, estos ofrecen un sólido complemento para la atención en servicios sanitarios en entornos rurales de África. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To provide cost guidance for developing a locally adaptable and nationally scalable community health worker (CHW) system within primary-health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The yearly costs of training, equipping and deploying CHWs throughout rural sub-Saharan Africa were c [...] alculated using data from the literature and from the Millennium Villages Project. Model assumptions were such as to allow national governments to adapt the CHW subsystem to national needs and to deploy an average of 1 CHW per 650 rural inhabitants by 2015. The CHW subsystem described was costed by employing geographic information system (GIS) data on population, urban extents, national and subnational disease prevalence, and unit costs (from the field for wages and commodities). The model is easily replicable and configurable. Countries can adapt it to local prices, wages, population density and disease burdens in different geographic areas. FINDINGS: The average annual cost of deploying CHWs to service the entire sub-Saharan African rural population by 2015 would be approximately 2.6 billion (i.e. 2600 million) United States dollars (US$). This sum, to be covered both by national governments and by donor partners, translates into US$ 6.86 per year per inhabitant covered by the CHW subsystem and into US$ 2.72 per year per inhabitant. Alternatively, it would take an annual average of US$ 3750 to train, equip and support each CHW. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive CHW subsy

Gordon C, McCord; Anne, Liu; Prabhjot, Singh.

2013-04-01

403

Trials and projects on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), accounting for about 50,000 deaths annually. Until recently, cytology was the gold standard for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. This method of screening has not been successful in SSA due to a lack of human, financial and material resources and poor health care infrastructure. It is estimated that less than 5% of at risk women have ever being screened. In the past two decades alternative approaches to cytology for cervical cancer screening have been evaluated in low- and medium-income countries. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and/or Lugol's iodine (VILI) have been shown to have adequate sensitivity, although low specificity, in a number of cross-sectional research and demonstration projects. Visual inspection methods require minimal resources, are technologically accessible, and are feasible for screening for precancerous lesions. Linking screening with VIA/VILI to treatment with cryotherapy may enable screening and treatment to take place in one visit, but this is likely to result in large numbers of women being subjected to unnecessary treatment. A number of studies have shown that cryotherapy is not associated with significant side effects or complications and is well tolerated. Creating the infrastructure for screening of older women is considered desirable, despite the limitations of visual inspection methods as screening tests. Understanding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the etiology of cervical cancer and the discovery of HPV rapid test kits, as well as the development of vaccines against the HPV oncogenic types, have created new opportunities for prevention of cervical cancer. Trials and projects have established (and are still ongoing) the feasibility of using these molecular tests for screening. The ultimate in prevention method is primary prevention, offered by the advent of prophylactic vaccines against the most important oncogenic types, namely HPV16 and 18. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Sub-Saharan Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 5, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24331748

Adefuye, Peter O; Broutet, Nathalie J; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Denny, Lynette A

2013-12-29

404

Anti-malarial market and policy surveys in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract At a recent meeting (Sept 18, 2009 in which reasons for the limited access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in sub-Saharan Africa were discussed, policy and market surveys on anti-malarial drug availability and accessibility in Burundi and Sierra Leone were presented in a highly interactive brainstorming session among key stakeholders across private, public, and not-for-profit sectors. The surveys, the conduct of which directly involved the national malaria control programme managers of the two countries, provides the groundwork for evidence-based policy implementation. The results of the surveys could be extrapolated to other countries with similar socio-demographic and malaria profiles. The meeting resulted in recommendations on key actions to be taken at the global, national, and community level for better ACT accessibility. At the global level, both public and private sectors have actions to take to strengthen policies that lead to the replacement of loose blister packs with fixed-dose ACT products, develop strategies to ban inappropriate anti-malarials and regulate those bans, and facilitate technology and knowledge transfer to scale up production of fixed-dose ACT products, which should be readily available and affordable to those patients who are in the greatest need of these medicines. At the national level, policies that regulate the anti-malarial medicines market should be enacted and enforced. The public sector, including funding donors, should participate in ensuring that the private sector is engaged in the ACT implementation process. Research similar to the surveys discussed is important for other countries to develop and evaluate the right incentives at a local level. At the community level, community outreach and education about appropriate preventive and treatment measures must continue and be strengthened, with service delivery systems developed within both public and private sectors, among other measures, to decrease access to ineffective and inappropriate anti-malarial medicines. What was clear during the meeting is that continuing commitment, strengthened interaction and transparency among various stakeholders, with focus on communities, national governments, and evidence-based policy and action are the only way to sustainably address the control of malaria, a disease which continues to have a significant health and socio-economic impact worldwide, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Details on the methodology employed in carrying out the studies discussed at this meeting, as well as more detailed results, data analysis and discussion of the studies are soon to be published.

