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Streptococcus constellatus: agente etiológico asociado en empiema pleural Streptococcus constellatusas a causative agent of empyema: Report of one case  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus constellatus is a commensal microorganism in man but may cause infections in different locations. We report a 59 years old male with severe sequelae of a previous cerebrovascular accident that consulted in the emergency room for fever of 15 days of evolution. A right empyema was diagnosed. The bacteriological culture of the effusion disclosed the presence of Streptococcus constellatus and two anaerobic strains (Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium urealyticus. The patient was treated with a pleural drainage and received ceftriaxone and clindamycin during six weeks. He was discharged in good conditions and is asymptomatic after eight months of follow up (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 1030-2

José Antonio Díaz Peromingo

2006-08-01

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Phenotypic differentiation of Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus, and Streptococcus anginosus strains within the "Streptococcus milleri group".  

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A biochemical scheme was developed by which strains of Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus anginosus can reliably be distinguished from within the "Streptococcus milleri group." Strains identified as S. intermedius were differentiated by the ability to produce detectable levels of alpha-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase, beta-D-fucosidase, beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and sialidase with 4-methylumbelliferyl-linked fluorogenic...

Whiley, R. A.; Fraser, H.; Hardie, J. M.; Beighton, D.

1990-01-01

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Meningitis aguda por Streptococcus Constellatus: a propósito de un caso fatal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 14 años, con el único antecedente de sinusitis resuelta hacía un año, que desarrolló de nuevo una pansinusitis y una meningitis aguda que lo llevó en diez días a la muerte. Durante su estancia hospitalaria no fue posible determinar el agente etiológico [...] , sin embargo los cultivos post mortem demostraron que el microorganismo presente era Streptococcus constellatus un comensal habitual de las mucosas del ser humano, del cual se han descrito muy pocos casos de meningitis en pacientes inmunocompetentes, lo cual hace de este caso un verdadero reto diagnóstico para los médicos tratantes y los anatomopatólogos. Abstract in english The present case is of a 14 year-old male with the only history of a sinusitis that solved one year before presentation.The patient developed a newly-onset pansinusitis followed by pyogenic meningitis that lead him to death ten days after. It was not possible to determine the etiologic agent during [...] his hospitalization but postmortem culture tests taken from the leptomeninges and the etmoidal cells showed Streptococcus constellatus, a usual commensal in human mucous membranes. Very few cases of acute meningitis caused by S. constellatus have been described in immunocompetent patients, which makes this case a real diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists.

Maikel, Vargas Sanabria; Rodolfo, Guzmán Cervantes.

2011-09-01

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Taxonomy of the Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus and description of Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus has been the subject of much taxonomic confusion, which has hampered the full appreciation of its clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to critically re-examine the taxonomy of the Anginosus group, with special attention to ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains, using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of seven housekeeping genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished seven distinct and coherent clusters in the Anginosus group. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic characters supported the MLSA clustering and currently recognized taxa of the Anginosus group. Single gene analyses showed considerable allele sharing between species, thereby invalidating identification based on single-locus sequencing. Two novel clusters of ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains within the Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus species and isolated from patients with sore throat showed sufficient phylogenetic distances from other clusters to warrant status as novel subspecies. The novel cluster within S. anginosus was identified as the previously recognized DNA homology cluster, DNA group 2. The names S. anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. (type strain CCUG 39159(T)?=?DSM 25818(T)?=?SK1267(T)) and S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov. (type strain SK1359(T)?=?CCUG 62387(T)?=?DSM 25819(T)) are proposed.

Jensen, Anders; Hoshino, Tomonori

2013-01-01

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Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies Equisimilis; An Agent Rarely Encountered in the Etiology of Septic Arthritis  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is one of the pyogenic group C and G streptococcus, which may be found in the normal gastrointestinal and genitourinary flora of a healthy human. Many cases have been reported in literature; however, reports of septic arthritis due to this agent without predisposing factors are extremely rare. Diagnosis of this agent is possible in advanced laboratories. Appropriate treatment for septic arthritis caused this agent is made by parenteral antibiotherapy without debridement following accurate diagnosis.

Meryem Iraz

2013-08-01

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Resistance of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms to antimicrobial agents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacteria living in biofilms as dental plaque on tooth surfaces are generally more resistant to antimicrobial agents than bacteria in batch culture normally used for in vitro susceptibility testing. In order to compare the resistance of free-living and surface-grown oral bacteria, the MIC of Streptococcus sanguis 804 and ATCC 10556 to amoxicillin, doxycycline and chlorhexidine was determined by a broth dilution method. Subsequently, S. sanguis biofilms established in an in vitro flow model were perfused with the antimicrobial agents for 48 h at concentrations equal to and up to 500 times the MIC, and biofilm cell number was determined during this period. The antibiotics at the MIC did not affect the cell number of S. sanguis biofilms compared to the starting point, and only after 48 h at 500 times the MIC were the biofilm bacteria eliminated. At intermediate concentrations biofilm cell number gradually decreased. Chlorhexidine also gradually reduced biofilm cell number, but was inhibitory at concentrations closer to the MIC than was the case for the antibiotics. Thus S. sanguis in biofilms survived up to 500 times the MIC found in batch culture for up to 48 h.

Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E

1996-01-01

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Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

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Full Text Available O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade, e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5, e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5 and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

Marcos Noronha Frey

2011-12-01

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Empiema pleural por Streptococcus grupo anginosus en un preescolar y revisión de la literatura: Case report and review Streptococcus anginosus pleural emphyema in a child  

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Full Text Available Presentamos el caso clínico de un preescolar con antecedente de malformación pulmonar que 43 días tras una neumonectomía izquierda, ingresó al Hospital Padre Hurtado con fiebre de una semana de evolución. En una TAC pulmonar se demostró una gran colección intrapleural izquierda de la que se aisló Streptococcus grupo anginosus y Prevotella spp. Se efectuó tratamiento antimicrobiano con penicilina más clindamicina. Existe gran confusión en la terminología y clasificación de Streptococcus grupo anginosus. En la actualidad no existe duda que es un grupo que posee tres especies, S. anginosus, S. constellatus y S. intermedius. Son parte de la flora normal de orofaringe, nasofaringe, tracto gastrointestinal y vagina. Este grupo ha sido reconocido como causa de infecciones supurativas en niños y adultos. La mayoría de las cepas se describen como susceptibles a penicilina; sin embargo, existen reportes que sugieren la emergencia de resistencia. Se discuten las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnóstico e informe microbiológicosLeft pneumonectomy in a child with congenital pulmonary malformation was performed two months prior to admission. Within one week he had high fever. Chest CT scan showed massive left pleural effusion. Both Streptococcus anginosus group and Prevotella spp. grew from the fluid obtained by pleural punction. Antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated with clindamycin and penicillin. Streptococus anginosus group is quite confusing in terms of classification and taxonomy. Now it is well recognized that three species belong to this genera: S. anginosus S. constellatus and S. intermedius. They all are considered normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract and vagina but also they have been identified as agents of suppurative infections in children and adults. Many reports show adequate response to penicillin, however there is some emerging resistance in strains isolated in other studies. In this article we also suggest some diagnostic and microbiologic recommendations

Paola Pidal M.

2004-01-01

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Empiema pleural por Streptococcus grupo anginosus en un preescolar y revisión de la literatura: Case report and review / Streptococcus anginosus pleural emphyema in a child  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos el caso clínico de un preescolar con antecedente de malformación pulmonar que 43 días tras una neumonectomía izquierda, ingresó al Hospital Padre Hurtado con fiebre de una semana de evolución. En una TAC pulmonar se demostró una gran colección intrapleural izquierda de la que se aisló St [...] reptococcus grupo anginosus y Prevotella spp. Se efectuó tratamiento antimicrobiano con penicilina más clindamicina. Existe gran confusión en la terminología y clasificación de Streptococcus grupo anginosus. En la actualidad no existe duda que es un grupo que posee tres especies, S. anginosus, S. constellatus y S. intermedius. Son parte de la flora normal de orofaringe, nasofaringe, tracto gastrointestinal y vagina. Este grupo ha sido reconocido como causa de infecciones supurativas en niños y adultos. La mayoría de las cepas se describen como susceptibles a penicilina; sin embargo, existen reportes que sugieren la emergencia de resistencia. Se discuten las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnóstico e informe microbiológicos Abstract in english Left pneumonectomy in a child with congenital pulmonary malformation was performed two months prior to admission. Within one week he had high fever. Chest CT scan showed massive left pleural effusion. Both Streptococcus anginosus group and Prevotella spp. grew from the fluid obtained by pleural punc [...] tion. Antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated with clindamycin and penicillin. Streptococus anginosus group is quite confusing in terms of classification and taxonomy. Now it is well recognized that three species belong to this genera: S. anginosus S. constellatus and S. intermedius. They all are considered normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract and vagina but also they have been identified as agents of suppurative infections in children and adults. Many reports show adequate response to penicillin, however there is some emerging resistance in strains isolated in other studies. In this article we also suggest some diagnostic and microbiologic recommendations

Paola, Pidal M.; Javiera, Basaure O.; Priscilla, Prado D.; Pedro, Alarcón L..

