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Characteristic high- and low-frequency dental traits in sub-Saharan African populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an earlier investigation (Irish [1993] Biological Affinities of Late Pleistocene Through Modern African Aboriginal Populations: The Dental Evidence [Ann Arbor: University Microfilms]), biological affinities of 32 sub-Saharan and North African dental samples were estimated using comparative analyses of 36 dental morphological traits. Marked dental homogeneity was revealed among samples within each of the two geographic regions, but significant interregional differences were noted. Assuming dental phenetic expression approximates or is an estimate of genetic variation, the present study of 976 sub-Saharan-affiliated Africans indicates they are not closely related to other world groups; they are characterized by numerous morphologically complex crown and root traits. Turner ([1984] Acta Anthropogenetica 8:23-78; [1985] in R Kirk and E Szathmary (eds.): Out of Asia: Peopling the Americas and the Pacific [Canberra: The Journal of Pacific History], pp. 31-78; [1990] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 82:295-318; [1992] Persp. Hum. Biol. 2/Archaeol. Oceania 27:120-127; [1992] in T Akaszawa, K Aoki, and T Kimura (eds.): The Evolution and Dispersal of Modern Humans in Asia [Tokyo: Hokusen-Sha Publishing Co-], pp. 415-438) reports that Northeast Asian/New World sinodonts also have complex teeth relative to Europeans, Southeast Asian sundadonts, Australian/Tasmanians, and Melanesians. However, sinodonty is characterized by UI1 winging, UI1 shoveling, UI1 double shoveling, one-rooted UP1, UM1 enamel extension, M3 agenesis, and three-rooted LM1. Sub-Saharan peoples exhibit very low frequencies of these features. It is proposed that the collection of dental traits which best differentiate sub-Saharan Africans from other worldwide samples includes high frequencies of the Bushman Canine, two-rooted UP1, UM1 Carabelli's trait, three-rooted UM2, LM2 Y-groove pattern, LM1 cusp 7, LP1 Tome's root, two-rooted LM2, UM3 presence, and very low incidences of UI1 double shoveling and UM1 enamel extension. This suite of diagnostic traits is termed the sub-Saharan African dental complex. PMID:9140538

Irish, J D

1997-04-01

2

Training needs to support population education/communication activities in sub-Saharan African countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sub-Saharan Africa has recently attracted the attention and concern of the international community because of the deepening economic crisis that has persisted since the mid-1970s. The quality of life and development of progress and improvement for the rural population will depend on the extent to which countries of the region appreciate the interrelationships between population and socioeconomic development and adopt strategies to influence population trends. At both regional and national levels, policy makers will have to take account of population characteristics in dealing with demand for 1) education; 2) health services, food, and nutritional needs; 3) demand and supply of labor; and 4) maternal and child health care. The 1984 Kilimanjaro Program of Action on Population emerged as a major document from the Arusha Population Conference; African states adopted the principle that improvement in the quality of life in the region reguires effective programs to reduce current high levels of fertility and mortality and alleviate the uneven distribution of population. This paper proposes the use of a multisectoral training strategy to integrate population education into rural development training programs as a step towards realizing desired national goals for economic growth and social development. Population education can be subdivided into 3 interrelated content areas: 1) population factors, 2) interrelationships between population factors, and 3) socioeconomic development at macro and micro levels. Although each population education program has its individual aims, at the national level it is necessary to identify criteria to guide the design and selection of content such as 1) a country's development goals and needs, 2) an institutional framework, 3) social and cultural factors, and 4) the availability of teaching materials. A Kenya case study is provided. PMID:12268117

Mlay, W

1985-06-01

3

CCR5D32 mutation in three Brazilian populations of predominantly Sub-Saharan African ancestry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study reports the frequencies of the CCR5D32 mutation of the beta-chemokine 5 gene and discusses the possible effects of past and recent gene flow in three quilombo remnants (Brazilians communities with anthropological African ancestry whose ancestors were escaped slaves): Rio das Rãs, Mocambo, [...] and São Gonçalo in the northeastern region of Brazil. The CCR5D32 allele frequency of the Mocambo population was significantly higher (5.6%) than that found in the Rio das Rãs (1%) and São Gonçalo (0.9%) populations. These differences may reflect different proportions of parental populations in the founders individuals, a founder-effect and/or different histories of inter-ethnic contact. The frequency of the CCR5D32 allele in the Mocambo sample is similar to that found in those urban Brazilian populations which have a large amount of European genetic input, indicating a European contribution to the gene pool of this population and suggesting that, perhaps since its foundation, Mocambo has had a high level of admixture or experienced a founder-effect.

Mônica W.P., Carvalho; Ana P.M., Leboute; Silviene F., Oliveira; Sandra M.B., Sousa; Maria de Nazaré, Klautau-Guimarães; Aguinaldo L., Simões.

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Frequency variation among sub-Saharan populations in virus restriction gene, BST-2 proximal promoter polymorphisms: implications for HIV-1 prevalence differences among African countries.  

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The present study reports promoter variants in four sub-Saharan African populations that may affect BST-2 gene regulation. Recently, an in/del within the BST-2 promoter has been associated with HIV-1 disease progression in a Spanish cohort. Hence, we sequenced the proximal promoter region of the BST-2 gene in 581 individuals from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Cameroon. Seven SNPs were identified: rs28413176 (+26i6/?6); rs28413175 (-160i1/?1), -187A>G (nucleotide position -17516614); rs28413174 (-193G>A); rs73921425 (-199G>A); rs12609479 (-201C>T); and rs112492472 (-225C>T). The -199A and -225T alleles showed interesting trends across the sub-Saharan continent. Using predictive bioinformatics tools, we show that allelic variation at -199 and -201 potentially affect key transcription factor binding sites including bHLH, c-Myb, and E47. Importantly, data available from the ENCODE study gave further credence to our hypothesis of transcriptional regulation of BST-2 by a bHLH TF such as Mxi1. The possible repressive transcriptional effect of Mxi1 combined with the allelic frequency trend seen at -199 between African populations overlays well with current HIV-1 prevalence data, and may be a contributing factor to this phenomenon. The differences in HIV-1 prevalence in African countries could be, in part, due to distribution of genetic variants that affect susceptibility to HIV-1. Our findings therefore have substantive value for the design of future diagnostics for global health oriented diagnostics for HIV-1 susceptibility, and rational therapeutics on the critical path to personalized medicine in the African continent. As HIV-1 epidemiology vastly impacts human populations around the world, the population genomics strategy we have utilized herein can have value for other global regions as well. PMID:24601767

Skelton, Michelle M; Kampira, Elizabeth E; Wonkam, Ambroise A; Mhandire, Kudakwashe K; Kumwenda, Johnstone J; Duri, Kerina K; Dandara, Collet C

2014-07-01

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Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations  

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We have analyzed and compared mitochondrial DNA variation of populations from the Near East and Africa and found a very high frequency of African lineages present in the Yemen Hadramawt: more than a third were of clear sub-Saharan origin. Other Arab populations carried ?10% lineages of sub-Saharan origin, whereas non-Arab Near Eastern populations, by contrast, carried few or no such lineages, suggesting that gene flow has been preferentially into Arab populations. Several lines of evidence ...

Richards, Martin; Rengo, Chiara; Cruciani, Fulvio; Gratrix, Fiona; Wilson, James F.; Scozzari, Rosaria; Macaulay, Vincent; Torroni, Antonio

2003-01-01

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Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and related risk factors among populations of Sub-Sahara African descent (henceforth, African descent in comparison with the European populations in Europe. Results Compared with European populations, populations of African descent have an increased risk of stroke, whereas CHD is less common. They also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than European populations. Obesity is highly prevalent, but smoking rate is lower among African descent women. Older people of African descent have more favourable lipid profile and dietary habits than their European counterparts. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations of African descent. The rate of physical activity differs between European countries. Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among African populations, which may explain their high rate of stroke in Europe. The relatively low rate of CHD may be explained by the low rates of other risk factors including a more favourable lipid profile and the low prevalence of smoking. The risk factors are changing, and on the whole, getting worse especially among African women. Cohort studies and clinical trials are therefore needed among these groups to determine the relative contribution of vascular risk factors, and to help guide the prevention efforts. There is a clear need for intervention studies among these populations in Europe.

de Graft Aikins Ama

2009-08-01

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Mozambique - a sub-Saharan African NIC?  

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This paper analyzes and explains foreign direct investment (FDI) in Mozambique. The country was one of the fastest growing countries in the world during the second half of the 1990s, and FDI has followed growth with a lag. FDI is dominated by South African and Portuguese companies, it is concentrated in the Maputo corridor, and one major project, an aluminium smelter plant, accounts for more than 60 per cent of total accumulated FDI. The driving forces for FDI appear to be access to natural r...

Norda?s, Hildegunn Kyvik; Pretorius, Leon

2000-01-01

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Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighbouring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin. 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub-Saharan region, energy independent countries using indigeneous coal and peat resources. These resources have the potential to replace wood and wood charcoal as domestic fuel in the urban centres, as well as producing electrical and industrial energy, thus reducing expensive oil imports and decreasing the rate of deforestation. 31 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J. (United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-01-01

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Fertility in Sub-Saharan African countries with consideration to health and poverty  

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Fertility has begun to fall in Sub-Saharan Africa but it remains high on average and particularly for a few countries. This paper examines African fertility using a panel data set of 47 Sub-Saharan countries between 1962 and 2003. Fixed and random country effect estimates are made in models where the explanatory variables are suggested by the theory of the demographic transition as modified by Caldwell. Special attention is paid to the economic status of women, urbanization, the poverty level...

Jeon, Yongil; Rhyu, Sang-young; Shields, Michael P.

2008-01-01

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Corporate governance and company performance across Sub-Saharan African countries  

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This paper examines the extent to which publicly listed companies across Sub-Saharan African countries have adopted “good corporate governance” practices. We investigate the association of these practices with companies’ accounting performance and market valuation. The findings indicate that companies across Sub-Saharan Africa have only partly implemented good corporate governance practices. We find a positive association between our constructed index of good corporate governance practi...

Munisi, Gibson; Randøy, Trond

2013-01-01

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Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries  

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Background: Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH) interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Design: Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using e...

Corsi, Daniel J.; Subramanian, S. V.

2014-01-01

12

Differences in hypertension between informal and formal areas of Ouagadougou, a sub-Saharan African city  

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Background: Countries of sub-Saharan Africa are increasingly confronted with hypertension and urbanization is considered to favor its emergence. This study aims to assess the difference in the prevalence of hypertension between formal and informal urban areas of Ouagadougou and to determine the risk factors associated with hypertension in these urban populations of sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 on 2041 adults aged 18 years and older in formal and ...

Doulougou, Boukare?; Kouanda, Se?ni; Rossier, Clementine; Soura, Abdramane; Zunzunegui, Maria

2014-01-01

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Novel MASP2 variants detected among North African and Sub-Saharan individuals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The lectin pathway of the complement system is activated when mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in complex with MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) binds to carbohydrate structures on microorganisms. Structural gene mutations and promoter polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene responsible for low-MBL serum levels are present in all human populations and associate with increased risk of infection. Recently, investigations on Danes revealed the existence of a mutation on the MASP2 gene, which introduces an amino acid substitution in the CUB1 domain (Asp105Gly; numbering refers to the mature protein), and is associated with reduction in the level of MASP-2 in serum. Here, we present the results of a sequence-based typing analysis of the MBL2 and MASP2 gene polymorphisms in a group of 65 Africans (50 North Africans and 15 Sub-Saharan) and of 104 Spaniards. The analysis identified three novel exon 3 MASP2 variants introducing amino acid substitutions at positions 84 (Arg-->Gln), 103 (Arg-->Cys) and 111 (Pro-->Leu) in the CUB1 domain. None of these variants were identified in Spaniards. The Arg84Gln was detected in four of the 15 Sub-Saharans. The Arg103Cys and Pro111Leu variants were detected only among North Africans (two and four individuals, respectively). The Asp105Gly variant was similarly represented among Spaniards and North Africans (three and two individuals, respectively), which appears to be a lower frequency than that reported for Danes (5.5%). As reported for MBL2, the marked geographic distribution of the new MASP2 variants may represent an evolutionary adaptation to different environments.

Lozano, F; Suárez, B

2005-01-01

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History and Structure of Sub-Saharan Populations of Drosophila melanogaster  

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Drosophila melanogaster is an important model organism in evolutionary genetics, yet little is known about the population structure and the demographic history of this species within sub-Saharan Africa, which is thought to contain its ancestral range. We surveyed nucleotide variation at four 1-kb fragments in 240 individual lines representing 21 sub-Saharan and 4 Palearctic population samples of D. melanogaster. In agreement with recent studies, we find a small but significant level of geneti...

Pool, John E.; Aquadro, Charles F.

2006-01-01

15

The African Development Bank, structural adjustment, and child mortality: a cross-national analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa.  

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We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment adversely impacts child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We use generalized least square random effects regression models and two-step Heckman models that correct for selection bias using data on 35 nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005). We find substantial support for our hypothesis, which indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of child mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for selection bias on whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nation receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We conclude by discussing the methodological implications of the article, policy suggestions, and possible directions for future research. PMID:23821909

Pandolfelli, Lauren E; Shandra, John M

2013-01-01

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FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE EXPERIENCE OF 10 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES REVISITED  

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Full Text Available The paper examines the long run and causal relationship between financial developmentand economic growth for ten countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the vectorerror correction model (VECM, the study finds that financial development is cointegratedwith economic growth in the selected ten countries in sub-Saharan Africa. That is there isa long run relationship between financial development and economic growth in the selectedsub-Saharan African countries. The results show that financial development Granger causeseconomic growth in Central African Republic, Congo Republic, Gabon, and Nigeria whileeconomic growth Granger causes financial development in Zambia. However, bidirectionalrelationship between financial development and economic growth was found in Kenya, Chad,South Africa, Sierra Leone and Swaziland. The results show the need to develop the financialsector through appropriate regulatory and macroeconomic policies. However, in Zambiaemphasis needs to be placed on economic growth to propel financial development.

Anthony Enisan Akinlo

2010-06-01

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Ownership, board compensation and company performance in sub-Saharan African countries  

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In countries with weak institutions board governance becomes more important. This study uses a unique dataset from listed Sub-Saharan African companies to examine the relationship between ownership composition and board compensation. It further analyses the association between board compensation and company performance. The findings indicate that board ownership and CEO ownership are positively associated while state ownership and concentrated ownership are negatively associated with board co...

Munisi, Gibson Hosea; Mersland, Roy

2013-01-01

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Sub-Saharan African Women Living with HIV/AIDS: An Exploration of General and Spiritual Coping Strategies  

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From a global perspective, the typical person living with HIV/AIDS is likely a sub-Saharan African woman. Yet despite calls from NASW to adopt a global outlook on the HIV/AIDS crisis, little research has examined how such women cope. In this study, the authors used a mixed-methods approach to explore how one sample of sub-Saharan African women (N…

Hodge, David R.; Roby, Jini L.

2010-01-01

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Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in a self-selected sub-Saharan African urban population: a cross-sectional study  

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Objectives Hypertension has been established as a major public health problem in Africa, but its specific contributions to disease burden are still incompletely understood. We report the prevalence and determinants of hypertension, detection, treatment and control rates among adults in major cities in Cameroon. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings Community-based multicentre study in major cities in Cameroon. Participants Participants were self-selected urban dwellers from the Center, Littoral, North-West and West Regions, who attended on 17 May 2011 a screening campaign advertised through mass media. Primary and secondary outcomes measures Hypertension defined as systolic (and/or diastolic) blood pressure (BP)??140 (90)?mm?Hg, or ongoing BP-lowering medications. Results In all, 2120 participants (1003 women) were included. Among them, 1007 (prevalence rate 47.5%) had hypertension, including 319 (awareness rate 31.7%) who were aware of their status. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age overall and by sex and region. Among aware hypertensive participants, 191 (treatment rate 59.9%) were on regular BP-lowering medication, and among those treated, 47 (controlled rate 24.6%) were at target BP levels (ie, systolic (and diastolic) BP<140 (90)?mm?Hg). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, male gender, advanced age, parental history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, elevated waist and elevated body mass index (BMI) were the significant predictors of hypertension. Likewise, male gender, high BMI and physical inactivity were associated with poor control. Conclusions High prevalence of hypertension with low awareness, treatment and control were found in this urban population; these findings are significant and alarming with consideration to the various improvements in the access to healthcare and the continuing efforts to educate communities over the last few decades. PMID:22923629

Dzudie, Anastase; Kengne, André Pascal; Muna, Walinjom F T; Ba, Hamadou; Menanga, Alain; Kouam Kouam, Charles; Abah, Joseph; Monkam, Yves; Biholong, Christian; Mintom, Pierre; Kamdem, Félicité; Djomou, Armel; Ndjebet, Jules; Wambo, Cyrille; Luma, Henry; Ngu, Kathleen Blackett; Kingue, Samuel

2012-01-01

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Challenges in clinical diagnosis of williams-beuren syndrome in sub-saharan africans: case reports from cameroon.  

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Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare neurodevelopmental condition caused by a recurrent chromosomal microdeletion involving about 28 contiguous genes at 7q11.23. Most patients display a specific congenital heart defect, characteristic facial features, a particular behavior, and intellectual disability. Cases from sub-Saharan Africa have been seldom reported. The present study describes 3 Cameroonian patients affected by WBS, aged 19 months, 13 and 14 years, in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The first patient presented with a congenital heart defect, the second and third with learning difficulties as well as developmental and behavioral issues. In the latter 2 cases, the facial phenotypes were similar to those of the unaffected population with the same ethnic background. However, the cardiovascular anomalies and friendly behavioral attitudes led to suspicion of WBS. FISH revealed the deletion of the WBS critical region in the first patient, and array-CGH detected a heterozygous ?1.4-Mb deletion in the 7q11.23 region in the second and third patient. This preliminary report suggests that for sub-Saharan Africans clinical suspicion of WBS could be mostly based on behavioral phenotype and structural heart defects, and less on the classical facial dysmorphic signs. PMID:25565928

Tekendo-Ngongang, Cedrik; Dahoun, Sophie; Nguefack, Seraphin; Gimelli, Stefania; Sloan-Béna, Frédérique; Wonkam, Ambroise

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Psychosocial Distress and Alcohol Use as Factors in Adolescent Sexual Behavior among Sub-Saharan African Adolescents  

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Background: This study examines the relationship between sexual behavior, alcohol use, and indicators of psychosocial distress (mental health) of adolescents in 6 sub-Saharan African countries using the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). Methods: The sample consisted of 22,949 adolescents from Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda,…

Page, Randy M.; Hall, Cougar P.

2009-01-01

22

Sub-Saharan early migrations as a means of african peoples’ initiative against colonial oppression: the Cape Verdean case  

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Even before the beginning of liberation struggle, spontaneous migrations outside Sub- Saharan African lands can be described as an early initiative of resistance against material and ideological colonial oppression. The extended dispersion around the world of people of African roots has been usually associated to the European slave trade of pre-colonial times and to the renewed displacements that developed during the independent period -especially since the last decades of 20th...

Sparta, Luciana L. Contarino

2014-01-01

23

Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations.  

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Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions of India. We found that most of the Indian Muslim populations received their major genetic input from geographically close non-Muslim populations. However, low levels of likely sub-Saharan African, Arabian and West Asian admixture were also observed among Indian Muslims in the form of L0a2a2 mtDNA and E1b1b1a and J(*)(xJ2) Y-chromosomal lineages. The distinction between Iranian and Arabian sources was difficult to make with mtDNA and the Y chromosome, as the estimates were highly correlated because of similar gene pool compositions in the sources. In contrast, the LCT/MCM6 locus, which shows a clear distinction between the two sources, enabled us to rule out significant gene flow from Arabia. Overall, our results support a model according to which the spread of Islam in India was predominantly cultural conversion associated with minor but still detectable levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Iran and Central Asia, rather than directly from the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:19809480

Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul; Ravesh, Zeinab; Romero, Irene Gallego; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2010-03-01

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Obesity and undernutrition in sub-Saharan African immigrant and refugee children in Victoria, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study assessed the anthropometric status of 337 sub-Saharan African children aged between 3-12 years who migrated to Australia. These children were selected using a snowball sampling method stratified by age, gender and region of origin. The prevalence rates for overweight and obesity were 18.4% (95%CI: 14 - 23%) and 8.6% (95%CI: 6% -12%) respectively. The prevalence rates for the indicators of undernutrition were: wasting 4.3% (95%CI: 1.6%-9.1%), underweight 1.2% (95%CI: 0.3%-3.0%), and stunting 0.3 (95%CI: 0.0%-1.6%). Higher prevalence of overweight/obesity was associated with lower household income level, fewer siblings, lower birth weight, western African background, and single parent households (after controlling for demographic and socio-economic factors). Higher prevalence rates for underweight and wasting were associated with lower household income and shorter lengths of stay in Australia respectively. No effect was found for child's age, gender, parental education and occupation for both obesity and undernutrition indices. In conclusion, obesity and overweight are very prevalent in SSA migrant children and undernutrition, especially wasting, was also not uncommon in this target group. PMID:17077063

Renzaho, André M N; Gibbons, Carl; Swinburn, Boyd; Jolley, Damien; Burns, Cate

2006-01-01

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Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Design: Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ecological time-series and child-level regression models, we estimated the effect of MNCH interventions (summarized by the percent composite coverage index, or CCI on child mortality with in the first 5 years of life net of temporal trends and covariates at the household, maternal, and child levels. Results: At the ecologic level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with a reduction in under-5 child mortality rate (U5MR of 29.0 per 1,000 (95% CI: ?43.2, ?14.7 after adjustment for survey period effects and country-level per capita gross domestic product (pcGDP. At the child level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with an odds ratio of 0.86 for child mortality (95% CI: 0.82–0.90 after adjustment for survey period effect, country-level pcGDP, and a set of household-, maternal-, and child-level covariates. Conclusions: MNCH interventions are important in reducing U5MR, while the effects of economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa remain weak and inconsistent. Improved coverage of proven life-saving interventions will likely contribute to further reductions in U5MR in sub-Saharan Africa.

Daniel J. Corsi

2014-09-01

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Testing Finance-Led, Export-Led and Import-Led Growth Hypotheses on Four Sub-Saharan African Economies  

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This study carries out an empirical examination of the finance-led, export-led and import-led growth hypothesis for four of the largest Sub-Saharan African economies namely South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. Within a multivariate Vector-Auto Regressive (VAR) framework, the concept of Granger causality is employed to determine the direction of causation between exports and output, duly taking into account the stationarity properties of the time series data. With further substantiation fro...

Evans, Olaniyi

2013-01-01

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Public health and research funding for childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa: a time to balance priorities  

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Sub-Saharan African (SSA) population consists of about 45% children, while in Europe and North America children population is 10- 15%. Lately, attention has been directed at mitigating childhood infectious and communicable diseases to reduce under-five mortality. As the under-five mortality index in Sub-Saharan Africa has relatively improved over the last two decades, more Sub-Saharan African children are surviving beyond the age of five and, apparently, a sizeable percentage of this populati...

Bakare, Muideen O.; Munir, Kerim M.; Bello-mojeed, Mashudat A.

2014-01-01

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Socio-demographic and clinical profile of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics in sub-Saharan African elderly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on characteristics of neuropathic pain (NP) in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce, especially in the elderly. We conducted this study to appreciate the socio-demographic and clinical profile of chronic pain (CP) with neuropathic characteristics in sub-Saharan African elderly with musculoskeletal pain. From January to December 2011, we performed a cross-sectional study in all Rheumatology outpatients over 60 years at the Center for Gerontology and Geriatrics, Dakar, Senegal. In this study, we included patients who experienced musculoskeletal pain for 3 months or longer (CP) and with a DN4 score???4 (NP). A complete clinical examination was performed to make the diagnosis of NP 'definite' or 'probable', and to identify the aetiologies of NP. During the study period, 698 outpatients were examined. There were 394 out of the 549 patients over 60 years who reported CP. Among them, 28 patients (7.1%) scored ?4 on the DN4 questionnaire. Female patients, low educational attainment, manual professions, non-workers and diabetes were associated with NP (p?syndrome (n?=?1), tarsal tunnel syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis (n?=?1) and bone metastasis (n?=?1). No aetiology was identified among three patients. Chronic spine diseases associated with radiculopathies and diabetic neuropathy are the main causes of NP, well detected by DN4 questionnaire and clinical examination in Senegalese sub-Saharan African elderly. PMID:23138975

Lekpa, F K; Ndongo, S; Ka, O; Zeba, D; Compaoré, C; Pouye, A; Ka, M M; Diop, T M

2013-07-01

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Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors from sub-Saharan African countries  

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Full Text Available Background: To date no validated instrument in the French language exists to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in survivors of torture and organized violence. Objective: The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ to this population. Method: The adapted version was administered to 52 French-speaking torture survivors, originally from sub-Saharan African countries, receiving psychological treatment in specialized treatment centers. A structured clinical interview for DSM was also conducted in order to assess if they met criteria for PTSD. Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the HTQ Part 4 was adequate (0.95. Criterion validity was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis that generated good classification accuracy for PTSD (0.83. At the original cut-off score of 2.5, the HTQ demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (0.87 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusion: Results support the reliability and validity of the French version of the HTQ.

Capucine de Fouchier

2012-12-01

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Proportion of new HIV infections attributable to herpes simplex 2 increases over time: simulations of the changing role of sexually transmitted infections in sub-Saharan African HIV epidemics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To understand the changing impact of herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV incidence over time in four sub-Saharan African cities, using simulation models. METHODS: An individual-based stochastic model was fitted to demographic, behavioural and epidemiological data from cross-sectional population-based surveys in four African cities (Kisumu, Kenya; Ndola, Zambia; Yaoundé, Cameroon; and Cotonou, Benin) in 1997. To estimate the proportion o...

Freeman, E. E.; Orroth, K. K.; White, R. G.; Glynn, J. R.; Bakker, R.; Boily, M. C.; Habbema, D.; Buve?, A.; Hayes, R. J.

2007-01-01

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Relationship between Insurance and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan African: A Panel Data Analysis  

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This study examined the relationship between insurance and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1986-2011. Pooled OLS, Fixed Effect Model and Generalized Method of Moment Panel Model were employed in the estimation. The estimations of the dynamic panel-data results show that insurance has positive and signi...

Taiwo Akinlo; Olumuyiwa Tolulope Apanisile

2014-01-01

32

Exemplary Strategy for Corporate Competitiveness and Wealth Creation: Implications for sub-Saharan African Business Leaders and Managers  

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Full Text Available The paper begins with a brief review of the nature and historical perspective of strategy. This is followed by discussion of industry analysis as in important step in the strategy development process. The paper continues with an analysis of the strategy development process and the role of strategic leadership to sustain strategy. Also presented in the paper is the analysis of how the appropriate management system can be leveraged to support a successful strategy execution and evaluation. The paper ends with an outline of strategic implications and recommendations for sub-Saharan African business leaders and managers.

Ashford C. Chea

2012-04-01

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How Does Population Viral Load Vary with the Evolution of a Large HIV Epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa?  

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Using mathematical modelling, we described the temporal evolution of population HIV-1 viral load in Tanzania throughout the epidemic. Population log10 viral load was found to be stable and not sensitive to epidemic dynamics. However, even modest increases in antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage were reflected as appreciable reductions in population log10 viral load. As ART coverage expands in sub-Saharan Africa, population log10 viral load will increasingly become a powerful proxy for monito...

Abu-raddad, Laith J.; Awad, Susanne F.

2014-01-01

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The impact of rapid population growth, expanding urbanisation, and other factors on development in sub-Saharan Africa: the contrasting responses of Tanzania and Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyzes the impact of the twin factors of rapid population growth and expanding urbanization on social and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and compares policies that have been developed in Tanzania and Kenya in response to these factors. The principal consequences of overpopulation and overurbanization have been economic stagnation and physical and cultural malaise in urban population centers. Between 1960-80, per capita incomes in 19 countries of sub-Saharan Africa grew by less than 1%/year and 15 countries recorded a negative rate of growth in per capita income during the 1970s. Urban populations have increased at at overall rate of 6%/year as sub-Saharan Africans have migrated to cities in search of employment. Few national governments in the region have formulated longterm strategies to deal effectively with this double-faceted development constraint or have integrated new urban populations into the national economy. tanzania's development strategy is focused on the goals of socialism, rural development, and self-reliance. Urban development has remained a residual item in Tanzania's national development process, despite the fact that the urban population increased from 5.7% of the total population in 1967 to 12.7% in 1978 and is projected to comprise 24.7% by the year 2000. In contrast, Kenya, whose proportion of urban population increased from 9% to 15% between 1962 and 1979, has pursued an urban-focused development strategy. The strong urban-rural linkages of the economy have focused migration to the secondary towns. The national development plan includes urban spatial, employment, and investment policies. Although this plan constitutes a good basis for future planning, the magnitude of the urban problem is beyond the capabilities of the central government and requires the development of local capabilities. PMID:12341833

Huth, M J

1984-01-01

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Representing an "Authentic Ethnic Identity": Experiences of Sub-Saharan African Musicians in an Eastern German City  

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Full Text Available This paper focuses on how Sub-Saharan Africans present themselves as musicians in Chemnitz, an Eastern German town of around 200,000 citizens that is situated on the periphery of existing immigrant musicians' networks in Europe. Generally, immigration to Chemnitz has been rather limited; the quota of foreign nationals is 2.9 % for the whole city. I will explore what purposes Sub-Saharan African music and dance performances serve in this context both for the majority society as well as for the immigrants, individually and as a community. In so doing, I use a case study on the yearly local "intercultural festival" and analyze what kind of local power structures, institutional and informal, economic and political, influence the Nigerian cultural association's festival performance. This analysis shows how immigrant networks or associations relate to expectations and ascriptions of "authenticity" in a small-scale city. With its focus on the local situation and its effects on the representation of immigrant groups, this paper builds on the work that Nina Glick Schiller and Ayse Caglar (2006, 2009 have done on the importance of locality for research on migration and immigrant incorporation.

Inken Carstensen-Egwuom

2011-12-01

36

Spondyloarthropathies in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

HLA-B27 is virtually absent in most of the sub-Saharan Africa populations, and ankylosing spondylitis is rare; only a few patients have been reported from central and southern Africa. HLA-B27 was present in only one of 17 patients (6%). The disease shows clinical features that are similar to those observed in white HLA-B27-negative patients with ankylosing spondylitis; ie, the disease onset is later compared with HLAB27-positive patients, the patients rarely get acute anterior uveitis as one of the extra-articular manifestations, and familial occurrence of ankylosing spondylitis is rarely observed. There is a virtual absence of ankylosing spondylitis even in the west African countries of Gambia and Senegal, where 3% to 6% of the general population has HLA-B27. The epidemic of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa in recent years, however, has been associated with a dramatic upsurge in the prevalence of spondyloarthropathies other than ankylosing spondylitis, primarily reactive arthritis and undifferentiated forms of the disease, and less often psoriatic arthritis. HLA-B27, because of its rarity and virtual lack of association with the observed cases of spondyloarthropathy in this population, cannot be used as an aid to diagnosis of spondyloarthropathy in black Africans. Conversely, HIV infection is increasingly showing such a strong association with reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies in sub-Saharan African populations that any patient with acute or chronic inflammatory arthritis may need to be tested for possible HIV infection. More research is needed on the evaluation of risk and protective factors in sub-Saharan African populations to better delineate the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthropathies. PMID:10910180

Mijiyawa, M; Oniankitan, O; Khan, M A

2000-07-01

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Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulti...

Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Barasa, Felix A.; Doll, Jacob A.; Velazquez, Eric J.

2013-01-01

38

Training for Rural Radiology and Imaging in Sub-Saharan Africa: Addressing the Mismatch Between Services and Population  

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The objectives of this review are to outline the needs, challenges, and training interventions for rural radiology (RR) training in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Rural radiology may be defined as imaging requirements of the rural communities. In SSA, over 80% of the population is rural. The literature was reviewed to determine the need for imaging in rural Africa, the challenges, and training interventions. Up to 50% of the patients in the rural health facilities in Uganda may require imaging, la...

Kawooya, Michael G.

2012-01-01

39

Why are virgin adolescents worried about contracting HIV/AIDS? Evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries.  

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Whether well founded or not, perceptions of one's own HIV risk have been shown by health behavior models to be an important factor in determining individuals' sexual behavior. Although empirical studies on the determinants of HIV risk perception exist, only a few have focused on adolescents who are not yet sexually active. Using data from nationally-representative surveys of adolescents, we assess the factors associated with HIV risk perception among sexually inactive adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries at different stages of the HIV/AIDS epidemic (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi and Uganda). The results show that there is no single influence on adolescents' HIV risk perception, but rather a range of individual, environmental and community factors such as schooling, knowledge about HIV, regional HIV prevalence and adolescents' social networks. These results can help better calibrate programs and policies addressing sexual and reproductive health issues among adolescents, a group that is disproportionately affected by new HIV infections. PMID:24689315

Guiella, Georges; Bignami, Simona; LeGrand, Thomas K

2013-12-01

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Sub-Saharan growth surprises: Geography, institutions and history in an all African data panel  

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We use two types of cross-country growth regression models to revisit explanations of slow growth in Africa looking at growth rate variation among African countries only. Both sets of models produce results that are surprising given conclusions based on global sample: within Africa, we .nd greater coastal population negatively and greater ethnic heterogeneity positively associated with growth, while distance from the equator is at .rst negatively and only later positively associated with grow...

Cinyabuguma, Matthias; Putterman, Louis

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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How does population viral load vary with the evolution of a large HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa?  

Science.gov (United States)

Using mathematical modelling, we describe the temporal evolution of population HIV-1 viral load in Tanzania throughout the epidemic. Population log10 viral load was found to be stable and not sensitive to epidemic dynamics. However, even modest increases in antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage were reflected as appreciable reductions in population log10 viral load. As ART coverage expands in sub-Saharan Africa, population log10 viral load will increasingly become a powerful proxy for monitoring ART implementation and HIV incidence trends. PMID:24499955

Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Awad, Susanne F

2014-03-27

42

Co-evolution of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Ligands with Killer-Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors (KIR) in a Genetically Diverse Population of Sub-Saharan Africans  

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Interactions between HLA class I molecules and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) control natural killer cell (NK) functions in immunity and reproduction. Encoded by genes on different chromosomes, these polymorphic ligands and receptors correlate highly with disease resistance and susceptibility. Although studied at low-resolution in many populations, high-resolution analysis of combinatorial diversity of HLA class I and KIR is limited to Asian and Amerindian populations with lo...

Norman, Paul J.; Hollenbach, Jill A.; Nemat-gorgani, Neda; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Hilton, Hugo G.; Pando, Marcelo J.; Koram, Kwadwo A.; Riley, Eleanor M.; Abi-rached, Laurent; Parham, Peter

2013-01-01

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An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and treatment efforts. Conclusion Using an African-centered cultural framework, the PEN3 model, we explore future directions and efforts to address the epidemic of CVD risk in SSA.

Degboe Arnold N

2009-09-01

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Does Financial Liberalization, Spur Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Six Sub-Saharan African Countries; Panel Unit Root and Panel Vector Error Correction Tests  

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This paper examines the linkage among financial liberalization, economic growth and poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan African countries (SSA). The study applies the recent panel Co-integration and vector error correction mechanism to address the heterogeneity and cross-border interdependence over the period of 1980 to 2010. The results reveal that economic growth is positively associated with poverty reduction and financial liberalization coefficients are positively related to economic growth....

Dandume, Muhammad Yusuf; A C, Dr Malarvizhi

2014-01-01

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Human Capital, Productivity and Economic Growth in 31 Sub-Saharan African Countries for the Period 1975–2008  

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Full Text Available We evaluate the contributions of physical capital, human capital, and unskilled labor to economic growth for 31 Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries. We find that growth in physical capital accounts for 67 percent of growth in real GDP, whereas growth in human capital accounts for only 22 percent of real GDP growth and, the rest 11 percent is accounted for by growth of raw labor. When it comes to growth of productivity per employed worker, 90 percent is accounted for by growth rate of physical capital per employed worker, 46 percent by rate of increase in human capital per worker and negative 36 percent by rate of change of total factor of productivity (TFP. These findings are consistent with earlier studies. Negative contribution of growth rate in TFP may have to do with, poor governance, corruption, civil wars, draught and other adverse supply shocks to the production function. In addition, we find that the contributions of labor and human capital are positive but much lower in SSA countries than in high-income countries.

Girma Zelleke

2013-09-01

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Exfoliation syndrome in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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The goal of this review is to estimate the burden of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) in sub-Saharan Africa and to identify the gaps in knowledge of disease prevalence in this region. PubMed, Medline, African Journals Online and Google engine search were carried out using the following terms "pseudoexfoliation" or "exfoliation syndrome Africa", "pseudoexfoliation" or "exfoliation syndrome" + "glaucoma Africa," "glaucoma prevalence Africa," "pattern of glaucoma presentation Africa," "pseudoexfoliation" or "exfoliation syndrome" + "cataract Africa," "ophthalmic conditions Africa." Studies were included if they described the proportion or prevalence/incidence of XFG and XFS in sub-Saharan Africa or if they investigated lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) variants in XFS among Africans. 22 papers were identified and classified as clinic-based studies (n = 16) and population-based (n = 4) studies. Two other studies were considered important, and therefore, included in the review. Clinic-based studies demonstrate that XFS is a common cause of glaucoma, as is true in many other parts of the world. Furthermore, XFS often co-exists with cataract and climatic droplet keratopathy. Its prevalence ranged from 5.1 to 7.7 % in patients >40 years in population-based studies, a value that is considerably higher than that reported in African Americans. XFS was strongly associated with increasing age in the prevalence studies. The burden of XFS in sub-Saharan Africa is high. More investigation is needed to determine why clinic-based studies report virtually no XFS in some countries (Ghana and Tanzania), while nearby countries report greater proportions (Nigeria and Ethiopia). PMID:24844849

Olawoye, Olusola O; Pasquale, Louis R; Ritch, Robert

2014-10-01

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Challenging the Concept of ''informal'' in Sub-Saharan African Cities : the case of Maxaquene A, Maputo, Mozambique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Current definitions of urbanity lead to claims that a large proportion (75% according to UN Habitat) of Sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) urban population is housed in ‘informal’ settlements with almost all new housing stock provided ‘informally’ in contradiction to the “formal” that is defined as planned and regulated by the state. In most cases in SSA cities urban development has no professional assistance in the form of architects or engineers, and what is characterised as ‘disorder’, as is the case with informal urbanisation, is considered as undesirable, inappropriate, dangerous, unhealthy and un-modern (Folkers 2009, Hardoy 1990, Jenkins 2011, Nielsen 2008, Nguluma 2003, Mitlin, D. 2004, Koolhaas 2006). In 2003 the UN adopted a new terminology for what over decades used to be labelled as ‘informal’-, ‘squatter’-, ‘illegal’-, ‘unplanned’-, ‘spontaneous’ settlements, “shanty towns” with the term “slum” (UN habitat 2003). However, defining what slum implies is complex and this author consider the term as prejudiced and not covering the diversity most informal settlements represents Further the term stigmatises a remarkable share of any city population in SSA (Huchzermeyer 2011, Davis 2007, Harber 2011, Garau 2005).

Eskemose Andersen, JØrgen

2014-01-01

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Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan African Universities: Recommendations and Monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Digital Divide prevents Africa from taking advantages of new information technologies. One of the most urgent priorities is to bring the Internet in African Universities, Research, and Learning Centers to the level of other regions of the world. eGY-Africa, and the Sharing Knowledge Foundation are two bottom-up initiatives by scientists to secure better cyber-infrastructure and Internet facilities in Africa. Recommendations by the present scientific communities are being formulated at national, regional and international levels. The Internet capabilities are well documented at country level overall, but this is not the case at the University level. The snapshot of the Internet status in universities in 17 African countries, obtained by a questionnaire survey, is consistent with measures of Internet penetration in the corresponding country. The monitoring of Internet performance has been proposed to those African universities to provide an information base for arguing the need to improve the coverage for Africa. A pilot program is recommended that will start scientific collaboration with Europe in western Africa using ICT. The program will lay the foundations for the arrival of new technologies like Grids.

Barry, Boubakar; /Assoc. Afr. Univ.; Chukwuma, Victor; /Olabisi Onabanjo U.; Petitdidier, Monique; /CEPT, Velizy; Cottrell, Les; /SLAC; Bartons, Charles; /Australian Natl. U., RSES

2009-12-17

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Understanding the Professional Lives of Female Teachers in Rural Sub-Saharan African Schools: A Capability Perspective  

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This study examines an important dimension of the global challenge to achieve Education for All: the professional lives of female teachers in rural communities in Sub Saharan Africa. Teachers from five countries (Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa and Sudan) provide a focus for exploring the relationship between official representations of teachers' work and the professional lives teachers create and experience. The official perspective is drawn from an analysis of documentary evidence a...

Buckler, Alison

2012-01-01

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A literature review of the impact of HIV and AIDS on the role of the elderly in the sub-Saharan African community  

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Full Text Available The status of older adults in Africa occupies a small but rapidly expanding share of the global literature on ageing. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS pandemic has generated a new focus on the changing role of the elderly in communities that have been affected. In sub-Saharan Africa, where millions are projected to be infected with HIV and about two million deaths are recorded annually amongst the traditionally productive adults, such loss of parents and breadwinners means children and the elderly have had to take up unusual responsibilities. A literature review on the elderly and HIV and AIDS provided the data analysed for this article. Access to databases was mainly via EBSCO (www.ebsco.co, which allowed searches in major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in health and health-related academic journals, repositories and archived reports. Results showed that the AIDS pandemic has direct and indirect effects which have manifested in a set of interrelated social, economic and psychological dimensions that could ultimately impact on the health and well-being of the elderly. It is concluded that more needs to be done to articulate the knowledge base of the impact of HIV and AIDS in order to inform social, economic and political policies for the purpose of alleviating the problems that the pandemic is wreaking on the elderly African population.

Opsomming

Die status van ouer volwassenes in Afrika beklee’n klein, maar vinnig groeiende deel van die globale verouderings literatuur. Die menslike immuniteitsgebreksvirus (MIV en verworwe immuniteitsgebreksindroom (VIGS pandemie het ‘n nuwe fokus op die veranderende rol van bejaardes in die gemeenskap wat deur VIGS beïnvloed word, gegenereer. In sub-Sahara Afrika waar na beraming miljoene geïnfekteer word met MIV, met sowat twee miljoen sterftes jaarliks gerekordeer onder die tradisoneel produktiewe volwassenes, word daar van die kinders en bejaardes verwag om ongewone verantwoordelikhede op hulle te neem as gevolg van die verlies aan ouers of broodwinners. ‘n Literatuuroorsig wat handel oor bejaardes en MIV en VIGS het die geanaliseerde data voorsien vir hierdie artikel. Toegang tot die databasis was meestal deur EBSCO (www.ebsco.co wat soektog toegelaat het tot groot databasisse en soekenjins wat bruikbaar in die akademiese opset is en die vind van artikels aangaande gesondheid, gesondheidverwante akademiese joernale en argief verslae. Bevindings toon dat die VIGS pandemie direkte en indirekte effekte het. Hierdie effekte manifisteer in ‘n stel sosiaal verwante, ekonomiese en psigologiese dimensies wat ten einde ‘n impak op die gesondheid en welstand van bejaardes het. Daar is tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat meer gedoen moet word om die kennis basis van MIV en VIGS te artikuleer om die sosiale, ekonomiese en politiese beleid in kennis te stel, om sodoende die resulterende probleme van MIV en VIGS op die bejaarde Afrika populasie te verlig.

How to cite this article: Lekalakala-Mokgele,E., 2011, ‘A literature review of the impact of HIV and AIDS on the role of the elderly in the sub-Saharan African Community’, Health SA Gesondheid 16(1, Art. #564, 6 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10:4102/hsag.v16i1.564

Eucebious Lekalakala- Mokgele

2011-02-01

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Population dynamics throughout the urban context: A case study in sub-Saharan Africa utilizing remotely sensed imagery and GIS  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristics of places where people live and work play an important role in explaining complex social, political, economic and demographic processes. In sub-Saharan Africa rapid urban growth combined with rising poverty is creating diverse urban environments inhabited by people with a wide variety of lifestyles. This research examines how spatial patterns of land cover in a southern portion of the West African country of Ghana are associated with particular characteristics of family organization and reproduction decisions. Satellite imagery and landscape metrics are used to create an urban context definition based on landscape patterns using a gradient approach. Census data are used to estimate fertility levels and household structure, and the association between urban context, household composition and fertility levels is modeled through OLS regression, spatial autoregressive models and geographically weighted regression. Results indicate that there are significant differences in fertility levels between different urban contexts, with below average fertility levels found in the most urbanized end of the urban context definition and above average fertility levels found on the opposite end. The spatial patterns identified in the association between urban context and fertility levels indicate that, within the city areas with lower fertility have significant impacts on the reproductive levels of adjacent neighborhoods. Findings also indicate that there are clear patterns that link urban context to living arrangements and fertility levels. Female- and single-headed households are associated with below average fertility levels, a result that connects dropping fertility levels with the spread of smaller nuclear households in developing countries. At the same time, larger extended family households are linked to below average fertility levels for highly clustered areas, a finding that points to the prevalence of extended family housing in the West African city.

