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Population Genomics of Sub-Saharan Drosophila melanogaster: African Diversity and Non-African Admixture  

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Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indica...

2012-01-01

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CCR5D32 mutation in three Brazilian populations of predominantly Sub-Saharan African ancestry  

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This study reports the frequencies of the CCR5D32 mutation of the beta-chemokine 5 gene and discusses the possible effects of past and recent gene flow in three quilombo remnants (Brazilians communities with anthropological African ancestry whose ancestors were escaped slaves): Rio das Rãs, Mocambo, and São Gonçalo in the northeastern region of Brazil. The CCR5D32 allele frequency of the Mocambo population was significantly higher (5.6%) than that found in the Rio das Rãs (1%) and São Go...

2004-01-01

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CCR5D32 mutation in three Brazilian populations of predominantly Sub-Saharan African ancestry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study reports the frequencies of the CCR5D32 mutation of the beta-chemokine 5 gene and discusses the possible effects of past and recent gene flow in three quilombo remnants (Brazilians communities with anthropological African ancestry whose ancestors were escaped slaves): Rio das Rãs, Mocambo, [...] and São Gonçalo in the northeastern region of Brazil. The CCR5D32 allele frequency of the Mocambo population was significantly higher (5.6%) than that found in the Rio das Rãs (1%) and São Gonçalo (0.9%) populations. These differences may reflect different proportions of parental populations in the founders individuals, a founder-effect and/or different histories of inter-ethnic contact. The frequency of the CCR5D32 allele in the Mocambo sample is similar to that found in those urban Brazilian populations which have a large amount of European genetic input, indicating a European contribution to the gene pool of this population and suggesting that, perhaps since its foundation, Mocambo has had a high level of admixture or experienced a founder-effect.

Mônica W.P., Carvalho; Ana P.M., Leboute; Silviene F., Oliveira; Sandra M.B., Sousa; Maria de Nazaré, Klautau-Guimarães; Aguinaldo L., Simões.

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Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub-Saharan region, energy independent countries using indigenous coal and peat resources. These resources have the potential to replace wood and wood charcoal as domestic fueld in the urban centers, as well as producing electrical and industrial energy, thus reducing expensive oil imports and decreasing the rate of deforestation.

Weaver, J. N.; Brownfield, M. E.; Bergin, M. J.

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Within-population genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens reveals geographic distance from a Central sub-Saharan African origin.  

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Populations of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite, are diverse owing to wide levels of transmission and endemicity of infection. Genetic diversity of P. falciparum antigens, within and between parasite populations, remains a confounding factor in malaria pathogenesis as well as clinical trials of vaccine candidates. Variation of target antigens in parasite populations may arise from immune pressure depending on the levels of acquired immunity. Alternatively, similar to our study in housekeeping genes [Tanabe et al. Curr Biol 2010;70:1-7], within-population genetic diversity of vaccine candidate antigens may also be determined by geographical distance from a postulated origin in Central sub-Saharan Africa. To address this question, we obtained full-length sequences of P. falciparum genes, apical membrane antigen 1 (ama1) (n=459), circumsporozoite protein (csp) (n=472) and merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1) (n=389) from seven geographically diverse parasite populations in Africa, Southeast Asia and Oceania; and, together with previously determined sequences (n=13 and 15 for csp and msp1, respectively) analyzed within-population single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity. The three antigen genes showed SNP diversity that supports a model of isolation-by-distance. The standardized number of polymorphic sites per site, expressed as ?(S), indicates that 77-83% can be attributed by geographic distance from the African origin, suggesting that geographic distance plays a significant role in variation in target vaccine candidate antigens. Furthermore, we observed that a large proportion of SNPs in the antigen genes were shared between African and non-African parasite populations, demonstrating long term persistence of those SNPs. Our results provide important implications for developing effective malaria vaccines and better understanding of acquired immunity against falciparum malaria. PMID:23295064

Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Mita, Toshihiro; Palacpac, Nirianne M Q; Arisue, Nobuko; Tougan, Takahiro; Kawai, Satoru; Jombart, Thibaut; Kobayashi, Fumie; Horii, Toshihiro

2013-02-18

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A survey of Sub-Saharan African medical schools  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate. An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64 increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68. The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of graduates, and improving quality, related to infrastructure and faculty limitations, respectively. Significant correlations were seen between schools implementing increased faculty salaries and bonuses, and lower percentage loss of faculty over the previous five years (P = 0.018; strengthened institutional research tools (P = 0.00015 and funded faculty research time (P = 0.045 and greater faculty involvement in research; and country compulsory service requirements (P = 0.039, a moderate number (1-5 of post-graduate medical education programs (P = 0.016 and francophone schools (P = 0.016 and greater rural general practice after graduation. Conclusions The results of the SAMSS survey increases the level of data and understanding of medical schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. This data serves as a baseline for future research, policies and investment in the health care workforce in the region which will be necessary for improving health.

Chen Candice

2012-02-01

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Development of a single base extension method to resolve Y chromosome haplogroups in sub-Saharan African populations  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of the Y chromosome to retain a record of its evolution has seen it become an essential tool of molecular anthropology. In the last few years, however, it has also found use in forensic genetics, providing information on the geographic origin of individuals. This has been aided by the development of efficient screening methods and an increased knowledge of geographic distribution. In this study, we describe the development of single base extension assays used to resolve 61 Y chromosome haplogroups, mainly within haplogroups A, B and E, found in Africa. Results Seven multiplex assays, which incorporated 60 Y chromosome markers, were developed. These resolved Y chromosomes to 61 terminal branches of the major African haplogroups A, B and E, while also including a few Eurasian haplogroups found occasionally in African males. Following its validation, the assays were used to screen 683 individuals from Southern Africa, including south eastern Bantu speakers (BAN, Khoe-San (KS and South African Whites (SAW. Of the 61 haplogroups that the assays collectively resolved, 26 were found in the 683 samples. While haplogroup sharing was common between the BAN and KS, the frequencies of these haplogroups varied appreciably. Both groups showed low levels of assimilation of Eurasian haplogroups and only two individuals in the SAW clearly had Y chromosomes of African ancestry. Conclusions The use of these single base extension assays in screening increased haplogroup resolution and sampling throughput, while saving time and DNA. Their use, together with the screening of short tandem repeat markers would considerably improve resolution, thus refining the geographic ancestry of individuals.

Naidoo Thijessen

2010-09-01

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Gender Gaps in Political Participation Across Sub-Saharan African Nations  

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A substantial literature has studied gender differences in political participation in Western industrialized democracies, but little is known about such gaps in sub-Saharan African nations. Using 2005 Afrobarometer data, this paper presents a systematic investigation of the gender gap in political participation across 18 sub-Saharan African countries. In line with cultural isomorphism, patterns in gender gaps across different types of participation generally mirror those of Western democracie...

Coffe, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine

2011-01-01

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How Can the Operating Environment for Nutrition Research Be Improved in Sub-Saharan Africa? The Views of African Researchers  

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Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed p...

Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

2013-01-01

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How can the operating environment for nutrition research be improved in Sub-Saharan Africa?: the views of African researchers  

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Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed p...

Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Houefa Eunice Sorel; Garimoi Orach, Christhopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

2013-01-01

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Corporate governance and company performance across Sub-Saharan African countries  

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This paper examines the extent to which publicly listed companies across Sub-Saharan African countries have adopted “good corporate governance” practices. We investigate the association of these practices with companies’ accounting performance and market valuation. The findings indicate that companies across Sub-Saharan Africa have only partly implemented good corporate governance practices. We find a positive association between our constructed index of good corporate governance practi...

Munisi, Gibson; Randøy, Trond

2013-01-01

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Informed Consent in Sub-Saharan African Communal Culture: The  

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Some scholars argue that the principle of voluntary informed consent is rooted in the Western ethos of liberal individualism; that it would be difficult to implement this requirement in societies where the norms of decision-making emphasize collective rather than individual decision-making (for example, Sub-Saharan Africa); that it would amount to “cultural imperialism” to seek to implement the principle of voluntary informed consent in non-Western societies. This thesis rejects this skep...

Agulanna, Christopher

2008-01-01

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Raven's Test Performance of Sub-Saharan Africans: Average Performance, Psychometric Properties, and the Flynn Effect  

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This paper presents a systematic review of published data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices. The specific goals were to estimate the average level of performance, to study the Flynn Effect in African samples, and to examine the psychometric meaning of Raven's test scores as measures of general intelligence.…

Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Carlson, Jerry S.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

2010-01-01

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Novel MASP2 variants detected among North African and Sub-Saharan individuals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The lectin pathway of the complement system is activated when mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in complex with MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) binds to carbohydrate structures on microorganisms. Structural gene mutations and promoter polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene responsible for low-MBL serum levels are present in all human populations and associate with increased risk of infection. Recently, investigations on Danes revealed the existence of a mutation on the MASP2 gene, which introduces an amino acid substitution in the CUB1 domain (Asp105Gly; numbering refers to the mature protein), and is associated with reduction in the level of MASP-2 in serum. Here, we present the results of a sequence-based typing analysis of the MBL2 and MASP2 gene polymorphisms in a group of 65 Africans (50 North Africans and 15 Sub-Saharan) and of 104 Spaniards. The analysis identified three novel exon 3 MASP2 variants introducing amino acid substitutions at positions 84 (Arg-->Gln), 103 (Arg-->Cys) and 111 (Pro-->Leu) in the CUB1 domain. None of these variants were identified in Spaniards. The Arg84Gln was detected in four of the 15 Sub-Saharans. The Arg103Cys and Pro111Leu variants were detected only among North Africans (two and four individuals, respectively). The Asp105Gly variant was similarly represented among Spaniards and North Africans (three and two individuals, respectively), which appears to be a lower frequency than that reported for Danes (5.5%). As reported for MBL2, the marked geographic distribution of the new MASP2 variants may represent an evolutionary adaptation to different environments.

Lozano, F; Suárez, B

2005-01-01

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Does Financial Liberalization Stimulate Economic Growth and Reduce Poverty in Six Sub-Saharan African Countries?  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the linkage among financial liberalization, economic growth and poverty reduction inSub-Saharan African countries (SSA. The study applys the recent panel Co-integration and vector errorcorrection mechanism to address the heterogeneity and cross-border interdependence over the period of 1980 to2010. The results reveal that economic growth is positively associated with poverty reduction and financialliberalization coefficients are positively related to economic growth. It implies that financial liberalizationcauses economic growth. However, the coefficients of financial liberalization are not significant in the povertyequation suggests that financial liberalization does not have direct impact on poverty reduction in the sixSub-Saharan African countries. This implies that the financial liberalization effects of poverty are uponcontingent on the distributional changes introduced by the growth and the configuration of institutions andpolicies that supported the liberalization process and particularly, the existence or otherwise of goodgovernance.

Muhammad Yusuf

2014-01-01

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FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE EXPERIENCE OF 10 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES REVISITED  

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Full Text Available The paper examines the long run and causal relationship between financial developmentand economic growth for ten countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the vectorerror correction model (VECM, the study finds that financial development is cointegratedwith economic growth in the selected ten countries in sub-Saharan Africa. That is there isa long run relationship between financial development and economic growth in the selectedsub-Saharan African countries. The results show that financial development Granger causeseconomic growth in Central African Republic, Congo Republic, Gabon, and Nigeria whileeconomic growth Granger causes financial development in Zambia. However, bidirectionalrelationship between financial development and economic growth was found in Kenya, Chad,South Africa, Sierra Leone and Swaziland. The results show the need to develop the financialsector through appropriate regulatory and macroeconomic policies. However, in Zambiaemphasis needs to be placed on economic growth to propel financial development.

Anthony Enisan Akinlo

2010-06-01

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How can the operating environment for nutrition research be improved in sub-Saharan Africa? The views of African researchers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research. PMID:23776663

Van Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

2013-01-01

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HIV knowledge among Canadian-born and sub-Saharan African-born patients living with HIV.  

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Research has revealed differences on scales measuring HIV knowledge between individuals from various ethnic backgrounds and cultures. Few studies have examined this knowledge with immigrant populations and persons living with HIV. This study examined HIV knowledge among persons living with HIV who were either born in Canada or in sub-Saharan Africa and, for comparison, in a sample of college students. All participants were residing in Canada. Participants completed questionnaires measuring demographic variables, sexual health behaviour, and HIV status, treatment, and knowledge. Canadian-born patients living with HIV were more likely to be older and male than the other groups. On average, patients living with HIV were diagnosed 6.4 years ago, and 80% reported having current or previous experience taking HIV medications. After adjusting for age and gender, significant differences were found between the groups on the Brief HIV Knowledge Questionnaire. Canadian-born persons living with HIV (n = 110) scored higher than sub-Saharan African-born patients (n = 23) and college students (n = 81); mean percentage correct was 86, 70, and 62%, respectively (P < .01). These results suggested that ongoing HIV education is needed for all groups, and that additional tailored and targeted educational interventions are needed to address important gaps in knowledge among persons living with HIV patients originating from Africa and among college students. PMID:21643728

Tulloch, Heather E; Balfour, Louise; Kowal, John; Tasca, Georgio A; Angel, Jonathan B; Garber, Gary; Macpherson, Paul; Cooper, Curtis; Cameron, D W

2012-02-01

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Adolescent Childbearing and Women's Attitudes Towards Wife Beating in 25 Sub-Saharan African Countries.  

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Preventing unwanted adolescent pregnancy is key for keeping girls in school, leading to a more productive and healthier workforce in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender norms are an important indicator of the status of women and more conservative gender norms are associated with experiencing domestic violence, and poorer maternal and reproductive health care. This paper examines the association between adolescent childbearing and norms towards wife beating in sub-Saharan Africa, and the role of education in moderating this association. Data come from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys-nationally representative cross-sectional surveys conducted every 5 years. Country-by-country multivariable logistic regressions were conducted in 25 countries, and country and regional estimates were obtained using meta-analytical techniques. More than half of sub-Saharan African adolescents have a child, with levels ranging from 23 % in Rwanda to 69 % in Niger. Between 12 and 87 % of women believed wife beating is acceptable. In 20 of the 25 countries, women with a birth during adolescence were significantly more likely to believe wife beating is justified [OR = 1.39; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 130-1.39]. After multivariate adjustment, the overall finding remains statistically significant [AOR = 1.09; 95 % CI 105-1:13]. Education attenuates the observed association. Overall, the effects are strongest and most consistent in West Africa. Results suggest that women who have an adolescent birth more likely to hold more conservative attitudes. Working with adolescents to improve their attitudes on relationship expectations and the importance of furthering their education even after a pregnancy could be integrated into life skills and sexual education curricula. PMID:24158508

Hindin, Michelle J

2014-08-01

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Effects of Exchange Rate Volatility on Trade in Some Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries  

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Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of exchange rate volatility on trade in 40 selected sub-Saharan African countries for the period 1986-2005. The study employs a gravity model with pooled ordinary least square (POLS allowing for fixed effect and panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM techniques. The results of the analysis show that the net effect of exchange rate volatility on aggregate trade was positive using the two approaches. In the way the results show that there is not much difference between the impact of exchange rate volatility on primary and manufactured trade as well as between ECOWAS and non-ECOWAS countries. However, the results should be interpreted with caution as the history of exchange rate volatility is still relatively young compared with the developed countries.

David Olayungbo

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Pattern and determinants of BCG immunisation delays in a sub-Saharan African community  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunisation is recognised worldwide as an essential component of health systems and an indispensable indicator of quality of care for vaccine-preventable diseases. While performance of immunisation programmes is more commonly measured by coverage, ensuring that every child is immunised at the earliest/appropriate age is an important public health goal. This study therefore set out to determine the pattern and predictors of Bacille de Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation delays in the first three months of life in a Sub-Saharan African community where BCG is scheduled at birth in order to facilitate necessary changes in current policy and practices for improved services. Methods A cross-sectional study in which immunisation delays among infants aged 0-3 months attending community-based BCG clinics in Lagos, Nigeria over a 2-year period from July 2005 to June 2007 were assessed by survival analysis and associated factors determined by multivariable logistic regression. Population attributable risk (PAR was computed for the predictors of delays. Results BCG was delayed beyond three months in 31.6% of all eligible infants. Of 5171 infants enrolled, 3380 (65.4% were immunised within two weeks and a further 1265 (24.5% by six weeks. A significantly higher proportion of infants born in hospitals were vaccinated in the first six weeks compared to those born outside hospitals. Undernourishment was predictive of delays beyond 2 and 6 weeks while treated hyperbilirubinaemia was associated with decreased odds for any delays. Lack of antenatal care and multiple gestations were also predictive of delays beyond 6 weeks. Undernourishment was associated with the highest PAR for delays beyond 2 weeks (18.7% and 6 weeks (20.8%. Conclusions BCG immunisation is associated with significant delays in this setting and infants at increased risk of delays can be identified and supported early possibly through improved maternal uptake of antenatal care. Combining BCG with subsequent immunisation(s at 6 weeks for infants who missed the BCG may be considered.

Olusanya Bolajoko O

2010-01-01

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Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations.  

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Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions of India. We found that most of the Indian Muslim populations received their major genetic input from geographically close non-Muslim populations. However, low levels of likely sub-Saharan African, Arabian and West Asian admixture were also observed among Indian Muslims in the form of L0a2a2 mtDNA and E1b1b1a and J(*)(xJ2) Y-chromosomal lineages. The distinction between Iranian and Arabian sources was difficult to make with mtDNA and the Y chromosome, as the estimates were highly correlated because of similar gene pool compositions in the sources. In contrast, the LCT/MCM6 locus, which shows a clear distinction between the two sources, enabled us to rule out significant gene flow from Arabia. Overall, our results support a model according to which the spread of Islam in India was predominantly cultural conversion associated with minor but still detectable levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Iran and Central Asia, rather than directly from the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:19809480

Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul; Ravesh, Zeinab; Romero, Irene Gallego; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2010-03-01

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IMPORT SUBSTITUTION INDUSTRIALIZATION AS LEARNING PROCESS: SUB SAHARAN AFRICAN EXPERIENCE AS DISTORTION OF THE “GOOD” BUSINESS MODE  

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Full Text Available The East Asian catch-up industrialization experience is often presented in the literature as a benchmark for Sub-Saharan African countries seeking to undergo an industrial revolution. A recurrent theme in the East Asian model is the use of the import substitution industrialization (ISI phase as a basis for technological learning and international business. The East Asian countries used ISI to build up an industrial technological competence. Starting with the low- skill, labour intensive manufactures, these countries gradually moved on to manufacture more technologically complex products for export using competencies and skills acquired in the ISI phase. Typically, protectionist industrial policy featured strongly in the East-Asian experiences. Sub-Saharan Africa embarked on ISI as early as the post war II decades, consolidating that process in the post-colonial decades of the 1960’s and 1970’s and employing also protectionist industrial policy. However, in stark contrast to East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa’s ISI ended up in a cul-de-sac; it failed to develop capacities for export manufactures and even failed to produce enough to serve expanding domestic demand. Sub-Saharan Africa’s ISI and the protectionism that underpinned it could then be described as a distortion of the ‘good’ East Asian benchmark business model. This paper draws on extant literature to explain key aspects of the Sub-Saharan African model as a distortion of the good East Asian model. The paper focuses on the elements of the protectionism that featured in both models, the nature of industrial policy, and stresses the role of labour intensive manufacturing as a viable ‘entry route’ into export-based industrialization and technological learning.

Kanayo Ogujiub

2011-10-01

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An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective  

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Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. P...

BeLue Rhonda; Okoror Titilayo A; Iwelunmor Juliet; Taylor Kelly D; Degboe Arnold N; Agyemang Charles; Ogedegbe Gbenga

2009-01-01

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IMPORT SUBSTITUTION INDUSTRIALIZATION AS LEARNING PROCESS: SUB SAHARAN AFRICAN EXPERIENCE AS DISTORTION OF THE “GOOD” BUSINESS MODE  

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The East Asian catch-up industrialization experience is often presented in the literature as a benchmark for Sub-Saharan African countries seeking to undergo an industrial revolution. A recurrent theme in the East Asian model is the use of the import substitution industrialization (ISI) phase as a basis for technological learning and international business. The East Asian countries used ISI to build up an industrial technological competence. Starting with the low- skill, labour intensive manu...

2011-01-01

26

Validation of a French adaptation of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among torture survivors from sub-Saharan African countries  

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Full Text Available Background: To date no validated instrument in the French language exists to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in survivors of torture and organized violence. Objective: The aim of this study is to adapt and validate the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ to this population. Method: The adapted version was administered to 52 French-speaking torture survivors, originally from sub-Saharan African countries, receiving psychological treatment in specialized treatment centers. A structured clinical interview for DSM was also conducted in order to assess if they met criteria for PTSD. Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the HTQ Part 4 was adequate (0.95. Criterion validity was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis that generated good classification accuracy for PTSD (0.83. At the original cut-off score of 2.5, the HTQ demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (0.87 and 0.73, respectively. Conclusion: Results support the reliability and validity of the French version of the HTQ.

Capucine de Fouchier

2012-12-01

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Researching the Link Between Biomass Burning and Drought Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Savanna/Sahel Belt  

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The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded by the Sahara, Equator, and the West and East African coastlines, is subjected to intense biomass burning every year during the dry season. This is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle anomalies that probably contribute to drought and desertification. In this presentation, we will discuss a new multi-disciplinary research in the NSSA region, review progress, evaluate preliminary results, and interact with the research and user communities to examine how best to coordinate with other research activities in order to address related environmental issues most effectively.

Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke

2012-01-01

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Dosing of praziquantel by height in sub-Saharan African adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cornerstone of schistosomiasis control is mass praziquantel treatment in high prevalence areas. Adults are an important target population, given increasing recognition of the burden of male and female genital schistosomiasis. However, use of weighing scales to calculate praziquantel dosing in rural areas can be challenging. For school-age children, the World Health Organization (WHO) has approved a dose pole to simplify praziquantel dosing based on height. We modified the pediatric dose pole by adding two height categories and incorporating a simple overweight/obesity adjustment, for simplified mass treatment of adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Using the rural Zimbabwean Demographic and Health Survey data, we show that the modified dose pole with body mass index adjustment would result in > 98% of adults receiving an acceptable dose (30-60 mg/kg), with only 1.4% and 0.3% receiving an inadequate dose ( 60 mg/kg), respectively. An adult dose pole may provide a more feasible alternative to weighing scales in community-based praziquantel treatment programs. PMID:24591432

Palha De Sousa, Chiquita A; Brigham, Tracy; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Tielsch, James M; Humphrey, Jean H; Prendergast, Andrew J

2014-04-01

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Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In sub-Saharan Africa, HCMV infection is endemic in young infants where it is linked with impaired physical and mental development, giving the infection a unique epidemiology across the region, with a potentially broad-reaching impact on the health of southern African populations. Studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere, have shown that HCMV is a serious cause or morbidity and mortality, in both immunocompromised groups and congenitally infected children. In a region where 23.2 ...

Bates, M.; Musonda, K.; Zumla, A.

2013-01-01

30

Who plans the African city? Querying the relevance of dominant conceptions of physical planning for Sub-Saharan African cities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Physical planning, as generally conceptualised, emerged from centuries of change in land legislation and building regulation in the context of rapid urbanisation in Western Europe and North America. The dominant conceptions of physical planning embed a set of values and approaches which derive at least partly from this specific historic and geographic context. Rapid urbanisation in Sub-Saharan Africa in the contemporary period faces a rather different context in scale and pace of urban change, but above all else in the nature of political and economic structures, which are reflected in the socio-cultural agency of new urban residents. This paper examines the attitudes to, and activities in, urban land development in peri-urban Maputo, the capital of Mozambique in southeast Africa, drawing on empirical research of urban development in planning and anthropological domains. It argues that the attempts to plan the use of land and natural resources using dominant planning techniques based on the state have limitedimpact and are in fact often counter-productive for the majority of urban residents. However, it also points out that many urban dwellers aspire to, and proactively develop, land in a physically ordered manner. Even where this form of â??orderedâ?? land use does not develop, social and cultural organization is evident. As such the paper proposes a shift in focus from limited-impact â??state-ledâ?? physical planning to â??state-guidedâ?? physical planning, which seeks to understand and work with widespread socio-cultural agency. It argues that this is the only way to â??planâ?? the African city in the face of enormous challenges of rapid urban growth in the Sub-Saharan Africa region.

Nielsen, Morten; Jenkins, Paul

2014-01-01

31

'Migrants from over there' or 'racial minority here'? Sexual networks and prevention practices among sub-Saharan African migrants in France.  

Science.gov (United States)

Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of HIV infection in Europe, with an increasing proportion of them acquiring HIV after migration. This transformation in the epidemic pattern has raised concerns about the sexual mixing and preventive behaviours of migrants. This paper aims at exploring how racial boundaries shape sexual networks and structure prevention practices among migrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Analyses are based on a French survey carried out among 1874 individuals born in sub-Saharan Africa, aged 18-49 and living in Paris and its surroundings. Our results provide evidence of the existence of African sexual networks, over and beyond those of national origin. The intra-African segregation of these sexual networks leads to sexual contacts between migrants from low- and high-HIV prevalence countries, which probably contribute to the development of the epidemic amongst these migrants. Moreover, racially-based perceptions of HIV-related risk seem to produce a specific attitude toward prevention practices as shown by higher rates of condom use among migrant women from sub-Saharan Africa with a partner born outside sub-Saharan Africa. As a consequence, community-based approaches to HIV prevention should take into account the identification of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa as a racial minority and not only focus on national borders. PMID:23659520

Marsicano, Elise; Lydié, Nathalie; Bajos, Nathalie

2013-01-01

32

Exemplary Strategy for Corporate Competitiveness and Wealth Creation: Implications for sub-Saharan African Business Leaders and Managers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper begins with a brief review of the nature and historical perspective of strategy. This is followed by discussion of industry analysis as in important step in the strategy development process. The paper continues with an analysis of the strategy development process and the role of strategic leadership to sustain strategy. Also presented in the paper is the analysis of how the appropriate management system can be leveraged to support a successful strategy execution and evaluation. The paper ends with an outline of strategic implications and recommendations for sub-Saharan African business leaders and managers.

Ashford C. Chea

2012-04-01

33

Gender and migration in Southern and Eastern Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan African countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to destination country statistics there are nearly ten million emigrants from southern and eastern Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan CARIM countries and about four out of ten of these are women. As to immigration the United Nations estimates eleven million international migrants in CARIM-15 countries, of whom 48% are female. The female emigration rates in CARIM countries vary depending upon destination areas and motivations. In general, Europe and Northern America offer more opportuniti...

Blangiardo, Gian Carlo

2012-01-01

34

Essays on sub-optimal fiscal policy responses in sub-Saharan African countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The actions of governments are instrumental in economic development, and an important lever of policy is fiscal policy. Taxation and spending cannot only promote economic development but inhibit progress and retard the process, and nowhere is this most evident than in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which is the focus of this study. Promoting economic development therefore requires that policies that inhibit the process are identified and addressed. In this light, this thesis investigates two commo...

Kufuor, Nana Kwabena

2012-01-01

35

How does population viral load vary with the evolution of a large HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa?  

Science.gov (United States)

Using mathematical modelling, we describe the temporal evolution of population HIV-1 viral load in Tanzania throughout the epidemic. Population log10 viral load was found to be stable and not sensitive to epidemic dynamics. However, even modest increases in antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage were reflected as appreciable reductions in population log10 viral load. As ART coverage expands in sub-Saharan Africa, population log10 viral load will increasingly become a powerful proxy for monitoring ART implementation and HIV incidence trends.

Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Awad, Susanne F.

2014-01-01

36

Representing an "Authentic Ethnic Identity": Experiences of Sub-Saharan African Musicians in an Eastern German City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on how Sub-Saharan Africans present themselves as musicians in Chemnitz, an Eastern German town of around 200,000 citizens that is situated on the periphery of existing immigrant musicians' networks in Europe. Generally, immigration to Chemnitz has been rather limited; the quota of foreign nationals is 2.9 % for the whole city. I will explore what purposes Sub-Saharan African music and dance performances serve in this context both for the majority society as well as for the immigrants, individually and as a community. In so doing, I use a case study on the yearly local "intercultural festival" and analyze what kind of local power structures, institutional and informal, economic and political, influence the Nigerian cultural association's festival performance. This analysis shows how immigrant networks or associations relate to expectations and ascriptions of "authenticity" in a small-scale city. With its focus on the local situation and its effects on the representation of immigrant groups, this paper builds on the work that Nina Glick Schiller and Ayse Caglar (2006, 2009 have done on the importance of locality for research on migration and immigrant incorporation.

Inken Carstensen-Egwuom

2011-12-01

37

Urban Health and Welfare in Sub-Saharan Africa: Population Growth, Urbanisation, Water/Sanitation Services, Slumisation and Poverty  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spatio-temporal analysis was applied on data representing urbanisation, slumisation, poverty, safe water/ sanitation in urban sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The findings include: rapid rates of national population growth and urbanisation throughout SSA from 1980 to 2005, averaging 93.8% (range: 90.5% points), lowest and highest rates being 40% (Lesotho) and 130.5% (Niger), respectively; high national poverty rates, widespread in SSA: (>50% in about seven countries; it might have been similar in mo...

2012-01-01

38

Why sub-Saharan African health workers migrate to European countries that do not actively recruit: a qualitative study post-migration  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Many studies have investigated the migration intentions of sub-Saharan African medical students and health professionals within the context of a legacy of active international recruitment by receiving countries. However, many health workers migrate outside of this recruitment paradigm. This paper aims to explore the reasons for migration of health workers from sub-Saharan Africa to Belgium and Austria; European countries without a history of active recruitment in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Twenty-seven health workers were interviewed about their migration experiences. Included participants were born in sub-Saharan Africa, had trained as health workers in sub-Saharan Africa, and were currently living in Belgium or Austria, though not necessarily currently working as a health professional. Results Both Austria and Belgium were shown not to be target countries for the health workers, who instead moved there by circumstance, rather than choice. Three principal reasons for migration were reported: 1) educational purposes; 2) political instability or insecurity in their country of origin; and 3) family reunification. In addition, two respondents mentioned medical reasons and, although less explicit, economic factors were also involved in several of the respondents’ decision to migrate. Conclusion These results highlight the importance of the broader economic, social, and political context within which migration decisions are made. Training opportunities proved to be an important factor for migration. A further development and upgrade of primary care might help to counter the common desire to specialize and improve domestic training opportunities.

Poppe, Annelien; Jirovsky, Elena; Blacklock, Claire; Laxmikanth, Pallavi; Moosa, Shabir; Maeseneer, Jan De; Kutalek, Ruth; Peersman, Wim

2014-01-01

39

La construcción del proyecto migratorio y las razones para emigrar en la población de África subsahariana francófona. Un estudio intercontinental Europa - África / Construction of migration project and reasons for emigrating in sub-Saharan African francophone population. An intercontinental study Europe-Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio da cuenta de las razones de los ciudadanos de África subsahariana francófona para establecerse en Europa, y particularmente en Francia, mediante la creación de un marco comprensivo innovador que vincula tres ejes temáticos: la motivación, las migraciones, y África y sus relaciones con E [...] uropa. 155 participantes en ambos continentes respondieron a un cuestionario sobre su proyecto migratorio real o posible. Los resultados plantean un plano general de acercamiento a los imaginarios y la realidad de los migrantes en el contexto francés, marcado por la reflexión sobre la identidad nacional, los controles migratorios, un clima político reticente a la migración y un tejido social caracterizado por un creciente multiculturalismo. Abstract in english This study describes the motivations of citizens of sub-Saharan Africa francophone to establish in France thanks to the creation of an innovative framework for understanding with three key themes: motivation, migration and Africa and their relations with Europe. 155 participants from both continents [...] responded to a questionnaire about their actual or potential migration project. The results presented raise a general plan of approach to reality and imaginary of sub-Saharan African migrants in the French current context, marked by reflection on national identity, immigration and customs controls, a political climate reticent to migration and a social network characterized by a growing multiculturalism.

Carlos Roberto, Velandia Torres; Marie-Françoise, Lacassagne.

40

An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and treatment efforts. Conclusion Using an African-centered cultural framework, the PEN3 model, we explore future directions and efforts to address the epidemic of CVD risk in SSA.

Degboe Arnold N

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
41

Interactions and Feedbacks Between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region  

Science.gov (United States)

The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

Ichoku, Charles

2012-01-01

42

An assessment of the potential of drylands in eight sub-Saharan African countries to produce bioenergy feedstocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper synthesizes lessons learnt from research that aimed to identify land in the dryland regions of eight sub-Saharan African study countries where bioenergy feedstocks production has a low risk of detrimental environmental and socio-economic effects. The methodology involved using geographical information systems (GISs) to interrogate a wide range of datasets, aerial photograph and field verification, an extensive literature review, and obtaining information from a wide range of stakeholders. The GIS work revealed that Africa's drylands potentially have substantial areas available and agriculturally suitable for bioenergy feedstocks production. The other work showed that land-use and biomass dynamics in Africa's drylands are greatly influenced by the inherent 'disequilibrium' behaviour of these environments. This behaviour challenges the sustainability concept and perceptions regarding the drivers, nature and consequences of deforestation, land degradation and other factors. An assessment of the implications of this behaviour formed the basis for the practical guidance suggested for bioenergy feedstock producers and bioenergy policy makers. PMID:22482033

Watson, H K; Diaz-Chavez, R A

2011-04-01

43

Human Capital, Productivity and Economic Growth in 31 Sub-Saharan African Countries for the Period 1975–2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We evaluate the contributions of physical capital, human capital, and unskilled labor to economic growth for 31 Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries. We find that growth in physical capital accounts for 67 percent of growth in real GDP, whereas growth in human capital accounts for only 22 percent of real GDP growth and, the rest 11 percent is accounted for by growth of raw labor. When it comes to growth of productivity per employed worker, 90 percent is accounted for by growth rate of physical capital per employed worker, 46 percent by rate of increase in human capital per worker and negative 36 percent by rate of change of total factor of productivity (TFP. These findings are consistent with earlier studies. Negative contribution of growth rate in TFP may have to do with, poor governance, corruption, civil wars, draught and other adverse supply shocks to the production function. In addition, we find that the contributions of labor and human capital are positive but much lower in SSA countries than in high-income countries.

Girma Zelleke

2013-09-01

44

Why sub-Saharan African health workers migrate to European countries that do not actively recruit: a qualitative study post-migration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Many studies have investigated the migration intentions of sub-Saharan African medical students and health professionals within the context of a legacy of active international recruitment by receiving countries. However, many health workers migrate outside of this recruitment paradigm. This paper aims to explore the reasons for migration of health workers from sub-Saharan Africa to Belgium and Austria; European countries without a history of active recruitment in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Data were collected using semistructured interviews. Twenty-seven health workers were interviewed about their migration experiences. Included participants were born in sub-Saharan Africa, had trained as health workers in sub-Saharan Africa, and were currently living in Belgium or Austria, though not necessarily currently working as a health professional. Results: Both Austria and Belgium were shown not to be target countries for the health workers, who instead moved there by circumstance, rather than choice. Three principal reasons for migration were reported: 1 educational purposes; 2 political instability or insecurity in their country of origin; and 3 family reunification. In addition, two respondents mentioned medical reasons and, although less explicit, economic factors were also involved in several of the respondents’ decision to migrate. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of the broader economic, social, and political context within which migration decisions are made. Training opportunities proved to be an important factor for migration. A further development and upgrade of primary care might help to counter the common desire to specialize and improve domestic training opportunities.

Annelien Poppe

2014-05-01

45

Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulting in a significant burden of both communicable and non-communicable etiologies. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa is notable for the range of etiologies that concurrently exist as well as the healthcare environment marked by limited resources, weak national healthcare systems and a paucity of national level data on disease trends. With the recent publication of the first and largest multinational prospective registry of acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa, it is timely to review the state of knowledge to date and describe the myriad forms of heart failure in the region. This review discusses several forms of heart failure that are common in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, pericardial disease, various dilated cardiomyopathies, HIV cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cor pulmonale) and presents each form with regard to epidemiology, natural history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic considerations and therapies. Areas and approaches to fill the remaining gaps in knowledge are also offered herein highlighting the need for research that is driven by regional disease burden and needs.

Bloomfield, Gerald S; Barasa, Felix A; Doll, Jacob A; Velazquez, Eric J

2013-01-01

46

Measuring Government Effectiveness and Its Consequences for Social Welfare in Sub-Saharan African Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a method for measuring effective government and modeling its consequences for social welfare at the individual level. Our focus is on the experiences of citizens living in African countries where famine remains a serious threat. If a government is effective, it will be able to deliver goods that individuals need to improve their…

Sacks, Audrey; Levi, Margaret

2010-01-01

47

Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan African Universities: Recommendations and Monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Digital Divide prevents Africa from taking advantages of new information technologies. One of the most urgent priorities is to bring the Internet in African Universities, Research, and Learning Centers to the level of other regions of the world. eGY-Africa, and the Sharing Knowledge Foundation are two bottom-up initiatives by scientists to secure better cyber-infrastructure and Internet facilities in Africa. Recommendations by the present scientific communities are being formulated at national, regional and international levels. The Internet capabilities are well documented at country level overall, but this is not the case at the University level. The snapshot of the Internet status in universities in 17 African countries, obtained by a questionnaire survey, is consistent with measures of Internet penetration in the corresponding country. The monitoring of Internet performance has been proposed to those African universities to provide an information base for arguing the need to improve the coverage for Africa. A pilot program is recommended that will start scientific collaboration with Europe in western Africa using ICT. The program will lay the foundations for the arrival of new technologies like Grids.

Barry, Boubakar; /Assoc. Afr. Univ.; Chukwuma, Victor; /Olabisi Onabanjo U.; Petitdidier, Monique; /CEPT, Velizy; Cottrell, Les; /SLAC; Bartons, Charles; /Australian Natl. U., RSES

2009-12-17

48

Assessment of the Vulnerability of Water Resources to Seasonal Fires Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region  

Science.gov (United States)

The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, extending from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Equator, and stretching west to east from the Atlantic to the Indian ocean coasts, plays a prominent role in the distribution of Saharan dust and other airborne matter around the region and to other parts of the world, the genesis of global atmospheric circulation, and the birth of such major (and often catastrophic) events as hurricanes. Therefore, this NSSA region represents a critical variable in the global climate change equation. Recent satellite-based studies have revealed that the NSSA region has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be a major driver of the regional carbon, energy, and water cycles. We acknowledge that the rainy season in the NSSA region is from April to September while biomass burning occurs mainly during the dry season (October to March). Nevertheless, these two phenomena are indirectly coupled to each other through a chain of complex processes and conditions, including land-cover and surface-albedo changes, the carbon cycle, evapotranspiration, drought, desertification, surface water runoff, ground water recharge, and variability in atmospheric composition, heating rates, and circulation. In this presentation, we will examine the theoretical linkages between these processes, discuss the preliminary results based on satellite data analysis, and provide an overview of plans for more integrated research to be conducted over the next few years.

Ichoku, Charles M.

2010-01-01

49

Toll-like Receptor Polymorphism Associations With HIV-1 Outcomes Among Sub-Saharan Africans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective.?We evaluated Toll-like receptors (TLRs) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for associations with HIV-1 acquisition, set-point and disease progression in African couples. Methods.?Seven candidate and 116 haplotype-tagging SNPs (tagSNPs) were genotyped in 504 HIV-1 infected cases, and 343 seronegative controls. Results.?TLR9 1635A/G was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition among HIV-seronegative controls with high but not low HIV-1 exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 0.7; P = .03 and OR = 0.9, P = .5, respectively). TLR7 rs179012 and TLR2 597C/T reduced set-point; the latter modified by time since HIV-1 acquisition. TLR8 1A/G reduced disease progression. Conclusions.?TLR SNPs impact HIV-1 outcomes with epidemiologic factors modifying these relationships. PMID:24325963

Mackelprang, Romel D; Bigham, Abigail W; Celum, Connie; de Bruyn, Guy; Beima-Sofie, Kristin; John-Stewart, Grace; Ronald, Allan; Mugo, Nelly R; Buckingham, Kati J; Bamshad, Michael J; Mullins, James I; McElrath, M Juliana; Lingappa, Jairam R

2014-05-01

50

[Comparative titration of three antivenin serums used against sub-Saharan African snakes].  

Science.gov (United States)

The standardisation of serotherapy is necessary in Africa mainly because of the frequency of envenomations and the lack of alternative treatments. Comparative titrations of FAV-Afrique (Aventis Pasteur), Polyvalent serum (Serum Institute of India = SII) and Polyvalent antivenin (South African Vaccine Fabricants Ltd = SAIMR) were carried out on venoms of Echis ocellatus from Cameroun, E. ocellatus from Mali, E. leucogaster and Naja melanoleuca. The 50% protective doses (ED50) of the antivenoms were given according either to i) the in vitro method which consists of inoculating 5 batches of 5 mice with a mixture containing 3 DL50 of venom and increasing volumes of antivenom incubated for 30 mn at 37 degrees C and ii) the in vivo method which consists of successive administration of venom and then antivenom after a 30 to 60 mn interval. The three antivenoms showed a similar efficacy against all the Echis venoms. Interestingly, the SAIMR proved to be effective against the venom of E. leucogaster and E. ocellatus although no venom of Echis was used to immunise horses during the preparation of antivenom. Conversely, this paraspecificity did not exist with the Naja melanoleuca venom against which FAV Afrique showed a higher efficacy. The electrophoresis pattern of FAV-Afrique performed on acetate gel strips showed only one protein fraction (76 g.l-1), whereas both the SII and SAIMR antivenoms showed four fractions whose protein concentrations was respectively 64 g.l-1 and 145 g.l-1. PMID:12404855

Dzikouk, G D; Ngoa, L S Etoundi; Thonnon, J; Dongmo, A B; Rakotonirina, V S; Rakotonirina, A; Chippaux, J P

2002-08-01

51

Saving-Investment Correlation and Capital Mobility in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Reappraisal through Inward and Outward Capital Flows’ Correlation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the Feldstein-Horioka puzzle in 15 sub-Saharan African countries accounting for the correlation between inward and outward capital flows. Applying cross section, panel data, and even time series analyses, we show that our results are consistent with previous studies related to developing countries.  More interesting, we confirm, for sub-Saharan African countries, the recent hypothesis of Georgepoulos and Hejazi (2009 that the Feldstein-Horioka home bias is unrelated to the correlation between inward and outward capital flows for developing countries. Although the saving-investment coefficient weakens in the correlation adjusted regression, we show that the coefficient on Flows, the variable which accounts for the correlation between inward and outward capital flows is always positive and insignificant. We argue that the downward movement in the saving-investment coefficient is due the omission of some factors (foreign aid and trade openness which are relevant for developing countries in the framework of the Feldstein-Horioka analysis. We also state that our results are more likely to reflect the poor financial structure of the countries in our sample. Therefore, we suggest that policymakers in Sub-Sahara Africa should put more emphasis in creating and developing efficient financial market which could favor portfolio diversification.