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Use of Penicillin MICs To Predict In Vitro Activity of Other ?-Lactam Antimicrobial Agents against Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Linear regression analysis was used to compare penicillin MICs determined with 3,129 recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to MICs obtained with nine other beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. A strong correlation between penicillin MICs and those obtained with other beta-lactams was demonstrated. It may be possible to test penicillin and use MICs obtained with penicillin to predict MICs of other beta-lactam antimicrobials for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Brueggemann, A. B.; Pfaller, M. A.; Doern, G. V.

2001-01-01

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Mode of action of a lysostaphin-like bacteriolytic agent produced by Streptococcus zooepidemicus 4881.  

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Electron microscopy of zoocin A-treated sensitive streptococcus cells revealed cytoplasmic disruption and ultimately complete rupture of the cell wall. Culture viability and optical density were shown to decrease rapidly and simultaneously in Streptococcus pyogenes FF22 but less quickly in the relatively more resistant Streptococcus mutans 10449. Zoocin A was shown to cleave hexaglycine in a colorimetric cell-free microtiter assay system, and it is concluded that the killing action of zoocin ...

Simmonds, R. S.; Pearson, L.; Kennedy, R. C.; Tagg, J. R.

1996-01-01

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Sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from skin infections in 1992 to antimicrobial agents.  

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We studied the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) isolated from skin infections in 1992. For S. aureus, we measured the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the following 10 drugs: methicillin (DMPPC), cefaclor (CCL), gentamicin (GM), erythromycin (EM), clindamycin (CLDM), minocycline (MINO), vancomycin (VAN), fusidic acid (FA), ofloxacin (OFLX) and nadifloxacin (NDFX); for S. pyogenes, we determined the MICs of the following 9 drugs: ampicillin (ABPC), amoxicillin (AMPC), cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR), erythromycin (EM), clindamycin (CLDM), minocycline (MINO), norfloxacin (NFLX), of loxacin (OFLX) and nadifloxacin (NDFX). These drugs are frequently used to treat skin infections, either systemically or topically. NDFX is a new synthetic fluoroquinolone, recently developed for use as a topical acne medication in Japan. It is used NDFX for acne, but not for skin infections. There were no strains of S. aureus resistant to NDFX, VAN or FA. The resistance (> or = 12.5 micrograms/ml) of S. aureus was highest to GM and lowest to OFLX. Four strains of methicillin-resistant (> or = 12.5 micrograms/ml) S. aureus (MRSA) were found. In contrast, no resistant strains of S. pyogenes were found except to MINO. Only two strains of S. pyogenes were susceptible to MINO. The sensitivity of S. pyogenes to ABPC, AMPC, CPDX-PR, EM and CLDM was very good. All the strains were susceptible at a MIC below > or = 0.05 microgram/ml. However, the S. pyogenes strains were not very sensitive to the new quinolones, especially NFLX. We concluded that penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides are still effective against streptococcal infections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8056894

Nishijima, S; Namura, S; Kawai, S; Akamatsu, H; Asada, Y; Kawabata, S

1994-04-01

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Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licenced in veterinary medicine  

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The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n = 384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, cefquinome, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Using breakpoints established by CLSI for veterinar...

Wisselink, H. J.; Veldman, K. T.; Salmon, S. A.; Mevius, D. J.

2006-01-01

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Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as etiological agents of conjunctivitis outbreaks in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil  

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Full Text Available In the study of conjunctivitis outbreaks occurring from September 1994 to September 1996 in the region of Ribeirão Preto, conjunctival exudates of 92 patients were cultivated in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory I, Ribeirão Preto. Most cases occurred in the age range 2-7 years. The etiological agents which were most frequently isolated from the analyzed cases were: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in 40.22% and 21.74%, respectively. 51.35% of the S. pneumoniae isolated strains were not typable. The oxacillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains were submitted to the minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC and three of them presented intermediate resistance, whereas only one was highly resistant to penicillin.No estudo de surtos de conjuntivite ocorridos no período de setembro de 1994 a setembro de 1996, na região de Ribeirão Preto, foram semeadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratório I, Ribeirão Preto, exsudatos conjuntivais de 92 pacientes, sendo que a maioria dos casos estava na faixa etária de 2-7 anos. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente isolados dos casos analisados foram: Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae em 40,22% e 21,74% respectivamente. 51,35% das cepas de S. pneumoniae isoladas foram não tipáveis. As cepas de S. pneumoniae oxacilina resistente foram submetidas ao teste de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, sendo que três apresentaram resistência intermediária e apenas uma foi altamente resistente à penicilina.

Marta I. C. MEDEIROS

1998-01-01

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Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia / Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares [...] de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, Colombia, entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1996. Se observó que 119 de todos los aislamientos (36,7%) presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida por lo menos a un antimicrobiano, que 39 (12%) presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina y que de estos últimos aislamientos, 29 presentaban resistencia intermedia y 10 resistencia alta. Nueve aislamientos (2,8%) presentaban resistencia a la ceftriaxona, 80 (24,7%) a la combinación de trimetoprima y sulfametoxazol (TMS), 49 (15,1%) al cloranfenicol y 31 (9,6%) a la eritromicina. Se observó resistencia a dos antimicrobianos en 31 aislamientos (9,6%) y multirresistencia en 22 (6,7%). Estos 22 aislamientos mostraron resistencia al TMS. Las asociaciones más frecuentes fueron penicilina, TMS y eritromicina en 5 casos; penicilina, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 4; penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol y TMS en 3; y penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 3 casos. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a la penicilina fueron: 23F (53,8%), 14 (25,6%), 6B (7,7%), 9V (5,1%), 19F (5,1%) y 34 (2,6%). Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a antimicrobianos distintos de la penicilina fueron: 5 (37,5%), 23F (7,5%), 14 (18,8%) y 6B (13,8%). Esta diferencia en la distribución de los serotipos fue estadísticamente significativa (P Abstract in english A study was done to determine the patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae that caused invasive disease diagnosed in children under the age of 5 in Colombia between 1994 and 1996, as well as to establish the distribution of the capsular types of the [...] resistant isolates. The analysis was done using 324 isolates obtained during the performance of the National Serotyping Protocol for S. pneumoniae carried out in Bogotá, Medellín, and Cali, Colombia, between July 1994 and March 1996. Of the 324 isolates, 119 (36.7%) showed diminished susceptibility to at least one antimicrobial agent, including 39 (12%) that showed diminished susceptibility to penicillin. Of these 39 resistant to penicillin, 29 showed intermediate resistance and 10 showed high resistance. Nine isolates (2.8%) showed resistance to ceftriaxone, 80 (24.7%) to the combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMS), 49 (15.1%) to chloramphenicol, and 31 (9.6%) to erythromycin. Resistance to two antimicrobial agents was observed in 31 isolates (9.6%); multiple resistance was found in 22 (6.7%). These 22 multiresistant isolates all showed resistance to TMS. The most frequent associations were penicillin, TMS, and erythromycin (5 cases); penicillin, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (4 cases); penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and TMS (3 cases); and penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (3 cases). The most frequent serotypes in the penicillin-resistant isolates were: 23F (53.8%), 14 (25.6%), 6B (7.7%), 9V (5.1%), 19F (5.1%), and 34 (2.6%). The most frequent serotypes in the isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents other than penicillin were: 5 (37.5%), 23F (7.5%), 14 (18.8%), and 6B (13.8%). This difference in the distribution of the serotypes was statistically significant (P

Aura Lucía, Leal; Castañeda, Elizabeth.

1999-03-01

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Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia  

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Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, Colombia, entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1996. Se observó que 119 de todos los aislamientos (36,7% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida por lo menos a un antimicrobiano, que 39 (12% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina y que de estos últimos aislamientos, 29 presentaban resistencia intermedia y 10 resistencia alta. Nueve aislamientos (2,8% presentaban resistencia a la ceftriaxona, 80 (24,7% a la combinación de trimetoprima y sulfametoxazol (TMS, 49 (15,1% al cloranfenicol y 31 (9,6% a la eritromicina. Se observó resistencia a dos antimicrobianos en 31 aislamientos (9,6% y multirresistencia en 22 (6,7%. Estos 22 aislamientos mostraron resistencia al TMS. Las asociaciones más frecuentes fueron penicilina, TMS y eritromicina en 5 casos; penicilina, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 4; penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol y TMS en 3; y penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 3 casos. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a la penicilina fueron: 23F (53,8%, 14 (25,6%, 6B (7,7%, 9V (5,1%, 19F (5,1% y 34 (2,6%. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a antimicrobianos distintos de la penicilina fueron: 5 (37,5%, 23F (7,5%, 14 (18,8% y 6B (13,8%. Esta diferencia en la distribución de los serotipos fue estadísticamente significativa (P A study was done to determine the patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae that caused invasive disease diagnosed in children under the age of 5 in Colombia between 1994 and 1996, as well as to establish the distribution of the capsular types of the resistant isolates. The analysis was done using 324 isolates obtained during the performance of the National Serotyping Protocol for S. pneumoniae carried out in Bogotá, Medellín, and Cali, Colombia, between July 1994 and March 1996. Of the 324 isolates, 119 (36.7% showed diminished susceptibility to at least one antimicrobial agent, including 39 (12% that showed diminished susceptibility to penicillin. Of these 39 resistant to penicillin, 29 showed intermediate resistance and 10 showed high resistance. Nine isolates (2.8% showed resistance to ceftriaxone, 80 (24.7% to the combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMS, 49 (15.1% to chloramphenicol, and 31 (9.6% to erythromycin. Resistance to two antimicrobial agents was observed in 31 isolates (9.6%; multiple resistance was found in 22 (6.7%. These 22 multiresistant isolates all showed resistance to TMS. The most frequent associations were penicillin, TMS, and erythromycin (5 cases; penicillin, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (4 cases; penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and TMS (3 cases; and penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (3 cases. The most frequent serotypes in the penicillin-resistant isolates were: 23F (53.8%, 14 (25.6%, 6B (7.7%, 9V (5.1%, 19F (5.1%, and 34 (2.6%. The most frequent serotypes in the isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents other than penicillin were: 5 (37.5%, 23F (7.5%, 14 (18.8%, and 6B (13.8%. This difference in the distribution of the serotypes was statistically significant (P < 0.0001. The study results indicate the need to maintain active surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns in order to avoid resistance in S. pneumoniae and to provide timely in formation to change practices regarding prescribing and consuming antimicrobial agents.