Sevcsik Ann-Marie

2010-04-01

405

Biochar production and applications in sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities, constraints, risks and uncertainties.  

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Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) experiences soil degradation, food and livelihood insecurity, environmental pollution and lack of access to energy. Biochar has gained international research attention, but few studies have investigated the potential of biochar to address the challenges in SSA. This paper seeks to identify and evaluate generic potential opportunities and constraints associated with biochar application in sub-Saharan Africa using Zimbabwe as case study. Specific objectives were to; (1) identify and quantify feedstocks for biochar production; (2) review literature on the biochar properties, and evaluate its potential applications in agriculture, environmental remediation and energy provision, and (3) identify research gaps, risks and constraints associated with biochar technology. Biochar feedstocks in Zimbabwe were estimated to be 9.9 Mton yr(-1), predominantly derived from manure (88%) and firewood (10%). This will yield 3.5, 1.7 and 3.1 Mton yr(-1) of biochar, bio-oil and synthetic gas, respectively. Land application of the 3.5 Mton yr(-1) of biochar (?63% C) would sequester approximately 2.2 Mton yr(-1) of soil carbon in Zimbabwe alone, while simultaneously minimizing the environmental and public health risks, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with solid organic wastes. Biochar potentially enhances soil and crop productivity through enhanced nutrient and soil moisture availability, amelioration of acidic soils and stimulation of microbial diversity and activity. Due to its excellent adsorption properties, biochar has potential applications in industrial and environmental applications including water and wastewater treatment, remediation and revegetation of contaminated soils and water. Biochar products have energy values comparable or higher than those of traditional biomass fuels; thereby making them ideal alternative sources of energy especially for poor households without access to electricity. Before the benefits of biochar can be realized in SSA, there is need to overcome multiple risks and constraints such as lack of finance, socio-economic constraints including negative perceptions and attitudes among both researchers and consumers, and environmental and public health risks. Therefore, there is need to conduct fundamental research to demonstrate the benefits of biochar applications, and develop policy framework and criteria for its production and subsequent adoption. PMID:25521347

Gwenzi, Willis; Chaukura, Nhamo; Mukome, Fungai N D; Machado, Stephen; Nyamasoka, Blessing

2015-03-01

406

Association of HIV and ART with cardiometabolic traits in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

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Background Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest burden of HIV in the world and a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic disease; however, the interrelationship between HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cardiometabolic traits is not well described in SSA populations. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis through MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to January 2012), as well as direct author contact. Eligible studies provided summary or individual-level data on one or more of the following traits in HIV+ and HIV-, or ART+ and ART- subgroups in SSA: body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TGs) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Information was synthesized under a random-effects model and the primary outcomes were the standardized mean differences (SMD) of the specified traits between subgroups of participants. Results Data were obtained from 49 published and 3 unpublished studies which reported on 29 755 individuals. HIV infection was associated with higher TGs [SMD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.08 to 0.44] and lower HDL (SMD, ?0.59; 95% CI, ?0.86 to ?0.31), BMI (SMD, ?0.32; 95% CI, ?0.45 to ?0.18), SBP (SMD, ?0.40; 95% CI, ?0.55 to ?0.25) and DBP (SMD, ?0.34; 95% CI, ?0.51 to ?0.17). Among HIV+ individuals, ART use was associated with higher LDL (SMD, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.72) and HDL (SMD, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.66), and lower HbA1c (SMD, ?0.34; 95% CI, ?0.62 to ?0.06). Fully adjusted estimates from analyses of individual participant data were consistent with meta-analysis of summary estimates for most traits. Conclusions Broadly consistent with results from populations of European descent, these results suggest differences in cardiometabolic traits between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals in SSA, which might be modified by ART use. In a region with the highest burden of HIV, it will be important to clarify these findings to reliably assess the need for monitoring and managing cardiometabolic risk in HIV-infected populations in SSA. PMID:24415610