Samba Michel Cyrille

2010-04-01

52

Maternal nutrition among women from Sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on Nigeria, and potential implications for pregnancy outcomes among immigrant populations in developed countries.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Pregnant women in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are at risk of poor nutritional status and adverse outcomes as a result of poverty, food insecurity, sub-optimal healthcare facilities, frequent infections and frequent pregnancies. Studies from Nigeria, for example, have revealed a high prevalence of both under- and over-nutrition, as well as nutrient deficiencies, including iron, folate, vitamin D and vitamin A. Subsequently, obstetric complications, including hypertension, anaemia, neural tube defects, night-blindness, low birth weight and maternal and perinatal mortality, are common. Migration patterns from SSA to the Western world are on the rise in recent years, with Nigerians now representing the most prevalent immigrant African population in many developed countries. However, the effect of immigration, if any, on the nutritional status and pregnancy outcomes of these women in their host countries has not yet been studied. Consequently, it is unknown to what extent the nutritional deficiencies and pregnancy complications occurring in Nigeria, and other countries of SSA, present in these women post-emigration. This may result in missed opportunities for appropriate antenatal care of a potential high-risk group in pregnancy. The present review discusses the literature regarding nutrition in pregnancy among SSA women, using Nigeria as an example, the common nutrition-related complications that arise and the subsequent obstetric outcomes. The concept of dietary acculturation among immigrant groups is also discussed and deficiencies in the literature regarding studies on the diets of pregnant immigrant women are highlighted.

Lindsay, K L

2012-12-01

53

Urban Health and Welfare in Sub-Saharan Africa: Population Growth, Urbanisation, Water/Sanitation Services, Slumisation and Poverty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spatio-temporal analysis was applied on data representing urbanisation, slumisation, poverty, safe water/ sanitation in urban sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The findings include: rapid rates of national population growth and urbanisation throughout SSA from 1980 to 2005, averaging 93.8% (range: 90.5% points, lowest and highest rates being 40% (Lesotho and 130.5% (Niger, respectively; high national poverty rates, widespread in SSA: (>50% in about seven countries; it might have been similar in more countries if a large number of SSA countries had reported their 1993 poverty rates; high urban/rural poverty ratios (1.05-1.79 points range between Nigeria and Benin Republics. High average rate (73% of slumisation in SSA in 2001 (range: 96%, lowest and highest rates being in Zimbabwe (3% and Chad/Ethiopia (99%, respectively. SSA’s 2000 health adjusted life expectancy was generally low: 38.8 years (<40 years in 24 countries. Use of safe/improved water/sanitation services were poor almost throughout SSA: declined rapidly and ubiquitously from 72% (2000 to 55% (2002, minus 17% points decrease in three years within individual countries with alarming declines up to minus 69% points in Guinea. The policy implications of the findings include the urgent and imperative need to massively implement urban improvement programmes designed to provide health-inducing services/facilities across SSA.

RICHARD INGWE

2012-01-01

54

Metabolic syndrome for sub-Saharan Africans diabetes with peripheral arterial disease: a case-control study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Currently, there is no value for the definition of abdominal obesity by measuring waist circumference in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Several definitions of metabolic syndrome (MS) have disparities concerning use of waist circumference, including International Diabetes Federation (IDF), American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) and National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) definitions. The aim of the study was to determine what value of waist circumference should be used and whether to use it as obligatory criterion in the metabolic syndrome in case of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Methods We conducted a case–control study in Cameroon. We included patients with diabetic foot and type 2 diabetes and excluded those with an Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) >?1.3. Cases were defined as patients with ABI???0.9 and controls with ABI >?0.9. The significant p value was 286. Conclusion Abdominal obesity should be defined according to the recommendations of the IDF and AHA / NHLBI and should not be an obligatory criterion in the definition of MS for research risk to have PAD on sub-Saharan Africa.

2014-01-01

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Is the current decline in malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa due to a decrease in vector population?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum has historically been a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Recent reports indicate a pronounced decline in infection and disease rates which are commonly ascribed to large-scale bed net programmes and improved case management. However, the decline has also occurred in areas with limited or no intervention. The present study assessed temporal changes in Anopheline populations in two highly malaria-endemic communities of NE Tanzania during the period 1998-2009. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2001 (1st period) and between 2003 and 2009 (2nd period), mosquitoes were collected weekly in 50 households using CDC light traps. Data on rainfall were obtained from the nearby climate station and was used to analyze the association between monthly rainfall and malaria mosquito populations. RESULTS: The average number of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus per trap decreased by 76.8% and 55.3%, respectively over the 1st period, and by 99.7% and 99.8% over the 2nd period. During the last year of sampling (2009), the use of 2368 traps produced a total of only 14 Anopheline mosquitoes. With the exception of the decline in An. gambiae during the 1st period, the results did not reveal any statistical association between mean trend in monthly rainfall and declining malaria vector populations. CONCLUSION: A longitudinal decline in the density of malaria mosquito vectors was seen during both study periods despite the absence of organized vector control. Part of the decline could be associated with changes in the pattern of monthly rainfall, but other factors may also contribute to the dramatic downward trend. A similar decline in malaria vector densities could contribute to the decrease in levels of malaria infection reported from many parts of SSA.

Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Pedersen, Erling Møller

2011-01-01

56

Analysis of TPI gene promoter variation in three sub-Saharan Africa population samples  

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Population samples from Angola, Mozambique, and S. Tomé e Príncipe were screened for the TPI gene promoter variants -5ArarrG, -8GrarrA and -24TrarrG. Three haplotypes were identified in the three populations: the haplotype -5A-8G-24T (average frequency 65.3%) and two less common haplotypes -5G-8G-24T (average frequency 24.7%) and -5G-8A-24T (average frequency 10.0%). A population sample from Central Portugal showed the haplotype -5A-8G-24T in 139 chromosomes and one subject heterozygous for...

Manco, Lici?nio; Machado, Patri?cia; Lopes, Dinora; Nogueira, Fa?tima; Rosa?rio, Virgi?lio E. Do; Alonso, Pedro L.; Varandas, Lui?s; Trovoada, Maria Jesus; Amorim, Anto?nio; Arez, Ana Paula

2009-01-01

57

LM and Others v Government of the Republic of Namibia: The first sub-Saharan African case dealing with coerced sterilisations of HIV-positive women - Quo vadis?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english It has been argued that three factors characterise the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa - its female face; the implications it poses for sexual and reproductive health services (particularly those provided to women); and the pervasive discrimination following those who are infected. These factors [...] also form the context within which there have been an increasing number of reports of HIV-positive women being coerced or forced into being permanently sterilised in order to prevent future pregnancies. The recent decision in LM and Others v Government of the Republic of Namibia deals with the alleged discriminatory and coerced sterilisation of three women living with HIV. This article describes and critiques the LM judgment. It concludes with brief comments on the way forward for similar litigation in other Southern African countries.

Chantal J, Badul; Ann, Strode.

58

Foreign Direct Investments and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Comparative Analysis between Landlocked Countries and Countries Having Access to the Sea  

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Full Text Available Institutional reforms implemented since the beginning of the Nineties resulted in a substantial increase in Foreign Direct Investments (FDI inflow into Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study uses data on 32 countries to evaluate the impact of FDI on economic growth through panel data regressions for the period 1988-2008. The study captures the incidence of commercial openness through a comparison between the landlocked countries and those having access to the sea. The results show that FDI have a positive and significant effect on economic growth in countries that have access to the sea whereas for the landlocked countries, the results are not significant. It is therefore recommended that African countries continue to implement policies favorable to the attraction of FDI. Landlocked countries should lay a particular emphasis on the construction of infrastructures (roads, railways, airports, and phone that facilitate the flow of goods towards the different ports for shipment to countries where their goods are more demanded.

Luc Nembot Ndeffo

2013-05-01

59

Is Grant-Aid More Effective than Concessional Loans? Evidence from a Dynamic Panel of Sub-Saharan African Countries  

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Full Text Available Despite being one of the highest aid recipient regions, the growth performance in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA has been rather disappointing. In this paper, we answer two questions. 1 Is there any significant impact of foreign aid on economic growth? 2 Is grant more effective than loans in promoting growth? To answer these questions, we employ a GMM technique for a panel of 27 SSA countries over the period of 1961 to 2009. By using this technique, we are able to control for endogeneity that may arise from explanatory variables. Our results suggest that grant aid is more effective than concessional loans. On average, aggregate aid’s effect on economic growth is not discernable from zero in SSA countries. These questions are important for policymakers of SSA who often face the dilemma of high aid but low growth.

Anupam Das

2011-12-01

60

Spondyloarthritis in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is generally uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa, in part because of the rarity of HLA-B27 in this region. However, the relationship between HLA-B27 and SpA, particularly ankylosing spondylitis (AS), is complex. Despite the HLA-B 27:05 risk allele occurring in some West African populations, associated AS is not seen. In fact, most patients with AS are HLA-B27-negative, although there is emerging evidence that another class I HLA molecule, HLA-B 14:03, is associated with AS in black Africans. The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria for detecting early axial disease are of limited value in sub-Saharan Africa, because of both the rarity of HLA-B27 and very limited access to magnetic resonance imaging. Reactive arthritis (ReA), psoriatic arthritis, and undifferentiated SpA are seen mainly in the context of HIV infection, although the exact effect of the virus in the pathogenesis of arthritis is unclear. In Zambia, ReA is associated with the HLA-B*57:03 allele, which is paradoxically also associated with slow progression of HIV infection. HIV-associated ReA has a more protracted and aggressive course than standard ReA. Enthesitis-related arthritis is more common in children infected with HIV by vertical mother-to child transmission. Use of TNF inhibitors for axial disease is problematic, mainly because of cost, but also because of potential safety problems, especially reactivation of tuberculosis. PMID:24744085

Tikly, Mohammed; Njobvu, Panganani; McGill, Paul

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Do the distribution patterns of polymorphisms at the thiopurine S-methyltransferase locus in sub-Saharan populations need revision? Hints from Cabinda and Mozambique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic data on the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) polymorphism were obtained in population samples from Cabinda and Mozambique (located in the western and eastern coasts of sub-Saharan Africa, respectively). The overall frequency of TPMT-deficient alleles was 5.6% in Mozambique and 6.3% in Cabinda. Accordingly, one out of the 103 individuals from Cabinda tested had a genotype associated with TPMT deficiency, yielding a frequency that is threefold higher than heretofore reported in any population. In addition, in both Cabinda or Mozambique, TPMT*8 accounted for a significant proportion of non-functional alleles (nearly 40% in Cabinda). Since the substitution defining TPMT*8 seems to be highly specific of sub-Saharan Africa populations and given the fact it has not been integrated into the set of single nucleotide polymorphisms routinely tested for TPMT, a re-design of molecular screenings should be considered in the future in order to avoid serious underestimates of TPMT deficiency when the enzymatic profiles in populations are unknown. PMID:17473918

Oliveira, E; Quental, S; Alves, S; Amorim, A; Prata, M J

2007-07-01

62

Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need to decompose CO2 emission intensity is predicated upon the need for effective climate change mitigation and adaptation policies. Such analysis enables key variables that instigate CO2 emission intensity to be identified while at the same time providing opportunities to verify the mitigation and adaptation capacities of countries. However, most CO2 decomposition analysis has been conducted for the developed economies and little attention has been paid to sub-Saharan Africa. The need for such an analysis for SSA is overwhelming for several reasons. Firstly, the region is amongst the most vulnerable to climate change. Secondly, there are disparities in the amount and composition of energy consumption and the levels of economic growth and development in the region. Thus, a decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity for SSA affords the opportunity to identify key influencing variables and to see how they compare among countries in the region. Also, attempts have been made to distinguish between oil and non-oil-producing SSA countries. To this effect a comparative static analysis of CO2 emission intensity for oil-producing and non oil-producing SSA countries for the periods 1971-1998 has been undertaken, using the refined Laspeyres decomposition model. Our analysis confirms the findings for other regions that CO2 emission intensity is attributable to energy consumption intensity, CO2 emission coefficient of energy types and economic structure. Particularly, CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was found to exercise the most influence on CO2 emission intensity for both oil and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries in the first sub-interval period of our investigation from 1971-1981. In the second subinterval of 1981-1991, energy intensity and structural effect were the two major influencing factors on emission intensity for the two groups of countries. However, energy intensity effect had the most pronounced impact on CO2 emission intensity in non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries, while the structural effect explained most of the increase in CO2 emission intensity among the oil-producing countries. Finally, for the period 1991-1998, structural effect accounted for much of the decrease in intensity among non-oil-producers, while CO2 emission coefficient of energy use was the major force driving the decrease among oil-producing countries. The dynamic changes in the CO2 emission intensity and energy intensity effects for the two groups of countries suggest that fuel switching had been predominantly towards more carbon-intensive production in oil-producing countries and less carbon-intensive production in non-oil-producing SSA countries. In addition to the decomposition analysis, the article discusses policy implications of the results. We hope that the information and analyses provided here would help inform national energy and climate policy makers in SSA of the relative weaknesses and possible areas of strategic emphasis in their planning processes for mitigating the effects of climate change

2006-12-01

63

The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic growth and financial development in the Sub Saharan African countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on GDP (gross domestic product) growth and the financial development in thirty Sub Saharan African Countries. The panel model was used in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. The results showed that energy consumption had played an important role to increase both economic growth and the financial development in the investigated economies but with the consequence of high po llution. This study recommended that these countries should increase energy productivity by increasing energy efficiency, implementation of energy savings projects, energy conservation, and energy infrastructure outsourcing to achieve its financial development and GDP growth and to increase their investment on energy projects to achieve the full energy potential. -- Highlights: ? The impact of energy consumption, CO2 emission on GDP and the financial development in the SSA countries was investigated. ? The panel model was implied in this study from the period 1980 to 2008. ? The results show energy consumption increased economic growth and the financial development but with higher pollution.

2012-03-01

64

Shaping the role of sub-Saharan African nurses and midwives: Stakeholder's perceptions of the nurses' and midwives' tasks and roles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english To explore the role expectations of different stakeholders in the health care system on the roles and tasks that nurses and midwives perform, in order to clarify and strengthen these roles and shape the future of nursing education and practice in sub-Saharan Africa. Qualitative focus group discussio [...] ns were held with different stakeholders (nurses, health service managers, patients and their caregivers, community members and leaders and other health professionals) in eight African countries in order to establish their role expectations of nurses and midwives. Three questions about their role expectations and the interviews were taped, transcribed, and translated into English and analysed. There was consensus amongst the stakeholders regarding eight role functions: taking care of patients; giving health information; managing the care environment; advocating for patients; services and policies; providing emergency care; collaborating with other stakeholders; and providing midwifery care to women, infants and their families. There was disagreement amongst the stakeholders about the role of diagnosis and prescribing treatment. Nursing derives its mandate from communities it serves, and the roles expected must therefore form part of nursing regulation, education and practice standards. Health planners must use these as a basis for job descriptions and rewards. Once these are accepted in the training and regulation of nursing, they must be marketed so that recipients are aware thereof.

Seboni, Naomi M.; Magowe, Mabel K.M.; Uys, Leana R.; Suh, Mary B; Djeko, Komba N.; Moumouni, Haouaou.

65

Preventing Diabetes and Atherosclerosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Should the Metabolic Syndrome Have a Role?  

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Obesity, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing in all regions of sub-Saharan Africa. The metabolic syndrome is a valuable tool in predicting atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes in populations in Europe and North America. However, the applicability of the metabolic syndrome to African populations has not been studied. Prior to investing scarce funds into diagnosing and treating the metabolic syndrome, primary research needs to be designed to determine the p...

2009-01-01

66

A review on aflatoxin contamination and its implications in the developing world : a sub-Saharan African perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mycotoxins contamination in some agricultural food commodities seriously impact human and animal health and reduce the commercial value of crops. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that contaminate agricultural commodities pre- or postharvest. Africa is one of the continents where environmental, agricultural and storage conditions of food commodities are conducive of Aspergillus fungi infection and aflatoxin biosynthesis. This paper reviews the commodity-wise aetiology and contamination process of aflatoxins and evaluates the potential risk of exposure from common African foods. Possible ways of reducing risk for fungal infection and aflatoxin development that are relevant to the African context. The presented database would be useful as benchmark information for development and prioritization of future research. There is need for more investigations on food quality and safety by making available advanced advanced equipments and analytical methods as well as surveillance and awareness creation in the region.

Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Hell, K.

2013-01-01

67

Consequences of Neglect: Analysis of the Sub-Saharan African Snake Antivenom Market and the Global Context  

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Antivenom is the only specific treatment for systemic envenoming from snakebite, but remains unavailable to thousands of snakebite victims around the world. A cycle of inconsistent and low market demand, sub-optimal utilisation, rising costs and reduced output of antivenoms have resulted from long term under-investment in procurement and quality regulatory programs. This study provides a contemporary overview of the African antivenom market within the context of the global market. Globally, 3...

2012-01-01

68

The health and wellbeing of young people in sub-Saharan Africa: an under-researched area?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A third of sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA population comprises persons aged 10–24 years. These youth are growing up in a context marked by pervasive poverty, limited educational opportunities, high HIV/AIDS prevalence, widespread conflict, and weak social controls. Published research on the broad issues that affect youth health and wellbeing in SSA is limited and centers heavily on sexual and reproductive health. In this commentary, we provide a broad overview of sub-Saharan African youth, highlight research gaps with respect to youth health and wellbeing, and describe potential avenues to develop the region’s research capacity on youth health and wellbeing.

Kabiru Caroline W

2013-02-01

69

Glaucoma Drainage Implant Surgery – An Evidence-Based Update with Relevance to Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Glaucoma represents a leading cause of preventable vision loss in Sub-Saharan Africa. Recent studies evaluating outcomes of glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) surgery suggest an important role for this approach in the African patient population. The Tube Versus Trabeculectomy study demonstrated a higher success rate with non-valved GDI surgery compared to trabeculectomy with mitomycin C after five years. The Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison study showed no difference in surgical failure rates between ...

Aminlari, Ardalan E.; Scott, Ingrid U.; Aref, Ahmad A.

2013-01-01

70

Achieving food security for one million sub-Saharan African poor through push-pull innovation by 2020  

Science.gov (United States)

Food insecurity is a chronic problem in Africa and is likely to worsen with climate change and population growth. It is largely due to poor yields of the cereal crops caused by factors including stemborer pests, striga weeds and degraded soils. A platform technology, ‘push–pull’, based on locally available companion plants, effectively addresses these constraints resulting in substantial grain yield increases. It involves intercropping cereal crops with a forage legume, desmodium, and planting Napier grass as a border crop. Desmodium repels stemborer moths (push), and attracts their natural enemies, while Napier grass attracts them (pull). Desmodium is very effective in suppressing striga weed while improving soil fertility through nitrogen fixation and improved organic matter content. Both companion plants provide high-value animal fodder, facilitating milk production and diversifying farmers’ income sources. To extend these benefits to drier areas and ensure long-term sustainability of the technology in view of climate change, drought-tolerant trap and intercrop plants are being identified. Studies show that the locally commercial brachiaria cv mulato (trap crop) and greenleaf desmodium (intercrop) can tolerate long droughts. New on-farm field trials show that using these two companion crops in adapted push–pull technology provides effective control of stemborers and striga weeds, resulting in significant grain yield increases. Effective multi-level partnerships have been established with national agricultural research and extension systems, non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders to enhance dissemination of the technology with a goal of reaching one million farm households in the region by 2020. These will be supported by an efficient desmodium seed production and distribution system in eastern Africa, relevant policies and stakeholder training and capacity development.

Khan, Zeyaur R.; Midega, Charles A. O.; Pittchar, Jimmy O.; Murage, Alice W.; Birkett, Michael A.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Pickett, John A.

2014-01-01

71

Perception, experience, and indigenous knowledge of climate change and variability: the case of Accra, a sub-Saharan African city  

Science.gov (United States)

Several recent international assessments have concluded that climate change has the potential to reverse the modest economic gains achieved in many developing countries over the past decade. The phenomenon of climate change threatens to worsen poverty or burden populations with additional hardships, especially in poor societies with weak infrastructure and economic well-being. The importance of the perceptions, experiences, and knowledge of indigenous peoples has gained prominence in discussions of climate change and adaptation in developing countries and among international development organizations. Efforts to evaluate the role of indigenous knowledge in adaptation planning, however, have largely focused on rural people and their agricultural livelihoods. This paper presents the results of a study that examines perceptions, experiences, and indigenous knowledge relating to climate change and variability in three communities of metropolitan Accra, which is the capital of Ghana. The study design is based on a three-part conceptual framework and interview process involving risk mapping, mental models, and individual stressor cognition. Most of the residents interviewed in the three communities of urban Accra attributed climate change to the combination of deforestation and the burning of firewood and rubbish. None of the residents associated climate change with fossil fuel emissions from developed countries. Numerous potential adaptation strategies were suggested by the residents, many of which have been used effectively during past drought and flood events. Results suggest that ethnic residential clustering as well as strong community bonds in metropolitan Accra have allowed various groups and long-settled communities to engage in the sharing and transmission of knowledge of weather patterns and trends. Understanding and building upon indigenous knowledge may enhance the design, acceptance, and implementation of climate change adaptation strategies in Accra and urban regions of other developing nations.

Codjoe, Samuel N.A.; Owusu, George; Burkett, Virginia

2014-01-01

72

Public health and research funding for childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa: a time to balance priorities  

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Full Text Available Sub-Saharan African (SSA population consists of about 45% children, while in Europe and North America children population is 10- 15%. Lately, attention has been directed at mitigating childhood infectious and communicable diseases to reduce under-five mortality. As the under-five mortality index in Sub-Saharan Africa has relatively improved over the last two decades, more Sub-Saharan African children are surviving beyond the age of five and, apparently, a sizeable percentage of this population would be living with one or more childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD. The distribution of child mental health service resources across the world is unequal. This manifests in the treatment gap of major childhood onset mental health problems in SSA, with the gap being more pronounced for childhood NDD. It is important to balance the public health focus and research funding priorities in Sub-Saharan Africa. We urgently need to define the burden of childhood NDD in the region for healthcare planning and policy formulation.

Muideen O. Bakare

2014-01-01

73

Prospective evaluation of the usefulness of C-reactive protein in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a sub-Saharan African region  

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Abstract Background Sepsis is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in the newborn. Early diagnosis and treatment is vital to improve outcome. The present study was therefore carried out to determine the usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) for evaluation of neonatal sepsis in Port Harcourt, Nigeria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Method Four hundred and twenty neonates with clinical suspicion of sepsis were prospectively studied over a 6?month per...

West Boma A; Peterside Oliemen; Ugwu Rosemary O; Eneh Augusta U

2012-01-01

74

Cardiovascular autonomic function tests in an African population  

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Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is becoming increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa. Autonomic dysfunction contributes to morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Data on autonomic dysfunction in the African population is scarce, and no reference values for standardized autonomic function tests are available. The aim of this study was to establish cut off values for five easy-to-use cardiovascular autonomic function tests that may be suitable for resource-poor se...

Torsvik Malvin; Hãggblom Amanda; Eide Geir; Schmutzhard Erich; Vetvik Kaare; Winkler Andrea

2008-01-01

75

Comparison of HIV Prevalence Estimates from Antenatal Care Surveillance and Population-Based Surveys in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Objective: To compare HIV seroprevalence estimates obtained from antenatal care (ANC) sentinel surveillance surveys in Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda with those from population-based demographic and health surveys (DHS) and AIDS indicator surveys (AIS). Methods: Geographical information system methods were used to map ANC surveillance sites and DHS/AIS survey clusters within a 15-km radius of the ANC sites. National DHS/AIS HIV prevalence estimates for women and men were compare...

Mishra, V.; Hong, R.; Montana, Livia Sydel

2008-01-01

76

Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian…

Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

77

Irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Development of Public and Private Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seven papers which are included in the publication have been prepared in an attempt to provide background information and guidance to those who are designing agricultural strategies and irrigation investment projects for Sub-Saharan African (SSA) coun...

S. Barghouti G. Le Moigne

1990-01-01

78

The Impacts of Technology Adoption on Smallholder Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review  

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This paper is a review article on the impacts of technology adoption on agricultural productivity in smallholder agriculture in the sub-Saharan African region. The use of agricultural technologies determines how the increase in agricultural output impacts on poverty levels and environmental degradation. Experience and evidence from countries within and around the sub-Saharan African region indicate that returns to agricultural technology development could be very high and far reaching. The fa...

Washington Muzari; Wirimayi Gatsi; Shepherd Muvhunzi

2012-01-01

79

The effects of foreign aid in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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This paper contributes to the aid effectiveness debate by applying a vector autoregression model to a panel of Sub-Saharan African countries. This method avoids the need for instrumental variables and allows one to analyse the impact of foreign aid on human development and on economic development simultaneously. The full sample results indicate a small increase in economic growth following a fairly substantial aid shock. The size of the effect puts the result somewhere between the arguments o...

Gillanders, Robert

2011-01-01

80

Underdeveloped ICT areas in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As universal service in terms of ICTs provision cannot be achieved in the times agreed for several international bilateral and multilateral aid organizations. It is important to create mechanisms to reduce the lack of use of ICTs in sub-Saharan African countries. This paper specifically analyses the different ICT underdeveloped areas in the sub-Saharan African countries and the factors explain such status. At the same time, the paper proposes a set of policy guidelines that might help improving the current situation in several areas such as investment, employment, infrastructure and technology in order that some countries may overcome unfavourable ICT development. The main research question is: is there any chance that sub-Saharan African countries can overcome the critical situation in which they currently are? And if so, what are the key components and processes to develop and to do changes. In this way, a proposed framework is provided for the examination of policy makers, investors, and other stakeholders in the ICT field in these countries.

Alfonso AVILA

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Cost-effectiveness of medical interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease in a sub-Saharan African country – the case of Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high and rising prevalence of cardiovascular risk in sub-Saharan Africa, a development typical for countries in epidemiological transition. Contrary to recommendations in treatment guidelines, medical interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease are implemented only on a limited scale in these settings. There is a widespread concern that such treatment is not cost-effective compared to alternative health interventions. The main objectives of this article are therefore to calculate costs-, effects and cost-effectiveness of fourteen medical interventions of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Tanzania, including Acetylsalicylic acid, a diuretic drug (Hydrochlorothiazide, a ?-blocker (Atenolol, a calcium channel blocker (Nifedepine, a statin (Lovastatin and various combinations of these. Methods Effect sizes were derived from systematic reviews or meta-analyses, and calculated as Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. Data on drug costs were calibrated to a Tanzanian setting. Other recurrent and capital costs were derived from previous studies and reviewed by local experts. Expected lifetime costs and health outcomes were calculated using a life-cycle model. Probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using Monte Carlo simulation, and results presented as cost-effectiveness acceptability curves and frontiers. The potential impacts of uncertainty in value laden single parameters were explored in one-way sensitivity analyses. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the fourteen interventions and four different levels of risk (totally 56 alternative interventions ranged from about USD 85 per DALY to about USD 4589 per DALY saved. Hydrochlorothiazide as monotherapy is the drug yielding the most favorable cost-effectiveness ratio, although not significantly lower than when it is combined in duo-therapy with Aspirin or a ?-blocker, in triple-therapy with Aspirin and a ?-blocker, or than Aspirin given as mono-therapy. Conclusion Preventive cardiology is not cost-effective for any patient group in this setting until willingness to pay exceeds USD 85 per DALY. At this level of willingness to pay, the optimal intervention is Hydrochlorothiazide to patients with very high cardiovascular risk. As willingness to pay for health increase further, it becomes optimal to provide this treatment also to patients with lower cardiovascular risk, and to substitute to more sophisticated interventions.

Hemed Yusuf

2007-02-01

82

The Environmental and Social Influences of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Communities  

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Full Text Available The Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS pandemic has caused far-reaching effects in sub-Saharan Africa. The pandemic has effectively diminished the workforce, increased poverty rates, reduced agricultural productivity, and transformed the structure of many rural households. HIV/AIDS further strains the already fragile relationship between livelihood and the natural and social environments of these regions. Therefore, the objective of this review is to characterize the impact of HIV/AIDS on the environment and the social infrastructure of rural sub-Saharan Africa. There are many aspects of rural life that contribute to disease transmission of HIV/AIDS and that pose unique challenges to the population dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. Widespread AIDS-related mortality has caused a decrease in population growth for many African countries. In turn, these alterations in population dynamics have resulted in a decrease in the percentage of prime-age working adults, as well as a gender disparity, whereby, females carry a growing burden of household responsibilities. There is a rising proportion of older adults, often females, who assume the role of provider and caretaker for other dependent family members. These changing dynamics have caused many to exploit their natural surroundings, adopting less sustainable land use practices and utilizing protected resources as a primary means of generating revenue.

Christopher R. Frei

2011-07-01

83

TRENDS IN STOCK MARKET IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA  

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Full Text Available his study uses a panel data, to study the recent contribution of stock markets in economic growth in 6 selected countries of sub-Saharan Africa from 1991-2009. Over the last two decades, most of the countries in sub-Sahara Africa have either gone through one form of Market oriented reform of its economy or trade liberalization. However, these market oriented reforms are just beginning to yield dividends in some areas of the economy. These results show that private capital stock market development measured by market capitalization and stock turnover ratio, and foreign direct investment have positive significant correlations with growth in per capita output in the selected sub-Saharan African countries. These results point to the positive correlation between market liberalization, economic reforms and increase in stock market capitalization as well as the liquidity measured by stock traded turnover ratio. More importantly, the negative correlation between financial crisis and growth in per capita GDP shows that sub-Saharan African economies are not immune to global market problems.

Okechukwu D. Anyamele, PhD

2013-12-01

84

Introduction : New Avenues for Pastoral Development in sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

African pastoralism is a perplexing, controversial and misunderstood subject. Certainly, making sense of herdersâ?? lifestyles and livelihoods is made especially difficult â?? if not impossible â?? by the marked absence of consensus between scholars of pastoralism. Sharp disagreements exist as to whether pastoralism in sub-Saharan Africa is on the verge of extinction, or whether it is a resilient livelihood strategy. Similarly, authors diverge on the question of whether drought cycles have become increasingly recurrent and lifethreatening, or whether they are part of the climatic variability that has always characterized arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Finally, different viewpoints exist concerning whether or not it is possible to maintain extensive production strategies and the mobility of herds and people in increasingly populous and circumscribed territories. Although a number of research fields and academic debates with regard to â??new range ecologyâ??, climate change, risk management or sustainable livelihoods have produced important insights for African drylands, there have been few attempts to conceptualize pastoral development more broadly and beyond disciplinary confines. This is precisely the objective of this special issue, which seeks to provide an overview of current research on the economic, ecological, political and social challenges and opportunities of pastoral societies in sub-Saharan Africa.

Hagmann, Tobias; Ifejika-Speranza, Chinwe

2010-01-01

85

Engaging media in communicating research on sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa: experiences and lessons learned  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The mass media have excellent potential to promote good sexual and reproductive health outcomes, but around the world, media often fail to prioritize sexual and reproductive health and rights issues or report them in an accurate manner. In sub-Saharan Africa media coverage of reproductive health issues is poor due to the weak capacity and motivation for reporting these issues by media practitioners. This paper describes the experiences of the African Popul...

Oronje Rose; Undie Chi-Chi; Zulu Eliya; Crichton Joanna

2011-01-01

86

The impact of Christianity on sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this article is to describe the impact of Christianity on sub-Saharan Africa. I shall start by first examining the key words in the title of this article, and by briefly discussing the phenomenal growth of Christianity in sub-Saharan Africa. The article further describes the impact of Chr [...] istianity on sub-Saharan Africa in terms of education, socio-politics, and health; here I shall base my remarks on the history of Christian missions in the region since the late nineteen century. As far as education is concerned, this article recognises that education that focuses on holistic human development is a positive force, and a force that was introduced by Christianity. I shall also point out that Christianity initiated medical advances that improved the health of those who live in the region. Regeneration as espoused by Christianity constitutes something of great value. On the downside, Christianity led to the demise of the African customs, which it viewed as pagan and evil; the religion also led to the implementation of apartheid (to which it gave its theological support), and undermined the leadership role of women. Finally, Christianity has bedevilled race relations in Africa generally.

Matsobane J, Manala.

87

The Global Financial Meltdown of 2008, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Way Forward for Sustainable Economic Growth and Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author began the paper with a brief historical perspective of the global financial crisis. This was followed by the review of the literature. Next, the researcher outlined his findings preceded by some policy analyses and implications of the crisis for sub-Saharan African economies. The writer ended the paper with recommendations for both sub-Saharan African policymakers and the international finance and development community.

Ashford C. Chea

2011-12-01

88

Cryptosporidiosis in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Lingering Challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hospital- and community-based studies in sub-Saharan Africa document a high prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in children aged 6–36 months, particularly among those who are malnourished or positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and during rainy seasons. This is despite advances in developed countries that have curbed the incidence of cryptosporidiosis in the general and HIV-positive populations. Transmission in sub-Saharan Africa appears to occur predominantly through an an...

Mor, Siobhan M.; Tzipori, Saul

2008-01-01

89

Is age-related macular degeneration a problem in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tunji Sunday OluleyeRetina and Vitreous Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, West AfricaBackground: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is considered uncommon in black populations including those of Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this review was to determine the pattern of presentation of AMD in our hospital located in Ibadan, the largest city in Sub-Saharan Africa.Methods: A retrospective review of all cases with AMD presenting to the Eye and Re...

Ts, Oluleye

2012-01-01

90

Business in sub-Saharan Africa : A study on how MNCs can compete successfully in sub-­?Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines how MNCs manage challenges when operating in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). These are challenges such as uncertain environment because of bureaucracy and corruption and also difficulties to reach consumers because of poor infrastructure, dispersed population and cultural differences. The analysis of our case company ABB suggests that firms operating in SSA need to build long-term relationships, as well as long experience and a brand with well-attached references in order to rea...

Ho?gfeldt, Amelie

2011-01-01

91

mtDNA variation in the South African Kung and Khwe-and their genetic relationships to other African populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mtDNA variation of 74 Khoisan-speaking individuals (Kung and Khwe) from Schmidtsdrift, in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa, was examined by high-resolution RFLP analysis and control region (CR) sequencing. The resulting data were combined with published RFLP haplotype and CR sequence data from sub-Saharan African populations and then were subjected to phylogenetic analysis to deduce the evolutionary relationships among them. More than 77% of the Kung and Khwe mtDNA samples were found to belong to the major mtDNA lineage, macrohaplogroup L* (defined by a HpaI site at nucleotide position 3592), which is prevalent in sub-Saharan African populations. Additional sets of RFLPs subdivided macrohaplogroup L* into two extended haplogroups-L1 and L2-both of which appeared in the Kung and Khwe. Besides revealing the significant substructure of macrohaplogroup L* in African populations, these data showed that the Biaka Pygmies have one of the most ancient RFLP sublineages observed in African mtDNA and, thus, that they could represent one of the oldest human populations. In addition, the Kung exhibited a set of related haplotypes that were positioned closest to the root of the human mtDNA phylogeny, suggesting that they, too, represent one of the most ancient African populations. Comparison of Kung and Khwe CR sequences with those from other African populations confirmed the genetic association of the Kung with other Khoisan-speaking peoples, whereas the Khwe were more closely linked to non-Khoisan-speaking (Bantu) populations. Finally, the overall sequence divergence of 214 African RFLP haplotypes defined in both this and an earlier study was 0.364%, giving an estimated age, for all African mtDNAs, of 125,500-165,500 years before the present, a date that is concordant with all previous estimates derived from mtDNA and other genetic data, for the time of origin of modern humans in Africa. PMID:10739760

Chen, Y S; Olckers, A; Schurr, T G; Kogelnik, A M; Huoponen, K; Wallace, D C

2000-04-01

92

Sub-Saharan Africa Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts from Subsaharan African countries. Some titles include: Course for Political Instructors Opened in Cabinda; Frozen Fish Storage Facilities Commissioned in Namibe; British Equip...

1985-01-01

93

Regional differences in the distribution of the sub-Saharan, West Eurasian, and South Asian mtDNA lineages in Yemen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite its key location for population movements out of and back into Africa, Yemen has not yet been sampled on a regional level for an investigation of sub-Saharan, West Eurasian, and South Asian genetic contributions. In this study, we present mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data for regionally distinct Yemeni populations that reveal different distributions of mtDNA lineages. An extensive database of mtDNA sequences from North and East African, Middle Eastern and Indian populations was analyzed to provide a context for the regional Yemeni mtDNA datasets. The groups of western Yemen appear to be most closely related to Middle Eastern and North African populations, while the eastern Yemeni population from Hadramawt is most closely related to East Africa. Furthermore, haplotype matches with Africa are almost exclusively confined to West Eurasian R0a haplogroup in southwestern Yemen, although more sub-Saharan L-type matches appear in more northern Yemeni populations. In fact, Yemeni populations have the highest frequency of R0a haplotypes detected to date, thus Yemen or southern Arabia may be the site of the initial expansion of this haplogroup. Whereas two variants of the sub-Saharan haplogroup M1 were detected only in southwestern Yemen close to the Bab el-Mandeb Strait, different non-African M haplotypes were detected at low frequencies (approximately 2%) in western parts of the country and at a higher frequency (7.5%) in the Hadramawt. We conclude that the Yemeni gene pool is highly stratified both regionally and temporally and that it has received West Eurasian, Northeast African, and South Asian gene flow. PMID:18257024

Cerný, Viktor; Mulligan, Connie J; Rídl, Jakub; Zaloudková, Martina; Edens, Christopher M; Hájek, Martin; Pereira, Luísa

2008-06-01

94

Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa: A practical-theological response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On the 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International, 89.6%of Sub-Saharan African countries received scores below 50, where a score of zero signifies that the country is highly corrupt and a score of 100 declares a country free of corruption. From these results, it seems as if Sub-Saharan African countries are quite vulnerable to corruption. In this article, the question whether certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture such as communalism, gift giving and a shame culture could in some situations influence people’s perception of, and their possible openness towards, certain forms of corruption was investigated. The research showed that cultural traits do influence people’s behaviour and that there are certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture that might sanction corruption. In response to these findings, some preliminary suggestions were proposed as to how Christians living in Africa could evaluate their cultural practices in the light of God’s Word and from a reformed theological paradigm. Instead of succumbing to the pressure posed by their culture to participate in immoral or corrupt activities, they could contribute to a moral regeneration on the African continent.

Petria M. Theron

2013-11-01

95

Drug Interactions in the Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis of Malaria in HIV Infected Individuals in Sub Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaria and HIV/AIDS remain diseases of public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa as both infections are responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. Malaria disproportionately affects young children and pregnant women and HIV/AIDS affects mostly adolescents and young adults. The widespread nature of both infections has led to co-infection in many residents of sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-infected individuals are more susceptible to frequent attacks of malaria thus requiring...

2011-01-01

96

A Multilevel Approach to Explain Child Mortality and Undernutrition in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While undernutrition among children is very pervasive both in Sub- Saharan Africa and South Asia, child mortality is rather low in South Asia. In contrast to that Sub-Saharan African countries suffer by far the worst from high rates of child mortality. This different pattern of child mortality and undernutrition in both regions is well known, but approaches using aggregated macro data have not been able to explain it appropriately. In this paper we analyze the determinants of child mortality ...

2006-01-01

97

Strategies for Addressing the University Library Users' Changing Needs and Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a Sub-Saharan African academic Librarian's experience in trying to address the changing needs and practices of university library users. Special reference is made to Makerere University Library. Most of the changes have been brought about by the various paradigm shifts in teaching, learning and research, as well as advances in…

Musoke, Maria G. N.

2008-01-01

98

The double marginalisation: reflections on young women and the youth crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There has been an upsurge in academic studies on youth in Sub-Saharan Africa since the last decade of the 20th century, underlining the growing importance that generational cleavages seem to play in today’s societies. However, gender has been neglected in research and policies bearing on youth, unveiling a rather negative and limited approach to Sub-Saharan African youth: limit situations are those most focused on (as the role of youth in conflicts), young males being perceived as the most ...