Aura Lucía Leal

1999-03-01

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?acteriology of pleural infection «Streptococcus milleri group» in the limelight  

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Full Text Available SUMMARY. Bacterial infection of the pleura is an old disease that continues to have a considerable mortality, of >15%. It is more common in males, and in the presence of diabetes mellitus, malignancy and alcoholism. The bacteriology of pleural infection has been changing during the past decades. Although pleural fluid culture is the «gold standard» for the identification of microorganisms in the pleural fluid, molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR have a notably higher sensitivity (75% versus 60%. Community-acquired pleural infection (CAPI and hospital-acquired pleural infection (HAPI have substantial differences in both their bacteriology and mortality, while the bacteriology of both differs markedly from that of pneumonia. The «Streptococcus milleri group» is the predominant isolate in CAPI, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae. In HAPI the most common isolates are Staphylococcus aureus, usually methicillin-resistant (MRSA, and Enterococcus spp. Given the higher incidence of CAPI compared to HAPI, «Streptococcus milleri» accounts for the greatest number of pleural infections. The «Streptococcus milleri group» consists of Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius. The unique characteristics of these bacteria favour the production of putrifying and necrotizing infections. The most common thoracic infection due to these organisms is empyema. Drainage of the infected pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics are essential components of the management of pleural infection. Knowledge of the pleural infection bacteriology is a useful adjunct in the selection of the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Pneumon 2009; 22(1:46–64.

Richard W. Light

2009-01-01

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Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes Meningite bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente aos antimicrobianos e seus sorotipos  

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The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial empirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Central Laboratory from Apr...

Andrea Maciel de Oliveira Rossoni; Libera Maria Dalla Costa; Denize Bonato Berto; Sônia Santos Farah; Marilene Gelain; Maria Cristina de Cunto Brandileone; Vitor Hugo Mariano Ramos; Sergio Monteiro de Almeida

2008-01-01

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In Vitro Activity of Antimicrobial Agents Against Streptococcus Pyogenes Isolates from patients with Acute Tonsillopharyngitis in Dakar, Senegal  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes is the most important causative agent of tonsillopharyngitis. Beta-lactam antibiotics, particularly penicillin, are the drug of first choice and macrolides are recommended for patients who are allergic to penicillin. However, other antibiotics are also used for the treatment of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. In recent years, the increase in the incidence of respiratory tract pathogens that are resistant to current antibacterial agents highlights the need to monitor the evolution of the resistance of these pathogens to antibiotics. In this study, we assess the susceptibility of 98 isolates of S. pyogenes to 16 antibiotics. The pathogens were recovered from patients with acute tonsillopharyngitis in Dakar, the Senegalese capital city, who were recruited from May 2005 to August 2006. All strains were susceptible to penicillin with low Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC = 0,016 mg/L. Amoxicillin had high activity (100% showing its importance in treatment of streptococcal infections. Cephalosporins had MIC90 values ranging from 0.016 to 0.094 mg/L. Macrolides have shown high activity. All strains were resistant to tetracyclin. Other molecules such as teicoplanin, levofloxacin and chloramphenicol were also active and would represent alternatives to treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to this pathogen. These results indicate that no significant resistance to antibiotics was found among patients with tonsillopharyngitis studied in Dakar. Limitations of this study were that the number of isolates tested was small and all isolates were collected from one hospital in Dakar. Hence, results may not be representative of the isolates found, in the wider community or other regions of Senegal. Further studies are needed in other parts of Dakar and other geographic regions of Senegal, in order to better clarify the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. pyogenes isolates recovered from patients with tonsillopharyngitis.

A. Gueye Ndiaye

2009-01-01

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In Vitro Activity of Antimicrobial Agents Against Streptococcus Pyogenes Isolates from patients with Acute Tonsillopharyngitis in Dakar, Senegal  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes is the most important causative agent of tonsillopharyngitis. Beta-lactam antibiotics, particularly penicillin, are the drug of first choice and macrolides are recommended for patients who are allergic to penicillin. However, other antibiotics are also used for the treatment of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. In recent years, the increase in the incidence of respiratory tract pathogens that are resistant to current antibacterial agents highlights the need to monitor the evolution of the resistance of these pathogens to antibiotics. In this study, we assess the susceptibility of 98 isolates of S. pyogenes to 16 antibiotics. The pathogens were recovered from patients with acute tonsillopharyngitis in Dakar, the Senegalese capital city, who were recruited from May 2005 to August 2006. All strains were susceptible to penicillin with low Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC = 0,016 mg/L. Amoxicillin had high activity (100% showing its importance in treatment of streptococcal infections. Cephalosporins had MIC90 values ranging from 0.016 to 0.094 mg/L. Macrolides have shown high activity. All strains were resistant to tetracyclin. Other molecules such as teicoplanin, levofloxacin and chloramphenicol were also active and would represent alternatives to treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to this pathogen. These results indicate that no significant resistance to antibiotics was found among patients with tonsillopharyngitis studied in Dakar. Limitations of this study were that the number of isolates tested was small and all isolates were collected from one hospital in Dakar. Hence, results may not be representative of the isolates found, in the wider community or other regions of Senegal. Further studies are needed in other parts of Dakar and other geographic regions of Senegal, in order to better clarify the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. pyogenes isolates recovered from patients with tonsillopharyngitis.

A. Gueye Ndiaye

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Estudio fitoquímico y actividad antibacterial de Psidium guineense Sw (choba) frente a Streptococcus mutans, agente causal de caries dentales / Phytochemical study and antibacterial activity of Psidium guíneense Sw (choba) against Streptococcus mutans, causal agent of dental caries  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se comprobaron las potencialidades antibacteriales del extracto etanólicoy de sus fracciones éter de petróleo, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y acuosa obtenidos de la cáscara y pulpa de Psidium guineense Sw (choba) frente a la bacteria Gram positiva Streptococcus mutans ATCC 31089 y a una cepa de l [...] a misma bacteria aislada de paciente. El S. mutans está reconocido como el principal agente causal de las caries dentales. Se comprobó, por técnicas de coloración y cromatografía en capa delgada, el contenido de metabolitos secundarios en los extractos etanólicos crudos y en sus respectivas fracciones. Los ensayos antibacteriales se realizaron por la técnica de perforación en gel empleando la escala de 0,5 de McFarland a 10(8) ufc/mL. Se utilizó agar base sangre y se aplicaron 50 mL de los extractos etanólicos de la cáscara y la pulpa de P. guineense diluidos en DMSO a concentraciones de 400 y 0,4 mg/mL. Según los mayores porcentajes de inhibición obtenidos de estos extractos, se tomaron las fracciones en concentraciones entre 25 y 100 mg/mL y para la cepa S. mutans aislada de paciente, concentraciones de 400 y 200 mg/mL. Los extractos etanólicos crudos mostraron actividad frente a estas bacterias; las fracciones de mayor actividad fueron las nombradas M1FA (fracción acetato de choba fruto cáscara verde seca) y M3FA (fracción acetato de choba fruto pulpa verde seca). La actividad antimicrobiana de la especie P. guineense pudiera ser atribuida a los metabolitos secundarios, taninos, flavonoides, terpenos y aldehídos, presentes en el fruto de esta especie. Abstract in english The antibacterial potentialities of the ethanol extract and its petroleum ether, dicloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions obtained from the peel and pulp of Psidium guineense Sw ( choba) against the Gram positive Streptococcus mutants ATCC 31089 and a strain of the same germ isolated fro [...] m a patient, were proved . S. Mutans is recognized as the causal agent of dental caries. The content of secondary metabolites in the crude ethanol extracts and in its respective fractions were proved by staining and thin layer chromatography. The antibacterial tests were made by means of the gel perforation technique and using McFarland's 0.5 scale at 108 ufc/mL. Blood base agar was utilized and 50 mL of the ethanol extracts from the peel and pulp of P. guineense diluted in DMSO at concentrations of 400 and 0.4 mg/mL were applied. According to the highest percentages of inhibition obtained from these extracts, the fractions were taken in concentrations between 25 and 100 mg/ mL and from 400 and 200 mg/mL for the S. mutans strain isolated from a patient. The crude ethanol extracts showed activity against these bacteria. The fractions with the greatest activity were the so-called M1FA (fraction of acetate of choba fruit's dry green peel) and M3FA (fraction of acetate of choba fruit's dry green pulp). The antimicrobial activity of the P. guineense species may be attributed to secondary metabolites, taninns, flavonoids, terpenes and aldehydes present in the fruit of this species.

Adriana María, Neira González; Martha Beatriz, Ramírez González; Nidia Lizbeth, Sánchez Pinto.