Benza, Magdalena

52

Is the current decline in malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa due to a decrease in vector population?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum has historically been a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Recent reports indicate a pronounced decline in infection and disease rates which are commonly ascribed to large-scale bed net programmes and improved case management. However, the decline has also occurred in areas with limited or no intervention. The present study assessed temporal changes in Anopheline populations in two highly malaria-endemic communities of NE Tanzania during the period 1998-2009. Methods Between 1998 and 2001 (1st period and between 2003 and 2009 (2nd period, mosquitoes were collected weekly in 50 households using CDC light traps. Data on rainfall were obtained from the nearby climate station and were used to analyze the association between monthly rainfall and malaria mosquito populations. Results The average number of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus per trap decreased by 76.8% and 55.3%, respectively over the 1st period, and by 99.7% and 99.8% over the 2nd period. During the last year of sampling (2009, the use of 2368 traps produced a total of only 14 Anopheline mosquitoes. With the exception of the decline in An. gambiae during the 1st period, the results did not reveal any statistical association between mean trend in monthly rainfall and declining malaria vector populations. Conclusion A longitudinal decline in the density of malaria mosquito vectors was seen during both study periods despite the absence of organized vector control. Part of the decline could be associated with changes in the pattern of monthly rainfall, but other factors may also contribute to the dramatic downward trend. A similar decline in malaria vector densities could contribute to the decrease in levels of malaria infection reported from many parts of SSA.

Rwegoshora Rwehumbiza T

2011-07-01

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Foreign Direct Investments and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Comparative Analysis between Landlocked Countries and Countries Having Access to the Sea  

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Full Text Available Institutional reforms implemented since the beginning of the Nineties resulted in a substantial increase in Foreign Direct Investments (FDI inflow into Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study uses data on 32 countries to evaluate the impact of FDI on economic growth through panel data regressions for the period 1988-2008. The study captures the incidence of commercial openness through a comparison between the landlocked countries and those having access to the sea. The results show that FDI have a positive and significant effect on economic growth in countries that have access to the sea whereas for the landlocked countries, the results are not significant. It is therefore recommended that African countries continue to implement policies favorable to the attraction of FDI. Landlocked countries should lay a particular emphasis on the construction of infrastructures (roads, railways, airports, and phone that facilitate the flow of goods towards the different ports for shipment to countries where their goods are more demanded.

Luc Nembot Ndeffo

2013-05-01

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LM and Others v Government of the Republic of Namibia: The first sub-Saharan African case dealing with coerced sterilisations of HIV-positive women - Quo vadis?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english It has been argued that three factors characterise the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa - its female face; the implications it poses for sexual and reproductive health services (particularly those provided to women); and the pervasive discrimination following those who are infected. These factors [...] also form the context within which there have been an increasing number of reports of HIV-positive women being coerced or forced into being permanently sterilised in order to prevent future pregnancies. The recent decision in LM and Others v Government of the Republic of Namibia deals with the alleged discriminatory and coerced sterilisation of three women living with HIV. This article describes and critiques the LM judgment. It concludes with brief comments on the way forward for similar litigation in other Southern African countries.

Chantal J, Badul; Ann, Strode.

2013-01-01

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Spondyloarthritis in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is generally uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa, in part because of the rarity of HLA-B27 in this region. However, the relationship between HLA-B27 and SpA, particularly ankylosing spondylitis (AS), is complex. Despite the HLA-B 27:05 risk allele occurring in some West African populations, associated AS is not seen. In fact, most patients with AS are HLA-B27-negative, although there is emerging evidence that another class I HLA molecule, HLA-B 14:03, is associated with AS in black Africans. The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria for detecting early axial disease are of limited value in sub-Saharan Africa, because of both the rarity of HLA-B27 and very limited access to magnetic resonance imaging. Reactive arthritis (ReA), psoriatic arthritis, and undifferentiated SpA are seen mainly in the context of HIV infection, although the exact effect of the virus in the pathogenesis of arthritis is unclear. In Zambia, ReA is associated with the HLA-B*57:03 allele, which is paradoxically also associated with slow progression of HIV infection. HIV-associated ReA has a more protracted and aggressive course than standard ReA. Enthesitis-related arthritis is more common in children infected with HIV by vertical mother-to child transmission. Use of TNF inhibitors for axial disease is problematic, mainly because of cost, but also because of potential safety problems, especially reactivation of tuberculosis. PMID:24744085

Tikly, Mohammed; Njobvu, Panganani; McGill, Paul

2014-06-01

56

The Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans Assessed by the Progressive Matrices: A Reply to Wicherts, Dolan, Carlson & van der Maas  

Science.gov (United States)

Wicherts, Dolan, Carlson & van der Maas (WDCM) (2010) contend that the average IQ in sub-Saharan Africa is about 76 in relation to a British mean of 100 and sd of 15. This result is achieved by including many studies of unrepresentative elite samples. Studies of acceptably representative samples indicate a sub-Saharan Africa IQ of approximately…

Lynn, Richard

2010-01-01

57

Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need to decompose CO2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO2ergy consumption intensity, CO2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO2 emission intensity in non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries, while the structural effect explained most of the increase in CO2 emission intensity among the oil-producing countries. Finally, for the period 1991-1998, structural effect accounted for much of the decrease in intensity among non-oil-producers, while CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was the major force driving the decrease among oil-producing countries. The dynamic changes in the CO2 emission intensity and energy intensity effects for the two groups of countries suggest that fuel switching had been predominantly towards more carbon-intensive production in oil-producing countries and less carbon-intensive production in non-oil-producing SSA countries. In addition to the decomposition analysis, the article discusses policy implications of the results. We hope that the information and analyses provided here would help inform national energy and climate policy makers in SSA of the relative weaknesses and possible areas of strategic emphasis in their planning processes for mitigating the effects of climate change

58

The Effect of Imatinib Mesylate for Newly Diagnosed Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive, Chronic-Phase Myeloid Leukemia in Sub-Saharan African Patients: The Experience of Côte d'Ivoire  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Imatinib mesylate, showed encouraging activity in chronic myelogenous leukemia. However, there are few data regarding his efficacy and response monitoring in Sub-Saharan African patients. Our objective was to assess response to imatinib mesylate (Glivec) in Côte d'Ivoire patients with newly diagnosed Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). From May 2005 to September 2009, we treated 42 patients (40 years; range 16–69) with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph+) positive in chronic phase CML with oral imat...

Koffi, K. G.; Nanho, D. C.; N Dathz, E.; Kouehion, P.; Dissieka, R.; Attia, A.; Mozard, K.; Tolo, A.; Boidy, K.; Meite?, N.; Ayemou, R.; Sekongo, M.; Tea, N.; Sanogo, I.

2010-01-01

59

The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic growth and financial development in the Sub Saharan African countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on GDP (gross domestic product) growth and the financial development in thirty Sub Saharan African Countries. The panel model was used in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. The results showed that energy consumption had played an important role to increase both economic growth and the financial development in the investigated economies but with the consequence of high po llution. This study recommended that these countries should increase energy productivity by increasing energy efficiency, implementation of energy savings projects, energy conservation, and energy infrastructure outsourcing to achieve its financial development and GDP growth and to increase their investment on energy projects to achieve the full energy potential. -- Highlights: ? The impact of energy consumption, CO2 emission on GDP and the financial development in the SSA countries was investigated. ? The panel model was implied in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. ? The results show energy consumption increased economic growth and the financial development but with higher pollution.

60

Mesoscale modeling and satellite observation of transport and mixing of smoke and dust particles over northern sub-Saharan African region  

Science.gov (United States)

transport and vertical distribution of smoke and dust aerosols over the northern sub-Saharan African region are simulated in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), which uses hourly dynamic smoke emissions from the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions database derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. Model performance for February 2008 is evaluated using MODIS true color images, aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from the Aerosol Robotic Network, MODIS AOD retrievals, and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) atmospheric backscattering and extinction products. Specification of smoke injection height of 650 m in WRF-Chem yields aerosol vertical profiles that are most consistent with CALIOP observations of aerosol layer height. Between the equator and 10°N, Saharan dust is often mixed with smoke near the surface, and their transport patterns manifest the interplay of trade winds, subtropical highs, precipitation associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the high mountains located near the Great Rift Valley region. At the 700 hPa level and above, smoke layers spread farther to the north and south and are often above the dust layers over the Sahel region. In some cases, transported smoke can also be mixed with dust over the Saharan region. Statistically, 5% of the CALIOP valid measurements in February 2007-2011 show aerosol layers either above or between the clouds, reinforcing the importance of the aerosol vertical distribution for quantifying aerosol impact on climate in the Sahel region.

Yang, Zhifeng; Wang, Jun; Ichoku, Charles; Hyer, Edward; Zeng, Jing

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
61

Shaping the Role of sub-Saharan African Nurses and Midwives: Stakeholder's perceptions of the Nurses' and Midwives' tasks and roles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english To explore the role expectations of different stakeholders in the health care system on the roles and tasks that nurses and midwives perform, in order to clarify and strengthen these roles and shape the future of nursing education and practice in sub-Saharan Africa. Qualitative focus group discussio [...] ns were held with different stakeholders (nurses, health service managers, patients and their caregivers, community members and leaders and other health professionals) in eight African countries in order to establish their role expectations of nurses and midwives. Three questions about their role expectations and the interviews were taped, transcribed, and translated into English and analysed. There was consensus amongst the stakeholders regarding eight role functions: taking care of patients; giving health information; managing the care environment; advocating for patients; services and policies; providing emergency care; collaborating with other stakeholders; and providing midwifery care to women, infants and their families. There was disagreement amongst the stakeholders about the role of diagnosis and prescribing treatment. Nursing derives its mandate from communities it serves, and the roles expected must therefore form part of nursing regulation, education and practice standards. Health planners must use these as a basis for job descriptions and rewards. Once these are accepted in the training and regulation of nursing, they must be marketed so that recipients are aware thereof.

Naomi M., Seboni; Mabel K.M., Magowe; Leana R., Uys; Mary B, Suh; Komba N., Djeko; Haouaou, Moumouni.

2013-10-01

62

Shaping the Role of sub-Saharan African Nurses and Midwives: Stakeholder’s perceptions of the Nurses’ and Midwives’ tasks and roles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To explore the role expectations of different stakeholders in the health care system on the roles and tasks that nurses and midwives perform, in order to clarify and strengthen these roles and shape the future of nursing education and practice in sub-Saharan Africa. Qualitative focus group discussions were held with different stakeholders (nurses, health service managers, patients and their caregivers, community members and leaders and other health professionals in eight African countries in order to establish their role expectations of nurses and midwives. Three questions about their role expectations and the interviews were taped, transcribed, and translated into English and analysed. There was consensus amongst the stakeholders regarding eight role functions: taking care of patients; giving health information; managing the care environment; advocating for patients; services and policies; providing emergency care; collaborating with other stakeholders; and providing midwifery care to women, infants and their families. There was disagreement amongst the stakeholders about the role of diagnosis and prescribing treatment. Nursing derives its mandate from communities it serves, and the roles expected must therefore form part of nursing regulation, education and practice standards. Health planners must use these as a basis for job descriptions and rewards. Once these are accepted in the training and regulation of nursing, they must be marketed so that recipients are aware thereof.

Naomi M. Seboni

2013-05-01

63

19 CFR 10.178a - Special duty-free treatment for sub-Saharan African countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

...in section 107 of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (19 U...for that purpose and is the growth, product, or manufacture...the President determines to be import-sensitive in the context of...treatment because it is the growth of a beneficiary...

2010-04-01

64

Intra-continental spread of human invasive Salmonella Typhimurium pathovariants in sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly invasive form of non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has been recently documented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common Salmonella enterica serovar causing this disease is Typhimurium. We applied whole-genome sequence-based phylogenetic methods to define the population structure of sub-Saharan African invasive Salmonella Typhimurium and compared these to global Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Notably, the vast majority of sub-Saharan invasive Salmonella Typhimurium fell within two closely-related, highly-clustered phylogenetic lineages that we estimate emerged independently ~52 and ~35 years ago, in close temporal association with the current HIV pandemic. Clonal replacement of isolates of lineage I by lineage II was potentially influenced by the use of chloramphenicol for the treatment of iNTS disease. Our analysis suggests that iNTS disease is in part an epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa caused by highly related Salmonella Typhimurium lineages that may have occupied new niches associated with a compromised human population and antibiotic treatment. PMID:23023330

Okoro, Chinyere K.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Connor, Thomas R.; Harris, Simon R.; Parry, Christopher M.; Al-Mashhadani, Manar N; Kariuki, Samuel; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gordon, Melita A.; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Wain, John; Heyderman, Robert S.; Obaro, Stephen; Alonso, Pedro L.; Mandomando, Inacio; MacLennan, Calman A.; Tapia, Milagritos D.; Levine, Myron M.; Tennant, Sharon M; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon

2012-01-01

65

Extended gene diversity at the FMR1 locus and neighbouring CA repeats in a sub-Saharan population  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on the allele distributions in a normal black African population at two microsatellite loci neighbouring the FRAXA locus and at the CGG repeat in the 5{prime} end of the FMR1 gene, which causes the fragile X syndrome. The CGG repeat distribution was found to be similar to that of other ethnic groups, as well as to that of other non-human primates, possibly predicting a comparable prevalence of fragile X in Africa. Significant linkage disequilibrium has been observed between fragile X mutations and alleles of the DXS548 and FRAXAC1 loci in European and Asian populations, and some founder chromosomes may be extremely old. Those associated with FRAXAC1-A and DXS548-2 alleles are not present in the Asian fragile X samples. We searched for these alleles and their frequency in the well defined Bamileke population of Cameroon. All previously described alleles and some new ones were found in this sample, supporting the hypothesis of their pre-existence and subsequent loss in Asian populations. Finally, the heterozygosity of the Bamileke sample was significantly higher at both marker loci and comparable to that of Europeans at the CGG repeat, confirming the notion that genetic diversity is greater in Africans than in other groups and supporting the view that evolution of modern man started in Africa. 31 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Chiurazzi, Genuardi, M.; Neri, G. [Instituto di Genetica Medica, Roma (Italy)] [and others

1996-07-12

66

A review on aflatoxin contamination and its implications in the developing world : a sub-Saharan African perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mycotoxins contamination in some agricultural food commodities seriously impact human and animal health and reduce the commercial value of crops. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that contaminate agricultural commodities pre- or postharvest. Africa is one of the continents where environmental, agricultural and storage conditions of food commodities are conducive of Aspergillus fungi infection and aflatoxin biosynthesis. This paper reviews the commodity-wise aetiology and contamination process of aflatoxins and evaluates the potential risk of exposure from common African foods. Possible ways of reducing risk for fungal infection and aflatoxin development that are relevant to the African context. The presented database would be useful as benchmark information for development and prioritization of future research. There is need for more investigations on food quality and safety by making available advanced advanced equipments and analytical methods as well as surveillance and awareness creation in the region.

Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Hell, K.

2013-01-01

67

Energy Security and Sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanOver the last decade the topic of energy security has reappeared on global policy agendas. Most analyses of international energy geopolitics examine the interests and behaviour of powerful energy-importing countries like the US and China. This chapter begins by examining foreign powers’ expanded exploitation of oil and uranium resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. It goes on to examine how energy importers’ efforts to enhance their energy security through Africa are impacting energy security within Africa. It assesses Sub-Saharan states’ attempts to increase consumption of local oil and uranium reserves. Observing the constraints on these efforts, it then outlines some alternative strategies that have been employed to enhance African energy security. It concludes that, while local community-based development projects have improved the well-being of many households, they are not a sufficient guarantor of energy security. Inadequate petroleum access, in particular, remains a development challenge. Foreign powers’ efforts to increase their oil security are undermining the energy security of Sub-Saharan African citizens.

Emily Meierding

2013-02-01

68

The Realities of Community Based Natural Resource Management and Biodiversity Conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is an historic overview of conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa from pre-colonial times through the present. It demonstrates that Africans practiced conservation that was ignored by the colonial powers. The colonial market economy combined with the human and livestock population explosion of the 21st century are the major factors contributing to the demise of wildlife and critical habitat. Unique insight is provided into the economics of a representative safari company, something that has ...

Brian Kevin Reilly; Paul Andre DeGeorges

2009-01-01

69

Concurrent sexual partnerships and HIV prevalence in five urban communities of sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate parameters of concurrent sexual partnerships in five urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa and to assess their association with levels of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). METHODS: Data were obtained from a multicentre study of factors which determine the differences in rate of spread of HIV in five African cities. Consenting participants were interviewed on sexual behaviour and at four of the five sites also provided a blood and a urine s...

Lagarde, E.; Auvert, B.; Carae?l, M.; Laourou, M.; Ferry, B.; Akam, E.; Sukwa, T.; Morison, L.; Maury, E.; Chege, J.; N Doye, I.; Buve?, A.

2001-01-01

70

Sensitivity of mesoscale modeling of smoke direct radiative effect to the emission inventory: a case study in northern sub-Saharan African region  

Science.gov (United States)

An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15°W-42°E, 13°S-17°N) and monthly averages of column PM2.5 loading, surface PM2.5 concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA.

Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Ichoku, Charles; Hyer, Edward J.; Yang, Zhifeng; Ge, Cui; Su, Shenjian; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; da Silva, Arlindo

2014-07-01

71

Sustainable electricity generation for rural and peri-urban populations of sub-Saharan Africa. The 'flexy-energy' concept  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. Electrification rate of sub-Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However, this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy-energy' concept of hybrid solar PV/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is performed in this paper. This concept is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. For landlocked countries like Burkina Faso, this concept could help them reducing their electricity bill (then their fuel consumption) and accelerate their rural and peri-urban electrification coverage. (author)

Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Ginies, P.; Coulibaly, Y.; Girard, P. [Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie d' Energie (LESEE), Fondation 2iE, 01 BP 594, Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso)

2011-01-15

72

Water Poverty in Sub-Saharan African nation: GIS based index for assessing vulnerability in relation to climate change data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Access to safe water is currently a privilege for the citizens of many developing countries in Asia and Africa. In the last few decades changes in climate have increased concentrations of greenhouse gasses. The results of global warming have had a significant impact upon the hydrological cycle from freshwater resources to rising sea levels, flooding and precipitation changes. Population concentration and growth have also placed additional pressures on water resources resulting in changes to e...

Trakosa, Anastasia

2008-01-01

73

Economic Globalisation, Democracy and Income in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Panel Cointegration Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sub-Saharan Africa has been characterised by low-income levels for decades. This paper analyses the impact of economic globalisation and democracy on income in sub-Saharan Africa using panel cointegration techniques. The paper considers a composite indicator for economic globalisation and several alternative indicators of democracy and highlights the essence of the simultaneous adoption of economic globalisation and democracy for sub- Saharan African countries. The empirical results based on ...

Sakyi, Daniel

2011-01-01

74

Achieving food security for one million sub-Saharan African poor through push-pull innovation by 2020.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food insecurity is a chronic problem in Africa and is likely to worsen with climate change and population growth. It is largely due to poor yields of the cereal crops caused by factors including stemborer pests, striga weeds and degraded soils. A platform technology, 'push-pull', based on locally available companion plants, effectively addresses these constraints resulting in substantial grain yield increases. It involves intercropping cereal crops with a forage legume, desmodium, and planting Napier grass as a border crop. Desmodium repels stemborer moths (push), and attracts their natural enemies, while Napier grass attracts them (pull). Desmodium is very effective in suppressing striga weed while improving soil fertility through nitrogen fixation and improved organic matter content. Both companion plants provide high-value animal fodder, facilitating milk production and diversifying farmers' income sources. To extend these benefits to drier areas and ensure long-term sustainability of the technology in view of climate change, drought-tolerant trap and intercrop plants are being identified. Studies show that the locally commercial brachiaria cv mulato (trap crop) and greenleaf desmodium (intercrop) can tolerate long droughts. New on-farm field trials show that using these two companion crops in adapted push-pull technology provides effective control of stemborers and striga weeds, resulting in significant grain yield increases. Effective multi-level partnerships have been established with national agricultural research and extension systems, non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders to enhance dissemination of the technology with a goal of reaching one million farm households in the region by 2020. These will be supported by an efficient desmodium seed production and distribution system in eastern Africa, relevant policies and stakeholder training and capacity development. PMID:24535391

Khan, Zeyaur R; Midega, Charles A O; Pittchar, Jimmy O; Murage, Alice W; Birkett, Michael A; Bruce, Toby J A; Pickett, John A

2014-04-01

75

Implementation of a socio-ecological system navigation approach to human development in sub-saharan african communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a framework for the development of socio-ecological systems towards enhanced sustainability. Emphasis is given to the dynamic properties of complex, adaptive social-ecological systems, their structure and to the fundamental role of agriculture. The tangible components that meet the needs of specific projects executed in Kenya and Ethiopia encompass project objectives, innovation, facilitation, continuous recording and analyses of monitoring data, that allow adaptive management and system navigation. Two case studies deal with system navigation through the mitigation of key constraints; they aim to improve human health thanks to anopheline malaria vectors control in Nyabondo (Kenya), and to improve cattle health through tsetse control and antitrypanosomal drug administration to cattle in Luke (Ethiopia). The second case deals with a socio-ecological navigation system to enhance sustainability, establishing a periurban diversified enterprise in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) and developing a rural sustainable social-ecological system in Luke (Ethiopia). The project procedures are briefly described here and their outcomes are analysed in relation to the stated objectives. The methodology for human and cattle disease vector control were easier to implement than the navigation of social-ecological systems towards sustainability enhancement. The achievements considerably differed between key constraints removal and sustainability enhancement projects. Some recommendations are made to rationalise human and cattle health improvement efforts and to smoothen the road towards enhanced sustainability: i) technology system implementation should be carried out through an innovation system; ii) transparent monitoring information should be continuously acquired and evaluated for assessing the state of the system in relation to stated objectives for (a) improving the insight into the systems behaviour and (b) rationalizing decision support; iii) the different views of all stakeholders should be reconciled in a pragmatic approach to social-ecological system management. Significance for public healthRecently, there is a growing interest in studying the link between human, animal and environmental health. The connection between these different dimensions is particularly important for developing countries in which people face the challenge of escaping vicious cycle of high diseases prevalence, food insecurity driven by absolute poverty and population growth, and natural capital as a poverty trap. The design and implementation of such efforts, aiming at human health improvement and poverty alleviation, should be framed into adaptive social-ecological system management perspectives. In this paper, we present few case studies dealing with human health improvement through anopheline malaria vectors control in Kenya, cattle health improvement through tsetse vectored nagana control, antitrypanosomal drug administration to cattle in Ethiopia and with the development of rural sustainable communities in Ethiopia. Some recommendations are given to rationalise human and cattle health improvement efforts and to smoothen the road towards enhanced sustainability. PMID:25170511

Gilioli, Gianni; Caroli, Anna Maria; Tikubet, Getachew; Herren, Hans R; Baumgärtner, Johann

2014-03-26

76

North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient population substructure. Thus, the study of North African populations is crucial for testing both hypotheses. We analyzed a total of 780,000 SNPs in 125 individuals representing seven different North African locations and searched for their ancestral/derived state in comparison to different human populations and Neandertals. We found that North African populations have a significant excess of derived alleles shared with Neandertals, when compared to sub-Saharan Africans. This excess is similar to that found in non-African humans, a fact that can be interpreted as a sign of Neandertal admixture. Furthermore, the Neandertal's genetic signal is higher in populations with a local, pre-Neolithic North African ancestry. Therefore, the detected ancient admixture is not due to recent Near Eastern or European migrations. Sub-Saharan populations are the only ones not affected by the admixture event with Neandertals.

Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R

2012-01-01

77

Foreign Direct Investments and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Comparative Analysis between Landlocked Countries and Countries Having Access to the Sea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Institutional reforms implemented since the beginning of the Nineties resulted in a substantial increase in Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) inflow into Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study uses data on 32 countries to evaluate the impact of FDI on economic growth through panel data regressions for the period 1988-2008. The study captures the incidence of commercial openness through a comparison between the landlocked countries and those having access to the sea. The results show that FDI ha...

Luc Nembot Ndeffo; David Kamdem; Roger Tsafack Nanfosso

2013-01-01

78

Trends in access to water supply and sanitation in 31 major sub-Saharan African cities: an analysis of DHS data from 2000 to 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

Background By 2050, sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) urban population is expected to grow from 414 million to over 1.2 billion. This growth will likely increase challenges to municipalities attempting to provide access to water supply and sanitation (WS&S). This study aims to characterize trends in access to WS&S in SSA cities and identify factors affecting those trends. Methods DHS data collected between 2000 and 2012 were used for this analysis of thirty-one cities in SSA. Four categories of household access to WS&S were studied using data from demographic and health surveys – these included: 1) household access to an improved water supply, 2) household’s time spent collecting water, 3) household access to improved sanitation, and 4) households reporting to engage in open defecation. An exploratory analysis of these measures was then conducted to assess the relationship of access to several independent variables. Results Among the 31 cities, there was wide variability in coverage levels and trends in coverage with respect to the four categories of access. The majority of cities were found to be increasing access in the categories of improved water supply and improved sanitation (65% and 83% of cities, respectively), while fewer were making progress in reducing the amount of time spent collecting water and reducing open defecation (50% and 38% of cities, respectively). Additionally, the prevalence of open defecation in study cities was found to be, on average, increasing. Conclusions Based on DHS data, cities appeared to be making the most progress in gaining access to WS&S along metrics which reflect specified targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Nearly half of the cities, however, did not make progress in reducing open defecation or the time spent collecting water. This may reflect that the MDGs have led to a focus on “improved” services while other measures, potentially more relevant to the extreme poor, are being neglected. This study highlights the need to better characterize access, beyond definitions of improved and unimproved, as well as the need to target resources to cities where changes in WS&S access have stalled, or in some cases regressed. PMID:24576260

2014-01-01

79

Progress towards the child mortality millennium development goal in urban sub-Saharan Africa: the dynamics of population growth, immunization, and access to clean water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in child survival have been very poor in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Since the 1990s, declines in child mortality have reversed in many countries in the region, while in others, they have either slowed or stalled, making it improbable that the target of reducing child mortality by two thirds by 2015 will be reached. This paper highlights the implications of urban population growth and access to health and social services on progress in achieving MDG 4. Specifically, it examines trends in childhood mortality in SSA in relation to urban population growth, vaccination coverage and access to safe drinking water. Methods Correlation methods are used to analyze national-level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys and from the United Nations. The analysis is complemented by case studies on intra-urban health differences in Kenya and Zambia. Results Only five of the 22 countries included in the study have recorded declines in urban child mortality that are in line with the MDG target of about 4% per year; five others have recorded an increase; and the 12 remaining countries witnessed only minimal decline. More rapid rate of urban population growth is associated with negative trend in access to safe drinking water and in vaccination coverage, and ultimately to increasing or timid declines in child mortality. There is evidence of intra-urban disparities in child health in some countries like Kenya and Zambia. Conclusion Failing to appropriately target the growing sub-group of the urban poor and improve their living conditions and health status – which is an MDG target itself – may result in lack of improvement on national indicators of health. Sustained expansion of potable water supplies and vaccination coverage among the disadvantaged urban dwellers should be given priority in the efforts to achieve the child mortality MDG in SSA.

Madise Nyovani

2007-08-01

80

Condom use and its association with HIV/sexually transmitted diseases in four urban communities of sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To estimate rates of condom use in four urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa and to assess their association with levels of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). METHODS: Data were obtained from a multicentre study of factors that determine the differences in rate of spread of HIV in four African cities. Consenting participants were interviewed on sexual behaviour, and also provided blood and urine samples for testing for HIV infection and other STDs. Da...

Lagarde, E.; Auvert, B.; Chege, J.; Sukwa, T.; Glynn, J. R.; Weiss, H. A.; Akam, E.; Laourou, M.; Carae?l, M.; Buve?, A.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Plant Variety Protection in Sub-Saharan Africa: Balancing Commercial and Smallholder Farmers’ Interests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sub-Saharan African countries, through their regional organizations, have embarked on the harmonisation of plant variety protection (PVP) systems. These initiatives are largely modelled on the UPOV 1991 act, which claims to incentivize plant breeding and facilitate agricultural development. Civil Society Organisations (CSO), however, strongly criticise this process for being out of step with Sub-Saharan African agricultural realities, undermining smallholder farmers’ agricultural practices ...

Bram De Jonge

2014-01-01

82

Towards feasible social security systems in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The international community is devoting increasing attention to social security issues in developing countries as part of its preoccupation with poverty reduction. This paper discusses social security arrangements in place in sub-Saharan African countries to mitigate the contingencies of their citizens, with emphasis on the masses of poor people, including the ways in which the poor themselves try to tackle unexpected adversity. The basic argument is that for a social security system to be fe...

Tostensen, Arne

2004-01-01

83

Ecological and individual level analysis of risk factors for HIV infection in four urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa with different levels of HIV infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that could explain differences in rate of spread of HIV between different regions in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The study took place in two cities with a relatively low HIV prevalence (Cotonou, Benin and Yaoundé, Cameroon), and two cities with a high HIV prevalence (Kisumu, Kenya and Ndola, Zambia). In each of these cities, a representative sample was taken of about 1000 men and 1000 women aged 15-49 years. Consenting men and wo...

Auvert, B.; Buve?, A.; Ferry, B.; Carae?l, M.; Morison, L.; Lagarde, E.; Robinson, N. J.; Kahindo, M.; Chege, J.; Rutenberg, N.; Musonda, R.; Laourou, M.; Akam, E.

2001-01-01

84

What lies behind gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately at risk for acquiring and having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is important to clarify whether gender inequalities in HIV prevalence in this region are explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors, differences in the effects of these risk factors or some combination of both. We used an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania using data from the demographic and health and AIDS indicator surveys. After adjusting for covariates using Poisson regression models, female gender was associated with a higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Kenya [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.33, 2.23 in 2003] and Lesotho (PR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.20, 1.62 in 2004/05), but not in Tanzania. Decomposition analyses demonstrated two distinct patterns over time. In Tanzania, the gender inequality in HIV/AIDS was explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors between men and women. In contrast, in Kenya and Lesotho, this inequality was partly explained by differences in the effects across men and women of measured HIV/AIDS risk factors, including socio-demographic characteristics (age and marital status) and sexual behaviours (age at first sex); these results imply that gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS would persist in Kenya and Lesotho even if men and women had similar distributions of HIV risk factors. The production of gender inequalities may vary across countries, with inequalities attributable to the unequal distribution of risk factors among men and women in some countries and the differential effect of these factors between groups in others. These different patterns have important implications for policies to reduce gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS. PMID:24345343

Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Nandi, Arijit; Foro, Anne; Brewer, Timothy

2014-10-01

85

The Environmental and Social Influences of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS pandemic has caused far-reaching effects in sub-Saharan Africa. The pandemic has effectively diminished the workforce, increased poverty rates, reduced agricultural productivity, and transformed the structure of many rural households. HIV/AIDS further strains the already fragile relationship between livelihood and the natural and social environments of these regions. Therefore, the objective of this review is to characterize the impact of HIV/AIDS on the environment and the social infrastructure of rural sub-Saharan Africa. There are many aspects of rural life that contribute to disease transmission of HIV/AIDS and that pose unique challenges to the population dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. Widespread AIDS-related mortality has caused a decrease in population growth for many African countries. In turn, these alterations in population dynamics have resulted in a decrease in the percentage of prime-age working adults, as well as a gender disparity, whereby, females carry a growing burden of household responsibilities. There is a rising proportion of older adults, often females, who assume the role of provider and caretaker for other dependent family members. These changing dynamics have caused many to exploit their natural surroundings, adopting less sustainable land use practices and utilizing protected resources as a primary means of generating revenue.

Christopher R. Frei

2011-07-01

86

Risk perception and communication in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this narrative review, a brief summary of theoretical approaches to risk perception is followed by an analysis of some of the special factors influencing risk perception and risk communication in sub-Saharan Africa. Examples of recent and emergent local medicines and vaccine controversies in several countries are given along with evidence and analysis of how they were managed. These demonstrate, among other things, the extent to which ethnic, religious and cultural issues influence popular perception, and the power of rumour and anecdote in shaping public opinion and official responses to events. Where safety monitoring systems exist, they are in their infancy, with limited capacity for data collection, credible scientific review, effective public communication and robust crisis management. Although increasing democratic freedoms, including less restricted media, and evolving health systems are addressing the challenges and give hope for further progress, there are still deep and intractable issues that inhibit transparent and effective risk communication and stand in the way of African populations comprehending medicines and their risks in safer and more balanced ways. Some proposals for future change and action are offered, including the pursuit of a deeper understanding of local and national values, assumptions and beliefs that drive risk perception; tailoring public health planning and communications to specifically-targeted regions and populations; strengthening of safety surveillance and data-collection systems; giving higher priority to medicines safety issues in healthcare training and public education. PMID:23061780

Dodoo, Alexander; Hugman, Bruce

2012-11-01

87

Cost-effectiveness of medical interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease in a sub-Saharan African country – the case of Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high and rising prevalence of cardiovascular risk in sub-Saharan Africa, a development typical for countries in epidemiological transition. Contrary to recommendations in treatment guidelines, medical interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease are implemented only on a limited scale in these settings. There is a widespread concern that such treatment is not cost-effective compared to alternative health interventions. The main objectives of this article are therefore to calculate costs-, effects and cost-effectiveness of fourteen medical interventions of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Tanzania, including Acetylsalicylic acid, a diuretic drug (Hydrochlorothiazide, a ?-blocker (Atenolol, a calcium channel blocker (Nifedepine, a statin (Lovastatin and various combinations of these. Methods Effect sizes were derived from systematic reviews or meta-analyses, and calculated as Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. Data on drug costs were calibrated to a Tanzanian setting. Other recurrent and capital costs were derived from previous studies and reviewed by local experts. Expected lifetime costs and health outcomes were calculated using a life-cycle model. Probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation, and results presented as cost-effectiveness acceptability curves and frontiers. The potential impacts of uncertainty in value laden single parameters were explored in one-way sensitivity analyses. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the fourteen interventions and four different levels of risk (totally 56 alternative interventions ranged from about USD 85 per DALY to about USD 4589 per DALY saved. Hydrochlorothiazide as monotherapy is the drug yielding the most favorable cost-effectiveness ratio, although not significantly lower than when it is combined in duo-therapy with Aspirin or a ?-blocker, in triple-therapy with Aspirin and a ?-blocker, or than Aspirin given as mono-therapy. Conclusion Preventive cardiology is not cost-effective for any patient group in this setting until willingness to pay exceeds USD 85 per DALY. At this level of willingness to pay, the optimal intervention is Hydrochlorothiazide to patients with very high cardiovascular risk. As willingness to pay for health increase further, it becomes optimal to provide this treatment also to patients with lower cardiovascular risk, and to substitute to more sophisticated interventions.

Hemed Yusuf

2007-02-01

88

Development and validation of systems for rational use of viral load testing in adults receiving first-line ART in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND:: World Health Organization (WHO) immunological and clinical criteria for monitoring first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) offer low accuracy for predicting viral failure. Targeting viral load assays to those at high risk has been recommended and a system to do this has been developed in Cambodia. Systems for use in Sub-Saharan African populations were evaluated. METHODS:: A new Ugandan based scoring system for targeting viral load assays was developed from data from the first ...

Menten, J.; Kiragga, A.; Lynen, L.; Robertson, G.; Castelnuovo, B.; Manabe, Y. C.; Reynolds, S. J.; Roberts, L.

2011-01-01

89

Introduction : New Avenues for Pastoral Development in sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

African pastoralism is a perplexing, controversial and misunderstood subject. Certainly, making sense of herders’ lifestyles and livelihoods is made especially difficult – if not impossible – by the marked absence of consensus between scholars of pastoralism. Sharp disagreements exist as to whether pastoralism in sub-Saharan Africa is on the verge of extinction, or whether it is a resilient livelihood strategy. Similarly, authors diverge on the question of whether drought cycles have become increasingly recurrent and lifethreatening, or whether they are part of the climatic variability that has always characterized arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Finally, different viewpoints exist concerning whether or not it is possible to maintain extensive production strategies and the mobility of herds and people in increasingly populous and circumscribed territories. Although a number of research fields and academic debates with regard to ‘new range ecology’, climate change, risk management or sustainable livelihoods have produced important insights for African drylands, there have been few attempts to conceptualize pastoral development more broadly and beyond disciplinary confines. This is precisely the objective of this special issue, which seeks to provide an overview of current research on the economic, ecological, political and social challenges and opportunities of pastoral societies in sub-Saharan Africa.

Hagmann, Tobias; Ifejika-Speranza, Chinwe

2010-01-01

90

Diet, malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzes the association of protein energy malnutrition and mortality in preschool (non-emergency) children in Sub-Saharan Africa. 2 functional consequences of malnutrition are discussed: retarded physical growth (anthropometry) and mortality. The anthropometric measures used to assess malnutrition are weight-for-age, weight for height, and mid-upper arm circumference. The major factors associated with malnutrition and mortality include dietary intake, severity and frequency of infections, social, demographic, economic and cultural factors (area of residence, seasonality, socioeconomic status, mother's age and educational level, family support and cohesiveness, birth order of index child and birth interval between children and number of children under 5 in the family, maternal nutritional status and health and adequacy of breast milk volume and composition for young infants. Understanding these factors will identify children-at-risk for malnutrition and target them for intervention programs. The article focuses on the association of malnutrition with mortality in relation to: 1) breastfeeding and weaning practice; 2) vitamin A and 3) infection. Reviews of African and Asian studies on the subject demonstrated that higher mortality rates were associated with malnutrition, however, the causal associations remain unclear. Since malnourished children are at higher risk for illness, short-term interventions should include growth monitoring, nutrition education, prevention and treatment of infections, food supplementation, hospital rehabilitation, home gardens and improved agricultural practices; while long-term interventions should include improvement in the economic and environmental conditions. (author's modified). PMID:12178516

Serdula, M

1988-12-01

91

The impact of Christianity on sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this article is to describe the impact of Christianity on sub-Saharan Africa. I shall start by first examining the key words in the title of this article, and by briefly discussing the phenomenal growth of Christianity in sub-Saharan Africa. The article further describes the impact of Chr [...] istianity on sub-Saharan Africa in terms of education, socio-politics, and health; here I shall base my remarks on the history of Christian missions in the region since the late nineteen century. As far as education is concerned, this article recognises that education that focuses on holistic human development is a positive force, and a force that was introduced by Christianity. I shall also point out that Christianity initiated medical advances that improved the health of those who live in the region. Regeneration as espoused by Christianity constitutes something of great value. On the downside, Christianity led to the demise of the African customs, which it viewed as pagan and evil; the religion also led to the implementation of apartheid (to which it gave its theological support), and undermined the leadership role of women. Finally, Christianity has bedevilled race relations in Africa generally.

Matsobane J, Manala.

2013-02-01

92

Absence of Putative Artemisinin Resistance Mutations Among Plasmodium falciparum in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Molecular Epidemiologic Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasmodium falciparum parasites that are resistant to artemisinins have been detected in Southeast Asia. Resistance is associated with several polymorphisms in the parasite's K13-propeller gene. The molecular epidemiology of these artemisinin resistance genotypes in African parasite populations is unknown. We developed an assay to quantify rare polymorphisms in parasite populations that uses a pooled deep-sequencing approach to score allele frequencies, validated it by evaluating mixtures of laboratory parasite strains, and then used it to screen P. falciparum parasites from >1100 African infections collected since 2002 from 14 sites across sub-Saharan Africa. We found no mutations in African parasite populations that are associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asian parasites. However, we observed 15 coding mutations, including 12 novel mutations, and limited allele sharing between parasite populations, consistent with a large reservoir of naturally occurring K13-propeller variation. Although polymorphisms associated with artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum in Southeast Asia are not prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, numerous K13-propeller coding polymorphisms circulate in Africa. Although their distributions do not support a widespread selective sweep for an artemisinin-resistant phenotype, the impact of these mutations on artemisinin susceptibility is unknown and will require further characterization. Rapid, scalable molecular surveillance offers a useful adjunct in tracking and containing artemisinin resistance. PMID:25180240

Taylor, Steve M; Parobek, Christian M; DeConti, Derrick K; Kayentao, Kassoum; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Greenwood, Brian M; Tagbor, Harry; Williams, John; Bojang, Kalifa; Njie, Fanta; Desai, Meghna; Kariuki, Simon; Gutman, Julie; Mathanga, Don P; Mårtensson, Andreas; Ngasala, Billy; Conrad, Melissa D; Rosenthal, Philip J; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Moormann, Ann M; Vulule, John M; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Meshnick, Steven R; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Juliano, Jonathan J

2014-09-01

93

Cryptosporidiosis in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Lingering Challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hospital- and community-based studies in sub-Saharan Africa document a high prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in children aged 6–36 months, particularly among those who are malnourished or positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and during rainy seasons. This is despite advances in developed countries that have curbed the incidence of cryptosporidiosis in the general and HIV-positive populations. Transmission in sub-Saharan Africa appears to occur predominantly through an an...

Mor, Siobhan M.; Tzipori, Saul

2008-01-01

94

Foreign Reserve Adequacy in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper looks at the question of adequacy of reserves in sub-Saharan African countries in light of the shocks faced by these countries. Literature on optimal reserves so far has not paid attention to the particular shocks facing low-income countries. We use a two-good endowment economy model facing terms of trade and aid shocks to derive the optimal level of reserves by comparing the cost of holding reserves with their benefits as an insurance against a shock. We find that t...

Drummond, Paulo; Dhasmana, Anubha

2008-01-01

95

The environmental challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are doing some rethinking, after decades of development that have resulted in continued poverty, international indebtedness, environmental degradation, and inappropriate Western models. Technological innovations, institutional developments, and family planning are key inputs. Development should shift to a focus on elimination of widespread poverty. Past development strategies in an African context of ample resources have harmed the environment without improving the average person's standard of living. Knowledge about Africa's environment and environmental degradation is inadequate. Recent studies have found, contrary to popular belief, that small shareholders made considerable investments in resource-based capital, which protected their farms from major environmental deterioration and negative impacts of intensification. In Nigeria field studies found that rising demand for fuelwood did not lead to greater deforestation or desertification. Severe degradation has occurred in places where density of population is greater than 500 persons per sq. km, where the land is physically or biologically vulnerable, and where socioeconomic conditions interfere with application of conservation measures. Reduced well-being and reduced food capacity is attributed to land tenure arrangements, misguided macroeconomic policies, and inadequate infrastructure. The issues of development, environment, and population are complex. Sustainable development is possible with appropriate investment priorities that will provide needed infrastructure, services, and education. Urban areas need safe water, solid waste disposal, and spatial planning to relieve congested spaces. Rural areas should focus on health education and basic sanitation. Regulatory measures and conservation measures are also important. Institutional development that promotes democracy, expands individual property rights, and increases the knowledge base offers the most hope for alleviating poverty and protecting the environment. PMID:12290969

Mabogunje, A L

1995-05-01

96

Mental and substance use disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa: predictions of epidemiological changes and mental health workforce requirements for the next 40 years.  