Vasconcelos, Joana

2011-01-01

99

Data availability on men's involvement in families in sub-Saharan Africa to inform family-centred programmes for children affected by HIV and AIDS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS recently recommended that programmes for children affected by HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa direct more support to families. Interest has grown in including men in such family-orientated interventions by researchers, policy makers, and community and non-governmental organizations. However, there is a lack of good quality data on men's involvement with children in the diverse settings in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, limited research has examined their role in providing emotional, material support and protection for HIV- and AIDS-affected children and families.In this paper, we describe the availability of data about men and families, in particular fathers, in ongoing sub-Saharan African surveys and longitudinal population cohorts. We discuss the conceptual and measurement issues associated with data collection on men's involvement in these types of studies. We consider the opportunities for improving the collection of data about men and families in household surveys and population cohorts in order to inform the design and evaluation of family-centred interventions for children affected by HIV and AIDS. PMID:20573287

Hosegood, Victoria; Madhavan, Sangeetha

2010-01-01

100

Development of a single base extension method to resolve Y chromosome haplogroups in sub-Saharan African populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The ability of the Y chromosome to retain a record of its evolution has seen it become an essential tool of molecular anthropology. In the last few years, however, it has also found use in forensic genetics, providing information on the geographic origin of individuals. This has been aided by the development of efficient screening methods and an increased knowledge of geographic distribution. In this study, we describe the development of single base extens...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence and economic burden of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa is increasing, and innovative strategies are needed to improve prevention and care in this population. This article uses a case of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in Uganda to propose guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease in resource-limited settings. These guidelines were developed from the consensus opinion of specialists at the Uganda Cancer Institute and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center as part of an established collaboration. Areas for future investigation that can improve the care of patients in this region are identified. PMID:23486453

Ulrickson, Matthew; Okuku, Fred; Walusansa, Victoria; Press, Oliver; Kalungi, Sam; Wu, David; Kambugu, Fred; Casper, Corey; Orem, Jackson

2013-03-01

102

The States of Sub Saharan Africa on the way to the Global Information Society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper devotes to the problem of overcoming of the digital divide in the Sub Saharan African States. On the example of Kenya the author speaks about the comparative success of the development of the information technologies in Africa and in turn underlines the most significant obstacles on the way of African states to the global information society and suggests the means how to overcome them.

Konstantin A. Pantserev

2010-12-01

103

Inequities in the global health workforce: the greatest impediment to health in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health systems played a key role in the dramatic rise in global life expectancy that occurred during the 20th century, and have continued to contribute enormously to the improvement of the health of most of the world's population. The health workforce is the backbone of each health system, the lubricant that facilitates the smooth implementation of health action for sustainable socio-economic development. It has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that the density of the health workforce is directly correlated with positive health outcomes. In other words, health workers save lives and improve health. About 59 million people make up the health workforce of paid full-time health workers world-wide. However, enormous gaps remain between the potential of health systems and their actual performance, and there are far too many inequities in the distribution of health workers between countries and within countries. The Americas (mainly USA and Canada) are home to 14% of the world's population, bear only 10% of the world's disease burden, have 37% of the global health workforce and spend about 50% of the world's financial resources for health. Conversely, sub-Saharan Africa, with about 11% of the world's population bears over 24% of the global disease burden, is home to only 3% of the global health workforce, and spends less than 1% of the world's financial resources on health. In most developing countries, the health workforce is concentrated in the major towns and cities, while rural areas can only boast of about 23% and 38% of the country's doctors and nurses respectively. The imbalances exist not only in the total numbers and geographical distribution of health workers, but also in the skills mix of available health workers. WHO estimates that 57 countries world wide have a critical shortage of health workers, equivalent to a global deficit of about 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Thirty six of these countries are in sub- Saharan Africa. They would need to increase their health workforce by about 140% to achieve enough coverage for essential health interventions to make a positive difference in the health and life expectancy of their populations. The extent causes and consequences of the health workforce crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the various factors that influence and are related to it are well known and described. Although there is no "magic bullet" solution to the problem, there are several documented, tested and tried best practices from various countries. The global health workforce crisis can be tackled if there is global responsibility, political will, financial commitment and public-private partnership for country-led and country-specific interventions that seek solutions beyond the health sector. Only when enough health workers can be trained, sustained and retained in sub-Saharan African countries will there be meaningful socio-economic development and the faintest hope of attaining the Millennium Development Goals in the sub-continent. PMID:17617671

Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni

2007-06-01

104

Inequities in the Global Health Workforce: The Greatest Impediment to Health in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health systems played a key role in the dramatic rise in global life expectancy that occurred during the 20th century, and have continued to contribute enormously to the improvement of the health of most of the world’s population. The health workforce is the backbone of each health system, the lubricant that facilitates the smooth implementation of health action for sustainable socio-economic development. It has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that the density of the health workforce is directly correlated with positive health outcomes. In other words, health workers save lives and improve health. About 59 million people make up the health workforce of paid full-time health workers world-wide. However, enormous gaps remain between the potential of health systems and their actual performance, and there are far too many inequities in the distribution of health workers between countries and within countries. The Americas (mainly USA and Canada are home to 14% of the world’s population, bear only 10% of the world’s disease burden, have 37% of the global health workforce and spend about 50% of the world’s financial resources for health. Conversely, sub-Saharan Africa, with about 11% of the world’s population bears over 24% of the global disease burden, is home to only 3% of the global health workforce, and spends less than 1% of the world’s financial resources on health. In most developing countries, the health workforce is concentrated in the major towns and cities, while rural areas can only boast of about 23% and 38% of the country’s doctors and nurses respectively. The imbalances exist not only in the total numbers and geographical distribution of health workers, but also in the skills mix of available health workers. WHO estimates that 57 countries world wide have a critical shortage of health workers, equivalent to a global deficit of about 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Thirty six of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa. They would need to increase their health workforce by about 140% to achieve enough coverage for essential health interventions to make a positive difference in the health and life expectancy of their populations. The extent causes and consequences of the health workforce crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the various factors that influence and are related to it are well known and described. Although there is no “magic bullet” solution to the problem, there are several documented, tested and tried best practices from various countries. The global health workforce crisis can be tackled if there is global responsibility, political will, financial commitment and public-private partnership for country-led and country-specific interventions that seek solutions beyond the health sector. Only when enough health workers can be trained, sustained and retained in sub-Saharan African countries will there be meaningful socio-economic development and the faintest hope of attaining the Millennium Development Goals in the sub-continent.

Chipayeni Mtonga

2007-06-01

105

Inequities in the Global Health Workforce: The Greatest Impediment to Health in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Health systems played a key role in the dramatic rise in global life expectancy that occurred during the 20th century, and have continued to contribute enormously to the improvement of the health of most of the world’s population. The health workforce is the backbone of each health system, the lubricant that facilitates the smooth implementation of health action for sustainable socio-economic development. It has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that the density of the health workforce is directly correlated with positive health outcomes. In other words, health workers save lives and improve health. About 59 million people make up the health workforce of paid full-time health workers world-wide. However, enormous gaps remain between the potential of health systems and their actual performance, and there are far too many inequities in the distribution of health workers between countries and within countries. The Americas (mainly USA and Canada) are home to 14% of the world’s population, bear only 10% of the world’s disease burden, have 37% of the global health workforce and spend about 50% of the world’s financial resources for health. Conversely, sub-Saharan Africa, with about 11% of the world’s population bears over 24% of the global disease burden, is home to only 3% of the global health workforce, and spends less than 1% of the world’s financial resources on health. In most developing countries, the health workforce is concentrated in the major towns and cities, while rural areas can only boast of about 23% and 38% of the country’s doctors and nurses respectively. The imbalances exist not only in the total numbers and geographical distribution of health workers, but also in the skills mix of available health workers. WHO estimates that 57 countries world wide have a critical shortage of health workers, equivalent to a global deficit of about 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Thirty six of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa. They would need to increase their health workforce by about 140% to achieve enough coverage for essential health interventions to make a positive difference in the health and life expectancy of their populations. The extent causes and consequences of the health workforce crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the various factors that influence and are related to it are well known and described. Although there is no “magic bullet” solution to the problem, there are several documented, tested and tried best practices from various countries. The global health workforce crisis can be tackled if there is global responsibility, political will, financial commitment and public-private partnership for country-led and country-specific interventions that seek solutions beyond the health sector. Only when enough health workers can be trained, sustained and retained in sub-Saharan African countries will there be meaningful socio-economic development and the faintest hope of attaining the Millennium Development Goals in the sub-continent.

Anyangwe, Stella C. E.; Mtonga, Chipayeni

2007-01-01

106

Essential Surgery at the District Hospital: A Retrospective Descriptive Analysis in three African Countries.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Surgical conditions contribute significantly to the disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet there is an apparent neglect of surgical care as a public health intervention to counter this burden. There is increasing enthusiasm to reverse this trend, by promoting essential surgical services at the district hospital, the first point of contact for critical conditions for rural populations. This study investigated the scope of surgery conducted at district hospitals in three sub-Saharan African ...

2010-01-01

107

The effects of HIV/AIDS on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The primary means of HIV transmission – sexual intercourse – has been known for over two decades, but that information does not prevent thousands of men and women from contracting the virus every day. The AIDS epidemic creates a high and ongoing mortality in the economic and social active sector of populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The epidemic is being driven by inequities and uneven development, exacerbating existing poverty and human misery. In hard-hit countries in sub-Saharan Africa...

2010-01-01

108

HIV and education:a multivariate analysis on macrodata from sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Problem The positive relationship between HIV-prevalence and education in sub-Saharan Africa has been verified by several studies. However, this hypothesis has been challenged recently, and it is in this context that I place my thesis. The HIV-epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is the only major epidemic that has rooted itself in the main population. The other large epidemics spread mainly in marginalized groups like injecting drug users, men who have sex with men and people involved in...

2006-01-01

109

SOVEREIGNTY OF STATES IN THE POST COLD WAR ERA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The United Nations (UN was founded to ‘to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war’.1 However, the post-independence history of sub-Saharan Africa has demonstrated that the international community, or lack of an international society, has so far been unable to protect the African continent from this ‘scourge’, or indeed from itself. A number of reasons may be suggested for this, including the organisation of the international community into a number of sovereign independent states, the inability of some of these territorial sovereignties to act and function as states, the formal political and economic crisis and marginalisation of especially sub-Saharan Africa, and finally the history of the continent. Accordingly, this article has two major objectives. The article will illustrate how state failure and intrastate asymmetric warfare alters and undermines the Westphalian concept of state in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore it attempts to show that the way in which the concept of ‘national sovereignty’ is understood is changing, and that this might have instrumental implications for future interstate relations in sub-Saharan Africa.

Thomas Jørgenson

2012-02-01

110

Epidemiology of Human Parvovirus 4 Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Human parvovirus 4 infections are primarily associated with parenteral exposure in western countries. By ELISA, we demonstrate frequent seropositivity for antibody to parvovirus 4 viral protein 2 among adult populations throughout sub-Saharan Africa (Burkina Faso, 37%; Cameroon, 25%; Democratic Republic of the Congo, 35%; South Africa, 20%), which implies existence of alternative transmission routes.

Sharp, Colin P.; Vermeulen, Marion; Nebie, Yacouba; Djoko, Cyrille F.; LeBreton, Matthew; Tamoufe, Ubald; Rimoin, Anne W.; Kayembe, Patrick K.; Carr, Jean K.; Servant-Delmas, Annabelle; Laperche, Syria; Harrison, G.L. Abby; Pybus, Oliver G.; Delwart, Eric; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Saville, Andrew; Lefrere, Jean-Jacques

2010-01-01

111

Changing epidemiology of human parvovirus 4 infection in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human parvovirus 4 infections are primarily associated with parenteral exposure in western countries. By ELISA, we demonstrate frequent seropositivity for antibody to parvovirus 4 viral protein 2 among adult populations throughout sub-Saharan Africa (Burkina Faso, 37%; Cameroon, 25%; Democratic Republic of the Congo, 35%; South Africa, 20%), which implies existence of alternative transmission routes. PMID:20875290

Sharp, Colin P; Vermeulen, Marion; Nébié, Yacouba; Djoko, Cyrille F; LeBreton, Matthew; Tamoufe, Ubald; Rimoin, Anne W; Kayembe, Patrick K; Carr, Jean K; Servant-Delmas, Annabelle; Laperche, Syria; Harrison, G L Abby; Pybus, Oliver G; Delwart, Eric; Wolfe, Nathan D; Saville, Andrew; Lefrère, Jean Jacques; Simmonds, Peter

2010-10-01

112

The case for investing in secondary education in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): challenges and opportunities  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the next two decades, sub-Saharan Africa will face substantial pressure to expand its secondary education system. This is driven by the current low development of secondary education compared to other world regions, continued rapid population growth, the increase in the enrolment and completion rates at the primary education level, and the upsurge in the demand for skills. This paper suggests that in order to help countries respond to these pressures, external partners should now increase their support for secondary education, in terms of academic as well as technical and vocational skills training. Given the attributes of the African economies and the continuing need for foundation skills, this paper argues that in the current situation, particularly the lower secondary level will have to be strengthened, in many cases through a longer basic education cycle for all. The necessary rapid expansion of secondary education will require substantial investments, and this paper discusses how aid allocation can be made more evidence-based and used in a more strategic way to make these investments more effective and sustainable. While aid will continue to have a role to play over the next decade especially in fragile states, in the long run it is African countries' capacity to achieve sustained economic growth which will be the single most important factor determining their ability to meet the financing needs.

Fredriksen, Birger; Fossberg, Camilla Helgø

2014-04-01

113

Operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa: constraints, dilemmas and strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The continued poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa highlight the difficulties in reforming policies and laws, and implementing effective programmes. This paper uses one international and two national case studies to reflect on the challenges, dilemmas and strategies used in operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in different African contexts. Methods The international case study f...

Oronje Rose; Crichton Joanna; Theobald Sally; Lithur Nana; Ibisomi Latifat

2011-01-01

114

Modern Biotechnology—Potential Contribution and Challenges for Sustainable Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modern biotechnology, including the application of transgenic techniques to produce Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), can play a significant role in increasing agricultural production in a sustainable way, but its products need to be tailored for the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, the capacity to develop GMOs and ensure they meet stringent regulatory requirements is somewhat limited. Most African governments contribute little to science and technology either financially or thro...

Jane Morris, E.

2011-01-01

115

Development progress in sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa are sub-Saharan African countries that stand out for their development progress. Each of these countries has succeeded against the odds, against expectations. This paper synthesizes the common ingredients of these countries' success, and derives lessons. It concludes that smallness, landlockedness, tropical location, distance from world markets, racism, colonialism and other challenges can be overcome through appropriate institutions, governance and...

Naude?, Wim

2010-01-01

116

Export processing zones in Sub-Saharan Africa - Kenya and Lesotho  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis examines two cases of Export Processing Zone (EPZ) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), specifically in Kenya and Lesotho. Using data from the respective countries' EPZ programme authorities, central banks, relevant studies, and country reports, I show that although the programmes have facilitated employment generation and foreign exchange earnings from textile and apparel exports, such exports rely highly on preferential trade agreements such as the African Growth and Opportun...

Vastveit, Lene Kristin

2013-01-01

117

NEPAD initiatives and their repercussions on agricultural policy in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"For most Sub-Saharan African countries, agriculture is a key to achieving broad-based (pro-poor) economic growth and attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Approximately 70–80 % of the continent’s employment and 40 % of its export earnings stem from agricultural activities. A stronger agricultural sector is considered to be fundamental for Africa’s overall economic growth as well as for addressing hunger, poverty, and inequality. However, the sector is not performing ...

Zimmermann, Roukayatou; Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik gGmbH

2009-01-01

118

Trade openness, trade costs and growth: Why sub-Saharan Africa performs poorly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The principal aim of this paper is to identify, in the context of the relationship between openness and growth, factors that can account for the poor growth performance of subSaharan African (SSA) countries. Including inequality as a broad measure of policy distortions, attention focuses on policy and non-policy barriers to trade, indicators of openness and resource endowments. The empirical analysis uses cross-section and panel econometric techniques to investigate the links between growth, ...

Mbabazi, Jennifer; Milner, Chris; Morrissey, Oliver

2006-01-01

119

Has democratization reduced infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from micro data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Does democracy help babies survive in sub-Saharan Africa? By using retrospective fertility surveys conducted in 28 African countries, I compare the survival of infants born to the same mother before and after democratization to identify the effect of democracy. In measuring democracy, I adopt a theoretically motivated definition of democracy: universal suffrage and contested elections for executive office. I find that infant mortality falls by 1.8 percentage points, 18 percent of the sample m...

Kudamatsu, Masayuki

2007-01-01

120

HIV and Tuberculosis Trends in the United States and Select Sub-Saharan Africa Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are two catastrophic diseases affecting millions of people worldwide every year; and are considered to be pandemic by the World Health Organization. This study aims to compare the recent trends in TB and HIV in the United States and Sub-Saharan African Countries. Data (incidence, prevalence and death rates of HIV and TB) for the United States, Cameroon, Nigeria, and South Africa were collected from The Joint United Nations Programme for...

Ousman Mahmud; Centdrika Dates; Luma Akil; Ahmad, Hafiz A.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Radiation of Pollination Systems in the Iridaceae of sub-Saharan Africa  

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• Background Seventeen distinct pollination systems are known for genera of sub-Saharan African Iridaceae and recurrent shifts in pollination system have evolved in those with ten or more species. Pollination by long-tongued anthophorine bees foraging for nectar and coincidentally acquiring pollen on some part of their bodies is the inferred ancestral pollination strategy for most genera of the large subfamilies Iridoideae and Crocoideae and may be ancestral for the latter. Derived strategi...

2006-01-01

122

Leveraging the Cultural Model for Opportunistic Networking in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The immense potential of ICT for improving users' livelihood has been discussed in a large body of literature and many instantiations in our daily life demonstrate this reality. In developing areas, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, ICT for development has become the frontrunner initiative that decision makers are pushing to bring millions of people out of poverty. Unfortunately, the majority of Africans, who live in rural areas, fail to identify with the existing various solutions. We propose the ...

Ouoba, Jonathan; Bissyande?, Tegawende? F.

2012-01-01

123

International Migration and the Propagation of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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In this paper, we identify and quantify the role of international migration in the propagation of HIV across sub-Saharan African countries. We use a panel database on bilateral migration flows and HIV prevalence rates covering 44 countries over the nineties. Controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, spatial autocorrelation, reverse causality and reflection issues, and incorrect treatment of country fixed effects, we regress the log-change of HIV prevalence rates on the average levels of preva...

Docquier, Fre?de?ric; Vasilakis, Chrysovalantis; Tamfutu Munsi, Dieudonne?

2011-01-01

124

Tax Revenue Instability in Sub-Saharan Africa: Consequences and Remedies  

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This paper focuses on the sources and consequences of the instability of tax revenue in Sub-Saharan African countries. We take advantage of a unique and extraordinarily rich dataset on the composition of tax revenues for a large number of countries. Using panel data for 39 countries observed over the period 1980-2005, our results are threefold. Firstly, the instability of government tax revenue leads to an instability of both the public investment and government consumption, and finally, redu...

Ebeke, Christian; Ehrhart, He?le?ne

2011-01-01

125

Can the woodfuel supply in sub-Saharan Africa be sustainable? The case of N'Djamena, Chad  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chad, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, depends for most of its energy demand on woodfuels; 90% or more of the country's energy balance comes from biomass energy. Obvious environmental problems appear around cities because of their highly concentrated demand, and this threatens the sustainability of supply. But, this does not need to be a problem, and woodfuel can also be an engine of economic growth, particularly in rural areas. A few policy conditions will need to be satisfied and in Chad this appears to be the case. As a result, the woodfuel supply of the capital N'Djamena could become sustainable, thereby continuing to provide low-cost energy to the urban population for the foreseeable future while giving income generation opportunities in rural areas. A win-win situation?!

2005-02-01

126

Acute Myocardial Infarction in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Need for Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Trends in the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa have not been well described, despite growing recognition of the increasing burden of cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health Archive, CINAHL, and Web of Science, and conducted reference and citation analyses. Inclusion criteria were: observational studies, studies that reported incidence or prevalence of acute myocardial infarction, studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, and studies that defined acute myocardial infarction by EKG changes or elevation of cardiac biomarkers. Studies conducted prior to 1992 were excluded. Two independent reviewers analyzed titles and abstracts, full-texts, and references and citations. These reviewers also performed quality assessment and data extraction. Quality assessment was conducted with a validated scale for observational studies. Findings Of 2292 records retrieved, seven studies met all inclusion criteria. These studies included a total of 92,378 participants from highly heterogeneous study populations in five different countries. Methodological quality assessment demonstrated scores ranging from 3 to 7 points (on an 8-point scale). Prevalence of acute myocardial infarction ranged from 0.1 to 10.4% among the included studies. Interpretation There is insufficient population-based data describing the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa. Well-designed registries and surveillance studies that capture the broad and diverse population with acute myocardial infarction in sub-Saharan Africa using common diagnostic criteria are critical in order to guide prevention and treatment strategies. Registration Registered in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) Database #CRD42012003161.

Rodrigues, Clarissa G.; de Andrade, Luciano; Limkakeng, Alexander T.; Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Lynch, Catherine A.

2014-01-01

127

W135 invasive meningococcal infections imported from Sub-Saharan Africa to France, January to April 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

From January to April 2012, 16 cases of W135 invasive meningococcal infection were reported in France. Of these, eight were linked to a recent travel history to Sub-Saharan Africa. These cases were reported in France concomitantly with the meningitis epidemic season in Sub-Saharan Africa. Considering the high number of travellers between France and West-African countries belonging to the so-called meningitis belt, the French recommendations for travellers stress the importance of vaccination before travelling to these countries. PMID:22687826

Parent du Chatelet, I; Barboza, P; Taha, M K

2012-05-24

128

A multilevel approach to explain child mortality and undernutrition in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa  

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While undernutrition among children is very pervasive both in Sub- Saharan Africa and South Asia, child mortality is rather low in South Asia. In contrast to that Sub-Saharan African countries su er by far the worst from high rates of child mortality. This di erent pattern of child mortality and undernutrition in both regions is well known, but approaches using aggregated macro data have not been able to explain it appropriately. In this paper we analyze the determinants of child mortality as...

2006-01-01

129

Financing renewable energy in developing countries. Drivers and barriers for private finance in sub-Saharan Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focus of this report is to identify and portray current barriers to the scaling up of private investment and finance for electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the sub-Saharan region. Best practice in tackling these barriers is identified, partly from a literature review but especially from the results of a survey conducted among 36 financial institutions that are UNEP Finance Initiative members and two non-member banks (all survey respondents have experience in the field of energy infrastructure finance). Promising avenues in the areas of local policy reform, incentive mechanisms and international de-risking instruments are highlighted. In particular, this report addresses the following questions: (a) Why are sub-Saharan Africa and developing countries elsewhere failing to expand electricity generation from renewable sources? What are the barriers to such expansion? What is keeping the risk-return profile of renewable energy investments in sub-Saharan Africa unattractive and projects commercially unviable?; (b) What have been the experiences of private sector lenders and investors in the area of renewable energy projects in developing countries? What barriers and drivers have they encountered, and how can these experiences be of use in sub-Saharan Africa?; (c) What can be learned from the modest but encouraging successes of a few sub-Saharan African countries? Can these results be replicated? What was done in these countries to improve the risk-return profile of renewable energy and unlock private finance?.

NONE

2012-02-15

130

The Impacts of Technology Adoption on Smallholder Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review  

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Full Text Available This paper is a review article on the impacts of technology adoption on agricultural productivity in smallholder agriculture in the sub-Saharan African region. The use of agricultural technologies determines how the increase in agricultural output impacts on poverty levels and environmental degradation. Experience and evidence from countries within and around the sub-Saharan African region indicate that returns to agricultural technology development could be very high and far reaching. The factors affecting technology adoption are assets, income, institutions, vulnerability, awareness, labour, and innovativeness by smallholder farmers. Technologies that require few assets, have a lower risk premium, and are less expensive have a higher chance of being adopted by smallholder farmers. There are certain traditional smallholder agricultural technologies in sub-Saharan Africa that also have their own merits. Some of these technologies are more efficient in their use of scarce production resources than modern technologies. Modern researchers should therefore seek to understand the rationale behind traditional smallholder farmer behaviour in technology use. This will make their future technological interventions in smallholder agriculture more effective.

Washington Muzari

2012-07-01

131

Cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide internationally comparable data on the frequencies of different causes of death. METHODS: We analysed verbal autopsies obtained during 1999 -2002 from 12 demographic surveillance sites in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh to find cause-specific and age-specific mortality rates. The cause-of-death codes used by the sites were harmonized to conform to the ICD-10 system, and summarized with the classification system of the Global Burden of Disease 2000 (Version 2. FINDINGS: Causes of death in the African sites differ strongly from those in Bangladesh, where there is some evidence of a health transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, and little malaria. HIV dominates in causes of mortality in the South African sites, which contrast with those in highly malaria endemic sites elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa (even in neighbouring Mozambique. The contributions of measles and diarrhoeal diseases to mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are lower than has been previously suggested, while malaria is of relatively greater importance. CONCLUSION: The different patterns of mortality we identified may be a result of recent changes in the availability and effectiveness of health interventions against childhood cluster diseases.

Adjuik Martin

2006-01-01

132

THE IMPACT OF TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON PER CAPITA INCOME: EVIDENCE FROM SUB SAHARAN AFRICA  

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Full Text Available Trade liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa has been implemented in the context of Structural Adjustment Program since late 1980. However, the empirical evidence on per-capita income and growth is mixed. This paper uses dynamic panel data and three indicators of trade liberalization to examine the relationship between trade liberalization and real per-capita income for Sub-Saharan African countries. The study finds that trade share has positive impact on per-capita income while tariff rates are negatively associated with per-capita income. Even if these openness indicators maintained the expected sign, they have insignificant effect on percapita income. However, the liberalization dummy variable has positive and significant effect on per-capita income and the result is consistent and robust to changes in specifications and sample sizes.

Seid Yimer

2011-10-01

133

The European Union and sub-Saharan Africa : from intervention towards deterrence?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article argues that aspirations of maintaining a dominant influence over sub-Saharan security issues has spurred the French and British leadership of European Union (EU) foreign and security policy integration, just as it has informed military capability expansions by the armed forces of the main EU powers. While Europe's initial African focus was on stabilising a continent marred by state failure, civil wars and genocides, changes in the global security context, especially the shift towards multipolarity manifest in China's growing engagement, has prompted a complementary focus on deterring other powers from making military inroads into the subcontinent. Hence Europe's sub-Saharan security focus is shifting from stabilisation towards deterrence. This helps explain recent military procurements which, in spite of the extremely challenging fiscal position of most EU member states, feature large-scale investments in long-range deterrence capabilities.

Kluth, Michael Friederich

2013-01-01

134

Rickettsia africae in Hyalomma dromedarii ticks from sub-Saharan Algeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are caused by obligate, intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. In recent years, several species and subspecies of rickettsias have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. We report here the detection of Rickettsia africae, the agent responsible for African tick-bite fever, by amplification of fragments of gltA and ompA genes and multi-spacer typing from Hyalomma dromedarii ticks collected from the camel Camelus dromedarius in the Adrar and Béchar region (sub-Saharan Algeria). To date, R. africae has been associated mainly with Amblyomma spp. The role of H. dromedarii in the epidemiology of R. africae requires further investigation. PMID:23164496

Kernif, Tahar; Djerbouh, Amel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Ayach, Bouhous; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

2012-12-01

135

Sexually transmitted infections in an African migrant population in Portugal: A baseline study  

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Full Text Available Background: For geographical and recent historic reasons, Portugal is a gateway and home for immigration from sub-Saharan countries. Misconceptions related to these populations often lead to consider them as high-frequency clusters for dissemination of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Epidemiological evidence-based data is needed to elucidate these issues and baseline prevalence studies are the starting point for this.Methodology: A prospective study was conducted in 220 African migrants (171 men and 49 women, recently arrived in Portugal, at the time of their first consultation. The presence of STIs was evaluated using a clinical syndromic approach and biological confirmation for gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection, syphilis, Hepatitis B and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection.Results: Global prevalence of the targeted infections were 1.8% for gonorrhoea, 0 % for Chlamydia infection, 4.1% for Syphilis, 5.9% for HBsAg presence and 7.3% for HIV infection. Globally, 16.4% of the studied persons had at least one sexually transmitted infection.Conclusions: We concluded that prevalence rates encountered in this population is similar to that of non-migrant Portuguese populations with a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Therefore migration from sub-Saharan Africa doesn’t seem to constitute a particularly critical isolated factor for public health risk of STIs in the community.

Luis Távora-Tavira, Rosa Teodósio, Jorge Seixas, Emília Prieto, Rita Castro, Filomena Exposto, Jorge Atouguia

2007-12-01

136

Condoms in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world's highest rates of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs), yet numerous studies show that condom use is generally rare. This suggests a need for a better understanding of how condoms fit within sexual practices and relationships in SSA. This paper seeks to address this need by reviewing research published between the late 1980s and 2011 on use and factors influencing use of male condoms in SSA. What is evident from this research is that condom use involves complex social and interpersonal dynamics, with structural and cultural conditions exerting an influence through framing social cognitions and setting boundaries on autonomy that make the apparently irrational choice of eschewing condoms a rational decision. The influences of poverty; relationships with parents, peers and partners; limited, insufficient or absent information especially in rural areas and among men who have sex with men; gender and sexual norms, and the dynamics of gendered power; and beliefs and attitudes about HIV, condoms and sexuality all have been shown to work against condom use for a large proportion of Africa's people. However, promising results are shown in trends towards increased condom use among single women in numerous countries, increasing acceptance and use of condoms among some university students, successes in producing potentially sustainable condom use resulting from select interventions, and resistance to succumbing to the dominant gender-power dynamics and structural-cultural impediments that women in groups have mobilised. PMID:22348634

Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

2012-03-01

137

Mycotoxins in food systems in Sub Saharan Africa: A review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of fungi are now recognised as major cause of food intoxications in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Aflatoxins, the most important of the group have been implicated in acute aflatoxicoses, carcinogenicity, growth retardation, neonatal jaundice and immunological suppression in SSA. The hot and humid tropical climate provides ideal condition for growth of toxigenicAspergillus spp, making food contamination to be widespread in SSA, with maize and groundnuts being the most contaminated. The available data suggests that cassava products (the most important African food) are not prone to aflatoxin contamination. Recent data on ochratoxin A produced by species ofAspergillus on grains have indicated the necessity for it to be monitored in SSA. Fumonisins represent the most importantFusarium mycotoxins in SSA, and surveillance data indicate very high contamination rates of almost 100% in maize samples from West Africa. Limited information exists on the occurrence of trichothecenes, while the data currently available suggest that zearalenone contamination seems not to be a problem in SSA. The strategies under investigation to mitigate the mycotoxin problem in SSA include education of the people on the danger of consuming mouldy foods, pre and post harvest management strategies with emphasis on biological control, use of plant products to arrest fungal growth during storage, enterosorbent clay technology, and the search for traditional techniques that could reduce/detoxify mycotoxins during food processing. PMID:23605662

Bankole, S; Schollenberger, M; Drochner, W

2006-09-01

138

Progress report on the first sub-Saharan trial of newer versus older antihypertensive drugs in native black patients  

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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The epidemic surge in hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa is not matched by clinical trials of antihypertensive agents in Black patients recruited in this area of the world. We mounted the Newer versus Older Antihypertensive agents in African Hypertensive patients (NOAAH) trial to compare, in native African patients, a single-pill combination of newer drugs, not involving a diuretic, with a combination of older drugs including a diuretic. METHODS: Patients aged 30 to 69 y...

Odili, Augustine N.; Ezeala-adikaibe, Birinus; Anisiuba, Benedict C.; Kamdem, Marius M.; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou B.; Ijoma, Chinwuba K.; Kaptue, Joseph; Boombhi, Hilaire J.; Kolo, Philip M.; Shu, Elvis N.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.; Omotoso, Babatunde A.; Kingue, Samuel; Lemogoum, Daniel

2012-01-01

139

Protection of Personal Data in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Africa is by far the least developed continent in terms of protection of personal data. At present there are 11 countries out of 54 which have implemented comprehensive data privacy legislation. Nine of them namely, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gabon, Ghana, Mauritius, Senegal and Seychelles belong to sub-Saharan Africa. The other two countries, Morocco and Tunisia, belong to North Africa. Yet, there are seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa with either Bills or drafts on data pri...

2012-01-01

140

Importance of Ethnicity, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 Genotype for Efavirenz Pharmacokinetics and Treatment Outcomes: A Parallel-Group Prospective Cohort Study in Two Sub-Saharan Africa Populations  

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We evaluated the importance of ethnicity and pharmacogenetic variations in determining efavirenz pharmacokinetics, auto-induction and immunological outcomes in two African populations. ART naïve HIV patients from Ethiopia (n?=?285) and Tanzania (n?=?209) were prospectively enrolled in parallel to start efavirenz based HAART. CD4+ cell counts were determined at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Plasma and intracellular efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefvairenz concentrations were determined at we...

Ngaimisi, Eliford; Habtewold, Abiy; Minzi, Omary; Makonnen, Eyasu; Mugusi, Sabina; Amogne, Wondwossen; Yimer, Getnet; Riedel, Klaus-dieter; Janabi, Mohammed; Aderaye, Getachew; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Bertilsson, Leif; Aklillu, Eleni; Burhenne, Juergen

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-sectional surveys in four rural and urban communities  

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Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of adult mortality in low-income countries but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension are scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study aims to assess the prevalence of hypertension and determinants of blood pressure in four SSA populations in rural Nigeria and Kenya, and urban Namibia and Tanzania. Methods and Findings: We performed four cross-sectional household surveys in Kwara St...

2012-01-01

142

Age Dependence of Adenovirus-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Titers in Individuals from Sub-Saharan Africa  

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We assessed neutralizing antibody titers to adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and six rare adenovirus serotypes, serotypes 11, 35, 50, 26, 48, and 49, in pediatric populations in sub-Saharan Africa. We observed a clear age dependence of Ad5-specific neutralizing antibody titers. These data will help to guide the development of Ad vector-based vaccines for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other pathogens.

2006-01-01

143

Pharmacogenomics of warfarin in populations of African descent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant worldwide despite its narrow therapeutic index and the notorious inter- and intra-individual variability in dose required for the target clinical effect. Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms are major determinants of warfarin pharmacokinetic and dynamics and included in several warfarin dosing algorithms. This review focuses on warfarin pharmacogenomics in sub-Saharan peoples, African Americans and admixed Brazilians. These 'Black' populations differ in several aspects, notably their extent of recent admixture with Europeans, a factor which impacts on the frequency distribution of pharmacogenomic polymorphisms relevant to warfarin dose requirement for the target clinical effect. Whereas a small number of polymorphisms in VKORC1 (3673G > A, rs9923231), CYP2C9 (alleles *2 and *3, rs1799853 and rs1057910, respectively) and arguably CYP4F2 (rs2108622), may capture most of the pharmacogenomic influence on warfarin dose variance in White populations, additional polymorphisms in these, and in other, genes (e.g. CALU rs339097) increase the predictive power of pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms in the Black populations examined. A personalized strategy for initiation of warfarin therapy, allowing for improved safety and cost-effectiveness for populations of African descent must take into account their pharmacogenomic diversity, as well as socio-economical, cultural and medical factors. Accounting for this heterogeneity in algorithms that are 'friendly' enough to be adopted by warfarin prescribers worldwide requires gathering information from trials at different population levels, but demands also a critical appraisal of racial/ethnic labels that are commonly used in the clinical pharmacology literature but do not accurately reflect genetic ancestry and population diversity. PMID:22676711

Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Botton, Mariana R

2013-02-01

144

Similar Levels of X-linked and Autosomal Nucleotide Variation in African and non-African populations of Drosophila melanogaster  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of molecular diversity in Drosophila have repeatedly been shown to be higher in ancestral, African populations than in derived, non-African populations. This pattern holds for both coding and noncoding regions for a variety of molecular markers including single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites. Comparisons of X-linked and autosomal diversity have yielded results largely dependent on population of origin. Results In an attempt to further elucidate patterns of sequence diversity in Drosophila melanogaster, we studied nucleotide variation at putatively nonfunctional X-linked and autosomal loci in sub-Saharan African and North American strains of D. melanogaster. We combine our experimental results with data from previous studies of molecular polymorphism in this species. We confirm that levels of diversity are consistently higher in African versus North American strains. The relative reduction of diversity for X-linked and autosomal loci in the derived, North American strains depends heavily on the studied loci. While the compiled dataset, comprised primarily of regions within or in close proximity to genes, shows a much more severe reduction of diversity on the X chromosome compared to autosomes in derived strains, the dataset consisting of intergenic loci located far from genes shows very similar reductions of diversities for X-linked and autosomal loci in derived strains. In addition, levels of diversity at X-linked and autosomal loci in the presumably ancestral African population are more similar than expected under an assumption of neutrality and equal numbers of breeding males and females. Conclusion We show that simple demographic scenarios under assumptions of neutral theory cannot explain all of the observed patterns of molecular diversity. We suggest that the simplest model is a population bottleneck that retains an ancestral female-biased sex ratio, coupled with higher rates of positive selection at X-linked loci in close proximity to genes specifically in derived, non-African populations.

Jensen Jeffrey D

2007-10-01

145

DNA 'barcoding' of Schistosoma mansoni across sub-Saharan Africa supports substantial within locality diversity and geographical separation of genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosoma mansoni is a widespread human helminth and causes intestinal schistosomiasis in 54 countries, mainly across Africa but also in Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula and the neotropics. The geographical range of this parasite relies on the distribution of certain species of freshwater pulmonate snails of the genus Biomphalaria. Whilst S. mansoni is known to exhibit high population diversity the true extent of this diversity is still to be fully elucidated as sampling of this taxon progressively accrues. Here a DNA 'barcoding' approach is taken using sequence analysis of a 450bp region within the mitochondrial cox1 gene to assess the genetic diversity within a large number of S. mansoni larval stages collected from their natural human hosts across sub-Saharan Africa. Five hundred and sixty one individual parasite samples were examined from 22 localities and 14 countries. Considerable within-species diversity was found with 120 unique haplotypes splitting geographically into five discrete lineages. The highest diversity was found in East Africa with samples forming three of the five lineages. Less diversity was found in the Far and Central Western regions of Africa with haplotypes from the New World showing a close affinity to the Far Western African S. mansoni populations supporting the hypothesis of a colonisation of South America via the West African slave trade. The data are discussed in relation to parasite diversity and disease epidemiology. PMID:22935316

Webster, Bonnie L; Webster, Joanne P; Gouvras, Anouk N; Garba, Amadou; Lamine, Mariama S; Diaw, Oumar T; Seye, Mohmoudane M; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Simoonga, Christopher; Mubila, Likezo; Mwanga, Joseph R; Lwambo, Nicholas J S; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Lange, Charles N; Kariuki, Curtis; Mkoji, Gerald M; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J Russell

2013-11-01

146

Plio-Pleistocene history and phylogeography of Acacia senegal in dry woodlands and savannahs of sub-Saharan tropical Africa: evidence of early colonisation and recent range expansion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drylands are extensive across sub-Saharan Africa, socio-economically and ecologically important yet highly sensitive to environmental changes. Evolutionary history, as revealed by contemporary intraspecific genetic variation, can provide valuable insight into how species have responded to past environmental and population changes and guide strategies to promote resilience to future changes. The gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal) is an arid-adapted, morphologically diverse species native to the sub-Saharan drylands. We used variation in nuclear sequences (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) and two types of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers (PCR-RFLP, cpSSR) to study the phylogeography of the species with 293 individuals from 66 populations sampled across its natural range. cpDNA data showed high regional and rangewide haplotypic diversity (h(T(cpSSR))=0.903-0.948) and population differentiation (G(ST(RFLP))=0.700-0.782) with a phylogeographic pattern that indicated extensive historical gene flow via seed dispersal. Haplotypes were not restricted to any of the four varieties, but showed significant geographic structure (G(ST(cpSSR))=0.392; R(ST)=0.673; R(ST)>R(ST) (permuted)), with the major division separating East and Southern Africa populations from those in West and Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data indicated a more recent origin for the clade including West and Central African haplotypes, suggesting range expansion in this region, possibly during the Holocene humid period. In conjunction with paleobotanical evidence, our data suggest dispersal to West Africa, and across to the Arabian Peninsula and Indian subcontinent, from source populations located in the East African region during climate oscillations of the Plio-Pleistocene. PMID:22929152

Odee, D W; Telford, A; Wilson, J; Gaye, A; Cavers, S

2012-12-01

147

Cardiovascular autonomic function tests in an African population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is becoming increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa. Autonomic dysfunction contributes to morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Data on autonomic dysfunction in the African population is scarce, and no reference values for standardized autonomic function tests are available. The aim of this study was to establish cut off values for five easy-to-use cardiovascular autonomic function tests that may be suitable for resource-poor settings. Methods We recruited 276 healthy African individuals, 156 men and 120 women, aged > 20 years. Participants were tested for (1 resting heart rate (HR, (2 HR variation in response to deep breathing, (3 HR response to standing, and (4 postural changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP. Respective cut-off values were calculated according to the 95th or 5th percentile. Results Taking an association of the autonomic test results with gender and age into consideration, we defined the following cut-off values: resting HR (bpm ? 89 for men and ? 97 for women; HR (bpm in response to deep breathing ? 13, ? 11, ? 9, ? 8, and ? 7 for age groups 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and 60+ years, respectively; HR (bpm in response to standing ? 14 for 20–29 years, and ? 11 for 30+ years; postural decreases in SBP ? 17 mmHg for all age groups; and postural decreases in DBP (mmHg ? 2 for men and ? 5 for women. Conclusion The test battery revealed cut-off values different from those measured in Caucasians. Further studies are recommended a to assess whether these cut off values are generally applicable, and b to establish population specific reference values for Africans.