2005-12-01

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Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes Meningite bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente aos antimicrobianos e seus sorotipos  

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Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial empirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Central Laboratory from April 2001 to august 2002 have been evaluated. One hundred S. pneumoniae have been isolated, of which 15% were resistant to penicillin, 1% to cephalosporin and 0% to vancomycin. The serotypes most found were 14 (19%, 3 and 23F (10% each. When only the resistant serotypes were analyzed, the most prevalent was the 14 with 44%. The risk factors found in relation to the S. pneumoniae resistance were: age under one year old (p=0.01 and previous use of antibiotic (p=0.046. The resistance rates found, which were moderate to penicillin, low to cephalosporin and neutral to vancomycin, suggest the isolated use of a 3rd generation cephalosporin as an initial empirical therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with a communitarian background.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as taxas de resistência de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolados de pacientes com meningite, à penicilina G, ceftriaxona e vancomicina; avaliar possíveis fatores de risco para resistência antimicrobiana; descrever os sorotipos encontrados e sugerir a terapêutica empírica inicial para meningite. Foram isoladas 100 amostras de S. pneumoniae, encontrando-se 15% de resistência à penicilina, 1% à cefalosporina e 0% à vancomicina. Os sorotipos mais encontrados foram 14 (19%, 3 e 23F (10% cada. Analisando-se os resistentes, o sorotipo 14 (44% também foi o mais freqüente. Os fatores de risco para resistência de S. pneumoniae encontrados foram: idade menor que um ano (p=0,01 e o uso prévio de antibiótico (p=0,046. As taxas de resistência encontradas, moderada a penicilina, baixa para cefalosporina e nula para vancomicina, sugerem como terapêutica empírica inicial para tratamento da meningite bacteriana aguda de origem comunitária, a cefalosporina de terceira geração isoladamente.

Andrea Maciel de Oliveira Rossoni

2008-09-01

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Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes / Meningite bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente aos antimicrobianos e seus sorotipos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as taxas de resistência de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolados de pacientes com meningite, à penicilina G, ceftriaxona e vancomicina; avaliar possíveis fatores de risco para resistência antimicrobiana; descrever os sorotipos encontrados e sugerir a terapêutica e [...] mpírica inicial para meningite. Foram isoladas 100 amostras de S. pneumoniae, encontrando-se 15% de resistência à penicilina, 1% à cefalosporina e 0% à vancomicina. Os sorotipos mais encontrados foram 14 (19%), 3 e 23F (10% cada). Analisando-se os resistentes, o sorotipo 14 (44%) também foi o mais freqüente. Os fatores de risco para resistência de S. pneumoniae encontrados foram: idade menor que um ano (p=0,01) e o uso prévio de antibiótico (p=0,046). As taxas de resistência encontradas, moderada a penicilina, baixa para cefalosporina e nula para vancomicina, sugerem como terapêutica empírica inicial para tratamento da meningite bacteriana aguda de origem comunitária, a cefalosporina de terceira geração isoladamente. Abstract in english The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial em [...] pirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Central Laboratory from April 2001 to august 2002 have been evaluated. One hundred S. pneumoniae have been isolated, of which 15% were resistant to penicillin, 1% to cephalosporin and 0% to vancomycin. The serotypes most found were 14 (19%), 3 and 23F (10% each). When only the resistant serotypes were analyzed, the most prevalent was the 14 with 44%. The risk factors found in relation to the S. pneumoniae resistance were: age under one year old (p=0.01) and previous use of antibiotic (p=0.046). The resistance rates found, which were moderate to penicillin, low to cephalosporin and neutral to vancomycin, suggest the isolated use of a 3rd generation cephalosporin as an initial empirical therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with a communitarian background.

Andrea Maciel de Oliveira, Rossoni; Libera Maria, Dalla Costa; Denize Bonato, Berto; Sônia Santos, Farah; Marilene, Gelain; Maria Cristina de Cunto, Brandileone; Vitor Hugo Mariano, Ramos; Sergio Monteiro de, Almeida.

2008-09-01

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Epidural abscess caused by Streptococcus milleri in a pregnant woman  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in the Streptococcus milleri group (S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius are associated with bacteremia and abscess formation. While most reports of Streptococcus milleri group (SMG infection occur in patients with underlying medical conditions, SMG infections during pregnancy have been documented. However, SMG infections in pregnant women are associated with either neonatal or maternal puerperal sepsis. Albeit rare, S. milleri spinal-epidural abscess in pregnancy has been reported, always as a complication of spinal-epidural anesthesia. We report a case of spinal-epidural abscess caused by SMG in a young, pregnant woman without an antecedent history of spinal epidural anesthesia and without any underlying risk factors for invasive streptococcal disease. Case presentation A 25 year old pregnant woman developed neurological symptoms consistent with spinal cord compression at 20 weeks gestation. She underwent emergency laminectomy for decompression and was treated with ceftriaxone 2 gm IV daily for 28 days. She was ambulatory at the time of discharge from the inpatient rehabilitation unit with residual lower extremity weakness. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a Streptococcus milleri epidural abscess in a healthy, pregnant woman with no history of epidural anesthesia or invasive procedures. This report adds to the body of literature on SMG invasive infections. Treatment of SMG spinal-epidural abscess with neurologic manifestations should include prompt and aggressive surgical decompression coupled with targeted anti-infective therapy.

Bearman Gonzalo

2005-11-01

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Activity of DX-619 compared to other agents against viridans group streptococci, Streptococcus bovis, and Cardiobacterium hominis.  

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Against 198 viridans group streptococci, 25 Streptococcus bovis strains, and 5 Cardiobacterium hominis strains, MICs of DX-619, a des-F(6)-quinolone, were between 0.004 and 0.25 microg/ml. These MICs were lower than those of other quinolones ( 32 microg/ml). Beta-lactam MICs were between < or = 0.008 and 16 microg/ml. Azithromycin resistance was found in most species, while most were telithromycin susceptible. Glycopeptides and linezolid were active against viridans group strains but inactive against C. hominis. PMID:17043120

Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Smith, Kathy; Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Ednie, Lois M; Jones, Ronald N; Appelbaum, Peter C

2006-12-01

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Activity of DX-619 Compared to Other Agents against Viridans Group Streptococci, Streptococcus bovis, and Cardiobacterium hominis?  

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Against 198 viridans group streptococci, 25 Streptococcus bovis strains, and 5 Cardiobacterium hominis strains, MICs of DX-619, a des-F(6)-quinolone, were between 0.004 and 0.25 ?g/ml. These MICs were lower than those of other quinolones (?0.008 to >32 ?g/ml). ?-Lactam MICs were between ?0.008 and 16 ?g/ml. Azithromycin resistance was found in most species, while most were telithromycin susceptible. Glycopeptides and linezolid were active against viridans group strains but inactive ag...

Kosowska-shick, Klaudia; Smith, Kathy; Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Ednie, Lois M.; Jones, Ronald N.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

2006-01-01

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Caracterización clínica y microbiológica de las infecciones causadas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus grupo anginosus, y sus especies constellatus, anginosus e intermedius, causan infecciones supuradas. Su identificación microbiológica es compleja pues pueden ser beta-hemolíticos y comparten antígenos de Lancefield con otros estreptococos. Si bien morfológicamente son colonias pequeñas y presentan un olor característicos, si sólo se realiza test de látex para aglutinación del carbohidrato C pueden ser clasificados erróneamente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar un algoritmo que utiliza 3 pruebas bioquímicas, conocer su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos y describir las características clínicas de infecciones producidas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus. Se estudiaron cepas de Streptococcus grupo C, G y F, determinando sus características morfológicas de colonia, para identificar cepas de colonia pequeña que se incluyeron en el algoritmo de bajo costo propuesto (b-glucuronidasa y el test Voges-Proskauer comparándose al método API Rapid ID 32 Strept®, establecido como estándar de oro. Se estudiaron 219 cepas, de las cuales 101 presentaron las características morfológicas compatibles con grupo anginosus, identificándose S. constellatus en 58% (59/101, S. anginosus en 37% (37/101 y S. intermedius en 5% (5/101. Las cepas aisladas procedían principalmente de infecciones piogénicas (61%, 62/101, en especial de foco abdominal. Se observó 98% de susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima y resistencia a eritromicina y clindamicina en 6,8 y 5%, respectivamente. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 30 años (2-85, con distribución similar por sexo y predominio de pacientes hospitalizados. Los resultados expuestos demuestra la efectividad del algoritmo de bajo costo para la detección de S. grupo anginosus. En nuestra experiencia este grupo bacteriano conserva su susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima, siendo necesario vigilar clindamicina y eritromicinaStreptococcus anginosus group and its species constellatus, anginosus and intermedius, produce suppurative infections. Its microbiological identification is complex because it can be beta-hemolytic and shares Lancefield antigens with other Streptococci. This group grows as small colonies and presents a characteristic smell, but if only latex test for carbohydrate C agglutination is used it can be erroneously classified. The aims of this publication were to evaluate an algorithm that includes three biochemical tests, and to describe in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics and clinical characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group. Streptoccoccal strains belonging to groups C, G and F were evaluated, determining its colony characteristics in order to select small colony strains that were included into the proposed low cost algorithm (beta-glucurosidase and Voges Proskauer tests comparing them with API Rapid ID 32 Strept® method, considered the gold standard. Two hundred nineteen strains were studied, 101 had a morphological profile compatible with the anginosus group, identifying S. constellatus in 58% (59/101, S. anginosus in 37% (37/101 and S. intermedius in 5% (5/101. Strains were isolated mainly from pyogenic infections (61%, 62/101, specially from abdominal origin. High grade of penicillin and cefotaxime susceptibility (98% and low grade resistance to erithromycin and clindamycin (6,8 and 5% respectively were observed. Mean patient age was 30 years old (2-85, a similar sex distribution with predominance of inpatients. These results document the usefulness of the proposed low cost algorithm for detection of S. anginosus group. In our experience this bacterial group maintains good susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime, and we recommend a continous surveillance of clindamycin and erythromycin susceptibility

Gustavo Caro D.