Science.gov (United States)

The world is undergoing a rapid health transition, with an ageing population and disease burden increasingly defined by disability. In Sub-Saharan Africa the next 40 years are predicted to see reduced mortality, signalling a surge in the impact of chronic diseases. We modelled these epidemiological changes and associated mental health workforce requirements. Years lived with a disability (YLD) predictions for mental and substance use disorders for each decade from 2010 to 2050 for four Sub-Saharan African regions were calculated using Global Burden of Disease 2010 study (GBD 2010) data and UN population forecasts. Predicted mental health workforce requirements for 2010 and 2050, by region and for selected countries, were modelled using GBD 2010 prevalence estimates and recommended packages of care and staffing ratios for low- and middle-income countries, and compared to current staffing from the WHO Mental Health Atlas. Significant population growth and ageing will result in an estimated 130% increase in the burden of mental and substance use disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2050, to 45 million YLDs. As a result, the required mental health workforce will increase by 216,600 full time equivalent staff from 2010 to 2050, and far more compared to the existing workforce. The growth in mental and substance use disorders by 2050 is likely to significantly affect health and productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. To reduce this burden, packages of care for key mental disorders should be provided through increasing the mental health workforce towards targets outlined in this paper. This requires a shift from current practice in most African countries, involving substantial investment in the training of primary care practitioners, supported by district based mental health specialist teams using a task sharing model that mobilises local community resources, with the expansion of inpatient psychiatric units based in district and regional general hospitals. PMID:25310010

Charlson, Fiona J; Diminic, Sandra; Lund, Crick; Degenhardt, Louisa; Whiteford, Harvey A

2014-01-01

97

Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa: A practical-theological response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On the 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International, 89.6%of Sub-Saharan African countries received scores below 50, where a score of zero signifies that the country is highly corrupt and a score of 100 declares a country free of corruption. From these results, it seems as if Sub-Saharan African countries are quite vulnerable to corruption. In this article, the question whether certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture such as communalism, gift giving and a shame culture could in some situations influence people’s perception of, and their possible openness towards, certain forms of corruption was investigated. The research showed that cultural traits do influence people’s behaviour and that there are certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture that might sanction corruption. In response to these findings, some preliminary suggestions were proposed as to how Christians living in Africa could evaluate their cultural practices in the light of God’s Word and from a reformed theological paradigm. Instead of succumbing to the pressure posed by their culture to participate in immoral or corrupt activities, they could contribute to a moral regeneration on the African continent.

Petria M. Theron

2013-11-01

98

Military HIV policy assessment in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

While HIV/AIDS continues to inflict a heavy toll on African militaries, the military commitment and leadership response has been inconsistent, as reflected by variable presence of a written HIV policy. The Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program collaborates with most sub-Saharan military HIV/AIDS programs. In 2010, 28 invited countries (80%) completed a self-administered survey describing their program, including policy. Descriptive and nonparametric measures were calculated. The majority (57%) of respondents reported having a written military HIV policy. Of these, 86% included HIV testing, 88% required recruit testing, and 96% denied entry for those testing HIV-positive. Mandatory HIV testing was reported by 71%, occurring before deployments, peacekeeping missions, foreign training, and when clinically indicated. Southern African militaries were most likely to require HIV testing. The majority of militaries allowed deployment of HIV-positive personnel in-country, whereas few allowed foreign deployment. Most sub-Saharan militaries screen applicants for HIV and other diseases to determine duty fitness, resulting in near universal HIV negative recruit cohorts. No militaries discharge personnel from service if they acquire HIV. Legal challenges to military HIV policies may hinder finalization and dissemination of policies. Lack of HIV policies impedes routine testing and earlier care and treatment for HIV-infected personnel. PMID:25003863

Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Grillo, Michael P; Djibo, Djeneba Audrey; Hale, Braden; Shaffer, Richard A

2014-07-01

99

Characterization of hepatitis delta virus in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a satellite of hepatitis B virus (HBV), and infection with this virus aggravates acute and chronic liver disease. While HBV seroprevalence is very high across sub-Saharan Africa, much less is known about HDV in the region. In this study, almost 2,300 blood serum samples from Burkina Faso (n=1,131), Nigeria (n=974), Chad (n=50), and the Central African Republic (n = 118) were screened for HBV and HDV. Among 743 HBsAg-positive serum samples, 74 were positive for HDV antibodies and/or HDV RNA, with considerable differences in prevalence, ranging from HBsAg prevalences, excluding vertical transmission as an important route of infection. The genotyping of 16 full-length and 8 partial HDV strains revealed clade 1 (17/24) in three of the four countries, while clades 5 (5/24) and 6 (2/24) were, at least in this study, confined to Central Nigeria. On the amino acid level, almost all our clade 1 strains exhibited a serine at position 202 in the hepatitis D antigen, supporting the hypothesis of an ancient African HDV-1 subgroup. Further studies are required to understand the public health significance of the highly varied HDV prevalences in different cohorts and countries in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24599979

Andernach, Iris E; Leiss, Lukas V; Tarnagda, Zekiba S; Tahita, Marc C; Otegbayo, Jesse A; Forbi, Joseph C; Omilabu, Sunday; Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela; Komas, Narcisse P; Mbah, Okwen P; Muller, Claude P

2014-05-01

100

Family Structure and Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-National Effects of Polygyny  

Science.gov (United States)

This study applies multilevel logistic regression to Demographic and Health Survey data from 22 sub-Saharan African countries to examine whether the relationship between child mortality and family structure, with a specific emphasis on polygyny, varies cross-nationally and over time. Hypotheses were developed on the basis of competing theories on…

Omariba, D. Walter Rasugu; Boyle, Michael H.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Directory of Early Childhood Care and Education Organizations in Sub-Saharan Africa. First Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This directory describes 241 non-governmental and governmental organizations, based in 40 sub-Saharan African countries, involved in early childhood care, development, and education. A useful information source for those working with and for children, the directory encourages and facilitates communication and information-sharing between…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

102

Low sodium and high potassium intake for cardiovascular prevention: evidence revisited with emphasis on challenges in sub-saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduction in dietary salt intake and increase in potassium intake can make a major contribution to the prevention and control of hypertension and consequential cardiovascular disease, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where prevalence rates are highest. African populations are going through a westernization of their traditional eating patterns, with a shift towards a US/Western-style diet, which contains an excessive amount of salt. Currently, the mean sodium intake in SSA populations is far above the recommended daily allowance. Besides, potassium intake is low, and, particularly, the supply of fruits and vegetables that are important sources of potassium is insufficient to meet current and growing population needs in SSA countries. Context-relevant strategies are needed for population-wide sodium intake reduction and increase in potassium intake. PMID:25382734

Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Bigna, Jean Joel R; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N

2015-01-01

103

Male circumcision and HIV infection in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To explore the role of male circumcision in the spread of HIV infection in four urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional population based study was conducted in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa with different levels of HIV infection. HIV prevalence among adults was relatively low in Cotonou (Benin) and in Yaoundé (Cameroon), and exceeded 25% in Kisumu (Kenya) and in Ndola (Zambia). In each city, a random sample was taken of men and women age...

Auvert, B.; Buve?, A.; Lagarde, E.; Kahindo, M.; Chege, J.; Rutenberg, N.; Musonda, R.; Laourou, M.; Akam, E.; Weiss, H. A.

2001-01-01

104

Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of pharmacogenetic variability in diverse populations is scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we characterised population frequencies of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African population groups. We genotyped 211 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs in 12 genes that influence antiretroviral drug disposition, in 176 South African individuals belonging to two distinct population groups residing in the Western Cape: the Xhosa (n = 109 and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA (n = 67 groups. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs of eight tagSNPs in six genes (those encoding the ATP binding cassette sub-family B, member 1 [ABCB1], four members of the cytochrome P450 family [CYP2A7P1, CYP2C18, CYP3A4, CYP3A5] and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 [UGT1A1] were significantly different between the Xhosa and CMA populations (Bonferroni p CYP2C18, CYP3A4, the gene encoding solute carrier family 22 member 6 [SLC22A6] and UGT1A1 between the two South African populations. Characterising the Xhosa and CMA population frequencies of variant alleles important for drug transport and metabolism can help to establish the clinical relevance of pharmacogenetic testing in these populations.

Ikediobi Ogechi

2011-05-01

105

Inequities in the Global Health Workforce: The Greatest Impediment to Health in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health systems played a key role in the dramatic rise in global life expectancy that occurred during the 20th century, and have continued to contribute enormously to the improvement of the health of most of the world’s population. The health workforce is the backbone of each health system, the lubricant that facilitates the smooth implementation of health action for sustainable socio-economic development. It has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that the density of the health workforce is directly correlated with positive health outcomes. In other words, health workers save lives and improve health. About 59 million people make up the health workforce of paid full-time health workers world-wide. However, enormous gaps remain between the potential of health systems and their actual performance, and there are far too many inequities in the distribution of health workers between countries and within countries. The Americas (mainly USA and Canada are home to 14% of the world’s population, bear only 10% of the world’s disease burden, have 37% of the global health workforce and spend about 50% of the world’s financial resources for health. Conversely, sub-Saharan Africa, with about 11% of the world’s population bears over 24% of the global disease burden, is home to only 3% of the global health workforce, and spends less than 1% of the world’s financial resources on health. In most developing countries, the health workforce is concentrated in the major towns and cities, while rural areas can only boast of about 23% and 38% of the country’s doctors and nurses respectively. The imbalances exist not only in the total numbers and geographical distribution of health workers, but also in the skills mix of available health workers. WHO estimates that 57 countries world wide have a critical shortage of health workers, equivalent to a global deficit of about 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Thirty six of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa. They would need to increase their health workforce by about 140% to achieve enough coverage for essential health interventions to make a positive difference in the health and life expectancy of their populations. The extent causes and consequences of the health workforce crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the various factors that influence and are related to it are well known and described. Although there is no “magic bullet” solution to the problem, there are several documented, tested and tried best practices from various countries. The global health workforce crisis can be tackled if there is global responsibility, political will, financial commitment and public-private partnership for country-led and country-specific interventions that seek solutions beyond the health sector. Only when enough health workers can be trained, sustained and retained in sub-Saharan African countries will there be meaningful socio-economic development and the faintest hope of attaining the Millennium Development Goals in the sub-continent.

Chipayeni Mtonga

2007-06-01

106

A brief history of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developments in medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past 100 years have been characterized by the continent's unique history. During the first half of the 20th century, the Europeans effectively installed medical education in their African colonies. The years 1950 to 1960 were distinguished by successful movements for independence, with new governments giving priority to medical education. By 1980, there were 51 medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. The period from 1975 to 1990 was problematic both politically and economically for Sub-Saharan Africa, and medical schools did not escape the general difficulties. War, corruption, mounting national debts, and political instability were characteristics of this period. In many countries, maintaining medical school assets--faculty members, buildings, laboratories, libraries--became difficult, and emigration became the goal of many health professionals. In contrast, the past 20 years have seen rapid growth in the number of medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. Economic growth and political stability in most Sub-Saharan African countries augur well for investment in health systems strengthening and in medical education. There are, nonetheless, major problem areas, including inadequate funding, challenges of sustainability, and the continuing brain drain. The 20th century was a time of colonialism and the struggle for independence during which medical education did not advance as quickly or broadly as it did in other regions of the world. The 21st century promises a different history, one of rapid growth in medical education, leading to better care and better health for the people of Africa. PMID:25072563

Monekosso, G L

2014-08-01

107

Understanding enrolment in community health insurance in sub-Saharan Africa: a population-based case-control study in rural Burkina Faso.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with decision to enrol in a community health insurance (CHI) scheme. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study among 15 communities offered insurance in 2004 in rural Burkina Faso. For inclusion in the study, we selected all 154 enrolled (cases) and a random sample of 393 non-enrolled (controls) households. We used unconditional logistic regression (applying Huber-White correction to account for clustering at the community level) to ...

Allegri, Manuela; Kouyate?, Bocar; Becher, Heiko; Gbangou, Adjima; Pokhrel, Subhash; Sanon, Mamadou; Sauerborn, Rainer

2006-01-01

108

Sub-Saharan hydroelectric power development potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Though evidencing a power demand which is amongst the lowest in the world, the sub-Saharan regions of Africa are blessed with an enormous hydroelectric power resource potential, which, if suitably developed and tapped, may become a source of economic electric energy for Europe. With the aid of numerous statistical supply and demand data, this paper surveys the marketing potential of this energy source in Africa. The analysis of future development prospects is carried out with reference to the local socio-economic framework

109

Democratic consolidation in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contributions made by theory on democratic consolidation in Eastern Europe are also pertinent to analysis of processes of democratization and democratic consolidation in other areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The parameters of analysis highlight the importance of a strong state (organized, with legitimated institutions and a structured society (whether multiethnic or not as necessary conditions for democratization. On the assumption that the colonizing powers basically used two models –the French assimilationist model and the British indirect government model– the study of how these conditions were fulfilled in various sub-Saharan states leads to two conclusions: the first, the possibility of a process of democratization in those states where European (French colonization produced a total assimilation of the colonized society, including above all the colonizer’s political values; and the second, the possibility of processes of democratization in states produced by British colonization where the indigenous structures and those of the metropolis were superimposed, a phenomenon which allowed the application of democratic values by legitimated local institutions.

Ángel Pérez González

2001-12-01

110

The case for investing in secondary education in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): challenges and opportunities  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the next two decades, sub-Saharan Africa will face substantial pressure to expand its secondary education system. This is driven by the current low development of secondary education compared to other world regions, continued rapid population growth, the increase in the enrolment and completion rates at the primary education level, and the upsurge in the demand for skills. This paper suggests that in order to help countries respond to these pressures, external partners should now increase their support for secondary education, in terms of academic as well as technical and vocational skills training. Given the attributes of the African economies and the continuing need for foundation skills, this paper argues that in the current situation, particularly the lower secondary level will have to be strengthened, in many cases through a longer basic education cycle for all. The necessary rapid expansion of secondary education will require substantial investments, and this paper discusses how aid allocation can be made more evidence-based and used in a more strategic way to make these investments more effective and sustainable. While aid will continue to have a role to play over the next decade especially in fragile states, in the long run it is African countries' capacity to achieve sustained economic growth which will be the single most important factor determining their ability to meet the financing needs.

Fredriksen, Birger; Fossberg, Camilla Helgø

2014-04-01

111

Women's growing desire to limit births in sub-Saharan Africa: meeting the challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Contrary to conventional wisdom, many sub-Saharan African women—often at young ages—have an unmet need for family planning to limit future births, and many current limiters do not use the most effective contraceptive methods. Family planning programs must improve access to a wide range of modern contraceptive methods and address attitudinal and knowledge barriers if they are to meet women's needs.

Lith, Lynn M.; Yahner, Melanie; Bakamjian, Lynn

2013-01-01

112

Social Protection and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Evaluation of Cash Transfer Programmes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper evaluates the effects of cash transfer (CT) programmes introduced during the 1990s and 2000s on food security in a sample of sub-Saharan African countries. We apply the synthetic control method to compare changes in the post-intervention food insecurity trajectories of economies affected by CT programmes relative to their unaffected counterparts. The results suggest that CT programmes exert differential effects on the prevalence of undernourishment. Although the estimates in the up...

D Agostino, Giorgio; Pieroni, Luca; Scarlato, Margherita

2013-01-01

113

Food Security, agricultural technology and policy – the case of maize in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses food security and the African food crisis. By means of data from a survey of over 3000 farm households in eight sub-Saharan countries, the authors conclude that food security requires a broad integration of smallholders in the market. Subsistence orientation does not promote food security, while seed fertilizer technology does. Market integration of maize producers seems to be driven by the State, not by the market on its own. The diffusion of technology is stimulated by ...

Djurfeldt, Go?ran; Larsson, Rolf

2005-01-01

114

Globalization, governance, and the economic performance of Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I estimate and compare the effects of globalization, governance, and conventional factors and forces on the economic performance of Sub-Saharan African countries. The analysis finds that both physical and human capita as well as unexplained technical residuals affect economic performance, although human capital and technical change do not always have statistically significant impacts. The policy implication of these results calls for improvement of all three variables. Economic ...

Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

2009-01-01

115

The nexus between FDI and Total Factor Productivity Growth in Sub Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we construct an alternative analytical framework aimed at investigating the nexus between FDI inflow and productivity growth within the externalities type endogenous growth theory. The competitive equilibrium of our model indicates that a technological spillover from FDI has positive effect on the total factor productivity of the host economy. To empirically test the model, we employed panel data for 22 Sub-Saharan African countries covering the period 1970-2000. We estimated th...

Senbeta, Sisay

2008-01-01

116

The Impact of Trade Liberalisation on Export Growth and Import Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper adopts panel data methodologies to investigate the impact of trade liberalisation on export growth and import growth across 28 Sub-Saharan African countries from 1981 to 2010. We find that trade liberalisation increases the growth of exports, however, imports grow faster by approximately two percentage points which gives a prima facie evidence that the trade balance in the region deteriorated in the post-liberalisation era. We also find that trade liberalisation significantly raise...

Kassim, Lanre

2013-01-01

117

Does household income matter for children's schooling? Evidence for rural Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Household income has been shown to matter for children's school enrolment, in particular in settings where households face tight liquidity constraints caused by the lack of insurance and limited possibilities to smooth consumption through credit and savings. However, so far only few studies have made an effort to quantify the income elasticity of school enrolment, in particular in the Sub-Saharan African context. The empirical problem in identifying the causal impact of income on enrolment is...

Grimm, M.

2011-01-01

118

Contemporary trends in the epidemiology and management of cardiomyopathy and pericarditis in sub?Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heart failure in sub?Saharan Africans is mainly due to non?ischaemic causes, such as hypertension, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and pericarditis. The two endemic diseases that are major contributors to the clinical syndrome of heart failure in Africa are cardiomyopathy and pericarditis. The major forms of endemic cardiomyopathy are idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, peripartum cardiomyopathy and endomyocardial fibrosis. Endomyocardial fibrosis, which affects children, has the w...

Mayosi, Bongani M.

2007-01-01

119

The external debt-servicing constraint and public-expenditure composition in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the light of the current global financial and economic crises, how would governments in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) allocate their budgets across sectors in response to a binding debt-servicing constraint? Within a framework of public-expenditure choice, the present paper estimates constraint-consistent debt-service ratios and employs them in Seemingly Unrelated Regression involving five-year panel for up to 35 African countries over 1975-94, a period preceding the Highly Indebted Poor Coun...

Fosu, Augustin

2010-01-01

120

Children as research collaborators : issues and reflections from a mobility study in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reflects on issues raised by work with children in an ongoing child mobility study in three sub-Saharan African countries: Ghana, Malawi and South Africa. There are now 70 school pupils of varying ages involved in the project, but the paper is particularly concerned with the participation of those children 14 years and under. We examine the significant ethical issues associated with working with younger child researchers, and linked questions concerning the spaces open to them in A...

Porter, G.; Hampshire, K.; Bourdillon, M.; Robson, E.; Munthali, A.; Abane, A.; Mashiri, M.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Acute Myocardial Infarction in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Need for Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Trends in the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa have not been well described, despite growing recognition of the increasing burden of cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health Archive, CINAHL, and Web of Science, and conducted reference and citation analyses. Inclusion criteria were: observational studies, studies that reported incidence or prevalence of acute myocardial infarction, studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, and studies that defined acute myocardial infarction by EKG changes or elevation of cardiac biomarkers. Studies conducted prior to 1992 were excluded. Two independent reviewers analyzed titles and abstracts, full-texts, and references and citations. These reviewers also performed quality assessment and data extraction. Quality assessment was conducted with a validated scale for observational studies. Findings Of 2292 records retrieved, seven studies met all inclusion criteria. These studies included a total of 92,378 participants from highly heterogeneous study populations in five different countries. Methodological quality assessment demonstrated scores ranging from 3 to 7 points (on an 8-point scale). Prevalence of acute myocardial infarction ranged from 0.1 to 10.4% among the included studies. Interpretation There is insufficient population-based data describing the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa. Well-designed registries and surveillance studies that capture the broad and diverse population with acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa using common diagnostic criteria are critical in order to guide prevention and treatment strategies. Registration Registered in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) Database #CRD42012003161. PMID:24816222

Rodrigues, Clarissa G.; de Andrade, Luciano; Limkakeng, Alexander T.; Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Lynch, Catherine A.

2014-01-01

122

The Practice of Conservation of Library Materials in Sub-Saharan Africa. Monograph on Africana Librarianship No. 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is concerned with the practice of conservation of library materials in African university libraries south of the Sahara and north of the Limpopo. Data were collected using a questionnaire mailed to 42 university libraries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Responses were received from 27 libraries for a 64% response rate. Data analysis was…

Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

123

A Multilevel Approach to Explain Child Mortality and Undernutrition in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While undernutrition among children is very pervasive both in Sub- Saharan Africa and South Asia, child mortality is rather low in South Asia. In contrast to that Sub-Saharan African countries su er by far the worst from high rates of child mortality. This di erent pattern of child mortality and undernutrition in both regions is well known, but approaches using aggregated macro data have not been able to explain it appropriately. In this paper we analyze the determinants of child mortality as...

Misselhorn, Mark; Harttgen, Kenneth

2006-01-01

124

W135 invasive meningococcal infections imported from Sub-Saharan Africa to France, January to April 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

From January to April 2012, 16 cases of W135 invasive meningococcal infection were reported in France. Of these, eight were linked to a recent travel history to Sub-Saharan Africa. These cases were reported in France concomitantly with the meningitis epidemic season in Sub-Saharan Africa. Considering the high number of travellers between France and West-African countries belonging to the so-called meningitis belt, the French recommendations for travellers stress the importance of vaccination before travelling to these countries. PMID:22687826

Parent du Chatelet, I; Barboza, P; Taha, M K

2012-05-24

125

Financing renewable energy in developing countries. Drivers and barriers for private finance in sub-Saharan Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focus of this report is to identify and portray current barriers to the scaling up of private investment and finance for electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the sub-Saharan region. Best practice in tackling these barriers is identified, partly from a literature review but especially from the results of a survey conducted among 36 financial institutions that are UNEP Finance Initiative members and two non-member banks (all survey respondents have experience in the field of energy infrastructure finance). Promising avenues in the areas of local policy reform, incentive mechanisms and international de-risking instruments are highlighted. In particular, this report addresses the following questions: (a) Why are sub-Saharan Africa and developing countries elsewhere failing to expand electricity generation from renewable sources? What are the barriers to such expansion? What is keeping the risk-return profile of renewable energy investments in sub-Saharan Africa unattractive and projects commercially unviable?; (b) What have been the experiences of private sector lenders and investors in the area of renewable energy projects in developing countries? What barriers and drivers have they encountered, and how can these experiences be of use in sub-Saharan Africa?; (c) What can be learned from the modest but encouraging successes of a few sub-Saharan African countries? Can these results be replicated? What was done in these countries to improve the risk-return profile of renewable energy and unlock private finance?.

NONE

2012-02-15

126

Cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide internationally comparable data on the frequencies of different causes of death. METHODS: We analysed verbal autopsies obtained during 1999 -2002 from 12 demographic surveillance sites in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh to find cause-specific and age-specific mortality rates. The cause-of-death codes used by the sites were harmonized to conform to the ICD-10 system, and summarized with the classification system of the Global Burden of Disease 2000 (Version 2. FINDINGS: Causes of death in the African sites differ strongly from those in Bangladesh, where there is some evidence of a health transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, and little malaria. HIV dominates in causes of mortality in the South African sites, which contrast with those in highly malaria endemic sites elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa (even in neighbouring Mozambique. The contributions of measles and diarrhoeal diseases to mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are lower than has been previously suggested, while malaria is of relatively greater importance. CONCLUSION: The different patterns of mortality we identified may be a result of recent changes in the availability and effectiveness of health interventions against childhood cluster diseases.

Adjuik Martin

2006-01-01

127

Sexual violence legislation in sub-Saharan Africa: the need for strengthened medico-legal linkages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six sub-Saharan African countries currently have laws on sexual violence, including Kenya, and eight others have provisions on sexual violence in other legislation. Effective legislation requires functioning medico-legal linkages to enable both justice to be done in cases of sexual violence and the provision of health services for survivors of sexual violence. The health sector also needs to provide post-rape care services and collect and deliver evidence to the criminal justice system. This paper reviews existing data on sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and summarises the content of sexual violence legislation in the region and the strengths and weaknesses of existing medico-legal linkages, using Kenya as a case study. Many sub-Saharan African countries do not yet have comprehensive post-rape care services, nor substantial co-ordination between HIV and sexual and reproductive health services, the legal and judicial systems, and sexual violence legislation. These need to be integrated by cross-referrals, using standardised referral guidelines and pathways, treatment protocols, and medico-legal procedures. Common training approaches and harmonised information across sectors, and common indicators, would facilitate government accountability. Joint and collaborative planning and working at country level, through sharing of information and data between the different systems remain key to achieving this. PMID:19962633

Kilonzo, Nduku; Ndung'u, Njoki; Nthamburi, Nerida; Ajema, Caroline; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Theobald, Sally; Tolhurst, Rachel

2009-11-01

128

The Impacts of Technology Adoption on Smallholder Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a review article on the impacts of technology adoption on agricultural productivity in smallholder agriculture in the sub-Saharan African region. The use of agricultural technologies determines how the increase in agricultural output impacts on poverty levels and environmental degradation. Experience and evidence from countries within and around the sub-Saharan African region indicate that returns to agricultural technology development could be very high and far reaching. The factors affecting technology adoption are assets, income, institutions, vulnerability, awareness, labour, and innovativeness by smallholder farmers. Technologies that require few assets, have a lower risk premium, and are less expensive have a higher chance of being adopted by smallholder farmers. There are certain traditional smallholder agricultural technologies in sub-Saharan Africa that also have their own merits. Some of these technologies are more efficient in their use of scarce production resources than modern technologies. Modern researchers should therefore seek to understand the rationale behind traditional smallholder farmer behaviour in technology use. This will make their future technological interventions in smallholder agriculture more effective.

Washington Muzari

2012-07-01

129

The European Union and sub-Saharan Africa : from intervention towards deterrence?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article argues that aspirations of maintaining a dominant influence over sub-Saharan security issues has spurred the French and British leadership of European Union (EU) foreign and security policy integration, just as it has informed military capability expansions by the armed forces of the main EU powers. While Europe's initial African focus was on stabilising a continent marred by state failure, civil wars and genocides, changes in the global security context, especially the shift towards multipolarity manifest in China's growing engagement, has prompted a complementary focus on deterring other powers from making military inroads into the subcontinent. Hence Europe's sub-Saharan security focus is shifting from stabilisation towards deterrence. This helps explain recent military procurements which, in spite of the extremely challenging fiscal position of most EU member states, feature large-scale investments in long-range deterrence capabilities.

Kluth, Michael Friederich

2013-01-01

130

Does the orphan disadvantage "spill over"? An analysis of whether living in an area with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with children's school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND Despite considerable concern regarding the social consequences of sub-Saharan Africa's high orphan prevalence, there has been no research investigating how living in a community densely populated with orphans is more broadly associated with children's - including nonorphans' - acquisition of human capital. OBJECTIVE We provide a new look at the implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa by examining whether living in an area with a high concentration of orphans is associated with children's likelihood of school enrollment. METHODS We use data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS and the Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS among 383,010 children in 336 provinces in 34 sub-Saharan African countries to estimate multilevel logistic regression models to assess whether living in a setting with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with school enrollment. RESULTS Orphan concentration has a curvilinear association with children's school enrollment in western and eastern Africa: The initially positive association becomes negative at higher levels. In central and southern Africa, orphan concentration has a positive linear association with children's school enrollment. CONCLUSIONS In western and eastern Africa, the negative association between living in a setting more densely populated with orphans and children's school enrollment provides suggestive evidence that the orphan disadvantage "spills over" in those communities most heavily affected. Conversely, in central and southern Africa, the positive association between living in a setting more densely populated with orphans and children's school enrollment highlights the resiliency of these relatively wealthier communities with high levels of orphans. Although longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings and clarify the underlying mechanisms, this study lays the groundwork for a new body of research aimed at understanding the broader social implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa.

Emily Smith Greenaway

2013-06-01

131

Biomedical research, a tool to address the health issues that affect African populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, biomedical research endeavors in low to middle resources countries have focused on communicable diseases. However, data collected over the past 20 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) show a significant increase in the number of people suffering from non-communicable diseases (e.g. heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases). Within the coming years, WHO predicts significant decreases in communicable diseases while non-communicable diseases are expected to double in low and middle income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The predicted increase in the non-communicable diseases population could be economically burdensome for the basic healthcare infrastructure of countries that lack resources to address this emerging disease burden. Biomedical research could stimulate development of healthcare and biomedical infrastructure. If this development is sustainable, it provides an opportunity to alleviate the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases through diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In this paper, we discuss how research using biomedical technology, especially genomics, has produced data that enhances the understanding and treatment of both communicable and non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We further discuss how scientific development can provide opportunities to pursue research areas responsive to the African populations. We limit our discussion to biomedical research in the areas of genomics due to its substantial impact on the scientific community in recent years however, we also recognize that targeted investments in other scientific disciplines could also foster further development in African countries. PMID:24143865

Peprah, Emmanuel; Wonkam, Ambroise

2013-01-01

132

The Altruistic Motive of Remittances: A Panel Data Analysis of Economies in Sub Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remittances have become an important source of foreign exchange earnings in many countries as migrants continue to send income to relatives at home. However, the main motives for sending remittances remain controversial. This paper examines the relative importance of the socio-political and economic determinants of remittance inflow using an unbalance panel data of 36 economies in the Sub Saharan African Region in an attempt to assess the altruistic motive of remittance inflow. The results using a random effect estimation technique show that altruism is important for remitting, as the per capita income differential between host and home country and the age dependency ratio are positive and statistically significant. The level of per capita income of the home country is also found to be negative and statistically significant which also supports the altruistic motive of remittances. The results further suggest that the development of the financial sector and the proportion of Catholics in the population will encourage remittance inflow. These results are robust to the different specifications and estimation methodology.

Dobdinga Cletus Fonchamnyo

2012-09-01

133

Modelling HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa using seroprevalence data from antenatal clinics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To improve the methodological basis for modelling the HIV/AIDS epidemics in adults in sub-Saharan Africa, with examples from Botswana, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe. Understanding the magnitude and trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is essential for planning and evaluating control strategies. METHODS: Previous mathematical models were developed to estimate epidemic trends based on sentinel surveillance data from pregnant women. In this project, we have extended these models in order to take full advantage of the available data. We developed a maximum likelihood approach for the estimation of model parameters and used numerical simulation methods to compute uncertainty intervals around the estimates. FINDINGS: In the four countries analysed, there were an estimated half a million new adult HIV infections in 1999 (range: 260 to 960 thousand, 4.7 million prevalent infections (range: 3.0 to 6.6 million, and 370 thousand adult deaths from AIDS (range: 266 to 492 thousand. CONCLUSION: While this project addresses some of the limitations of previous modelling efforts, an important research agenda remains, including the need to clarify the relationship between sentinel data from pregnant women and the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in the general population.

Salomon Joshua A.

2001-01-01

134

Urbanization in sub-saharan Africa and implication for malaria control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria not only remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, but it also impedes socioeconomic development, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Rapid and unprecedented urbanization, going hand-in-hand with often declining economies, might have profound implications for the epidemiology and control of malaria, as the relative disease burden increases among urban dwellers. Reviewing the literature and using a modeling approach, we find that entomologic inoculation rates in cities range from 0 to 54 per year, depending on the degree of urbanization, the spatial location within a city, and overall living conditions. Using the latest United Nations figures on urbanization prospects, nighttime light remotely sensed images, and the "Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa" results on climate suitability for stable malaria transmission, we estimate that 200 million people (24.6% of the total African population) currently live in urban settings where they are at risk of contracting the disease. Importantly, the estimated total surface area covered by these urban settings is only approximately 1.1-1.6% of the total African surface. Considering different plausible scenarios, we estimate an annual incidence of 24.8-103.2 million cases of clinical malaria attacks among urban dwellers in Africa. These figures translate to 6-28% of the estimated global annual disease incidence. Against this background, basic health care delivery systems providing early diagnosis and early treatment and preventive actions through mother and child health programs and the promotion of insecticide-treated bed nets for the rapidly growing numbers of the urban poor must be improved alongside well-tailored and integrated malaria control strategies. We propose environmental management and larviciding within well-specified productive sites as a main feature for such an integrated control approach. Mitigation of the current burden of malaria in urban African settings, in turn, is a necessity for stimulating environmentally and socially sustainable development. PMID:15331827

Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jurg; Caldas de Castro, Marcia; Smith, Thomas A; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

2004-08-01

135

Trypanosomes of some sub-Saharan birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Linear measurements and derived indices from striated trypanosomes in nine species of sub-Saharan birds representing seven families of the Passeriformes, were compared. The dimensions of the striated trypomastigotes from the Carduelinae, Estrildidae, Nectarinidae, Passeridae, Pycnonotidae, Turdinae and Zosteropidae were similar to each other as well as to those of the striated trypanosomes from the boreal owl (Strigidae). All these trypanosomes were considered to be Trypanosoma avium Danilewsky, 1885. A further 20 avian species were considered to harbour T. avium, thus greatly extending the reported host range of this trypanosome. Non-striated trypanosomes from the estrildid Uraeginthus angolensis closely resembled Trypanosoma bouffardi Leger & Blanchard, 1911 in appearance and dimensions, and were considered to be of this species. Additional host records for T. bouffardi from an additional nine avian species have been reported. The uniquely small and stumpy Trypanosoma everetti Molyneux, 1973 was reported from an additional 18 avian species. A large non-striated trypanosome from the laughing dove, Streptopelia senegalensis, was identified as Trypanosoma hannae Pittaluga, 1905 and this species was re-described. An infection of this parasite was also found in a single Streptopelia capicola and a single Streptopelia semitorquata. Two trypanosomes seen in the francolin, Francolinus natalensis, were identified as Trypanosoma calmettei Mathis & Léger, 1909. PMID:7596580

Bennett, G F; Earlé, R A; Squires-Parsons, D

1994-09-01

136

Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Overcoming the Digital Divide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an increasingly digitalized world economy, there exists a digital gap between Sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world that translates into economic marginalization of the African region. Consequently, the following phases of development are crucial for the region: (1 the phase of massive digitalization during which the digital divide is bridged and (2 the phase of information and knowledge management in which information is systematically converted into knowledge and the latter into innovative-sustainable development. Information for conversion into knowledge is supplied by the first phase. The second phase is therefore existence dependent on the first. Therefore, the attainment of digitalized state is primary-sine qua non. The envisaged digitalized state can be actualized and consolidated with a combination of: (a curriculum in computer education consisting of computer taxonomy, networking and ICTS in general for secondary and tertiary institutions but also aptly adoptable for informal groups and (b establishment of multipurpose telecentres in rural areas and a diffusion of networks in urban centres. Once a steady digitalized state evidenced by uninterrupted connectivity to the internet is attained, the second phase can be realized. Without steady supply of electricity, however, sustainable development and competitive edge may be hard to come by in a world of fierce competition.

Oyedokun Agbeja

2007-01-01

137

Progress report on the first sub-Saharan trial of newer versus older antihypertensive drugs in native black patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The epidemic surge in hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa is not matched by clinical trials of antihypertensive agents in Black patients recruited in this area of the world. We mounted the Newer versus Older Antihypertensive agents in African Hypertensive patients (NOAAH) trial to compare, in native African patients, a single-pill combination of newer drugs, not involving a diuretic, with a combination of older drugs including a diuretic. METHODS: Patients aged 30 to 69 y...

Odili, Augustine N.; Ezeala-adikaibe, Birinus; Anisiuba, Benedict C.; Kamdem, Marius M.; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou B.; Ijoma, Chinwuba K.; Kaptue, Joseph; Boombhi, Hilaire J.; Kolo, Philip M.; Shu, Elvis N.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.; Omotoso, Babatunde A.; Kingue, Samuel; Lemogoum, Daniel

2012-01-01

138

How crude oil consumption impacts on economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigates the causality relationship between crude oil consumption and economic growth in twenty three Sub-Saharan African countries. We applied a multivariate panel Granger causality framework during 1985–2011 and we included crude oil price as the control variable of the model. The results indicate that in the short-run, there is a bi-directional causality relationship between crude oil consumption and economic growth in oil importing region and there is a uni-directional causality relationship from crude oil consumption to GDP in oil exporting region. However, in the long-run there is a bi-directional causality relationship between them in both regions. Therefore, reducing crude oil consumption without employing appropriate policies adversely impacts on economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, in order to reduce crude oil dependency of the region policymakers should pay more attention to the issue of energy efficiency programs. - Highlights: ? We examined Granger causality among oil consumption and GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa. ? Crude oil price is the control variable of the model. ? There is short run bi-directional causality among oil and GDP (oil importing). ? There is short run uni-directional causality from oil to GDP (oil exporting). ? There is a long run bi-directional causality among oil and GDP in both regions

139

Nutrient composition of selected indigenous fruits from sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous fruits constitute an important part of human diets in many sub-Saharan African countries, particularly in rural areas and during droughts. In order to promote and expand the utilisation of these fruits, knowledge on their nutritional composition is essential. This review presents the results of a literature research of the nutritional composition of ten selected indigenous fruits from sub-Saharan Africa. Species were selected based on their current importance as well as their future potential for nutrition, processing and cash income generation. Compositional data were compiled and mean values of components per species were calculated. Most papers were compiled for Adansonia digitata (26) and Dacryodes edulis (16), followed by Tamarindus indica (ten), Balanites aegyptiaca (nine), Sclerocarya birrea (nine), Ziziphus mauritiana (nine), Vitex doniana (seven) and Irvingia gabonensis (five), and least for Uapaca kirkiana (three) and Syzygium guineense (three). Fruits were found to be mainly analysed for macronutrients and minerals. Vitamins, apart from vitamin C, were rarely reported. Substantial compositional differences were found among as well as within the different fruit species. The results of this study emphasise the need to generate more high-quality data on a wider spectrum of components of the selected indigenous fruits in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23633245

Stadlmayr, Barbara; Charrondière, U Ruth; Eisenwagen, Sandra; Jamnadass, Ramni; Kehlenbeck, Katja

2013-08-30

140

Assessing and forecasting groundwater development costs in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Greater use of groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa is a pre-requisite for improved human welfare; however, the costs associated with groundwater development are prohibitively high and poorly defined. This study identifies and disaggregates the costs of groundwater development in 11 Sub-Saharan African [...] countries, while the cost factors that most strongly affect drilling expenditures are traced. Further, the institutional and technical constraints impeding groundwater development are also explored while a time-series analysis forecasts future drilling expenditures. The results indicate that mobilisation and demobilisation costs, together with well development costs, factors that are difficult to change, are most significantly affecting the total costs of drilling. Further, the nature of the hydrogeological formation (which is largely a site characteristic), along with the often-aged machinery (which can be controlled), are also major impediments to lowering the cost of drilling. All countries are forecasted to have a slight to considerable drilling cost decrease for the next decade which offers encouragement for future groundwater development. Greater attention to the individual cost factors and to forecasting analysis could help to design more coherent and consistent groundwater development policies in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Stefanos, Xenarios; Paul, Pavelic.

 
 
 
 
141

[Will climate and demography have a major impact on malaria in sub-Saharan Africa in the next 20 years?].  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this review of the literature is to present factors possibly affecting the spread of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa over the next 20 years. Malaria is a vector-borne disease that depends on environmental and human constraints. The main environmental limitations involve susceptibility of the vector (mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus) and parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) to climate. Malaria is a stable, endemic disease over most of the African continent. Climatic change can only affect a few regions on the fringes of stable zones (e.g. altitude areas or Sahel) where malaria is an unstable, epidemic disease. Higher temperatures could induce a decrease of malaria transmission in regions of the Sahel or an increase in the highlands. The extent of these overall trends will depend on the unpredictable occurrence of major meteorological phenomenon as well as on human activities affecting the environment that could lead to dramatic but limited outbreaks in some locations. The most influential human factors could be runaway demographic growth and urban development. Estimations based on modeling studies indicate that urbanization will lead to a 53.5% drop in exposure to malaria by 2030. However this reduction could be less than expected because of adaptation of Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis, the main vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, to the urban environment as well as increasing vector resistance to insecticides. Another unforeseeable factor that could induce unexpected malaria epidemics is mass migration due to war or famine. Finally immunosuppressive illnesses (e.g. HIV and malnutrition) could alter individual susceptibility to malaria. Social constraints also include human activities that modify land use. In this regard land use (e.g. forest clearance and irrigation) is known to influence the burden of malaria that is itself dependent on local determinants of transmission. Overall the most important social constraint for the population will be access to malarial prevention and implementation action to control this scourge. PMID:19545045

Saugeon, C; Baldet, T; Akogbeto, M; Henry, M C

2009-04-01

142

Sexually transmitted infections in an African migrant population in Portugal: A baseline study  

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Full Text Available Background: For geographical and recent historic reasons, Portugal is a gateway and home for immigration from sub-Saharan countries. Misconceptions related to these populations often lead to consider them as high-frequency clusters for dissemination of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Epidemiological evidence-based data is needed to elucidate these issues and baseline prevalence studies are the starting point for this.Methodology: A prospective study was conducted in 220 African migrants (171 men and 49 women, recently arrived in Portugal, at the time of their first consultation. The presence of STIs was evaluated using a clinical syndromic approach and biological confirmation for gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection, syphilis, Hepatitis B and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection.Results: Global prevalence of the targeted infections were 1.8% for gonorrhoea, 0 % for Chlamydia infection, 4.1% for Syphilis, 5.9% for HBsAg presence and 7.3% for HIV infection. Globally, 16.4% of the studied persons had at least one sexually transmitted infection.Conclusions: We concluded that prevalence rates encountered in this population is similar to that of non-migrant Portuguese populations with a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Therefore migration from sub-Saharan Africa doesn’t seem to constitute a particularly critical isolated factor for public health risk of STIs in the community.

Luis Távora-Tavira, Rosa Teodósio, Jorge Seixas, Emília Prieto, Rita Castro, Filomena Exposto, Jorge Atouguia

2007-12-01

143

The absence of adult mortality data for sub-Saharan Africa: a practical solution.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information on cause of death among adults in sub-Saharan Africa is essentially nonexistent. Published sources provide statistics on both cause-specific and overall rates of mortality, but closer examination reveals that these data consist mostly of extrapolations and outright guesses. In the absence of accurate and comprehensive registries of vital events for the majority of the region's inhabitants, longitudinal studies of defined population-based cohorts represent the only realistic strate...

Kaufman, J. S.; Asuzu, M. C.; Rotimi, C. N.; Johnson, O. O.; Owoaje, E. E.; Cooper, R. S.

1997-01-01

144

Climate Change and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review  

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In recent years it has become clear that climate change is an inevitable process. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the expectation is that climate change will have an especially negative impact, not only a result of projected warming and rainfall deficits, but also because of the vulnerability of the population. The impact upon food security will be of great significance, and may be defined as being composed of three components: availability, access, and utilization. To further investigate the link, a ...

Thompson, Heather E.; Ford, James D.; Lea Berrang-Ford

2010-01-01

145

Hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-sectional surveys in four rural and urban communities  

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Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of adult mortality in low-income countries but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension are scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study aims to assess the prevalence of hypertension and determinants of blood pressure in four SSA populations in rural Nigeria and Kenya, and urban Namibia and Tanzania. Methods and Findings: We performed four cross-sectional household surveys in Kwara St...

Hendriks, M. E.; Wit, F. W.; Roos, M. T. L.; Brewster, L.; Akande, T.; Beer, I. H.; Mfinanga, S. G.; Kahwa, A. M.; Gatongi, P.; Rooy, G.; Janssens, W.; Lammers, J.; Kramer, B.; Bonfrer, I. E. J. None; Gaeb, E.

2012-01-01

146

Importance of Ethnicity, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 Genotype for Efavirenz Pharmacokinetics and Treatment Outcomes: A Parallel-group Prospective Cohort Study in two sub-Saharan Africa Populations.  

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We evaluated the importance of ethnicity and pharmacogenetic variations in determining efavirenz pharmacokinetics, auto-induction and immunological outcomes in two African populations. ART naïve HIV patients from Ethiopia (n?=?285) and Tanzania (n?=?209) were prospectively enrolled in parallel to start efavirenz based HAART. CD4+ cell counts were determined at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Plasma and intracellular efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefvairenz concentrations were determined at we...

Ngaimisi, Eliford; Habtewold, Abiy; Minzi, Omary; Makonnen, Eyasu; Mugusi, Sabina; Amogne, Wondwossen; Yimer, Getnet; Riedel, Klaus-dieter; Janabi, Mohammed; Aderaye, Getachew; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Bertilsson, Leif; Aklillu, Eleni; Burhenne, Juergen

2013-01-01

147

Signatures of the preagricultural peopling processes in sub-Saharan Africa as revealed by the phylogeography of early Y chromosome lineages.  

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The study of Y chromosome variation has helped reconstruct demographic events associated with the spread of languages, agriculture, and pastoralism in sub-Saharan Africa, but little attention has been given to the early history of the continent. In order to overcome this lack of knowledge, we carried out a phylogeographic analysis of haplogroups A and B in a broad data set of sub-Saharan populations. These two lineages are particularly suitable for this objective because they are the two most...

Batini, C.; Ferri, G.; Destro-bisol, G.; Brisighelli, F.; Luiselli, D.; Sa?nchez-diz, P.; Rocha, J.; Simonson, T.; Brehm, A.; Montano, V.; Elwali, Ne; Spedini, G.; D Amato, Me; Myres, N.; Ebbesen, P.