Schmutzhard Erich

2008-12-01

148

Energy access scenarios to 2030 for the power sector in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to reach a goal of universal access to modern energy services in Africa by 2030, consideration of various electricity sector pathways is required to help inform policy-makers and investors, and help guide power system design. To that end, and building on existing tools and analysis, we present several high-level, transparent, and economy-wide scenarios for the sub-Saharan African power sector to 2030. We construct these simple scenarios against the backdrop of historical trends and v...

2011-01-01

149

International migration and the propagation of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we identify and quantify the role of international migration in the propagation of HIV across sub-Saharan African countries. We use panel data on bilateral migration flows and HIV prevalence rates covering 44 countries after 1990. Controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, reverse causality, reflection issues, incorrect treatment of country fixed effects and spatial autocorrelation, we find evidence of a highly robust emigration-induced propagation mechanism. On the contrary, immigration has no significant effect. Numerical experiments reveal that the long-run effect of emigration accounts for more than 4 percent of the number of HIV cases in 15 countries (and more than 20 percent in 6 countries). PMID:24647086

Docquier, F; Vasilakis, Ch; Tamfutu Munsi, D

2014-05-01

150

Estimates of gender differences in firmâ??s access to credit in Sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on firm level data from 16 Sub-Saharan African countries we show how three different measures of credit constraints lead to three different estimates of gender differences in manufacturing firmsâ?? credit situation. Using a perception based credit constraint measure female owned firms appear relatively more constrained than male owned firms. Using formal financial access data we find no gender effect. Finally, using direct information on credit constraints, male owned small firms appear disadvantaged. Furthermore we show a strong size gradient in the gender gap for the two measures for which we find significant gender differences.

Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John

2014-01-01

151

Food Aid and the African Food Crisis. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 221.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine of 11 low and medium income Sub-Saharan African countires studied may face even greater problems feeding their populations if recent trends continue. These countries rely on food imports and, increasingly, on food aid to meet minimum nutritional requirements for their populations. Food production is hampered by droughts which hit about every…

Shapouri, Shahla; And Others

152

A Dragon and a Dove? A Comparative Overview of Chinese and European Trade Relations with Sub-Saharan Africa  

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As China's footprint in African trade grows larger by the day, the need to contextualize this rise through comparative analysis becomes ever more necessary. This paper contrasts the sub-Saharan trade relations of both China and Europe with their respective designated stereotypes: those of a dragon and a dove. The article compares the trade dynamics on four levels: the policies and institutional mechanisms that shape the relationship; the composition of the trade flows; the geographic distribu...

Bert Jacobs

2011-01-01

153

First do no harm: the impact of recent armed conflict on maternal and child health in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives To compare the rates of under-5 mortality, malnutrition, maternal mortality and other factors which influence health in countries with and without recent conflict. To compare central government expenditure on defence, education and health in countries with and without recent conflict. To summarize the amount spent on SALW and the main legal suppliers to countries in Sub-Saharan African countries (SSA), and to summarize licensed production of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) in t...

2007-01-01

154

From Theory to Practice: Exploring the Organised Crime-Terror Nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  A growing body of scholarly literature suggests confluence or even convergence of organized crime and terrorism in various parts of the world. However, links remain somewhat nebulous at this stage and vary considerably, based on region and context. Africa has come under the spotlight due to perceived weaknesses in the criminal justice sector, limited law enforcement capacity, political and systemic corruption, poor border patrol and weak anti-terror and organized crime laws which are believed to provide an ideal environment for the terror-crime nexus to flourish. This article provides an African perspective on the links between organized crime and terror networks in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a particular focus on Southern Africa. The discussion begins with an overview of the theoretical discourse on the subject – relying on African definitions of the contested concepts of ‘terrorism’ and ‘organized crime’ – and will then narrow the analysis on the sub-Saharan case. It relies on an extensive literature review and concludes with empirical findings of a research project on organized crime in Southern Africa, which found no strong empirical links between criminal and terrorist organizations.

Annette Hübschle

2011-09-01

155

Water reform in Sub-Saharan Africa: what is the difference?  

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Since the early 1990s African governments took an active part in the global movement of water reform towards Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). The first step consisted primarily of assimilating the generic principles of IWRM. At this generic level, water reform in Sub-Saharan Africa seems quite similar to water reform elsewhere in the developed and developing world. However, in taking the second step of operationalizing generic principles into concrete actions on the ground, at least three salient differences between Sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere emerged: (a) Africa’s relative abundance of water resources but its scarcity of economic means to harness available water resources; (b) the importance of agriculture and agricultural water development for economic growth and poverty eradication; and (c) the need for systems of water rights and financial resource mobilization that are separated and suit the African reality in which large water users are relatively few, while the bulk of water users are scattered smallholders. This paper discusses the early operationalization with regard to these three unique features and identifies lessons learnt.

Van Koppen, Barbara

156

Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999-2011: Epidemiology and public health implications. a systematic review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes prevalence is increasing globally, and Sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. With diverse health challenges, health authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa and international donors need robust data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in order to plan and prioritise their health programmes. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the epidemiological trends and public health implications of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of papers published on diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa 1999-March 2011, providing data on diabetes prevalence, outcomes (chronic complications, infections, and mortality, access to diagnosis and care and economic impact. Results Type 2 diabetes accounts for well over 90% of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa, and population prevalence proportions ranged from 1% in rural Uganda to 12% in urban Kenya. Reported type 1 diabetes prevalence was low and ranged from 4 per 100,000 in Mozambique to 12 per 100,000 in Zambia. Gestational diabetes prevalence varied from 0% in Tanzania to 9% in Ethiopia. Proportions of patients with diabetic complications ranged from 7-63% for retinopathy, 27-66% for neuropathy, and 10-83% for microalbuminuria. Diabetes is likely to increase the risk of several important infections in the region, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and sepsis. Meanwhile, antiviral treatment for HIV increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. Five-year mortality proportions of patients with diabetes varied from 4-57%. Screening studies identified high proportions (> 40% with previously undiagnosed diabetes, and low levels of adequate glucose control among previously diagnosed diabetics. Barriers to accessing diagnosis and treatment included a lack of diagnostic tools and glucose monitoring equipment and high cost of diabetes treatment. The total annual cost of diabetes in the region was estimated at US$67.03 billion, or US$8836 per diabetic patient. Conclusion Diabetes exerts a significant burden in the region, and this is expected to increase. Many diabetic patients face significant challenges accessing diagnosis and treatment, which contributes to the high mortality and prevalence of complications observed. The significant interactions between diabetes and important infectious diseases highlight the need and opportunity for health planners to develop integrated responses to communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Henriksen Ole

2011-07-01

157

Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa 1999-2011: Epidemiology and Public Health Implications. A systematic review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Diabetes prevalence is increasing globally, and Sub-Saharan Africa is no exception. With diverse health challenges, health authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa and international donors need robust data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in order to plan and prioritise their health programmes. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the epidemiological trends and public health implications of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review of papers published on diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa 1999-March 2011, providing data on diabetes prevalence, outcomes (chronic complications, infections, and mortality), access to diagnosis and care and economic impact. RESULTS: Type 2 diabetes accounts for well over 90% of diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa, and population prevalence proportions ranged from 1% in rural Uganda to 12% in urban Kenya. Reported type 1 diabetes prevalence was low and ranged from 4 per 100,000 in Mozambique to 12 per 100,000 in Zambia. Gestational diabetes prevalence varied from 0% in Tanzania to 9% in Ethiopia. Proportions of patients with diabetic complications ranged from 7-63% for retinopathy, 27-66% for neuropathy, and 10-83% for microalbuminuria. Diabetes is likely to increase the risk of several important infections in the region, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and sepsis. Meanwhile, antiviral treatment for HIV increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance. Five-year mortality proportions of patients with diabetes varied from 4-57%. Screening studies identified high proportions (>40%) with previously undiagnosed diabetes, and low levels of adequate glucose control among previously diagnosed diabetics. Barriers to accessing diagnosis and treatment included a lack of diagnostic tools and glucose monitoring equipment and high cost of diabetes treatment. The total annual cost of diabetes in the region was estimated at US$67.03 billion, or US$8836 per diabetic patient. CONCLUSION: Diabetes exerts a significant burden in the region, and this is expected to increase. Many diabetic patients face significant challenges accessing diagnosis and treatment, which contributes to the high mortality and prevalence of complications observed. The significant interactions between diabetes and important infectious diseases highlight the need and opportunity for health planners to develop integrated responses to communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Hall, Victoria; Thomsen, Reimar W

2011-01-01

158

Improvement of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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In the coming decades, cancer will be a major clinical and public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. However, clinical and public health infrastructure and services in many countries are not positioned to deal with the growing cancer burden. Pathology is a core service required to serve many needs related to cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. Cancer diagnosis, treatment, and research all depend on adequate pathology. Pathology is also necessary for cancer registration, which is needed to accurately estimate cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer registry data directly guide policy-makers' decisions for cancer control and the allocation of clinical and public health services. Despite the centrality of pathology in many components of cancer care and control, countries in sub-Saharan Africa have at best a tenth of the pathology coverage of that in high-income countries. Equipment, processes, and services are lacking, and there is a need for quality assurance for the definition and implementation of high-quality, accurate diagnosis. Training and advocacy for pathology are also needed. We propose approaches to improve the status of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa to address the needs of patients with cancer and other diseases. PMID:23561746

Adesina, Adekunle; Chumba, David; Nelson, Ann M; Orem, Jackson; Roberts, Drucilla J; Wabinga, Henry; Wilson, Michael; Rebbeck, Timothy R

2013-04-01

159

Progress report on the first sub-Saharan Africa trial of newer versus older antihypertensive drugs in native black patients  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic surge in hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa is not matched by clinical trials of antihypertensive agents in Black patients recruited in this area of the world. We mounted the Newer versus Older Antihypertensive agents in African Hypertensive patients (NOAAH trial to compare, in native African patients, a single-pill combination of newer drugs, not involving a diuretic, with a combination of older drugs including a diuretic. Methods Patients aged 30 to 69?years with uncomplicated hypertension (140 to 179/90 to 109?mmHg and ?2 associated risk factors are eligible. After a four week run-in period off treatment, 180 patients have to be randomized to once daily bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide 5/6.25?mg (R or amlodipine/valsartan 5/160?mg (E. To attain blood pressure Results At the time of writing of this progress report, of 206 patients enrolled in the run-in period, 140 had been randomized. At randomization, the R and E groups were similar (P???0.11 with respect to mean age (50.7?years, body mass index (28.2?kg/m2, blood pressure (153.9/91.5?mmHg and the proportions of women (53.6% and treatment naïve patients (72.7%. After randomization, in the R and E groups combined, blood pressure dropped by 18.2/10.1?mmHg, 19.4/11.2?mmHg, 22.4/12.2?mmHg and 25.8/15.2?mmHg at weeks two (n?=?122, four (n?=?109, eight (n?=?57, and 12 (n?=?49, respectively. The control rate was >65% already at two weeks. At 12?weeks, 12 patients (24.5% had progressed to the higher dose of R or E and/or had ?-methyldopa added. Cohort analyses of 49 patients up to 12?weeks were confirmatory. Only two patients dropped out of the study. Conclusions NOAAH (NCT01030458 demonstrated that blood pressure control can be achieved fast in Black patients born and living in Africa with a simple regimen consisting of a single-pill combination of two antihypertensive agents. NOAAH proves that randomized clinical trials of cardiovascular drugs in the indigenous populations of sub-Saharan Africa are feasible.

Odili Augustine N

2012-05-01

160

Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA methodology aims to provide a cost-effective tool to conduct rapid assessments of the malaria situation in urban sub-Saharan Africa and to improve the understanding of urban malaria epidemiology. Methods This work was done in Yopougon municipality (Abidjan, Cotonou, Dar es Salaam and Ouagadougou. The study design consists of six components: 1 a literature review, 2 the collection of available health statistics, 3 a risk mapping, 4 school parasitaemia surveys, 5 health facility-based surveys and 6 a brief description of the health care system. These formed the basis of a multi-country evaluation of RUMA's feasibility, consistency and usefulness. Results A substantial amount of literature (including unpublished theses and statistics was found at each site, providing a good overview of the malaria situation. School and health facility-based surveys provided an overview of local endemicity and the overall malaria burden in different city areas. This helped to identify important problems for in-depth assessment, especially the extent to which malaria is over-diagnosed in health facilities. Mapping health facilities and breeding sites allowed the visualization of the complex interplay between population characteristics, health services and malaria risk. However, the latter task was very time-consuming and required special expertise. RUMA is inexpensive, costing around 8,500–13,000 USD for a six to ten-week period. Conclusion RUMA was successfully implemented in four urban areas with different endemicity and proved to be a cost-effective first approach to study the features of urban malaria and provide an evidence basis for planning control measures.

Akogbeto Martin

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Combating sexual violence in schools in sub-Saharan Africa: Legal strategies under regional and international human rights law  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Although schools are generally regarded as a 'safe haven' for children, the reality for many girls is that schools can be a place of sexual discrimination, harassment and violence, perpetrated by fellow male students and teachers alike. The widespread problem of sexual and gender-based violence, par [...] ticularly sexual violence, in schools has been well-documented in a range of studies and reports in sub-Saharan Africa. Sexual and gender-based violence in schools not only violates girls' fundamental rights to dignity and equality, and their rights to be free from violence, but it also undermines their rights to education, particularly when, as is often the case, states fail to take measures to protect girls. Although there is a growing body of empirical research documenting the nature and extent of this problem, particularly in various sub-Saharan African countries, how regional and international human rights law applies to protect girls in this situation appears to have received limited consideration. This article attempts to fill this gap in the literature, by providing an analysis of the problem of sexual and gender-based violence in schools within the framework of regional and international human rights law. The article's objective is to identify and discuss rights-based legal strategies to combat this pervasive human rights violation, specifically within the sub-Saharan African context, with an emphasis on regional developments and regional responses.

Christina, Beninger.

162

End of life care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the qualitative literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background End of life (EoL care in sub-Saharan Africa still lacks the sound evidence-base needed for the development of effective, appropriate service provision. It is essential to make evidence from all types of research available alongside clinical and health service data, to ensure that EoL care is ethical and culturally appropriate. This article aims to synthesize qualitative research on EoL care in sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy, practice and further research. It seeks to identify areas of existing research; describe findings specifically relevant to the African context; and, identify areas lacking evidence. Methods Relevant literature was identified through eight electronic databases: AMED, British Nursing Index & Archive, CINAHL, EMBASE, IBSS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Social Sciences Citation Index; and hand searches. Inclusion criteria were: published qualitative or mixed-method studies in sub-Saharan Africa, about EoL care. Study quality was assessed using a standard grading scale. Relevant data including findings and practice recommendations were extracted and compared in tabular format. Results Of the 407 articles initially identified, 51 were included in the qualitative synthesis. Nineteen came from South Africa and the majority (38 focused on HIV/AIDS. Nine dealt with multiple or unspecified conditions and four were about cancer. Study respondents included health professionals, informal carers, patients, community members and bereaved relatives. Informal carers were typically women, the elderly and children, providing total care in the home, and lacking support from professionals or the extended family. Twenty studies focused on home-based care, describing how programmes function in practice and what is needed to make them effective. Patients and carers were reported to prefer institutional care but this needs to be understood in context. Studies focusing on culture discussed good and bad death, culture-specific approaches to symptoms and illness, and the bereavement process. Conclusions The data support or complement the findings from quantitative research. The review prompts a reconsideration of the assumption that in Africa the extended family care for the sick, and that people prefer home-based care. The review identifies areas relevant for a research agenda on socio-cultural issues at the EoL in sub-Saharan Africa.

Pool Robert

2011-03-01

163

Is screen-and-treat approach suited for screening and management of precancerous cervical lesions in Sub-Saharan Africa?  

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The World Health Organization guidelines for screening and management of cervical precancerous lesions updated in 2013 made an emphasis on the use of the 'screen-and-treat' approach for cervical cancer prevention. In order to facilitate scaling-up in low income settings, most of these screen-and-treat strategies do not involve confirmatory biopsy. This yields a certain rate of overtreatment. In other words, a majority of people undergoing screen-and-treat intervention who are treated does not necessarily benefit from the treatment. Therefore, the issue of potential short term and long term complications of the recommended treatment procedures (cryotherapy and Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure) arises. This question has seldom been studied in resource poor countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is rampant in an epidemic fashion and where the procreative capacities are socially rewarding for women. We draw the attention of the scientific community and policy makers to the fact that the lack of evidence supporting the safety of these treatment procedures in African populations may have an impact on the acceptability of these strategies and therefore on the effectiveness of screening programs. PMID:24879892

Fokom-Domgue, Joël; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick

2014-08-01

164

Stock Markets Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Business Regulations, Governance and Fiscal Policy  

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Full Text Available This study examines the effectiveness of the state in stimulating stock market activity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA using fiscal policy, governance quality and stock market as the main determinant variables. Using annual data from six selected sub-Saharan African economies and employing a dynamic panel data estimating technique, we find that government effectiveness stimulates capitalization while business regulations decrease it in SSA. In addition, we find that final consumption expenditure, interest rate spread and credit to the state increase capitalization whereas credit to the private sector and inflation had adverse effects. With respect to business regulations, our study reveals that starting a business, closing it and enforcing contracts engender stock market activity in SSA. Among the several variables that stimulate stock market activity; only foreign direct investment (FDI did increase capitalization. Thus, the study concludes that since not all government institutions and business regulations are critical to stock market development, various governments should be careful and selective in their economic stimulants if they want to develop their stock markets. 

Kofi B. Afful

2013-12-01

165

Divided We Fall: Rethinking Biodiversity Planning in the Context of Development in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available The signatory countries of the Convention on Biological Diversity set the objective of halting the decline of biodiversity by 2010, but as the target date arrived and passed, the status of biodiversity on the planet remained dismal. With the dawn of the UN Decade for Biodiversity at the Rio+20 Earth Summit in June 2012 and as the UN Biodiversity Strategic Plan moves forward, this article contextualizes biodiversity prospects in sub-Saharan Africa by examining the history of interactions between African communities and the environment, from the pre-colonial period to today. It provides a critical analysis of the current biodiversity conservation planning methodologies and pinpoints several inherent obstacles, including the neo-Malthusianism that dominates the thinking of certain wildlife experts. Setting out an argument with far-reaching implications for the success of future conservation efforts all over the world, the author examines the basis of emerging conservation approaches in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on the need to forge a more inclusive conservation practice and open up to the perceptions, representations and cultural universe of the Other.

Robert Kasisi

2012-08-01

166

Projected climate change impacts and short term predictions on staple crops in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) drives the economy of many African countries and it is mainly rain-fed agriculture used for subsistence. Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns and more frequent droughts may lead to a substantial decrease of crop yields. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture are expected to be significant and extensive in the SSA due to the shortening of the growing seasons and the increasing of water-stress risk. Differences in Agro-Ecological Zones and geographical characteristics of SSA influence the diverse impacts of climate change, which can greatly differ across the continent and within countries. The vulnerability of African Countries to climate change is aggravated by the low adaptive capacity of the continent, due to the increasing of its population, the widespread poverty, and other social factors. In this contest, the assessment of climate change impact on agricultural sector has a particular interest to stakeholder and policy makers, in order to identify specific agricultural sectors and Agro-Ecological Zones that could be more vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and to develop the most appropriate policies to cope with these threats. For these reasons, the evaluation of climate change impacts for key crops in SSA was made exploring climate uncertainty and focusing on short period monitoring, which is particularly useful for food security and risk management analysis. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT-CSM are tools that allow to simulate physiological process of crop growth, development and production, by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were used, after a parameterization phase, to evaluate climate change impacts on crop phenology and production. Multiple combinations of soils and climate conditions, crop management and varieties were considered for the different Agro-Ecological Zones. The climate impact was assessed using future climate prediction, statistically and/or dynamically downscaled, for specific areas. Direct and indirect effects of different CO2 concentrations projected for the future periods were separately explored to estimate their effects on crops. Several adaptation strategies (e.g., introduction of full irrigation, shift of the ordinary sowing/planting date, changes in the ordinary fertilization management) were also evaluated with the aim to reduce the negative impact of climate change on crop production. The results of the study, analyzed at local, AEZ and country level, will be discussed.

Mereu, V.; Spano, D.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.

2013-12-01

167

Influence of intragenic CCL3 haplotypes and CCL3L copy number in HIV-1 infection in a sub-Saharan African population  

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Two CCL3 haplotypes (HapA1 and Hap-A3) and two polymorphic positions shared by the haplotypes (Hap-2SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism)) were investigated together with CCL3L copy number (CN), for their role in HIV-1 disease. Hap-A1 was associated with protection from in utero HIV-1 infection: exposed uninfected (EU) infants had higher representation of wild type (WT)/Hap-A1 than infected infants (excluding intrapartum (IP)-infected infants), which maintained significance post maternal Nevir...

Paximadis, Maria; Schramm, Diana B.; Gray, Glenda E.; Sherman, Gayle; Coovadia, Ashraf; Kuhn, Louise; Tiemessen, Caroline T.

2013-01-01

168

IPPs in Sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants of success  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study analyses the outcomes of independent power projects (IPPs) across Sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately 20 such projects have taken root to date, concentrated mainly in 8 countries. A suite of country level and project level factors play a critical role in determining project success, chief among them: the manner in which planning, procurement and contracting are coherently linked, the role of development finance institutions along with the development origins of firms and credit enhancements. - Highlights: ? We analyse the outcomes of independent power projects (IPPs) across Sub-Saharan Africa. ? Approximately 20 IPPs have taken root to date, concentrated mainly in 8 countries. ? A suite of country level and project level factors play a critical role in determining project success. ? Key success factors are the coherence of planning, procurement and contracting. ? Also important is the role of DFIs, the development origins of firms, and credit enhancements.

2011-09-01

169

Checklist of the mosses of sub-Saharan Africa  

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2939 moss taxa are listed for sub-Saharan Africa and adjacent islands, with distribution by country. Each distribution record is supported by a literature reference. The following new combinations are made: Calyptrochaeta cristata (Hedw.) O’Shea, Groutiella elimbata (Thér) O’Shea, Meiothecium undulatum (Ren. & Card.) O’Shea, Orthodontium ruwenzorensis (Thér. & Nav.) O’Shea, Pohlia lacouturei (Thér.) O’Shea, Sematophyllum corticolum (Aongstr.) O’Shea, Sematophyllum dixonii (Thé...

O’shea, Brian

1995-01-01

170

Determinants of Commercial Bank Profitability in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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The central theme of this study was to investigate the determinants of commercial bank profitability in Sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis used an unbalanced panel of 216 commercial banks drawn from 42 countries in SSA for the period 1999 to 2006. Using the cost efficiency model, bank profitability was estimated using panel random effects method in static framework. The explanatory variables are growth in bank asset...

Munyambonera Ezra Francis

2013-01-01

171

Sub-Saharan Africa and Global Capital Markets  

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Recent years have seen a considerable shift in economic conditions in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic growth has been robust, international reserves are on the rise and levels of external debt are falling. Combined with the global boom in commodity prices, as well as expansion of Chinese interests in the region, international investors are increasingly viewing Africa as a serious investment option. As a result of these trends, the landscape in which foreign donors have operated is changing rapid...

Jones, Sam

2007-01-01

172

Treatment of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer is rapidly becoming a public health crisis in low-income and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, patients often present with advanced disease. Little health-care infrastructure exists, and few personnel are available for the care of patients. Surgeons are often central to cancer care in the region, since they can be the only physician a patient sees for diagnosis, treatment (including chemotherapy), and palliative care. Poor access to surgical care is a major impediment to cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa. Additional obstacles include the cost of oncological care, poor infrastructure, and the scarcity of medical oncologists, pathologists, radiation oncologists, and other health-care workers who are needed for cancer care. We describe treatment options for patients with cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on the role of surgery in relation to medical and radiation oncology, and argue that surgery must be included in public health efforts to improve cancer care in the region. PMID:23561747

Kingham, T Peter; Alatise, Olusegun I; Vanderpuye, Verna; Casper, Corey; Abantanga, Francis A; Kamara, Thaim B; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Habeebu, Muhammad; Abdulkareem, Fatimah B; Denny, Lynette

2013-04-01

173

Efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-centre analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Artesunate and amodiaquine (AS&AQ is at present the world's second most widely used artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. It was necessary to evaluate the efficacy of ACT, recently adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO and deployed over 80 countries, in order to make an evidence-based drug policy. Methods An individual patient data (IPD analysis was conducted on efficacy outcomes in 26 clinical studies in sub-Saharan Africa using the WHO protocol with similar primary and secondary endpoints. Results A total of 11,700 patients (75% under 5 years old, from 33 different sites in 16 countries were followed for 28 days. Loss to follow-up was 4.9% (575/11,700. AS&AQ was given to 5,897 patients. Of these, 82% (4,826/5,897 were included in randomized comparative trials with polymerase chain reaction (PCR genotyping results and compared to 5,413 patients (half receiving an ACT. AS&AQ and other ACT comparators resulted in rapid clearance of fever and parasitaemia, superior to non-ACT. Using survival analysis on a modified intent-to-treat population, the Day 28 PCR-adjusted efficacy of AS&AQ was greater than 90% (the WHO cut-off in 11/16 countries. In randomized comparative trials (n = 22, the crude efficacy of AS&AQ was 75.9% (95% CI 74.6–77.1 and the PCR-adjusted efficacy was 93.9% (95% CI 93.2–94.5. The risk (weighted by site of failure PCR-adjusted of AS&AQ was significantly inferior to non-ACT, superior to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP, in one Ugandan site, and not different from AS+SP or AL (artemether-lumefantrine. The risk of gametocyte appearance and the carriage rate of AS&AQ was only greater in one Ugandan site compared to AL and DP, and lower compared to non-ACT (p = 0.001, for all comparisons. Anaemia recovery was not different than comparator groups, except in one site in Rwanda where the patients in the DP group had a slower recovery. Conclusion AS&AQ compares well to other treatments and meets the WHO efficacy criteria for use against falciparum malaria in many, but not all, the sub-Saharan African countries where it was studied. Efficacy varies between and within countries. An IPD analysis can inform general and local treatment policies. Ongoing monitoring evaluation is required.

Same-Ekobo Albert

2009-08-01

174

The impact of HIV-1 on the malaria parasite biomass in adults in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to the emergence of antimalarial drug resistance  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-related immune-suppression increases the risk of malaria (infection, disease and treatment failure and probably the circulating parasite biomass, favoring the emergence of drug resistance parasites. Methods The additional malaria parasite biomass related to HIV-1 co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa was estimated by a mathematical model. Parasite biomass was computed as the incidence rate of clinical malaria episodes multiplied by the number of parasites circulating in the peripheral blood of patients at the time symptoms appear. A mathematical model estimated the influence of HIV-1 infection on parasite density in clinical malaria by country and by age group, malaria transmission intensity and urban/rural area. In a multivariate sensitivity analysis, 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation. Results The model shows that in 2005 HIV-1 increased the overall malaria parasite biomass by 18.0% (95%CI: 11.6–26.9. The largest relative increase (134.9–243.9% was found in southern Africa where HIV-1 prevalence is the highest and malaria transmission unstable. The largest absolute increase was found in Zambia, Malawi, the Central African Republic and Mozambique, where both malaria and HIV are highly endemic. A univariate sensitivity analysis shows that estimates are sensitive to the magnitude of the impact of HIV-1 infection on the malaria incidence rates and associated parasite densities. Conclusion The HIV-1 epidemic by increasing the malaria parasite biomass in sub-Saharan Africa may also increase the emergence of antimalarial drug resistance, potentially affecting the health of the whole population in countries endemic for both HIV-1 and malaria.

Korenromp Eline

2008-07-01

175

Do International Remittances Promote Human Development in Poor Countries? Empirical Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available This study examines the macroeconomic impact of inward international remittances on human-centered development in 15 Sub-Saharan African countries. Following the fixed-effects balanced panel data estimation procedure for the period, 1987 to 2007, the empirical results reveal that, indeed, international remittance inflows impact positively on human development in the long run. As per the empirical findings, the study concludes that, given the irreversible high propensity to travel abroad among the productively active citizens of the sub-region in a bid to earn a decent wage, the relevant institutions and policymakers within the sub-region should devise appropriate strategies and policy framework to attract higher remittances from abroad. The empirical model and methodology used in this study are relevant and, hence, can be applied in related fields of study.

Deodat Emilson Adenutsi

2010-01-01

176

Irrigation with saline water using low-cost drip-irrigation systems in sub-Saharan Africa  

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In the scope of future population support, agricultural productivity, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa, has to increase drastically to meet the UN’s millennium development goals of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Water availability in the root-zone limits crop production in large parts of the developing world. As competition for fresh water increases, water of lower quality, for example saline or polluted water, is often used for irrigation. Low-cost drip systems are suit...

Karlberg, Louise

2005-01-01

177

Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa : policy and trade issues  

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Full Text Available The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated ; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs, extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1 implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2 amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE] so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for southern African countries and enable conservation and livestock production to be more effectively integrated, to the benefit of both.

G.R. Thomson

2010-09-01

178

Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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Although considerable achievements in the global reduction of hunger and poverty have been made, progress in Africa so far has been very limited. At present, a third of the African population faces widespread hunger and chronic malnutrition and is exposed to a constant threat of acute food crisis and famine. The most affected are rural households whose livelihood is heavily dependent on traditional rainfed agriculture. Rainfall plays a major role in determining agricultural production and hence the economic and social well being of rural communities. The rainfall pattern in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by large-scale intra-seasonal and inter-annual climate variability including occasional El Niño events in the tropical Pacific resulting in frequent extreme weather event such as droughts and floods that reduce agricultural outputs resulting in severe food shortages. Households and communities facing acute food shortages are forced to adopt coping strategies to meet the immediate food requirements of their families. These extreme responses may have adverse long-term, impacts on households' ability to have sustainable access to food as well as the environment. The HIV/AIDS crisis has also had adverse impacts on food production activities on the continent. In the absence of safety nets and appropriate financial support mechanisms, humanitarian aid is required to enable households effectively cope with emergencies and manage their limited resources more efficiently. Timely and appropriate humanitarian aid will provide households with opportunities to engage in productive and sustainable livelihood strategies. Investments in poverty reduction efforts would have better impact if complemented with timely and predictable response mechanisms that would ensure the protection of livelihoods during crisis periods whether weather or conflict-related. With an improved understanding of climate variability including El Niño, the implications of weather patterns for the food security and vulnerability of rural communities have become more predictable and can be monitored effectively. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how current advances in the understanding of climate variability, weather patterns and food security could contribute to improved humanitarian decision-making. The paper will propose new approaches for triggering humanitarian responses to weather-induced food crises. PMID:16433102

Haile, Menghestab

2005-11-29

179

Population-based biochemistry, immunologic and hematological reference values for adolescents and young adults in a rural population in Western Kenya  

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BACKGROUND: There is need for locally-derived age-specific clinical laboratory reference ranges of healthy Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. Reference values from North American and European populations are being used for African subjects despite previous studies showing significant differences. Our aim was to establish clinical laboratory reference values for African adolescents and young adults that can be used in clinical trials and for patient management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A panel of 29...

Zeh, C.; Amornkul, P. N.; Inzaule, S.; Ondoa, P.; Oyaro, B.; Mwaengo, D. M.; Vandenhoudt, H.; Gichangi, A.; Williamson, J.; Thomas, T.; Decock, K. M.; Hart, C.; Nkengasong, J.; Laserson, K.

2011-01-01

180

Measuring improvements in sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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Recent studies on development aid from European donors revealed that their funding of the health sector in sub-Saharan Africa rarely includes performance measures suitable for tracking operational progress in improving sexual and reproductive health and rights. Analysis of health sector agreements verifies this. Particularly lacking are metrics related to four critically important areas: (1) reducing mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion, (2) preventing and treating gender-based violence, (3) reducing unwanted pregnancies among the poorest women, and (4) reducing unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. During 2011 and the first half of 2012, the authors interviewed 85 experts in health service delivery, ministries of health, human rights, development economics and social science from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and the United States. We asked them to identify measures to assess progress in these areas, and built on their responses to propose up to four practical performance measures for each of the areas, for inclusion in health sector support agreements. These measures are meant to supplement, not replace, current population-based measures such as changes in maternal mortality ratios. The feasibility of using these performance measures requires political commitment from donors and governments, investment in baseline data, and expanding the role of sexual and reproductive health and rights civil society in determining priorities. PMID:23245424

Seims, Sara; Khadduri, Rolla

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Challenges of Economic Growth, Poverty and Development: Why Are the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs not Fair to Sub-Saharan Africa?  

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Full Text Available Sub-Saharan African countries report high levels of growth and GDP per capita and yet they are unable to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs such as quality education and health. The paper argued that GDP might not be sufficient for measuring development because the funds obtained may not necessarily be used to improve the quality of life of worse off communities. Even with a constituent level of GDP, the problem of poverty and underdevelopment is becoming more intractable in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focused on the Challenges facing Sub-Saharan African countries in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. This was discussed after revealing growth in GDP and inequality trends in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using examples from countries like Nigeria, it is evident that many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are unlikely to achieve their MDG targets due to persistence of poverty and other challenges such as corruption and mal-administration of funds. Moreover, the required growth to substantially reduce poverty is too high by international standards. The paper concluded by concurring with the view that redistribution of the growth increment of income is more likely to be effective in reducing poverty than growth in GDP alone. Therefore while growth in GDP may be prone to poverty reduction, it should be complemented with policies to ensure investment and broad participation, reduce violence, root out corruption and increase investment in infrastructure. The paper recommends that countries’ development strategies must take into consideration national realities in each country rather than adopting targets and policies from the western world.

Kanayo Ogujiuba

2012-11-01

182

Evidence of sexual recombination among Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A isolates in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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The most common cause of fungal meningitis in humans, Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A, is a basidiomycetous yeast with a bipolar mating system. However, the vast majority (>99.9%) of C. neoformans serotype A isolates possess only one of the two mating type alleles (MATalpha). Isolates with the other allele (MATa) were recently discovered and proven to mate in the laboratory. It has been a mystery whether and where C. neoformans strains undergo sexual reproduction. Here, we applied population genetic approaches to demonstrate that a population of C. neoformans serotype A clinical isolates from Botswana contains an unprecedented proportion of fertile MATa isolates and exhibits evidence of both clonal expansion and recombination within two partially genetically isolated subgroups. Our findings provide evidence for sexual recombination among some populations of C. neoformans serotype A from sub-Saharan Africa, which may have a direct impact on their evolution. PMID:14665451

Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Marra, Robert E; Nielsen, Kirsten; Heitman, Joseph; Vilgalys, Rytas; Mitchell, Thomas G

2003-12-01

183

Cosmovisión de emigrantes subsaharianos y cuidados de enfermería / Worldview of Sub-Saharan emigrants and nursing care  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Justificación: La población inmigrante subsahariana es la más desconocida para los profesionales de la salud. Objetivo: Conocer, a través de sus voces, su cosmovisión que enmarca valores, creencias y prácticas sobre salud y enfermedad, centrándonos en el ser humano con enfoque holístico. Metodología [...] : Cualitativa, fenomenología. Resultados: Su concepción de la vida y del universo está impregnada de la religión más antigua del mundo: el animismo. Los antepasados que murieron siguen estando para protegerles. Aprecian la atención sanitaria española pero hay padecimientos que resuelve mejor la medicina tradicional africana. Aunque la atención es correcta puede despertarse susceptibilidad al no conocer los códigos culturales de la nueva sociedad. La solidaridad familiar es el valor fundamental. Conclusión: La solidaridad, valor ancestral en los humanos, debe seguir guiando a los profesionales de la salud comprometidos con la salud de la población, defendiendo el Estado de Bienestar frente a las voces que pretenden desmantelarlo. Abstract in english The population of sub-Saharan immigrants is unknown by health care professionals. Objective: know, across his voices, his cosmovision that frames values, beliefs and practices on health and disease, centring on the human being with holistic approach. Methodology qualitative, phenomenology. Results: [...] His conception of the life and of the universe is impregnated with the most ancient religion of the world: the animism. The forbears who died continue being to protect them. They estimate the sanitary Spanish attention though there are sufferings that there solves better the traditional African medicine. Though the attention is correct one can wake susceptibility up on not having known all the cultural codes of the new company. The familiar solidarity is a fundamental value. Conclusions: the ancient solidarity in the human beings must continue guiding the professionals of the health compromised with the health of the population, defending the Welfare state opposite to the voices they it tries to dismantle.

Gentil García, Isabel.

184

The Condition of Young Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Convergence of Health, Nutrition, and Early Education. World Bank Technical Paper No. 326, Africa Technical Department Series.  

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In Sub-Saharan Africa, severe adverse conditions have placed children at high risk: persistent and worsening poverty, rapid economic change and population growth, increasing urbanization, a changing family structure, growing numbers of orphaned refugees, and displaced women and children from internal civil strife. These conditions make a viable…

Colletta, Nat J.; And Others

185

Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in invasive cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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In sub-Saharan Africa, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence and mortality are among the highest in the world. This cross-sectional epidemiological study assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type distribution in women with ICC in Ghana, Nigeria, and South Africa. Cervical biopsy specimens were obtained from women aged ? 21 years with lesions clinically suggestive of ICC. Histopathological diagnosis of ICC was determined by light microscopy examination of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of paraffin-embedded cervical specimens; samples with a confirmed histopathological diagnosis underwent HPV DNA testing by polymerase chain reaction. HPV-positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization line probe assay. Between October 2007 and March 2010, cervical specimens from 659 women were collected (167 in Ghana, 192 in Nigeria and 300 in South Africa); 570 cases were histologically confirmed as ICC. The tumor type was identified in 551/570 women with ICC; squamous cell carcinoma was observed in 476/570 (83.5%) cases. The HPV-positivity rate in ICC cases was 90.4% (515/570). In ICC cases with single HPV infection (447/515 [86.8%]), the most commonly detected HPV types were HPV16 (51.2%), HPV18 (17.2%), HPV35 (8.7%), HPV45 (7.4%), HPV33 (4.0%) and HPV52 (2.2%). The prevalence of single and multiple HPV infections seemed higher among HIV-positive women and HPV type distribution appeared to differ according to tumor type and HIV status. In conclusion, HPV16, 18, 45 and 35 were the most common HPV types in sub-Saharan African women with ICC and HPV infections were more common in HIV-positive women. PMID:23929250

Denny, Lynette; Adewole, Isaac; Anorlu, Rose; Dreyer, Greta; Moodley, Manivasan; Smith, Trudy; Snyman, Leon; Wiredu, Edwin; Molijn, Anco; Quint, Wim; Ramakrishnan, Gunasekaran; Schmidt, Johannes

2014-03-15

186

Identifying key entry-points for strategic management of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa using the dynamic farm-scale simulation model NUANCES-FARMSIM  

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African smallholder farming systems are complex, dynamic systems with many interacting biophysical subcomponents. In these systems the major inputs and outputs are managed by human agency ¿ the farmers. To analyse potential developmental pathways of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), we recognised the need for a tool that can capture the effects and consequences of decision-making on the use of resources. Here we describe and apply such a new modelling tool, developed w...

2009-01-01

187

Challenges of Economic Growth, Poverty and Development: Why Are the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) not Fair to Sub-Saharan Africa?  

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Sub-Saharan African countries report high levels of growth and GDP per capita and yet they are unable to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) such as quality education and health. The paper argued that GDP might not be sufficient for measuring development because the funds obtained may not necessarily be used to improve the quality of life of worse off communities. Even with a constituent level of GDP, the problem of poverty and underdevelopment is becoming more intractabl...

Kanayo Ogujiuba; Fadila Jumare

2012-01-01

188

Stigma of People with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review  

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The aim of this literature review is to elucidate what is known about HIV/AIDS and stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa. Literature about HIV/AIDS and stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa was systematically searched in Pubmed, Medscape, and Psycinfo up to March 31, 2009. No starting date limit was specified. The material was analyzed using Gilmore and ...

Mbonu, Ngozi C.; Den Borne, Bart; Vries, Nanne K.

2009-01-01

189

The International Connections of Religious Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Rationales and Implications  

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Over the past decade, the largest growth in Sub-Saharan Africa's private higher education has been among institutions with religious affiliations. This article examines the rise of private, religious higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa with international affiliations. Using an analysis of multiple stakeholders from the region and international…

Karram, Grace

2011-01-01

190

African 1, an Epidemiologically Important Clonal Complex of Mycobacterium bovis Dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad? †  

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We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis present at high frequency in cattle in population samples from several sub-Saharan west-central African countries. This closely related group of bacteria is defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf1) and can be identified by the absence of spacer 30 in the standard spoligotype typing scheme. We have named this group of strains the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex and have defined the spoligotype signature of this clonal complex ...

Mu?ller, Borna; Hilty, Markus; Berg, Stefan; Garcia-pelayo, M. Carmen; Dale, James; Boschiroli, M. Laura; Cadmus, Simeon; Ngandolo, Bongo Nare? Richard; Godreuil, Sylvain; Diguimbaye-djaibe?, Colette; Kazwala, Rudovick; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Njanpop-lafourcade, Betty M.; Sahraoui, Naima; Guetarni, Djamel

2009-01-01

191

African 1, an epidemiologically important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad  

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We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis present at high frequency in cattle in population samples from several sub-Saharan west-central African countries. This closely related group of bacteria is defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf1) and can be identified by the absence of spacer 30 in the standard spoligotype typing scheme. We have named this group of strains the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex and have defined the spoligotype signature of this clonal complex ...

Mu?ller, B.; Hilty, M.; Berg, S.; Garcia-pelayo, M. C.; Dale, J.; Boschiroli, M. L.; Cadmus, S.; Ngandolo, B. N. R.; Godreuil, S.; Diguimbaye-djaibe?, C.; Kazwala, R.; Bonfoh, B.; Njanpop-lafourcade, B. M.; Sahraoui, N.; Guetarni, D.