2004-01-01

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Caracterización clínica y microbiológica de las infecciones causadas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus / Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus grupo anginosus, y sus especies constellatus, anginosus e intermedius, causan infecciones supuradas. Su identificación microbiológica es compleja pues pueden ser beta-hemolíticos y comparten antígenos de Lancefield con otros estreptococos. Si bien morfológicamente son colonias pequeñas [...] y presentan un olor característicos, si sólo se realiza test de látex para aglutinación del carbohidrato C pueden ser clasificados erróneamente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar un algoritmo que utiliza 3 pruebas bioquímicas, conocer su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos y describir las características clínicas de infecciones producidas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus. Se estudiaron cepas de Streptococcus grupo C, G y F, determinando sus características morfológicas de colonia, para identificar cepas de colonia pequeña que se incluyeron en el algoritmo de bajo costo propuesto (b-glucuronidasa y el test Voges-Proskauer) comparándose al método API Rapid ID 32 Strept®, establecido como estándar de oro. Se estudiaron 219 cepas, de las cuales 101 presentaron las características morfológicas compatibles con grupo anginosus, identificándose S. constellatus en 58% (59/101), S. anginosus en 37% (37/101) y S. intermedius en 5% (5/101). Las cepas aisladas procedían principalmente de infecciones piogénicas (61%, 62/101), en especial de foco abdominal. Se observó 98% de susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima y resistencia a eritromicina y clindamicina en 6,8 y 5%, respectivamente. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 30 años (2-85), con distribución similar por sexo y predominio de pacientes hospitalizados. Los resultados expuestos demuestra la efectividad del algoritmo de bajo costo para la detección de S. grupo anginosus. En nuestra experiencia este grupo bacteriano conserva su susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima, siendo necesario vigilar clindamicina y eritromicina Abstract in english Streptococcus anginosus group and its species constellatus, anginosus and intermedius, produce suppurative infections. Its microbiological identification is complex because it can be beta-hemolytic and shares Lancefield antigens with other Streptococci. This group grows as small colonies and present [...] s a characteristic smell, but if only latex test for carbohydrate C agglutination is used it can be erroneously classified. The aims of this publication were to evaluate an algorithm that includes three biochemical tests, and to describe in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics and clinical characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group. Streptoccoccal strains belonging to groups C, G and F were evaluated, determining its colony characteristics in order to select small colony strains that were included into the proposed low cost algorithm (beta-glucurosidase and Voges Proskauer tests) comparing them with API Rapid ID 32 Strept® method, considered the gold standard. Two hundred nineteen strains were studied, 101 had a morphological profile compatible with the anginosus group, identifying S. constellatus in 58% (59/101), S. anginosus in 37% (37/101) and S. intermedius in 5% (5/101). Strains were isolated mainly from pyogenic infections (61%, 62/101), specially from abdominal origin. High grade of penicillin and cefotaxime susceptibility (98%) and low grade resistance to erithromycin and clindamycin (6,8 and 5% respectively) were observed. Mean patient age was 30 years old (2-85), a similar sex distribution with predominance of inpatients. These results document the usefulness of the proposed low cost algorithm for detection of S. anginosus group. In our experience this bacterial group maintains good susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime, and we recommend a continous surveillance of clindamycin and erythromycin susceptibility

Gustavo, Caro D.; Ingrid, Riedel K.; Patricia, García C..

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Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licensed in veterinary medicine.  

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The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n=384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, cefquinome, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Using breakpoints established by CLSI for veterinary pathogens, all strains were susceptible to ceftiofur, florfenicol, enrofloxacin and penicillin. MIC-90 values of these antibiotics were < or = 0.03, 0.5, 2 and < or = 0.13 microg/mL, respectively. A low degree of resistance was observed for gentamicin (1.3%), spectinomycin (3.6%) and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (6.0%). MIC-90 values of these antibiotics were 8, 16 and 2 microg/mL, respectively. A high level of resistance was observed for tetracycline (75.1%). A MIC-90 value of 64 microg/mL was found for this antibiotic. Serotype-associated differences in MIC-90 values were observed for tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/suphamethoxazole. PMID:16387456

Wisselink, Henk J; Veldman, Kees T; Van den Eede, Chris; Salmon, Sarah A; Mevius, Dik J

2006-03-10

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Primer registro de Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889, Bothus constellatus Jordan & Goss, 1889, Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880 y Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868 (Pisces, Pleuronectiformes en Chile, con comentarios sobre la distribución de los lenguados chilenos First records of Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889, Bothus constellatus Jordan & Goss, 1889, Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880 and Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868 (Pisces: Pleuronectiformes in Chile, with comments on the distribution of the Chilean flounders  

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Full Text Available Se comunican los primeros registros de los Pleuronectiformes Achirus klunzingeri (Soleidae, Etropus ectenes y Bothus constellatus (Bothidae y Symphurus elongatus (Cynoglossidae en aguas de chilenas. Las características morfológicas de los especímenes estudiados se confrontan con descripciones previas. Se discute su distribución en el Pacífico sur oriental y aquella del orden en aguas chilenas. The first records of the Pleuronectiformes Achirus klunzingeri (Soleidae, Etropus ectenes and Bothus constellatus (Bothidae, and Symphurus elongatus (Cynoglossidae in chilean waters are reported. The morphological characteristics of the studied specimens are compared with previous descriptions. Their distribution in the Southeastern Pacific and that of the order in Chilean waters are discussed

Walter Sielfeld

2003-01-01

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Streptococcus suis, an important pig pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent—an update on the worldwide distribution based on serotyping and sequence typing  

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Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen causing economic problems in the pig industry. Moreover, it is a zoonotic agent causing severe infections to people in close contact with infected pigs or pork-derived products. Although considered sporadic in the past, human S. suis infections have been reported during the last 45 years, with two large outbreaks recorded in China. In fact, the number of reported human cases has significantly increased in recent years. In this review, we present the worldwide distribution of serotypes and sequence types (STs), as determined by multilocus sequence typing, for pigs (between 2002 and 2013) and humans (between 1968 and 2013). The methods employed for S. suis identification and typing, the current epidemiological knowledge regarding serotypes and STs and the zoonotic potential of S. suis are discussed. Increased awareness of S. suis in both human and veterinary diagnostic laboratories and further establishment of typing methods will contribute to our knowledge of this pathogen, especially in regions where complete and/or recent data is lacking. More research is required to understand differences in virulence that occur among S. suis strains and if these differences can be associated with specific serotypes or STs.

Goyette-Desjardins, Guillaume; Auger, Jean-Philippe; Xu, Jianguo; Segura, Mariela; Gottschalk, Marcelo

2014-01-01

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Primer registro de Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889, Bothus constellatus Jordan & Goss, 1889, Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880) y Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868) (Pisces, Pleuronectiformes) en Chile, con comentarios sobre la distribución de los lenguados chilenos / First records of Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889, Bothus constellatus Jordan & Goss, 1889, Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880) and Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868) (Pisces: Pleuronectiformes) in Chile, with comments on the distribution of the Chilean flounders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se comunican los primeros registros de los Pleuronectiformes Achirus klunzingeri (Soleidae), Etropus ectenes y Bothus constellatus (Bothidae) y Symphurus elongatus (Cynoglossidae) en aguas de chilenas. Las características morfológicas de los especímenes estudiados se confrontan con descripciones pre [...] vias. Se discute su distribución en el Pacífico sur oriental y aquella del orden en aguas chilenas Abstract in english . The first records of the Pleuronectiformes Achirus klunzingeri (Soleidae), Etropus ectenes and Bothus constellatus (Bothidae), and Symphurus elongatus (Cynoglossidae) in chilean waters are reported. The morphological characteristics of the studied specimens are compared with previous descriptions. [...] Their distribution in the Southeastern Pacific and that of the order in Chilean waters are discussed

Walter, Sielfeld; Mauricio, Vargas; Ismael, Kong.

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Identification of Lipoprotein Homologues of Pneumococcal PsaA in the Equine Pathogens Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus  

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Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus are major etiological agents of upper and lower airway disease in horses. Despite the considerable animal suffering and economic burden associated with these diseases, the factors that contribute to the virulence of these equine pathogens have not been extensively investigated. Here we demonstrate the presence of a homologue of the Streptococcus pneumoniae PsaA protein in both of these equine pathogens. Inhibition of signal peptide processing...

Harrington, Dean J.; Greated, Joanne S.; Chanter, Neil; Sutcliffe, Iain C.