2011-01-01

148

HIV and Tuberculosis Trends in the United States and Select Sub-Saharan Africa Countries  

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Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are two catastrophic diseases affecting millions of people worldwide every year; and are considered to be pandemic by the World Health Organization. This study aims to compare the recent trends in TB and HIV in the United States and Sub-Saharan African Countries. Data (incidence, prevalence and death rates of HIV and TB for the United States, Cameroon, Nigeria, and South Africa were collected from The Joint United Nations Programme for HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, US Census Bureau and World Health Organization (WHO databases and analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS v 9.1. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was performed to compare the variables of interest between the countries and across time. Results showed that percent rates of TB cases, TB deaths, HIV cases and HIV deaths were significantly different (P < 0.001 among these countries from 1993 to 2006. South Africa had the highest rates of HIV and TB; while US had the lowest rates of both diseases. Tuberculosis and HIV rates for Cameroon and Nigeria were significantly higher when compared to the United States, but were significantly lower when compared to South Africa (P < 0.001. There were significant differences (P < 0.001 in the prevalence of TB and HIV between the United States and the Sub-Saharan African countries, as well as differences within the Sub-Saharan African countries from 1993 to 2006. More analysis needs to be carried out in order to determine the prevalence and incidence of HIV and TB among multiple variables like gender, race, sexual orientation and age to get a comprehensive picture of the trends of HIV and TB.

Ousman Mahmud

2011-06-01

149

Estimates of gender differences in firm’s access to credit in Sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on firm level data from 16 Sub-Saharan African countries we show how three different measures of credit constraints lead to three different estimates of gender differences in manufacturing firms’ credit situation. Using a perception based credit constraint measure female owned firms appear relatively more constrained than male owned firms. Using formal financial access data we find no gender effect. Finally, using direct information on credit constraints, male owned small firms appear disadvantaged. Furthermore we show a strong size gradient in the gender gap for the two measures for which we find significant gender differences.

Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

2014-01-01

150

Deadly Cities? A Note on Spatial Inequalities in Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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In this paper we analyze if an `urban mortality penalty\\' exists for today\\'s developing countries, repeating the history of industrialized nations during the 19th century. We analyze the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of 19 Sub-Saharan African countries for differences in child and adult mortality between rural and urban areas. Our findings indicate that child mortality is higher in rural areas for almost all countries. On average child mortality rates are 13.6 percent in rural areas an...

Gu?nther, Isabel; Harttgen, Kenneth

2011-01-01

151

International migration and the propagation of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we identify and quantify the role of international migration in the propagation of HIV across sub-Saharan African countries. We use panel data on bilateral migration flows and HIV prevalence rates covering 44 countries after 1990. Controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, reverse causality, reflection issues, incorrect treatment of country fixed effects and spatial autocorrelation, we find evidence of a highly robust emigration-induced propagation mechanism. On the contrary, immigration has no significant effect. Numerical experiments reveal that the long-run effect of emigration accounts for more than 4 percent of the number of HIV cases in 15 countries (and more than 20 percent in 6 countries). PMID:24647086

Docquier, F; Vasilakis, Ch; Tamfutu Munsi, D

2014-05-01

152

The EU as an emerging coordinator in development cooperation: perspectives from sub-Saharan Africa  

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This report presents the proceedings of the field research conducted in the framework of a doctoralresearch on the European Union (EU) as an emerging coordinator in development cooperation.This research aims to seek in-depth and interpreted understanding of the paradox betweenthe EU’s ambitions on the one hand and practice on the ground on the other by investigating theEU’s role in four sub-Saharan African countries (Tanzania, Zambia, Burkina Faso and Senegal).As such, it aims to add e...

Delputte, Sarah

2013-01-01

153

Food Aid and the African Food Crisis. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 221.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine of 11 low and medium income Sub-Saharan African countires studied may face even greater problems feeding their populations if recent trends continue. These countries rely on food imports and, increasingly, on food aid to meet minimum nutritional requirements for their populations. Food production is hampered by droughts which hit about every…

Shapouri, Shahla; And Others

154

The Concept ‘Development’ Revisited towards Understanding: in the Context of Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available There has been lingering contention on what development means in the African context. The meaning of development in the African context is crucial in order to know whether Africa is developing or not, particularly since 1970. This debate becomes critical when it is appreciated that Africa appears as the least developed continent in the world. This paper conceptualises ‘development’; in doing this, the paper considers both economic and political development, and looks into the complex question: Must economic development precede political development in Africa or vice-versa? In an attempt to address these issues, the paper considers and examines the views of many scholars and studies on these subject matters. While the paper recognises the rise and importance of recent global development paradigms, such as feminism, and green-environmentalism, it however, applies the long traditional approaches – modernisation, liberalism, dependency and Marxism in analysing the meaning of development in Sub-Saharan African context. This is because this paper is concerned with the real development stage of this Sub continent of Africa, and not merely an intellectual exercise. The paper finally proffers a definition of development, which it believes to be germane in the context of real developmental stage of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Brian-Vincent IKEJIAKU

2009-02-01

155

Modern Biotechnology—Potential Contribution and Challenges for Sustainable Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Modern biotechnology, including the application of transgenic techniques to produce Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs, can play a significant role in increasing agricultural production in a sustainable way, but its products need to be tailored for the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, the capacity to develop GMOs and ensure they meet stringent regulatory requirements is somewhat limited. Most African governments contribute little to science and technology either financially or through strong policies. This leaves the determination of research and development priorities in the hands of international funding agencies. Whereas funding from the United States is generally supportive of GM technology, the opposite is true of funding from European sources. African countries are thus pulled in two different directions. One alternative to this dilemma might be for countries in the sub-Saharan Africa region to develop stronger South-South collaborations, but these need to be supported with adequate funding. African governments as well as external funding agencies are urged to consider the important role that biotechnology, including GM technology, can play in contributing to sustainable development in Africa, and to provide adequate support to the development of capacity to research, develop and commercialize GMOs in the region.

E. Jane Morris

2011-06-01

156

The Realities of Community Based Natural Resource Management and Biodiversity Conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available This is an historic overview of conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa from pre-colonial times through the present. It demonstrates that Africans practiced conservation that was ignored by the colonial powers. The colonial market economy combined with the human and livestock population explosion of the 21st century are the major factors contributing to the demise of wildlife and critical habitat. Unique insight is provided into the economics of a representative safari company, something that has not been readily available to Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM practitioners. Modern attempts at sharing benefits from conservation with rural communities will fail due to the low rural resource to population ratio regardless of the model, combined with the uneven distribution of profits from safari hunting that drives most CBNRM programs, unless these ratios are changed. Low household incomes from CBNRM are unlikely to change attitudes of rural dwellers towards Western approaches to conservation. Communities must sustainably manage their natural areas as "green factories" for the multitude of natural resources they contain as a means of maximizing employment and thus household incomes, as well as meeting the often overlooked socio-cultural ties to wildlife and other natural resources, which may be as important as direct material benefits in assuring conservation of wildlife and its habitat. For CBNRM to be successful in the long-term, full devolution of ownership over land and natural resources must take place. In addition, as a means of relieving pressure on the rural resource base, this will require an urbanization process that creates a middleclass, as opposed to the current slums that form the majority of Africa‘s cities, through industrialization that transforms the unique natural resources of the subcontinent (e.g., strategic minerals, petroleum, wildlife, hardwoods, fisheries, wild medicines, agricultural products, etc. in Africa.

Brian Kevin Reilly

2009-09-01

157

Waist circumference does not predict circulating adiponectin levels in sub-Saharan women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of previously reported ethnic differences in determinants and markers of obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to investigate circulating levels of adiponectin and their correlates in a sub-Saharan African (sSA population. Subjects and Methods We studied 70 non-diabetic volunteers (33M/37F living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, aged 24–69 yr, with BMI 20–42 kg/m2. In all participants we measured waist circumference and total body fat by bioimpedance, and obtained a fasting venous blood sample for measurement of plasma glucose, serum insulin and adiponectin concentrations. We performed a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in 1/4 subjects, and HOMAIR was used as surrogate of fasting insulin sensitivity index since it best correlates to clamp measurements. Results Males had lower adiponectin levels than females (8.8 ± 4.3 vs. 11.8 ± 5.5 ?g/L. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and total body fat (rs = -0.03; NS, whereas adiponectin was inversely correlated with waist circumference (rs = -0.39; p = 0.001. Adiponectin correlated negatively with insulin resistance (rs = -0.35; p = 0.01. In a regression analysis using fasting adiponectin concentration as the dependent variable, and age, HOMAIR, waist circumference, and fat mass as predictors, waist circumference (? = -3.30; p = 0.002, fat mass (? = -2.68; p = 0.01, and insulin resistance (? = -2.38; p = 0.02 but not age (? = 1.11; p = 0.27 were independent predictors of adiponectin. When considering gender, these relations persisted with the exception of waist circumference in females. Conclusion Adiponectin correlates in this study population are comparable to those observed in Caucasians with the exception of waist circumference in women. The metabolic significance of waist circumference is therefore questioned in sSA women.

Gautier Jean-François

2007-10-01

158

Burden of undiagnosed hypertension in sub-saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The burden of hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa has been increasing over the past few decades. However, a large proportion of the population with hypertension remains undiagnosed, untreated, or inadequately treated, contributing to the rising burden of cardiovascular disease in the region. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the recent burden of hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa, based on studies published between 2000 and 2013. We pooled data from 33 surveys involving over 110 414 participants of mean age 40 years. Hypertension prevalence varied widely across the studies (range 15%-70%), partly because of differences in participant mean ages (31-76 years). The predicted prevalence of hypertension at mean participant ages of 30, 40, 50, and 60 years were 16%, 26%, 35%, and 44%, respectively, with a pooled prevalence of 30% (95% confidence interval, 27%-34%). Of those with hypertension, only between 7% and 56% (pooled prevalence: 27%; 95% confidence interval, 23%-31%) were aware of their hypertensive status before the surveys. Overall, 18% (95% confidence interval, 14%-22%) of individuals with hypertension were receiving treatment across the studies, and only 7% (95% confidence interval, 5%-8%) had controlled blood pressure. This review found a high prevalence of hypertension, as well as low percentage of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in Sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the need for implementation of timely and appropriate strategies for diagnosis, control, and prevention. PMID:25385758

Ataklte, Feven; Erqou, Sebhat; Kaptoge, Stephen; Taye, Betiglu; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Kengne, Andre P

2015-02-01

159

Similar Levels of X-linked and Autosomal Nucleotide Variation in African and non-African populations of Drosophila melanogaster  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of molecular diversity in Drosophila have repeatedly been shown to be higher in ancestral, African populations than in derived, non-African populations. This pattern holds for both coding and noncoding regions for a variety of molecular markers including single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites. Comparisons of X-linked and autosomal diversity have yielded results largely dependent on population of origin. Results In an attempt to further elucidate patterns of sequence diversity in Drosophila melanogaster, we studied nucleotide variation at putatively nonfunctional X-linked and autosomal loci in sub-Saharan African and North American strains of D. melanogaster. We combine our experimental results with data from previous studies of molecular polymorphism in this species. We confirm that levels of diversity are consistently higher in African versus North American strains. The relative reduction of diversity for X-linked and autosomal loci in the derived, North American strains depends heavily on the studied loci. While the compiled dataset, comprised primarily of regions within or in close proximity to genes, shows a much more severe reduction of diversity on the X chromosome compared to autosomes in derived strains, the dataset consisting of intergenic loci located far from genes shows very similar reductions of diversities for X-linked and autosomal loci in derived strains. In addition, levels of diversity at X-linked and autosomal loci in the presumably ancestral African population are more similar than expected under an assumption of neutrality and equal numbers of breeding males and females. Conclusion We show that simple demographic scenarios under assumptions of neutral theory cannot explain all of the observed patterns of molecular diversity. We suggest that the simplest model is a population bottleneck that retains an ancestral female-biased sex ratio, coupled with higher rates of positive selection at X-linked loci in close proximity to genes specifically in derived, non-African populations.

Jensen Jeffrey D

2007-10-01

160

Regionalism, end markets and ownership matter: Shifting dynamics in the apparel export industry in Sub Saharan Africa  

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This paper shows the importance of ownership, end markets and regionalism within the global value chain (GVC) conceptual framework. This is done through unpacking the development trajectories of the major Sub Saharan African (SSA) apparel export industries (Mauritius, Madagascar, Kenya, Lesotho, Swaziland) against the backdrop of global and regional trade regime changes and the manner in which different supplier firms react to these opportunities and/or constraints. These trajectories demonst...

Morris, Mike; Staritz, Cornelia; Plank, Leonhard

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

The economic impact of climate change on road infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa countries: Evidence from Ghana  

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Climate change scenarios for many Sub-Saharan African countries including Ghana indicate that temperatures will increase while rainfall will either increase or decrease. The potential impact of climate change on economic systems is well-known. However, little has been done to assess its economic impact on road infrastructure. This work assesses the economic impact of climate change on road infrastructure using the stressor-response methodology. Our analysis indicates that it will cumulatively...

Twerefou, Daniel Kwabena; Adjei-mantey, Kwame; Strzepek, Niko Lazar

2014-01-01

162

Knowledge and Awareness of HPV Vaccine and Acceptability to Vaccinate in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review  

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Objectives: We assessed the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. We further identified countries that fulfill the two GAVI Alliance eligibility criteria to support nationwide HPV vaccination. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies on the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine, and willingness and acceptability to vaccinate. Tre...

Perlman, Stacey; Wamai, Richard G.; Bain, Paul A.; Welty, Thomas; Welty, Edith; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

2014-01-01

163

Cardiovascular autonomic function tests in an African population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is becoming increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa. Autonomic dysfunction contributes to morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Data on autonomic dysfunction in the African population is scarce, and no reference values for standardized autonomic function tests are available. The aim of this study was to establish cut off values for five easy-to-use cardiovascular autonomic function tests that may be suitable for resource-poor settings. Methods We recruited 276 healthy African individuals, 156 men and 120 women, aged > 20 years. Participants were tested for (1 resting heart rate (HR, (2 HR variation in response to deep breathing, (3 HR response to standing, and (4 postural changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP. Respective cut-off values were calculated according to the 95th or 5th percentile. Results Taking an association of the autonomic test results with gender and age into consideration, we defined the following cut-off values: resting HR (bpm ? 89 for men and ? 97 for women; HR (bpm in response to deep breathing ? 13, ? 11, ? 9, ? 8, and ? 7 for age groups 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and 60+ years, respectively; HR (bpm in response to standing ? 14 for 20–29 years, and ? 11 for 30+ years; postural decreases in SBP ? 17 mmHg for all age groups; and postural decreases in DBP (mmHg ? 2 for men and ? 5 for women. Conclusion The test battery revealed cut-off values different from those measured in Caucasians. Further studies are recommended a to assess whether these cut off values are generally applicable, and b to establish population specific reference values for Africans.

Schmutzhard Erich

2008-12-01

164

Hospital based palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa; a six month review from Malawi  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organisation recognises the importance of palliative care in an African setting. Despite this services are often patchy and inconsistent, and many operate at health centre and/or community level. Few reports from hospital based palliative care services in sub-Saharan Africa exist in the current literature. As part of its activities Tiyanjane Clinic has been providing hospital based palliative care to patients at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, a large government tertiary referral institution, in the Southern region of Malawi since 2003, caring for patients with HIV, cancer and other non-malignant palliative diagnoses. Methods A retrospective review of case notes for all in-patients seen by Tiyanjane Clinic over a six month period (April-Sept 2009 was undertaken. Results A total of 177 patients were seen, for whom 137 case notes were available (77%. 58% of patients were male, 42% female. The average age of patients was 39.1 years (range 15-92 years. 54% of patients were HIV positive, with 34% on ARV drugs at the time of care. 42% of patients had HIV related diagnoses, including AIDS defining malignancies, 48% had (non AIDS related cancers and 9% had other palliative diagnoses. The mean age of patients with HIV related diagnoses was 34 years, for cancer patients it was 48 years. Pain was the most commonly reported symptom (74%, with 56% of patients requiring oral morphine. The mean daily dose of morphine was 30 mg/day (range 9-100 mg. 65% of patients were discharged home, 26% of patients died during admission. Conclusions The palliative care population in this setting is relatively young, especially among patients with HIV related diagnoses. HIV and cancer are the main diagnostic groups. Pain is the most commonly reported symptom, with oral morphine frequently required. Health workers require access to and knowledge of oral morphine in order to provide appropriate assistance to patients under their care.

Jane Bates M

2011-07-01

165

Rh isoimmunization in Sub-Saharan Africa indicates need for universal access to anti-RhD immunoglobulin and effective management of D-negative pregnancies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transplacental or fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) may occur during pregnancy or at delivery and lead to immunization to the D antigen if the mother is Rh-negative and the baby is Rh-positive. This can result in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) in subsequent D-positive pregnancies. The aim of this study is to highlight the challenges associated with the effective management and prevention of Rh alloimmunization among Rh-negative women in Sub-Saharan Africa. In most Sub-Saharan African countries, there is poor and sometimes no alloimmunization prevention following potentially sensitizing events and during medical termination of pregnancy in Rh-negative women. Information about previous pregnancies and termination are often lacking in patients' medical notes due to poor data management. These issues have made the management of Rh-negative pregnancy a huge challenge. Despite the fact that the prevalence of Rh-negative phenotype is significantly lower among Africans than Caucasians, Rh alloimmunization remains a major factor responsible for perinatal morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa and may result in the compromise of the woman's obstetric care due to the unaffordability of anti-D immunoglobulin. There is the urgent need for the implementation of universal access to anti-D immunoglobulin for the Rh-negative pregnant population in Africa. Anti-D immunoglobulin should be available in cases of potentially sensitizing events such as amniocentesis, cordocentesis, antepartum hemorrhage, vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, external cephalic version, abdominal trauma, intrauterine death and stillbirth, in utero therapeutic interventions, miscarriage, and therapeutic termination of pregnancy. There is also the need for the availability of FMH measurements following potentially sensitizing events. The low-cost acid elution method, a modification of the Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test, can become a readily available, affordable, and minimum alternative to flow cytometric measurement of FMH. Knowledge of anti-D prophylaxis among obstetricians, biomedical scientist, midwives, traditional birth attendants, pharmacists, and nurses in Africa needs to be improved. This will facilitate quality antenatal and postnatal care offered to Rh-negative pregnant population and improve perinatal outcomes. PMID:21270966

Osaro, Erhabor; Charles, Adias Teddy

2010-01-01

166

Factors associated to infant mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Half of the 10 million children who die annually in the world are from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The reasons are known, but lack of will and resources avoid the development of sustainable policies. Associated factors to the high infant mortality rate (IMR in SSA have been investigated in this research. An ecological multi-group study was designed comparing rates within SSA. The dependent variable is the IMR and health services, economic and development indicators are the independent variables. Information and data sources were WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP (1997-2007. IMR mean value is 92.2 (per 1000 live births and a relationship with several of the factors could be observed. In the bi-variate analysis direct relationship was observed with maternal mortality rate and an inverse relationship was observed with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, gross national income per capita, per capita government expenditure on health, social security expenditure, adult literacy rate, net primary school enrolment rate, population with access to safe drinking water (in urban and rural areas and with population with access to basic sanitation in rural areas. In the multi-variate analysis IMR had an inverse relationship with children under 5 years with diarrhoea who receive oral re-hydration, with social security expenditure as percentage of general government expenditure on health and with per capita government expenditure on health. The situation in SSA would change if their inhabitants received education and information to demand more equitable polices and better investments from their governments.

Ángel Gil

2011-09-01

167

Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999-2011: Epidemiology and Public Health Implications. A systematic review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Diabetes prevalence is increasing globally, and Sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. With diverse health challenges, health authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa and international donors need robust data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in order to plan and prioritise their health programmes. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the epidemiological trends and public health implications of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review of papers published on diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa 1999-March 2011, providing data on diabetes prevalence, outcomes (chronic complications, infections, and mortality), access to diagnosis and care and economic impact. RESULTS: Type 2 diabetes accounts for well over 90% of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa, and population prevalence proportions ranged from 1% in rural Uganda to 12% in urban Kenya. Reported type 1 diabetes prevalence was low and ranged from 4 per 100,000 in Mozambique to 12 per 100,000 in Zambia. Gestational diabetes prevalence varied from 0% in Tanzania to 9% in Ethiopia. Proportions of patients with diabetic complications ranged from 7-63% for retinopathy, 27-66% for neuropathy, and 10-83% for microalbuminuria. Diabetes is likely to increase the risk of several important infections in the region, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and sepsis. Meanwhile, antiviral treatment for HIV increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. Five-year mortality proportions of patients with diabetes varied from 4-57%. Screening studies identified high proportions (>40%) with previously undiagnosed diabetes, and low levels of adequate glucose control among previously diagnosed diabetics. Barriers to accessing diagnosis and treatment included a lack of diagnostic tools and glucose monitoring equipment and high cost of diabetes treatment. The total annual cost of diabetes in the region was estimated at US$67.03 billion, or US$8836 per diabetic patient. CONCLUSION: Diabetes exerts a significant burden in the region, and this is expected to increase. Many diabetic patients face significant challenges accessing diagnosis and treatment, which contributes to the high mortality and prevalence of complications observed. The significant interactions between diabetes and important infectious diseases highlight the need and opportunity for health planners to develop integrated responses to communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Hall, Victoria; Thomsen, Reimar W

2011-01-01

168

Social Innovation in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

SW Global is an African-based application service provider of information technology infrastructure and software. This article describes how SW Global, a for-profit private sector company, creates high-impact value at universities and governments in developing countries through an innovative business model anchored around service subscriptions, open source software, and open content.

Chukwuemeka Afigbo; Steven Muegge

2008-01-01

169

The Impact of Urbanization on GDP per Capita : A Study of Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis examines whether urbanization affects GDP per capita positively in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further investigations are done to study how the size of the prime city affects GDP per capita, as well as how the prime city as a percentage of urban population interacts with GDP per capita. The results show that urbaization and GDP per capita interact positively - that is, increase in urbaization increases GDP per capita. We also find that size of the prime city as a percentage of total popul...

Hytenget, Eva

2011-01-01

170

Progress report on the first sub-Saharan Africa trial of newer versus older antihypertensive drugs in native black patients  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic surge in hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa is not matched by clinical trials of antihypertensive agents in Black patients recruited in this area of the world. We mounted the Newer versus Older Antihypertensive agents in African Hypertensive patients (NOAAH trial to compare, in native African patients, a single-pill combination of newer drugs, not involving a diuretic, with a combination of older drugs including a diuretic. Methods Patients aged 30 to 69?years with uncomplicated hypertension (140 to 179/90 to 109?mmHg and ?2 associated risk factors are eligible. After a four week run-in period off treatment, 180 patients have to be randomized to once daily bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide 5/6.25?mg (R or amlodipine/valsartan 5/160?mg (E. To attain blood pressure Results At the time of writing of this progress report, of 206 patients enrolled in the run-in period, 140 had been randomized. At randomization, the R and E groups were similar (P???0.11 with respect to mean age (50.7?years, body mass index (28.2?kg/m2, blood pressure (153.9/91.5?mmHg and the proportions of women (53.6% and treatment naïve patients (72.7%. After randomization, in the R and E groups combined, blood pressure dropped by 18.2/10.1?mmHg, 19.4/11.2?mmHg, 22.4/12.2?mmHg and 25.8/15.2?mmHg at weeks two (n?=?122, four (n?=?109, eight (n?=?57, and 12 (n?=?49, respectively. The control rate was >65% already at two weeks. At 12?weeks, 12 patients (24.5% had progressed to the higher dose of R or E and/or had ?-methyldopa added. Cohort analyses of 49 patients up to 12?weeks were confirmatory. Only two patients dropped out of the study. Conclusions NOAAH (NCT01030458 demonstrated that blood pressure control can be achieved fast in Black patients born and living in Africa with a simple regimen consisting of a single-pill combination of two antihypertensive agents. NOAAH proves that randomized clinical trials of cardiovascular drugs in the indigenous populations of sub-Saharan Africa are feasible.

Odili Augustine N

2012-05-01

171

The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa.

Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O.; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A.; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S.

2015-01-01

172

Combating sexual violence in schools in sub-Saharan Africa: Legal strategies under regional and international human rights law  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Although schools are generally regarded as a 'safe haven' for children, the reality for many girls is that schools can be a place of sexual discrimination, harassment and violence, perpetrated by fellow male students and teachers alike. The widespread problem of sexual and gender-based violence, par [...] ticularly sexual violence, in schools has been well-documented in a range of studies and reports in sub-Saharan Africa. Sexual and gender-based violence in schools not only violates girls' fundamental rights to dignity and equality, and their rights to be free from violence, but it also undermines their rights to education, particularly when, as is often the case, states fail to take measures to protect girls. Although there is a growing body of empirical research documenting the nature and extent of this problem, particularly in various sub-Saharan African countries, how regional and international human rights law applies to protect girls in this situation appears to have received limited consideration. This article attempts to fill this gap in the literature, by providing an analysis of the problem of sexual and gender-based violence in schools within the framework of regional and international human rights law. The article's objective is to identify and discuss rights-based legal strategies to combat this pervasive human rights violation, specifically within the sub-Saharan African context, with an emphasis on regional developments and regional responses.

Christina, Beninger.

173

Policy and regulatory framework conditions for small hydro power in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vast potential of mini and micro hydro power (MHP) in Sub-Saharan African countries is one promising option to cover increasing energy demand and to enable electricity access for remote rural communities. Based on the analysis of 6 African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa), this study sheds light on some of the main barriers on the level of political and regulatory framework conditions which include gap between the national-level policies and regulations and local MHP project implementation, lack of financing and limited capacities for project planning, building and operation. The paper also identifies some promising practices employed in several SSA countries of how to overcome these barriers and concludes with recommendations of how to create positive feed-backs between ambitious policies and regulations and MHP financing and capacity development needs in order to scale up MHP deployment and MHP sector development. (orig.)

Koelling, Fritz [Sustainable Energy and Environment, Karlsruhe (Germany); Gaul, Mirco; Schroeder, Miriam [SiNERGi Consultancy for Renewable Energies, Berlin (Germany)

2011-07-01

174

The Sub-Saharan Africa carbon balance, an overview  

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Full Text Available This study presents a summary overview of the carbon balance of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA by synthesizing the available data from national communications to UNFCCC and first results from the project CarboAfrica (net ecosystem productivity and emissions from fires, deforestation and forest degradation, by field and model estimates. According to these preliminary estimates the overall carbon balance of SSA varies from 0.43 Pg C y?1 (using in situ measurements for savanna NEP to a much higher sink of 2.53 Pg C y?1 (using model estimates for savanna NEP. UNFCCC estimates lead to a moderate carbon sink of 0.58 Pg C y?1. Excluding anthropogenic disturbance and intrinsic episodic events, the carbon uptake by forests (0.98 Pg C y?1 and savannas (from 1.38 to 3.48 Pg C y?1, depending on the used methodology are the main components of the SSA sink effect. Fires (0.72 Pg C y?1, deforestation (0.25 Pg C y?1 and forest degradation (0.77 Pg C y?1 are the main contributors to the SSA carbon emissions, while the agricultural sector contributes only with 0.12 Pg C y?1. Notably, the impact of forest degradation is higher than that caused by deforestation, and the SSA forest net carbon balance is close to equilibrium. Savannas play a major role in shaping the SSA carbon balance, due to their large areal extent, their fire regime, and their strong interannual NEP variability, but they are also a major uncertainty in the overall budget. This paper shows that Africa plays a key role in the global carbon cycle system and probably could have a potential for carbon sequestration higher than expected, even if still highly uncertain. Further investigations are needed, particularly to better address the role of savannas and tropical forests. The current CarboAfrica network of carbon measurements could provide future unique data sets for better estimating the African carbon balance.

A. Bombelli

2009-02-01

175

End of life care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the qualitative literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background End of life (EoL care in sub-Saharan Africa still lacks the sound evidence-base needed for the development of effective, appropriate service provision. It is essential to make evidence from all types of research available alongside clinical and health service data, to ensure that EoL care is ethical and culturally appropriate. This article aims to synthesize qualitative research on EoL care in sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy, practice and further research. It seeks to identify areas of existing research; describe findings specifically relevant to the African context; and, identify areas lacking evidence. Methods Relevant literature was identified through eight electronic databases: AMED, British Nursing Index & Archive, CINAHL, EMBASE, IBSS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Social Sciences Citation Index; and hand searches. Inclusion criteria were: published qualitative or mixed-method studies in sub-Saharan Africa, about EoL care. Study quality was assessed using a standard grading scale. Relevant data including findings and practice recommendations were extracted and compared in tabular format. Results Of the 407 articles initially identified, 51 were included in the qualitative synthesis. Nineteen came from South Africa and the majority (38 focused on HIV/AIDS. Nine dealt with multiple or unspecified conditions and four were about cancer. Study respondents included health professionals, informal carers, patients, community members and bereaved relatives. Informal carers were typically women, the elderly and children, providing total care in the home, and lacking support from professionals or the extended family. Twenty studies focused on home-based care, describing how programmes function in practice and what is needed to make them effective. Patients and carers were reported to prefer institutional care but this needs to be understood in context. Studies focusing on culture discussed good and bad death, culture-specific approaches to symptoms and illness, and the bereavement process. Conclusions The data support or complement the findings from quantitative research. The review prompts a reconsideration of the assumption that in Africa the extended family care for the sick, and that people prefer home-based care. The review identifies areas relevant for a research agenda on socio-cultural issues at the EoL in sub-Saharan Africa.

Pool Robert

2011-03-01

176

Analysis of Africanized honey bee mitochondrial DNA reveals further diversity of origin  

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Within the past 40 years, Africanized honey bees spread from Brazil and now occupy most areas habitable by the species Apis mellifera, from Argentina to the southwestern United States. The primary genetic source for Africanized honey bees is believed to be the sub-Saharan honey bee subspecies A. m. scutellata. Mitochondrial markers common in A. m. scutellata have been used to classify Africanized honey bees in population genetic and physiological studies. Assessment of composite mitochondrial...

Sheppard Walter S.; Rinderer Thomas E.; Garnery Lionel; Shimanuki Hachiro

1999-01-01

177

Scaling up delivery of contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa: operational experiences of Marie Stopes International.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contraceptive implants offer promising opportunities for addressing the high and growing unmet need for modern contraceptives in sub-Saharan Africa. Marie Stopes International (MSI) offers implants as one of many family planning options. Between 2008 and 2012, MSI scaled up voluntary access to implants in 15 sub-Saharan African countries, from 80,041 implants in 2008 to 754,329 implants in 2012. This 9-fold increase amounted to more than 1.7 million implants delivered cumulatively over the 5-year period. High levels of client satisfaction were attained alongside service provision scale up by using existing MSI service delivery channels-mobile outreach, social franchising, and clinics-to implement strategies that broadened access for underserved clients and maintained service quality. Use of adaptive and context-specific service delivery models and attention to key operational components, including sufficient numbers of trained providers, strong supply chains, diverse financing mechanisms, and implant removal services, underpinned our service delivery efforts. Accounting for 70% of the implants delivered by MSI in 2012, mobile outreach services through dedicated MSI provider teams played a central role in scale-up efforts, fueled in part by the provision of free or heavily subsidized services. Social franchising also demonstrated promise for future program growth, along with MSI clinics. Continued high growth in implant provision between 2011 and 2012 in all sub-Saharan African countries indicates the region's capacity for further service delivery expansion. Meeting the expected rising demand for implants and ensuring long-term sustainable access to the method, as part of a comprehensive method mix, will require continued use of appropriate service delivery models, effective operations, and ongoing collaboration between the private, public, and nongovernmental sectors. MSI's experience can be instructive for future efforts to ensure contraceptive access and choice in sub-Saharan Africa, especially as the global health community works to achieve its Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) commitments to expand family planning access to 120 million new users. PMID:25276564

Duvall, Susan; Thurston, Sarah; Weinberger, Michelle; Nuccio, Olivia; Fuchs-Montgomery, Nomi

2014-02-01

178

Diabetic ketoacidosis: an overlooked child killer in sub-Saharan Africa?  

Science.gov (United States)

The true incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown but unlike in the Western countries, DKA is also uniquely frequent among type 2 diabetes patients of African origin. Increased hyperglycaemia and hepatic ketogenesis lead to osmotic diuresis, dehydration and tissue hypoxia. Acute complications of DKA include cerebral oedema, which may be compounded by malnutrition, parasitic and microbial infections with rampant tuberculosis and HIV. Overlapping symptoms of these conditions and misdiagnosis of DKA contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. Inability of the patients to afford insulin treatment leads to poor glycemic control as some patients seek alternative treatment from traditional healers or use herbal remedies further complicating the disease process. Standard treatment guidelines for DKA currently used may not be ideal as they are adapted from those of the developed world. Children presenting with suspected DKA should be screened for comorbidities which may complicate fluid and electrolyte replacement therapy protocol. Patient rehabilitation should take into account concurrent treatment for infectious conditions to avoid possible life-threatening drug interactions. We recommend that health systems in sub-Saharan Africa leverage the Expanded Immunization Programme or TB/HIV/AIDS programmes, which are fairly well entrenched to support diabetes services. PMID:24112393

Murunga, A N; Owira, P M O

2013-11-01

179

Stock Markets Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Business Regulations, Governance and Fiscal Policy  

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Full Text Available This study examines the effectiveness of the state in stimulating stock market activity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA using fiscal policy, governance quality and stock market as the main determinant variables. Using annual data from six selected sub-Saharan African economies and employing a dynamic panel data estimating technique, we find that government effectiveness stimulates capitalization while business regulations decrease it in SSA. In addition, we find that final consumption expenditure, interest rate spread and credit to the state increase capitalization whereas credit to the private sector and inflation had adverse effects. With respect to business regulations, our study reveals that starting a business, closing it and enforcing contracts engender stock market activity in SSA. Among the several variables that stimulate stock market activity; only foreign direct investment (FDI did increase capitalization. Thus, the study concludes that since not all government institutions and business regulations are critical to stock market development, various governments should be careful and selective in their economic stimulants if they want to develop their stock markets. 

Kofi B. Afful

2013-12-01

180

Projected climate change impacts and short term predictions on staple crops in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) drives the economy of many African countries and it is mainly rain-fed agriculture used for subsistence. Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns and more frequent droughts may lead to a substantial decrease of crop yields. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture are expected to be significant and extensive in the SSA due to the shortening of the growing seasons and the increasing of water-stress risk. Differences in Agro-Ecological Zones and geographical characteristics of SSA influence the diverse impacts of climate change, which can greatly differ across the continent and within countries. The vulnerability of African Countries to climate change is aggravated by the low adaptive capacity of the continent, due to the increasing of its population, the widespread poverty, and other social factors. In this contest, the assessment of climate change impact on agricultural sector has a particular interest to stakeholder and policy makers, in order to identify specific agricultural sectors and Agro-Ecological Zones that could be more vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and to develop the most appropriate policies to cope with these threats. For these reasons, the evaluation of climate change impacts for key crops in SSA was made exploring climate uncertainty and focusing on short period monitoring, which is particularly useful for food security and risk management analysis. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT-CSM are tools that allow to simulate physiological process of crop growth, development and production, by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were used, after a parameterization phase, to evaluate climate change impacts on crop phenology and production. Multiple combinations of soils and climate conditions, crop management and varieties were considered for the different Agro-Ecological Zones. The climate impact was assessed using future climate prediction, statistically and/or dynamically downscaled, for specific areas. Direct and indirect effects of different CO2 concentrations projected for the future periods were separately explored to estimate their effects on crops. Several adaptation strategies (e.g., introduction of full irrigation, shift of the ordinary sowing/planting date, changes in the ordinary fertilization management) were also evaluated with the aim to reduce the negative impact of climate change on crop production. The results of the study, analyzed at local, AEZ and country level, will be discussed.

Mereu, V.; Spano, D.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Metric dental variation of major human populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesiodistal and buccolingual crown diameters of all teeth recorded in 72 major human population groups and seven geographic groups were analyzed. The results obtained are fivefold. First, the largest teeth are found among Australians, followed by Melanesians, Micronesians, sub-Saharan Africans, and Native Americans. Philippine Negritos, Jomon/Ainu, and Western Eurasians have small teeth, while East/Southeast Asians and Polynesians are intermediate in overall tooth size. Second, in terms of odontometric shape factors, world extremes are Europeans, aboriginal New World populations, and to a lesser extent, Australians. Third, East/Southeast Asians share similar dental features with sub-Saharan Africans, and fall in the center of the phenetic space occupied by a wide array of samples. Fourth, the patterning of dental variation among major geographic populations is more or less consistent with those obtained from genetic and craniometric data. Fifth, once differences in population size between sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, South/West Asia, Australia, and Far East, and genetic drift are taken into consideration, the pattern of sub-Saharan African distinctiveness becomes more or less comparable to that based on genetic and craniometric data. As such, worldwide patterning of odontometric variation provides an additional avenue in the ongoing investigation of the origin(s) of anatomically modern humans. PMID:15838862

Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Ishida, Hajime

2005-10-01

182

Economic geography and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The physical or absolute geography of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A country's location however not only determines its absolute geography, it also pins down its relative position on the globe vis-à-vis other countries. This paper assesses the importance of relative geography, and access to foreign markets in particular, in explaining the substantial income differences between SSA countries. We base our empirical analysis on a new economic geogr...

Bosker, E. Maarten; Garretsen, Harry

2008-01-01

183

Determinants of Commercial Bank Profitability in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The central theme of this study was to investigate the determinants of commercial bank profitability in Sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis used an unbalanced panel of 216 commercial banks drawn from 42 countries in SSA for the period 1999 to 2006. Using the cost efficiency model, bank profitability was estimated using panel random effects method in static framework. The explanatory variables are growth in bank asset...

Munyambonera Ezra Francis

2013-01-01

184

Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa: A literature review with emphasis on individuals with diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Andre Pascal Kengne1, Anastase Dzudie2, Eugene Sobngwi31The George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Heart failure and transplantation Unit, Louis Pradel’s Cardiovascular Hospital, Lyon, France; 3National Obesity Centre, Yaounde Central Hospital, CameroonPurpose: Heart failure is the ultimate complication of cardiac involvements in diabetes. The purpose of this review was to summarize current literature on heart failure among people with diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Method: Bibliographic search of published data on heart failure and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa over the past 26 years.Results: Heart failure remains largely unexplored in general population and among people with diabetes in Africa. Heart failure accounts for over 30% of hospital admission in specialized cardiovascular units and 3%–7% in general internal medicine. Over 11% of adults with heart failure have diabetes. Risk factors for heart failure among those with diabetes include classical cardiovascular risk factors, without evidence of diabetes distinctiveness for other predictors common in Africa. Prevention, management, and outcomes of heart failure are less well known; recent data suggest improvement in the management of risk factors in clinical settings.Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is growing in SSA. Related cardiovascular diseases are emerging as potential health problem. Heart failure as cardiovascular complication remains largely unexplored. Efforts are needed through research to improve our knowledge of heart failure at large in Africa. Multilevel preventive measures, building on evidences from other parts of the world must go along side.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, sub-Saharan Africa

Andre Pascal Kengne

2008-03-01

185

Effect of variable transmission rate on the dynamics of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of the high HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is incompletely understood, with heterosexual penile-vaginal transmission proposed as the main mechanism. Heterosexual HIV transmission has been estimated to have a very low probability; but effects of cofactors that vary in space and time may substantially alter this pattern. Methods To test the effect of individual variation in the HIV infectiousness generated by co-infection, we developed and analyzed a mathematical sexual network model that simulates the behavioral components of a population from Malawi, as well as the dynamics of HIV and the co-infection effect caused by other infectious diseases, including herpes simplex virus type-2, gonorrhea, syphilis and malaria. Results The analysis shows that without the amplification effect caused by co-infection, no epidemic is generated, and HIV prevalence decreases to extinction. But the model indicates that an epidemic can be generated by the amplification effect on HIV transmission caused by co-infection. Conclusion The simulated sexual network demonstrated that a single value for HIV infectivity fails to describe the dynamics of the epidemic. Regardless of the low probability of heterosexual transmission per sexual contact, the inclusion of individual variation generated by transient but repeated increases in HIV viral load associated with co-infections may provide a biological basis for the accelerated spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, our work raises the possibility that the natural history of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa cannot be fully understood if individual variation in infectiousness is neglected.

Stewart Sarah L

2011-08-01

186

Childhood cataract in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Investment by organizations and agencies has led to a growing body of evidence and information to assist ophthalmologists and others to meet the needs of children with cataract in Africa. The geographic distribution of research, training, and programme development across Africa has been uneven; investment has been greatest in eastern and southern Africa. Population based surveys (using key informants) suggest that 15–35% of childhood blindness is due to congenital or developmental cataract....

Courtright, Paul

2011-01-01

187

Irrigation with saline water using low-cost drip-irrigation systems in sub-Saharan Africa  

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In the scope of future population support, agricultural productivity, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa, has to increase drastically to meet the UN’s millennium development goals of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Water availability in the root-zone limits crop production in large parts of the developing world. As competition for fresh water increases, water of lower quality, for example saline or polluted water, is often used for irrigation. Low-cost drip systems are suit...

Karlberg, Louise

2005-01-01

188

Are Remittances to Sub-Saharan Africa Altruistic or for Self-Interest? Evidence from Kenya  

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Full Text Available International remittances comprise significant financial inflow for many Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries and provide considerable disposable income for the receiving households. There has, however, been no consensus on the motivation in the part of sending migrants in which explanations are divided between altruism and self-interest. The study employs Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model with co-integration approach to investigate whether international remittances to Kenya can be explained by either altruistic or self-interest motive. We process the World Bank annual data from 1970 to 2010 and find that self-interest, not altruism, as the dominant motivation to determine remittances. The analysis also indicates that demand on housing and exchange rates are the two strong drivers of international remittances to Kenya in both short-run and long-run. The Kenyan government is supposed to facilitate savings from remittances through financial institutions to invest more in the small business sector for economic growth.

Chien-Ping Chen

2013-11-01

189

Traditional burn care in sub-Saharan Africa: A long history with wide acceptance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Burns are very common in sub-Saharan Africa and are considered to be a major health care problem. The management of burns in many African countries is challenged by limited financial resources, inaccessible health care facilities, lack of trained professionals and superstition. These limitations are related to the many burned patients seeking treatment from traditional healers. The use of traditional remedies, plant and animal products are seen as an important aspect of burn management as it is both an affordable and respected treatment modality. Despite its popularity, the use of traditional burn care remedies is faced with many challenges as little research has been done on its effectiveness, dosage and adverse reactions. This paper reviewed the traditions and customs associated with traditional burn care as well as the use of plant, animal and mineral products used by traditional healers. PMID:25062977

Albertyn, R; Berg, A; Numanoglu, A; Rode, H

2014-07-22

190

Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa : policy and trade issues  

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Full Text Available The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated ; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs, extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1 implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2 amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE] so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for southern African countries and enable conservation and livestock production to be more effectively integrated, to the benefit of both.

G.R. Thomson

2010-09-01

191

Does the Orphan Disadvantage “Spill Over?” An analysis of whether living in an area with a higher concentration of orphans is associated with children’s school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND Despite considerable concern regarding the social consequences of sub-Saharan Africa's high orphan prevalence, there has been no research investigating how living in a community densely populated with orphans is more broadly associated with children's - including nonorphans' - acquisition of human capital. OBJECTIVE We provide a new look at the implications of widespread orphanhood in sub-Saharan Africa by examining whether living in an area with a high concentration of orphans is ...

Emily Smith Greenaway; Jessica Heckert

2013-01-01

192

At the southeast fringe of the Bantu expansion: genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships to other sub-Saharan tribes  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we present 12 loci paternal haplotypes (Y-STR profiles) against the backdrop of the Y-SNP marker system of Bantu males from the Maputo Province of Southeast Africa, a region believed to represent the southeastern fringe of the Bantu expansion. Our Maputo Bantu group was analyzed within the context of 27 geographically relevant reference populations in order to ascertain its genetic relationship to other Bantu and non Bantu (Pygmy, Khoisan and Nilotic) sub-equatorial tribes from West and East Africa. This study entails statistical pair wise comparisons and multidimensional scaling based on YSTR Rst distances, network analyses of Bantu (B2a-M150) and Pygmy (B2b-M112) lineages as well as an assessment of Y-SNP distribution patterns. Several notable findings include the following: 1) the Maputo Province Bantu exhibits a relatively close paternal affinity with both east and west Bantu tribes due to high proportion of Bantu Y chromosomal markers, 2) only traces of Khoisan (1.3%) and Pygmy (1.3%) markers persist in the Maputo Province Bantu gene pool, 3) the occurrence of R1a1a-M17/M198, a member of the Eurasian R1a-M420 branch in the population of the Maputo Province, may represent back migration events and/or recent admixture events, 4) the shared presence of E1b1b1-M35 in all Tanzanian tribes examined, including Bantu and non-Bantu groups, in conjunction with its nearly complete absence in the West African populations indicate that, in addition to a shared linguistic, cultural and genetic heritage, geography (e.g., east vs. west) may have impacted the paternal landscape of sub-Saharan Africa, 5) the admixture and assimilation processes of Bantu elements were both highly complex and region-specific. PMID:25606451

Rowold, Diane; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Rivera, Luis; Benedico, David Perez; Alfonso Sanchez, Miguel A.; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Varela, Mangela; Herrera, Rene J.