2009-01-01

192

Health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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Recent population studies demonstrate an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The mitigation or reversal of this trend calls for effective health promotion and preventive interventions. In this article, we review the core principles, challenges, and progress in promoting cardiovascular health with special emphasis on interventions to address physical inactivity, poor diet, tobacco use, and adverse cardiometabolic risk factor trends in SSA. We focus on the five essential strategies of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Successes highlighted include community-based interventions in Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, and Mauritius and school-based programs in Kenya, Namibia, and Swaziland. We address the major challenge of developing integrated interventions, and showcase partnerships opportunities. We conclude by calling for intersectoral partnerships for effective and sustainable intervention strategies to advance cardiovascular health promotion and close the implementation gap in accordance with the 2009 Nairobi Call to Action on Health Promotion. PMID:24267442

Sampson, Uchechukwu K A; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Mensah, George A

2013-01-01

193

Hotspots of climate change impacts in sub-Saharan Africa and implications for adaptation and development.  

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Development efforts for poverty reduction and food security in sub-Saharan Africa will have to consider future climate change impacts. Large uncertainties in climate change impact assessments do not necessarily complicate, but can inform development strategies. The design of development strategies will need to consider the likelihood, strength, and interaction of climate change impacts across biosphere properties. We here explore the spread of climate change impact projections and develop a composite impact measure to identify hotspots of climate change impacts, addressing likelihood and strength of impacts. Overlapping impacts in different biosphere properties (e.g. flooding, yields) will not only claim additional capacity to respond, but will also narrow the options to respond and develop. Regions with severest projected climate change impacts often coincide with regions of high population density and poverty rates. Science and policy need to propose ways of preparing these areas for development under climate change impacts. PMID:24796720

Müller, Christoph; Waha, Katharina; Bondeau, Alberte; Heinke, Jens

2014-08-01

194

SUCCESSFUL DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA  

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Full Text Available This paper explains the purposes, delivery methods, and program characteristics of successful distance education (DE in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. This paper investigates the design and delivery systems of these programs and identifies ways the DE programs are working to improve. There are about 150 formidable distance education programs working in SSA. They aim to increase and improve a variety of existing programs, including primary and high school education, college-level and graduate programs, language training, teacher training, and continuing education for adults. The primary delivery system used by most institutions consists of printed manuals and texts that are distributed to all students. Despite the continued development of information and communication technology (ICT, including videos, online training modules, and web-based training (WBT systems, traditional DE delivery methods continue to prove as the most reliable, most sustainable, and most widely used.

Zane BERGE

2007-04-01

195

Tuberculosis and poverty: the contribution of patient costs in sub-Saharan Africa – a systematic review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is known to disproportionately affect the most economically disadvantaged strata of society. Many studies have assessed the association between poverty and TB, but only a few have assessed the direct financial burden TB treatment and care can place on households. Patient costs can be particularly burdensome for TB-affected households in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty levels are high; these costs include the direct costs of medical and non-medical expenditures and the indirect costs of time utilizing healthcare or lost wages. In order to comprehensively assess the existing evidence on the costs that TB patients incur, we undertook a systematic review of the literature. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, EconLit, Dissertation Abstracts, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched, and 5,114 articles were identified. Articles were included in the final review if they contained a quantitative measure of direct or indirect patient costs for treatment or care for pulmonary TB in sub-Saharan Africa and were published from January 1, 1994 to Dec 31, 2010. Cost data were extracted from each study and converted to 2010 international dollars (I$. Results Thirty articles met all of the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one studies reported both direct and indirect costs; eight studies reported only direct costs; and one study reported only indirect costs. Depending on type of costs, costs varied from less than I$1 to almost I$600 or from a small fraction of mean monthly income for average annual income earners to over 10 times average annual income for income earners in the income-poorest 20% of the population. Out of the eleven types of TB patient costs identified in this review, the costs for hospitalization, medication, transportation, and care in the private sector were largest. Conclusion TB patients and households in sub-Saharan Africa often incurred high costs when utilizing TB treatment and care, both within and outside of Directly Observed Therapy Short-course (DOTS programs. For many households, TB treatment and care-related costs were considered to be catastrophic because the patient costs incurred commonly amounted to 10% or more of per capita incomes in the countries where the primary studies included in this review were conducted. Our results suggest that policies to decrease direct and indirect TB patient costs are urgently needed to prevent poverty due to TB treatment and care for those affected by the disease.

Barter Devra M

2012-11-01

196

Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary Education in Africa (SEIA) Thematic Study #4. GEC Working Paper Series 2005/#3  

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Expanding and rethinking the nature of secondary education in Sub-Saharan African countries, traditionally reserved for elites and few others, are becoming crucial to successful individual and national participation in the global economy. As governments and donors turn their attention increasingly to secondary education, policies are being…

Mulkeen, Aidan; Chapman, David W.; DeJaeghere, Joan G.

2005-01-01

197

Burden of disease and circulating serotypes of rotavirus infection in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

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Two new rotavirus vaccines have recently been licensed in many countries. However, their efficacy has only been shown against certain serotypes commonly circulating in Europe, North America, and Latin America, but thought to be globally important. To assess the potential impact of these vaccines in sub-Saharan Africa, where rotavirus mortality is high, knowledge of prevalent types is essential because an effective rotavirus vaccine is needed to protect against prevailing serotypes in the community. We did two systematic reviews and two meta-analyses of the most recent published data on the burden of rotavirus disease in children aged under 5 years and rotavirus serotypes circulating in countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Eligible studies were selected from PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, EmBase, LILACS, Academic Search Premier, Biological Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, and the African Index Medicus. Depending on the heterogeneity, DerSimonian-Laird random-effects or fixed-effects models were used for meta-analyses. Geographical variability in rotavirus burden within countries in sub-Saharan Africa is substantial, and most countries lack information on rotavirus epidemiology. We estimated that annual mortality for this region was 243.3 (95% CI 187.6-301.7) deaths per 100,000 under 5 years (ie, a total of 300,000 children die of rotavirus infection in this region each year). The most common G type detected was G1 (34.9%), followed by G2 (9.1%), and G3 (8.6%). The most common P types detected were P[8] (35.5%) and P[6] (27.5%). Accurate information should be collected from surveillance based on standardised methods in these countries to obtain comparable data on the burden of disease and the circulating strains to assess the potential impact of vaccine introduction. PMID:19695493

Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Grais, Rebecca F; Guerin, Philippe J; Steele, Andrew D; Burny, Marie-Eve; Luquero, Francisco J

2009-09-01

198

Approximate Bayesian Inference Reveals Evidence for a Recent, Severe Bottleneck in a Netherlands Population of Drosophila melanogaster  

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Genome-wide nucleotide variation in non-African populations of Drosophila melanogaster is a subset of variation found in East sub-Saharan African populations, suggesting a bottleneck in the history of the former. We implement an approximate Bayesian approach to infer the timing, duration, and severity of this putative bottleneck and ask whether this inferred model is sufficient to account for patterns of variability observed at 115 loci scattered across the X chromosome. We estimate a recent ...

Thornton, Kevin; Andolfatto, Peter

2006-01-01

199

Managing health professional migration from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada: a stakeholder inquiry into policy options  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada is a major recipient of foreign-trained health professionals, notably physicians from South Africa and other sub-Saharan African countries. Nurse migration from these countries, while comparatively small, is rising. African countries, meanwhile, have a critical shortage of professionals and a disproportionate burden of disease. What policy options could Canada pursue that balanced the right to health of Africans losing their health workers with the right of these workers to seek migration to countries such as Canada? Methods We interviewed a small sample of émigré South African physicians (n = 7 and a larger purposive sample of representatives of Canadian federal, provincial, regional and health professional departments/organizations (n = 25; conducted a policy colloquium with stakeholder organizations (n = 21; and undertook new analyses of secondary data to determine recent trends in health human resource flows between sub-Saharan Africa and Canada. Results Flows from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada have increased since the early 1990s, although they may now have peaked for physicians from South Africa. Reasons given for this flow are consistent with other studies of push/pull factors. Of 8 different policy options presented to study participants, only one received unanimous strong support (increasing domestic self-sufficiency, one other received strong support (increased health system strengthening in source country, two others mixed support (voluntary codes on ethical recruitment, bilateral or multilateral agreements to manage flows and four others little support or complete rejection (increased training of auxiliary health workers in Africa ineligible for licensing in Canada, bonding, reparation payments for training-cost losses and restrictions on immigration of health professionals from critically underserved countries. Conclusion Reducing pull factors by improving domestic supply and reducing push factors by strengthening source country health systems have the greatest policy traction in Canada. The latter, however, is not perceived as presently high on Canadian stakeholder organizations' policy agendas, although support for it could grow if it is promoted. Canada is not seen as "actively' recruiting" ("poaching" health workers from developing countries. Recent changes in immigration policy, ongoing advertising in southern African journals and promotion of migration by private agencies, however, blurs the distinction between active and passive recruitment.

Klassen Nathan

2006-08-01

200

Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV1 (R0a was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. Results The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%, similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%. In addition, a small Indian influence (3% was also detected. Conclusion The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85% have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia.

Bosley Thomas M

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Remote sensing applications in African agriculture and natural resources: Highlighting and managing the stress of increasing population pressure  

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Given current population trends and projections in sub-Saharan Africa, it is anticipated that substantial intensification of agricultural cropland is certain within the next decades. In the absence of adoption of improved technologies poor rural populations in this region will continue to degrade and mine the natural resources to ensure their survival. All these actions will have far-reaching implications for environmental quality and human health. However, only through the integration of environment and development concerns with greater attention to these link can we achieve the goal of fulfilling the basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed eco-systems and a safer, more prosperous future. The paper reviews case studies and provides examples of the integration, analysis, and visualization of information from remotely sensed, biophysical and socioeconomic information to assess the present situation hindering agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies show the interactions between socio-economic and environmental factors that can help governments and policy-makers assess the scope of the problems, examine alternatives and decide on a course of action. Sound decisions depend on accurate information, yet most African countries face severe competing demands for the financial and human commitments necessary to staff an information system equal to its policy-making requirements. The role of international data centers is reviewed in terms of their abilities to develop and maintain information systems that bring together available accumulated knowledge and data. This permits comparative studies, which make it possible to develop a better understanding of the relationships among demographic dynamics, technology, cultural behavioral norms, and land resources and hence better decision making for sustainable development.

Amissah-Arthur, Abigail; Balstad Miller, Roberta

202

Velhice e Saúde na Região da África Subsaariana: uma agenda urgente para a cooperação internacional / Aging and health in Sub-Saharan Africa: an urgent agenda for international cooperation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A região Subsaariana do continente africano é onde se concentra a maior carga de doença do mundo e é a única região do planeta onde se espera que o número de pessoas pobres irá aumentar nas próximas décadas. Os países desta região, em diferentes graus, experimentam processo lento de envelhecimento p [...] opulacional, mas, ao mesmo tempo, é onde a população idosa mais cresce em números absolutos. A partir de revisão da bibliografia, buscou-se destacar a situação demográfica e social em que vivem as pessoas idosas na região subsaariana e os principais desafios que se impõem aos governos locais para a superação dos complexos problemas postos a toda a sociedade. Constatou-se que as políticas públicas voltadas para este segmento populacional na região não representam prioridade e, por conseguinte, dificilmente entram na agenda atual da cooperação internacional. Abstract in english The Sub-Saharan part of the African continent is the area that has the highest disease burden in the world and is the only region of the planet where it is expected that the number of poor people will increase in the coming decades. The countries of this region, to different degrees, experience slow [...] process of population aging but at the same time, it is the are where the elderly population grows fastest in absolute numbers. Based on a review of the literature, an attempt was made to highlight the social and demographic situation in which the elderly live in the Sub-Saharan region and the main challenges faced by local governments to overcome the complex problems affecting society as a whole. It was found that public policies geared to this segment of the population in the region do not represent a priority and, consequently, are unlikely to be included in the current agenda of international cooperation.

Telles, José Luiz; Borges, Ana Paula Abreu.

203

Velhice e Saúde na Região da África Subsaariana: uma agenda urgente para a cooperação internacional / Aging and health in Sub-Saharan Africa: an urgent agenda for international cooperation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A região Subsaariana do continente africano é onde se concentra a maior carga de doença do mundo e é a única região do planeta onde se espera que o número de pessoas pobres irá aumentar nas próximas décadas. Os países desta região, em diferentes graus, experimentam processo lento de envelhecimento p [...] opulacional, mas, ao mesmo tempo, é onde a população idosa mais cresce em números absolutos. A partir de revisão da bibliografia, buscou-se destacar a situação demográfica e social em que vivem as pessoas idosas na região subsaariana e os principais desafios que se impõem aos governos locais para a superação dos complexos problemas postos a toda a sociedade. Constatou-se que as políticas públicas voltadas para este segmento populacional na região não representam prioridade e, por conseguinte, dificilmente entram na agenda atual da cooperação internacional. Abstract in english The Sub-Saharan part of the African continent is the area that has the highest disease burden in the world and is the only region of the planet where it is expected that the number of poor people will increase in the coming decades. The countries of this region, to different degrees, experience slow [...] process of population aging but at the same time, it is the are where the elderly population grows fastest in absolute numbers. Based on a review of the literature, an attempt was made to highlight the social and demographic situation in which the elderly live in the Sub-Saharan region and the main challenges faced by local governments to overcome the complex problems affecting society as a whole. It was found that public policies geared to this segment of the population in the region do not represent a priority and, consequently, are unlikely to be included in the current agenda of international cooperation.

Telles, José Luiz; Borges, Ana Paula Abreu.

204

Oil and natural gas in sub-Saharan Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intensive oil prospection efforts are going on in Africa. The author of this article sets South Africa aside and studies three zones: the east coast, central Africa and the west coast -particularly the Gulf of Guinea. The vast Ethiopia-Kenya sedimentary zone has given disappointing results despite quite important prospection efforts; nevertheless, there are some encouraging signs for oil and especially for gas in Ethiopia and in Somalia. In central Africa two types of basins with oil potential can be distinguished: the ''grabens'' and the ''interior'' or ''intratonic'' basins. It seems that the best results have been achieved in Sudan. The hydrocarbon producing region on the West Africa coast is limited to the Gulf of Guinea. By far the main producer is Nigeria. The first authentic discovery in sub-Saharan Africa was made in Angola in 1955 by the Belgian Petrofina Company; this was the Benfica deposit. Gabon and Angola began producing at about the same time as Nigeria. Gabon's production reached a culminating point between 1975 and 1977 and it's only due to strictly technical causes that its production in 1982 attained the level of 1972. Elf Gabon is the main producer, but a dozen other oil companies are engaged in prospection. Shell and Gulf are producers.

Mainguy, M.

1984-01-30

205

OPEN FLEXIBLE LIFELONG LEARNING AS A CATALYST FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Educational provision in developing sub-Saharan Africa states has been severely hindered by the hydra-headed problems of access, cost and quality. Amidst these challenges is the pledge of regional and national education policymakers and development planners to ensure that there is maximum access equitable and qualitative education for all (EFA in Africa. There is also a burning need for improved literacy levels and functional education, in order to overcome the development deficits that are currently facing the region. The pledge of education for all resonates the agreement which representatives of several nations of the world signed at the Jomtien summit on Education for All and the subsequent evaluation meetings. Following this pledge, several developing, sub-Sahara African nations have evolved initiatives for instituting sustainable Open Flexible Learning (ODL systems in order to meet up with the seemingly intractable EFA objectives. This paper examined the potential impact of these OFL initiatives on the achievement of the EFA objectives which is seen as the basis of development planning, administration and implementation in Africa. It identified the various challenges confronting effective implementation of ODL on the continent, amidst the need to expand access to educational opportunities. An attempt was made to situate the OFL system at the centre of the strategies for achieving these EFA objectives in the region and finally, a proposal for sustainable policy initiatives for implementing OFL systems for the attainment of education for all in Africa is made.

Felix Kayode OLAKULEHIN

2010-10-01

206

Searching for Opportunities for Sub-Saharan Africa's Renewal in the Era of Globalisation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries rely heavily on donor assistance and international borrowing. The Official Development Assistance (ODA)/GNP ratio in SSA is expected to rise well into the next century. Increases or decreases of ODA, which is known to be the main source of SSA's investment, may depend on the type of global settlement expected to emerge in the post-cold war world. SSA has therefore a stake on the type of globalisation which may frame world economic policy and financial aid to it. Neo-liberal globalisation has no enthusiasm for massive financial transfers. The incipient globalising ideas which emerged from the Rio Summit in 1992 have suggested to increase ODAs in real terms and debt relief to control crushing debt service payments. Agenda 21 has created new and additional facilities formally for increasing donor assistance in the form of financial and investment transfers. The question is whether this new mechanism will make any difference to stem the SSA decline and can "incentivise" the region's renewal or renaissance. This article will focus on how globalisation may be related to increase or decrease of financial transfer to SSA. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Muchie, Mammo

2000-01-01

207

Globalisation and the internationalisation of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In a shrinking world, in which a neo-liberal discourse has permeated sub-Saharan African higher education, critical reflection is required to assess the merits and demerits of globalisation. Research, intensive discussion and hearings conducted over a two-year period by the Task Force on Higher Educ [...] ation and Society, convened by the World Bank and United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for the purpose of exploring the future of higher education in the developing world, led to the conclusion that without more and better higher education, developing countries would find it increasingly difficult to benefit from the global knowledge economy. A decade later, we argue for a radical change in the traditional discourse on globalisation because of the emergence of countries such as China, South Africa, India, and Brazil as global players in the world economy. These emerging global powers, reframe the political and imperial philosophy at the epicentre of globalisation discourse - an economic creed, through their mutual consultation and coordination on significant political issues. Their economic and military capabilities enable them to influence the trade regime and thereby strengthen the voice of the developing world as a whole. In relation to this paper's inquiry, the cooperation of these emerging powers gives the free enfranchised people of the world an opportunity to choose a different path of international relations (internationalisation) formed on more liberal lines, as opposed to the neo-liberal economic rationality of globalisation. This paper therefore examines globalisation and internationalisation of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa, a field in which increased knowledge production and distribution open up opportunities for users, institutions and societies. Against a background of chronic economic uncertainty we examine the influence of major international institutions on the direction of higher education, in particular teacher education. Drawing on relevant literature and our own experience, reflexively, we argue that the tendency, towards free market regulation ideologies, privileges neo-liberal global knowledge discourses, such that they impose on higher education a need to respond across a range of fields.

Kuzvinetsa Peter, Dzvimbo; Kholeka Constance, Moloi.

208

Spousal violence in sub-Saharan Africa: does household poverty-wealth matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Despite the threat of violence to the health and rights of women yet, for many years, there has been a dearth of nationally comparable data on domestic violence in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines whether women from poor households are more likely to experience violence from husband/partner than other women who are from middle or rich households. Method Data for the study are derived from most recent DHS surveys of ever-married women age 15-49 in Cameroun(3,691), Kenya(4,336), Mozambique(5610), Nigeria (16,763), Zambia(3,010) and Zimbabwe(5,016) who participated in the questions on Domestic Violence Module. Bivariate analysis and Binary Logistic Regression Analysis are used to explore the linkage between household poverty-wealth and spousal violence while simultaneously controlling for confounding variables. Results The overall prevalence of any form of violence (physical, sexual or emotional) ranges from 30.5% in Nigeria to 43.4% in Zimbabwe; 45.3% in Kenya; 45.5% in Mozambique; 53.9% in Zambia and 57.6% in Cameroun. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses show that in two of the six countries –Zambia and Mozambique, experience of violence is significantly higher among women from non-poor (rich) households than those from other households (poor and middle). For Zimbabwe and Kenya, women from poor households are more likely to have ever experienced spousal violence than those from non-poor households. In the remaining two countries- Nigeria and Cameroun, women from the middle class are more likely to have ever suffered abuse from husband/partner than those from the poor and rich households. Conclusion Our results thus show that similar measurements of household poverty-wealth have produced varying relationships with respect to experience of spousal violence in six sub-Saharan African countries. In other words, experience of violence cuts across all household poverty-wealth statuses and therefore may not provide enough explanations on whether household-poverty necessarily serves to facilitate the ending of violence. These results suggest that eliminating violence against women in sub-Sahara Africa requires a comprehensive approach rather than addressing household poverty-wealth alone.

2014-01-01

209

Harnessing Poverty Alleviation to Reduce the Stigma of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alexander Tsai and colleagues highlight the complex relationship between poverty and HIV stigma in sub-Saharan Africa, and discuss possible ways to break the cycle. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Tsai, Alexander C.; Bangsberg, David R.; Weiser, Sheri D.

2013-01-01

210

Harnessing poverty alleviation to reduce the stigma of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alexander Tsai and colleagues highlight the complex relationship between poverty and HIV stigma in sub-Saharan Africa, and discuss possible ways to break the cycle. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:24319400

Tsai, Alexander C; Bangsberg, David R; Weiser, Sheri D

2013-11-01

211

Agricultural Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa. A Workshop on Research Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Technological Issues in World Bank Lending for Agriculture; Agricultural Technology: The Priorities for Sub-Saharan Africa and Some Arguments in the Debate; Technology Adoption in the Sahellan and Sudanese Regions: Approach and Major Findings; A...

S. Gnaegy J. R. Anderson J. Brossier J. C. Collins P. M. Bosc

1991-01-01

212

External financial aid to blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa : a need for reflection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking.

Ala, Fereydoun; Allain, Jean-Pierre

2012-01-01

213

De-agrarianization and rural employment generation in sub-Saharan Africa : process and prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sub-Saharan Africa is steadily becoming less rural in character. For decades development thinking has prescribed industrialization as the virtuous path leading away from economic dependence on agriculture. The present paper rejects the view that rural or even national industrialization has taken place or is likely to take place in sub-Saharan Africa in the immediate future. The author argues that the preconditions for this happening are largely absent. She proposes an alternative perspective ...

Bryceson, D. F.

1993-01-01

214

State of business ethics and field of teaching, training and research in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article provides a comparative summary of the findings of the survey of Business Ethics as field of Teaching, Training and Reserach across the four sub-regions in Sub-Saharan Africa ( Western Africa, Southern Africa, Eastern Africa and Francophone Africa). The article commences with a discussion on the terminology that is used to refer to Business and Economic Ethics in Sub-Saharan Africa. It Then provides an overview of the prevalence and distribution of Business Ethics as field of Teac...

Rossouw, Deon

2011-01-01

215

A cross-sectional study of vascular risk factors in a rural South African population: data from the Southern African Stroke Prevention Initiative (SASPI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural sub-Saharan Africa is at an early stage of economic and health transition. It is predicted that the 21st century will see a serious added economic burden from non-communicable disease including vascular disease in low-income countries as they progress through the transition. The stage of vascular disease in a population is thought to result from the prevalence of vascular risk factors. Already hypertension and stroke are common in adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Using a multidisciplinary approach we aimed to assess the prevalence of several vascular risk factors in Agincourt, a rural demographic surveillance site in South Africa. Methods We performed a cross sectional random sample survey of adults aged over 35 in Agincourt (population ? 70 000. Participants were visited at home by a trained nurse who administered a questionnaire, carried out clinical measurements and took a blood sample. From this we assessed participants' history of vascular risk, blood pressure using an OMRON 705 CP monitor, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, ankle brachial index (ABI, and total and HDL cholesterol. Results 402 people (24% men participated. There was a high prevalence of smoking in men, but the number of cigarettes smoked was small. There was a striking difference in mean BMI between men and women (22.8 kg/m2 versus 27.2 kg/m2, but levels of blood pressure were very similar. 43% of participants had a blood pressure greater than 140/90 or were on anti-hypertensive treatment and 37% of participants identified with measured high blood pressure were on pharmacological treatment. 12% of participants had an ABI of 5 mmol/l. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of hypertension, obesity in women, and a suggestion of subclinical atheroma despite relatively favourable cholesterol levels in a rural South African population. South Africa is facing the challenge of an emerging epidemic of vascular disease. Research to establish the social determinates of these risk factors and interventions to reduce both individual and population risk are required.

Tollman Stephen

2007-11-01

216

Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops--green manures--and agroforestry--legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric requirements, and greenhouse gas emissions. At low population densities and high land availability, food security and climate mitigation goals are met with all intensification scenarios, resulting in surplus crop area for reforestation. In contrast, for high population density and small farm sizes, attaining food security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions require mineral fertilizers to make land available for reforestation; green manure or improved tree fallows do not provide sufficient increases in yields to permit reforestation. Tree fallows sequester significant carbon on cropland, but green manures result in net carbon dioxide equivalent emissions because of nitrogen additions. Although these results are encouraging, agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa with mineral fertilizers, green manures, or improved tree fallows will remain low without policies that address access, costs, and lack of incentives. Carbon financing for small-holder agriculture could increase the likelihood of success of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries programs and climate change mitigation but also promote food security in the region. PMID:20453198

Palm, Cheryl A; Smukler, Sean M; Sullivan, Clare C; Mutuo, Patrick K; Nyadzi, Gerson I; Walsh, Markus G

2010-11-16

217

Features of agricultural extension models and policy in selected sub - Saharan Africa countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the features of agricultural extension models and policy in selected sub- Saharan Africa countries. This is based on the premise that the discussion of extension policy in SSA countries can not be isolated from the extension models that are applied in these countries. While the models are direct products of the type of policy that has been adopted, the policy dictates the models to be used in each country. A major problem of organizing agricultural extension in developing countries is the absence of a legal and policy framework for providing the service. Putting in place a legal and policy framework is one basic new and indispensable way of conducting extension in the developing countries. It will help streamline the confusion currently existing in the effort to transfer agricultural knowledge to farmers, particularly in the areas of service provision, programme development and funding. In literature, the present forms of extension policy are Provisional Extension Policies, decrees and proclamation and legislated extension policies. Factors driving extension policy are population, natural resources and environment. Increasing population will demand more resources from extension in forms of skills, training, diversification of livelihoods and pressure on natural resources. The paper recommends that SSA countries adopt the legislated extension policies option for the improvement extension service delivery and reduce the contradictions in extension models.

Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

2011-10-01

218

Climate Change and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years it has become clear that climate change is an inevitable process. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the expectation is that climate change will have an especially negative impact, not only a result of projected warming and rainfall deficits, but also because of the vulnerability of the population. The impact upon food security will be of great significance, and may be defined as being composed of three components: availability, access, and utilization. To further investigate the link, a systematic literature review was done of the peer-reviewed literature related to climate change and food security, employing the realist review method. Analysis of the literature found consistent predictions of decreased crop productivity, land degradation, high market prices, negative impacts on livelihoods, and increased malnutrition. Adaptation strategies were heavily discussed as a means of mitigating a situation of severe food insecurity across the entire region. This is linked to issues of development, whereby adaptation is essential to counteract the negative impacts and improve the potential of the population to undergo development processes. Findings additionally revealed a gap in the literature about how nutrition will be affected, which is of importance given the links between poor nutrition and lack of productivity.

Heather E. Thompson

2010-08-01

219

Agricultural exports : important issues for Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The central argument of this paper is that African countries stand to benefit more from the goodwill currently being shown by industrialized countries who have committed themselves to further opening up of their markets for commodities from the region. However, more needs to be done by African governments and the international community if these benefits are to trickle down to the African farmers and result in attaining the goal of poverty reduction. This paper identifies the issues that need...

Kandiero, Tonia; Randa, John

2004-01-01

220

Resolving the African Financial Development Gap: Cross-country comparisons and a within-country study of Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With extensive country- and firm-level data sets we first document that the financial sectors of most sub-Saharan African countries remain significantly underdeveloped by the standards of other developing countries. We also find that population density appears to be considerably more important for banking sector development in Africa than elsewhere. To better understand how countries can overcome the high costs of developing viable banking sectors outside large metropolitan areas, we focus on...

Allen, Franklin; Carletti, Elena; Cull, Robert; Qian, Jun; Senbet, Lemma; Valenzuela, Patricio

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa: constraints, dilemmas and strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The continued poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa highlight the difficulties in reforming policies and laws, and implementing effective programmes. This paper uses one international and two national case studies to reflect on the challenges, dilemmas and strategies used in operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR in different African contexts. Methods The international case study focuses on the progress made by African countries in implementing the African Union’s Maputo Plan of Action (for the Operationalisation of the Continental Policy Framework for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights and the experiences of state and non-state stakeholders in this process. The case was developed from an evaluation report of the progress made by nine African countries in implementing the Plan of Action, qualitative interviews exploring stakeholders’ experiences and perceptions of the operationalisation of the plan (carried out as part of the evaluation in Botswana and Nigeria, and authors’ reflections. The first national case study explores the processes involved in influencing Ghana’s Domestic Violence Act passed in 2007; developed from a review of scientific papers and organisational publications on the processes involved in influencing the Act, qualitative interview data and authors’ reflections. The second national case study examines the experiences with introducing the 2006 Sexual Offences Act in Kenya, and it is developed from organisational publications on the processes of enacting the Act and a review of media reports on the debates and passing of the Act. Results Based on the three cases, we argue that prohibitive laws and governments’ reluctance to institute and implement comprehensive rights approaches to SRH, lack of political leadership and commitment to funding SRHR policies and programmes, and dominant negative cultural framing of women’s issues present the major obstacles to operationalising SRH rights. Analysis of successes points to the strategies for tackling these challenges, which include forming and working through strategic coalitions, employing strategic framing of SRHR issues to counter opposition and gain support, collaborating with government, and employing strategic opportunism. Conclusion The strategies identified show future pathways through which challenges to the realisation of SRHR in Africa can be tackled.

Oronje Rose

2011-12-01

222

Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970–2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests using regional subsets of occurrence points demonstrate the models to be unable to predict independent occurrence points outside the training region accurately. Visualizations show plague to occur in diverse landscapes under wide ranges of environmental conditions. Conclusion We conclude that the typical focality of plague, observed in sub-Saharan Africa, is not related to fragmented and insular environmental conditions manifested at a coarse continental scale. However, our approach provides a foundation for testing hypotheses concerning focal distribution areas of plague and their links with historical and environmental factors.

Gulinck Hubert

2008-10-01

223

Environmental and economic impacts of livestock productivity increase in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not matching the annual 2.5 % growth of its population. Regional per capita meat and milk production corresponds, respectively, to about 13 and 8 % of developed countries indicators. Livestock performances in this region have decreased within the last 30 years. In fact, SSA, with a 12 % bovine extraction rate against a world average of 21 %, includes about 16 % of world cattle, only producing 6 and 2.6 % of global meat and milk, respectively. These low performances have economic and environmental consequences reflecting the necessity for upgrading livestock managing skills in the region. This effort includes various components such as sanitary prophylaxis, reproduction, nutrition, and in particular, substantial increase in livestock yield for human consumption. This will allow for an improved animal and pasture management and soil preservation, enhancing meat production and decreasing methane and nitrogen emissions from enteric fermentation and manure processing. These environmental gains due to increased livestock off-take rates can represent relevant credits in the global Environmental Carbon Market under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Kyoto protocol. These credits can be used for investments in livestock essential services and marketing facilities leading to improved productivity. PMID:22528537

Cardoso, Luis Alfaro

2012-12-01

224

The relationship between female genital mutilation and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an age-old practice that has since been linked with many health problems. This review aims to highlight some of the controversies trailing the relationship between FGM and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. A literature search was conducted on the subject matter. This was done using articles published in English while limiting the geographical coverage to sub-Saharan Africa. Three themes were noted. These themes include: Direct causal link between FGM and HIV transmission; indirect causal link between FGM and HIV transmission and a negative or no association between FGM and HIV transmission. While many of the arguments are within scientific reasoning, the researches supporting the views seem to lack the necessary objectivity. This study underscored the need for a more objective lens in viewing and conducting research on the relationship between FGM and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24689327

Olaniran, Abimbola A

2013-12-01

225

State Recognition and Democratization in Sub-Saharan Africa : A New Dawn for Chiefs?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

State Recognition and Democractization in Sub-Saharan Africaآ explores the link between liberal-style democratization and state recognition of traditional authority in Sub-Saharan Africa. Being critical and empirically grounded, the book explores the complex, often counter-balancing consequences of the involvement of traditional authority in the wave of democratization and liberal-style state-building that has rolled over sub-Saharan Africa in the past decade. It scrutinizes how, in practice, traditional leaders are being drawn into governance in Mozambique, Zambia, Namibia, Malawi, Burkina Faso, and the Somali region of Ethiopia, and relates these developments to state governance in the declining democracy of Zimbabwe and the emerging state of Northern Somalia.

Buur, Lars; Kyed, Helene Maria

2007-01-01

226

Independent Introduction of Two Lactase-Persistence Alleles into Human Populations Reflects Different History of Adaptation to Milk Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The T?13910 variant located in the enhancer element of the lactase (LCT) gene correlates perfectly with lactase persistence (LP) in Eurasian populations whereas the variant is almost nonexistent among Sub-Saharan African populations, showing high prevalence of LP. Here, we report identification of two new mutations among Saudis, also known for the high prevalence of LP. We confirmed the absence of the European T?13910 and established two new mutations found as a compound allele: T/G?139...

Enattah, Nabil Sabri; Jensen, Tine G. K.; Nielsen, Mette; Lewinski, Rikke; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Rasinpera, Heli; El-shanti, Hatem; Seo, Jeong Kee; Alifrangis, Michael; Khalil, Insaf F.; Natah, Abdrazak; Ali, Ahmed; Natah, Sirajedin; Comas, David; Mehdi, S. Qasim

2008-01-01

227

Inferring Human Population Sizes, Divergence Times and Rates of Gene Flow From Mitochondrial, X and Y Chromosome Resequencing Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We estimate parameters of a general isolation-with-migration model using resequence data from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and two loci on the X chromosome in samples of 25–50 individuals from each of 10 human populations. Application of a coalescent-based Markov chain Monte Carlo technique allows simultaneous inference of divergence times, rates of gene flow, as well as changes in effective population size. Results from comparisons between sub-Saharan African and Eurasian p...

Garrigan, Daniel; Kingan, Sarah B.; Pilkington, Maya M.; Wilder, Jason A.; Cox, Murray P.; Soodyall, Himla; Strassmann, Beverly; Destro-bisol, Giovanni; Knijff, Peter; Novelletto, Andrea; Friedlaender, Jonathan; Hammer, Michael F.

2007-01-01

228

Traditional herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients in sub-saharan Africa: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa, and rates of hypertension control are low. Use of traditional herbal medicines (THM) is common among adults in sub-Saharan Africa and may affect hypertension therapy. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge in June 2013 to find studies about THM use among hypertensive patients living in sub-Saharan Africa. Two independent reviewers evaluated titles and abstracts. Qualifying references were reviewed in full text. Data were extracted using a standardized questionnaire. Four hundred and eighty-one references were retrieved, and four articles from two countries met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of THM use was 25-65 % (average 38.6 %). THM was the most common type of complementary and alternative medicines used by patients (86.7-96.6 %). Among THM users, 47.5 % concomitantly used both allopathic medicine and THM. Increased age (p?sub-Saharan Africa use THM. Half of these patients use THM concurrently with allopathic medicine. Healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa must discuss THM use with their hypertensive patients. More research is urgently needed to define the impact of THM use on hypertension control and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24764197

Liwa, Anthony C; Smart, Luke R; Frumkin, Amara; Epstein, Helen-Ann B; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Peck, Robert N

2014-06-01

229

End of life care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the qualitative literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background End of life (EoL) care in sub-Saharan Africa still lacks the sound evidence-base needed for the development of effective, appropriate service provision. It is essential to make evidence from all types of research available alongside clinical and health service data, to ensure that EoL care is ethical and culturally appropriate. This article aims to synthesize qualitative research on EoL care in sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy, practice and further rese...

2011-01-01

230

Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian chi...

Bakare Muideen O; Ubochi Vincent N; Okoroikpa Ifeoma N; Aguocha Chinyere M; Ebigbo Peter O

2009-01-01

231

Injuries as a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa: epidemiology and prospects for control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injuries are common and on increase in most developing countries, including sub-Saharan Africa. A large proportion of the injuries are caused by road traffic accidents, falls, burns, assaults, bites, stings and other animal-related injuries, poisonings, drownings/near-drownings and suicide. Globally, injuries are responsible for about five per cent of the total mortality, and the overall global annual costs were estimated in the late 1980s at around 500 billion US dollars. The burden and pattern of injuries in Africa and other developing areas are poorly known and not well studied. The incidence is on the increase, partly due to rapid growth of motorised transport and to expansion of industrial production without adequate safety precautions. This is a review of data on various kinds of injuries in developing countries with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa. A computerised search of the relevant literature published between 1985 and 1998 was conducted and a manual search of journals publishing texts on health in low-income countries and in tropical environments was also done. A few studies on injury prevention policy and on research related to injury epidemiology and prevention have also been identified and included. It is concluded that in a relatively typical East African area with a total mortality rate of 1,300/100,000/year, injuries are likely to cause around 100 of these deaths. The corresponding total rate of significant injuries is estimated at 40,000/100,000/year with a breakdown as tabulated below. [table: see text] Although a few surveys and other investigations of injuries have been conducted over the years, injury epidemiology and control remain under-researched and relatively neglected subject areas. Much needs to be done. Collection and analysis of injury data need to be standardised, for example regarding age groups, gender disaggregation and severity. Injuries and accidents should be subdivided in at least road traffic injury, fall, burn, assault, poisoning, drowning, suicide, homicide and others, and details regarding time and place, victim and main cause should be noted. Morbidity survey field staff should be informed that injuries are part of the illness concept and that questions should be asked accordingly. Details regarding the circumstances surrounding different injuries must be known to those who develop preventive programmes. Injury is a public health problem affecting some people more than others. Our ordinary environment--the home, the work-site, the street or road--represents various kinds of risk, and some of these are difficult to eliminate. Not only do we have to accept much of our environment with its existing houses, equipment, vehicles, transport systems, energy supply, toxic substances etcetera, many also suffer from various inherited or acquired conditions that increase the risk. We therefore need to develop safer and more "forgiving" living environments where ordinary people can live and move around safely. Injury control activities may focus on different categories of injury. Road safety measures often include information and education campaigns, improved driver training, road design and maintenance, regular vehicle safety checks, separation of pedestrians from vehicle traffic, speed limits, safety belt, air-bag and helmet use, special training and control of public service vehicle drivers, bicycle lane separation, road lighting, reflectorised materials on clothing, review of the road traffic related legislation and law enforcement, and emergency medical services improvement. Domestic injuries can be prevented for example with window guards, child barriers at stairs, smoke detectors, clothes and furniture in less flammable materials, replacement of open stoves, stabilising of open lamps, fire-fighting equipment and practice, child-proof poison packaging and storage, safe disposal of toxic waste, home safety education of parents, and strict building code enforcement. Occupational injuries can largely be prevented if well adapted to the work environment. Research is required in s

Nordberg, E

2000-12-01

232

Smallholder Irrigation and Crop Diversification under Climate Change in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence and Potential for Simultaneous Food Security, Adaptation, and Mitigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The poorest populations in sub-Saharan Africa live in rural areas and depend on smallholder agricultural production for their livelihoods. Over 90% of all farmed area in Sub-Saharan Africa is rainfed, with crop production centering on 3-5 months of rainfall. Rapid population growth is reducing land per capita ratios, and low yields for staple crops make food security an increasingly challenging goal. Malnutrition, most noticeable among children, peaks during the dry season. Recent data on aggregate economic growth and investment in Africa hide these patterns of seasonal hunger and income disparity. Perhaps most perversely, smallholder farmers in the dry tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa are (and will continue to be) some of the earliest and hardest hit by climate change. Our research focuses on the role distributed, small-scale irrigation can play in food security and climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa. As Asia's agricultural success has demonstrated, irrigation, when combined with the availability of inputs (fertilizer) and improved crop varieties, can enable year-round production, growth in rural incomes, and a dramatic reduction in hunger. The situation in Africa is markedly different: agroecological conditions are far more heterogeneous than in Asia and evaporation rates are relatively high; most smallholders lack access to fertilizers; and market integration is constrained by infrastructure, information, and private sector incentives. Yet from a resource perspective, national- and regional-level estimates suggest that Internal Renewable Water Resources (IRWR) are nowhere near fully exploited in Sub-Saharan Africa -- even in the Sudano-Sahel, which is considered to be one of the driest regions of the continent. Irrigation can thus be implemented on a much larger scale sustainably. We will present (a) results from controlled, experimental field studies of solar-powered drip irrigation systems in the rural Sudano-Sahel region of West Africa. We have shown that such systems can be implemented in a cost-competitive and environmentally responsible manner, with significant and sustained impact on livelihoods. These findings will be coupled with (b) case studies of successful and failed irrigation projects across the continent that reveal technical and institutional requirements for success; and (c) regional and continental data that quantify the larger-scale food security, development, adaptation, and mitigation potentials of these types of smallholder systems.

Naylor, R.; Burney, J. A.; Postel, S.

2011-12-01

233

Rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa in a context of fluctuating oil-prices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Solar PV is one among other low carbon technologies for rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Solar PV systems have for almost 30 years been disseminated in SSA, resulting in more than half a million installations concentrated in a few countries. While PV systems have technically matured and markets have gradually developed, PV for rural electrification has often been perceived with scepticism from potential users, donors, government officials and researchers, and solar PV has in many camps been labelled as donor driven, expensive and fragile technology mainly serving the richest parts of the populations and with little or no value for productive uses. However, feasibility for solar PV has improved in the last few years. Retail prices for solar photovoltaic modules are reduced by 20-30% since 2001, and although far from the peak in 2008, oil prices in the next two years to come are expected to settle at a level, which is about three times the world market average in the years from 1985-2003. Therefore, rather than being limited to a niche for populations living in dispersed settlements outside the reach of grid electrification, solar PV is expected to play an important role in mini grid rural electrification schemes based on hybrid solar PVdiesel generators. This may bring PV systems in line with fossil fuel based systems in terms of consumer cost and options for productive use and it changes the market for PV from mainly donor supported schemes into mainstream rural electrification schemes governed and financed by electric utilities and rural electrification agencies. Based on a literature review and the experience with a full scale hybrid wind/PV diesel system at RISÃ? DTU, this paper provides cost estimates for hybrid PV-diesel systems and policy recommendations to change the application of PV technologies for development in SSA.