2000-01-01

34

Molecular detection of Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae in the mastitic cows milks in Isfahan province  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and important diseases in dairy cow herds. It is an inflammatory disease of mammary gland which is caused by many infectious agents. Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae have been frequently isolated from bovine mastitic milk. This research was carried out to study the prevalence of Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae in the milk of cows with clinical mastitis in industrial dairy farms around the province of Isfahan.Materials and Methods: In total, 123 milk samples were collected from cows with clinical mastitis and then, were immediately transferred to the laboratory. Mastitic milks were confirmed using California Mastitis Test and then, all samples were tested using microbial and biochemical tests. Finally, all 123 samples were tested using PCR.Results: Culture results showed that 16% and 7.31% of the milk samples were positive for Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis, respectively. The PCR showed that 19.51% and 10.56% of the samples were infected with Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis, respectively.Discussion and Conclusion: This study showed that the Polymerase Chain Reaction has a higher accuracy and safety than the culture method. Therefore, we recommend the use of Polymerase Chain Reaction for inspection of microbial quality of milk samples.

Hassan Momtaz

2012-01-01

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Prevalencia de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae y otros gérmenes causantes de otitis media aguda en niños de Latinoamérica: Revisión sistemática de la bibliografía / Prevalence of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other agents that cause acute otitis media in children in Latin America: A systematic review of the literature  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La otitis media aguda (OMA) es un diagnóstico frecuente en pediatría. Streptococcus pneumoniae continúa siendo el germen más prevalente a nivel mundial, seguido de Haemophilus influenzae. Sin embargo, la introducción de vacunas contra el neumococo ha venido cambiando la microbiología de la OMA. Obje [...] tivo. Establecer la prevalencia del neumococo, sus serotipos y la prevalencia de otros gérmenes comunes en niños latinoamericanos con OMA. Fuente de los datos. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de artículos originales en siete bases de datos, limitada a publicaciones entre 1999 y 2010, a menores de 18 años y a idiomas inglés y castellano. Se completó la búsqueda por estrategia de "bola de nieve". Métodos de revisión. Los criterios de elegibilidad incluyeron artículos originales de prevalencia de corte transversal, realizados en población pediátrica latinoamericana y con criterios de inclusión y exclusión homogéneos. Se extrajo la información pertinente de los artículos seleccionados. Resultados. Once artículos cumplieron los criterios de elegibilidad. En Latinoamérica, específcamente en Costa Rica, Chile, Brasil y Argentina, el germen más prevalente fue Streptococcus pneumoniae (43,5%), (el serotipo más frecuente es el 19F, excepto en Argentina, donde es el 14) seguido por Haemophilus influenzae (30%) y Moraxella catarrhalis (6,4%). Conclusiones. El germen más prevalente en OMA en niños latinoamericanos es Streptococcus pneumoniae, hallazgo concordante con lo registrado en Europa y Estados Unidos. Se requieren más estudios en los otros países de la región y su población pediátrica vacunada contra el neumococo, con el fin de establecer un perfil epidemiológico y microbiológico actualizado de Latinoamérica. Abstract in english Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common diagnosis in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most prevalent agent worldwide, followed by Haemophilus influenzae. However, the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has changed the microbiology of AOM. Objective. To establish the prevalence of pneum [...] ococcal serotypes and other common germs in Latin American children with AOM. Source of data. We carried out a systematic search for original articles in seven databases, limited to publications between 1999 and 2010, children under 18, and English and Spanish languages. Search was completed with "snowball" strategy. Review methods. Eligibility criteria included original prevalence cross-sectional articles, conducted in pediatric populations in Latin America, with homogeneous inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant information was extracted from the selected articles. Results. Eleven articles met the eligibility criteria. In Latin America, specifically Costa Rica, Chile, Brazil and Argentina, Streptococcus pneumoniae (43.5%) was the most frequent germ, (serotype 19F is the most frequent, except in Argentina where it is 14) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (30%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (6.4%). Conclusions. The more prevalent germ in Latin American children AOM is Streptococcus pneumoniae, a finding consistent with those from Europe and the U.S. Further studies are required in the other countries of the region and its pediatric pneumococcal vaccinated population, in order to establish an updated epidemiological and microbiological profile in Latin America.

Norma Carolina, Barajas Viracachá.

2011-06-01

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Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virule [...] nce factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing), classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis.

Regianne Umeko, Kamiya; Tiago, Taiete; Reginaldo Bruno, Gonçalves.

1248-12-01

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Streptococcus mutans y caries dental / Streptococcus mutans and dental caries  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus mutans es uno de los microorganismos cariogénicos asociados a la caries dental. De acuerdo con la hipótesis de la placa ecológica, la caries dental es la consecuencia de cambios en el balance natural de la microflora de la placa dental causados por la alteración de las condiciones ambi [...] entales locales (homeostasis microbiana oral). El estudio de su participación en la colonización de tejidos dentales, implantación e interacción con otros microrganismos es de mucha importancia para la comprensión de la dinámica de las biopelículas dentales. Por medio de técnicas de biología molecular, se ha avanzado en la identificación de los diferentes tipos que habitan la cavidad oral, los productos que generan y que son críticos para su implantación, las interacciones con otras especies y el desarrollo de nuevos procedimientos que ayuden su identificación como uno de los agentes más importantes en la caries dental. Esta revisión examina los últimos avances en la biología de Streptococcus mutans, su papel en la génesis de la caries y las técnicas de identificación y estudio más usadas en los últimos años. Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans is one of cariogenic microorganisms associated with tooth decay. According with the hypothesis of the ecological plaque, dental caries is the consequence of changes in the natural balance in the dental plaque microflora (oral microbial homeostasis). Its role in the colonization [...] of dental tissues, implantation and interaction with other microorganisms is of paramount importance for the understanding of the dynamics of dental biofilms. By means of molecular biology techniques, there have been advances in the identification of the different types that live in the oral cavity, the products they produce which are critical for its implantation, the interaction with other species and the development of new procedures that help its identification as one of the most important agents in dental caries. This review examines the latest advances in the biology of Streptococcus mutans, its role in the genesis of the caries and the identification and study techniques most used in recent years.

Juan Carlos, Ojeda-Garcés; Eliana, Oviedo-García; Luis Andrés, Salas.

2013-01-01

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Gene expression in Streptococcus mutans biofilms  

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Streptococcus mutans is considered the major aetiological agent of human dental caries. It is an obligate biofilm-forming bacterium, which resides on teeth and forms, together with other species, an oral biofilm that is often designated as supragingival plaque. This thesis consists of three distinct parts. The first part describes, using microarray analysis, how S. mutans modulates gene expression when grown under different conditions in biofilms. The goal of this analysis was to identify gen...

Banu, L. D.

2010-01-01

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Streptococcus gordonii septic arthritis : two cases and review of literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in antimicrobial and surgical therapy, septic arthritis remains a rheumatologic emergency that can lead to rapid joint destruction and irreversible loss of function. In adults, Staphylococcus aureus is the most common microorganism isolated from native joints. Streptococcus gordonii is a prominent member of the viridans group of oral bacteria and is among the bacteria most frequently identified as being primary agent of subacute bacterial endocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, Streptococcus gordonii has not yet been described as agent of septic arthritis. Case Presentation We describe here two cases of septic arthritis due to Streptococcus gordonii. It gives us an opportunity to review epidemiology, diagnosis criteria and management of septic arthritis. Conclusion Although implication of S. gordonii as aetiologic agent of subacute endocarditis is well known, this organism is a rare cause of septic arthritis. In this case, the exclusion of associated endocarditis is warranted.

Yombi Jean cyr

2012-09-01

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Identification of the 'Streptococcus anginosus group' by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization--time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

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Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) provides rapid, accurate and cost-effective identification of a range of bacteria and is rapidly changing the face of routine diagnostic microbiology. However, certain groups of bacteria, for example streptococci (in particular viridans or non-haemolytic streptococci), are less reliably identified by this method. We studied the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of the 'Streptococcus anginosus group' (SAG) to species level. In total, 116 stored bacteraemia isolates identified by conventional methods as belonging to the SAG were analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, supplemented with sialidase activity testing, was performed on all isolates to provide 'gold standard' identification against which to compare MALDI-TOF MS performance. Overall, 100?% of isolates were correctly identified to the genus level and 93.1?% to the species level by MALDI-TOF MS. However, only 77.6?% were correctly identified to the genus level and 59.5?% to the species level by a MALDI-TOF MS direct transfer method alone. Use of a rapid in situ extraction method significantly improved identification rates when compared with the direct transfer method (P<0.001). We recommend routine use of this method to reduce the number of time-consuming full extractions required for identification of this group of bacteria by MALDI-TOF MS in the routine diagnostic laboratory. Only 22?% (1/9) of Streptococcus intermedius isolates were reliably identified by MALDI-TOF MS to the species level, even after full extraction. MALDI-TOF MS reliably identifies S. anginosus and Streptococcus constellatus to the species level but does not reliably identify S. intermedius. PMID:24917618

Woods, Katherine; Beighton, David; Klein, John L

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Genomics, evolution, and molecular epidemiology of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC).  