2014-01-01

193

At the southeast fringe of the Bantu expansion: genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships to other sub-Saharan tribes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we present 12 loci paternal haplotypes (Y-STR profiles) against the backdrop of the Y-SNP marker system of Bantu males from the Maputo Province of Southeast Africa, a region believed to represent the southeastern fringe of the Bantu expansion. Our Maputo Bantu group was analyzed within the context of 27 geographically relevant reference populations in order to ascertain its genetic relationship to other Bantu and non Bantu (Pygmy, Khoisan and Nilotic) sub-equatorial tribes from West and East Africa. This study entails statistical pair wise comparisons and multidimensional scaling based on YSTR Rst distances, network analyses of Bantu (B2a-M150) and Pygmy (B2b-M112) lineages as well as an assessment of Y-SNP distribution patterns. Several notable findings include the following: 1) the Maputo Province Bantu exhibits a relatively close paternal affinity with both east and west Bantu tribes due to high proportion of Bantu Y chromosomal markers, 2) only traces of Khoisan (1.3%) and Pygmy (1.3%) markers persist in the Maputo Province Bantu gene pool, 3) the occurrence of R1a1a-M17/M198, a member of the Eurasian R1a-M420 branch in the population of the Maputo Province, may represent back migration events and/or recent admixture events, 4) the shared presence of E1b1b1-M35 in all Tanzanian tribes examined, including Bantu and non-Bantu groups, in conjunction with its nearly complete absence in the West African populations indicate that, in addition to a shared linguistic, cultural and genetic heritage, geography (e.g., east vs. west) may have impacted the paternal landscape of sub-Saharan Africa, 5) the admixture and assimilation processes of Bantu elements were both highly complex and region-specific. PMID:25606451

Rowold, Diane; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Rivera, Luis; Benedico, David Perez; Alfonso Sanchez, Miguel A; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Varela, Mangela; Herrera, Rene J

2014-12-01

194

Population-based biochemistry, immunologic and hematological reference values for adolescents and young adults in a rural population in Western Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: There is need for locally-derived age-specific clinical laboratory reference ranges of healthy Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. Reference values from North American and European populations are being used for African subjects despite previous studies showing significant differences. Our aim was to establish clinical laboratory reference values for African adolescents and young adults that can be used in clinical trials and for patient management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A panel of 29...

Zeh, C.; Amornkul, P. N.; Inzaule, S.; Ondoa, P.; Oyaro, B.; Mwaengo, D. M.; Vandenhoudt, H.; Gichangi, A.; Williamson, J.; Thomas, T.; Decock, K. M.; Hart, C.; Nkengasong, J.; Laserson, K.

2011-01-01

195

Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines.

Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde

2014-01-01

196

Brief communication: mtDNA variation in North Cameroon: lack of Asian lineages and implications for back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypervariable region-1 and four nucleotide positions (10400, 10873, 12308, and 12705) of the coding region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were analyzed in 441 individuals belonging to eight populations (Daba, Fali, Fulbe, Mandara, Uldeme, Podokwo, Tali, and Tupuri) from North Cameroon and four populations (Bakaka, Bassa, Bamileke, and Ewondo) from South Cameroon. All mtDNAs were assigned to five haplogroups: three sub-Saharan (L1, L2, and L3), one northern African (U6), and one European (U5). Our results contrast with the observed high frequencies of a Y-chromosome haplogroup of probable Asian origin (R1*-M173) in North Cameroon. As a first step toward a better understanding of the evident discrepancy between mtDNA and Y-chromosome data, we propose two contrasting scenarios. The first one, here termed "migration and asymmetric admixture," implies a back migration from Asia to North Cameroon of a population group carrying the haplotype R1*-M173 at high frequency, and an admixture process restricted to migrant males. The second scenario, on the other hand, temed "divergent drift," implies that modern populations of North Cameroon originated from a small population group which migrated from Asia to Africa and in which, through genetic drift, Y-chromosome haplotype R1*-M173 became predominant, whereas the Asian mtDNA haplogroups were lost. PMID:15895434

Coia, Valentina; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Verginelli, Fabio; Battaggia, Cinzia; Boschi, Ilaria; Cruciani, Fulvio; Spedini, Gabriella; Comas, David; Calafell, Francesc

2005-11-01

197

Determinants of Commercial Bank Profitability in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The central theme of this study was to investigate the determinants of commercial bank profitability in Sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis used an unbalanced panel of 216 commercial banks drawn from 42 countries in SSA for the period 1999 to 2006. Using the cost efficiency model, bank profitability was estimated using panel random effects method in static framework. The explanatory variables are growth in bank assets, growth in bank deposits, capital adequacy, operational efficiency (inefficiency, and liquidity ratio as well as the macroeconomic variables of growth in GDP and inflation. The findings clearly show that both bank-specific as well as macroeconomic factors explain the variation in commercial bank profitability over the study period. These findings demonstrate the importance of both bank level as well as macroeconomic factors in explaining commercial bank profitability in Sub-Saharan Africa. The policy implications drawn from this paper are that if banks are to attain profitability improvements, both bank level as well as macroeconomic factors are important. 

Munyambonera Ezra Francis

2013-08-01

198

The European Union and the promotion of regional integration: a viable approach to the resolution of regional conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The European Union has been seen as a new type of 'normative power', aiming at diffusing its values through its external policy. The EU influence in Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly worth noting. The EU is historically a leading partner for Africa and it presents itself to the African continent as a successful model of conflict transformation by regional integration. The European institutions have spent a considerable amount of material resources and diplomatic efforts for pr...

Piccolino, Giulia

2014-01-01

199

The Role of Income and Gender Inequalities in the Spread of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Throughout African continent, HIV/AIDS epidemic has became a major cause of death and poverty. Nonetheless, the relation between poverty and HIV/AIDS epidemic is not as straightforward as it might first appear. Indeed, if at the international level the most affected regions are the poorest, in Sub-Saharan Africa however, the most affected countries also happen to be the richest. Meanwhile, these countries are also those with the least egalitarian income distributions in the world. Moreover, t...

Tsafack Temah, Chrystelle

2008-01-01

200

Readiness to use e-learning for agricultural higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Results from a survey of faculty members  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

E-learning is likely to be an increasingly important element in teaching agriculture and related subjects at universities in Sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors involved in determining the readiness and intention to adopt e-learning by faculty members at member institutions of the African Network for Agriculture, Agroforestry and Natural Resources Education (ANAFE). The study was based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB) to predict intentio...

Thomas Zschocke; Jan Beniest; Dramé Yayé Aissétou; Sebastian Chakeredza

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

A global approach to the management of EMR (Electronic Medical Records) of patients with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: the experience of DREAM Software  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The DREAM Project operates within the framework of the national health systems of several sub-Saharan African countries and aims to introduce the essential components of an integrated strategy for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. The project is intended to serve as a model for a wide-ranging scale-up in the response to the epidemic. This paper aims to show DREAM's challenges and the solutions adopted. One of the solutions is the efficient manageme...

Peroni Marco; Giglio Pietro; Masi Fabio; Bartolo Michelangelo; Bernava Giuseppe M; Nucita Andrea; Pizzimenti Giovanni; Palombi Leonardo

2009-01-01

202

High prevalence of the GSTM3*A/B polymorphism in sub-Sarahan African populations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A 3-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in intron 6 of GSTM3 (rs1799735, GSTM3*A/*B) affects the activity of the phase 2 xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme GSTM3 and has been associated with increased cancer risk. The GSTM3*B allele is rare or absent in Southeast Asians, occurs in 5-20% of Europeans but [...] was detected in 80% of Bantu from South Africa. The wide genetic diversity among Africans led us to investigate whether the high frequency of GSTM3*B prevailed in other sub-Saharan African populations. In 168 healthy individuals from Angola, Mozambique and the São Tomé e Príncipe islands, the GSTM3*B allele was three times more frequent (0.74-0.78) than the GSTM3*A allele (0.22-0.26), with no significant differences in allele frequency across the three groups. We combined these data with previously published results to carry out a multidimensional scaling analysis, which provided a visualization of the worldwide population affinities based on the GSTM3 *A/*B polymorphism.

D., Teixeira; D., Vargens; A., Príncipe; E., Oliveira; A., Amorim; M.J., Prata; G., Suarez-Kurtz.

2010-07-01

203

African 1, an Epidemiologically Important Clonal Complex of Mycobacterium bovis Dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad? †  

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We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis present at high frequency in cattle in population samples from several sub-Saharan west-central African countries. This closely related group of bacteria is defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf1) and can be identified by the absence of spacer 30 in the standard spoligotype typing scheme. We have named this group of strains the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex and have defined the spoligotype signature of this clonal complex ...

Mu?ller, B.; Hilty, M.; Berg, S.; Garcia-pelayo, M. C.; Dale, J.; Boschiroli, M. L.; Cadmus, S.; Ngandolo, B. N. R.; Godreuil, S.; Diguimbaye-djaibe?, C.; Kazwala, R.; Bonfoh, B; Njanpop-lafourcade, B. M.; Sahraoui, N.; Guetarni, D.

2009-01-01

204

Hotspots of climate change impacts in sub-Saharan Africa and implications for adaptation and development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Development efforts for poverty reduction and food security in sub-Saharan Africa will have to consider future climate change impacts. Large uncertainties in climate change impact assessments do not necessarily complicate, but can inform development strategies. The design of development strategies will need to consider the likelihood, strength, and interaction of climate change impacts across biosphere properties. We here explore the spread of climate change impact projections and develop a composite impact measure to identify hotspots of climate change impacts, addressing likelihood and strength of impacts. Overlapping impacts in different biosphere properties (e.g. flooding, yields) will not only claim additional capacity to respond, but will also narrow the options to respond and develop. Regions with severest projected climate change impacts often coincide with regions of high population density and poverty rates. Science and policy need to propose ways of preparing these areas for development under climate change impacts. PMID:24796720

Müller, Christoph; Waha, Katharina; Bondeau, Alberte; Heinke, Jens

2014-08-01

205

Understanding the Environmental and Climate Impacts of Biomass Burning in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding'of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

Ichoku, Charles; Gatebe, Charles; Bolten, John; Policelli, Fritz; Habib, Shahid; Lee, Jejung; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric; Adegoke, Jimmy

2011-01-01

206

Vaginal ring adherence in sub-Saharan Africa: expulsion, removal, and perfect use.  

Science.gov (United States)

In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV incidence and prevalence remain disproportionately high among women. Vaginal rings (VRs) have been formulated for the delivery of antiretroviral-based microbicides, and their favorable safety and tolerability profiles reported in clinical studies. Although the concept of drug release through a VR has existed since 1970, and VRs have been marketed since 1992 for contraceptive or hormone replacement purposes, VR use as a microbicide delivery system is a novel application. This is the first study to evaluate VR adherence among African women in the context of its potential use as an HIV prevention method, to examine predictors of adherence, and to describe clinical or contextual reasons for VR removals or nonadherence. This was a randomized trial of the safety and acceptability of a placebo VR worn for 12 weeks in 170 HIV-negative, African women aged 18-35 in four clinic sites in South Africa and Tanzania. The findings suggest that adherence to VR use in the context of HIV prevention trials in these communities should be high, thereby enabling more accurate assessment of an active microbicide safety and efficacy. PMID:22790902

Montgomery, Elizabeth T; van der Straten, A; Cheng, H; Wegner, L; Masenga, G; von Mollendorf, C; Bekker, L; Ganesh, S; Young, K; Romano, J; Nel, A; Woodsong, C

2012-10-01

207

Managing health professional migration from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada: a stakeholder inquiry into policy options  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada is a major recipient of foreign-trained health professionals, notably physicians from South Africa and other sub-Saharan African countries. Nurse migration from these countries, while comparatively small, is rising. African countries, meanwhile, have a critical shortage of professionals and a disproportionate burden of disease. What policy options could Canada pursue that balanced the right to health of Africans losing their health workers with the right of these workers to seek migration to countries such as Canada? Methods We interviewed a small sample of émigré South African physicians (n = 7 and a larger purposive sample of representatives of Canadian federal, provincial, regional and health professional departments/organizations (n = 25; conducted a policy colloquium with stakeholder organizations (n = 21; and undertook new analyses of secondary data to determine recent trends in health human resource flows between sub-Saharan Africa and Canada. Results Flows from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada have increased since the early 1990s, although they may now have peaked for physicians from South Africa. Reasons given for this flow are consistent with other studies of push/pull factors. Of 8 different policy options presented to study participants, only one received unanimous strong support (increasing domestic self-sufficiency, one other received strong support (increased health system strengthening in source country, two others mixed support (voluntary codes on ethical recruitment, bilateral or multilateral agreements to manage flows and four others little support or complete rejection (increased training of auxiliary health workers in Africa ineligible for licensing in Canada, bonding, reparation payments for training-cost losses and restrictions on immigration of health professionals from critically underserved countries. Conclusion Reducing pull factors by improving domestic supply and reducing push factors by strengthening source country health systems have the greatest policy traction in Canada. The latter, however, is not perceived as presently high on Canadian stakeholder organizations' policy agendas, although support for it could grow if it is promoted. Canada is not seen as "actively' recruiting" ("poaching" health workers from developing countries. Recent changes in immigration policy, ongoing advertising in southern African journals and promotion of migration by private agencies, however, blurs the distinction between active and passive recruitment.

Klassen Nathan

2006-08-01

208

External financial aid to blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa : a need for reflection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking.

Ala, Fereydoun; Allain, Jean-Pierre

2012-01-01

209

External Financial Aid to Blood Transfusion Services in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Need for Reflection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking.

Ala, F.; Allain, J-p; Bates, I.; Boukef, K.; Boulton, F.; Brandful, J.; Dax, Em; El Ekiaby, M.; Farrugia, A.; Gorlin, J.; Hassall, O.; Lee, H.; Loua, A.; Maitland, K.; Mbanya, D.

2012-01-01

210

External financial aid to blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa: a need for reflection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking. PMID:22984355

Ala, Fereydoun; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Bates, Imelda; Boukef, Kamel; Boulton, Frank; Brandful, James; Dax, Elizabeth M; El Ekiaby, Magdy; Farrugia, Albert; Gorlin, Jed; Hassall, Oliver; Lee, Helen; Loua, André; Maitland, Kathryn; Mbanya, Dora; Mukhtar, Zainab; Murphy, William; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Reesink, Henk; Roberts, David; Torres, Oscar; Totoe, Grace; Ullum, Henrik; Wendel, Silvano

2012-01-01

211

OPEN FLEXIBLE LIFELONG LEARNING AS A CATALYST FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Educational provision in developing sub-Saharan Africa states has been severely hindered by the hydra-headed problems of access, cost and quality. Amidst these challenges is the pledge of regional and national education policymakers and development planners to ensure that there is maximum access equitable and qualitative education for all (EFA in Africa. There is also a burning need for improved literacy levels and functional education, in order to overcome the development deficits that are currently facing the region. The pledge of education for all resonates the agreement which representatives of several nations of the world signed at the Jomtien summit on Education for All and the subsequent evaluation meetings. Following this pledge, several developing, sub-Sahara African nations have evolved initiatives for instituting sustainable Open Flexible Learning (ODL systems in order to meet up with the seemingly intractable EFA objectives. This paper examined the potential impact of these OFL initiatives on the achievement of the EFA objectives which is seen as the basis of development planning, administration and implementation in Africa. It identified the various challenges confronting effective implementation of ODL on the continent, amidst the need to expand access to educational opportunities. An attempt was made to situate the OFL system at the centre of the strategies for achieving these EFA objectives in the region and finally, a proposal for sustainable policy initiatives for implementing OFL systems for the attainment of education for all in Africa is made.

Felix Kayode OLAKULEHIN

2010-10-01

212

The EU as an emerging coordinator in development cooperation: perspectives from sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report presents the proceedings of the field research conducted in the framework of a doctoralresearch on the European Union (EU as an emerging coordinator in development cooperation.This research aims to seek in-depth and interpreted understanding of the paradox betweenthe EU’s ambitions on the one hand and practice on the ground on the other by investigating theEU’s role in four sub-Saharan African countries (Tanzania, Zambia, Burkina Faso and Senegal.As such, it aims to add empirical evidence to the debate on the role of the EU as a developmentactor. More specifically, it investigates how the ambitions of the EU are translated at country leveland in which situations the EU is more/less likely to act as a coordinator, making use of a pragmatistresearch approach. This approach is especially suited to problem-driven research that aims tounderstand a complex phenomenon. The article introduces the research question and the rationale,gives an overview of the research approach and the methodological considerations and endswith a summary of the research process and the preliminary findings of the field research.

Delputte, Sarah

2013-06-01

213

THE CHALLENGES OF FINANCING SANITATION IN SUB-SAHARAN COUNTRIES AFRICA: A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE  

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Full Text Available There is a critical need for governments in the region to realize the magnitude of the challenge in order to proactively respond to it. This means that for the region to meet its sanitation goals, these governments must prioritize sanitation in their national budgets. While the scale of sanitation challenges differs from one country to another, common bottlenecks arise from the pace of demographic growth, rapid urbanization and growth of informal settlements. All these factors are further aggravated by poverty, a critical developmental challenge that has continued to undermine the efforts of most governments. The irony however, is the fact that sanitation can considerably alleviate poverty, but due to other competing priorities such as education, health, environment, gender equality and economic growth, sanitation is least prioritized at all levels of governance. This phenomenon explains why majority of African people cannot access basic sanitation. This paper examines the challenges of financing sanitation in sub-Saharan countries, focusing on (i what is to be financed (ii how much will it cost (iii policy shifts to remedy the situation. The paper concludes by suggesting pertinent recommendations.

P. KARIUKI

2011-07-01

214

Globalisation and the internationalisation of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In a shrinking world, in which a neo-liberal discourse has permeated sub-Saharan African higher education, critical reflection is required to assess the merits and demerits of globalisation. Research, intensive discussion and hearings conducted over a two-year period by the Task Force on Higher Educ [...] ation and Society, convened by the World Bank and United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for the purpose of exploring the future of higher education in the developing world, led to the conclusion that without more and better higher education, developing countries would find it increasingly difficult to benefit from the global knowledge economy. A decade later, we argue for a radical change in the traditional discourse on globalisation because of the emergence of countries such as China, South Africa, India, and Brazil as global players in the world economy. These emerging global powers, reframe the political and imperial philosophy at the epicentre of globalisation discourse - an economic creed, through their mutual consultation and coordination on significant political issues. Their economic and military capabilities enable them to influence the trade regime and thereby strengthen the voice of the developing world as a whole. In relation to this paper's inquiry, the cooperation of these emerging powers gives the free enfranchised people of the world an opportunity to choose a different path of international relations (internationalisation) formed on more liberal lines, as opposed to the neo-liberal economic rationality of globalisation. This paper therefore examines globalisation and internationalisation of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa, a field in which increased knowledge production and distribution open up opportunities for users, institutions and societies. Against a background of chronic economic uncertainty we examine the influence of major international institutions on the direction of higher education, in particular teacher education. Drawing on relevant literature and our own experience, reflexively, we argue that the tendency, towards free market regulation ideologies, privileges neo-liberal global knowledge discourses, such that they impose on higher education a need to respond across a range of fields.

Kuzvinetsa Peter, Dzvimbo; Kholeka Constance, Moloi.

215

Pharmacogenetics of CYP2B6, CYP2A6 and UGT2B7 in HIV treatment in African populations: focus on efavirenz and nevirapine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The CYP450 and UGT enzymes are involved in phase I and phase II metabolism of the majority of clinically prescribed drugs, including the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, efavirenz and nevirapine, used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Variations in the activity of these enzymes due to gene polymorphisms can affect an individual's drug response or may lead to adverse drug reactions. There is an inter-ethnic distribution in the frequency of these polymorphisms, with African populations exhibiting higher genetic diversity compared to other populations. African specific alleles with clinical relevance have also emerged. Given the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, understanding the frequency of pharmacogenetically relevant alleles in populations of African origin, and their impact on efavirenz and nevirapine metabolism, is becoming increasingly critical. This review aims to investigate ethnic variation of CYP2B6, CYP2A6 and UGT2B7, and to understand the pharmacogenetic relevance when comparing frequencies in African populations to other populations worldwide. PMID:25391641

Coli?, Antoinette; Alessandrini, Marco; Pepper, Michael S

2014-11-13

216

Rent seeking and hubs : towards a new economic geography of sub saharan africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is a modest attempt to uncover the main features and the underlying drives of Sub Saharan urbanization process. We begin by describing the stylized facts of urbanization in that region. Sub Saharan Africa’s urban pattern features urban bias and urban primacy. Locational advantages and political effects have induced a bias in favor of political capitals and ports. Thus, literature seems to emphasize rent-seeking and hubs determinants at the expense of agglomeration economies stre...

Pholo Bala, Alain

2009-01-01

217

Prevalence of child mental health problems in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.  

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OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of child mental health problems in community settings in sub-Saharan Africa. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo, supplemented by tracking of references from identified articles and personal communications with local researchers. STUDY SELECTION: Only community-based studies in sub-Saharan Africa that assessed the general psychopathology of children aged 0 to 16 years were included. For each eligible study, the following info...

Cortina, Ma; Sodha, A.; Fazel, M.; Ramchandani, Pg

2012-01-01

218

Mortality and Morbidity Transitions in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Adult Height  

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In most developing countries, rising levels of nutrition and improvements in public health have led to declines in infant mortality and rising adult height. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, we see a different pattern. Sub-Saharan Africa has seen large reductions in infant mortality over the last fifty years, but without any increase in protein or energy intake, and against a background of stagnant, or even declining, adult height. Adult height is a sensitive indicator of the nutrition and morb...

Akachi, Yoko; Canning, David

2008-01-01

219

The effect of climate change on economic growth: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa  

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This paper is a contribution to the empirics of climate change and its effect on sustainable economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using data on two climate variables, temperature and precipitation, and employing panel cointegration techniques, we estimate the short- and long-run effects of climate change on growth. We establish that an increase in temperature significantly reduces economic performance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, we show that the relationship between real gross domes...

Alagidede, Paul; Adu, George; Frimpong, Prince Boakye

2014-01-01

220

A KIR B centromeric region present in Africans but not Europeans protects pregnant women from pre-eclampsia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In sub-Saharan Africans, maternal mortality is unacceptably high, with >400 deaths per 100,000 births compared with <10 deaths per 100,000 births in Europeans. One-third of the deaths are caused by pre-eclampsia, a syndrome arising from defective placentation. Controlling placentation are maternal natural killer (NK) cells that use killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) to recognize the fetal HLA-C molecules on invading trophoblast. We analyzed genetic polymorphisms of maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C in 484 normal and 254 pre-eclamptic pregnancies at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. The combination of maternal KIR AA genotypes and fetal HLA-C alleles encoding the C2 epitope associates with pre-eclampsia [P = 0.0318, odds ratio (OR) = 1.49]. The KIR genes associated with protection are located in centromeric KIR B regions that are unique to sub-Saharan African populations and contain the KIR2DS5 and KIR2DL1 genes (P = 0.0095, OR = 0.59). By contrast, telomeric KIR B genes protect Europeans against pre-eclampsia. Thus, different KIR B regions protect sub-Saharan Africans and Europeans from pre-eclampsia, whereas in both populations, the KIR AA genotype is a risk factor for the syndrome. These results emphasize the importance of undertaking genetic studies of pregnancy disorders in African populations with the potential to provide biological insights not available from studies restricted to European populations. PMID:25561558

Nakimuli, Annettee; Chazara, Olympe; Hiby, Susan E; Farrell, Lydia; Tukwasibwe, Stephen; Jayaraman, Jyothi; Traherne, James A; Trowsdale, John; Colucci, Francesco; Lougee, Emma; Vaughan, Robert W; Elliott, Alison M; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Mirembe, Florence; Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Parham, Peter; Norman, Paul J; Moffett, Ashley

2015-01-20

 
 
 
 
221

Control of meningococcal meningitis outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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Outbreaks of Neisseria meningitidis recur frequently in the African Sahel where they are responsible for high mortality and morbidity, especially in children. An effective vaccine has been in existence for more than 30 years, but despite this, the control of epidemics has failed. Moreover, the geographical distribution of N. meningitidis seems to be increasing, perhaps because of climate change but also because of the economic crisis which prevails throughout much of Africa leading to population movements and the breakdown of essential services. Although alarming, the emergence of new serogroups in recent epidemics (such as serogroups X and W135) should not mask the fact that serogroup A remains the most common meningococcal isolate from meningitis cases and is therefore the most significant target for control. The development of a low-cost conjugate meningococcal vaccine should support a strategy of preventive immunization, as this strategy is one that appears most effective to control this plague. PMID:19745499

Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

2008-01-01

222

Mental and Substance Use Disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa: Predictions of Epidemiological Changes and Mental Health Workforce Requirements for the Next 40 Years  

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The world is undergoing a rapid health transition, with an ageing population and disease burden increasingly defined by disability. In Sub-Saharan Africa the next 40 years are predicted to see reduced mortality, signalling a surge in the impact of chronic diseases. We modelled these epidemiological changes and associated mental health workforce requirements. Years lived with a disability (YLD) predictions for mental and substance use disorders for each decade from 2010 to 2050 for four Sub-Sa...

Charlson, Fiona J.; Diminic, Sandra; Lund, Crick; Degenhardt, Louisa; Whiteford, Harvey A.

2014-01-01

223

Off-grid rural electrification planning in Sub-Saharan Africa using renewable energy systems: the case of photovoltaics in the Republic of Djibouti  

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Over the past 40 years, growth of renewable energies benefited of the new world energy frame, which resulted of the questioning about what development of human societies had to be. Furthermore, although human development comes with electricity, the rural condition of many populations of Sub-Saharan Africa incites us to look for suitable power supply alternatives. Eventually, in this specific context, renewable energies can represent a reliable solution to the off-grid electrification of rural...

Pillot, Benjamin

2014-01-01

224

Towards control of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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Approximately 80% of the 200 million people infected with schistosomiasis inhabit sub-Saharan Africa, and the annual mortality is estimated to be 280,000. Praziquantel is the drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis and pregnant women may now be treated. It was agreed at the World Health Assembly in 2001 that at least 75% of school-aged children in high burden areas should be treated for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections by 2010 to reduce morbidity. A grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London has enabled control programmes to be initiated in Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali. Additional programmes have recently commenced in Zanzibar with a grant from the Health Foundation to The Natural History Museum, London and in Cameroon. Combination treatment for schistosomiasis, gastrointestinal helminths and filariasis reduces costs of control programmes. The EC Concerted Action Group on 'Praziquantel: its central role in the chemotherapy of schistosome infection' met in Yaoundé Cameroon in 2004 to discuss recent developments in laboratory and field studies. The use of standard operating procedures will enable data on drug action on schistosomes produced in different laboratories to be compared. With the ever increasing use of praziquantel there is a possibility of the development of resistance by schistosomes to the drug, hence the necessity to explore the activities of other compounds. Artemether, unlike praziquantel, is effective against immature schistosomes. The effectiveness of mirazid, an extract of myrrh, is controversial as data from different laboratories are equivocal. It is suggested that an independent body such as the World Health Organization should determine whether mirazid should be used in the treatment of schistosomiasis. PMID:16153310

Southgate, V R; Rollinson, D; Tchuem Tchuenté, L A; Hagan, P

2005-09-01

225

Environmental heterogeneity predicts species richness of freshwater mollusks in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Species diversity and how it is structured on a continental scale is influenced by stochastic, ecological, and evolutionary driving forces, but hypotheses on determining factors have been mainly examined for terrestrial and marine organisms. The extant diversity of African freshwater mollusks is in general well assessed to facilitate conservation strategies and because of the medical importance of several taxa as intermediate hosts for tropical parasites. This historical accumulation of knowledge has, however, not resulted in substantial macroecological studies on the spatial distribution of freshwater mollusks. Here, we use continental distribution data and a recently developed method of random and cohesive allocation of species distribution ranges to test the relative importance of various factors in shaping species richness of Bivalvia and Gastropoda. We show that the mid-domain effect, that is, a hump-shaped richness gradient in a geographically bounded system despite the absence of environmental gradients, plays a minor role in determining species richness of freshwater mollusks in sub-Saharan Africa. The western branch of the East African Rift System was included as dispersal barrier in richness models, but these simulation results did not fit observed diversity patterns significantly better than models where this effect was not included, which suggests that the rift has played a more complex role in generating diversity patterns. Present-day precipitation and temperature explain richness patterns better than Eemian climatic condition. Therefore, the availability of water and energy for primary productivity during the past does not influence current species richness patterns much, and observed diversity patterns appear to be in equilibrium with contemporary climate. The availability of surface waters was the best predictor of bivalve and gastropod richness. Our data indicate that habitat diversity causes the observed species-area relationship, and hence, that environmental heterogeneity is a principal driver of freshwater mollusk richness on a continental scale.

Hauffe, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Van Bocxlaer, B.; Prömmel, K.; Albrecht, C.

2014-12-01

226

Climate Change and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review  

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Full Text Available In recent years it has become clear that climate change is an inevitable process. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the expectation is that climate change will have an especially negative impact, not only a result of projected warming and rainfall deficits, but also because of the vulnerability of the population. The impact upon food security will be of great significance, and may be defined as being composed of three components: availability, access, and utilization. To further investigate the link, a systematic literature review was done of the peer-reviewed literature related to climate change and food security, employing the realist review method. Analysis of the literature found consistent predictions of decreased crop productivity, land degradation, high market prices, negative impacts on livelihoods, and increased malnutrition. Adaptation strategies were heavily discussed as a means of mitigating a situation of severe food insecurity across the entire region. This is linked to issues of development, whereby adaptation is essential to counteract the negative impacts and improve the potential of the population to undergo development processes. Findings additionally revealed a gap in the literature about how nutrition will be affected, which is of importance given the links between poor nutrition and lack of productivity.

Heather E. Thompson

2010-08-01

227

Priority interventions to reduce HIV transmission in sex work settings in sub-Saharan Africa and delivery of these services  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Virtually no African country provides HIV prevention services in sex work settings with an adequate scale and intensity. Uncertainty remains about the optimal set of interventions and mode of delivery. Methods: We systematically reviewed studies reporting interventions for reducing HIV transmission among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa between January 2000 and July 2011. Medline (PubMed and non-indexed journals were searched for studies with quantitative study outcomes. Results: We located 26 studies, including seven randomized trials. Evidence supports implementation of the following interventions to reduce unprotected sex among female sex workers: peer-mediated condom promotion, risk-reduction counselling and skills-building for safer sex. One study found that interventions to counter hazardous alcohol-use lowered unprotected sex. Data also show effectiveness of screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs and syndromic STI treatment, but experience with periodic presumptive treatment is limited. HIV testing and counselling is essential for facilitating sex workers’ access to care and antiretroviral treatment (ART, but testing models for sex workers and indeed for ART access are little studied, as are structural interventions, which create conditions conducive for risk reduction. With the exception of Senegal, persistent criminalization of sex work across Africa reduces sex workers’ control over working conditions and impedes their access to health services. It also obstructs health-service provision and legal protection. Conclusions: There is sufficient evidence of effectiveness of targeted interventions with female sex workers in Africa to inform delivery of services for this population. With improved planning and political will, services – including peer interventions, condom promotion and STI screening – would act at multiple levels to reduce HIV exposure and transmission efficiency among sex workers. Initiatives are required to enhance access to HIV testing and ART for sex workers, using current CD4 thresholds, or possibly earlier for prevention. Services implemented at sufficient scale and intensity also serve as a platform for subsequent community mobilization and sex worker empowerment, and alleviate a major source of incident infection sustaining even generalized HIV epidemics. Ultimately, structural and legal changes that align public health and human rights are needed to ensure that sex workers on the continent are adequately protected from HIV.

Matthew F Chersich

2013-03-01

228

New technologies to diagnose and monitor infectious diseases of livestock: Challenges for sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Using foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) as an example, this review describes new tools that can be used to detect and characterise livestock diseases. In recent years, molecular tests that can detect and characterise pathogens in a diverse range of sample types have revolutionised laboratory diagnostics. [...] In addition to use in centralised laboratories, there are opportunities to locate diagnostic technologies close to the animals with suspected clinical signs. Work in this area has developed simple-to-use lateral-flow devices for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV), as well as new hardware platforms to allow molecular testing to be deployed into the field for use by non-specialists. Once FMDV has been detected, nucleotide sequencing is used to compare field strains with reference viruses. Transboundary movements of FMDV are routinely monitored using VP1 sequence data, while higher resolution transmission trees (at the farm-to-farm level) can be reconstructed using full-genome sequencing approaches. New technologies such as next-generation sequencing technologies are now being applied to dissect the viral sequence populations that exist within single samples. The driving force for the use of these technologies has largely been influenced by the priorities of developed countries with FMD-free (without vaccination) status. However, it is important to recognise that these approaches also show considerable promise for use in countries where FMD is endemic, although further modifications (such as sample archiving and strain and serotype characterisation) may be required to tailor these tests for use in these regions. Access to these new diagnostic and sequencing technologies in sub-Saharan Africa have the potential to provide novel insights into FMD epidemiology and will impact upon improved strategies for disease control. Effective control of infectious diseases is reliant upon accurate diagnosis of clinical cases using laboratory tests, together with an understanding of factors that impact upon the epidemiology of the infectious agent. A wide range of new diagnostic tools and nucleotide sequencing methods are used by international reference laboratories to detect and characterise the agents causing outbreaks of infectious diseases. In the past, high costs (initial capital expenses, as well as day-to-day maintenance and running costs) and complexity of the protocols used to perform some of these tests have limited the use of these methods in smaller laboratories. However, simpler and more cost-effective formats are now being developed that offer the prospect that these technologies will be even more widely deployed into laboratories particularly those in developing regions of the world such as sub-Saharan Africa.

Donald P., King; Miki, Madi; Valerie, Mioulet; Jemma, Wadsworth; Caroline F., Wright; Bego& #241; a, Valdazo-González; Nigel P., Ferris; Nick J., Knowles; Jef, Hammond.

229

Operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa: constraints, dilemmas and strategies  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The continued poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa highlight the difficulties in reforming policies and laws, and implementing effective programmes. This paper uses one international and two national case studies to reflect on the challenges, dilemmas and strategies used in operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR in different African contexts. Methods The international case study focuses on the progress made by African countries in implementing the African Union’s Maputo Plan of Action (for the Operationalisation of the Continental Policy Framework for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights and the experiences of state and non-state stakeholders in this process. The case was developed from an evaluation report of the progress made by nine African countries in implementing the Plan of Action, qualitative interviews exploring stakeholders’ experiences and perceptions of the operationalisation of the plan (carried out as part of the evaluation in Botswana and Nigeria, and authors’ reflections. The first national case study explores the processes involved in influencing Ghana’s Domestic Violence Act passed in 2007; developed from a review of scientific papers and organisational publications on the processes involved in influencing the Act, qualitative interview data and authors’ reflections. The second national case study examines the experiences with introducing the 2006 Sexual Offences Act in Kenya, and it is developed from organisational publications on the processes of enacting the Act and a review of media reports on the debates and passing of the Act. Results Based on the three cases, we argue that prohibitive laws and governments’ reluctance to institute and implement comprehensive rights approaches to SRH, lack of political leadership and commitment to funding SRHR policies and programmes, and dominant negative cultural framing of women’s issues present the major obstacles to operationalising SRH rights. Analysis of successes points to the strategies for tackling these challenges, which include forming and working through strategic coalitions, employing strategic framing of SRHR issues to counter opposition and gain support, collaborating with government, and employing strategic opportunism. Conclusion The strategies identified show future pathways through which challenges to the realisation of SRHR in Africa can be tackled.

Oronje Rose

2011-12-01

230

Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

Gulinck Hubert

2008-10-01

231

Trends in the control of theileriosis in sub-Saharan Africa : tick-borne diseases  

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Full Text Available The declining efficacy of acaricide treatment as a means of reducing the prevalence of Theileria parva infections in sub-Saharan Africa has intensified efforts to achieve control through immunization of susceptible cattle. The infection and treatment method of immunization has enjoyed a resurgence with the availability of more effective cold chain facilities, although concerns remain regarding the possibility of vaccine strains spreading in local tick populations. In addition, an in-depth understanding of protective mechanisms deployed by immune cattle and the antigens targeted by them has led to substantial progress in the development of candidate subunit vaccines against both sporozoite and schizont stages of the parasite. The likely success of these vaccines, as well as infection and treatment immunization, will ultimately depend on the extent to which they disturb the endemic status of the parasite. These issues are discussed in the light of recent information on the genotypic diversity of T. parva in the field and the extent to which this is compromised by the immune response.

D. McKeever

2010-09-01

232

The role of seizure disorders in burn injury and outcome in sub-saharan Africa.  

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Patients with epilepsy have higher incidence and severity of burn injury. Few studies describe the association between epilepsy and burns in low-income settings, where epilepsy burden is highest. The authors compared patients with and without seizure disorder in a burn unit in Lilongwe, Malawi. The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted to the Kamuzu Central Hospital burn ward from July 2011 to December 2012. Descriptive analysis of patient characteristics and unadjusted and adjusted analyses of risk factors for mortality were conducted for patients with and without seizure disorder. Prevalence of seizure disorder was 10.7% in the study population. Adults with burns were more likely to have seizure disorder than children. Flame injury was most common in patients with seizure disorder, whereas scalds predominated among patients without seizure disorder. Whereas mortality did not differ between the groups, mean length of stay was longer for patients with seizure disorder, 42.1 days vs 21.6 days. Seizure disorder continues to be a significant risk factor for burn injury in adults in Malawi. Efforts to mitigate epilepsy will likely lead to significant decreases in burns among adults in Sub-Saharan Africa and must be included in an overall burn prevention strategy in our environment. PMID:24918949

Boschini, Laura P; Tyson, Anna F; Samuel, Jonathan C; Kendig, Claire E; Mjuweni, Stephano; Varela, Carlos; Cairns, Bruce A; Charles, Anthony G

2014-01-01

233

Dynamic Predictions of Crop Yield and Irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa Due to Climate Change Impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

The highest damages from climate change are predicted to be in the agricultural sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Agriculture is predicted to be especially vulnerable in this region because of its current state of high temperature and low precipitation and because it is usually rain-fed or relies on relatively basic technologies which therefore limit its ability to sustain in increased poor climatic conditions [1]. The goal of this research is to quantify the vulnerability of this ecosystem by projecting future changes in agriculture due to IPCC predicted climate change impacts on precipitation and temperature. This research will provide a better understanding of the relationship between precipitation and rain-fed agriculture in savannas. In order to quantify the effects of climate change on agriculture, the impacts of climate change are modeled through the use of a land surface vegetation dynamics model previously developed combined with a crop model [2,4]. In this project, it will be used to model yield for point cropland locations within sub-Saharan Africa between Kenya and Botswana with a range of annual rainfall. With this model, future projections are developed for what can be anticipated for the crop yield based on two precipitation climate change scenarios; (1) decreased depth and (2) decreased frequency as well as temperature change scenarios; (3) only temperature increased, (4) temperature increase dand decreased precipitation depth, and (5) temperature increased and decreased precipitation frequency. Therefore, this will allow conclusions to be drawn about how mean precipitation and a changing climate effect food security in sub-Saharan Africa. As an additional analysis, irrigation is added to the model as it is thought to be the solution to protect food security by maximizing on the potential of food production. In water-limited areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa, it is important to consider water efficient irrigation techniques such as demand-based micro-irrigation where less water is lost to evaporative demand. Demand-based irrigation is based on two main parameters; a trigger level, to initiate the irrigation, and a target level to calculate the amount of irrigation [3]. In order to understand the impact of these two parameters on amount of irrigated water and yield, irrigation is added to the model with variations of these two parameters considered. This analysis will provide the information needed to understand whether irrigation is a feasible and sustainable solution to the loss of food production due to climate change. Resources: [1]Kurukulasuriya, P., and Mendelsohn, Robert (2008). "A Ricardian analysis of the impact of climate change on African cropland." African Journal Agriculture and Resource Economics 02(1). [2]Raes, D., Steduto, P., Hsiao, T., and Fereres, E. (2011). Chapter 3: Calculation Procedure. . AquaCrop Reference Manual Version 3.1 Plus. [3]Vico, G. and A. Porporato (2011). "From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: I. A generalized irrigation scheme with stochastic soil moisture." Advances in Water Resources 34(2): 263-271. [4]Williams, C., and Albertson, J. (2005). "Contrasting Short- and Long-Timescale Effects of Vegetation Dynamics on Water and Carbon Fluxes in Water-Limited Ecosystems." Water Resources Research. 41: 1-13

Foster-Wittig, T.

2012-12-01

234

Foreign agricultural land acquisition and the visibility of water resource impacts in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available The many headlines focusing on 'land grabbing' have distracted attention from the role that access to water plays in underpinning the projected productivity of foreign direct investment in acquisition of agricultural land in developing countries. This paper identifies questions that arise about the explicit and implicit water requirements for irrigation in agricultural projects on land that is subject to such foreign investment deals. It focuses particularly on land acquisition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where, for savanna ecosystems that cover some two thirds of the region, rainfall uncertainty is the principal constraint to increased agricultural productivity. The paper argues that, even where land acquisition deals do not specify irrigation, choice of location and/or crop type indicates this is invariably an implicit requirement of projects. It is arguable that private investment in water infrastructure (e.g. for water storage could provide wider benefits to neighbouring small-scale producers, thus reducing the risk inherent in much of African agriculture. However, it is also possible that foreign investment may compete with existing water use, and some land deals have included provisions for priority access to water in cases of scarcity. Empirical studies are used to identify the mechanisms through which large-scale land investments influence water availability for smaller-scale land users. The paper concludes that, although effects on water resources may constitute one of the main impacts of land deals, this is likely to be obscured by the lack of transparency over water requirements of agricultural projects and the invisibility of much existing local agricultural water management to government planning agencies.

Philip Woodhouse

2012-06-01

235

The relationship between female genital mutilation and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an age-old practice that has since been linked with many health problems. This review aims to highlight some of the controversies trailing the relationship between FGM and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. A literature search was conducted on the subject matter. This was done using articles published in English while limiting the geographical coverage to sub-Saharan Africa. Three themes were noted. These themes include: Direct causal link between FGM and HIV transmission; indirect causal link between FGM and HIV transmission and a negative or no association between FGM and HIV transmission. While many of the arguments are within scientific reasoning, the researches supporting the views seem to lack the necessary objectivity. This study underscored the need for a more objective lens in viewing and conducting research on the relationship between FGM and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24689327

Olaniran, Abimbola A

2013-12-01

236

State Recognition and Democratization in Sub-Saharan Africa : A New Dawn for Chiefs?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

State Recognition and Democractization in Sub-Saharan Africa? explores the link between liberal-style democratization and state recognition of traditional authority in Sub-Saharan Africa. Being critical and empirically grounded, the book explores the complex, often counter-balancing consequences of the involvement of traditional authority in the wave of democratization and liberal-style state-building that has rolled over sub-Saharan Africa in the past decade. It scrutinizes how, in practice, traditional leaders are being drawn into governance in Mozambique, Zambia, Namibia, Malawi, Burkina Faso, and the Somali region of Ethiopia, and relates these developments to state governance in the declining democracy of Zimbabwe and the emerging state of Northern Somalia.

Buur, Lars; Kyed, Helene Maria

2007-01-01

237

Abortion and contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa: how women plan their families.  