Dillon, David G; Gurdasani, Deepti; Riha, Johanna; Ekoru, Kenneth; Asiki, Gershim; Mayanja, Billy N; Levitt, Naomi S; Crowther, Nigel J; Nyirenda, Moffat; Njelekela, Marina; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Nyan, Ousman; Adewole, Olanisun O; Anastos, Kathryn; Azzoni, Livio; Boom, W Henry; Compostella, Caterina; Dave, Joel A; Dawood, Halima; Erikstrup, Christian; Fourie, Carla M; Friis, Henrik; Kruger, Annamarie; Idoko, John A; Longenecker, Chris T; Mbondi, Suzanne; Mukaya, Japheth E; Mutimura, Eugene; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo E; Praygod, George; Pefura Yone, Eric W; Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; Range, Nyagosya; Sani, Mahmoud U; Schutte, Aletta E; Sliwa, Karen; Tien, Phyllis C; Vorster, Este H; Walsh, Corinna; Zinyama, Rutendo; Mashili, Fredirick; Sobngwi, Eugene; Adebamowo, Clement; Kamali, Anatoli; Seeley, Janet; Young, Elizabeth H; Smeeth, Liam; Motala, Ayesha A; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Sandhu, Manjinder S

2013-01-01

407

THE ROLE OF WEALTH IN INFANT MORTALITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA WITHIN URBAN AND BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS  

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Full Text Available This study investigates the role of wealth in infant mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, hereafter (SSA. Using recent data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS, we document the differences that exit within urban and between urban and rural residents in Sub-Saharan Africa based on wealth. Our findings lead us to conclude that there is a statistical significant difference both within urban residents and within rural residents on wealth and infant mortality. Furthermore, we find that literacy is significant in explaining association with infant mortality. Our findings lend credence to previous studies on the importance of wealth and literacy on any policy program to address health inequalities in developing countries

Okechukwu D. Anyamele

2011-02-01

408

Smallholder groundwater irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa: an interdisciplinary framework applied to the Usangu plains, Tanzania  

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A simple but comprehensive framework for analysing the potential for and constraints to groundwater development for irrigated agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is proposed. The framework, based on food value chain principles, is applied to the sub-Saharan context and a specific catchment in Tanzania, the Usangu plains, where groundwater has been proposed as a strategic resource for augmenting food production and smallholder livelihoods and to alleviate seasonal water scarcity. The novel contribution of the work is the presentation of a tool that can be applied to support an interdisciplinary approach to systematically identify most significant barriers and most critical water management and development interventions for sustainable development of groundwater irrigation. The result of the case study shows that farmer economics, capacity, and pump and well drilling market constraints limit groundwater irrigation in the Usangu plains rather than hydrogeological conditions.

Villholth, Karen G.; Ganeshamoorthy, Jegan

2013-01-01

409

Smallholder groundwater irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa: an interdisciplinary framework applied to the Usangu plains, Tanzania  

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A simple but comprehensive framework for analysing the potential for and constraints to groundwater development for irrigated agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is proposed. The framework, based on food value chain principles, is applied to the sub-Saharan context and a specific catchment in Tanzania, the Usangu plains, where groundwater has been proposed as a strategic resource for augmenting food production and smallholder livelihoods and to alleviate seasonal water scarcity. The novel contribution of the work is the presentation of a tool that can be applied to support an interdisciplinary approach to systematically identify most significant barriers and most critical water management and development interventions for sustainable development of groundwater irrigation. The result of the case study shows that farmer economics, capacity, and pump and well drilling market constraints limit groundwater irrigation in the Usangu plains rather than hydrogeological conditions.