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The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) is a group of human and animal derived streptococci that are commensals (rumen and gastrointestinal tract), opportunistic pathogens or food fermentation associates. The classification of SBSEC has undergone massive changes and currently comprises 7 (sub)species grouped into four branches based on sequences identities: the Streptococcus gallolyticus, the Streptococcus equinus, the Streptococcus infantarius and the Streptococcus alactolyticus branch. In animals, SBSEC are causative agents for ruminal acidosis, potentially laminitis and infective endocarditis (IE). In humans, a strong association was established between bacteraemia, IE and colorectal cancer. Especially the SBSEC-species S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an emerging pathogen for IE and prosthetic joint infections. S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and the S. infantarius branch are further associated with biliary and urinary tract infections. Knowledge on pathogenic mechanisms is so far limited to colonization factors such as pili and biofilm formation. Certain strain variants of S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius are associated with traditional dairy and plant-based food fermentations and display traits suggesting safety. However, due to their close relationship to virulent strains, their use in food fermentation has to be critically assessed. Additionally, implementing accurate and up-to-date taxonomy is critical to enable appropriate treatment of patients and risk assessment of species and strains via recently developed multilocus sequence typing schemes to enable comparative global epidemiology. Comparative genomics revealed that SBSEC strains harbour genomics islands (GI) that seem acquired from other streptococci by horizontal gene transfer. In case of virulent strains these GI frequently encode putative virulence factors, in strains from food fermentation the GI encode functions that are pivotal for strain performance during fermentation. Comparative genomics is a powerful tool to identify acquired pathogenic functions, but there is still an urgent need for more physiological and epidemiological data to understand SBSEC-specific traits. PMID:25233845

Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Lacroix, Christophe; Stevens, Marc J A

2014-09-16

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Interactions between Oral Bacteria: Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Bacteriocin Production by Streptococcus gordonii  

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Streptococcus mutans has been recognized as an important etiological agent in human dental caries. Some strains of S. mutans also produce bacteriocins. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that bacteriocin production by S. mutans strains GS5 and BM71 was mediated by quorum sensing, which is dependent on a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system encoded by the com genes. We also demonstrated that interactions with some other oral streptococci interfered with S. mutans bacterio...

Wang, Bing-yan; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

2005-01-01

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Molecular Identification of Streptococcus equi subsp. Equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Nasal Swabs Samples from Horses Suffering Respiratory Infections in Iran  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the existence of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus as probable agents associated with naturally occurring infection of the equine upper respiratory disease in Mashhad area. Nasal swabs samples from thirty horses with upper respiratory tract infections were collected. The bacteria isolated and identified were Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (1 isolate, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (25 isolates, Pasteurella sp. (11 isolates, Staphylococcus sp. (17 isolates, Bacillus sp. (4 isolates, Pseudomonas sp. (4 isolates, Proteus sp. (1 isolate, Neisseria sp. (1 isolate and E. coli (1 isolate. All 25 isolates of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and the isolate of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi were characterized by biochemical tests and molecular techniques. For molecular identification of the subspecies S. equi and S. zooepidemicus two genomic region SeM and sodA were amplified. This study is the first report of molecular identification of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Iran.

A.A. Jannatabadi

2008-01-01

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Streptococcus tigurinus, a Novel Member of the Streptococcus mitis Group, Causes Invasive Infections  

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We recently described the novel species Streptococcus tigurinus sp. nov. belonging to the Streptococcus mitis group. The type strain AZ_3aT of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. According to its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, S. tigurinus is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is fa...

Zbinden, Andrea; Mueller, Nicolas J.; Tarr, Philip E.; Eich, Gerhard; Schulthess, Bettina; Bahlmann, Anna S.; Keller, Peter M.; Bloemberg, Guido V.

2012-01-01

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Streptococcus pneumoniae, mecanismos de resistencia antimicrobiana Streptococcus pneumoniae, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance  

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Full Text Available El Streptococcus pneumoniae, principal agente causal de la neumonía comunitaria, líder en la etiología de la otitis media y la meningitis, en las últimas 3 décadas ha incrementado, de manera importante, su resistencia a los agentes terapéuticos más utilizados, como los betalactámicos, macrólidos, azálidos y fluroquinolonas. La versatilidad adaptativa del microorganismo le ha permitido crear mecanismos capaces de sobreponerse a cualquiera de estas agresiones terapéuticas con un grado variable de eficacia. Se realiza una revisión de los mecanismos más importantes implicados en la adquisición de resistencia antimicrobiana por S. pneumoniae, y se precisan algunos de los factores de riesgo implicados en infección por S. pneumoniae resistente.The Streptococcus pneumoniae, the main causal agent of community pneumonia, leader in the etiology of the otitis media and the meningitis, during the past three decades has increase in a significant way its resistance to the more used therapeutic agents including the beta-lactamase, macrolides, azalides and fluroquinolones. Adaptive versatility of the microorganism allows it to create mechanisms able to overcome to any of these therapeutical aggressions with a variable degree of effectiveness. Authors made a review of the more important mechanisms involved in acquisition of the antimicrobial resistance by S. pneumoniae and some of risk factors involved in the infection due to resistant S. pneumoniae are specified.

Amauri Noda Albelo

2011-09-01

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Meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available Fundamento: el Streptococcus pneumoniae ocupa el primer lugar entre las bacterias causales de meningoencefalitis bacteriana desde el año 2000, la cual afecta a niños y adultos con alta letalidad. Objetivo: caracterizar algunos aspectos epidemiológicos y microbiológicos de la meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y observacional acerca de la meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae en el laboratorio de microbiología del Centro Provincial de Higiene Epidemiología y Microbiología en el desde el 2000 al 2009. El universo fue de 209 pacientes con meningoencefalitis bacteriana y la muestra de 50 enfermos positivos a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Resultados: el 24,4 % de los pacientes tuvieron Streptococcus pneumoniae. Todas las edades fueron afectadas, especialmente los ancianos con letalidad del 80 %. Hubo 40 % de fallecimientos en niños y 60 % en adultos. El estudio bacteriológico del líquido cefaloraquidio resultó ser la prueba más importante para establecer el diagnóstico de meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Se detectó el 84 % de cepas resistentes a la penicilina. Conclusiones: los resultados demuestran que se debe extremar la vigilancia de las meningoencefalitis a este germen en población vulnerable ante la elevada letalidad observada en los enfermos positivos a Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Ingrid Est\\u00E9vez Sierra

2011-01-01

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Response of Different Antibiotic Resistant Group of Streptococcus pyogenes to Environmental Stresses  

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Streptococcus species is considered as an important pathogen for human and animals. The antibiotic resistance mechanism in this species is continuously increased. On the other side, the tolerance of environmental stresses play an effective role in the severity of many streptococcal causative disease. In this study we assayed survey on the causative agents of pharyngitis and tonsillitis patients. The predominant causative strain was Streptococcus pyogenes with 93 % isolating ratio frequency. ...

Abbas, Naser; Ismail, Mahmoud; El-shahat Ebeid, Mohamed

2012-01-01

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The Tea Catechin Epigallocatechin Gallate Suppresses Cariogenic Virulence Factors of Streptococcus mutans?  

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Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, possesses a series of virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity. Alternatives to traditional antimicrobial treatment, agents selectively inhibiting the virulence factors without necessarily suppressing the resident oral species, are promising. The anticariogenic properties of tea have been suggested in experimental animals and humans. Tea polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), have been shown to in...

Xu, Xin; Zhou, Xue D.; Wu, Christine D.

2011-01-01

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Perinephric abscess caused by Streptococcus agalactiae after renal transplantation.  

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We describe the case of a 37 year-old diabetic woman who presented with a multiloculated perinephric abscess caused by Streptococcus agalactiae 12 months after receiving a living-related kidney graft. Infection was successfully treated with surgical drainage and a four-week course of antibiotic therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a perinephric abscess caused by this agent in a renal transplant recipient. PMID:16230194

Santoro-Lopes, Guilherme; Halpern, Márcia; Gonçalves, Renato Torres

2005-10-01

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Streptococcus suis: an important zoonotic pathogen for human – prevention aspects  

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Streptococcus suis is a major porcine pathogen, causing economical health worldwide problems in the global swine industry. It is also emerging as a zoonotic agent capable of causing severe invasive disease in humans exposed to pigs or pork products. The most important clinical sign in swine and human is meningitis, but other pathological conditions have also been described. Serotype 2 is the most commonly associated with diseases in pigs and humans, and also the most frequently reported serot...

Papatsiros, V. G.; Vourvidis, D.; Tzitzis, A. A.; Meichanetsidis, P. S.; Stougiou, D.; Mintza, D.; Papaioannou, P. S.

2011-01-01

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Multiple Streptococcus mutans Genes Are Involved in Biofilm Formation†  

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Streptococcus mutans has been strongly implicated as the principal etiological agent in dental caries. One of the important virulence properties of these organisms is their ability to form biofilms known as dental plaque on tooth surfaces. Since the roles of sucrose and glucosyltransferases in S. mutans biofilm formation have been well documented, we focused our attention on sucrose-independent factors. We have initially identified several mutants that appear to be defective in biofilm format...

Yoshida, Akihiro; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

2002-01-01

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Transport and Metabolism of Citrate by Streptococcus mutans  

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Streptococcus mutans, a normal inhabitant of dental plaque, is considered a primary etiological agent of dental caries. Two virulence determinants of S. mutans are its acidogenicity and aciduricity (the ability to produce acid and the ability to survive and grow at low pH, respectively). Citric acid is ubiquitous in nature; it is a component of fruit juices, bones, and teeth. In lactic acid bacteria citrate transport has been linked to increased survival in acidic conditions. We identified pu...

Korithoski, Bryan; Krastel, Kirsten; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.

2005-01-01

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Decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility in emerging (35B and 6C) and persisting (19A) Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in the United States, 2011-2012: ceftaroline remains active in vitro among ?-lactam agents.  