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Based on available evidence, this review article posits that contemporary use of abortion in sub-Saharan Africa often substitutes for and sometimes surpasses modern contraceptive practice. Some studies and some data sets indicate that this occurs not only among adolescents but also within older age groups. In several sub-Saharan cities, particularly where contraceptive use is low and access to clinical abortion is high (though largely illegal), abortion appears to be the method of choice for limiting or spacing births. Even in rural areas, women may regularly resort to abortion, often using extremely unsafe procedures, instead of contraception. Available data seem to indicate that relatively high levels of abortion correlate with low access to modern contraception, low status of women, strong sanctions against out-of-wedlock pregnancy, traditional tolerance of abortion, and availability of modern abortion practices. Abortion has been and will likely continue to be used to plan families within much of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21987933

Lauro, Don

2011-03-01

238

An evaluation of a morphine public health programme for cancer and AIDS pain relief in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite growing HIV and cancer prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa, and WHO advocacy for a public health approach to palliative care provision, opioid availability is severely limited. Uganda has achieved a morphine roll-out programme in partnership with the Ministry of Health. This study aimed to evaluate that programme by identifying challenges to implementation that may inform replication. Methods A multi-methods protocol appraised morphine regulation, storage, prescribing, and consumption in three phases: key informant interviews throughout the opioid supply chain, and direct observation and audit of clinical practice. Results Regulation had achieved its goal of preventing misuse and leakage from the supply chain. However, the Government felt that relaxation of regulation was now appropriate. Confusion and complexity in storage and authorisation rules led to discontinuation of opioid pain management at the patient level and also wasted service time in trying to obtain supplies to which they were entitled. Continued neglect to prescribe among clinicians and public fear of opioids led to under prescribing, and clinical skills showed some evidence of need for improvement with respect to physical assessment and follow-up. Conclusion The Ugandan programme offers a successful model for both advocacy and Governmental support in achieving opioid roll-out across health districts. Despite initial concerns, abuse of opioids has not been evident. Further work is required to ensure that available supplies of opioids are prescribed to those in need, and that clinical standards are met. However, the programme for roll-out has proved a useful model to expand opioid availability as the first step in improving patient care, and may prove a useful template for other Sub-Saharan African countries.

Harding Richard

2005-08-01

239

Demand for products of irrigated agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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If irrigated production is to make a significant contribution to food security and economic growth in Sub Saharan Africa, it will have to be re-structured across the region as a whole. This is the main conclusion of a study undertaken by FAO to analyse the drivers of demand for irrigated production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Steeply rising commercial food import bills for staple crops across SSA are indicative of the level demand that is not being met from domestic production. The increase ...

Riddell, P. J.; Westlake, Michael; Burke, Jacob J.

2012-01-01

240

Regional economic integration in sub-Saharan Africa  

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The issue of regional integration has acquired a new relevance and urgency in Africa due to wide-reaching national and global changes. African leaders' commitment to regional economic integration was clearly expressed during the June 1991 OAU summit meeting in Abuja, Nigeria. On that occasion, they signed a treaty to establish an African Economic Community (AEC) by the year 2025. This chapter reviews the various regional integration schemes that came into existence in the aftermath of indepen...

Konings, P. J. J.; Meilink, H. A.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Smallholder Irrigation and Crop Diversification under Climate Change in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence and Potential for Simultaneous Food Security, Adaptation, and Mitigation  

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The poorest populations in sub-Saharan Africa live in rural areas and depend on smallholder agricultural production for their livelihoods. Over 90% of all farmed area in Sub-Saharan Africa is rainfed, with crop production centering on 3-5 months of rainfall. Rapid population growth is reducing land per capita ratios, and low yields for staple crops make food security an increasingly challenging goal. Malnutrition, most noticeable among children, peaks during the dry season. Recent data on aggregate economic growth and investment in Africa hide these patterns of seasonal hunger and income disparity. Perhaps most perversely, smallholder farmers in the dry tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa are (and will continue to be) some of the earliest and hardest hit by climate change. Our research focuses on the role distributed, small-scale irrigation can play in food security and climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa. As Asia's agricultural success has demonstrated, irrigation, when combined with the availability of inputs (fertilizer) and improved crop varieties, can enable year-round production, growth in rural incomes, and a dramatic reduction in hunger. The situation in Africa is markedly different: agroecological conditions are far more heterogeneous than in Asia and evaporation rates are relatively high; most smallholders lack access to fertilizers; and market integration is constrained by infrastructure, information, and private sector incentives. Yet from a resource perspective, national- and regional-level estimates suggest that Internal Renewable Water Resources (IRWR) are nowhere near fully exploited in Sub-Saharan Africa -- even in the Sudano-Sahel, which is considered to be one of the driest regions of the continent. Irrigation can thus be implemented on a much larger scale sustainably. We will present (a) results from controlled, experimental field studies of solar-powered drip irrigation systems in the rural Sudano-Sahel region of West Africa. We have shown that such systems can be implemented in a cost-competitive and environmentally responsible manner, with significant and sustained impact on livelihoods. These findings will be coupled with (b) case studies of successful and failed irrigation projects across the continent that reveal technical and institutional requirements for success; and (c) regional and continental data that quantify the larger-scale food security, development, adaptation, and mitigation potentials of these types of smallholder systems.

Naylor, R.; Burney, J. A.; Postel, S.

2011-12-01

242

The challenges of managing breast cancer in the developing world - a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Communicable diseases are the major cause of mortality in lower-income countries. Consequently, local and international resources are channelled mainly into addressing the impact of these conditions. HIV, however, is being successfully treated, people are living longer, and disease patterns are chan [...] ging. As populations age, the incidence of cancer inevitably increases. The World Health Organization has predicted a dramatic increase in global cancer cases during the next 15 years, the majority of which will occur in low- and middle-income countries. Cancer treatment is expensive and complex and in the developing world 5% of global cancer funds are spent on 70% of cancer cases. This paper reviews the challenges of managing breast cancer in the developing world, using sub-Saharan Africa as a model.

J, Edge; I, Buccimazza; H, Cubasch; E, Panieri.

2014-05-01

243

How many births in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia will not be attended by a skilled birth attendant between 2011 and 2015?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The fifth Millennium Development Goal target for 90% of births in low and middle income countries to have a skilled birth attendant (SBA by 2015 will not be met. In response to this, policy has focused on increasing SBA access. However, reducing maternal mortality also requires policies to prevent deaths among women giving birth unattended. We aimed to generate estimates of the absolute number of non-SBA births between 2011 and 2015 in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, given optimistic assumptions of future trends in SBA attendance. These estimates could be used by decision makers to inform the extent to which reductions in maternal mortality will depend on policies aimed specifically at those women giving birth unattended. Methods For each country within South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa we estimated recent trends in SBA attendance and used these as the basis for three increasingly optimistic projections for future changes in SBA attendance. For each country we obtained estimates for the current SBA attendance in rural and urban settings and forecasts for the number of births and changes in rural/urban population over 2011-2015. Based on these, we calculated estimates for the number of non-SBA births for 2011-2015 under a variety of scenarios. Results Conservative estimates are that there will be between 130 and 180 million non-SBA births in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa from 2011 to 2015 (90% of these in rural areas. Currently, there are more non-SBA births per year in South Asia than sub-Saharan Africa, but our projections suggest that the regions will have approximately the same number of non-SBA births by 2015. We also present results for each of the six countries currently accounting for more than 50% of global maternal deaths. Conclusions Over the next five years, many millions of women within South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa will give birth without an SBA. Efforts to improve access to skilled attendance should be accompanied by interventions to improve the safety of non-attended deliveries.

Crowe Sonya

2012-01-01

244

Pedagogical Renewal for Quality Universal Primary Education: Overview of Trends in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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This article assumes that pedagogical renewal and teacher development are two sides of the same coin, and that the achievement of a universal primary education that is equitable and of acceptable quality in Sub-Saharan Africa will depend to a large extent on both. The need for pedagogical renewal stems from the evidence that (i) teaching is…

Dembele, Martial; Lefoka, Pulane

2007-01-01

245

Trilingualism in Language Planning for Education in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

A three-language model for language education in Sub-Saharan Africa is outlined. The three languages would be the local community language, a major language chosen to be the "lingua franca" of a region, and the official language to be used country-wide. The model is developed to include the following factors: ethnic, linguistic, geographical,…

Brann, C. M. B.

246

Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations  

CERN Document Server

A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

Blaha, S

2003-01-01

247

Household Composition among Elders in Sub-Saharan Africa in the Context of HIV/AIDS  

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Cross-sectional and repeated surveys from household components of Demographic and Health Surveys in sub-Saharan Africa were examined to determine whether household composition indicators for older adults (N = 52,573), involving offspring and grandchildren, correlated with national levels of AIDS mortality. One in 4 was living with a grandchild…

Zimmer, Zachary

2009-01-01

248

Library Automation in Sub Saharan Africa: Case Study of the University of Botswana  

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Purpose: This article aims to present experiences and the lessons learned from the University of Botswana (UB) library automation project. The implications of the project for similar libraries planning automation in sub Saharan Africa and beyond are adduced. Design/methodology/approach: The article is a case study of library automation at the…

Mutula, Stephen Mudogo

2012-01-01

249

Tackling post-harvest cereal losses in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Post-harvest loss reduction raises food availability without increasing the use of land, water and agricultural inputs. This article refers to the case of grain to show the hurdles that farmers have to clear in taking measures to reduce losses and suggests ways that post-harvest practitioners can target mitigating actions in sub-Saharan Africa.

Hodges, Rick; Bennett, Ben; Bernard, Marc; Rembold, Felix

2013-01-01

250

The impact of solar ultraviolet radiation on human health in sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Photoprotection messages and 'SunSmart' programmes exist mainly to prevent skin cancers and, more recently, to encourage adequate personal sun exposure to elicit a vitamin D response for healthy bone and immune systems. Several developed countries maintain intensive research networks and monitor sol [...] ar UV radiation to support awareness campaigns and intervention development. The situation is different in sub-Saharan Africa. Adequate empirical evidence of the impact of solar UV radiation on human health, even for melanomas and cataracts, is lacking, and is overshadowed by other factors such as communicable diseases, especially HIV, AIDS and tuberculosis. In addition, the established photoprotection messages used in developed countries have been adopted and implemented in a limited number of sub-Saharan countries but with minimal understanding of local conditions and behaviours. In this review, we consider the current evidence for sun-related effects on human health in sub-Saharan Africa, summarise published research and identify key issues. Data on the prevalence of human diseases affected by solar UV radiation in all subpopulations are not generally available, financial support is insufficient and the infrastructure to address these and other related topics is inadequate. Despite these limitations, considerable progress may be made regarding the management of solar UV radiation related health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, provided researchers collaborate and resources are allocated appropriately.

Caradee Y., Wright; Mary, Norval; Beverley, Summers; Lester, Davids; Gerrie, Coetzee; Matthew O., Oriowo.

251

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Need for Better Evidence  

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Robert Fryatt and colleagues argue for more attention to climate change in sub-Saharan Africa, a region that has contributed the least greenhouse gas emissions to the world's total but is more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change than any other.

Kula, Nothemba; Haines, Andy; Fryatt, Robert

2013-01-01

252

Mobile Phone-Based mHealth Approaches for Public Health Surveillance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review  

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Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM), BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC), the Public Library of Science (PLoS) and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3), tuberculosis (n = 1) and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1) as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2), maternal health (n = 1) and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1). Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region. PMID:25396767

Brinkel, Johanna; Krämer, Alexander; Krumkamp, Ralf; May, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius

2014-01-01

253

Mobile Phone-Based mHealth Approaches for Public Health Surveillance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review  

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Full Text Available Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM, BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC, the Public Library of Science (PLoS and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3, tuberculosis (n = 1 and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1 as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2, maternal health (n = 1 and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1. Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

Johanna Brinkel

2014-11-01

254

The future role of hydro-electricity in Sub-Saharan Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroelectric power currently supplies 56-93% of the electricity requirements of the different geographic areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and accounted for 73% of total requirements in 1980. The continent is richly endowed with hydro resources in all areas, with central Africa possessing the most abundant reserves. Existing installed hydro capacity is 13,500 MW and of the total technical resource of 290,000 MW, some 110,000 MW are estimated to constitute the potential that warrants investigation. The demand for electricity in the region is presently low and growing at 5-10%/y. It is projected to double from 47,000 GWh in 1980 to 110,000-170,000 GWh by the year 2000, and is likely to double again by 2020. Hydro reserves warranting investigation exceed the demand projected for the year 2000 by a ratio of over 3:1 and only 13 countries out of 36 have a ratio less than one. A large proportion of these reserves are estimated to be economic to develop relative to other means of power generation. The development of hydro resources should maintain the proportion of the demand met by hydro in the range of 60-75% well into the 21st century. The existing installed capacity is likely to be increased at the rate of 3,000-5,000 MW per decade to achieve this. Constraints on such increase include the large amounts of capital needed, environmental issues, the need to displace populations affected by flooding, and fluctuations in the oil price which make long-term planning uncertain. 5 refh make long-term planning uncertain. 5 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs

255

Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation. This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation. The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania, Acorn Technologies (South Africa, Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa, the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar, the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya, and Niprisan’s development by Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria. All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems. For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While this is a long-term strategy, this series shows the potential of African-led innovation, and indicates how it might balance realism against opportunity. There is ample scope to learn lessons more systematically from cases like those we discuss; to link entrepreneurs, scientists, funders, and policy-makers into a network to share opportunities and challenges; and ultimately to better support and stimulate African-led health innovation.

Daar Abdallah S

2010-12-01

256

African Art, African Voices  

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This website created by the Philadelphia Museum of Art complements an exhibition that "surveys the artistic achievements of just a few of the many cultures of sub-Saharan Africa" organized by the Seattle Art Museum, using artifacts from its African collections. The largest section of the Web site, African Voices, features interviews with African artists, art historians and others, focusing on particular aspects of African cultures. For example, Hannah Kema Foday, a Mende woman from Segbwema, southwestern Sierra Leone, now living in New York city, speaks about Sowei masks and initiation for girls into womanhood. The other two sections - African Art in Motion and Contemporary African Art, show the expressive use of figures in African sculpture and the work of modern African artists, living in Africa and all over the world, respectively.

257

Giving tranexamic acid to reduce surgical bleeding in sub-Saharan Africa: an economic evaluation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of safe and effective alternatives to blood transfusion is a public health priority. In sub-Saharan Africa, blood shortage is a cause of mortality and morbidity. Blood transfusion can also transmit viral infections. Giving tranexamic acid (TXA to bleeding surgical patients has been shown to reduce both the number of blood transfusions and the volume of blood transfused. The objective of this study is to investigate whether routinely administering TXA to bleeding elective surgical patients is cost effective by both averting deaths occurring from the shortage of blood, and by preventing infections from blood transfusions. Methods A decision tree was constructed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of providing TXA compared with no TXA in patients with surgical bleeding in four African countries with different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence and blood donation rates (Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Botswana. The principal outcome measures were cost per life saved and cost per infection averted (HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C averted in 2007 International dollars ($. The probability of receiving a blood transfusion with and without TXA and the risk of blood borne viral infection were estimated. The impact of uncertainty in model parameters was explored using one-way deterministic sensitivity analyses. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation. Results The incremental cost per life saved is $87 for Kenya and $93 for Tanzania. In Botswana and South Africa, TXA administration is not life saving but is highly cost saving since fewer units of blood are transfused. Further, in Botswana the administration of TXA averts one case of HIV and four cases of Hepatitis B (HBV per 1,000 surgical patients. In South Africa, one case of HBV is averted per 1,000 surgical patients. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the model. Conclusion An economic argument can be made for giving TXA to bleeding elective surgical patients. In countries where there is a blood shortage, TXA would be a cost effective way to reduce mortality. In countries where there is no blood shortage, TXA would reduce healthcare costs and avert blood borne infections.

Perel Pablo

2010-02-01

258

Community case management of childhood illness in sub–Saharan Africa – findings from a cross–sectional survey on policy and implementation  

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Background Community case management (CCM) involves training, supporting, and supplying community health workers (CHWs) to assess, classify and manage sick children with limited access to care at health facilities, in their communities. This paper aims to provide an overview of the status in 2013 of CCM policy and implementation in sub–Saharan African countries. Methods We undertook a cross–sectional, descriptive, quantitative survey amongst technical officers in Ministries of Health and UNICEF offices in 2013. The survey aim was to describe CCM policy and implementation in 45 countries in sub–Saharan Africa, focusing on: CHW profile, CHW activities, and financing. Results 42 countries responded. 35 countries in sub–Saharan Africa reported implementing CCM for diarrhoea, 33 for malaria, 28 for pneumonia, 6 for neonatal sepsis, 31 for malnutrition and 28 for integrated CCM (treatment of 3 conditions: diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia) – an increase since 2010. In 27 countries, volunteers were providing CCM, compared to 14 countries with paid CHWs. User fees persisted for CCM in 6 countries and mark–ups on commodities in 10 countries. Most countries had a national policy, memo or written guidelines for CCM implementation for diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia, with 20 countries having this for neonatal sepsis. Most countries plan gradual expansion of CCM but many countries’ plans were dependent on development partners. A large group of countries had no plans for CCM for neonatal sepsis. Conclusion 28 countries in sub–Saharan Africa now report implementing CCM for pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria, or “iCCM”. Most countries have developed some sort of written basis for CCM activities, yet the scale of implementation varies widely, so a focus on implementation is now required, including monitoring and evaluation of performance, quality and impact. There is also scope for expansion for newborn care. Key issues include financing and sustainability (with development partners still providing most funding), gaps in data on CCM activities, and the persistence of user fees and mark–ups in several countries. National health management information systems should also incorporate CCM activities. PMID:25520791

Rasanathan, Kumanan; Muñiz, Maria; Bakshi, Salina; Kumar, Meghan; Solano, Agnes; Kariuki, Wanjiku; George, Asha; Sylla, Mariame; Nefdt, Rory; Young, Mark; Diaz, Theresa

2014-01-01

259

Analytically Derived Neighborhoods in a Rapidly Growing West African City: The Case of Accra, Ghana.  

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Large numbers of people are currently migrating from the poor, inland areas of West Coast Africa to the major cities of Lagos, Accra, Abidjan, and other budding metropolises (Figures 1 and 2). The infrastructure of the Sub-Saharan African cities is inadequate to service their burgeoning populations. An argument is presented for using scientifically derived neighborhoods as the building blocks for current African urban understanding and planning. In this paper, I will explore the neighborhood concept and use available data and new heterogeneity statistics to derive homogeneous neighborhoods. The statistics are explained and maps of Accra neighborhoods are given. PMID:25435640

Getis, Arthur

2015-01-01

260

Y-chromosome and mtDNA genetics reveal significant contrasts in affinities of modern Middle Eastern populations with European and African populations.  

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The Middle East was a funnel of human expansion out of Africa, a staging area for the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, and the home to some of the earliest world empires. Post LGM expansions into the region and subsequent population movements created a striking genetic mosaic with distinct sex-based genetic differentiation. While prior studies have examined the mtDNA and Y-chromosome contrast in focal populations in the Middle East, none have undertaken a broad-spectrum survey including North and sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Middle Eastern populations. In this study 5,174 mtDNA and 4,658 Y-chromosome samples were investigated using PCA, MDS, mean-linkage clustering, AMOVA, and Fisher exact tests of F(ST)'s, R(ST)'s, and haplogroup frequencies. Geographic differentiation in affinities of Middle Eastern populations with Africa and Europe showed distinct contrasts between mtDNA and Y-chromosome data. Specifically, Lebanon's mtDNA shows a very strong association to Europe, while Yemen shows very strong affinity with Egypt and North and East Africa. Previous Y-chromosome results showed a Levantine coastal-inland contrast marked by J1 and J2, and a very strong North African component was evident throughout the Middle East. Neither of these patterns were observed in the mtDNA. While J2 has penetrated into Europe, the pattern of Y-chromosome diversity in Lebanon does not show the widespread affinities with Europe indicated by the mtDNA data. Lastly, while each population shows evidence of connections with expansions that now define the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, many of the populations in the Middle East show distinctive mtDNA and Y-haplogroup characteristics that indicate long standing settlement with relatively little impact from and movement into other populations. PMID:23382925

Badro, Danielle A; Douaihy, Bouchra; Haber, Marc; Youhanna, Sonia C; Salloum, Angélique; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Johnsrud, Brian; Khazen, Georges; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Wells, R Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Platt, Daniel E; Zalloua, Pierre A

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Multicentre study on factors determining differences in rate of spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: methods and prevalence of HIV infection  

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OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore whether the differences in rate of spread of HIV in different regions in sub-Saharan Africa could be explained by differences in sexual behaviour and/or factors influencing the probability of HIV transmission during sexual intercourse. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in two cities with a high HIV prevalence (Kisumu in Kenya and Ndola in Zambia) and two cities with a relatively low HIV prevalence (Cotonou in...

Buve?, A.; Carae?l, M.; Hayes, R. J.; Auvert, B.; Ferry, B.; Robinson, N. J.; Anagonou, S.; Kanhonou, L.; Laourou, M.; Abega, S.; Akam, E.; Zekeng, L.; Chege, J.; Kahindo, M.; Rutenberg, N.

2001-01-01

262

Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia  

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The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to a...

Ben Chirwa; Chipayeni Mtonga; Anyangwe, Stella C. E.

2006-01-01

263

Quantitative urban classification for malaria epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is rapidly urbanizing, the terms used to classify urban ecotypes are poorly defined in the context of malaria epidemiology. Lack of clear definitions may cause misclassification error, which likely decreases the accuracy of continent-wide estimates of malaria burden, limits the generalizability of urban malaria studies, and makes identification of high-risk areas for targeted interventions within cities more difficult. Accordingly, clustering techniques were applied to a set of urbanization- and malaria-related variables in Kisumu, Kenya, to produce a quantitative classification of the urban environment for malaria research. Methods Seven variables with a known or expected relationship with malaria in the context of urbanization were identified and measured at the census enumeration area (EA level, using three sources: a the results of a citywide knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP survey; b a high-resolution multispectral satellite image; and c national census data. Principal components analysis (PCA was used to identify three factors explaining higher proportions of the combined variance than the original variables. A k-means clustering algorithm was applied to the EA-level factor scores to assign EAs to one of three categories: "urban," "peri-urban," or "semi-rural." The results were compared with classifications derived from two other approaches: a administrative designation of urban/rural by the census or b population density thresholds. Results Urban zones resulting from the clustering algorithm were more geographically coherent than those delineated by population density. Clustering distributed population more evenly among zones than either of the other methods and more accurately predicted variation in other variables related to urbanization, but not used for classification. Conclusion Effective urban malaria epidemiology and control would benefit from quantitative methods to identify and characterize urban areas. Cluster analysis techniques were used to classify Kisumu, Kenya, into levels of urbanization in a repeatable and unbiased manner, an approach that should permit more relevant comparisons among and within urban areas. To the extent that these divisions predict meaningful intra-urban differences in malaria epidemiology, they should inform targeted urban malaria interventions in cities across SSA.

Slutsker Laurence

2008-02-01

264

Adolescent problem behavior in Nairobi's informal settlements: applying problem behavior theory in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescent involvement in problem behaviors can compromise health, development, and successful transition to adulthood. The present study explores the appropriateness of a particular theoretical framework, Problem Behavior Theory, to account for variation in problem behavior among adolescents in informal settlements around a large, rapidly urbanizing city in sub-Saharan Africa. Data were collected from samples of never married adolescents of both sexes, aged 12-19, living in two Nairobi slum settlements (N = 1,722). Measures of the theoretical psychosocial protective and risk factor concepts provided a substantial, multi-variate, and explanatory account of adolescent problem behavior variation and demonstrated that protection can also moderate the impact of exposure to risk. Key protective and risk factors constitute targets for policies and programs to enhance the health and well-being of poor urban adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:20499192

Ndugwa, Robert P; Kabiru, Caroline W; Cleland, John; Beguy, Donatien; Egondi, Thaddeus; Zulu, Eliya M; Jessor, Richard

2011-06-01

265

Estimating the impact of birth control on fertility rate in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a cross-country data drawn from 40 countries and a multiple regression analysis, this paper examines the impact of birth control devices on the rate of fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Our a-priori expectations are that the more women used birth control devices, the less will be the fertility rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The result obtained from the study indicates that except for withdrawal method that fall contrary to our expectation other variables (methods) like the use of pills, injection, intra uterine device (IUD), condom/diaphragm and cervical cap, female sterilization and periodic abstinence/rhythm fulfilled our a-priori expectations. These results notwithstanding, the paper suggests measures, such as the need for massive enlightenment campaign on the benefit of these birth control devices, the frequent checking of the potency of the devices and good governance in the delivery of the devices PMID:20690281

Ijaiya, Gafar T; Raheem, Usman A; Olatinwo, Abdulwaheed O; Ijaiya, Munir-Deen A; Ijaiya, Mukaila A

2009-12-01

266

K13-Propeller Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller domain have recently been shown to be important determinants of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia. This study investigated the prevalence of K13-propeller polymorphisms across sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 1212 P. falciparum samples collected from 12 countries were sequenced. None of the K13-propeller mutations previously reported in Southeast Asia were found, but 22 unique mutations were detected, of which 7 were nonsynonymous. Allele frequencies ranged between 1% and 3%. Three mutations were observed in >1 country, and the A578S was present in parasites from 5 countries. This study provides the baseline prevalence of K13-propeller mutations in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25367300

Kamau, Edwin; Campino, Susana; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Drury, Eleanor; Ishengoma, Deus; Johnson, Kimberly; Mumba, Dieudonne; Kekre, Mihir; Yavo, William; Mead, Daniel; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle; Apinjoh, Tobias; Golassa, Lemu; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Andagalu, Ben; Maiga-Ascofare, Oumou; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Tindana, Paulina; Ghansah, Anita; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Djimde, Abdoulaye A

2014-11-01

267

An investigation of the relationship between sub-Saharan rainfall and global sea surface temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between SST and rainfall index anomalies over sub-Saharan Africa for the 1970-1984 period is investigated. Results of an empirical orthogonal function analysis indicate that the most dominant eigenmode, EOF1, is characterized by warming over the central eastern Pacific, cooling over the eastern midlatitude Pacific, and warming over the entire Atlantic and Indian ocean basins. EOF1 is found to have statistically signifiant monthly correlations for the Sahel and Soudan regions, with the warm El Nino-like phases of SST EOF1 corresponding to drought conditions. These results suggest that the large-scale SST anomalies may be responsible for a large component of the observed vacillation of sub-Saharan rainfall.

Semazzi, F. H. M.; Mehta, V.; Sud, Y. C.

1988-01-01

268

Obstetric Fistula: A Hidden Public Health Problem In Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Obstetric fistula (OF continues to devastate the lives of women in sub-Saharan Africa. Many women with the condition are suffering in silence. They are unaware of the available treatment options or unaware of where to get treatment. Yet, the condition is treatable and preventable. Recently, many countries and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs in the region embarked on interventions to address the impact of the condition, however, much emphasis is put to identifying and treating the existing cases with less emphasis put to public health interventions that can help to prevent and eventually eradicate the condition in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore the impact of obstetric fistula in the region and to propose effective public health interventions that can help to prevent the condition with a long-term goal of eradicating the condition.

FW Kalembo

2012-01-01

269

Technologies for heating, cooling and powering rural health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa  

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This paper examines technical and economic choices for rural electrification in Africa and presents the rationale for trigeneration (capability for electricity, heating, and cooling) in health and education applications. An archetypal load profile for a rural health clinic (25 kWhe/day and 118–139 kWht) is described, and a regional analysis is performed for sub-Saharan Africa by aggregating NASA meteorological data (insolation, temperature, and heating and cooling degree-days) using correla...

Orosz, Matthew; Quoilin, Sylvain; Hemond, Harold

2013-01-01

270

Hydrological education and training needs in Sub-Saharan Africa: requirements, constraints and progress  

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This paper represents a perspective on the education and training needs related to hydrology and water resources science within the sub-Saharan Africa region and discusses the requirements of the region, some of the relatively recent developments and initiatives and some of the constraints that exist and remain difficult to surmount. The requirements include the development of academic research capacity and technical skill for both the private and public sector at a variety of levels....

Hughes, D. A.

2011-01-01

271

Giving tranexamic acid to reduce surgical bleeding in sub-Saharan Africa: an economic evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The identification of safe and effective alternatives to blood transfusion is a public health priority. In sub-Saharan Africa, blood shortage is a cause of mortality and morbidity. Blood transfusion can also transmit viral infections. Giving tranexamic acid (TXA) to bleeding surgical patients has been shown to reduce both the number of blood transfusions and the volume of blood transfused. The objective of this study is to investigate whether routinely adm...

Perel Pablo; Roberts Ian; Jayaraman Sudha; Cairns John; Guerriero Carla; Shakur Haleema

2010-01-01

272

Export processing zones in Sub-Saharan Africa - Kenya and Lesotho  

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This thesis examines two cases of Export Processing Zone (EPZ) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), specifically in Kenya and Lesotho. Using data from the respective countries' EPZ programme authorities, central banks, relevant studies, and country reports, I show that although the programmes have facilitated employment generation and foreign exchange earnings from textile and apparel exports, such exports rely highly on preferential trade agreements such as the Africa...

Vastveit, Lene Kristin

2013-01-01

273

A national policy for malaria elimination in Swaziland: a first for sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Swaziland is working to be the first country in mainland sub-Saharan Africa to eliminate malaria. The highest level of Swaziland's government recently approved a national elimination policy, which endorses Swaziland's robust national elimination strategic plan. This commentary outlines Swaziland's progress towards elimination as well as the challenges that remain, primarily around securing long-term financial resources and managing imported cases from neighbouring countries.

Kandula Deepika

2011-10-01

274

HIV disclosure and nondisclosure among migrant women from sub-Saharan Africa living in Switzerland.  

Science.gov (United States)

No study to date has focused specifically on the reasons for and against disclosure of HIV-positive status among sub-Saharan migrant women. Thirty HIV-positive women from 11 sub-Saharan countries living in French-speaking Switzerland participated in semi-structured individual interviews. The reasons women reported for disclosure or nondisclosure of their HIV serostatus were classified into three categories: social, medical, and ethical. The women identified the stigma associated with HIV as a major social reason for nondisclosure. However, this study identifies new trends related to disclosure for medical and ethical reasons. Being undetectable played an important role in the life of sub-Saharan migrant women, and analysis revealed their medical reasons for both disclosure and nondisclosure. Disclosure to new sexual partners occurred when women had a more positive perception about HIV and when they believed themselves to be in a long-term relationship. Women reported nondisclosure to family members when they did not need help outside the support provided by the medical and social fields. The results on ethical reasons suggested that challenging stigma was a reason for disclosure. Since the women' perceptions on HIV changed when they came to see it as a chronic disease, disclosure occurred in an attempt to normalize life with HIV in their communities in migration and to challenge racism and discrimination. Our findings can help health providers better understand the communication needs of sub-Saharan migrant women with respect to HIV/AIDS and sexuality and offer them adequate disclosure advice that takes into account migration and gender issues. PMID:25297928

Sulstarova, Brikela; Poglia Mileti, Francesca; Mellini, Laura; Villani, Michela; Singy, Pascal

2015-04-01

275

Does the WTO agreement on agricultural endanger food security in Sub-Saharan Africa?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examines the state of food security in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), based on an analysis of a selection of indicators of food security and nutritional wellbeing during the period 1990-2002 within the context of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture. It argues that it may be advisable for those SSA countries with both static and dynamic comparative advantage in agriculture to pursue policies towards ‘food self-sufficiency’ as a means to attaining food security, considering their large ru...

Gayi, Samuel K.

2006-01-01

276

The determinants of infant, child and maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Sub-Saharan Africa, infant, child and maternal mortalities are very high compared to other regions. We estimate a cross-country empirical model of the determinants of those mortalities. We find, similar to other studies, that in addition to per capita GDP, health and education interventions can affect mortalities, however, the effect depends on the mortality rate being modelled. Importantly, the prevalence of the adult HIV / AIDS infection rate is detrimentally impacting mortality in the S...

Imam, B. M.; Koch, Steven F.

2004-01-01

277

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in sub-Saharan Africa: a pilot study in Cameroon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The disease burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is highest in sub-Saharan Africa but there are few studies on the associated neurocognitive disorders in this region. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Western neuropsychological (NP) methods are appropriate for use in Cameroon, and to evaluate cognitive function in a sample of HIV-infected adults. Methods We used a batter...

Ellis Ronald J; Franklin Donald R; Nchindap Emilienne; Njamnshi Dora M; Doh Roland; Eta Sabine; Fonsah Julius Y; Cysique Lucette A; Kuate Callixte T; Kanmogne Georgette D; McCutchan John A; Binam Fidele; Mbanya Dora; Heaton Robert K; Njamnshi Alfred K

2010-01-01

278

Why should sub-Saharan Africa care about the Doha development round?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years sub-Saharan Africa, notwithstanding the global financial crisis, has increased its share in global trade and investment flows. This has led to an appreciable improvement in development levels, albeit off a small base. However, these patterns are still dominated by commodity flows and investment, and remain marginal on the global stage. Increased trade and investment flows, particularly related to network services, would be of great benefit to the sub-continent. Yet many domest...

Draper, Peter; Freytag, Andreas; Al Doyaili, Sarah

2012-01-01

279

Multinationals in Sub-Saharan Africa: Domestic linkages and institutional distance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the role of institutional distance in the establishment of domestic linkages by multinational enterprises in a cross- section of 19 Sub- Saharan countries. Investors' familiarity with formal and informal procedures in the host country lowers uncertainty and facilitates networking with local firms. Hence, a similar degree of institutional development boosts linkages between domestic firms and multinationals. Using a novel dataset from the 2010 Africa Investor Survey by UNID...

Pe?rez-villar, Lucia; Seric, Adnan

2014-01-01

280

Strategy framework for sustainable industrial development in sub-Saharan Africa: Systems-evolutionary approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The principal objectives of this research were: · to develop a conceptual framework on sustainability and sustainable development and · to propose a strategy framework for sustainable industrial development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The research was done based on systems evolutionary approach having the following methodological principles as a guide. · The dynamic complexity of environmental and developmental issues can be better understood by utilizing transdisciplinary theories such a...

Mebratu, Desta

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Scleral buckling for retinal detachment in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa: anatomical and visual outcome  

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TS Oluleye, OA Ibrahim, BA OlusanyaRetina and Vitreous Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaBackground: Scleral buckle surgery is not a commonly performed surgical procedure in Sub-Saharan Africa due to a paucity of trained vitreo retinal surgeons. The aim of the study was to review sclera buckle procedures with a view to evaluating the anatomical and visual outcomes.Methods: Case records of patients that had scleral buckle surgery at the Retina Unit ...

Ts, Oluleye; Oa, Ibrahim; Ba, Olusanya

2013-01-01

282

Preventing Nosocomial MDR TB Transmission in sub Saharan Africa: Where Are We at?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In sub Saharan Africa, the cocktail of many advanced HIV-infected susceptible hosts, poor TB treatment success rates, a lack of airborne infection control, limited drug-resistance testing (DST) have resulted in HIV-infected individuals being  disproportionately represented in Multi drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases. The prevailing application of the WHO re-treatment protocol indiscriminately to all re-treatment cases sets the stage for an increase in ...

Sonia Menon

2013-01-01

283

Foreign agricultural land acquisition and the visibility of water resource impacts in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The many headlines focusing on 'land grabbing' have distracted attention from the role that access to water plays in underpinning the projected productivity of foreign direct investment in acquisition of agricultural land in developing countries. This paper identifies questions that arise about the explicit and implicit water requirements for irrigation in agricultural projects on land that is subject to such foreign investment deals. It focuses particularly on land acquisition in sub-Saharan...

Philip Woodhouse

2012-01-01

284

Child Sexual Abuse and HIV Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the risks of HIV transmission to children through sexual abuse and exploitation in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper is based on a review of pertinent literature. Child sexual abuse in this region must be defined broadly enough to encompass widespread coercion or violence in early sexual relations in some regions, the practice of ‘transactional sex’ and constructions of masculinity, emphasising multiple sexual partners and power over women and girls. ...

Lalor, Kevin

2008-01-01

285

Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Literature Review  

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Objective. This article reviews the English-language literature on child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The focus is on the sexual abuse of children in the home/community, as opposed to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Method. English language, peer-reviewed papers cited in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) are examined. Reports from international and local NGOs and UN agencies are also examined. Results. Few published studies on the sexual abuse of chil...

Lalor, Kevin

2004-01-01

286

Striga hermonthica SEED GERMINATION THROUGH ROOT EXUDATES OF INDIGENOUS SUB-SAHARAN WEED SPECIES  

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This study was conducted to evaluate root exudates from sub-Saharan indigenous weed species to induce germination of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Beth., a root parasitic weed. Significant variation in Striga seed germination was observed, ranging from an absence to the induction of 74.1% Striga seeds. Direct compa-rison of Striga germination was obscured by differences in weed root biomass as within most of the species, a direct proportional relation between Striga seed germination and weed root...

Randy Trinity Nijkamp; Somporn Na Nakorn

2012-01-01

287

Hearing healthcare delivery in sub-Saharan Africa – a role for tele-audiology  

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Hearing loss is the most prevalent chronic disability and a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Its effects are far-reaching and can lead to severely restricted developmental outcomes for children and limited vocational prospects for adults. The benefits of intervention are dramatic and can significantly improve developmental outcomes, especially in infants identified early. Hearing health-care services in developing regions such as sub-Saharan Africa are however severely limit...

Swanepoel, Wet; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Mars, Maurice

2010-01-01

288

Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub-Saharan Africa: investment priorities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In numerous countries of Sub-Saharan Africa the strategic agenda of the water-sector is undergoing substantial change because of demographic pressure, climate change and economic transformation. Two new policy questions are arising from the need to make better use of available groundwater storage to [...] improve water-supply security:

Stephen, Foster; Albert, Tuinhof; Frank van, Steenbergen.

289

Estimating the incidence of colorectal cancer in Sub–Saharan Africa: A systematic analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nearly two–thirds of annual mortality worldwide is attributable to non–communicable diseases (NCDs, with 70% estimated to occur in low– and middle–income countries (LMIC. Colorectal cancer (CRC accounts for over 600 000 deaths annually, but data concerning cancer rates in LMIC is very poor. This study analyses the data available to produce an estimate of the incidence of colorectal cancer in Sub–Saharan Africa (SSA.

Alice Graham

2012-12-01

290

Health worker migration and universal health care in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a more and more emerging consensus claiming universal access to health care in order to achieve the desired Millennium Development Goals related to health in Africa. Unfortunately, the debate of the universal coverage has focussed so far mainly on financial affordability, while it is also a human resource matter. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing severe shortages of skilled health care workers. There are several causes, the importance of which varies by country, b...

Sieleunou, Isidore

2011-01-01

291

Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.

Hernández Valentín

2009-12-01

292

Climate change adaptation strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa: foundations for the future  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many institutions across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and many funding agencies that support them are currently engaged in initiatives that are targeted towards adapting rainfed agriculture to climate change. This does, however, present some very real and complex research and policy challenges. Given to date the generally low impact of agricultural research across SSA on improving the welfare of rainfed farmers under current climatic conditions, a comprehensive strategy is required...

Cooper, P. J. M.; Stern, Roger D.; Noguer, Maria; Gathenya, John M.

2013-01-01

293

Diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in children at a district hospital in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in children is difficult in sub-Saharan Africa, because the clinical features overlap with those of other common diseases, and laboratory facilities are inadequate in many areas. We have assessed the value of non-laboratory tests and incomplete laboratory data in diagnosing childhood acute bacterial meningitis in this setting. METHODS: We prospectively studied 905 children undergoing lumbar puncture at a rural district hospital in Kenya ...

Berkley, JA; Mwangi, I.; Ngetsa, Cj; Mwarumba, S.; Lowe, Bs; Marsh, K.; Newton, CR

2001-01-01

294

Obstetric Fistula: A Hidden Public Health Problem In Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Obstetric fistula (OF) continues to devastate the lives of women in sub-Saharan Africa. Many women with the condition are suffering in silence. They are unaware of the available treatment options or unaware of where to get treatment. Yet, the condition is treatable and preventable. Recently, many countries and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the region embarked on interventions to address the impact of the condition, however, much emphasis is put to identifying and treating the exist...

Fw, Kalembo

2012-01-01

295

Patient-reported barriers and drivers of adherence to antiretrovirals in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-ethnography.  

Science.gov (United States)

This meta-ethnography aims at providing a synthesis and an interpretation of the findings of recent social science research on the questions of retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The literature reviewed comprises ethnographic studies of the barriers to adherence to ART in various cultural settings. The results show that the quality of services, treatment-related costs, as well as the need to maintain social support networks - which can be negatively affected by HIV-related stigma - are important barriers to adherence. In addition, they show how African concepts of personhood are incompatible with the way services are conceived and delivered, targeting the individual. In SSA, individuals must balance physical health with social integrity, which is sometimes achieved by referring to traditional medicine. The ability of local concepts of illness to address social relations in addition to health, together with a historically grounded distrust in Western medicine, explains why traditional medicine is still widely used as an alternative to ART. PMID:20586957

Merten, Sonja; Kenter, Elise; McKenzie, Oran; Musheke, Maurice; Ntalasha, Harriet; Martin-Hilber, Adriane

2010-06-01

296

Can social inclusion policies reduce health inequalities in sub-Saharan Africa?--A rapid policy appraisal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The global resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health provides an opportunity for determined action on unacceptable and unjust health inequalities that exist within and between countries. This paper reviews three categories of social inclusion policies: cash-transfers; free social services; and specific institutional arrangements for programme integration in six selected countries--Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. The policies were appraised as part of the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN) set up under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The paper highlights the development landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and presents available indicators of the scale of inequity in the six countries. A summary of the policies appraised is presented, including whether or what the impact of these policies has been on health inequalities. Cross-cutting benefits include poverty alleviation, notably among vulnerable children and youths, improved economic opportunities for disadvantaged households, reduction in access barriers to social services, and improved nutrition intake. The impact of these benefits, and hence the policies, on health status can only be inferred. Among the policies reviewed, weaknesses or constraints were in design and implementation. The policy design weaknesses include targeting criteria, their enforcement and latent costs, inadequate participation of the community and failure to take the cultural context into account. A major weakness of most policies was the lack of a monitoring and evaluation system, with clear indicators that incorporate system responsiveness. The policy implementation weaknesses include uneven regional implementation with rural areas worst affected; inadequate or poor administrative and implementation capacity; insufficient resources; problems of fraud and corruption; and lack of involvement of civil servants, exacerbating implementation capacity problems. The key messages to sub-Saharan African governments include: health inequalities must be measured; social policies must be carefully designed and effectively implemented addressing the constraints identified; monitoring and evaluation systems need improvement; and participation of the community needs to be encouraged through conducive and enabling environments. There is a need for a strong movement by civil society to address health inequalities and to hold governments accountable for improved health and reduced health inequalities. PMID:19761083

Rispel, Laetitia C; de Sousa, César A D Palha; Molomo, Boitumelo G

2009-08-01

297

Diverging Pathways : Young Female Employment and Entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Shrinking public sectors and limited opportunities for gaining formal wage employment in the private sector have resulted in entrepreneurship being promoted as a means of generating youth employment. This discourse is being widely promoted within sub-Saharan Africa despite little being known about how best to support youth employment and entrepreneurship. This paper focuses on two of the main trades which young women in sub-Saharan Africa have typically entered: hairdressing and dressmaking. Through drawing on a qualitative case study of hairdressers and seamstresses in Ghana, it is shown how the two professions have fared quite differently in recent years: whereas hairdressing has boomed, dressmaking has been stagnating. The paper shows how these diverging trajectories can be attributed to three related factors. First, globalisation has affected the two trades differently; second, their respective trade associations have reacted differently to the new constraints and opportunities generated by globalisation and their training systems have undergone different degrees of professionalisation; and third, the prestige associated with the two professions has changed affecting the aspirations of young women to enter the professions and the experiences of those that do. As the paper shows, geographers potentially have much to contribute to employment and entrepreneurship debates by providing more contextualised studies which recognise the complex interplay between globalisation, institutions and individuals in particular places and acknowledge the ensuing diverse employment experiences. Such studies are highly relevant for policymakers who are facing the difficult challenge of how to create employment and stimulate entrepreneurship in sub-Saharan Africa.

Langevang, Thilde; Gough, Katherine

2012-01-01

298

Unmet need and fertility decline: a comparative perspective on prospects in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assesses how changes in unmet need for family planning have contributed to contemporary fertility declines, and the implications of this historical record for further fertility decline, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine joint trends at the national level in fertility, unintended fertility, and unmet need. We bring unintended fertility into the analysis because the underlying rationale for reducing unmet need is to avert unintended pregnancies and births. The association over time between unmet need and fertility is investigated using survey data from 45 countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean from the mid-1970s to the present. The empirical analysis finds that reduction in unmet need, especially unmet need for limiting, is strongly associated with fertility decline in Latin America and the Caribbean and in Asia and North Africa. Fertility decline in sub-Saharan Africa is weakly associated with trends in unmet need (and satisfaction of demand). We propose that the stark regional difference is due to measurement problems and to the fundamentally different character of fertility decline in sub-Saharan Africa, itself reflective of basic differences in pretransition reproductive regimes. PMID:24931077

Casterline, John B; El-Zeini, Laila O

2014-06-01

299

Policy options of agricultural biotechnology R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa: key issues and aspects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews the status of Agricultural Biotechnology in Sub-Saharan Africa. It addresses the potential economic benefits to Sub-Saharan Africa and the effect biotechnology policies may have on growth, production and poverty reduction. The extent to which agricultural biotechnology will compound or mitigate the constraints faced by smallholders/subsistence farmers is also discussed. The status of crop biotechnology research worldwide is reviewed and the influence of intellectual propert...