Nygaard, Ivan; Bindner, Henrik W.

2009-01-01

234

Are Private Universities the Solution to the Higher Education Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa?  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the formidable problems confronting sub-Saharan universities such as increased enrollment, fiscal challenges, quality issues, and rising graduate unemployment, and how private universities are increasingly seen as an alternative. Examines the challenges and opportunities facing these private universities. (EV)

Banya, Kingsley

2001-01-01

235

Agricultural Development: Present and Potential Role of Edible Wild Plants. Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This three-volume, AID-sponsored study on the feasibility of using edible wild plants for food in developing country tropical areas assesses the potential role of edible wild plants in Central and South America and the Caribbean (Volume I), Sub-Saharan Af...

L. E. Grivetti

1980-01-01

236

The World Bank and Financing Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Critically examines World Bank and other donor agencies' policy changes toward financing of higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Concludes that policy vicissitudes have adversely affected these institutions. Recommends that the unique context of each state play a role in higher education financial policy formation and implementation. (EV)

Banya, Kingsley; Elu, Juliet

2001-01-01

237

Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations  

CERN Document Server

A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

Blaha, S

2003-01-01

238

Library Automation in Sub Saharan Africa: Case Study of the University of Botswana  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This article aims to present experiences and the lessons learned from the University of Botswana (UB) library automation project. The implications of the project for similar libraries planning automation in sub Saharan Africa and beyond are adduced. Design/methodology/approach: The article is a case study of library automation at the…

Mutula, Stephen Mudogo

2012-01-01

239

The impact of solar ultraviolet radiation on human health in sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Photoprotection messages and 'SunSmart' programmes exist mainly to prevent skin cancers and, more recently, to encourage adequate personal sun exposure to elicit a vitamin D response for healthy bone and immune systems. Several developed countries maintain intensive research networks and monitor sol [...] ar UV radiation to support awareness campaigns and intervention development. The situation is different in sub-Saharan Africa. Adequate empirical evidence of the impact of solar UV radiation on human health, even for melanomas and cataracts, is lacking, and is overshadowed by other factors such as communicable diseases, especially HIV, AIDS and tuberculosis. In addition, the established photoprotection messages used in developed countries have been adopted and implemented in a limited number of sub-Saharan countries but with minimal understanding of local conditions and behaviours. In this review, we consider the current evidence for sun-related effects on human health in sub-Saharan Africa, summarise published research and identify key issues. Data on the prevalence of human diseases affected by solar UV radiation in all subpopulations are not generally available, financial support is insufficient and the infrastructure to address these and other related topics is inadequate. Despite these limitations, considerable progress may be made regarding the management of solar UV radiation related health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, provided researchers collaborate and resources are allocated appropriately.

Wright, Caradee Y.; Norval, Mary; Summers, Beverley; Davids, Lester; Coetzee, Gerrie; Oriowo, Matthew O..

240

Patterns of biomedical science production in a sub-Saharan research center  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Research activities in sub-Saharan Africa may be limited to delegated tasks due to the strong control from Western collaborators, which could lead to scientific production of little value in terms of its impact on social and economic innovation in less developed areas. However, the current contexts of international biomedical research including the development of public-private partnerships and research institutions in Africa suggest that scientific activities are growing in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to describe the patterns of clinical research activities at a sub-Saharan biomedical research center. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with a core group of researchers at the Medical Research Unit of the Albert Schweitzer Hospital from June 2009 to February 2010 in Lambaréné, Gabon. Scientific activities running at the MRU as well as the implementation of ethical and regulatory standards were covered by the interview sessions. Results The framework of clinical research includes transnational studies and research initiated locally. In transnational collaborations, a sub-Saharan research institution may be limited to producing confirmatory and late-stage data with little impact on economic and social innovation. However, ethical and regulatory guidelines are being implemented taking into consideration the local contexts. Similarly, the scientific content of studies designed by researchers at the MRU, if local needs are taken into account, may potentially contribute to a scientific production with long-term value on social and economic innovation in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Further research questions and methods in social sciences should comprehensively address the construction of scientific content with the social, economic and cultural contexts surrounding research activities.

Agnandji Selidji T

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Science-based health innovation in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract In recent years emerging markets such as India, China, and Brazil have developed appropriate business models and lower-cost technological innovations to address health challenges locally and internationally. But it is not well understood what capabilities African countries, with their high disease burden, have in science-based health innovation. This gap in knowledge is addressed by this series in BMC International Health and Human Rights. The series presents the results of extensive on-the-ground research in the form of four country case studies of health and biotechnology innovation, six studies of institutions within Africa involved in health product development, and one study of health venture funds in Africa. To the best of our knowledge it is the first extensive collection of empirical work on African science-based health innovation. The four country cases are Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The six case studies of institutions are A to Z Textiles (Tanzania, Acorn Technologies (South Africa, Bioventures venture capital fund (South Africa, the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research (IMRA; Madagascar, the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI; Kenya, and Niprisan’s development by Nigeria’s National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development and Xechem (Nigeria. All of the examples highlight pioneering attempts to build technological capacity, create economic opportunities, and retain talent on a continent significantly affected by brain drain. They point to the practical challenges for innovators on the ground, and suggest potentially helpful policies, funding streams, and other support systems. For African nations, health innovation represents an opportunity to increase domestic capacity to solve health challenges; for international funders, it is an opportunity to move beyond foreign aid and dependency. The shared goal is creating self-sustaining innovation that has both health and development impacts. While this is a long-term strategy, this series shows the potential of African-led innovation, and indicates how it might balance realism against opportunity. There is ample scope to learn lessons more systematically from cases like those we discuss; to link entrepreneurs, scientists, funders, and policy-makers into a network to share opportunities and challenges; and ultimately to better support and stimulate African-led health innovation.

Daar Abdallah S

2010-12-01

242

Novel IRF6 mutations in families with Van Der Woude syndrome and popliteal pterygium syndrome from sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Orofacial clefts (OFC) are complex genetic traits that are often classified as syndromic or nonsyndromic clefts. Currently, there are over 500 types of syndromic clefts in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, of which Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is one of the most common (accounting for 2% of all OFC). Popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) is considered to be a more severe form of VWS. Mutations in the IRF6 gene have been reported worldwide to cause VWS and PPS. Here, we report studies of families with VWS and PPS in sub-Saharan Africa. We screened the DNA of eight families with VWS and one family with PPS from Nigeria and Ethiopia by Sanger sequencing of the most commonly affected exons in IRF6 (exons 3, 4, 7, and 9). For the VWS families, we found a novel nonsense variant in exon 4 (p.Lys66X), a novel splice-site variant in exon 4 (p.Pro126Pro), a novel missense variant in exon 4 (p.Phe230Leu), a previously reported splice-site variant in exon 7 that changes the acceptor splice site, and a known missense variant in exon 7 (p.Leu251Pro). A previously known missense variant was found in exon 4 (p.Arg84His) in the PPS family. All the mutations segregate in the families. Our data confirm the presence of IRF6-related VWS and PPS in sub-Saharan Africa and highlights the importance of screening for novel mutations in known genes when studying diverse global populations. This is important for counseling and prenatal diagnosis for high-risk families.

Butali, Azeez; Mossey, Peter A; Adeyemo, Wasiu L; Eshete, Mekonen A; Gaines, LauRen A; Even, Dee; Braimah, Ramat O; Aregbesola, Babatunde S; Rigdon, Jennifer V; Emeka, Christian I; James, Olutayo; Ogunlewe, Mobolanle O; Ladeinde, Akinola L; Abate, Fikre; Hailu, Taye; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Gravem, Paul E; Deribew, Milliard; Gesses, Mulualem; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Murray, Jeffrey C

2014-01-01

243

Health Human Capital in Sub-Saharan Africa: Conflicting Evidence from Infant Mortality Rates and Adult Heights  

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We investigate trends in cohort infant mortality rates and adult heights in 39 developing countries since 1960. In most regions of the world improved nutrition, and reduced childhood exposure to disease, have lead to improvements in both infant mortality and adult stature. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, despite declining infant mortality rates, adult heights have not increased. We argue that in Sub-Saharan Africa the decline in infant mortality may have been due to interventions that prevent infant deaths rather than improved nutrition and childhood morbidity. Despite declining infant mortality, Sub-Saharan Africa may not be experiencing increases in health human capital.

Akachi, Yoko; Canning, David

2011-01-01

244

Hormone receptors and Her2 expression in breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. A comparative study of biopsies from Ghana and Norway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hormonal treatment of breast cancer is effective only in patients whose tumors express estrogen and/or progesterone receptors (ER, PR). Receptor assessment is often not available in low-resource areas, and the choice may be to apply endocrine therapy to all or none of breast cancer patients, depending on the proportion of patients that can be expected to respond. Fifty-one invasive breast cancers from Ghana and 100 from Norway diagnosed in the same laboratory during the same time period were reexamined in a blinded slide review. Of Ghanaian tumors, 76% were ER+ (?1% ER+ tumor cells). Of Norwegian tumors, 85% were ER+. Triple-negative tumors were seen in 22% of Ghanaian patients and in 7% of Norwegian patients. A review of previous similar studies in sub-Saharan patients shows very discrepant results. Standardization and quality control of receptor assessment and well-designed clinical trials in sub-Saharan African breast cancer patients are needed to give a sound basis for endocrine treatment in this area. PMID:24708149

Adjei, Ernest K; Owusu-Afriyie, Osei; Awuah, Baffour; Stalsberg, Helge

2014-01-01

245

Artesunate Plus Amodiaquine (AS+AQ) Versus Artemether -Lumefantrine (AL) for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa-A Meta-Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to summarize the available data on the efficacy of Artesunate plus Amodiaquine (AS+AQ) versus Artemether -Lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa using uncorrected parasitaemia as a clinically relevant endpoint. Studies and conference abstracts identified through Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Ansinet, AJOL, Bioline, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group trials register, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Science Citation Index, Lilacs, African Index Medicus, Clusty, Google, Yahoo and Microsoft search engines. Randomized controlled clinical trials comparing Artesunate-Amodiaquine versus Artemether-Lumefantrine, in Sub-Saharan Africa from January 2004 to June 2009, and which had at least 30 patients per study arm. The authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, assessed methodological quality and extracted data into a predesigned form. The outcome of interest was uncorrected day 28 parasitological failure. Data were then checked for agreement and double entered into RevMan version 5 for further analyses. Fifteen trials (4265 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Day 28 parasitological failure was lower for AL (286 of 2201 participants or 13.0 % failures) when compared with AS+AQ (446 of 2424 participants or 18.4% failures). The relative risk of parasitological failure with AS+AQ was higher when compared with AL (RR 1.65, 95% CI, 1.18-2.32). There were significant heterogeneity and inconsistencies in the studies. AL appears more effective at avoiding parasitological failure at days 28 than AS+AQ. PMID:23878697

Bello, Shaibu O; Chika, Aminu; Abdulgafar, Jimoh O

2010-01-01

246

Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to a...

Anyangwe, Stella C. E.; Chipayeni Mtonga; Ben Chirwa

2006-01-01

247

Quantitative urban classification for malaria epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is rapidly urbanizing, the terms used to classify urban ecotypes are poorly defined in the context of malaria epidemiology. Lack of clear definitions may cause misclassification error, which likely decreases the accuracy of continent-wide estimates of malaria burden, limits the generalizability of urban malaria studies, and makes identification of high-risk areas for targeted interventions within cities more difficult. Accordingly, clustering techniques were applied to a set of urbanization- and malaria-related variables in Kisumu, Kenya, to produce a quantitative classification of the urban environment for malaria research. Methods Seven variables with a known or expected relationship with malaria in the context of urbanization were identified and measured at the census enumeration area (EA level, using three sources: a the results of a citywide knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP survey; b a high-resolution multispectral satellite image; and c national census data. Principal components analysis (PCA was used to identify three factors explaining higher proportions of the combined variance than the original variables. A k-means clustering algorithm was applied to the EA-level factor scores to assign EAs to one of three categories: "urban," "peri-urban," or "semi-rural." The results were compared with classifications derived from two other approaches: a administrative designation of urban/rural by the census or b population density thresholds. Results Urban zones resulting from the clustering algorithm were more geographically coherent than those delineated by population density. Clustering distributed population more evenly among zones than either of the other methods and more accurately predicted variation in other variables related to urbanization, but not used for classification. Conclusion Effective urban malaria epidemiology and control would benefit from quantitative methods to identify and characterize urban areas. Cluster analysis techniques were used to classify Kisumu, Kenya, into levels of urbanization in a repeatable and unbiased manner, an approach that should permit more relevant comparisons among and within urban areas. To the extent that these divisions predict meaningful intra-urban differences in malaria epidemiology, they should inform targeted urban malaria interventions in cities across SSA.

Slutsker Laurence

2008-02-01

248

A Concept for a Flexible Rehabilitation Tool for sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This concept paper explores a technological building block approach to the development of a flexible rehabilitation tool that may address some of the needs in sub-Saharan Africa. We briefly outline some of the health challenges that lead us to suggest a concept for physical rehabilitation solutions to address many diverse patient groups (e.g. disabled children, cardiac, and stroke patients), to be used in both urban and rural areas, to be easily used in community based rehabilitation (e.g. by community rehabilitation workers), to motivate the users, and to be robust to failure (e.g. power failure) in remote areas. The concept leads to the implementation of modular interactive tiles for rehabilitation, and suggestions for future use in sub-Saharan Africa.

Lund, Henrik Hautop

2012-01-01

249

SME Adoption of Enterprise Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa : A Clarion Call to Action  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the need for IS research with a focus on SME adoption of enterprise systems in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous IS research into general adoption in several developing countries have shown that local context play a significant role in the successful implementation of any information system. SMEs constitute a majority of all organizations in most Sub Saharan economies, thus their importance to the socioeconomic development and empowerment of the region cannot be overemphasized. However, the absence of literature and focused research into factors that influence enterprise systems adoption and use that are particular to this region represents a huge gap for both researchers and practitioners. This call to action paper will attempt to present the implications of this deficiency and outline areas where future research can be most beneficial to stakeholders.

Adisa, Femi

250

Obstetric Fistula: A Hidden Public Health Problem In Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Obstetric fistula (OF continues to devastate the lives of women in sub-Saharan Africa. Many women with the condition are suffering in silence. They are unaware of the available treatment options or unaware of where to get treatment. Yet, the condition is treatable and preventable. Recently, many countries and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs in the region embarked on interventions to address the impact of the condition, however, much emphasis is put to identifying and treating the existing cases with less emphasis put to public health interventions that can help to prevent and eventually eradicate the condition in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore the impact of obstetric fistula in the region and to propose effective public health interventions that can help to prevent the condition with a long-term goal of eradicating the condition.

FW Kalembo

2012-01-01

251

An investigation of the relationship between sub-Saharan rainfall and global sea surface temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between SST and rainfall index anomalies over sub-Saharan Africa for the 1970-1984 period is investigated. Results of an empirical orthogonal function analysis indicate that the most dominant eigenmode, EOF1, is characterized by warming over the central eastern Pacific, cooling over the eastern midlatitude Pacific, and warming over the entire Atlantic and Indian ocean basins. EOF1 is found to have statistically signifiant monthly correlations for the Sahel and Soudan regions, with the warm El Nino-like phases of SST EOF1 corresponding to drought conditions. These results suggest that the large-scale SST anomalies may be responsible for a large component of the observed vacillation of sub-Saharan rainfall.

Semazzi, F. H. M.; Mehta, V.; Sud, Y. C.

1988-01-01

252

Patterns of chloroquine use and resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of household survey and molecular data  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of widespread chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP resistance, 90% of sub-Saharan African countries had adopted policies of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for treatment of uncomplicated malaria by 2007. In Malawi, cessation of chloroquine use was followed by the re-emergence of chloroquine-susceptible malaria. It was expected that introduction of ACT would lead to a return in chloroquine susceptibility throughout Africa, but this has not yet widely occurred. This observation suggests that there is continuing use of ineffective anti-malarials in Africa and that persistent chloroquine-resistant malaria is due to ongoing drug pressure despite national policy changes. Methods To estimate drug use on a national level, 2006-2007 Demographic Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data from 21 African countries were analysed. Resistance data were compiled by systematic review of the published literature on the prevalence of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter polymorphism at codon 76, which causes chloroquine resistance. Results Chloroquine was the most common anti-malarial used according to surveys from 14 of 21 countries analysed, predominantly in West Africa. SP was most commonly reported in two of 21 countries. Among eight countries with longitudinal molecular resistance data, the four countries where the highest proportion of children treated for fever received chloroquine (Uganda, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, and Mali also showed no significant declines in the prevalence of chloroquine-resistant infections. The three countries with low or decreasing chloroquine use among children who reported fever treatment (Malawi, Kenya, and Tanzania had statistically significant declines in the prevalence of chloroquine resistance. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in 2006-2007, chloroquine and SP continued to be used at high rates in many African countries. In countries reporting sustained chloroquine use, chloroquine-resistant malaria persists. In contrast, a low level of estimated chloroquine use is associated with a declining prevalence of chloroquine resistance.

Venkatesan Meera

2011-05-01

253

Effects of Natural Selection and Gene Conversion on the Evolution of Human Glycophorins Coding for MNS Blood Polymorphisms in Malaria-Endemic African Populations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Malaria has been a very strong selection pressure in recent human evolution, particularly in Africa. Of the one million deaths per year due to malaria, more than 90% are in sub-Saharan Africa, a region with high levels of genetic variation and population substructure. However, there have been few studies of nucleotide variation at genetic loci that are relevant to malaria susceptibility across geographically and genetically diverse ethnic groups in Africa. Invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum parasites is central to the pathology of malaria. Glycophorin A (GYPA) and B (GYPB), which determine MN and Ss blood types, are two major receptors that are expressed on erythrocyte surfaces and interact with parasite ligands. We analyzed nucleotide diversity of the glycophorin gene family in 15 African populations with different levels of malaria exposure. High levels of nucleotide diversity and gene conversion were found at these genes. We observed divergent patterns of genetic variation between these duplicated genes and between different extracellular domains of GYPA. Specifically, we identified fixed adaptive changes at exons 3â??4 of GYPA. By contrast, we observed an allele frequency spectrum skewed toward a significant excess of intermediate-frequency alleles at GYPA exon 2 in many populations; the degree of spectrum distortion is correlated with malaria exposure, possibly because of the joint effects of gene conversion and balancing selection. We also identified a haplotype causing three amino acid changes in the extracellular domain of glycophorin B. This haplotype might have evolved adaptively in five populations with high exposure to malaria.

Ko, Wen-Ya; Kaercher, Kristin A.

2011-01-01

254

Information and Communication Technologies and Poverty Reduction in Developing Countries : the Case of Sub Saharan Africa countries  

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Full Text Available There is a growing interest in using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs to support poverty reduction efforts and strategies in the framework of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. These interest ended up revealing how much the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs of many african nations have underestimated the importance of ICTs as a development tool. The fact that so little was mentionned about the use of ICTs for poverty alleviation and creation of employment highlighted the confusion, and uncertainty of decision makers. At the country level, ICT is still to be effectively integrated into national poverty alleviation and development strategies. The question then is how ICTs can help achieve those objectives. How can ICTs be used as tools to fight against poverty? Poverty is widely recognized as multidimensional, encompassing food security, health, education, rights, security and dignity, amongst others as stressed by Bachelor and al in a model showing the intricate linkages between ICTs and most PRSP goals. The link between ICTs and poverty reduction strategy is therefore not that obvious. Although, researchers and development partners involved in poverty alleviation recognize more easily the linkage between ICT and poverty reduction strategies. In any case, it is a prerequisite to have a conducive environment and country readiness for ICTs implementation. Unfortunately, in many Sub-Saharan Africa countries, there is not yet a clear and effective policy and strategy for the use of ICT.

Lot Tcheeko

2006-12-01

255

Does the WTO agreement on agricultural endanger food security in Sub-Saharan Africa?  

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The paper examines the state of food security in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), based on an analysis of a selection of indicators of food security and nutritional wellbeing during the period 1990-2002 within the context of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture. It argues that it may be advisable for those SSA countries with both static and dynamic comparative advantage in agriculture to pursue policies towards ‘food self-sufficiency’ as a means to attaining food security, considering their large ru...

Gayi, Samuel K.

2006-01-01

256

Why should Sub-Saharan Africa care about the Doha Development Round?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years sub-Saharan Africa, notwithstanding the global financial crisis, has increased its share in global trade and investment flows. This has led to an appreciable improvement in development levels, albeit off a small base. However, these patterns are still dominated by commodity flows and investment, and remain marginal on the global stage. Increased trade and investment flows, particularly related to network services, would be of great benefit to the sub-continent. Yet many domest...

Draper, Peter; Freytag, Andreas; Doyaili, Sarah Al

2013-01-01

257

Why should sub-Saharan Africa care about the Doha development round?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years sub-Saharan Africa, notwithstanding the global financial crisis, has increased its share in global trade and investment flows. This has led to an appreciable improvement in development levels, albeit off a small base. However, these patterns are still dominated by commodity flows and investment, and remain marginal on the global stage. Increased trade and investment flows, particularly related to network services, would be of great benefit to the sub-continent. Yet many domest...

Draper, Peter; Freytag, Andreas; Al Doyaili, Sarah

2012-01-01

258

Conflict, disasters and no jobs: Reasons for international migration from Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest growth rate in net international migration in the world. The reasons for this migration are investigated in this paper. First, a survey of the literature on the profile and determinants of international migration in SSA is given. Second, panel data on 45 countries spanning the period 1965 to 2005 are used to determine that the main reasons for international migration from SSA are armed conflict and lack of job opportunities. An additional year of confl...

2008-01-01

259

Strategy framework for sustainable industrial development in sub-Saharan Africa: Systems-evolutionary approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The principal objectives of this research were: · to develop a conceptual framework on sustainability and sustainable development and · to propose a strategy framework for sustainable industrial development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The research was done based on systems evolutionary approach having the following methodological principles as a guide. · The dynamic complexity of environmental and developmental issues can be better understood by utilizing transdisciplinary theories such a...

Mebratu, Desta

2000-01-01

260

Moving methodologies. Learning about integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa is complex, diverse and dynamic. Farmers' investments are determined by a wide variety of factors, including bio-physical characteristics of the environment, access to resources and the institutional, and socio-economic context of farming and livelihood making. Within this context, defining soil fertility problems in general terms is not meaningful and proposing a limited number of standard interventions, aimed at the 'average' farmer is of limi...

Defoer, T.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

A Theoretical Model for Telemedicine : Social and Value Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region is faced with limited medical personnel and healthcare services to address the many healthcare problems of the region. Poor health indicators reflect the overall decline in socio-economic development. Shortages of access to health services in the region is further complicated by the concentration of health services in urban areas, the region’s multiple medical problems (over 70% of HIV/AIDS cases in the world); and the brain drain phenomenon – it is est...

2006-01-01

262

Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa : policy and trade issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated ; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical ...

Thomson, G. R.

2010-01-01

263

Building social capital for agricultural innovation : experiences with farmer groups in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this bulletin is to help in laying a stronger foundation for the generation of truly client-driven agricultural innovation systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in order to facilitate greater efficiency and effectiveness in achieving the overarching agricultural development objectives of sustained productivity gains, improved profitability, and poverty alleviation. Pioneering experiences with the Farmer Research Group (FRG) approach in many parts of SSA show that the build...

2004-01-01

264

Enhancing global control of alcohol to reduce unsafe sex and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV...

Chersich, Matthew F.; Rees, Helen V.; Scorgie, Fiona; Martin, Greg

2009-01-01

265

Foreign direct investment in emerging economies: Lessons from sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses prospects for foreign direct investment (FDI) in Africa. The problems with regard to attracting FDI in small economies are not that different than those in larger economies in the developing world. In particular, lack of infrastructure, cumbersome government regulations and restrictions on equity holdings by foreigners are common to both large and small countries. FDI flows could be a lot higher in sub- Saharan Africa if governments implemented a proper set of regulations ...

2001-01-01

266

Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub-Saharan Africa: investment priorities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In numerous countries of Sub-Saharan Africa the strategic agenda of the water-sector is undergoing substantial change because of demographic pressure, climate change and economic transformation. Two new policy questions are arising from the need to make better use of available groundwater storage to [...] improve water-supply security:

Foster, Stephen; Tuinhof, Albert; Steenbergen, Frank van.

267

Technologies for heating, cooling and powering rural health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines technical and economic choices for rural electrification in Africa and presents the rationale for trigeneration (capability for electricity, heating, and cooling) in health and education applications. An archetypal load profile for a rural health clinic (25 kWhe/day and 118–139 kWht) is described, and a regional analysis is performed for sub-Saharan Africa by aggregating NASA meteorological data (insolation, temperature, and heating and cooling degree-days) using correla...

Orosz, Matthew; Quoilin, Sylvain; Hemond, Harold

2013-01-01

268

The determinants of infant, child and maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa  

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In Sub-Saharan Africa, infant, child and maternal mortalities are very high compared to other regions. We estimate a cross-country empirical model of the determinants of those mortalities. We find, similar to other studies, that in addition to per capita GDP, health and education interventions can affect mortalities, however, the effect depends on the mortality rate being modelled. Importantly, the prevalence of the adult HIV / AIDS infection rate is detrimentally impacting mortality in the S...

2004-01-01

269

Transmission of HIV in sexual networks in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We are reviewing the literature regarding sexual networks and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. On Likoma Island in Malawi, a sexual network was reconstructed using a sociometric survey in which individuals named their sexual partners. The sexual network identified one giant component including half of all sexually active individuals. More than 25% of respondents were linked through independent chains of sexual relations. HIV was more common in the sparser regions of the netw...

2013-01-01

270

Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. This article reviews the English-language literature on child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The focus is on the sexual abuse of children in the home/community, as opposed to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Method. English language, peer-reviewed papers cited in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) are examined. Reports from international and local NGOs and UN agencies are also examined. Results. Few published studies on the sexual abuse of chil...

2004-01-01

271

Gender and growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Issues and evidence  

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The study suggests that gender inequality acts as a significant constraint to growth in sub-Saharan Africa, and that removing gender-based barriers to growth will make a substantial contribution to realizing Africa’s economic potential. In particular we highlight gender gaps in education, related high fertility levels, gender gaps in formal sector employment, and gender gaps in access to assets and inputs in agricultural production as particular barriers reducing the ability of women to con...

Blackden, Mark; Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Klasen, Stephan; Lawson, David

2006-01-01

272

Taking the woman's perspective: Gender risks of regulatory reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Despite acknowledgment of the significant role of women in economic growth, gender-biased development policies still persist worldwide. In this context, the paper reviews recent policy reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa that perpetuate gender inequality and female poverty for the already impoverished continent. Citing two reforms from the World Bank's Doing Business Reports, the paper analyses their possible negative effect on women entrepreneurs within the private sector. The paper argues that du...

Milagrosa, A.; Frickenstein, J.

2008-01-01

273

Malaria prevalence, indoor residual spraying, and insecticide-treated net usage in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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This paper analyzes the effect of malaria prevalence and indoor residual spraying on the probability of sleeping under an insecticide-treated bed net in nine Sub-Saharan countries. Specifically, it examines whether bed net usage is elastic with respect to malaria prevalence and whether indoor residual spraying, which is a public intervention, crowds out bed net usage, which is a private behavior. Using data on individual bed net usage and household indoor residual spraying combined with local...

2013-01-01

274

Potentials and projections of freshwater resources in Sub-Saharan Africa; focus on Nigeria  

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This paper discusses the abundance of freshwater availability in Nigeria which is approximately 0.51% of world freshwater resources. It further highlights the projected freshwater crises in Nigeria and Africa as a whole. Based on analyzed country data retrieved from International Organizations, Nigeria and in fact many developing countries in Sub Saharan Africa is presently termed water secure based on total Actual Renewable Water Resources, but projections into the nearest future (2025) clas...

Ewemoje, Temitayo

2011-01-01

275

A national policy for malaria elimination in Swaziland: a first for sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Swaziland is working to be the first country in mainland sub-Saharan Africa to eliminate malaria. The highest level of Swaziland's government recently approved a national elimination policy, which endorses Swaziland's robust national elimination strategic plan. This commentary outlines Swaziland's progress towards elimination as well as the challenges that remain, primarily around securing long-term financial resources and managing imported cases from neighbouring countries.

2011-01-01

276

A national policy for malaria elimination in Swaziland: a first for sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Swaziland is working to be the first country in mainland sub-Saharan Africa to eliminate malaria. The highest level of Swaziland's government recently approved a national elimination policy, which endorses Swaziland's robust national elimination strategic plan. This commentary outlines Swaziland's progress towards elimination as well as the challenges that remain, primarily around securing long-term financial resources and managing imported cases from neighbouring countries...

2011-01-01

277

A national policy for malaria elimination in Swaziland: a first for sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Swaziland is working to be the first country in mainland sub-Saharan Africa to eliminate malaria. The highest level of Swaziland's government recently approved a national elimination policy, which endorses Swaziland's robust national elimination strategic plan. This commentary outlines Swaziland's progress towards elimination as well as the challenges that remain, primarily around securing long-term financial resources and managing imported cases from neighbouring countries.

Kandula Deepika

2011-10-01

278

Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in Sub-Saharan Africa - A review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agricultural water scarcity in the predominantly rainfed agricultural system of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is more related to the variability of rainfall and excessive non-productive losses, than the total annual precipitation in the growing season. Less than 15% of the terrestrial precipitation takes the form of productive ‘green’ transpiration. Hence, rainwater harvesting and management (RWHM) technologies hold a significant potential for improving rainwater-use efficiency and...

Biazin, B.; Sterk, G.; Temesgen, M.; Abdulkedir, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

2012-01-01

279

Rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa in a context of fluctuating oil-prices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solar PV is one among other low carbon technologies for rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Solar PV systems have for almost 30 years been disseminated in SSA, resulting in more than half a million installations concentrated in a few countries. While PV systems have technically matured and markets have gradually developed, PV for rural electrification has often been perceived with scepticism from potential users, donors, government officials and researchers, and ...

Nygaard, Ivan; Bindner, Henrik W.; Katic, Ivan

2009-01-01

280

Institutional Pressures and Organizational Response : Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By investigating the business environment in Sub-Saharan Africa from an institutional theory perspective, the purpose of this thesis is to explain organizational response to the forces of this particular institutional environment. Coercive, normative and mimetic pressures serve as the basis for explaining the institutional environment. The organizations respond to these pressures by seeking legitimacy from the environment. The study is based on a qualitative research method relying on qualita...

Storm, Anders; Wolk, Leonard; Grimhed, Magnus

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Sub-Saharan Africa: Effects of Infrastructure Conditions on Export Competitiveness, Third Annual Report. Investigation No. 332-477.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes conditions in the land transport, maritime transport, and electricity infrastructure sectors, and examines their effects on export competitiveness in sub- Saharan Africa (SSA), particularly on the following industries: coffee, shea b...

A. Treat C. Jabara E. Herfindahl I. Wohl M. Ferrantino

2009-01-01

282

Diet and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Stages in the nutrition transition  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last century we have seen wide-reaching changes in diet, nutritional status and life expectancy. The change in diet and physical activity patterns has become known as the nutrition transition. At any given time, a country or region within a country may be at different stages within this transition. This paper examines a range of nutrition-related indicators for countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and attempts to develop a typical model of a country in transition. Methods Based on the availability of data, 40 countries in SSA were selected for analysis. Data were obtained from the World Health Organisation, Demographic and Health Surveys and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA was used to explore the determinants of infant mortality. A six point score was developed to identify each country's stage in the nutrition transition. Results MLRA showed that underweight-for-age, protein and the percentage of exclusively breastfed infants were associated with the infant mortality rate (IMR. The majority of countries (n = 26 used in the analysis had nutrition transition scores of zero and one. Most of them had a high prevalence of infant mortality, children that were stunted or underweight-for-age, small percentages of women that were overweight and obese, and low intakes of energy, protein, and fat. Countries with the highest scores include South Africa, Ghana, Gabon, Cape Verde and Senegal which had relatively low IMRs, high levels of obesity/overweight, and low levels of underweight in women, as well as high intakes of energy and fat. These countries display classic signs of a population well established in the nutrition-related non-communicable disease phase of the nutrition transition. Conclusions Countries in SSA are clearly undergoing a nutrition transition. More than half of them are still in the early stage, while a few have reached a point where changes in dietary patterns are affecting health outcomes in a large portion of the population. Those in the early stage of the transition are especially important, since primordial prevention can still be introduced.

Steyn Nelia P

2011-10-01

283

Stigma of People with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this literature review is to elucidate what is known about HIV/AIDS and stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa. Literature about HIV/AIDS and stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa was systematically searched in Pubmed, Medscape, and Psycinfo up to March 31, 2009. No starting date limit was specified. The material was analyzed using Gilmore and Somerville's (1994) four processes of stigmatizing responses: the definition of the problem HIV/AIDS, identification of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), linking HIV/AIDS to immorality and other negative characteristics, and finally behavioural consequences of stigma (distancing, isolation, discrimination in care). It was found that the cultural construction of HIV/AIDS, based on beliefs about contamination, sexuality, and religion, plays a crucial role and contributes to the strength of distancing reactions and discrimination in society. Stigma prevents the delivery of effective social and medical care (including taking antiretroviral therapy) and also enhances the number of HIV infections. More qualitative studies on HIV/AIDS stigma including stigma in health care institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa are recommended.

Mbonu, Ngozi C.; van den Borne, Bart; De Vries, Nanne K.

2009-01-01

284

Single motherhood and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: a life course perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single motherhood in sub-Saharan Africa has received surprisingly little attention, although it is widespread and has critical implications for children's well-being. Using survival analysis techniques, we estimate the probability of becoming a single mother over women's life course and investigate the relationship between single motherhood and child mortality in 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Although a mere 5 % of women in Ethiopia have a premarital birth, one in three women in Liberia will become mothers before first marriage. Compared with children whose parents were married, children born to never-married single mothers were significantly more likely to die before age 5 in six countries (odds ratios range from 1.36 in Nigeria to 2.61 in Zimbabwe). In addition, up to 50 % of women will become single mothers as a consequence of divorce or widowhood. In nine countries, having a formerly married mother was associated with a significantly higher risk of dying (odds ratios range from 1.29 in Zambia to 1.75 in Kenya) relative to having married parents. Children of divorced women typically had the poorest outcomes. These results highlight the vulnerability of children with single mothers and suggest that policies aimed at supporting single mothers could help to further reduce child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23839100

Clark, Shelley; Hamplová, Dana

2013-10-01

285

HIV/AIDS mitigation strategies and the State in sub-Saharan Africa – the missing link?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa is widely recognised as a development disaster threatening poverty reduction, economic growth and not merely a health issue. Its mitigation includes the societal-wide adoption and implementation of specific health technologies, many of which depend on functional institutions and State. Discussion Donor and International Institutions' strategies to mitigate HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are premised on a single optimal model of the State, one which focuses on the decentralised delivery of public goods alone (such as healthcare – the service delivery state. The empirical evidence, though sparse, of "successful" and "unsuccessful" sub-Saharan Africa states' performance in mitigating HIV/AIDS does not support this model. Rather, the evidence suggests an alternative model that takes a country context specific approach – encompassing political power, institutional structures and the level of health technology needed. This model draws on the historical experience of East Asian countries' rapid development. Summary For international public health policies to be effective, they must consider a country tailored approach, one that advocates a coordinated strategy designed and led by the State with involvement of wider society specific to each country's particular history, culture, and level of development.

Johnston Deborah

2006-01-01

286

Living in a material world:political funding in electoral authoritarian regimes in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates the role of political funding in two electoral authoritarian regimes in Sub-Saharan Africa. The issue of political funding has been investigated thoroughly in developed democracies in the West, but only relatively recently have scholars tried to investigate the importance of political funding in Sub-Saharan Africa and in non-democratic regimes who still hold elections. The aim of this thesis is thus to investigate what types of political funding exists in electoral au...

Helle, Svein-erik

2011-01-01

287

Best practices for an insecticide-treated bed net distribution programme in sub-Saharan eastern Africa  

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Insecticide-treated bed nets are the preeminent malaria control means; though there is no consensus as to a best practice for large-scale insecticide-treated bed net distribution. In order to determine the paramount distribution method, this review assessed literature on recent insecticide treated bed net distribution programmes throughout sub-Saharan Eastern Africa. Inclusion criteria were that the study had taken place in sub-Saharan Eastern Africa, targeted malaria prevention and control, ...

Sexton, Alexis R.

2011-01-01

288

Role and outcomes of community health workers in HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: The provision of HIV treatment and care in sub-Saharan Africa faces multiple challenges, including weak health systems and attrition of trained health workers. One potential response to overcome these challenges has been to engage community health workers (CHWs). Methodology: A systematic literature search for quantitative and qualitative studies describing the role and outcomes of CHWs in HIV care between inception and December 2012 in sub-Saharan Africa was performed in the fo...

Mwai, Grace W.; Gitau Mburu; Kwasi Torpey; Peter Frost; Nathan Ford; Janet Seeley

2013-01-01

289

Health inequities, environmental insecurity and the attainment of the millennium development goals in sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16968967

Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

2006-09-01

290

Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia’s MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia’s systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource “brain drain”, among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or “quick wins” that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

Anyangwe, Stella C. E.; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

2006-01-01

291

Tuberculosis in association with HIV/AIDS emerges as a major nonobstetric cause of maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Every year, approximately 250,000 African women die during pregnancy, delivery, or the puerperium. Maternal mortality rates due to infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa now supersede mortality from obstetric causes. Evidence is accumulating that tuberculosis associated with HIV/AIDS, malaria, sepsis, and other opportunistic infections are the main infectious causes of maternal deaths. Screening for these killer infections within prenatal healthcare programs is essential at this stage to prevent and treat causes of maternal mortality. The combination of proven effective interventions that avert the greatest number of maternal deaths should be prioritized and expanded to cover the greatest number of women at risk, and incorporated into a "prophylaxis and treatment community package of care." The effectiveness of these "packages of care" will need to be determined subsequently. Maternal deaths from tuberculosis are now on the increase in the UK, and due diligence and watchful surveillance are required in European prenatal services. PMID:20070964

Grange, John; Adhikari, Miriam; Ahmed, Yusuf; Mwaba, Peter; Dheda, Keertan; Hoelscher, Michael; Zumla, Alimuddin

2010-03-01

292

CD4 cell count recovery among HIV-infected patients with very advanced immunodeficiency commencing antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa frequently have very advanced immunodeficiency. Previous data suggest that such patients may have diminished capacity for CD4 cell count recovery. Methods Rates of CD4 cell increase were determined over 48 weeks among ART-naïve individuals (n = 596 commencing ART in a South African community-based ART programme. Results The CD4 cell count increased from a median of 97 cells/?l at baseline to 261 cells/?l at 48 weeks and the proportion of patients with a CD4 cell count 500 cells/?l at 48 weeks, 19% had baseline CD4 cell counts Conclusion Patients in this cohort with baseline CD4 cell counts

Bekker Linda-Gail

2006-03-01

293

Early detection and response to meningococcal disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa: appraisal of the WHO strategy  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of the WHO threshold strategy for detecting meningococcal disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa and to estimate the impact of the strategy on an epidemic at district level. METHODS: Data on meningitis cases at the district level were collected weekly from health ministries, WHO country and regional offices, and nongovernmental organizations in countries where there were epidemics of meningococcal disease in 1997. An epidemic was defined as a cumulative district attack rate of at least 100 cases per 100 000 population from January to May, the period of epidemic risk. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of the WHO threshold rate were calculated, and curves of sensitivity against (1 - specificity were compared with alternatively defined threshold rates and epidemic sizes. The impact of the WHO strategy on a district epidemic was estimated by comparing the numbers of epidemic cases with cases estimated to have been prevented by vaccination. FINDINGS: An analysis was made of 48 198 cases reported in 174 districts in Benin, Burkina Faso, the Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Togo. These cases were 80.3% of those reported from Africa to WHO during the 1997 epidemic period. District populations ranged from 10 298 to 573 908. The threshold rate was crossed during two consecutive weeks in 69 districts (39.7% and there were epidemics in 66 districts (37.9%. Overall, the sensitivity of the threshold rate for predicting epidemics was 97%, the specificity was 95%, and the predictive value positive was 93%. Taken together, these values were equivalent or better than the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value positive of alternatively defined threshold rates and epidemics, and remained high regardless of district size. The estimated number of potential epidemic cases decreased by nearly 60% in the age group targeted for vaccination in one district where the guidelines were followed in a timely manner. CONCLUSION: The use of the WHO strategy was sensitive and specific for the early detection of meningococcal disease epidemics in countries of sub-Saharan Africa during 1997 and had a substantial impact on a district epidemic. Nevertheless, the burden of meningococcal disease in these countries remains formidable and additional control measures are needed.

Leake J.A.D.