Villholth, Karen G.; Ganeshamoorthy, Jegan; Rundblad, Christian M.; Knudsen, Theis S.

2013-11-01

410

Current evidence supporting obstetric fistula prevention strategies in sub Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the literature.  

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Obstetric fistula has been eliminated in developed countries, but remains highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The End fistula campaign is the first concerted effort to eradicate the disease. The objective of this review is to retrieve and link available evidence to obstetric fistula prevention strategies in sub-Saharan Africa, since the campaign began. We searched databases for original research on obstetric fistula prevention. Fifteen articles meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for quality, and data extraction was performed. Grey literature provided context. Evidences from the articles were linked to prevention strategies retrieved from grey literature. The strategies were classified using an innovative target-focused method. Gaps in the literature show the need for fistula prevention research to aim at systematically measuring incidence and prevalence of the disease, identify the most effective and cost-effective strategies for fistula prevention and utilise innovative tools to measure impact of strategies in order to ensure eradication of fistula. PMID:25508047

Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi O; Wilton-Waddell, Oluwasola E; Kouraogo, Salam F; Mueller, E

2014-09-01

411

Breastfeeding and HIV: experiences from a decade of prevention of postnatal HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Infant feeding by HIV-infected mothers has been a major global public health dilemma and a highly controversial matter. The controversy is reflected in the different sets of WHO infant feeding guidelines that have been issued over the last two decades. This thematic series, 'Infant feeding and HIV: lessons learnt and ways ahead' highlights the multiple challenges that HIV-infected women, infant feeding counsellors and health systems have encountered trying to translate and implement the shifting infant feeding recommendations in different local contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. As a background for the papers making up the series, this editorial reviews the changes in the guidelines in view of the roll out of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT programmes in sub-Saharan Africa between 2001 and 2010.

van Esterik Penny

2010-10-01

412

Scrotal necrosis to total de-gloving injury of the male genitalia: an experience from Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Two patients with very different aetiologies of their genital injuries are presented: one lost his scrotal skin as a result of Fournier’s gangrene, the other experienced complete denudation of scrotal and penile skin plus the amputation of his glans penis through an agricultural machinery. The placement of denuded gonads in thigh pouches and delayed skin grafting provide safe treatment options in a low budget setting of a Sub-Saharan country.

Christoph H. Houben

2013-09-01

413

Role and outcomes of community health workers in HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review  

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Introduction The provision of HIV treatment and care in sub-Saharan Africa faces multiple challenges, including weak health systems and attrition of trained health workers. One potential response to overcome these challenges has been to engage community health workers (CHWs). Methodology A systematic literature search for quantitative and qualitative studies describing the role and outcomes of CHWs in HIV care between inception and December 2012 in sub-Saharan Africa was performed in the following databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Web of Science, JSTOR, WHOLIS, Google Scholar and SAGE journals online. Bibliographies of included articles were also searched. A narrative synthesis approach was used to analyze common emerging themes on the role and outcomes of CHWs in HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa. Results In total, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria, documenting a range of tasks performed by CHWs. These included patient support (counselling, home-based care, education, adherence support and livelihood support) and health service support (screening, referral and health service organization and surveillance). CHWs were reported to enhance the reach, uptake and quality of HIV services, as well as the dignity, quality of life and retention in care of people living with HIV. The presence of CHWs in clinics was reported to reduce waiting times, streamline patient flow and reduce the workload of health workers. Clinical outcomes appeared not to be compromised, with no differences in virologic failure and mortality comparing patients under community-based and those under facility-based care. Despite these benefits, CHWs faced challenges related to lack of recognition, remuneration and involvement in decision maki