Yawson, Robert M.; Yawson, Ivy

2008-01-01

300

Health Human Capital in Sub-Saharan Africa: Conflicting Evidence from Infant Mortality Rates and Adult Heights  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate trends in cohort infant mortality rates and adult heights in 39 developing countries since 1960. In most regions of the world improved nutrition, and reduced childhood exposure to disease, have lead to improvements in both infant mortality and adult stature. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, despite declining infant mortality rates, adult heights have not increased. We argue that in Sub-Saharan Africa the decline in infant mortality may have been due to interventions that prevent...

Akachi, Yoko; Canning, David

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Health inequities, environmental insecurity and the attainment of the millennium development goals in sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16968967

Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

2006-09-01

302

Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure with...

Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

2009-01-01

303

Monitoring parasite diversity for malaria elimination in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The African continent continues to bear the greatest burden of malaria and the greatest diversity of parasites, mosquito vectors, and human victims. The evolutionary plasticity of malaria parasites and their vectors is a major obstacle to eliminating the disease. Of current concern is the recently reported emergence of resistance to the front-line drug, artemisinin, in South-East Asia in Plasmodium falciparum, which calls for preemptive surveillance of the African parasite population for gene...

Ghansah, A.; Amenga-etego, L.; Amambua-ngwa, A.; Andagalu, B.; Apinjoh, T.; Bouyou-akotet, M.; Cornelius, V.; Golassa, L.; Andrianaranjaka, Vh; Ishengoma, D.; Johnson, K.; Kamau, E.; Mai?ga-ascofare?, O.; Mumba, D.; Tindana, P.

2014-01-01

304

The Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors 2010 Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is unique among world regions, with about half of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) due to causes other than atherosclerosis. CVD epidemiology data are sparse and of uneven quality in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the available data, the Global Burden of Diseases, Risk Factors, and Injuries (GBD) 2010 Study estimated CVD mortality and burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa in 1990 and 2010. The leading CVD cause of death and disabili...

Moran, Andrew; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Chugh, Sumeet; Feigin, Valery; Mensah, George

2013-01-01

305

Pattern of presentation of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TS Oluleye, Y Babalola Retina and Vitreous Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria Background: Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy is an abnormal choroidal vascular pathology similar to age-related macular degeneration. It may present with sudden visual loss from hemorrhagic retinal pigment epithelial detachment and breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage or with chronic recurrent episodes. The condition is not uncommon in the retina clinic at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa. This study presents the pattern of presentation in Ibadan. Methods: We review all cases of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy seen from 2007 to 2012 in the retina clinic at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, to determine the major pattern of presentations, available treatment modalities, and visual outcomes. Results: Ten cases were seen during the study period. Their mean age was 58 years, with a male to female ratio of 1:4. The most common presenting complaint was sudden visual loss. Major examination findings were retinal pigment epithelial detachment, orange subretinal lesions, and breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage. The modalities of treatment available included vitrectomy to clear vitreous hemorrhage. Intravitreal bevacizumab reduced the height of the pigment epithelial detachment and cleared vitreous hemorrhage. Thermal laser was applied for extrafoveal lesions. Two patients with subfoveal lesions were referred abroad for photodynamic therapy. Visual outcome showed significant improvement in vitrectomized patients who presented with vitreous hemorrhage. Presenting vision of hand motion and light perception improved to vision ranging from counting fingers to 6/12 after vitrectomy. Conclusion: Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy may not be uncommon in Sub-Saharan Africa. A high index of suspicion is warranted in the diagnosis so as to provide timely intervention. Keywords: idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, retinal pigment epithelial detachment, presentations, Sub-Saharan Africa

Oluleye TS

2013-07-01

306

Coal and peat in the sub-Saharan region of Africa: alternative energy options?  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal and peat are essentially unused and in some cases unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. However, they might comprise valuable alternative energy sources in some or all of the developing nations of the region. The 11 countries considered in this appraisal reportedly contain coal and peat. On the basis of regional geology, another five countries might also contain coal-bearing rocks. If the resource potential is adequate, coal and peat might be utilized in a variety of ways including substituting for fuelwood, generating electricity, supplying process heat for local industry and increasing agricultural productivity. -from Author

Weaver, J.N.; Landis, E.R.

1990-01-01

307

Further evidence of community education effects on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND Earlier investigations have shown that a woman's chance of having a child, or various proximate determinants of her fertility, are influenced by the socioeconomic resources in the community in which she lives, net of her own resources. METHODS This study, which is based on DHS surveys from 28 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, adds to the knowledge about this issue. With a focus on first and higher-order birth rates, four specific questions are addressed. RESULTS One result is t...

Øystein Kravdal

2012-01-01

308

Chronic Disease Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Whose Business Is It?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public health specialists and clinicians alike agree that Humanity faces a global pandemic of chronic diseases in the 21st century. In this article we discuss the implications of this pandemic on another global issue, the health workforce. Because both issues are particularly acute in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), we will focus on this region and use Cameroon as a case in point. We first gauge the epidemic of chronic conditions in SSA. We then discuss the implications of chronic conditions for th...

Slim Slama; Louis Loutan; Nicolas Perone; Tetanye Ekoe; Alexander Bischoff

2009-01-01

309

Central Bank Independence and Inflation Targeting: Monetary Policy Framework for Sub-saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Open system-holistic family view of the macroeconomic sector sees collaborations and policy coordination between the monetary and fiscal subsystems fundamental and inalienable in the holistic family-macroeconomic sector. Full independence (isolation of the monetary subsystem from the fiscal subsystem is outlandish. The optimal point of independence shifts each time the system adapts to environmental factors but continues to lie between zero and full independence in the continuum of independence. This holistic view best describes the behaviour of modern macroeconomic sector in an ever increasingly globalized-digitalized economy. Sub-Saharan Africa can also inflation target by suitably embracing the prescribed monetary policy framework.

Oyedokun Agbeja

2007-01-01

310

Essays on social protection and poverty transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present Ph.D. dissertation deals with the analysis of micro data from developing countries. In particular, the underlying theme is the analysis of social protection and poverty transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa studied in different contexts (i.e. urban slums and rural villages) and at different levels (i.e. local and national samples). The thesis consists of three papers, each corresponding to a chapter. The first one focuses on the risk factors leading children to street life in Zambia...

Strobbe, Francesco

2010-01-01

311

The history of African trypanosomiasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatmen...

Steverding Dietmar

2008-01-01

312

Optimizing cropland cover for stable food production in Sub-Saharan Africa using simulated yield and Modern Portfolio Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Food security can be defined as stable access to food of good nutritional quality. In Sub Saharan Africa access to food is strongly linked to local food production and the capacity to generate enough calories to sustain the local population. Therefore it is important in these regions to generate not only sufficiently high yields but also to reduce interannual variability in food production. Traditionally, climate impact simulation studies have focused on factors that underlie maximum productivity ignoring the variability in yield. By using Modern Portfolio Theory, a method stemming from economics, we here calculate optimum current and future crop selection that maintain current yield while minimizing variance, vs. maintaining variance while maximizing yield. Based on simulated yield using the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model, the results show that current cropland distribution for many crops is close to these optimum distributions. Even so, the optimizations displayed substantial potential to either increase food production and/or to decrease its variance regionally. Our approach can also be seen as a method to create future scenarios for the sown areas of crops in regions where local food production is important for food security.

Bodin, P.; Olin, S.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A.

2014-12-01

313

Comparing the Effectiveness of Informal and Formal Institutions in Sustainable Common Pool Resources Management in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available This article compares the effectiveness of informal and formal institutions for sustainable common pool resources (CPRs management in Sub-Saharan Africa and investigates the social, political and demographic conditions that influence the institutions? effectiveness. By focusing on publications addressing micro-level CPR management, a comprehensive literature review was conducted. Articles were grouped, based on the main themes of the study, including types of institutions and conditions that influence their effectiveness. A qualitative meta-analysis was conducted using a deductive coding approach. The results revealed that informal institutions have contributed to sustainable CPR management by creating a suitable environment for joint decision-making, enabling exclusion at low cost for CPR users and using locally agreed sanctions. Although the published evidence suggested less support to formal institutions under decentralised governmental reforms, they played an important role in implementing technologies for sustainable CPR management. Conditions that influence the effectiveness of both types of institutions include high population growth on limited CPRs, the growing scarcity of CPRs due to land use change and the lack of human and financial capacities. Improving the conditions that hinder the contributions of both types of institutions is crucial to enhance the institutions? effectiveness in sustainable CPR management. Moreover, policies and development interventions should strengthen the involvement of well-functioning informal institutions in decision-making so that sustainable CPR management can be achieved.

Yami Mastewal

2009-01-01

314

Urbanization Drift and Obesity Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of the Situation in Nigeria.  

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Full Text Available The growing trend of obesity worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa can be linked to theurbanization drift experienced in recent years both in developed and developing countrieslike Nigeria, at four pivotal points namely: physical activity level, socio-economic status(SES, nutritional and psychosocial factors. Literature search was done usingMedline/PubMed and Google Scholar for published studies on the urbanization rate, andthe prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria. The socio-demographic determinantsof obesity among adults in the Nigerian population were female gender, marriage, lowphysical activity level, positive family history, urban area of residence and age ? 40 years.Obesity was more prevalent among women of low SES living in the urban area than thoseof high SES. Also overweight and obesity was more prevalent among young children (girlsthan boys living in an urban than rural area and attending private than public schools. Inorder to prevent a higher trend of obesity in future, more of awareness/attitudinalreorientation programmes need to be created by health based action groups incollaboration with government agencies on perception, risky lifestyles and culturesassociated with excessive weight gain.

E.E Akpan

2013-06-01

315

A global approach to the management of EMR (Electronic Medical Records of patients with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: the experience of DREAM Software  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The DREAM Project operates within the framework of the national health systems of several sub-Saharan African countries and aims to introduce the essential components of an integrated strategy for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. The project is intended to serve as a model for a wide-ranging scale-up in the response to the epidemic. This paper aims to show DREAM's challenges and the solutions adopted. One of the solutions is the efficient management of the clinical data regarding the treatment of the patients and epidemiological analyses. Methods Specific software for the management of the patients' EMR has been created within the DREAM programme in order to deal with the challenges deriving from the context in which DREAM operates. Setting up a computer infrastructure in health centres, providing a power supply, as well as managing the data and the project resources efficiently and reliably, are some of the questions that have been analysed in this study. Results Over the years this software has proved that it is able to respond to the need for efficient management of the clinical data and organization of the health centres. Today it is used in 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa by thousands of professionals and by now it has reached its fourth version. The medical files of over 73,000 assisted patients are managed by this software and the data collected with it have become essential for the epidemiological research that is carried out to improve the effectiveness of the therapy. Conclusion Sub-Saharan Africa is the region hardest hit by HIV and AIDS in the world. However, the resources and responses adopted so far, to confront the epidemic, have at times been rather minimalist. The DREAM project has faced the battle against the epidemic by equipping itself with qualitative standards comparable to Western ones. The experience of DREAM has revealed that it is indeed possible to guarantee levels of excellence in developing countries, also in the sphere of ICT (Information and Communication Technology, thus making the intervention even more effective and contributing to bridging the digital divide.

Peroni Marco

2009-09-01

316

Meeting the challenge of hematologic malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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Cancer is a leading cause of death and disability in sub-Saharan Africa and will eclipse infectious diseases within the next several decades if current trends continue. Hematologic malignancies, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma, account for nearly 10% of the overall cancer burden in the region, and the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma is rapidly increasing as a result of HIV. Despite an increasing burden, mechanisms for diagnosing, treating, and palliating malignant hematologic disorders are inadequate. In this review, we describe the scope of the problem, including the impact of endemic infections, such as HIV, Epstein-Barr virus, malaria, and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. We additionally describe current limitations in hematopathology, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and supportive care and palliation. We review contemporary treatment and outcomes of hematologic malignancies in the region and outline a clinical service and research agenda, which builds on recent global health successes combating HIV and other infectious diseases. Achieving similar progress against hematologic cancers in sub-Saharan Africa will require the sustained collaboration and advocacy of the entire global cancer community. PMID:22461494

Gopal, Satish; Wood, William A; Lee, Stephanie J; Shea, Thomas C; Naresh, Kikkeri N; Kazembe, Peter N; Casper, Corey; Hesseling, Peter B; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T

2012-05-31

317

The bioethanol industry in sub-Saharan Africa: history, challenges, and prospects.  

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Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock), lignocellulose (second generation feedstock), or algae (third generation feedstock) feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production. PMID:22536020

Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Iyuke, Sunny; Rumbold, Karl

2012-01-01

318

Biofuels development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Are the policies conducive?  

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This paper analyses national, regional and international biofuels policies and strategies to assess whether these policies promote or undermine the development of biofuels sector in Africa. Despite having a huge comparative advantage in land, labour and good climatic conditions favourable for the growing of energy crops, few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have included biofuels strategies in their energy or national development policies. Further results show that while developed countries commit huge financial resources for research, technology development and the provision of tax-incentives to both producers and consumers, there is little government support for promoting biofuels in Africa. Although the consequences of biofuels on food supply remain uncertain, the mandatory blending of biofuels with fossil fuels by industrialized countries will create demand for land in Africa for the growing of energy crops for biofuels. This paper urgently calls upon national governments in Sub-Saharan Africa to develop appropriate strategies and regulatory frameworks to harness the potential economic opportunities from biofuels sector development, while protecting the environment and rural communities from the adverse effects of land alienation from the mainstream agriculture towards the growing of energy crops for biofuels at the expense of traditional food crops.

Jumbe, Charles B.L., E-mail: charlesjumbe@bunda.unima.m [University of Malawi, Centre for Agricultural Research and Development, Bunda College, P.O. Box 219, Lilongwe (Malawi); Msiska, Frederick B.M., E-mail: frederickmsiska@yahoo.co [Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, P.O. Box 30134, Lilongwe 3 (Malawi); Madjera, Michael, E-mail: michael.madjera@onlinehome.d [Evangelical Church in Middle Germany, P.O. Box 1424, 39004 Magdeburg (Germany)

2009-11-15

319

Biofuels development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Are the policies conducive?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyses national, regional and international biofuels policies and strategies to assess whether these policies promote or undermine the development of biofuels sector in Africa. Despite having a huge comparative advantage in land, labour and good climatic conditions favourable for the growing of energy crops, few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have included biofuels strategies in their energy or national development policies. Further results show that while developed countries commit huge financial resources for research, technology development and the provision of tax-incentives to both producers and consumers, there is little government support for promoting biofuels in Africa. Although the consequences of biofuels on food supply remain uncertain, the mandatory blending of biofuels with fossil fuels by industrialized countries will create demand for land in Africa for the growing of energy crops for biofuels. This paper urgently calls upon national governments in Sub-Saharan Africa to develop appropriate strategies and regulatory frameworks to harness the potential economic opportunities from biofuels sector development, while protecting the environment and rural communities from the adverse effects of land alienation from the mainstream agriculture towards the growing of energy crops for biofuels at the expense of traditional food crops. (author)

Jumbe, Charles B.L. [University of Malawi, Centre for Agricultural Research and Development, Bunda College, P.O. Box 219, Lilongwe (Malawi); Msiska, Frederick B.M. [Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, P.O. Box 30134, Lilongwe 3 (Malawi); Madjera, Michael [Evangelical Church in Middle Germany, P.O. Box 1424, 39004 Magdeburg (Germany)

2009-11-15

320

Enhancing global control of alcohol to reduce unsafe sex and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV and alcohol disease in these setting is not surprising given patterns of heavy-episodic drinking and that drinking contexts are often coterminous with opportunities for sexual encounters. HIV and alcohol also share common ground with sexual violence. Both perpetrators and victims of sexual violence have a high likelihood of having drunk alcohol prior to the incident, as with most forms of violence and injury in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing alcohol harms necessitates multi-level interventions and should be considered a key component of structural interventions to alleviate the burden of HIV and sexual violence. Brief interventions for people with problem drinking (an important component of primary health care, must incorporate specific discussion of links between alcohol and unsafe sex, and consequences thereof. Interventions to reduce alcohol harm among HIV-infected persons are also an important element in positive-prevention initiatives. Most importantly, implementation of known effective interventions could alleviate a large portion of the alcohol-attributable burden of disease, including its effects on unsafe sex, unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission.

Rees Helen V

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in sub-Saharan Africa: a pilot study in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The disease burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is highest in sub-Saharan Africa but there are few studies on the associated neurocognitive disorders in this region. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Western neuropsychological (NP methods are appropriate for use in Cameroon, and to evaluate cognitive function in a sample of HIV-infected adults. Methods We used a battery of 19 NP measures in a cross-sectional study with 44 HIV+ adults and 44 demographically matched HIV- controls, to explore the validity of these NP measures in Cameroon, and evaluate the effect of viral infection on seven cognitive ability domains. Results In this pilot study, the global mean z-score on the NP battery showed worse overall cognition in the HIV+ individuals. Significantly lower performance was seen in the HIV+ sample on tests of executive function, speed of information processing, working memory, and psychomotor speed. HIV+ participants with AIDS performed worse than those with less advanced HIV disease. Conclusions Similar to findings in Western cohorts, our results in Cameroon suggest that HIV infection, particularly in advanced stages, is associated with worse performance on standardized, Western neurocognitive tests. The tests used here appear to be promising for studying NeuroAIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

Ellis Ronald J

2010-07-01

322

The economics of renewable energy expansion in rural Sub-Saharan Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerating development in Sub-Saharan Africa will require massive expansion of access to electricity-currently reaching only about one third of households. This paper explores how essential economic development might be reconciled with the need to keep carbon emissions in check. We develop a geographically explicit framework and use spatial modeling and cost estimates from recent engineering studies to determine where stand-alone renewable energy generation is a cost effective alternative to centralized grid supply. Our results suggest that decentralized renewable energy will likely play an important role in expanding rural energy access. However, it will be the lowest cost option for a minority of households in Africa, even when likely cost reductions over the next 20 years are considered. Decentralized renewables are competitive mostly in remote and rural areas, while grid connected supply dominates denser areas where the majority of households reside. These findings underscore the need to decarbonize the fuel mix for centralized power generation as it expands in Africa. - Research highlights: ? Expansion of electricity access in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a development priority. ? Low carbon options are important to reduce GHG emissions growth and avoid lock-ins. ? Spatially explicit cost modeling guides choice of supply options. ? Decentralized renewables are lowest cost for a significant minority of households. ? Grid supply remains attractive, suggesupply remains attractive, suggesting focus on decarbonizing centralized supply.

323

Development of Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Production Under Low Soil Phosphorus and Drought in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review  

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Full Text Available Owing to its nutritional value, especially proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and micronutrients, common bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. has been recognised as a crop that could ensure food security mostly, in Sub-Saharan Africa, where its productivity is low. Its low productivity is attributed to a milliard of constraints, of which low plant-available phosphorus (P and limited moisture in soil are among the major limiting factors. Synergistic effects of the two factors are accentuated in Sub-Saharan African region. This paper discloses the importance of the synergistic effects of plant-available P and moisture in soils on common bean production. It has been observed that studies investigating impacts of interactions of low P levels and moisture deficit conditions in soils are yet to be conducted. Identification of traits that contribute to high performance under low P availability and moisture deficit in the same genotypes remains a major research and development challenge. However, engineering new genotypes alone may not alleviate the problem of ensuring improvement of high bean yields. Root architecture and root exploration of the soil that enable the plant to access the two soil resources, traditional methods that preserve good status of organic matter in soils and moisture and soil preparation techniques are equally important. This, calls for holistic investigations that include soil plant-available P and moisture, common bean genotypes and their root systems, and agronomic measures to facilitate a comprehensive evaluation of impacts of deficiencies in soils on common bean yields. This paper explores and synthesizes existing research and development of common bean grown in soils deficient in plant-available P and moisture, aiming at designing future research to enhance common bean productivity.

Margaret Namugwanya

2014-09-01

324

From bulldozing to housing rights: reducing vulnerability and improving health in African slums.  

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Forced evictions heighten vulnerability among slum dwellers who already face multiple risks of ill health. They constitute a well-documented violation of economic and social rights and are reaching epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa as economic globalization creates and strengthens incentives for forced evictions. We describe evictions in the slums of four African metropolitan areas: Accra (Ghana), Lagos (Nigeria), Luanda (Angola) and Nairobi (Kenya). We survey diverse strategies used in responding to forced evictions and outline the challenges and barriers encountered. We conclude that the international human rights framework offers an important approach for protecting the health of vulnerable populations. PMID:23549705

Mohindra, Katia S; Schrecker, Ted

2013-03-01

325

Regulation and policy initiatives for sustainable energy in sub-Saharan Africa. Chapter 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental change and sustainable development present a challenge for all nations. Developed countries have to dismantle and change historic practice before progressing, whereas developing countries can move directly to new technology and new institutional frameworks. This chapter seeks to identify trends in energy supply and use that both improve sustainability and provide opportunities for commerce and industry. Worldwide experience is studied for application in sub-Saharan Africa (abbreviated as 'Africa' henceforward). Such application is central to UNIDO's programmes in energy and environment. These programmes consider both the supply and the demand sides, by the provision of energy for industry, use of renewable energy resources and improved industrial energy end-use efficiency. Key factors are de-linking intensity of energy use from economic growth and reducing environmental damage from energy supply and use The background for this chapter is 'Sustainable Energy Regulation and Policy-making for Africa', a set of 20 training-modules produced for UNIDO and REEEP (the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership). The modules will be used by governments, regulatory offices and industry in Africa for stimulating policy and commercial development in renewable energy and energy efficiency. Of particular relevance is the general trend to more liberalized electricity supplies, as regulated within new legislation. Within each country, institutional frameworks ca each country, institutional frameworks can be changed and improved for the benefit of both citizens and commerce alike. There is a common trend worldwide to include institutional mechanisms for the increase of renewable energy generation and the efficient use of energy within regulatory legislation, e.g. (Harrington et al., 2007). Government involvement and ministerial regulation is most common for electricity. In all countries, the introductory stages of electricity supply have been strongly influenced by national and local government action and ownership. However, once initiated, an established market economy, involving many competitive private companies, should produce electricity at less cost to the consumer and the nation, than if wholly owned and operated by government. Such improvement requires a carefully constructed legal framework, especially because there are many monopoly aspects of electricity supply. The administration and control of the legal objectives requires jurisdiction, usually by the appointment of a Regulator with a specialist and independent staff. Thus, hand-in-hand with the liberalization of energy supplies is the requirement for regulation. Since 1990, liberalization of energy supply, especially of electricity, has been introduced throughout Europe. The main actions have been at national level; consequently, individual national policies and methods dominate. Nevertheless, having an integrated European electricity grid encourages commonality throughout Europe. Associated with liberalization is the growth of private company participation and hence the need for legally enforceable regulation by a Regulator. The pattern of development in Europe is similar to many other world regions including North America. However, European electricity supply is older and the population more concentrated than in most other regions, therefore the opportunity for structured liberalization came first in Europe. Consequently, the European experience is important for formulating policy elsewhere, including Africa. However, without competition from several private companies for each contract, liberalization may well fail to deliver the improved services and reduced energy tariffs expected; chapter three considers such experience. Coincidentally with the trend to energy supply liberalization, has come the need for renewable energy supplies and increased energy efficiency. This change is promoted by several factors, including: sustainable development, new technology, reduced emissions and climate change. New technology enables improvements in the efficient g

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Prospects for area-wide integrated control of tsetse flies (Diptera:Glossinidae) and trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa Perspectivas para el control integrado abarcativo del área de moscas tse-tsé (Diptera: Glossinidae) y la tripanosomiasis en el África sub-Sahariana  

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Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are among the least developed in the world and hunger and poverty remains widespread in most of the rural communities. Reducing hunger and chronic under nourishment through the introduction of productive livestock as a source of traction and manure for crop production, transport, milk and meat is deemed to be a fundamental first step towards better rural development. The presence of the tsetse fly in one third of the African continent and the disease trypanosom...

Vreysen, Marc J. B.

2006-01-01

327

Discovery of an unknown diversity of Leucinodes species damaging Solanaceae fruits in sub-Saharan Africa and moving in trade (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pyraloidea).  

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The larvae of the Old World genera Leucinodes Guenée, 1854 and Sceliodes Guenée, 1854 are internal feeders in the fruits of Solanaceae, causing economic damage to cultivated plants like Solanummelongena and Solanumaethiopicum. In sub-Saharan Africa five nominal species of Leucinodes and one of Sceliodes occur. One of these species, the eggplant fruit and shoot borer Leucinodesorbonalis Guenée, 1854, is regarded as regularly intercepted from Africa and Asia in Europe, North and South America and is therefore a quarantine pest on these continents. We investigate the taxonomy of African Leucinodes and Sceliodes based on morphological characters in wing pattern, genitalia and larvae, as well as mitochondrial DNA, providing these data for identification of all life stages. The results suggest that both genera are congeneric, with Sceliodes syn. n. established as junior subjective synonym of Leucinodes. Leucinodesorbonalis is described from Asia and none of the samples investigated from Africa belong to this species. Instead, sub-Saharan Africa harbours a complex of eight endemic Leucinodes species. Among the former nominal species of Leucinodes (and Sceliodes) from Africa, only Leucinodeslaisalis (Walker, 1859), comb. n. (Sceliodes) is confirmed, with Leucinodestranslucidalis Gaede, 1917, syn. n. as a junior subjective synonym. The other African Leucinodes species were unknown to science and are described as new: Leucinodesafricensis sp. n., Leucinodesethiopica sp. n., Leucinodeskenyensis sp. n., Leucinodesmalawiensis sp. n., Leucinodespseudorbonalis sp. n., Leucinodesrimavallis sp. n. and Leucinodesugandensis sp. n. An identification key based on male genitalia is provided for the African Leucinodes species. Most imports of Leucinodes specimens from Africa into Europe refer to Leucinodesafricensis, which has been frequently imported with fruits during the last 50 years. In contrast, Leucinodeslaisalis has been much less frequently recorded, and Leucinodespseudorbonalis as well as Leucinodesrimavallis only very recently in fruit imports from Uganda. Accordingly, interceptions of Leucinodes from Africa into other continents will need to be re-investigated for their species identity and will likely require, at least in parts, revisions of the quarantine regulations. The following African taxa are excluded from Leucinodes: Hyperanalyta Strand, 1918, syn. rev. as revised synonym of Analyta Lederer, 1863; Analytaapicalis (Hampson, 1896), comb. n. (Leucinodes); Lygropiaaureomarginalis (Gaede, 1916), comb. n. (Leucinodes); Sylleptehemichionalis Mabille, 1900, comb. rev., Sylleptehemichionalisidalis Viette, 1958, comb. rev. and Sylleptevagans (Tutt, 1890), comb. n. (Aphytoceros). Deanolisiriocapna (Meyrick, 1938), comb. n. from Indonesia is originally described and misplaced in Sceliodes, and Leucinodescordalis (Doubleday, 1843), comb. n. (Margaritia) from New Zealand, Leucinodesraondry (Viette, 1981), comb. n. (Daraba) from Madagascar as well as Leucinodesgrisealis (Kenrick, 1912), comb. n. (Sceliodes) from New Guinea are transferred from Sceliodes to Leucinodes. While Leucinodes is now revised from Africa, it still needs further revision in Asia. PMID:25632252

Mally, Richard; Korycinska, Anastasia; Agassiz, David J L; Hall, Jayne; Hodgetts, Jennifer; Nuss, Matthias

2015-01-01

328

Absence of GJB2 gene mutations, the GJB6 deletion (GJB6-D13S1830) and four common mitochondrial mutations in nonsyndromic genetic hearing loss in a South African population  

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Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of mutations in the GJB2 gene, the GJB6-D13S1830 deletion and the four common mitochondrial mutations (A1555G, A3243G, A7511C and A7445G) in a South African population. Methods Using single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing for screening GJB2 mutation; Multiplex PCR Amplification for GJB6-D13S1830 deletion and Restriction Fragment-Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis for the four common mtDNA mutations. We screened 182 hearing impaired students to determine the frequency of these mutations in the population. Results None of the reported disease causing mutations in GJB2 nor any novel pathogenic mutations in the coding region were detected, in contrast to the findings among Caucasians. The GJB6-D13S1830 deletion and the mitochondrial mutations were not observed in this group. Conclusion These results suggest that GJB2 may not be a significant deafness gene among sub-Saharan Africans, pointing to other unidentified genes as responsible for nonsyndromic hearing loss in these populations. PMID:21392827

Kabahuma, Rosemary I.; Ouyang, Xiaomei; Du, Li Lin; Yan, Denise; Hutchin, Tim; Ramsay, Michele; Penn, Claire; Liu, Xue-Zhong

2015-01-01

329

Sub-Saharan African Students’ Experiences, Perceptions, and Expectations with American Health Services: An Intercultural Challenge  

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Understanding patients? cultural expectations could contribute to better health outcomes and decrease cultural health disparities. This qualitative pilot study objective was to explore experiences, perceptions, and expectations of males and females Angolan students as patients in America. Eighteen face-to-face interviews were conducted at a Midwestern university. Burgoon?s expectancy violation theory (1991) was the theoretical background. Results revealed as positive expectation violation...

Mccalman, Claudia L.; Madere, Carol M.

2009-01-01

330

An evaluation of the prevalence of HIV/AIDS on selected economies of sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV whose full-blown period is called acquired immunity deficiency syndrome (AIDS is today a terminal disease. While one weakens the body hormones, the other comes to claim the life with its accompanying opportunistic diseases. Several factors have been reviewed to be causing the infection and its prevalence as well as its socio-economic, scientific and cultural dimensions. The cost implication of this ailment is enormous when considered from individual, national or global perspective, especially when the cost of treatment and the cost of the disability adjusted life years (DALYs lost to incapacitation from HIV/AIDS is considered. This study has investigated the financial implications of treatment and the DALYs lost to HIV/AIDS from the perspective of sub-Saharan Africa covering thirty-five countries. Infected population of age 15-49 years were considered, being the active life year age group. Applying Morrow’s DALYs measurement, and Ainsworth’s per capita general rule method of costing HIV/AIDS, it was found that the cost of treatment of HIV/AIDS in any country depends on her economic strength on the one hand and the size of the infected population on the other, to the extent that no country spends or loses less than 3 percent of her national income on treatment and to DALYs. To any country, the financial cost of the DALYs lost to HIV/AIDS is much more than the cost of treatment per episode, mostly huge enough to develop a sector of the country’s economy. However, a single recommendation could be difficult as individual countries experience different effect, but different countries must pursue long-run anti-prevalence policies individually and as economic region or bloc.

Raji Abdulghafar Bello

2012-10-01

331

Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia  

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Full Text Available The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia’s MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia’s systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource “brain drain”, among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or “quick wins” that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

Ben Chirwa

2006-09-01

332

Prevalences of dementia and cognitive impairment among older people in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review / : / Prevalence de la demence et des troubles cognitifs chez les personnes agees en Afrique sub-saharienne : une etude systematique / : / : / La prevalencia de la demencia y el deterioro cognitivo en las personas mayores en el Africa subsahariana: una revision sistematica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Resumen Objetivo Realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura sobre la prevalencia del deterioro cognitivo y la demencia en el África subsahariana. Métodos Se hicieron búsquedas en cinco bases de datos electrónicas a fin de hallar resúmenes pertinentes e identificar los documentos que cumpl [...] ieran con los requisitos para una revisión del texto completo. Los estudios se incluyeron cuando dos autores coincidían en que el diseño era de cohorte, de casos y controles o transversal y si presentaban los datos a nivel de población, si se limitaban a los adultos africanos negros mayores de 50 años o descritos como "personas mayores" o "ancianas", si incluían datos correspondientes a las personas que residen en el África subsahariana y si presentaban, al menos, un grado de deterioro cognitivo o resultados clínicos relevantes sobre el deterioro cognitivo. Se realizaron búsquedas de las referencias de los artículos incluidos en nuestro estudio a fin de identificar más publicaciones que cumplieran los requisitos, se arbitraron los desacuerdos sobre la inclusión en las discusiones que involucraban a todos los autores y se recogieron los datos de forma independiente por dos autores mediante un formulario desarrollado por los autores y probado en una muestra de trabajos. Resultados Se halló un total de 2320 documentos únicos y se revisó el texto completo de 87 de ellos. Se seleccionaron diecinueve documentos que incluían 11 estudios transversales, todos ellos publicados entre 1995 y 2011. Los estudios tuvieron lugar en Benin, Botswana, la República Centroafricana, el Congo y Nigeria, en los que se registraron aproximadamente 10 500 participantes. La prevalencia de la demencia varió del 0 % en Nigeria, al 10,1 % (intervalo de confianza del 95 %, IC: 8,06-11,08), también en Nigeria. La prevalencia del deterioro cognitivo varió del 6,3 % en Nigeria, al 25 % (IC del 95 %: 21,2 a 29,0) en la República Centroafricana. Conclusión La prevalencia de la demencia y el deterioro cognitivo en el África subsahariana variaron mucho, y fueron pocos los estudios publicados que se revelaron mediante la búsqueda bibliográfica. Abstract in english Objective To perform a systematic review of the literature on the prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for relevant abstracts and to identify papers eligible for full-text review. A study was included if two authors [...] agreed that it had a cohort, case–control or cross-sectional design and reported population-level data; was limited to black African adults older than 50 years or described as “elderly” or “old”; reported data for individuals residing in sub-Saharan Africa; and reported at least one measure of cognitive impairment or clinical outcomes relevant to cognitive decline. References of papers included in our study were searched to identify additional candidate publications. Disagreements about inclusion were adjudicated during discussions involving all authors. Data were extracted independently by two authors, using a form developed by the authors and tested on a sample of papers. Findings A total of 2320 unique papers was found; the full text of 87 was reviewed. Nineteen papers featuring 11 cross-sectional studies were included; all were published during 1995–2011. Studies occurred in Benin, Botswana, the Central African Republic, the Congo and Nigeria and enrolled approximately 10?500 participants. The prevalence of dementia ranged from 0%, in Nigeria, to 10.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 8.6–11.8), also in Nigeria. The prevalence of cognitive impairment ranged from 6.3%, in Nigeria, to 25% (95% CI: 21.2–29.0), in the Central African Republic. Conclusion Prevalences of dementia and cognitive impairment in sub-Saharan Africa varied widely, with few published studies revealed by the literature search.

Angelique, Mavrodaris; John, Powell; Margaret, Thorogood.

2013-10-10

333

Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although considerable achievements in the global reduction of hunger and poverty have been made, progress in Africa so far has been very limited. At present, a third of the African population faces widespread hunger and chronic malnutrition and is exposed to a constant threat of acute food crisis and famine. The most affected are rural households whose livelihood is heavily dependent on traditional rainfed agriculture. Rainfall plays a major role in determining agricultural production and hen...

Haile, Menghestab

2005-01-01

334

Electoral System Reform Attempts in Sub-Saharan Africa: South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya, and Zimbabwe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper provides a test of the generalizability of the barriers’ approach (Rahat and Hazan, 2011) to the study of electoral system reform attempts. It does so by examining a set of recent attempts of electoral system change in four Sub-Saharan countries (South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya, and Zimbabwe), some of which were successful, while other were abortive. The conclusion reached is that the barriers’ approach is useful as a helpful framework for evaluating such reform attempts, even though it is also less convincing in some cases. Two of the barriers (actors’ vested interest and the superiority of the institutional status quo) appear to be more important than the other five barriers, i.e., what one would also expect from the outset.

Elklit, JØrgen

335

North-South Rivalry and Offshore Balancing in Sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sub-Saharan Africa constitutes a distinct security region and hosts a high proportion of fragile and failed states presiding over territories with abundant resources – but no indigenous great powers! Following offensive neorealist logic, the absence of local great powers explains the continued benign neglect of the US. External influence from European powers is nonetheless significant, albeit several BRIC countries are challenging the position of the former colonial masters. In response France and the United Kingdom (UK) have turned to European foreign and security policy integration to pool resources and promote burden sharing with other EU partners, in order to maintain power in the region. This European mobilization has kept rivals at bay but has also instigated balancing behaviour as revisionist suitors boost their conventional power projection capabilities.

Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

336

Chronic Disease Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Whose Business Is It?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public health specialists and clinicians alike agree that Humanity faces a global pandemic of chronic diseases in the 21st century. In this article we discuss the implications of this pandemic on another global issue, the health workforce. Because both issues are particularly acute in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, we will focus on this region and use Cameroon as a case in point. We first gauge the epidemic of chronic conditions in SSA. We then discuss the implications of chronic conditions for the reshaping of health systems and the health workforce. We conclude by making a strong case for the building up and strengthening the health workforce, insisting on the crucial role of nurses, their training, and involvement in chronic disease management.

Slim Slama

2009-08-01

337

Millennium Development Goals progress: a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sub-Saharan Africa is a highly diverse geo-political region. Any brief discussion of the progress made over the last 15?years towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will therefore not do justice to the true complexity of context and events. Our focus will be MDG4-to reduce child mortality by 66% from 1990 levels. We will touch briefly on MDG1, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, MDG2, to achieve universal primary education, and MDG5, to improve maternal health, which are inextricably linked with child well-being. We will also draw on an eclectic mix of additional global indicators. Acknowledging the limitations of this approach, we first offer a summary of expected progress and then point to debates on future goals. PMID:25613971

English, Mike; English, Rex; English, Atti

2015-02-01

338

[Meningococcal meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa and the meningococcal A conjugate vaccine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Group A meningococci are primarily responsible for the epidemic meningococcal diseases in the countries of the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa. In 1995-1996 major epidemics (>200 000 cases) impeded effective management and ultimately resulted in many improvements. Since 2003, the Multi-Disease Center (MDSC) in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and the WHO in Geneva have collected epidemiologic and laboratory data; new alert and epidemic thresholds are applied; and management has improved, with a single dose of ceftriaxone or of oily chloramphenicol now recommended. Trivalent ACW vaccine has been introduced against serogroup W135 epidemics. In 2010, preventive vaccination campaigns using the meningococcal conjugate vaccine MenAfriVac(®) began. Their use in all countries of the meningitis belt could eliminate serogroup A outbreaks in the region. PMID:23186941

Nicolas, P

2012-01-01

339

The Situation of Students in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of St Augustine University of Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely recognised that higher education is crucial for socio-economic growth in developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is lagging behind in this regard in spite of a strong expansion of universities in the last decades. However, this growth may have led to a deterioration of the quality of higher education. There is no dearth of…

Muller, Bernadette; Haller, Max

2012-01-01

340

The need for integration of drought monitoring tools for proactive food security management in sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing the impact of drought and famine remains a challenge in sub-Saharan Africa despite ongoing drought relief assistance in recent decades. This is because drought and famine are primarily addressed through a crisis management approach when a disaster occurs, rather than stressing preparedness and risk management. Moreover, drought planning and food security efforts have been hampered by a lack of integrated drought monitoring tools, inadequate early warning systems (EWS), and insufficient information flow within and between levels of government in many sub-Saharan countries. The integration of existing drought monitoring tools for sub-Saharan Africa is essential for improving food security systems to reduce the impacts of drought and famine on society in this region. A proactive approach emphasizing integration requires the collective use of multiple tools, which can be used to detect trends in food availability and provide early indicators at local, national, and regional scales on the likely occurrence of food crises. In addition, improving the ability to monitor and disseminate critical drought-related information using available modern technologies (e.g., satellites, computers, and modern communication techniques) may help trigger timely and appropriate preventive responses and, ultimately, contribute to food security and sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa. ?? 2008 United Nations.

Tadesse, T.; Haile, M.; Senay, G.; Wardlow, B.D.; Knutson, C.L.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Seasonality and Access to Education: The Case of Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research Monograph No. 31  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper draws together research on seasonality, child labour and education in the context of primary education in sub-Saharan Africa. It describes how income poverty and demand for labour can fluctuate within and between years, affecting participation and progression through school systems. It highlights how analysis of the private and public…

Hadley, Sierd

2010-01-01

342

[Polygamy in Sub-Saharan Africa in countries formerly under French colonial rule (comparative and international judicial aspects)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Legal aspects concerning the practice of polygamy in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa formerly under French rule are compared and discussed. The focus is on the effect of political independence on the codification of marital customs into law. PMID:12286791

De Vareilles-sommieres, P

1993-01-01

343

Diagnosing the causes of decadal-scale precipitation variability in northeastern sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The northeastern part of sub-Saharan Africa receives maximum rainfall during summer (June-September), as precipitation tracks the migration of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) throughout tropical eastern Africa. Importantly, Ethiopia, Sudan, Eritrea, and northern Uganda experienced substantial precipitation declines during the past 50-60 years. These declines have not been spatially uniform. In the southern portion of this region, the decline has been steady and is ongoing with ~15-20% less summer rainfall in recent years than in the 1950s and 1960s. In the northwest, rainfall is much more variable inter-annually and a partial recovery has occurred after declines of ~30% from 1950-1985. In the northeast, declines from 1950-1985 were less extreme and have since completely recovered. What is the reasoning behind the rainfall declines in these regions, and why have they reversed in the north but continued in the south? I use a variety of observational, reanalysis, and modeled climate data to address these questions. The ongoing intensification of drought in the south is mainly attributable to declining moisture transports from the tropical Indian Ocean as a result of increasing subsidence over the eastern Horn of Africa. The increasing subsidence appears to be associated with warming of the tropical warm pool and increasing convection above the warm pool. In northern Sudan and Ethiopia, the drought from 1950-1985 and subsequent recovery appear to be associated with decadal-scale variability in the position and intensity of the ITCZ. This variability may be due to variations in the contrasting temperatures of the northern and southern hemisphere. I will refer to modeled and reconstructed past climate data to address whether increasing global temperatures have impacted these large-scale climate processes impacting summer rainfall in northeastern sub-Saharan Africa.

Williams, P.

2010-12-01

344

Preventing Nosocomial MDR TB Transmission in sub Saharan Africa: Where Are We at?  

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Full Text Available Background: In sub Saharan Africa, the cocktail of many advanced HIV-infected susceptible hosts, poor TB treatment success rates, a lack of airborne infection control, limited drug-resistance testing (DST have resulted in HIV-infected individuals being  disproportionately represented in Multi drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB cases. The prevailing application of the WHO re-treatment protocol indiscriminately to all re-treatment cases sets the stage for an increase in mortality and MDR-TB nosocomial transmission. Method: A comprehensive search was performed of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register and Medline database including the bibliographies of the retrieved reference. Findings: The TB diagnosis paradigm which for decades relied on smear sputum and culture is likely to change with the advent of the point-of-care diagnostic, Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Until the new DST infrastructure is available, along with clinical trials for both, current and new approaches to retreatment TB in areas heavily affected by HIV and TB, there are cost effective administrative, environmental, and protective measures that may be immediately instituted. Conclusion: The severe lack of infection control practices in sub Saharan Africa may jeopardise the recent strides in MDR-TB management. Cost effective infection control measures must be immediately implemented, otherwise the development of further drug resistance may offset recent strides in MDR-TB management. Indiscriminate use of the WHO standardized retreatment protocol can lead to nosocomial transmission of MDR-TB by: -Precluding early diagnosis and prompt separation of patients who experienced treatment failure category and thereby more likely to have MDR-TB. -Leaving patients from the treatment failure category in health establishments on ineffective standard retreatment regimen until the DST results are known. -targeting only patients who have had prior TB therapy, new severely debilitated TB patients having primary unrecognized MDR-TB may continue spreading resistant organisms.