2002-01-01

294

The multiplicity of malaria transmission: a review of entomological inoculation rate measurements and methods across sub-Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious tropical disease that causes more than one million deaths each year, most of them in Africa. It is transmitted by a range of Anopheles mosquitoes and the risk of disease varies greatly across the continent. The "entomological inoculation rate" is the commonly-used measure of the intensity of malaria transmission, yet the methods used are currently not standardized, nor do they take the ecological, demographic, and socioeconomic differences across populations into account. To better understand the multiplicity of malaria transmission, this study examines the distribution of transmission intensity across sub-Saharan Africa, reviews the range of methods used, and explores ecological parameters in selected locations. It builds on an extensive geo-referenced database and uses geographical information systems to highlight transmission patterns, knowledge gaps, trends and changes in methodologies over time, and key differences between land use, population density, climate, and the main mosquito species. The aim is to improve the methods of measuring malaria transmission, to help develop the way forward so that we can better assess the impact of the large-scale intervention programmes, and rapid demographic and environmental change taking place across Africa.

Kelly-Hope Louise A

2009-01-01

295

East African cheetahs: evidence for two population bottlenecks?  

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A combined population genetic and reproductive analysis was undertaken to compare free-ranging cheetahs from east Africa (Acinonyx jubatus raineyi) with the genetically impoverished and reproductively impaired south African subspecies (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). Like that of their south African counterparts, the quality of semen specimens from east African cheetahs was poor, with a low concentration of spermatozoa (25.3 X 10(6) per ejaculate) and a high incidence of morphological abnormalitie...

O Brien, S. J.; Wildt, D. E.; Bush, M.; Caro, T. M.; Fitzgibbon, C.; Aggundey, I.; Leakey, R. E.

1987-01-01

296

Further evidence of community education effects on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa  

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BACKGROUND Earlier investigations have shown that a woman's chance of having a child, or various proximate determinants of her fertility, are influenced by the socioeconomic resources in the community in which she lives, net of her own resources. METHODS This study, which is based on DHS surveys from 28 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, adds to the knowledge about this issue. With a focus on first and higher-order birth rates, four specific questions are addressed. RESULTS One result is t...

Øystein Kravdal

2012-01-01

297

Using observable trade data to measure bilateral trade costs in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Following closely the analytical approach adopted by Head and Mayer (2004) and Novy (2010), this paper derives a micro-founded bilateral trade cost measure for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a function of observable domestic and inter-national trade data. The derived measure of trade cost by Novy (2010), consistent with the Ricardian and heterogeneous firm's models of trade, enables us to track changes in trade costs in SSA over time. This is a significant contribution to the trade cost literatu...

2012-01-01

298

Essays on social protection and poverty transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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The present Ph.D. dissertation deals with the analysis of micro data from developing countries. In particular, the underlying theme is the analysis of social protection and poverty transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa studied in different contexts (i.e. urban slums and rural villages) and at different levels (i.e. local and national samples). The thesis consists of three papers, each corresponding to a chapter. The first one focuses on the risk factors leading children to street life in Zambia...

2010-01-01

299

Central Bank Independence and Inflation Targeting: Monetary Policy Framework for Sub-saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Open system-holistic family view of the macroeconomic sector sees collaborations and policy coordination between the monetary and fiscal subsystems fundamental and inalienable in the holistic family-macroeconomic sector. Full independence (isolation of the monetary subsystem from the fiscal subsystem is outlandish. The optimal point of independence shifts each time the system adapts to environmental factors but continues to lie between zero and full independence in the continuum of independence. This holistic view best describes the behaviour of modern macroeconomic sector in an ever increasingly globalized-digitalized economy. Sub-Saharan Africa can also inflation target by suitably embracing the prescribed monetary policy framework.

Oyedokun Agbeja

2007-01-01

300

Strategies to improve patient retention on antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa  

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The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been one of the success stories of sub-Saharan Africa, where coverage has increased from about 2% in 2003 to more than 40% 5 years later. However, tempering this success is a growing concern about patient retention (the proportion of patients who are alive and remaining on ART in the health system). Based on the personal experience of the authors, 10 key interventions are presented and discussed that might help to improve patient retention. The...

Harries, Anthony D.; Zachariah, Rony; Lawn, Stephen D.; Rosen, Sydney

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Coal and peat in the sub-Saharan region of Africa: alternative energy options?  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal and peat are essentially unused and in some cases unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. However, they might comprise valuable alternative energy sources in some or all of the developing nations of the region. The 11 countries considered in this appraisal reportedly contain coal and peat. On the basis of regional geology, another five countries might also contain coal-bearing rocks. If the resource potential is adequate, coal and peat might be utilized in a variety of ways including substituting for fuelwood, generating electricity, supplying process heat for local industry and increasing agricultural productivity. -from Author

Weaver, J. N.; Landis, E. R.

1990-01-01

302

Facing up to programmatic challenges created by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Three decades after the emergence of HIV, we have made great strides in our response to the epidemic, from prevention of transmission to testing and treatment. However, it is still common in high-prevalence settings for people to not know their HIV status, and estimates are that globally, a mere 36% of those eligible for treatment are receiving it. On top of this, for every person with HIV entering treatment, two more are infected. The operationa obstacles to overcoming the challenges and fully implementing proven strategies are numerous. The operational research and implementation sciences aim to provide a sound basis for how to maximize the use of limited resources by investigating the best models to deliver services and implement programmes in various settings and contexts. In this special issue, the Journal of the International AIDS Society intends to highlight some of the operational and programmatic challenges that are faced in sub-Saharan Africa, home to the largest population living with HIV. Our hope is that readers gain insight into some of the challenges associated with the HIV/AIDS epidemic and a changing environment in the region, and become familiar with some applications of operational research and implementation science in HIV healthcare settings.

Heidari Shirin

2011-07-01

303

Urbanization Drift and Obesity Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of the Situation in Nigeria.  

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Full Text Available The growing trend of obesity worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa can be linked to theurbanization drift experienced in recent years both in developed and developing countrieslike Nigeria, at four pivotal points namely: physical activity level, socio-economic status(SES, nutritional and psychosocial factors. Literature search was done usingMedline/PubMed and Google Scholar for published studies on the urbanization rate, andthe prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria. The socio-demographic determinantsof obesity among adults in the Nigerian population were female gender, marriage, lowphysical activity level, positive family history, urban area of residence and age ? 40 years.Obesity was more prevalent among women of low SES living in the urban area than thoseof high SES. Also overweight and obesity was more prevalent among young children (girlsthan boys living in an urban than rural area and attending private than public schools. Inorder to prevent a higher trend of obesity in future, more of awareness/attitudinalreorientation programmes need to be created by health based action groups incollaboration with government agencies on perception, risky lifestyles and culturesassociated with excessive weight gain.

Akpan E.E

2013-06-01

304

Comparing the Effectiveness of Informal and Formal Institutions in Sustainable Common Pool Resources Management in Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available This article compares the effectiveness of informal and formal institutions for sustainable common pool resources (CPRs management in Sub-Saharan Africa and investigates the social, political and demographic conditions that influence the institutions? effectiveness. By focusing on publications addressing micro-level CPR management, a comprehensive literature review was conducted. Articles were grouped, based on the main themes of the study, including types of institutions and conditions that influence their effectiveness. A qualitative meta-analysis was conducted using a deductive coding approach. The results revealed that informal institutions have contributed to sustainable CPR management by creating a suitable environment for joint decision-making, enabling exclusion at low cost for CPR users and using locally agreed sanctions. Although the published evidence suggested less support to formal institutions under decentralised governmental reforms, they played an important role in implementing technologies for sustainable CPR management. Conditions that influence the effectiveness of both types of institutions include high population growth on limited CPRs, the growing scarcity of CPRs due to land use change and the lack of human and financial capacities. Improving the conditions that hinder the contributions of both types of institutions is crucial to enhance the institutions? effectiveness in sustainable CPR management. Moreover, policies and development interventions should strengthen the involvement of well-functioning informal institutions in decision-making so that sustainable CPR management can be achieved.

Yami Mastewal

2009-01-01

305

A global approach to the management of EMR (Electronic Medical Records of patients with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: the experience of DREAM Software  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The DREAM Project operates within the framework of the national health systems of several sub-Saharan African countries and aims to introduce the essential components of an integrated strategy for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. The project is intended to serve as a model for a wide-ranging scale-up in the response to the epidemic. This paper aims to show DREAM's challenges and the solutions adopted. One of the solutions is the efficient management of the clinical data regarding the treatment of the patients and epidemiological analyses. Methods Specific software for the management of the patients' EMR has been created within the DREAM programme in order to deal with the challenges deriving from the context in which DREAM operates. Setting up a computer infrastructure in health centres, providing a power supply, as well as managing the data and the project resources efficiently and reliably, are some of the questions that have been analysed in this study. Results Over the years this software has proved that it is able to respond to the need for efficient management of the clinical data and organization of the health centres. Today it is used in 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa by thousands of professionals and by now it has reached its fourth version. The medical files of over 73,000 assisted patients are managed by this software and the data collected with it have become essential for the epidemiological research that is carried out to improve the effectiveness of the therapy. Conclusion Sub-Saharan Africa is the region hardest hit by HIV and AIDS in the world. However, the resources and responses adopted so far, to confront the epidemic, have at times been rather minimalist. The DREAM project has faced the battle against the epidemic by equipping itself with qualitative standards comparable to Western ones. The experience of DREAM has revealed that it is indeed possible to guarantee levels of excellence in developing countries, also in the sphere of ICT (Information and Communication Technology, thus making the intervention even more effective and contributing to bridging the digital divide.

Peroni Marco

2009-09-01

306

Enhancing global control of alcohol to reduce unsafe sex and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa carries a massive dual burden of HIV and alcohol disease, and these pandemics are inextricably linked. Physiological and behavioural research indicates that alcohol independently affects decision-making concerning sex, and skills for negotiating condoms and their correct use. More than 20 studies in Africa have reported higher occurrence of HIV among people with problem drinking; a finding strongly consistent across studies and similar among women and men. Conflation of HIV and alcohol disease in these setting is not surprising given patterns of heavy-episodic drinking and that drinking contexts are often coterminous with opportunities for sexual encounters. HIV and alcohol also share common ground with sexual violence. Both perpetrators and victims of sexual violence have a high likelihood of having drunk alcohol prior to the incident, as with most forms of violence and injury in sub-Saharan Africa. Reducing alcohol harms necessitates multi-level interventions and should be considered a key component of structural interventions to alleviate the burden of HIV and sexual violence. Brief interventions for people with problem drinking (an important component of primary health care, must incorporate specific discussion of links between alcohol and unsafe sex, and consequences thereof. Interventions to reduce alcohol harm among HIV-infected persons are also an important element in positive-prevention initiatives. Most importantly, implementation of known effective interventions could alleviate a large portion of the alcohol-attributable burden of disease, including its effects on unsafe sex, unintended pregnancy and HIV transmission.

Rees Helen V

2009-11-01

307

Private sector provision of oral rehydration therapy for child diarrhea in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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Although diarrheal mortality is cheaply preventable with oral rehydration therapy (ORT), over 700,000 children die of diarrhea annually and many health providers fail to treat diarrheal cases with ORT. Provision of ORT may differ between for-profit and public providers. This study used Demographic and Health Survey data from 19,059 children across 29 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 2003 to 2011 to measure differences in child diarrhea treatment between private for-profit and public health providers. Differences in treatment provision were estimated using probit regression models controlling for key confounders. For-profit providers were 15% points less likely to provide ORT (95% confidence interval [CI] 13-17) than public providers and 12% points more likely to provide other treatments (95% CI 10-15). These disparities in ORT provision were more pronounced for poorer children in rural areas. As private healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa continues to expand, interventions to increase private sector provision of ORT should be explored. PMID:24732456

Sood, Neeraj; Wagner, Zachary

2014-05-01

308

Sensitivity of the Investments of Sub-Saharan Firms to Financial Constraints  

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Full Text Available Investment is an important instrument of growth and competitiveness for non financial firms. However, these firms have limited financial resources (or liquidity at their disposal. The financial constraint is defined as a conditionality to be met in order to have access to liquidity by assuming that the information held by shareholders is perfect, and that financial markets are efficient. We have attempted in this study to analyze empirically the impact of these financial constraint on the investments of Sub-Saharan manufacturing firms. We carried out an empirical analysis of a sample of 73 firms belonging to the different manufacturing sectors listed on the stock market during the period 1998-2009, and by taking inspiration from panel data methodology. The empirical tests emphasize the fact that the manufacturing firms of Sub-Saharan countries, including the smallest ones and those with which financial institutions have no close relations, witness an environment with a strong information asymmetry between borrowers and lenders. These firms are constrained in their access to external indebtedness due to the levelling-off of indebtedness. However, taking account of uncertainty could enrich the extension of this study.

Elie Ngongang

2013-03-01

309

The bioethanol industry in sub-Saharan Africa: history, challenges, and prospects.  

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Recently, interest in using bioethanol as an alternative to petroleum fuel has been escalating due to decrease in the availability of crude oil. The application of bioethanol in the motor-fuel industry can contribute to reduction in the use of fossil fuels and in turn to decreased carbon emissions and stress of the rapid decline in crude oil availability. Bioethanol production methods are numerous and vary with the types of feedstock used. Feedstocks can be cereal grains (first generation feedstock), lignocellulose (second generation feedstock), or algae (third generation feedstock) feedstocks. To date, USA and Brazil are the leading contributors to global bioethanol production. In sub-Saharan Africa, bioethanol production is stagnant. During the 1980s, bioethanol production has been successful in several countries including Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. However, because of numerous challenges such as food security, land availability, and government policies, achieving sustainability was a major hurdle. This paper examines the history and challenges of bioethanol production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and demonstrates the bioethanol production potential in SSA with a focus on using bitter sorghum and cashew apple juice as unconventional feedstocks for bioethanol production. PMID:22536020

Deenanath, Evanie Devi; Iyuke, Sunny; Rumbold, Karl

2012-01-01

310

Male circumcision for HIV prevention: current evidence and implementation in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Heterosexual exposure accounts for most HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, and this mode, as a proportion of new infections, is escalating globally. The scientific evidence accumulated over more than 20 years shows that among the strategies advocated during this period for HIV prevention, male circumcision is one of, if not, the most efficacious epidemiologically, as well as cost-wise. Despite this, and recommendation of the procedure by global policy makers, national implementation has been slow. Additionally, some are not convinced of the protective effect of male circumcision and there are also reports, unsupported by evidence, that non-sex-related drivers play a major role in HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we provide a critical evaluation of the state of the current evidence for male circumcision in reducing HIV infection in light of established transmission drivers, provide an update on programmes now in place in this region, and explain why policies based on established scientific evidence should be prioritized. We conclude that the evidence supports the need to accelerate the implementation of medical male circumcision programmes for HIV prevention in generalized heterosexual epidemics, as well as in countering the growing heterosexual transmission in countries where HIV prevalence is presently low.

Wamai Richard G

2011-10-01

311

Biofuels development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Are the policies conducive?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses national, regional and international biofuels policies and strategies to assess whether these policies promote or undermine the development of biofuels sector in Africa. Despite having a huge comparative advantage in land, labour and good climatic conditions favourable for the growing of energy crops, few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have included biofuels strategies in their energy or national development policies. Further results show that while developed countries commit huge financial resources for research, technology development and the provision of tax-incentives to both producers and consumers, there is little government support for promoting biofuels in Africa. Although the consequences of biofuels on food supply remain uncertain, the mandatory blending of biofuels with fossil fuels by industrialized countries will create demand for land in Africa for the growing of energy crops for biofuels. This paper urgently calls upon national governments in Sub-Saharan Africa to develop appropriate strategies and regulatory frameworks to harness the potential economic opportunities from biofuels sector development, while protecting the environment and rural communities from the adverse effects of land alienation from the mainstream agriculture towards the growing of energy crops for biofuels at the expense of traditional food crops.

2009-11-01

312

From bulldozing to housing rights: reducing vulnerability and improving health in African slums.  

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Forced evictions heighten vulnerability among slum dwellers who already face multiple risks of ill health. They constitute a well-documented violation of economic and social rights and are reaching epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa as economic globalization creates and strengthens incentives for forced evictions. We describe evictions in the slums of four African metropolitan areas: Accra (Ghana), Lagos (Nigeria), Luanda (Angola) and Nairobi (Kenya). We survey diverse strategies used in responding to forced evictions and outline the challenges and barriers encountered. We conclude that the international human rights framework offers an important approach for protecting the health of vulnerable populations. PMID:23549705

Mohindra, Katia S; Schrecker, Ted

2013-03-01

313

Impact de la Scolarisation des Femmes sur la Fecondite et l'Utilisation de la Contraception en Afrique Sub-Saharienne: Etude de Quatorze Pays de l'Afrique Sub-Saharienne (Impact of Female Schooling on Fertility and Contraceptive Use: A Study of Fourteen Sub-Saharan Countries).  

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High fertility and the high demand for children are reflected in Sub-Saharan Africa's rapid rate of population growth, at 3.2 percent a year. Recent surveys reveal that women's 'ideal family size' ranges from six to nine children, despite important advanc...

M. Ainsworth K. Beegle A. Nyamete

1995-01-01

314

Fulbright Scholar opportunities for global health and women's health care in HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.  

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This article addresses global health opportunities related to HIV/AIDS and women's health care in sub-Saharan Africa through Fulbright Scholar and Fulbright Student Awards. Although many universities offer a gateway to the J. William Fulbright awards, some disciplines and areas of specialization, including nursing and women's health, have had fewer scholars or students as recipients of these awards. Resource-limited countries, including the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, offer rich opportunities for cross-cultural exchange and advancement of global health. Amidst the context of the shortage of health care workers, the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infectious and chronic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, and the challenges of public health, this article addresses an example of partnerships in global nursing that can be developed through the Fulbright programs. PMID:19171299

Nicholas, Patrice K; Adejumo, Oluyinka; Nokes, Kathleen M; Ncama, Busisiwe P; Bhengu, Busisiwe R; Elston, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Thomas P

2009-02-01

315

Regulation and policy initiatives for sustainable energy in sub-Saharan Africa. Chapter 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental change and sustainable development present a challenge for all nations. Developed countries have to dismantle and change historic practice before progressing, whereas developing countries can move directly to new technology and new institutional frameworks. This chapter seeks to identify trends in energy supply and use that both improve sustainability and provide opportunities for commerce and industry. Worldwide experience is studied for application in sub-Saharan Africa (abbreviated as 'Africa' henceforward). Such application is central to UNIDO's programmes in energy and environment. These programmes consider both the supply and the demand sides, by the provision of energy for industry, use of renewable energy resources and improved industrial energy end-use efficiency. Key factors are de-linking intensity of energy use from economic growth and reducing environmental damage from energy supply and use The background for this chapter is 'Sustainable Energy Regulation and Policy-making for Africa', a set of 20 training-modules produced for UNIDO and REEEP (the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership). The modules will be used by governments, regulatory offices and industry in Africa for stimulating policy and commercial development in renewable energy and energy efficiency. Of particular relevance is the general trend to more liberalized electricity supplies, as regulated within new legislation. Within each country, institutional frameworks can be changed and improved for the benefit of both citizens and commerce alike. There is a common trend worldwide to include institutional mechanisms for the increase of renewable energy generation and the efficient use of energy within regulatory legislation, e.g. (Harrington et al., 2007). Government involvement and ministerial regulation is most common for electricity. In all countries, the introductory stages of electricity supply have been strongly influenced by national and local government action and ownership. However, once initiated, an established market economy, involving many competitive private companies, should produce electricity at less cost to the consumer and the nation, than if wholly owned and operated by government. Such improvement requires a carefully constructed legal framework, especially because there are many monopoly aspects of electricity supply. The administration and control of the legal objectives requires jurisdiction, usually by the appointment of a Regulator with a specialist and independent staff. Thus, hand-in-hand with the liberalization of energy supplies is the requirement for regulation. Since 1990, liberalization of energy supply, especially of electricity, has been introduced throughout Europe. The main actions have been at national level; consequently, individual national policies and methods dominate. Nevertheless, having an integrated European electricity grid encourages commonality throughout Europe. Associated with liberalization is the growth of private company participation and hence the need for legally enforceable regulation by a Regulator. The pattern of development in Europe is similar to many other world regions including North America. However, European electricity supply is older and the population more concentrated than in most other regions, therefore the opportunity for structured liberalization came first in Europe. Consequently, the European experience is important for formulating policy elsewhere, including Africa. However, without competition from several private companies for each contract, liberalization may well fail to deliver the improved services and reduced energy tariffs expected; chapter three considers such experience. Coincidentally with the trend to energy supply liberalization, has come the need for renewable energy supplies and increased energy efficiency. This change is promoted by several factors, including: sustainable development, new technology, reduced emissions and climate change. New technology enables improvements in the efficient generation and use of energy, thus bri ngin

2007-01-01

316

3 CFR 8468 - Proclamation 8468 of December 23, 2009. To Take Certain Actions Under the African Growth and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...I have determined that the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (Mauritania) meets the eligibility requirements set forth or referenced therein, and I have decided to designate Mauritania as an eligible sub-Saharan African country...

2010-01-01

317

3 CFR 8330 - Proclamation 8330 of December 19, 2008. To Take Certain Actions Under the African Growth and...  

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...28, 2007, I designated the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (Mauritania) as an eligible sub-Saharan African country...3) of the 1974 Act, I have determined that Mauritania is not making continual progress in meeting...

2009-01-01

318

Prospects for area-wide integrated control of tsetse flies (Diptera:Glossinidae) and trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa Perspectivas para el control integrado abarcativo del área de moscas tse-tsé (Diptera: Glossinidae) y la tripanosomiasis en el África sub-Sahariana  

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Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are among the least developed in the world and hunger and poverty remains widespread in most of the rural communities. Reducing hunger and chronic under nourishment through the introduction of productive livestock as a source of traction and manure for crop production, transport, milk and meat is deemed to be a fundamental first step towards better rural development. The presence of the tsetse fly in one third of the African continent and the disease trypanosom...

Vreysen, Marc J. B.

2006-01-01

319

Derivation of a tuberculosis screening rule for sub-Saharan African prisons.  

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SETTING Lusaka Central Prison, Zambia. OBJECTIVE To derive screening rules for tuberculosis (TB) using data collected during a prison-wide TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening program. DESIGN We derived rules with two methodologies: logistic regression and classification and regression trees (C&RT). We evaluated the performance of the derived rules as well as existing World Health Organization (WHO) screening recommendations in our cohort of inmates, as measured by sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. RESULTS The C&RT-derived rule recommended diagnostic testing of all inmates who were underweight (defined as body mass index [BMI] testing of inmates who were underweight, HIV-infected or had chest pain; the logistic regression-derived rule had 74% sensitivity and 57% specificity. Two of the WHO recommendations had sensitivities that were similar to our logistic regression rule but had poorer specificities, resulting in a greater testing burden. CONCLUSION Low BMI and HIV infection were the most robust predictors of TB in our inmates; chest pain was additionally retained in one model. BMI and HIV should be further evaluated as the basis for TB screening rules for inmates, with modification as needed to improve the performance of the rules. PMID:24902551

Harris, J B; Siyambango, M; Levitan, E B; Maggard, K R; Hatwiinda, S; Foster, E M; Chamot, E; Kaunda, K; Chileshe, C; Krüüner, A; Henostroza, G; Reid, S E

2014-07-01

320

Why only one individual tests for HIV/AIDS among Sub-Saharan African Couples?  

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Voluntary Testing and Counseling (VTC) is a popular method for fighting the epidemic of HIV/AIDS. The purpose of VTC is to reduce the incidence of the virus in a twofold manner. First, testing provides access to health care and antiretroviral therapies (ARV) that diminish the transmission rate of the virus. Second, counseling would encourage safer behavior for both individuals who test HIV-negative and want to avoid a dangerous disease, and altruistic individuals who test HIV-positive and wan...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Sub-Saharan African Students’ Experiences, Perceptions, and Expectations with American Health Services: An Intercultural Challenge  

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Full Text Available Understanding patients? cultural expectations could contribute to better health outcomes and decrease cultural health disparities. This qualitative pilot study objective was to explore experiences, perceptions, and expectations of males and females Angolan students as patients in America. Eighteen face-to-face interviews were conducted at a Midwestern university. Burgoon?s expectancy violation theory (1991 was the theoretical background. Results revealed as positive expectation violations an advanced technology, quality of services, medicine availability, and emphasis on preventive care. Negative expectation violations included high service costs, complicated insurance system, short medical encounters, and difficulty in building relational history with providers. The study also revealed that culturally related communication barriers as well as negative violations of expectations hinder the quality of intercultural clinical encounters and can affect health outcomes. Participants emphasized the importance of these interpersonal relations and their connection with perceptions of caregivers? professional competence. International patients/students revealed that they believe friendliness on the part of the caregiver is a signal that they are dealing with a “good” doctor or nurse. Intercultural competence is an important asset of caregivers who work in multicultural clinics and in college health. Practical implications emerged in international advising and clinician?s education.

Claudia L. McCalman

2009-12-01

322

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN WOMEN AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A CASE OF GHANAIAN WOMEN  

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The general purpose of this project is two in one; to analyze and assess gender mainstreaming and sustainable women development policies of the two main political parties in Ghana, and to evaluate the contribution of gender biased NGOs to the course of women empowerment in Ghana. This thesis, by applying the methodological techniques of qualitative content analysis and discourse analysis explores and examines the strength and weakness of the parties’ political manifestoes. It also explores...

2005-01-01

323

Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Although considerable achievements in the global reduction of hunger and poverty have been made, progress in Africa so far has been very limited. At present, a third of the African population faces widespread hunger and chronic malnutrition and is exposed to a constant threat of acute food crisis and famine. The most affected are rural households whose livelihood is heavily dependent on traditional rainfed agriculture. Rainfall plays a major role in determining agricultural production and hen...

Haile, Menghestab

2005-01-01

324

Classical sickle beta-globin haplotypes exhibit a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity in African and Afro-Caribbean populations  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The sickle (?s mutation in the beta-globin gene (HBB occurs on five "classical" ?s haplotype backgrounds in ethnic groups of African ancestry. Strong selection in favour of the ?s allele – a consequence of protection from severe malarial infection afforded by heterozygotes – has been associated with a high degree of extended haplotype similarity. The relationship between classical ?s haplotypes and long-range haplotype similarity may have both anthropological and clinical implications, but to date has not been explored. Here we evaluate the haplotype similarity of classical ?s haplotypes over 400 kb in population samples from Jamaica, The Gambia, and among the Yoruba of Nigeria (Hapmap YRI. Results The most common ?s sub-haplotype among Jamaicans and the Yoruba was the Benin haplotype, while in The Gambia the Senegal haplotype was observed most commonly. Both subtypes exhibited a high degree of long-range haplotype similarity extending across approximately 400 kb in all three populations. This long-range similarity was significantly greater than that seen for other haplotypes sampled in these populations (P s mutation. Conclusion Two different classical ?s haplotypes, sampled from different populations, exhibit comparable and extensive long-range haplotype similarity and strong LD. This LD extends across the adjacent recombination hotspot, and is discernable at distances in excess of 400 kb. Although the multi-centric geographic distribution of ?s haplotypes indicates strong subdivision among early Holocene sub-Saharan populations, we find no evidence that selective pressures imposed by falciparum malaria varied in intensity or timing between these subpopulations. Our observations also suggest that cis-acting loci, which may influence outcomes in sickle cell disease, could lie considerable distances away from ?-globin.

Jallow Muminatou

2007-08-01

325

Plasmodium falciparum clearance in clinical studies of artesunate-amodiaquine and comparator treatments in sub-Saharan Africa, 1999-2009  

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Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the recommended first-line therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide but decreased artemisinin susceptibility, phenotypically characterized as slow parasite clearance time (PCT), has now been reported in Southeast Asia. This makes it all too important to measure the dynamics of parasite clearance in African patients treated with ACT over time, to understand trends and detect changes early enough to intervene Methods Individual patient data from 27 clinical trials of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) vs comparators conducted between 1999 and 2009 were analysed for parasite clearance on modified intent-to-treat (ITT) basis. Results Overall 15,017 patients treated for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria at 44 sites in 20 sub-Saharan African countries were included in the analysis; 51% (n=7,660) vs 49% (n=7,357) were treated with ASAQ and comparator treatments, respectively. Seventy-seven per cent (77%) were children under six years of age. The proportion of the patients treated with ASAQ with persistent parasitaemia on Day 2 was 8.6%, and 1.5% on Day 3. Risk factor for not clearing parasites on Day 2 and Day 3 calculated by multivariate logistic regression with random effect on site and controlling for treatment were: high parasitaemia before treatment was (adjusted risk ratios (AOR) 2.12, 95% CI 1.91-2.35, AOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.98-3.00, respectively); non-ACT treatment (p=0.001, for all comparisons). Anaemia (p=0.001) was an additional factor for Day 2 and young age (p=0.005) for Day 3. In patients treated with ASAQ in studies who had complete parasitaemia data every 24 hours up to Day 3 and additionally Day 7, the parasite reduction ratio was 93.9% by Day 1 and 99.9% by Day 2. Using the median parasitaemia before treatment (p0=27,125 ?L) and a fitted model, the predicted PCT (pPCT = 3.614*ln (p0) – 6.135, r² = 0.94) in ASAQ recipients was 31 hours. Conclusion Within the period covered by these studies, rapid Plasmodium falciparum clearance continues to be achieved in Sub-Saharan African patients treated with ACT, and in particular with ASAQ. The prediction formula for parasite clearance time could be a pragmatic tool for studies with binary outcomes and once-daily sampling, both for research and monitoring purposes.

2014-01-01

326

Introduction. Shrines, substances and medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: archaeological, anthropological, and historical perspectives.  

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Whereas shrines in Africa, and to a lesser extent their links with medicine and healing, have been extensively studied by historians and anthropologists, they have been largely neglected by archaeologists. Focus has been placed upon palaeopathology when medicine is considered in archaeological contexts. Difficulties certainly exist in defining medicine shrines, substances and practices archaeologically, yet research can take various forms - scapegoats and figural representations of disease; divination and diagnosis; trade and spread of medicinal substances, shrines, and amulets; syncretism of different traditions and materiality; the material culture associated with healing and medicinal substance; depictions in rock art; genetic research. A move beyond palaeopathology is required to begin to understand the archaeology of medicine shrines, substances, practices and healing in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21810034

Insoll, Timothy

2011-08-01

327

Electoral System Reform Attempts in Sub-Saharan Africa: South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya, and Zimbabwe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper provides a test of the generalizability of the barriersâ?? approach (Rahat and Hazan, 2011) to the study of electoral system reform attempts. It does so by examining a set of recent attempts of electoral system change in four Sub-Saharan countries (South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya, and Zimbabwe), some of which were successful, while other were abortive. The conclusion reached is that the barriersâ?? approach is useful as a helpful framework for evaluating such reform attempts, even though it is also less convincing in some cases. Two of the barriers (actorsâ?? vested interest and the superiority of the institutional status quo) appear to be more important than the other five barriers, i.e., what one would also expect from the outset.

Elklit, Jørgen

328

Palynology of Sub-Saharan Karoo Basins: Key to Early Mesozoic palaeoclimate reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Palynological data of Permian-Triassic formations of the Sub-Saharan Karoo basins play a crucial role in the study and for the understanding of Gondwana's climate history and biodiversity in this time of major global changes in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The palynological record reflects changes in land plant communities and vegetational patterns related to climate change and thus provides significant data for high-resolution palaeoclimate reconstructions in deep time. Recent palynological investigations of Triassic successions of South Africa, Mozambique and Tanzania document major changes in palaeoclimate. The spore/pollen ratios are used as a proxy for humidity changes. Stratal variations in the composition of the pollen group indicate warming and cooling phases. Variations in the amount and in the type, size and shape of phytoclasts reflect short-term changes in transport and weathering. The detected palaeoclimate signals are used for high-resolution correlation on basin-wide, intercontinental and intra-Gondwanic scales.

Götz, Annette E.

2014-05-01

329

The case for distributed irrigation as a development priority in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distributed irrigation systems are those in which the water access (via pump or human power), distribution (via furrow, watering can, sprinkler, drip lines, etc.), and use all occur at or near the same location. Distributed systems are typically privately owned and managed by individuals or groups, in contrast to centralized irrigation systems, which tend to be publicly operated and involve large water extractions and distribution over significant distances for use by scores of farmers. Here we draw on a growing body of evidence on smallholder farmers, distributed irrigation systems, and land and water resource availability across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to show how investments in distributed smallholder irrigation technologies might be used to (i) use the water sources of SSA more productively, (ii) improve nutritional outcomes and rural development throughout SSA, and (iii) narrow the income disparities that permit widespread hunger to persist despite aggregate economic advancement. PMID:23878242

Burney, Jennifer A; Naylor, Rosamond L; Postel, Sandra L

2013-07-30

330

North-South Rivalry and Offshore Balancing in Sub-Saharan Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sub-Saharan Africa constitutes a distinct security region and hosts a high proportion of fragile and failed states presiding over territories with abundant resources â?? but no indigenous great powers! Following offensive neorealist logic, the absence of local great powers explains the continued benign neglect of the US. External influence from European powers is nonetheless significant, albeit several BRIC countries are challenging the position of the former colonial masters. In response France and the United Kingdom (UK) have turned to European foreign and security policy integration to pool resources and promote burden sharing with other EU partners, in order to maintain power in the region. This European mobilization has kept rivals at bay but has also instigated balancing behaviour as revisionist suitors boost their conventional power projection capabilities.

Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

331

Applicability of Ground-based Remote Sensors for Crop N Management in Sub Saharan Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote sensors have a growing legacy for improving crop N use efficiency (NUE in several parts of the world. The technology employs crop spectral properties to determine fertilizer rates by matching crop N requirement based on midseason yield potential. Conclusions that the technology is inappropriate for Sub Saharan Africa (SSA because the farmers use little or no fertilizer, or cannot afford it, are reviewed. Opportunities and applicability using a model concept from the GreenSeeker® sensor ($4000 are presented. Because farmers in SSA inefficiently apply fertilizer through blanket recommendations, they must improve crop NUE to minimize cost. Application of this technology would enable refinement or development of N recommendation protocols for target groups of farmers based on site and delineated management field zones. With new developments of a prototype GreenSeeker®, the Optical Pocket Sensor (<$250, this technology will definitely be affordable and applicable, at least for institutional research purposes in SSA.

Jasper M. Teboh

2012-01-01

332

Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia’s MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia’s systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource “brain drain”, among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or “quick wins” that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

Ben Chirwa

2006-09-01

333

Who Gets What? Is Improved Access to Basic Education Pro-Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores changing patterns of access to basic education in six Sub-Saharan Africa countries using data from Demographic and Health Surveys at two points in time. In general the analysis confirms that participation of children in schooling has increased over the last decade. However, access to education remains strongly associated with…

Lewin, Keith M.; Sabates, Ricardo

2012-01-01

334

Increasing the Supply of Secondary Teachers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Stakeholder Assessment of Policy Options in Six Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the next decade many countries of sub-Saharan Africa will face a demand for qualified secondary school teachers that current systems for teacher recruitment, training, deployment and retention will be unable to meet. While strategies for increasing teacher supply to meet this shortage have been suggested, less attention has been given to…

Dejaeghere, Joan G.; Chapman, David W.; Mulkeen, Aidan

2006-01-01

335

Public Funding and Budgetary Challenges to Providing Universal Access to Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Budgetary capacity that would allow for the public funding of the provision of universal access to primary education is lacking in many sub-Saharan economies. National revenues significantly lag behind the overall economic productivity measure of GDP. Analysis of data derived from UNESCO and UNDP for 2004 shows that governments in the region spend…

Omwami, Edith Mukudi; Keller, Edmond J.

2010-01-01

336

76 FR 35217 - Notice of Open Special Meeting of the Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee (SAAC) of the Export...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Notice of Open Special Meeting of the Sub-Saharan...the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Export-Import Bank) SUMMARY...development and implementation of policies and programs designed to...

2011-06-16

337

75 FR 70259 - Notice of Open Special Meeting of the Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee (SAAC) of the Export...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Notice of Open Special Meeting of the Sub-Saharan...the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Export-Import Bank). SUMMARY...development and implementation of policies and programs designed to...

2010-11-17

338

75 FR 16808 - Notice of Open Special Meeting of the Sub-Saharan Africa Advisory Committee (SAAC) of the Export...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Notice of Open Special Meeting of the Sub-Saharan...the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Export-Import Bank) SUMMARY...development and implementation of policies and programs designed to...

2010-04-02

339

MICROFINANCE - FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY VS. SOCIAL REACH IN SUB-SAHARAN ÁFRICA  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the financial sustentability versus social impact of microfinance institutions in sub-Saharan Africa region. The sample consisted of 246 microfinance institutions present in this region that have their results published in the database of the organization MIX (Microfinance Information Exchange in 2009, which is the most complete source of information of the sector. For the study, we considered various social and financial indicators that are a reference for specialized entities in evaluating the performance of microfinance institutions (as in the case of MIX and Planet Rating and are typically used in similar research. In accordance with the results obtained institutions with lower amounts of loans to GDP per capita of the respective country in which they perform the activity can have a far social reaching, because they concede smaller borrows, whose target are customers with less income and cover a greater number of women in their financial operations. It was evident, too, the existence of trade-off between social impact and financial performance, in other words, the institutions that had the poor as its target, showed economic and financial indicators less positive. Generally, it was found that institutions with greater focus on the poorest obtained lower profitability’s, although offered higher interest rates and had better efficiency indicators in the activity. Regarding financial structure, it was found that these institutions do not have much capacity to attract deposits and present a higher financial autonomy against other, possibly because access to more donations or grants, once the average results generated in the activity are negative and by itself does not guarantee financial sustainability. Finally, we studied the constraints of the financial performance of microfinance institutions in sub-Saharan Africa region and it was found that it is mainly the size and efficiency that affect the profitability of the activity.

Nuno Miguel Teixeira

2013-12-01

340

Market Barriers to Clean Cooking Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Literature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the developing nations of sub-Saharan Africa, providing households with modern energy services is a critical step towards development. A large majority of households in the region rely on traditional biomass fuels for cooking, which represent a significant proportion of energy used in the domestic setting. The disadvantages of these fuels are many: they are inefficient energy carriers and their heat is difficult to control; they produce dangerous emissions; and their current rate of extraction is not sustainable for forests. Transition to clean cooking fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or ethanol would resolve many of these issues as they do not produce dangerous particulate emissions, and are commercially viable, offering a number of socio-economic advantages over traditional options. Despite the benefits of fuel switching, clean cooking fuels are rarely used in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Their failure to attain widespread use can be attributed to a number of market barriers. One of the major issues is cost: clean cooking fuels are prohibitively expensive for many households, and the high price of compatible stoves further discourages their use. Besides the expense, many consumers are hesitant to adopt the new technology, reflecting the lack of public awareness of the relevant issues. At the same time, Africa's underdeveloped infrastructure prevents these fuels from being made available in many local marketplaces. To date, this combination of factors has largely stifled the transition to clean cooking fuels. National governments can adopt a number of strategies to address these issues. The creation of clean cooking-fuel initiatives at the national level would be an important first step, after which governments can begin to address the issues more effectively. The introduction of relevant financial instruments would help to tackle the economic barriers to clean cooking fuels, and public outreach and education could overcome socio-cultural obstacles. Through such a policy framework, national governments can play a significant role in encouraging the transition to clean cooking fuels

Schlag, Nicolai; Zuzarte, Fiona

2008-04-15

 
 
 
 
341

Development of a Fetal Weight Chart Using Serial Trans-Abdominal Ultrasound in an East African Population: A Longitudinal Observational Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To produce a fetal weight chart representative of a Tanzanian population, and compare it to weight charts from Sub-Saharan Africa and the developed world. Methods: A longitudinal observational study in Northeastern Tanzania. Pregnant women were followed throughout pregnancy with serial trans-abdominal ultrasound. All pregnancies with pathology were excluded and a chart representing the optimal growth potential was developed using fetal weights and birth weights. The weight chart wa...

Schmiegelow, Christentze; Scheike, Thomas; Oesterholt, Mayke; Minja, Daniel; Pehrson, Caroline; Magistrado, Pamela; Lemnge, Martha; Rasch, Vibeke; Lusingu, John; Theander, Thor G.; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun

2012-01-01

342

A Head-to-Head Comparison of Four Artemisinin-Based Combinations for Treating Uncomplicated Malaria in African Children: A Randomized Trial  

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The Four Artemisinin-Based Combinations (4ABC) Study Group reports a randomized, non-inferiority trial comparing the efficacy and safety of four ACTs in children with mild Plasmodium falciparum malaria from seven sub-Saharan African countries.

2011-01-01

343

The complex and diversified mitochondrial gene pool of Berber populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mitochondrial DNA variation of 295 Berber-speakers from Morocco (Asni, Bouhria and Figuig) and the Egyptian oasis of Siwa was evaluated by sequencing a portion of the control region (including HVS-I and part of HVS-II) and surveying haplogroup-specific coding region markers. Our findings show that the Berber mitochondrial pool is characterized by an overall high frequency of Western Eurasian haplogroups, a somehow lower frequency of sub-Saharan L lineages, and a significant (but differential) presence of North African haplogroups U6 and M1, thus occupying an intermediate position between European and sub-Saharan populations in PCA analysis. A clear and significant genetic differentiation between the Berbers from Maghreb and Egyptian Berbers was also observed. The first are related to European populations as shown by haplogroup H1 and V frequencies, whereas the latter share more affinities with East African and Nile Valley populations as indicated by the high frequency of M1 and the presence of L0a1, L3i, L4*, and L4b2 lineages. Moreover, haplogroup U6 was not observed in Siwa. We conclude that the origins and maternal diversity of Berber populations are old and complex, and these communities bear genetic characteristics resulting from various events of gene flow with surrounding and migrating populations. PMID:19053990

Coudray, C; Olivieri, A; Achilli, A; Pala, M; Melhaoui, M; Cherkaoui, M; El-Chennawi, F; Kossmann, M; Torroni, A; Dugoujon, J M

2009-03-01

344

Traditional African Political Thought and the Crisis of Governance in Contemporary African Societies  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the relationship between the normative outlook and political philoso- phy of traditional societies on the one hand, and the crises of governance and leadership in contemporary African Societies, particularly subSaharan states, on the other. Although there are quite some differences in the quality of leadership and governance among sub-Saharan African states because of the different political and economic circumstances, this part of the globe taken as a whole remains underdeveloped in terms of having the will to institute and maintain stable polities with responsive, responsible and efficient governance.