Sonia Menon

2013-03-01

345

Market Barriers to Clean Cooking Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Literature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the developing nations of sub-Saharan Africa, providing households with modern energy services is a critical step towards development. A large majority of households in the region rely on traditional biomass fuels for cooking, which represent a significant proportion of energy used in the domestic setting. The disadvantages of these fuels are many: they are inefficient energy carriers and their heat is difficult to control; they produce dangerous emissions; and their current rate of extraction is not sustainable for forests. Transition to clean cooking fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or ethanol would resolve many of these issues as they do not produce dangerous particulate emissions, and are commercially viable, offering a number of socio-economic advantages over traditional options. Despite the benefits of fuel switching, clean cooking fuels are rarely used in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Their failure to attain widespread use can be attributed to a number of market barriers. One of the major issues is cost: clean cooking fuels are prohibitively expensive for many households, and the high price of compatible stoves further discourages their use. Besides the expense, many consumers are hesitant to adopt the new technology, reflecting the lack of public awareness of the relevant issues. At the same time, Africa's underdeveloped infrastructure prevents these fuels from being made available in many local marketplaces. To date, this combination of factors has largely stifled the transition to clean cooking fuels. National governments can adopt a number of strategies to address these issues. The creation of clean cooking-fuel initiatives at the national level would be an important first step, after which governments can begin to address the issues more effectively. The introduction of relevant financial instruments would help to tackle the economic barriers to clean cooking fuels, and public outreach and education could overcome socio-cultural obstacles. Through such a policy framework, national governments can play a significant role in encouraging the transition to clean cooking fuels

Schlag, Nicolai; Zuzarte, Fiona

2008-04-15

346

Human African trypanosomiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease. PMID:23829907

Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

2013-01-01

347

Comparing changes in haematologic parameters occurring in patients included in randomized controlled trials of artesunate-amodiaquine vs single and combination treatments of uncomplicated falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS&AQ is a widely used artemisinin combination therapy (ACT for falciparum malaria. A comprehensive appreciation of its effects on haematology vs other anti-malarials is needed in view of potential safety liabilities. Methods Individual-patient data analysis conducted on a database from seven randomized controlled trials conducted in sub-Saharan African comparing AS&AQ to reference treatments in uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients of all ages. Haematologic values (white cells total and neutrophil counts, haemoglobin/haematocrit, platelets were analysed as both continuous and categorical variables for their occurrence, (severity grade 1-4 and changes during follow-up. Risks and trends were calculated using multivariate logistic random effect models. Results 4,502 patients (72% p = 0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, and leucopaenia decreased with follow-up time, while neutropaenia increased; the risk of anaemia and thrombocytopaenia increased with higher baseline parasitaemia and parasitological reappearance. White cells total count was not a good surrogate for neutropaenia. No systematic significant difference between treatments was detected. Older patients were at lower risks. Conclusion The effects of AS&AQ on haematologic parameters were not different from those of other anti-malarial treatments used in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis provides the basis for a broader evaluation of haematology following anti-malarial treatment. Continuing monitoring of haematologic safety on larger databases is required.

Zwang Julien

2012-01-01

348

Improving influenza surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa / Amélioration de la surveillance de la grippe en Afrique sub-saharienne / Mejorar la vigilancia de la gripe en el África subsahariana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish SITUACIÓN: Existe poca información sobre la carga de morbilidad de la gripe en el África subsahariana. La vigilancia rutinaria de la gripe es clave para poder entender mejor el impacto de las infecciones respiratorias agudas en las poblaciones del África subsahariana. ENFOQUE: Se inició un proyecto [...] conocido como SISA, Strengtheninginfluenza sentinel surveillance in Africa, (Refuerzo de la vigilancia centinela de la gripe en África) en Angola, Camerún, Ghana, Nigeria, Ruanda, Senegal, Sierra Leona y Zambia para ayudar a mejorar la vigilancia centinela de la gripe, incluida la recopilación de datos epidemiológicos y virológicos, y para desarrollar mecanismos de información rutinarios a nivel nacional, regional e internacional. Estos países recibieron asistencia técnica por medio de supervisión remota y visitas directas. Los consultores trabajaron estrechamente con los ministerios de sanidad, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, los laboratorios nacionales de gripe y otros interesados relacionados con la vigilancia de la gripe. MARCO REGIONAL: Los sistemas de vigilancia de la gripe en los países objetivo se encontraban en diferentes fases de desarrollo cuando se implementó el proyecto SISA. Por ejemplo, en Senegal se había llevado a cabo la vigilancia virológica durante años, mientras que en Sierra Leona no se había realizado ninguna actividad de vigilancia. CAMBIOS IMPORTANTES: Se desarrollaron o actualizaron los documentos de trabajo, como protocolos y procedimientos de vigilancia nacional, y se organizaron cursos para el personal centinela in situ y para los administradores de datos. LECCIONES APRENDIDAS: La asistencia específica para los países puede ayudar a los mismos a reforzar la vigilancia de la gripe a nivel nacional, pero solo se puede conseguir una sostenibilidad a largo plazo con financiación externa y con un fuerte liderazgo gubernamental nacional. Abstract in english PROBLEM: Little is known about the burden of influenza in sub-Saharan Africa. Routine influenza surveillance is key to getting a better understanding of the impact of acute respiratory infections on sub-Saharan African populations. APPROACH: A project known as Strengthening Influenza Sentinel Survei [...] llance in Africa (SISA) was launched in Angola, Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Zambia to help improve influenza sentinel surveillance, including both epidemiological and virological data collection, and to develop routine national, regional and international reporting mechanisms. These countries received technical support through remote supervision and onsite visits. Consultants worked closely with health ministries, the World Health Organization, national influenza laboratories and other stakeholders involved in influenza surveillance LOCAL SETTING: Influenza surveillance systems in the target countries were in different stages of development when SISA was launched. Senegal, for instance, had conducted virological surveillance for years, whereas Sierra Leone had no surveillance activity at all. RELEVANT CHANGES: Working documents such as national surveillance protocols and procedures were developed or updated and training for sentinel site staff and data managers was organized. LESSONS LEARNT: Targeted support to countries can help them strengthen national influenza surveillance, but long-term sustainability can only be achieved with external funding and strong national government leadership.

C, Steffen; F, Debellut; BD, Gessner; FC, Kasolo; AA, Yahaya; N, Ayebazibwe; O, Bassong; Y, Cardoso; S, Kebede; S, Manoncourt; KA, Vandemaele; AW, Mounts.

2012-04-01

349

Deployment of community health workers across rural sub-Saharan Africa: financial considerations and operational assumptions / Déploiement des agents de santé communautaires en Afrique rurale subsaharienne: considérations financières et hypothèses opérationnelles / Despliegue de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud en zonas rurales del África subsahariana: consideraciones financieras y supuestos operativos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Facilitar asesoramiento sobre los costes necesarios para desarrollar un sistema de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud (TCS) con capacidad para adaptarse a ámbitos locales y con flexibilidad a nivel nacional, en el marco de los sistemas sanitarios de atención primaria en el África subsah [...] ariana. MÉTODOS: Se estimaron los gastos anuales para la capacitación, el equipamiento y el despliegue de los trabajadores comunitarios de la salud en las zonas rurales del África subsahariana mediante el análisis de datos procedentes de la literatura, así como del Proyecto Aldeas del Milenio. Los supuestos del modelo son adecuados para permitir a los gobiernos nacionales adaptar el subsistema de los trabajadores comunitarios de la salud a las necesidades nacionales, así como para realizar un despliegue medio de un trabajador comunitario de la salud por cada 650 habitantes en las zonas rurales antes de 2015. El subsistema de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud descrito se calculó mediante el análisis de datos del sistema de información geográfica (GIS, por sus siglas en inglés) sobre la población, los territorios urbanos, la incidencia de enfermedades a nivel nacional y subnacional, así como los costes unitarios (en el campo de salarios y necesidades básicas). El modelo puede configurarse y reproducirse con facilidad. Los países pueden adaptarlo a los precios, los salarios, la densidad demográfica, así como a la carga de enfermedades locales en distintas áreas geográficas. RESULTADOS: Se estima que el coste medio anual por el despliegue de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud para prestar atención a toda la población de las zonas rurales del África subsahariana antes de 2015 sería de unos 2,6 billones (es decir, 2 600 millones) de dólares estadounidenses (US$). Dicha suma, que será cubierta tanto por los gobiernos nacionales como por los socios donantes, se traduce en US$ 6,86 anuales por habitante, cubierta por el subsistema de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud, y en US$ 2,72 anuales por habitante. Asimismo, la capacitación, el equipamiento y el apoyo a cada TCS supondría una media anual de US$ 3750. CONCLUSIÓN: Se pueden desplegar subsistemas integrales de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud en todo el África subsahariana por un coste modesto, si se compara con los costes previstos para un sistema de atención sanitaria primaria. A juzgar por los éxitos documentados, estos ofrecen un sólido complemento para la atención en servicios sanitarios en entornos rurales de África. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To provide cost guidance for developing a locally adaptable and nationally scalable community health worker (CHW) system within primary-health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The yearly costs of training, equipping and deploying CHWs throughout rural sub-Saharan Africa were c [...] alculated using data from the literature and from the Millennium Villages Project. Model assumptions were such as to allow national governments to adapt the CHW subsystem to national needs and to deploy an average of 1 CHW per 650 rural inhabitants by 2015. The CHW subsystem described was costed by employing geographic information system (GIS) data on population, urban extents, national and subnational disease prevalence, and unit costs (from the field for wages and commodities). The model is easily replicable and configurable. Countries can adapt it to local prices, wages, population density and disease burdens in different geographic areas. FINDINGS: The average annual cost of deploying CHWs to service the entire sub-Saharan African rural population by 2015 would be approximately 2.6 billion (i.e. 2600 million) United States dollars (US$). This sum, to be covered both by national governments and by donor partners, translates into US$ 6.86 per year per inhabitant covered by the CHW subsystem and into US$ 2.72 per year per inhabitant. Alternatively, it would take an annual average of US$ 3750 to train, eq

Gordon C, McCord; Anne, Liu; Prabhjot, Singh.

2013-04-01

350

Anti-malarial market and policy surveys in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

At a recent meeting (Sept 18, 2009) in which reasons for the limited access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in sub-Saharan Africa were discussed, policy and market surveys on anti-malarial drug availability and accessibility in Burundi and Sierra Leone were presented in a highly interactive brainstorming session among key stakeholders across private, public, and not-for-profit sectors. The surveys, the conduct of which directly involved the national malaria control programme managers of the two countries, provides the groundwork for evidence-based policy implementation. The results of the surveys could be extrapolated to other countries with similar socio-demographic and malaria profiles. The meeting resulted in recommendations on key actions to be taken at the global, national, and community level for better ACT accessibility. At the global level, both public and private sectors have actions to take to strengthen policies that lead to the replacement of loose blister packs with fixed-dose ACT products, develop strategies to ban inappropriate anti-malarials and regulate those bans, and facilitate technology and knowledge transfer to scale up production of fixed-dose ACT products, which should be readily available and affordable to those patients who are in the greatest need of these medicines. At the national level, policies that regulate the anti-malarial medicines market should be enacted and enforced. The public sector, including funding donors, should participate in ensuring that the private sector is engaged in the ACT implementation process. Research similar to the surveys discussed is important for other countries to develop and evaluate the right incentives at a local level. At the community level, community outreach and education about appropriate preventive and treatment measures must continue and be strengthened, with service delivery systems developed within both public and private sectors, among other measures, to decrease access to ineffective and inappropriate anti-malarial medicines. What was clear during the meeting is that continuing commitment, strengthened interaction and transparency among various stakeholders, with focus on communities, national governments, and evidence-based policy and action are the only way to sustainably address the control of malaria, a disease which continues to have a significant health and socio-economic impact worldwide, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Details on the methodology employed in carrying out the studies discussed at this meeting, as well as more detailed results, data analysis and discussion of the studies are soon to be published. PMID:20423536

Diap, Graciela; Amuasi, John; Boakye, Isaac; Sevcsik, Ann-Marie; Pecoul, Bernard

2010-01-01

351

Trials and projects on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), accounting for about 50,000 deaths annually. Until recently, cytology was the gold standard for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. This method of screening has not been successful in SSA due to a lack of human, financial and material resources and poor health care infrastructure. It is estimated that less than 5% of at risk women have ever being screened. In the past two decades alternative approaches to cytology for cervical cancer screening have been evaluated in low- and medium-income countries. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and/or Lugol's iodine (VILI) have been shown to have adequate sensitivity, although low specificity, in a number of cross-sectional research and demonstration projects. Visual inspection methods require minimal resources, are technologically accessible, and are feasible for screening for precancerous lesions. Linking screening with VIA/VILI to treatment with cryotherapy may enable screening and treatment to take place in one visit, but this is likely to result in large numbers of women being subjected to unnecessary treatment. A number of studies have shown that cryotherapy is not associated with significant side effects or complications and is well tolerated. Creating the infrastructure for screening of older women is considered desirable, despite the limitations of visual inspection methods as screening tests. Understanding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the etiology of cervical cancer and the discovery of HPV rapid test kits, as well as the development of vaccines against the HPV oncogenic types, have created new opportunities for prevention of cervical cancer. Trials and projects have established (and are still ongoing) the feasibility of using these molecular tests for screening. The ultimate in prevention method is primary prevention, offered by the advent of prophylactic vaccines against the most important oncogenic types, namely HPV16 and 18. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Sub-Saharan Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 5, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24331748

Adefuye, Peter O; Broutet, Nathalie J; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Denny, Lynette A

2013-12-29

352

The development and climate nexus : the case of sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explores an alternative approach to future climate policies in developing countries. Although climate change seems marginal compared to the pressing issues of poverty alleviation and economic development, it is becoming clear that the realisation of development goals may be hampered by climate change. However, development can be shaped in such a way as to achieve its goals and at the same time reduce vulnerability to climate change, thereby facilitating sustainable development that realises economic, social, local and global environmental goals. This approach has been coined the 'development first approach', in which a future climate regime should focus on development strategies with ancillary climate benefits and increase the capability of developing countries to implement these. This is anticipated to offer a possible positive way out of the current deadlock between North and South in the climate negotiations. First, elements are presented for an integrated approach to development and climate; second, the approach is elaborated for food and energy security in sub-Saharan Africa; and third, possibilities are outlined for international mechanisms to support such integrated development and climate strategies. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Davidson, O.; Halsnæs, K.

2003-01-01

353

Hydrological education and training needs in Sub-Saharan Africa: requirements, constraints and progress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper represents a perspective on the education and training needs related to hydrology and water resources science within the sub-Saharan Africa region and discusses the requirements of the region, some of the relatively recent developments and initiatives and some of the constraints that exist and remain difficult to surmount. The requirements include the development of academic research capacity and technical skill for both the private and public sector at a variety of levels. Some of the constraints that exist include a lack of adequate funding, lack of follow-up after short training courses, lack of institutional support to continue training, and competition for major water resources development projects from organizations outside the region. One of the main conclusions is that to sustain both educational and practical expertise in hydrology and water resources science within the region there is a need to build a "critical mass" of local expertise. Part of this could be achieved by increasing networking within the region and promoting the sharing of information, tools and expertise. There is also a need to promote institutional support.

D. A. Hughes

2011-12-01

354

Hydrological education and training needs in sub-Saharan Africa: requirements, constraints and progress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper represents a perspective on the education and training needs related to hydrology and water resources science within the sub-Saharan Africa region and discusses the requirements of the region, some of the relatively recent developments and initiatives and some of the constraints that exist and remain difficult to surmount. The requirements include the development of academic research capacity and technical skill for both the private and public sector at a variety of levels. Some of the constraints that exist include a lack of adequate funding, lack of follow-up after short training courses, lack of institutional support to continue training, and competition for major water resources development projects from organizations outside the region. One of the main conclusions is that to sustain both educational and practical expertise in hydrology and water resources science within the region there is a need to build a "critical mass" of local expertise. Part of this could be achieved by increasing networking within the region and promoting the sharing of information, tools and expertise. There is also a need to promote institutional support.

D. A. Hughes

2012-03-01

355

The political economy of environmental goods and services demand in sub-Saharan Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technologies for solving existing environmental problems are collectively called environmental goods and services (EGS). The question is, how can sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) nations take advantage of the existing environmental technologies and avoid reinventing the wheel? In this paper, the authors present a broader political economy perspective to argue that countries must take adjustments in both the domestic institutional structure (democratization, governance, administrative transparency, protection of intellectual property rights, etc.) in addition to the ongoing macro-economic adjustments if they are to benefit from existing technologies. The next, empirical section of the article investigates the relationship between imports of EGS in SSA countries, and selected institutional, economic and structural variables. The following section presents background of the EGS industry, focusing particularly on the industry in the United States. Selected factors influencing the import of EGS products into SSA are examined within a political economy framework and against a background of ongoing structural reform programs. A statistical relationship between the factors and imports of EGS is formulated and used to provide quantitative impacts of the factors critical to a sustainable use of existing technologies. Finally, policy implications of the conclusions are discussed. 30 refs., 3 tabs., 1 app.

Avery, B.; Boadu, F.O. [Hewitt Associates, The Woodlands, TX (United States)

1998-12-31

356

The development and climate nexus. The case of sub-Saharan Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explores an alternative approach to future climate policies in developing countries. Although climate change seems marginal compared to the pressing issues of poverty alleviation and economic development, it is becoming clear that the realisation of development goals may be hampered by climate change. However, development can be shaped in such a way as to achieve its goals and at the same time reduce vulnerability to climate change, thereby facilitating sustainable development that realises economic, social, local and global environmental goals. This approach has been coined the 'development first approach', in which a future climate regime should focus on development strategies with ancillary climate benefits and increase the capability of developing countries to implement these. This is anticipated to offer a possible positive way out of the current deadlock between North and South in the climate negotiations. First, elements are presented for an integrated approach to development and climate; second, the approach is elaborated for food and energy security in sub-Saharan Africa; and third, possibilities are outlined for international mechanisms to support such integrated development and climate strategies

357

Will Sub-Saharan Africa Meet the Millennium Development Goals and Does it Matter?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2000 the largest gathering of world leaders in history met at the United Nations to endorse the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs and these goals have received wide-spread attention since then. This paper examines these goals and also considers the larger issue of economic growth and development. For sub-Saharan Africa’s economies to grow, we need to recognize the role and functions of the informal ruling sector and also acknowledge the incentives involved. Equally important perhaps, we need to rethink the development agenda: today that agenda is dictated by and large by the Western donors. In the future that agenda must be driven by the realities of the combination of the mix of informal and formal governing structures. If rulers continue to commit to meeting the objectives at the formal level while at the same time prioritize the demands of the informal sector then they will not be able to escape the poverty trap and underdevelopment nor move toward true, sustained economic and social development for all of their people. At the end of the day, what really matters is not if Africa reaches the Millennium Development Goals, since goals, while important in measuring welfare success, do not really address the more urgent need for stimulating productive and sustained economic growth that in the long term will translate into higher welfare. 

Donald Lee Sparks

2013-01-01

358

Thermal comfort in sub-Saharan Africa: Field study report in Jos-Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is much documented material concerning human thermal comfort from the physiological, adaptive and social convention paradigms. Most of these studies have been conducted on limited-occupancy buildings, such as offices and institutions of higher learning in the northern hemisphere and parts of the ASEAN region; the subjects generally being adults and assumed to be in good health. In contrast, limited work appears to have been carried out in regularly occupied buildings like homes and in tropical sub-Saharan Africa. This study seeks to fill this gap by providing empirical thermal comfort data from a city in the tropical savannah region of Africa. The data collected include temperature, humidity, CO{sub 2} level and lighting level, as well as results from questionnaires on the occupants' sensations of thermal comfort. The results show the range of conditions in which occupants in naturally ventilated buildings are comfortable. The preferred conditions suggested by the data are an operative temperature of just over 26 C. (author)

Ogbonna, A.C.; Harris, D.J. [School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15

359

Child malaria in sub-saharan Africa: effective control and prevention require a health promotion approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria remains a vital concern of child survival in sub-Saharan Africa despite the existence of effective curative and preventive measures. It is known that child malaria is underpinned by factors such as socioeconomic, cultural, environmental, and so forth, that must be considered simultaneously in order to effectively control it. This study applied to a rural community in Benin (West Africa) the Health Promotion concept (community participation and empowerment, contextualism, intersectorality, multistrategy, equity, and sustainability) to develop a program in order to control child malaria and close the gap of unsuccessful programs. The study design was a quasi-experimental pre-post conducted over a period of 27 months. As results, 80% of the community members participated in six of the seven sub-projects planned. The prevalence of fever (malaria) was significantly reduced after the intervention (p = 0.008). The recourse to adequate health care has significantly increased after the intervention (chi2 = 48.07, p = 0.000000). All these contributed to a statistically significant reduction of children deaths due to malaria (p = 0.001) in the village. Health Promotion strategies are likely to contribute to sustainable malaria programs' implementation that reduce malaria incidence and deaths in children under five. PMID:18644764

Houeto, David; Deccache, Alain

360

ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the causality relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in four low-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using the econometrics in time-series methods. Along the estimation process, I use the annual data on energy consumption and real GDP per capita over the years of 1971 and 2011. The results of the ADF unit root test show that the time series are not stationary for all countries at levels, but log of economic growth in Benin and Congo become stationary after taking the differences of the data, and log of energy consumption become stationary for all countries and LGR in Kenya and Zimbabwe are found to be stationary after taking the second differences of the time-series. The findings of the Johansen co-integration test demonstrate that the variables LEC and LGR are not co-integrated for the cases of Kenya and Zimbabwe, so no long-run relationship between the variables arises in any country. The Granger causality test indicates that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy use to economic growth in Kenya and no causality linkage between EC and GR in Benin, Congo and Zimbabwe.

Eyup Dogan

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Kidney disease among children in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The global burden of kidney disease is increasing, and several etiologies first begin in childhood. Risk factors for pediatric kidney disease are common in Africa, but data regarding its prevalence are lacking. We completed a systematic review of community-based studies describing the prevalence of proteinuria, hematuria, abnormal imaging, or kidney dysfunction among children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Medline and Embase were searched. Five hundred twenty-three references were reviewed. Thirty-two references from nine countries in SSA were included in the qualitative synthesis. The degree of kidney damage and abnormal imaging varied widely: proteinuria 32.5% (2.2-56.0%), hematuria 31.1% (0.6-67.0%), hydronephrosis 11.3% (0.0-38.0%), hydroureter 7.5% (0.0-26.4%), and major kidney abnormalities 0.1% (0.0-0.8%). Serum creatinine was reported in four studies with insufficient detail to identify the prevalence renal dysfunction. A majority of the studies were performed in Schistosoma haematobium endemic areas. A lower prevalence of kidney disease was observed in the few studies from nonendemic areas. Published data on pediatric kidney disease in SSA are highly variable and dependent on S. haematobium prevalence. More community-based studies are needed to describe the burden of pediatric kidney disease, particularly in regions where S. haematobium infection is nonendemic. PMID:25420180

Kayange, Neema M; Smart, Luke R; Tallman, Jacob E; Chu, Emily Y; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Pain, Kevin J; Peck, Robert N

2015-02-01

362

Striga hermonthica SEED GERMINATION THROUGH ROOT EXUDATES OF INDIGENOUS SUB-SAHARAN WEED SPECIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate root exudates from sub-Saharan indigenous weed species to induce germination of Striga hermonthica (Del. Beth., a root parasitic weed. Significant variation in Striga seed germination was observed, ranging from an absence to the induction of 74.1% Striga seeds. Direct compa-rison of Striga germination was obscured by differences in weed root biomass as within most of the species, a direct proportional relation between Striga seed germination and weed root dry weight was observed. Expression of Striga seed germination in % g-1 root dry weight (GIC was found a suitable solution as stable values for GIC were obtained despite considerable variation in root dry weight. GIC was significant for 25 species and highest with Commelina forskalaei and Sesamum alatum (9.91; 9.78 % g-1 dry root, respectively. Striga seeds did not germinate following application of exudates from Mitracarpus scaber and Phyllanthus pentrandus. These results show that a substantial number of indigenous weed species may serve as alternative trap crops to control the parasites seed bank. Furthermore, the timing of weeds in the cropping system may provide a (partial explanation for the erratic infestation levels found across fields and years that have dazed researchers for many years.

Randy Trinity Nijkamp

2012-10-01

363

Impact of historical droughts on crop yields in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been faced with frequent drought events in the past. Future climate change scenarios have suggested increasing drought frequency and severity. The devastating impacts of drought on rainfed farming and food production pose many challenges in SSA countries both today and in the future. Therefore, a comprehensive investigation of droughts and assessment of their impacts on crop yield and production are critically important to support SSA to formulate effective adaptive measures to improve food security. The current study assesses the historical meteorological and agricultural droughts and quantifies their impacts on two major crop yields namely maize and cassava in SSA. The GIS-based crop model (GEPIC) is used for the simulation of the historical yields. Drought severities are categorized into levels of mild, moderate and severe. The impacts of each category on maize and cassava yields are examined and drought hotspots are highlighted. The knowledge learnt from the historical data helps enhance the projection of the impacts of future weather conditions on crop yield in the region and facilitate the societal preparedness to drought impact.

Kamali, Bahareh; Yang, Hong; abbaspour, karim

2014-05-01

364

Transmission of HIV in sexual networks in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

We are reviewing the literature regarding sexual networks and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. On Likoma Island in Malawi, a sexual network was reconstructed using a sociometric survey in which individuals named their sexual partners. The sexual network identified one giant component including half of all sexually active individuals. More than 25% of respondents were linked through independent chains of sexual relations. HIV was more common in the sparser regions of the network due to over-representation of groups with higher HIV prevalence. A study from KwaZulu-Natal in South-Africa collected egocentric data about sexual partners and found that new infections in women in a particular area was associated with the number of life-time partners in men. Data about sexual networks and HIV transmission are not reported in Europe. It is, however, found that the annual number of sexual partners follows a scale-free network. Phylogenetic studies that determine genetic relatedness between HIV isolates obtained from infected individuals, found that patients in the early stages of infections explain a high number of new infections. In conclusion, the limited information that is available suggest that sexual networks play a role in spread of HIV. Obtaining more information about sexual networks can be of benefit for modeling studies on HIV transmission and prevention.

van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Prosperi, Mattia C. F.; Ramasco, José J.

2013-09-01

365

Rationalization of imports, refineries and distribution of petroleum in Sub-Saharan Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines policies to secure and reduce the cost of oil supplies in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), taking into account the existing forces at play: limited foreign exchange, competition for increasingly scarce funds, and the likely emergence of Africa as the fastest growing centre of energy demand over the coming decade. It identifies major inefficiencies in petroleum procurement, refining and distribution, and analyses the specific bottlenecks at each stage of the supply chain. Many of the diseconomies, estimated to yield savings of US$ 1.4 per year, are traced to an inefficient regulatory set-up in SSA countries, as well as unnecessary government interference in the downstream petroleum sector. In particular, price controls, small topping refineries, monopolistic agencies, government subsidies and opaque management structures prevent the working of efficient market mechanisms. The paper discusses the importance of policy reform, outlining what changes need to be implemented on the levels of institutional arrangements, closing of inefficient units, petroleum pricing and encouraging foreign investment in the sector. (author). 1 ref., 7 figs

366

Research Ethics Capacity Building in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of NIH Fogarty-Funded Programs 2000–2012  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The last fifteen years have witnessed a significant increase in investment in research ethics capacity development throughout the world. We examine nine research ethics training programs that are focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and supported by the US National Institutes of Health. We collected data from grants awards’ documents and annual reports supplemented by questionnaires completed by the training program directors. Together, these programs provided long-term training in research ethics...

Ndebele, Paul; Wassenaar, Douglas; Benatar, Solomon; Fleischer, Theodore; Kruger, Mariana; Adebamowo, Clement; Kass, Nancy; Hyder, Adnan A.; Meslin, Eric M.

2014-01-01

367

Determinants of male involvement in maternal and child health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction Male participation is a crucial component in the optimization of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services. This is especially so where prevention strategies to decrease Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are sought. This study aims to identify determinants of male partners’ involvement in MCH activities, focusing specifically on HIV prevention of maternal to child transmission (PMTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa.

Ditekemena John; Koole Olivier; Engmann Cyril; Matendo Richard; Tshefu Antoinette; Ryder Robert; Colebunders Robert

2012-01-01

368

Food trade and urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa: from the Early Stone Age to the Structural Adjustment Era  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses a selection of the literature that has been published on the relationship between the development of food trade and urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa. The evolution of food marketing systems and the urbanization process are described in three phases: the precolonial period, the colonial period, and the postindependence period. The paper concludes that the evolution of food trade and urbanization have been closely interlinked from the beginning. Sometimes urbanization was ...

Dijkstra, T.

1995-01-01

369

Human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa through integrated management of arthropod transmitted diseases and natural resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A concept of an ecosystem approach to human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. Three factors mainly affect the physical condition of the human body: the abiotic environment, vector-transmitted diseases, and natural resources. Our concept relies on ecological principles embedded in a social context and identifies three sets of subsystems for study and management: human disease subsystems, natural resource subsystems, and decision-support subsystems. To control human di...

Baumgärtner Johann; Bieri Markus; Buffoni Giuseppe; Gilioli Gianni; Gopalan Hiremagalur; Greiling Jürgen; Tikubet Getachew; Van Schayk Ingeborg

2001-01-01

370

The Role of Renewable Energy Consumption and Trade: Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis for Sub-Saharan Africa Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to investigate the short and the long-run relationship between CO2 emissions, economic growth, renewable energy consumption and trade openness for a panel of 24 Sub-Saharan Africa countries over the period 1980-2010. The validity of the EKC hypothesis has not been supported for these countries. Short-run Granger causality results reveal that there is a bidirectional causality between emis...

Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim; Ozturk, Ilhan

2014-01-01

371

The EU’s support is vital in tackling sub-Saharan Africa’s sanitary crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today is World Toilet Day, which aims to draw attention to the 2.5 billion people who live without adequate toilet facilities. Andrew Cotton looks at the effectiveness of the EU’s Official Development Assistance to sub-Saharan Africa – where around 200 million people live without access to a toilet of any sort – finding that EU aid has made a significant contribution to improving sanitation.

Cotton, Andrew

2012-01-01

372

Regional Financial Integration in Sub-Saharan Africa - An Empirical Examination of its Effects on Financial Market Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the effects of political agreements on regional financial integration (RFI) on financial market development and access to and cost of finance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that RFI positively affects financial development - measured very broadly as the size of the financial sector, including the liabilities of the central banks - when combined with a sufficient level of institutional quality. If institutional quality is below a threshold level, RFI apparently ...

Frey, Leo; Volz, Ulrich

2011-01-01

373

Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2010: need, the process, and prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As of 2010 sub-Saharan Africa had approximately 865 million inhabitants living with numerous public health challenges. Several public health initiatives [e.g., the United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US President's Malaria Initiative] have been very successful at reducing mortality from priority diseases. A competently trained public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance and response systems is necessary to build upon and sustain these ...

Nsubuga, Peter; Johnson, Kenneth; Tetteh, Christopher; Oundo, Joseph; Weathers, Andrew; Vaughan, James; Elbon, Suzanne; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Ndugulile, Faustine; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Evering-watley, Michele; Mosha, Fausta; Oleribe, Obinna; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora

2011-01-01

374

Comparing the Effectiveness of Informal and Formal Institutions in Sustainable Common Pool Resources Management in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article compares the effectiveness of informal and formal institutions for sustainable common pool resources (CPRs) management in Sub-Saharan Africa and investigates the social, political and demographic conditions that influence the institutions? effectiveness. By focusing on publications addressing micro-level CPR management, a comprehensive literature review was conducted. Articles were grouped, based on the main themes of the study, including types of institutions and conditio...

Yami Mastewal; Vogl Christian; Hauser Michael

2009-01-01

375

Towards Comprehensive Women's Healthcare in Sub-Saharan Africa: Addressing Intersections Between HIV, Reproductive and Maternal Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This themed supplement to JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes focuses on the critical intersections between HIV, reproductive, and maternal health services in the health systems of sub-Saharan Africa. The epidemiology of HIV among women of reproductive age on the sub-continent demands a holistic conceptualization and comprehensive approaches to ensure that HIV, reproductive, and maternal health are optimally addressed. Yet, in many instances, the national and global respons...

Kendall, Tamil; Ba?rnighausen, Till; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Langer, Ana

2014-01-01

376

Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops—green manures—and agroforestry—legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric req...

Palm, Cheryl A.; Smukler, Sean M.; Sullivan, Clare C.; Mutuo, Patrick K.; Nyadzi, Gerson I.; Walsh, Markus G.

2010-01-01

377

The inverse primary care law in sub-Saharan Africa: a qualitative study of the views of migrant health workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Many low-income and middle-income countries globally are now pursuing ambitious plans for universal primary care, but are failing to deliver adequate care quality because of intractable human resource problems. AIM: To understand why migrant nurses and doctors from sub-Saharan Africa did not wish to take up available posts in primary and first-contact care in their home countries. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative study of migrant health workers to Europe (UK, Belgium, and Austria) ...

Moosa, S.; Wojczewski, S.; Hoffmann, K.; Poppe, A.; Nkomazana, O.; Peersman, W.; Willcox, M.; Derese, A.; Mant, D.

2014-01-01

378

Scrotal necrosis to total de-gloving injury of the male genitalia: an experience from Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two patients with very different aetiologies of their genital injuries are presented: one lost his scrotal skin as a result of Fournier’s gangrene, the other experienced complete denudation of scrotal and penile skin plus the amputation of his glans penis through an agricultural machinery. The placement of denuded gonads in thigh pouches and delayed skin grafting provide safe treatment options in a low budget setting of a Sub-Saharan country.

Houben, Christoph H.; Chuks Azubuike; Okogbe Ozoemena; Bala Saidu

2013-01-01

379

Epidemic multiple drug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium causing invasive disease in sub-Saharan Africa have a distinct genotype  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whereas most nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) are associated with gastroenteritis, there has been a dramatic increase in reports of NTS-associated invasive disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates are responsible for a significant proportion of the reported invasive NTS in this region. Multilocus sequence analysis of invasive S. Typhimurium from Malawi and Kenya identified a dominant type, designated ST313, which currently is rarely reported outside of Afri...

Kingsley, Ra; Msefula, Cl; Thomson, Nr; Kariuki, S.; Holt, Ke; Gordon, MA; Harris, D.; Clarke, L.; Whitehead, S.; Sangal, V.; Marsh, K.; Achtman, M.; Molyneux, Me; Cormican, M.; Parkhill, J.

2009-01-01

380

Meningococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for mass and routine vaccination with available polysaccharide vaccines.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endemic and epidemic group A meningococcal meningitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of the safe and inexpensive group A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which is protective at all ages when administered as directed. Despite optimal therapy, meningococcal meningitis has a 10% fatality rate and at least 15% central nervous system damage. WHO's policy of epidemic containment prevents, at best, about 50% of cases and ignores ...

Robbins John B.; Schneerson Rachel; Gotschlich Emil C.; Mohammed Idris; Nasidi Abdulsalami; Chippaux Jean-Philippe; Bernardino Luis; Maiga Moussa A.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Readiness to use e-learning for agricultural higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Results from a survey of faculty members  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-learning is likely to be an increasingly important element in teaching agriculture and related subjects at universities in Sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors involved in determining the readiness and intention to adopt e-learning by faculty members at member institutions of the African Network for Agriculture, Agroforestry and Natural Resources Education (ANAFE. The study was based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB to predict intentions on the use of e-learning. DTPB draws on constructs influencing the attitude to use technology from two frequently investigated models in this area, that is, the theory of planned behavior (TPB and the technology acceptance model (TAM. Valid responses were collected from 70 faculty members with a survey questionnaire. Validated scales from previous research were used to measure the variables of interest. The results revealed that the majority of the respondents have only limited access to ICT infrastructure and support services. However, they perceived e-learning to be very useful in general and to have the potential to enhance their teaching-related activities.

Thomas Zschocke

2013-04-01

382

Health Systems Integration of Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV Services in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Scoping Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Both sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa are typically delivered vertically, operating parallel to national health systems. The objective of this study was to map the evidence on national and international strategies for integration of SRH and HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa and to develop a research agenda for future health systems integration. Methods: We examined the literature on national and international strategies to integrate SRH and HIV services using a scoping study methodology. Current policy frameworks, national HIV strategies and research, and gray literature on integration were mapped. Five countries in sub-Saharan Africa with experience of integrating SRH and HIV services were purposively sampled for detailed thematic analysis, according to the health systems functions of governance, policy and planning, financing, health workforce organization, service organization, and monitoring and evaluation. Results: The major international health policies and donor guidance now support integration. Most integration research has focused on linkages of SRH and HIV front-line services. Yet, the common problems with implementation are related to delayed or incomplete integration of higher level health systems functions: lack of coordinated leadership and unified national integration policies; separate financing streams for SRH and HIV services and inadequate health worker training, supervision and retention. Conclusions: Rigorous health systems research on the integration of SRH and HIV services is urgently needed. Priority research areas include integration impact, performance, and economic evaluation to inform the planning, financing, and coordination of integrated service delivery. PMID:25436826

Kendall, Tamil; Langer, Ana; Bärnighausen, Till

2014-01-01

383

Utilization of preventive maternal and child public health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of individual and small-area socioeconomic disadvantage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Uptake of programmatic maternal and childhood preventive interventions continue to be sub-optimal in sub-Saharan Africa with wide variations within and across the countries. There is evidence suggestive of socioeconomic inequities in access to and coverage of preventive health intervention. In the context of maternal and child health (MCH) in sub-Saharan Africa, women and children among the poor are more disadvantaged in terms of access to life saving preven...

Aremu, Olatunde

2011-01-01

384

Impact of Placental Plasmodium falciparum Malaria on Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcome in Sub-Saharan Africa: Part III: Placental Malaria, Maternal Health, and Public Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plasmodium falciparum infections of the placenta remain a major medical challenge among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. A number of factors influence the prevalence of placental malaria in pregnant women, including maternal age, gravidity, use of prophylaxis, nutrition, host genetics, and level of anti-parasite immunity, as well as parasite genetics and transmission rates [1]. Maternal anemia has been shown to be one of the major complications of placental malaria in sub-Saharan Africa....

Uneke, Chigozie J.

2008-01-01

385

Pattern and determinants of HIV research productivity in sub-Saharan Africa: bibliometric analysis of 1981 to 2009 PubMed papers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Several bibliometric studies have been published on AIDS. The findings obtained from these studies have provided a general picture of the history and growth of AIDS literature. However, factors related to variation in HIV research productivity in sub-Saharan Africa have not been examined. Therefore, this study aims to fill some of the gap in existing research to provide insights into factors associated with HIV research productivity in sub-Saharan Africa.<...

Uthman Olalekan A

2010-01-01

386

The appropriateness of GM crops for Sub-Saharan Africa: an assessment of current evidence (with special reference to cassava in Nigeria)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is broadly accepted that agricultural growth is essential for Sub-Saharan Africa‘s development, in support of economic growth and a structural transformation of the economy towards industrialization, food security and poverty reduction. Many believe that genetically modified crops have the potential to produce higher yields in many of Sub-Saharan Africa‘s unfavourable climatic conditions and can therefore help in providing food security to the region. While some countries in Sub-Sahara...

Schoof, Eva

2011-01-01

387

Barriers and facilitating factors to the uptake of antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To investigate and synthesize reasons for low access, initiation and adherence to antiretroviral drugs by mothers and exposed babies for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted. Four databases were searched (Medline, Embase, Global Health and Web of Science) for studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa from January 2000 to September 2012. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included...

Annabelle Gourlay; Isolde Birdthistle; Gitau Mburu; Kate Iorpenda; Alison Wringe

2013-01-01

388

Boys are more stunted than girls in Sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of 16 demographic and health surveys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Many studies in sub-Saharan Africa have occasionally reported a higher prevalence of stunting in male children compared to female children. This study examined whether there are systematic sex differences in stunting rates in children under-five years of age, and how the sex differences in stunting rates vary with household socio-economic status. Methods Data from the most recent 16 demographic and health surveys (DHS) in 10 sub-Saharan count...

Tumwine James K; Peterson Stefan; Åstrøm Anne; Wamani Henry; Tylleskär Thorkild

2007-01-01

389

Disease, risk, and contagion: French colonial and postcolonial constructions of "african" bodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we explore how sub-Saharan African immigrant populations in France have been constructed as risk groups by media sources, in political rhetoric, and among medical professionals, drawing on constructs dating to the colonial period. We also examine how political and economic issues have been mirrored and advanced in media visibility and ask why particular populations and the diseases associated with them in the popular imagination have received more attention at certain historical moments. In the contemporary period we analyze how the bodies of West African women and men have become powerful metaphors in the politics of discrimination prevalent in France, in spite of Republican precepts that theoretically disavow cultural and social difference. PMID:25294650

Sargent, Carolyn; Larchanché, Stéphanie

2014-12-01

390

Discovery of an unknown diversity of Leucinodes species damaging Solanaceae fruits in sub-Saharan Africa and moving in trade (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pyraloidea)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The larvae of the Old World genera Leucinodes Guenée, 1854 and Sceliodes Guenée, 1854 are internal feeders in the fruits of Solanaceae, causing economic damage to cultivated plants like Solanum melongena and Solanum aethiopicum. In sub-Saharan Africa five nominal species of Leucinodes and one of Sceliodes occur. One of these species, the eggplant fruit and shoot borer Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée, 1854, is regarded as regularly intercepted from Africa and Asia in Europe, North and South America and is therefore a quarantine pest on these continents. We investigate the taxonomy of African Leucinodes and Sceliodes based on morphological characters in wing pattern, genitalia and larvae, as well as mitochondrial DNA, providing these data for identification of all life stages. The results suggest that both genera are congeneric, with Sceliodes syn. n. established as junior subjective synonym of Leucinodes. Leucinodes orbonalis is described from Asia and none of the samples investigated from Africa belong to this species. Instead, sub-Saharan Africa harbours a complex of eight endemic Leucinodes species. Among the former nominal species of Leucinodes (and Sceliodes) from Africa, only Leucinodes laisalis (Walker, 1859), comb. n. (Sceliodes) is confirmed, with Leucinodes translucidalis Gaede, 1917, syn. n. as a junior subjective synonym. The other African Leucinodes species were unknown to science and are described as new: Leucinodes africensis sp. n., Leucinodes ethiopica sp. n., Leucinodes kenyensis sp. n., Leucinodes malawiensis sp. n., Leucinodes pseudorbonalis sp. n., Leucinodes rimavallis sp. n. and Leucinodes ugandensis sp. n. An identification key based on male genitalia is provided for the African Leucinodes species. Most imports of Leucinodes specimens from Africa into Europe refer to Leucinodes africensis, which has been frequently imported with fruits during the last 50 years. In contrast, Leucinodes laisalis has been much less frequently recorded, and Leucinodes pseudorbonalis as well as Leucinodes rimavallis only very recently in fruit imports from Uganda. Accordingly, interceptions of Leucinodes from Africa into other continents will need to be re-investigated for their species identity and will likely require, at least in parts, revisions of the quarantine regulations. The following African taxa are excluded from Leucinodes: Hyperanalyta Strand, 1918, syn. rev. as revised synonym of Analyta Lederer, 1863; Analyta apicalis (Hampson, 1896), comb. n. (Leucinodes); Lygropia aureomarginalis (Gaede, 1916), comb. n. (Leucinodes); Syllepte hemichionalis Mabille, 1900, comb. rev., Syllepte hemichionalis idalis Viette, 1958, comb. rev. and Syllepte vagans (Tutt, 1890), comb. n. (Aphytoceros). Deanolis iriocapna (Meyrick, 1938), comb. n. from Indonesia is originally described and misplaced in Sceliodes, and Leucinodes cordalis (Doubleday, 1843), comb. n. (Margaritia) from New Zealand, Leucinodes raondry (Viette, 1981), comb. n. (Daraba) from Madagascar as well as Leucinodes grisealis (Kenrick, 1912), comb. n. (Sceliodes) from New Guinea are transferred from Sceliodes to Leucinodes. While Leucinodes is now revised from Africa, it still needs further revision in Asia. PMID:25632252

Mally, Richard; Korycinska, Anastasia; Agassiz, David J. L.; Hall, Jayne; Hodgetts, Jennifer; Nuss, Matthias

2015-01-01

391

Trypanosoma vivax displays a clonal population structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

African animal trypanosomiasis, or Nagana, is a debilitating and economically costly disease with a major impact on animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosoma vivax, one of the principal trypanosome species responsible for the disease, infects a wide host range including cattle, goats, horses and donkeys and is transmitted both cyclically by tsetse flies and mechanically by other biting flies, resulting in a distribution covering large swathes of South America and much of sub-Saharan Africa. While there is evidence for mating in some of the related trypanosome species, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma cruzi, very little work has been carried out to examine this question in T. vivax. Understanding whether mating occurs in T. vivax will provide insight into the dynamics of trait inheritance, for example the spread of drug resistance, as well as examining the origins of meiosis in the order Kinetoplastida. With this in mind we have identified orthologues of eight core meiotic genes within the genome, the presence of which imply that the potential for mating exists in this species. In order to address whether mating occurs, we have investigated a sympatric field population of T. vivax collected from livestock in The Gambia, using microsatellite markers developed for this species. Our analysis has identified a clonal population structure showing significant linkage disequilibrium, homozygote deficits and disagreement with Hardy-Weinberg predictions at six microsatellite loci, indicative of a lack of mating in this population of T. vivax. PMID:19520081

Duffy, Craig W; Morrison, Liam J; Black, Alana; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Christley, Robert M; Schoenefeld, Andreas; Tait, Andy; Turner, C Michael R; MacLeod, Annette

2009-11-01