J. C. Achike Agbakoba

2004-04-01

345

¿Vivir juntos es convivir? Un análisis en profundidad de la convivencia en pisos de acogida para población de origen subsahariano en el municipio de Madrid Does Living with Mean Living Together? An in-Depth Analysis of Coexistence in Host Homes for sub-Saharan Population in the City of Madrid  

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Full Text Available Este trabajo explora en detalle la convivencia en pisos de acogida de personas africanas en el municipio de Madrid. La introducción pone sobre la mesa el debate de la desinstitucionalización en España y plantea la necesidad de relacionar las prácticas formales, planificadas y organizadas por el equipo de intervención con las prácticas informales desarrolladas por las personas participantes, para entender la complejidad del mismo. La investigación, de corte etnográfico, describe el caso de un programa de de acogida que contaba con 25 personas participantes, principalmente, de Malí, Guinea Conakry, Costa de Marfil y Senegal, residentes en tres pisos distintos. A través de una metodología cualitativa que incluyó observación participante, registros fotográficos realizados por las propias participantes, entrevistas en profundidad, dibujos y fotografías de los pisos, se encontraron resultados relevantes. En efecto, se documentaron tres procesos relacionados con el clima de convivencia en el piso, a saber, la interacción social y la actividad conjunta, la gestión interna de los pisos y la existencia de un liderazgo favorecedor o desfavorecedor de la convivencia. A partir de la consideración de estos procesos en tanto que prácticas informales que están cultural, social e históricamente situadas, se pone de manifiesto que altos niveles de interacción y actividad entre las participantes, un liderazgo favorecedor de la participación y una gestión colectiva de las tareas del piso se relacionaban con un alto grado de participación en las prácticas formales del proyecto. En las conclusiones se discute la posible relación entre las prácticas informales y las características (lengua, edad, tiempo de estancia en el proyecto de los distintos grupos que habitaban cada uno de los pisos. This article shows the results of a research project that examines the coexistence of African people who live in a host program in the city of Madrid. The introduction brings up the deinstitutionalization debate in Spain and shows the need to relate the formal practices organized by the intervention team, with the informal practices developed by the participants in order to understand the program's complexity. This ethnographic research describes the case of a host program with 25 participants who came mainly from Mali, Guinea Conakry, Ivory Coast and Senegal who were hosted in three different apartments. Using different qualitative techniques like participant observation, photographic recording, in-depth interviews, draws and photographs of the apartments, we found that the climate of coexistence in the host program was related to three processes: social interaction, internal management and leadership. Considering these processes as informal practices (cultural, social and historically situated we can say that high levels of interaction and activity among participants, a collective management of the housework and a positive leadership are related with high levels of participation in the formal practices of the project. Finally we discuss how these processes are related with the group characteristics (language, age, length of stay of each apartment.

Ione Belarra

2013-12-01

346

Digging deeper into East African human Y chromosome lineages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most significant and widely studied remodeling of the African genetic landscape is the Bantu expansion, which led to an almost total replacement of the previous populations from the sub-Saharan region. However, a poor knowledge exists about other population movements, namely, the Nilotic migration, which is a pastoralist dispersal that, contrary to the Bantu expansion, impacted only East African populations. Here, samples from a Ugandan Nilotic-speaking population were studied for 37 Y chromosome-specific SNPs, and the obtained data were compared with those already available for other sub-Saharan population groups. Although Uganda lies on the fringe of both Bantu and Nilotic expansions, a low admixture with Bantu populations was detected, with haplogroups carrying M13, M182 and M75 mutations prevailing in Nilotes together with a low frequency of the main Bantu haplogroups from clade E1b1a-M2. The results of a comparative analysis with data from other population groups allowed a deeper characterization of some lineages in our sample, clarifying some doubts about the origin of some particular Y-SNPs in different ethnic groups, such as M150, M112 and M75. Moreover, it was also possible to identify a new Y-SNP apparently specific to Nilotic groups, as well as the presence of particular haplogroups that characterize Nilotic populations. The detection of a new haplogroup B2a1b defined by G1, could be, therefore, important to differentiate Nilotes from other groups, helping to trace migration and admixture events that occurred in eastern Africa. PMID:20213473

Gomes, Verónica; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Amorim, António; Carracedo, Angel; Gusmão, Leonor

2010-03-01

347

Anti-malarial market and policy surveys in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

At a recent meeting (Sept 18, 2009) in which reasons for the limited access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in sub-Saharan Africa were discussed, policy and market surveys on anti-malarial drug availability and accessibility in Burundi and Sierra Leone were presented in a highly interactive brainstorming session among key stakeholders across private, public, and not-for-profit sectors. The surveys, the conduct of which directly involved the national malaria control programme managers of the two countries, provides the groundwork for evidence-based policy implementation. The results of the surveys could be extrapolated to other countries with similar socio-demographic and malaria profiles. The meeting resulted in recommendations on key actions to be taken at the global, national, and community level for better ACT accessibility. At the global level, both public and private sectors have actions to take to strengthen policies that lead to the replacement of loose blister packs with fixed-dose ACT products, develop strategies to ban inappropriate anti-malarials and regulate those bans, and facilitate technology and knowledge transfer to scale up production of fixed-dose ACT products, which should be readily available and affordable to those patients who are in the greatest need of these medicines. At the national level, policies that regulate the anti-malarial medicines market should be enacted and enforced. The public sector, including funding donors, should participate in ensuring that the private sector is engaged in the ACT implementation process. Research similar to the surveys discussed is important for other countries to develop and evaluate the right incentives at a local level. At the community level, community outreach and education about appropriate preventive and treatment measures must continue and be strengthened, with service delivery systems developed within both public and private sectors, among other measures, to decrease access to ineffective and inappropriate anti-malarial medicines. What was clear during the meeting is that continuing commitment, strengthened interaction and transparency among various stakeholders, with focus on communities, national governments, and evidence-based policy and action are the only way to sustainably address the control of malaria, a disease which continues to have a significant health and socio-economic impact worldwide, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Details on the methodology employed in carrying out the studies discussed at this meeting, as well as more detailed results, data analysis and discussion of the studies are soon to be published. PMID:20423536

Diap, Graciela; Amuasi, John; Boakye, Isaac; Sevcsik, Ann-Marie; Pecoul, Bernard

2010-01-01

348

Deployment of community health workers across rural sub-Saharan Africa: financial considerations and operational assumptions / Déploiement des agents de santé communautaires en Afrique rurale subsaharienne: considérations financières et hypothèses opérationnelles / Despliegue de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud en zonas rurales del África subsahariana: consideraciones financieras y supuestos operativos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Facilitar asesoramiento sobre los costes necesarios para desarrollar un sistema de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud (TCS) con capacidad para adaptarse a ámbitos locales y con flexibilidad a nivel nacional, en el marco de los sistemas sanitarios de atención primaria en el África subsah [...] ariana. MÉTODOS: Se estimaron los gastos anuales para la capacitación, el equipamiento y el despliegue de los trabajadores comunitarios de la salud en las zonas rurales del África subsahariana mediante el análisis de datos procedentes de la literatura, así como del Proyecto Aldeas del Milenio. Los supuestos del modelo son adecuados para permitir a los gobiernos nacionales adaptar el subsistema de los trabajadores comunitarios de la salud a las necesidades nacionales, así como para realizar un despliegue medio de un trabajador comunitario de la salud por cada 650 habitantes en las zonas rurales antes de 2015. El subsistema de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud descrito se calculó mediante el análisis de datos del sistema de información geográfica (GIS, por sus siglas en inglés) sobre la población, los territorios urbanos, la incidencia de enfermedades a nivel nacional y subnacional, así como los costes unitarios (en el campo de salarios y necesidades básicas). El modelo puede configurarse y reproducirse con facilidad. Los países pueden adaptarlo a los precios, los salarios, la densidad demográfica, así como a la carga de enfermedades locales en distintas áreas geográficas. RESULTADOS: Se estima que el coste medio anual por el despliegue de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud para prestar atención a toda la población de las zonas rurales del África subsahariana antes de 2015 sería de unos 2,6 billones (es decir, 2 600 millones) de dólares estadounidenses (US$). Dicha suma, que será cubierta tanto por los gobiernos nacionales como por los socios donantes, se traduce en US$ 6,86 anuales por habitante, cubierta por el subsistema de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud, y en US$ 2,72 anuales por habitante. Asimismo, la capacitación, el equipamiento y el apoyo a cada TCS supondría una media anual de US$ 3750. CONCLUSIÓN: Se pueden desplegar subsistemas integrales de trabajadores comunitarios de la salud en todo el África subsahariana por un coste modesto, si se compara con los costes previstos para un sistema de atención sanitaria primaria. A juzgar por los éxitos documentados, estos ofrecen un sólido complemento para la atención en servicios sanitarios en entornos rurales de África. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To provide cost guidance for developing a locally adaptable and nationally scalable community health worker (CHW) system within primary-health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The yearly costs of training, equipping and deploying CHWs throughout rural sub-Saharan Africa were c [...] alculated using data from the literature and from the Millennium Villages Project. Model assumptions were such as to allow national governments to adapt the CHW subsystem to national needs and to deploy an average of 1 CHW per 650 rural inhabitants by 2015. The CHW subsystem described was costed by employing geographic information system (GIS) data on population, urban extents, national and subnational disease prevalence, and unit costs (from the field for wages and commodities). The model is easily replicable and configurable. Countries can adapt it to local prices, wages, population density and disease burdens in different geographic areas. FINDINGS: The average annual cost of deploying CHWs to service the entire sub-Saharan African rural population by 2015 would be approximately 2.6 billion (i.e. 2600 million) United States dollars (US$). This sum, to be covered both by national governments and by donor partners, translates into US$ 6.86 per year per inhabitant covered by the CHW subsystem and into US$ 2.72 per year per inhabitant. Alternatively, it would take an annual average of US$ 3750 to train, eq

Gordon C, McCord; Anne, Liu; Prabhjot, Singh.

349

African Language Books for Children: Issues for Authors  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing interest in bilingual education in sub-Saharan Africa has highlighted an urgent need for reading material in African languages. In this paper, we focus on authors, one of several groups of stakeholders with responsibility for meeting this demand. We address three main issues: the nature and extent of African language publishing for…

Edwards, Viv; Ngwaru, Jacob Marriote

2012-01-01

350

Evaluating the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to estimate HIV incidence among adults in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serological assays for estimating HIV-1 incidence are prone to misclassification, limiting the accuracy of the incidence estimate. Adjustment factors have been developed and recommended for estimating assay-based HIV-1 incidence in cross-sectional settings. We evaluated the performance of the recommended adjustment factors for estimating incidence in national HIV surveys in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The BED-capture enzyme immunoassay was applied to stored blood specimens from (1) pregnant women aged 15-49 years attending antenatal clinics in Côte d'Ivoire (1998-2004), (2) adults aged 15-49 years participating in a demographic health survey in Kenya (2003), and (3) adults aged 15-49 years participating in a national household serosurvey in South Africa (2005). Assay-derived incidence estimates were corrected for misclassification using recommended adjustment factors and, where possible, were compared to mathematically modeled incidence in the same populations. Trends in HIV prevalence were compared to trends in assay-derived incidence to assess plausibility in the assay-derived trends. Unadjusted incidence was 3.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.3-4.5] in Côte d'Ivoire, 3.5% (2.7-4.3) in Kenya, and 4.4% (CI 2.3-6.5]) in South Africa. Adjusted incidence was 2.9% (CI 2.1-3.7) in Côte d'Ivoire, 2.6% (CI 2.0-3.2) in Kenya, and 2.4% (CI 1.7-3.1) in South Africa. After adjustment, peak incidence shifted from older to younger age groups in Côte d'Ivoire and South Africa. Modeled HIV incidence was 1.0% (CI 1.02-1.08) in Kenya and 2.0% (CI 1.7-2.4) in South Africa. After applying the recommended adjustments factors, adjusted assay-derived estimates remained implausibly high in two of three populations evaluated. For more accurate measures of assay-derived population incidence, adjustment factors must be locally derived and validated. Until improved assays are available, caution should be applied in the use and interpretation of data from incidence assays. PMID:20849299

Kim, Andrea A; McDougal, John S; Hargrove, John; Rehle, Thomas; Pillay-Van Wyk, Victoria; Puren, Adrian; Ekra, Alexandre; Borget-Alloue, Marie-Yolande; Adje-Toure, Christiane; Abdullahi, Ahmed Sheikh; Odawo, Linus; Marum, Lawrence; Parekh, Bharat S

2010-10-01

351

Were There Commercial Communications between Prehistoric Harappans and African Populations?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is an historical and scientific evaluation of Western archaeologists’ theories concerning ancient population movements and commercial contacts between the prehistoric Harappans and African populations during the Indus Age (2500-1900 BC). In this context the human skeletal remains and artifacts from Harappa and Mohenjodaro are relevant. An urnburial from the Indus river site of Chanhudaro has an important bearing upon this subject. The scientific aspect of this study is the provis...

Kennedy, Kenneth A. R.; Possehl, Gregory L.

2012-01-01

352

THE ROLE OF WEALTH IN INFANT MORTALITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA WITHIN URBAN AND BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS  

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Full Text Available This study investigates the role of wealth in infant mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, hereafter (SSA. Using recent data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS, we document the differences that exit within urban and between urban and rural residents in Sub-Saharan Africa based on wealth. Our findings lead us to conclude that there is a statistical significant difference both within urban residents and within rural residents on wealth and infant mortality. Furthermore, we find that literacy is significant in explaining association with infant mortality. Our findings lend credence to previous studies on the importance of wealth and literacy on any policy program to address health inequalities in developing countries

Okechukwu D. Anyamele

2011-02-01

353

Further evidence of community education effects on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND Earlier investigations have shown that a woman's chance of having a child, or various proximate determinants of her fertility, are influenced by the socioeconomic resources in the community in which she lives, net of her own resources. METHODS This study, which is based on DHS surveys from 28 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, adds to the knowledge about this issue. With a focus on first and higher-order birth rates, four specific questions are addressed. RESULTS One result is that the effects of the average education in the census enumeration area in which a woman lives, net of her own education, have remained stable or become stronger over the last decade. Second, these effects are most pronounced among women who score high on indicators of socioeconomic development, which suggests that they may become further strengthened. Third, effects even appear when a fixed-effects approach - based on data from two DHS surveys with GPS coordinates in each country - is employed to control for unobserved constant characteristics of units at a slightly higher level than the census enumeration area. Fourth, local processes seem to be particularly important: the education among women in the province or nearest census enumeration areas does not have a similar fertility-depressing effect.

Øystein Kravdal

2012-11-01

354

Will Sub-Saharan Africa Meet the Millennium Development Goals and Does it Matter?  

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Full Text Available In 2000 the largest gathering of world leaders in history met at the United Nations to endorse the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs and these goals have received wide-spread attention since then. This paper examines these goals and also considers the larger issue of economic growth and development. For sub-Saharan Africa’s economies to grow, we need to recognize the role and functions of the informal ruling sector and also acknowledge the incentives involved. Equally important perhaps, we need to rethink the development agenda: today that agenda is dictated by and large by the Western donors. In the future that agenda must be driven by the realities of the combination of the mix of informal and formal governing structures. If rulers continue to commit to meeting the objectives at the formal level while at the same time prioritize the demands of the informal sector then they will not be able to escape the poverty trap and underdevelopment nor move toward true, sustained economic and social development for all of their people. At the end of the day, what really matters is not if Africa reaches the Millennium Development Goals, since goals, while important in measuring welfare success, do not really address the more urgent need for stimulating productive and sustained economic growth that in the long term will translate into higher welfare. 

Donald Lee Sparks

2013-01-01

355

Water-balance approach for assessing potential for smallholder groundwater irrigation in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Strategies for increasing the development and use of groundwater for agriculture over much of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are urgently needed. Expansion of small-scale groundwater irrigation offers an attractive option to smallholder farmers to overcome unreliable wet-season rainfall and enhance dry-se [...] ason production. This paper presents a simple, generic groundwater-balance-based methodology that uses a set of type-curves to assist with decision making on the scope for developing sustainable groundwater irrigation supplies, and to help understand how cropping choices influence the potential areal extent of irrigation. Guidance to avoid over-exploitation of the resource is also provided. The methodology is applied to 2 sites in West Africa with contrasting climatic and subsurface conditions. At both sites the analysis reveals that there is significant potential for further groundwater development for irrigation whilst allowing provisions for other sectoral uses, including basic human needs and the environment.

P, Pavelic; V, Smakhtin; G, Favreau; KG, Villholth.

356

A Spatial Approach to Analyze Crop Sensitivity to Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT), a process-based crop model, was used to analyze crop sensitivity to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The projection of climate change impact on agriculture is challenging because of the complex interaction among multiple parameters related to cropping system. Change in atmospheric CO2 concentration and the resulting shifts in temperature and precipitation pattern will influence future crop yield. Spatial variability in crop productivity in future climate scenario is a key factor to better understand the impact of climate on regional agriculture. However, extensive spatial analysis of climate change impact on crop productivity has not been performed. In this study, we ran DSSAT for maize and sorghum production in SSA at a spatial resolution of 0.5° in order to capture the spatial and temporal variability of crop response to changes in temperature and precipitation. We found that both temperature and precipitation variability significantly influence the productivity in the region. While the overall yield tends to decrease with increase in temperature, a positive correlation exists between yield and growing season precipitation. Many factors associated with regional agricultural practice, such as cultivar selection, planting date, application of fertilizer and irrigation, and so on, are largely determined by the decision of local farmers. Therefore, it is somewhat difficult to quantify those variables and reproduce the observed yield on a spatial scale using a process-based crop model.

Ahmed, K. F.; Wang, G.; You, L.; Koo, J.

2013-12-01

357

Thermal comfort in sub-Saharan Africa: Field study report in Jos-Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is much documented material concerning human thermal comfort from the physiological, adaptive and social convention paradigms. Most of these studies have been conducted on limited-occupancy buildings, such as offices and institutions of higher learning in the northern hemisphere and parts of the ASEAN region; the subjects generally being adults and assumed to be in good health. In contrast, limited work appears to have been carried out in regularly occupied buildings like homes and in tropical sub-Saharan Africa. This study seeks to fill this gap by providing empirical thermal comfort data from a city in the tropical savannah region of Africa. The data collected include temperature, humidity, CO{sub 2} level and lighting level, as well as results from questionnaires on the occupants' sensations of thermal comfort. The results show the range of conditions in which occupants in naturally ventilated buildings are comfortable. The preferred conditions suggested by the data are an operative temperature of just over 26 C. (author)

Ogbonna, A.C.; Harris, D.J. [School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15

358

Malaria prevention in Sub-Saharan Africa: a field study in rural Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria, a completely preventable and treatable disease, remains one of the biggest killers in Sub-Saharan Africa today. The objectives of this study were to describe the impact of malaria on a small rural community in Uganda (Bufuula) and to implement and evaluate a malaria prevention program (subsidised insecticide treated nets with an accompanying education session). In January 2006, a survey of 202 households (100% response rate) was conducted, and meetings held with the Village Council, which revealed that malaria was the community's major cause of morbidity and mortality, and showed there was a lack of access to preventative measures. Furthermore, 34% of each household's income was allocated to the burden of malaria. A malaria education and mosquito net distribution session was held in January 2006, which was attended by over 500 villagers who purchased 480 heavily-subsidised long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs). Home visits were conducted 1 week later to ensure the LLINs were hung correctly. A follow-up survey was conducted in January 2007. There was a rise in net ownership following the program (18% to 51%, P districts simultaneously rather than on a per-community basis. The evidence for super-targeting strategies for those most vulnerable is also considered. These findings provide important lessons and considerations for other wide-scale malaria prevention programs. PMID:19365713

Williams, Phoebe C M; Martina, Alan; Cumming, Robert G; Hall, John

2009-08-01

359

The political economy of environmental goods and services demand in sub-Saharan Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technologies for solving existing environmental problems are collectively called environmental goods and services (EGS). The question is, how can sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) nations take advantage of the existing environmental technologies and avoid reinventing the wheel? In this paper, the authors present a broader political economy perspective to argue that countries must take adjustments in both the domestic institutional structure (democratization, governance, administrative transparency, protection of intellectual property rights, etc.) in addition to the ongoing macro-economic adjustments if they are to benefit from existing technologies. The next, empirical section of the article investigates the relationship between imports of EGS in SSA countries, and selected institutional, economic and structural variables. The following section presents background of the EGS industry, focusing particularly on the industry in the United States. Selected factors influencing the import of EGS products into SSA are examined within a political economy framework and against a background of ongoing structural reform programs. A statistical relationship between the factors and imports of EGS is formulated and used to provide quantitative impacts of the factors critical to a sustainable use of existing technologies. Finally, policy implications of the conclusions are discussed. 30 refs., 3 tabs., 1 app.

Avery, B.; Boadu, F.O. [Hewitt Associates, The Woodlands, TX (United States)

1998-12-31

360

Research and training in medicinal chemistry in south and central american countries and sub-saharan Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the proposal to search for universal cooperation in the field of Medicinal Chemistry, the IUPAC group has elaborated a line of work divided into two phases: a- An Awareness of the true situation of Medicinal Chemistry in the different geographic areas of the world; b- A proposal of actions as to achieve more effective cooperation. This first report presents and discusses the actual situation in South and Central America as well as in sub-Saharan Africa.

Antonio Monge

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Socio-economic determinants in selecting childhood diarrhoea treatment options in Sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel model  

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ackground: Diarrhoea disease which has been attributed to poverty constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged five and below in most low-and-middle income countries. This study sought to examine the contribution of individual and neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics to caregivers treatment choices for managing childhood diarrhoea at household level in sub-Saharan Africa. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Multilevel multinomial logistic r...

Aremu, Olatunde; Lawoko, Stephen; Moradi, Tahereh; Dalal, Koustuv

2011-01-01

362

The use of paediatric artemisinin combinations in sub-Saharan Africa: a snapshot questionnaire survey of health care personnel  

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Abstract Background Paediatric drug formulations for artemisinin combination therapy (P-ACT) have been developed over the past few years and have been shown to improve the therapeutic management of young children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. This process was however not equally paralleled by a timely adoption of P-ACT in national and international treatment recommendations. National malaria programmes in sub-Saharan Africa have not yet widely embraced this new thera...

Agnandji Selidji T; Kurth Florian; Fernandes Jose F; Soulanoudjingar Solange S; Abossolo Beatrice P; Mombo-Ngoma Ghyslain; Basra Arti; González Raquel; Kizito Gondo; Mayengue Pembe I; Auer-Hackenberg Lorenz; Issifou Saadou; Lell Bertrand; Adegnika Ayola A; Ramharter Michael

2011-01-01

363

Research and training in medicinal chemistry in south and central american countries and sub-saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available With the proposal to search for universal cooperation in the field of Medicinal Chemistry, the IUPAC group has elaborated a line of work divided into two phases: a- An Awareness of the true situation of Medicinal Chemistry in the different geographic areas of the world; b- A proposal of actions as to achieve more effective cooperation. This first report presents and discusses the actual situation in South and Central America as well as in sub-Saharan Africa.

Antonio Monge

1997-12-01

364

Regional Financial Integration in Sub-Saharan Africa - An Empirical Examination of its Effects on Financial Market Development  

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This paper examines the effects of political agreements on regional financial integration (RFI) on financial market development and access to and cost of finance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that RFI positively affects financial development - measured very broadly as the size of the financial sector, including the liabilities of the central banks - when combined with a sufficient level of institutional quality. If institutional quality is below a threshold level, RFI apparently ...

Frey, Leo; Volz, Ulrich

2011-01-01

365

Maternal and early onset neonatal bacterial sepsis: burden and strategies for prevention in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Maternal and child health are high priorities for international development. Through a Review of published work, we show substantial gaps in current knowledge on incidence (cases per live births), aetiology, and risk factors for both maternal and early onset neonatal bacterial sepsis in sub-Saharan Africa. Although existing published data suggest that sepsis causes about 10% of all maternal deaths and 26% of neonatal deaths, these are likely to be considerable underestimates because of method...

2009-01-01

366

Identifying potential synergies and trade-offs for meeting food security and climate change objectives in sub-Saharan Africa  

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Potential interactions between food production and climate mitigation are explored for two situations in sub-Saharan Africa, where deforestation and land degradation overlap with hunger and poverty. Three agriculture intensification scenarios for supplying nitrogen to increase crop production (mineral fertilizer, herbaceous legume cover crops—green manures—and agroforestry—legume improved tree fallows) are compared to baseline food production, land requirements to meet basic caloric req...

Palm, Cheryl A.; Smukler, Sean M.; Sullivan, Clare C.; Mutuo, Patrick K.; Nyadzi, Gerson I.; Walsh, Markus G.

2010-01-01

367

Calibration and evaluation of a semi-distributed watershed model of sub-Saharan Africa using GRACE data  

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Irrigation development is rapidly expanding in mostly rainfed Sub-Saharan Africa. This expansion underscores the need for a more comprehensive understanding of water resources beyond surface water. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide valuable information on spatio-temporal variability of water storage. The objective of this study was to calibrate and evaluate a semi-distributed regional-scale hydrological model, or a large-scale application of the Soil and Water...

Xie, H.; Longuevergne, L.; Ringler, C.; Scanlon, B.

2012-01-01

368

Calibration and evaluation of a semi-distributed watershed model of Sub-Saharan Africa using GRACE data  

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Irrigation development is rapidly expanding in mostly rainfed Sub-Saharan Africa. This expansion underscores the need for a more comprehensive understanding of water resources beyond surface water. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide valuable information on spatio-temporal variability in water storage. The objective of this study was to calibrate and evaluate a semi-distributed regional-scale hydrologic model based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) co...

Xie, H.; Longuevergne, L.; Ringler, C.; Scanlon, B. R.

2012-01-01

369

FROM THE LIBERATION STRUGGLE TO “PURE AVARICE”: INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW AND THE FRAMING OF CRIME IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA  

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Abstract: The view advanced in this article is that over the past few decades, the efforts of Sub-Saharan Africa elites to promote human rights discourse and establish liberal institutions of the nation-state have constrained the space for justifiable law-breaking and enlarged the category of criminality. Taken together, national and international security are now pursued more through the idiom of crime and rule of law than through the political process. As a result, there...

2012-01-01

370

Scrotal necrosis to total de-gloving injury of the male genitalia: an experience from Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Full Text Available Two patients with very different aetiologies of their genital injuries are presented: one lost his scrotal skin as a result of Fournier’s gangrene, the other experienced complete denudation of scrotal and penile skin plus the amputation of his glans penis through an agricultural machinery. The placement of denuded gonads in thigh pouches and delayed skin grafting provide safe treatment options in a low budget setting of a Sub-Saharan country.

Christoph H. Houben

2013-09-01

371

Scrotal necrosis to total de-gloving injury of the male genitalia: an experience from Sub-Saharan Africa  

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Two patients with very different aetiologies of their genital injuries are presented: one lost his scrotal skin as a result of Fournier’s gangrene, the other experienced complete denudation of scrotal and penile skin plus the amputation of his glans penis through an agricultural machinery. The placement of denuded gonads in thigh pouches and delayed skin grafting provide safe treatment options in a low budget setting of a Sub-Saharan country.

2013-01-01

372

Where lies the risk? An ecological approach to understanding child mental health risk and vulnerabilities in sub-saharan Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts at improving child-health and development initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa had focused on the physical health of children due to the neglect of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy initiatives. A thorough and broad-based understanding of the prevalent child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors is needed to successfully articulate CAMH policies. In this discourse, we present a narrative on the child mental-health risk and vulnerability factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Through an ecological point of view, we identified widespread family poverty, poor availability and uptake of childcare resources, inadequate community and institutional childcare systems, and inadequate framework for social protection for vulnerable children as among the risk and vulnerability factors for CAMH in the region. Others are poor workplace policy/practice that does not support work-family life balance, poor legislative framework for child protection, and some harmful traditional practices. We conclude that an ecological approach shows that child mental-health risks are diverse and cut across different layers of the care environment. The approach also provides a broad and holistic template from which appropriate CAMH policy direction in sub-Saharan Africa can be understood. PMID:24834431

Atilola, Olayinka

2014-01-01

373

Comparative demography of an at-risk African elephant population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of population processes across various ecological and management settings offers important insights for species conservation and life history. In regard to its ecological role, charisma and threats from human impacts, African elephants are of high conservation concern and, as a result, are the focus of numerous studies across various contexts. Here, demographic data from an individually based study of 934 African elephants in Samburu, Kenya were summarized, providing detailed inspection of the population processes experienced by the population over a fourteen year period (including the repercussions of recent increases in illegal killing). These data were compared with those from populations inhabiting a spectrum of xeric to mesic ecosystems with variable human impacts. In relation to variability in climate and human impacts (causing up to 50% of recorded deaths among adults), annual mortality in Samburu fluctuated between 1 and 14% and, unrelatedly, natality between 2 and 14% driving annual population increases and decreases. Survivorship in Samburu was significantly lower than other populations with age-specific data even during periods of low illegal killing by humans, resulting in relatively low life expectancy of males (18.9 years) and females (21.8 years). Fecundity (primiparous age and inter-calf interval) were similar to those reported in other human impacted or recovering populations, and significantly greater than that of comparable stable populations. This suggests reproductive effort of African savanna elephants increases in relation to increased mortality (and resulting ecological ramifications) as predicted by life history theory. Further comparison across populations indicated that elongated inter-calf intervals and older ages of reproductive onset were related to age structure and density, and likely influenced by ecological conditions. This study provides detailed empirical data on elephant population dynamics strongly influenced by human impacts (laying the foundation for modeling approaches), supporting predictions of evolutionary theory regarding demographic responses to ecological processes. PMID:23341984

Wittemyer, George; Daballen, David; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

2013-01-01

374

Barriers and facilitating factors to the uptake of antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review  

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Objectives: To investigate and synthesize reasons for low access, initiation and adherence to antiretroviral drugs by mothers and exposed babies for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted. Four databases were searched (Medline, Embase, Global Health and Web of Science) for studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa from January 2000 to September 2012. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included...

2013-01-01

375

The appropriateness of GM crops for Sub-Saharan Africa: an assessment of current evidence (with special reference to cassava in Nigeria)  

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It is broadly accepted that agricultural growth is essential for Sub-Saharan Africa‘s development, in support of economic growth and a structural transformation of the economy towards industrialization, food security and poverty reduction. Many believe that genetically modified crops have the potential to produce higher yields in many of Sub-Saharan Africa‘s unfavourable climatic conditions and can therefore help in providing food security to the region. While some countries in Sub-Sahara...

2011-01-01

376

Boys are more stunted than girls in Sub-Saharan Africa:a meta-analysis of 16 demographic and health surveys  

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Background: Many studies in sub-Saharan Africa have occasionally reported a higher prevalence of stunting in male children compared to female children. This study examined whether there are systematic sex differences in stunting rates in children under-five years of age, and how the sex differences in stunting rates vary with household socio-economic status. Methods: Data from the most recent 16 demographic and health surveys (DHS) in 10 sub-Saharan countries were analysed. Two separate varia...

2007-01-01

377

Sub-Saharan rainfall anomalies and global sea-surface temperature relationships for the recent fifteen year (1970-1984) period  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of this rainfall index-sea surface temperature (SST) correlation analysis suggest that interannual fluctuations in SST, which are dominated by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have a significant influence on the oscillatory behavior of sub-Saharan rainfall anomalies. It is noted that the sub-Saharan rainfall correlates significantly with tropical Pacific as well as with Empirical Orthogonal Functions 1 (EOF1) of the Atlantic SST anomalies.

Semazzi, F. H. M.; Mehta, V.; Sud, Y. C.

1988-01-01

378

Global Private Capital Flows and Development Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Exemplary Performers, Lessons for Others and Strategies for Global Competitiveness in the Twenty-First Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author begins the paper with a brief historical perspective of global private capital flows to Sub-Saharan Africa. He then presents the methodology employed during the research.  This is followed by the review of the literature.  Next the researcher outlines the theoretical framework and his findings.  He also analyzes economics strategies to attract global capital and implications for decision makers in Sub-Saharan Africa. The author ends the paper with some recommendations and the way forward.

Ashford Chea

2011-09-01

379

Data availability on men's involvement in families in sub-Saharan Africa to inform family-centred programmes for children affected by HIV and AIDS  

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The Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS recently recommended that programmes for children affected by HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa direct more support to families. Interest has grown in including men in such family-orientated interventions by researchers, policy makers, and community and non-governmental organizations. However, there is a lack of good quality data on men's involvement with children in the diverse settings in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, limited research h...

Hosegood, Victoria; Madhavan, Sangeetha

2010-01-01

380

Highly polymorphic DNA markers in an Africanized honey bee population in Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available Two genetic markers (the mtDNA COI-COII intergenic region and the microsatellite A7 with high levels of variability in South African and European honey bees were analyzed in wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera from Costa Rica. Allelic or haplotypic frequencies revealed high levels of genetic variability at these loci in this population. Most of the alleles were African alleles, although some European-derived alleles were also present. Differences in the frequencies of African alleles between African and Africanized samples were minor, which could be explained by founder effects occurring during the introduction of African honey bee populations into South America.

Lobo Segura Jorge Arturo

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations  

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Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions ...

2010-01-01

382

Were There Commercial Communications between Prehistoric Harappans and African Populations?  

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Full Text Available This paper is an historical and scientific evaluation of Western archaeologists’ theories concerning ancient population movements and commercial contacts between the prehistoric Harappans and African populations during the Indus Age (2500-1900 BC. In this context the human skeletal remains and artifacts from Harappa and Mohenjodaro are relevant. An urnburial from the Indus river site of Chanhudaro has an important bearing upon this subject. The scientific aspect of this study is the provision of hitherto unascertained data to palaeoanthropologists anaylsing the skeletal and dental biology of prehistoric populations of South Asia.

Kenneth A. R. Kennedy

2012-11-01

383

Rainwater harvesting and management in rainfed agricultural systems in sub-Saharan Africa - A review  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural water scarcity in the predominantly rainfed agricultural system of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is more related to the variability of rainfall and excessive non-productive losses, than the total annual precipitation in the growing season. Less than 15% of the terrestrial precipitation takes the form of productive ‘green’ transpiration. Hence, rainwater harvesting and management (RWHM) technologies hold a significant potential for improving rainwater-use efficiency and sustaining rainfed agriculture in the region. This paper outlines the various RWHM techniques being practiced in SSA, and reviews recent research results on the performance of selected practices. So far, micro-catchment and in situ rainwater harvesting techniques are more common than rainwater irrigation techniques from macro-catchment systems. Depending on rainfall patterns and local soil characteristics, appropriate application of in situ and micro-catchment techniques could improve the soil water content of the rooting zone by up to 30%. Up to sixfold crop yields have been obtained through combinations of rainwater harvesting and fertiliser use, as compared to traditional practices. Supplemental irrigation of rainfed agriculture through rainwater harvesting not only reduces the risk of total crop failure due to dry spells, but also substantially improves water and crop productivity. Depending on the type of crop and the seasonal rainfall pattern, the application of RWHM techniques makes net profits more possible, compared to the meagre profit or net loss of existing systems. Implementation of rainwater harvesting may allow cereal-based smallholder farmers to shift to diversified crops, hence improving household food security, dietary status, and economic return. The much needed green revolution and adaptations to climate change in SSA should blend rainwater harvesting ideals with agronomic principles. More efforts are needed to improve the indigenous practices, and to disseminate best practices on a wider scale.

Biazin, Birhanu; Sterk, Geert; Temesgen, Melesse; Abdulkedir, Abdu; Stroosnijder, Leo

384

Cost Drivers for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Using Primary Source Data from Sub-Saharan Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Background As voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs scale up, there is a pressing need for information about the important cost drivers, and potential efficiency gains. We examine those cost drivers here, and estimate the potential efficiency gains through an econometric model. Methods and Findings We examined the main cost drivers (i.e., personnel and consumables) associated with providing VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa along a number of dimensions, including facility type and service provider. Primary source facility level data from Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia were utilized throughout. We estimated the efficiency gains by econometrically estimating a cost function in order to calculate the impact of scale and other relevant factors. Personnel and consumables were estimated at 36% and 28%, respectively, of total costs across countries. Economies of scale (EOS) is estimated to be eight at the median volume of VMMCs performed, and EOS falls from 23 at the 25th percentile volume of VMMCs performed to 5.1 at the 75th percentile. Conclusions The analysis suggests that there is significant room for efficiency improvement as indicated by declining EOS as VMMC volume increases. The scale of the fall in EOS as VMMC volume increases suggests that we are still at the ascension phase of the scale-up of VMMC, where continuing to add new sites results in additional start-up costs as well. A key aspect of improving efficiency is task sharing VMMC procedures, due to the large percentage of overall costs associated with personnel costs. In addition, efficiency improvements in consumables are likely to occur over time as prices and distribution costs decrease.

Bollinger, Lori; Adesina, Adebiyi; Forsythe, Steven; Godbole, Ramona; Reuben, Elan; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

385

Prevalence of gastrointestinal pathogens in Sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A significant proportion of vulnerable people in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA remain at risk for contracting diarrhoeal diseases due to the presence of many risk factors facilitating their transmission. A systematic review of published articles from the SSA region was done to determine the prevalence and types of diarrhoeal pathogens in circulation, based on a search of databases, including EBSCO host, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Google scholar and Web of Science was done between September 2009 and December 2010. Data were summarized from 27 studies, with pooled data analysed and reported. Pathogens were isolated from between 26.8-65.6% of cases, with an overall isolation rate of 55.7% (95% CI, 48.2-62.9%. Isolation rates were highest amongst adult cases followed by children, and the odds of isolating a pathogen was greater in diarrhoeal cases (Odds Ratio 4.93 (95% CI, 1.99 to 12.23, than in asymptomatic controls. Overall isolation ranged from 8% to 99%; and heterogeneity testing suggests differences between age groups (Q=5.806; df=2, P=0. 055. Mixed E. coli spp., (29.95%, Cryptosporidium (21.52%, Cyclospora (18%, Entamoeba, (13.8%, Shigella spp. (10.49%, Salmonella spp. (8.36%, and Campylobacter spp. (8.33%, were most commonly reported, and rotavirus was the most common virus isolated. This is the first review to look at the range of enteric pathogens circulating in SSA, and has confirmed high rates of isolation of pathogens from diarrhoeal cases. Public health practitioners can use this information to understanding the challenges related to diarrhoeal illness and set priorities for their prevention and control.

John Ellis

2011-09-01

386

Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomised by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan, I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments are further examined. Results Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalised and instrumentalised toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. Conclusion From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms.

Calain Philippe

2008-10-01

387

Scleral buckling for retinal detachment in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa: anatomical and visual outcome  

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Background Scleral buckle surgery is not a commonly performed surgical procedure in Sub-Saharan Africa due to a paucity of trained vitreo retinal surgeons. The aim of the study was to review sclera buckle procedures with a view to evaluating the anatomical and visual outcomes. Methods Case records of patients that had scleral buckle surgery at the Retina Unit of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, between 2007 and 2010 were reviewed. Information retrieved included patients’ demographics, duration of symptoms, and presenting vision. Other information included site of retinal break, extent of retinal detachment, involvement of the fellow eye, and macular involvement. Postoperative retina reattachment and postoperative visual acuity were also recorded. Proportions and percentages were used to analyze data. Results Forty five eyes of 42 patients were studied with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. The mean age was 47.7 years (±17.6 years). The median duration before presentation was 3 months (range: 5 days – 156 months). Subtotal retinal detachment was found in 35 eyes (77.8%) while total retinal detachment occurred in ten eyes (22.2%). Thirty four eyes (75.6%) had “macular off ” detachments. At 6 weeks, there was an improvement in visual acuity in 23 eyes (51.1%), while visual acuity remained the same in nine eyes (20%) and was worse in 13 eyes (28.9%). Anatomical attachment was seen in 43 eyes (95.6%) on the operation table, in 40 eyes (90.9%) at first day postoperatively and in 32 eyes (86.5%) at 6 weeks after surgery. Conclusion Outcome of sclera buckle surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment may be improved in developing countries of Sub Sahara Africa if adequate awareness is created to educate the populace on early presentation.

Oluleye, TS; Ibrahim, OA; Olusanya, BA

2013-01-01

388

Dementia prevalence estimates in sub-Saharan Africa: comparison of two diagnostic criteria  

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Full Text Available Background: We have previously reported the prevalence of dementia in older adults living in the rural Hai district of Tanzania according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV criteria. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence rates using the DSM-IV criteria with those obtained using the 10/66 diagnostic criteria, which is specifically designed for use in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: In phase I, 1,198 people aged 70 and older were screened for dementia. A stratified sample of 296 was then clinically assessed for dementia according to the DSM-IV criteria. In addition, data were collected according to the protocol of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group, which allowed a separate diagnosis of dementia according to these criteria to be established. Results: The age-standardised prevalence of clinical DSM-IV dementia was 6.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9–7.9% and of ‘10/66 dementia’ was 21.6% (95% CI 17.5–25.7%. Education was a significant predictor of ‘10/66 dementia’, but not of DSM-IV dementia. Conclusions: There are large discrepancies in dementia prevalence rates depending on which diagnostic system is used. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, it is not clear whether the association between education and dementia using the 10/66 criteria