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Totals of 8.7% (103/1,190) and 21.0% (249/1,190) of the Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates recovered from specimens collected in the United States during the 2011-2012 AWARE (Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation) Surveillance Program were ceftriaxone nonsusceptible according to the CLSI (? 1 ?g/ml for susceptible) and EUCAST (? 0.5 ?g/ml for susceptible) criteria, respectively. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC, 1 ?g/ml) was frequently observed among serotypes 19 A (51.4%; 128/249) and 35 B (29.7%; 74/249), which were most often observed in the East South Central and South Atlantic U.S. Census regions. Ceftaroline (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.25 ?g/ml) remained active (? 96.8% susceptible) when tested against these less susceptible isolates. PMID:24867974

Mendes, Rodrigo E; Biek, Donald; Critchley, Ian A; Farrell, David J; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

2014-08-01

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Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae: a case of S. agalactiae infection in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus)  

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A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) technique was developed for simultaneous detection of the causative agents responsible forstreptococcosis of cultured fish in Thailand i.e., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae.The study on the sensitivity of the technique indicated that the minimum detected DNA concentration was 9.76, 39.06, and19.53 pg for S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieae, respectively. Detection of streptococcosis in healthy and diseased Niletilapia (Oreoch...

Chutima Tantikitti; Naraid Suanyuk; Akkarawit Itsaro

2012-01-01

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Detección y caracterización de Streptococcus agalactiae en muestras para urocultivo Detection and characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in urinary samples for culture  

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Full Text Available La frecuencia de los aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae en el laboratorio clínico es cada vez mayor. Dada su importancia como patógeno, fundamentalmente relacionado a infecciones del tracto urinario, sepsis neonatal y puerperal, se hace necesario mejorar los métodos de detección. El presente trabajo pretende estudiar la frecuencia de los aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae en muestras para urocultivo con especial atención en las pacientes embarazadas. Se evaluaron 17.160 aislamientos durante un período de dos años, tanto de pacientes ambulatorios como de internados, aislándose Streptococcus agalactiae en 170 muestras (1%. Con agar sangre de carnero como medio de aislamiento se logró aumentar la sensibilidad en la detección de este microorganismo al considerar la presencia de colonias beta hemolíticas en las muestras de pacientes embarazadas aún en bajas concentraciones. Sobre un total de 4.868 muestras provenientes de embarazadas se obtuvieron 107 aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae que corresponden al 2,2%. De esta forma, pudo detectarse un gran número de pacientes portadoras y prevenir efectivamente los riesgos potenciales. Sobre 88 aislamientos se ensayó la sensibilidad a diferentes agentes antimicrobianos, y pudo observarse una sensibilidad conservada a los agentes beta-lactámicos y una buena respuesta a los tratamientos instaurados.The frequency of Streptococcus agalactiae is growing in the clinical laboratory. Improved detection methods are needed due to its importance as urinary tract, neonatal and puerperal pathogen. The aim of the present work was to study the frequency of Streptococcus agalactiae isolations in urinary culture samples focused on pregnant women. 170 isolates (1% Streptococcus agalactiae were obtained from 17,160 samples of ambulatory and hospitalized patients in a two year period. It was possible to increase the sensitivity of the detection of this microorganism by considering the presence of beta hemolytic colonies in low concentrations in samples of pregnant patients on sheep blood agar plates. Out of 4,868 samples of pregnant women, 107 isolates (2.2% of Streptococcus agalactiae were obtained. By this means it was possible to detect a great number of carriers and to effectively prevent potential risks. The susceptibility of 88 isolates to different antimicrobial agents was tested. A preserved susceptibility to beta-lactam agents and also a positive response to the established treatments were observed.

José Viegas Caetano

2004-12-01

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Detección y caracterización de Streptococcus agalactiae en muestras para urocultivo / Detection and characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in urinary samples for culture  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La frecuencia de los aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae en el laboratorio clínico es cada vez mayor. Dada su importancia como patógeno, fundamentalmente relacionado a infecciones del tracto urinario, sepsis neonatal y puerperal, se hace necesario mejorar los métodos de detección. El presente t [...] rabajo pretende estudiar la frecuencia de los aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae en muestras para urocultivo con especial atención en las pacientes embarazadas. Se evaluaron 17.160 aislamientos durante un período de dos años, tanto de pacientes ambulatorios como de internados, aislándose Streptococcus agalactiae en 170 muestras (1%). Con agar sangre de carnero como medio de aislamiento se logró aumentar la sensibilidad en la detección de este microorganismo al considerar la presencia de colonias beta hemolíticas en las muestras de pacientes embarazadas aún en bajas concentraciones. Sobre un total de 4.868 muestras provenientes de embarazadas se obtuvieron 107 aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae que corresponden al 2,2%. De esta forma, pudo detectarse un gran número de pacientes portadoras y prevenir efectivamente los riesgos potenciales. Sobre 88 aislamientos se ensayó la sensibilidad a diferentes agentes antimicrobianos, y pudo observarse una sensibilidad conservada a los agentes beta-lactámicos y una buena respuesta a los tratamientos instaurados. Abstract in english The frequency of Streptococcus agalactiae is growing in the clinical laboratory. Improved detection methods are needed due to its importance as urinary tract, neonatal and puerperal pathogen. The aim of the present work was to study the frequency of Streptococcus agalactiae isolations in urinary cul [...] ture samples focused on pregnant women. 170 isolates (1%) Streptococcus agalactiae were obtained from 17,160 samples of ambulatory and hospitalized patients in a two year period. It was possible to increase the sensitivity of the detection of this microorganism by considering the presence of beta hemolytic colonies in low concentrations in samples of pregnant patients on sheep blood agar plates. Out of 4,868 samples of pregnant women, 107 isolates (2.2%) of Streptococcus agalactiae were obtained. By this means it was possible to detect a great number of carriers and to effectively prevent potential risks. The susceptibility of 88 isolates to different antimicrobial agents was tested. A preserved susceptibility to beta-lactam agents and also a positive response to the established treatments were observed.

José, Viegas Caetano; Silvina, Larre; Carmen, Lopreto.

2004-12-01

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Group B Streptococcus detection: comparison of PCR assay and culture as a screening method for pregnant women  

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Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most important causal agents of serious neonatal infections. Numerous assays have been evaluated for GBS screening in order to validate a fast and efficient method. The aim of this study was to compare the culture technique (established as the gold standard) with the molecular method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers (atr gene). Two hundred and sixty-three samples were analyzed. Vaginal samples were c...

Fernanda de-Paris; Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro Machado; Tailise Conte Gheno; Bruna Maria Ascoli; Kátia Ruschel Pilger de Oliveira; Afonso Luis Barth

2011-01-01

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A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin  

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Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cultura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta. Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica.BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detects the genes responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin within approximately 8 hours. OBJECTIVE: To compare the PCR and MIC methods in determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin. METHOD: A total of 153 Streptococcus pneumoniae samples, isolated from various anatomical sites, were evaluated in order to detect mutations in the genes encoding pbp1a, pbp2a and pbp2x, which are responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance. A correlation was found between mutations and penicillin MIP, as determined by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Overal Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was 22.8% (16.3% intermediate resistance and 6.5% high resistance. In a statistically significant finding, we observed no mutations in the penicillin-sensitive samples and only one mutation, typically in the gene encoding pbp2x, among the samples with intermediate resistance, whereas mutations in all three genes studied were observed in the high-resistance samples. CONCLUSION: For determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin, PCR is a rapid method of detection that could well be used in clinical practice.

Eduardo Walker Zettler

2004-12-01

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Infecciones por Streptococcus agalactiae en un servicio de neonatología abierto Infections due to Streptococcus agalactiae at an open neonatology service  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de las infecciones por estreptococo del grupo B en recién nacidos egresados de los hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutivos con infecciones por Streptococcus agalactiae, ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre febrero de 1992 y diciembre del 2007. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas, con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad, así como relación entre variables categóricas. RESULTADOS. Hubo 76 recién nacidos con infección por Streptococcus agalactiae, lo cual constituyó una tasa promedio anual de 1,9 x 100 ingresos. Predominaron las infecciones de inicio tardío y las adquiridas en la comunidad (89,5 % y 93,4 %, respectivamente. La meningitis fue la forma clínica más frecuente, seguida de la bacteriemia aislada. Hubo 56 de 76 recién nacidos con bacteriemia (73,7 %. El Streptococcus agalactiae tuvo elevada sensibilidad ante la penicilina, la eritromicina, la vancomicina, la cefotaxima y el cloranfenicol. Hubo 7 fallecidos (9,2 % y todos fueron pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central. CONCLUSIONES. Streptococcus agalactiae es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, tanto en la comunidad como en el medio hospitalario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central con bacteriemia o sin ella, aún manteniendo un patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los antibióticos betalactámicos.INTRODUCCIÓN. The objective of the present study was to know the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infections caused by group B Streptococcus in newborns discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that included consecutive infants with infections due to Streptococcus agalactiae admitted in the Neonatology Service of «Juan M. Márquez» University Pediatric Hospital from February 1992 to December 2007 was conducted. Different clinical and epidemiological variables were processed and analyzed, with calculation of incidence and lethality rates and relation among the categoric variables. RESULTS. There were 76 newborns with infection due to Streptococcus agalactiae for an average annual rate of 1.9 x 100 admissions. It was observed a predominance of late onset infections and of those acquired in the community (89.5 % y 93.4 %, respectively. Meningitis was the most common clinical form followed by isolated bacteriemia. 56 of the 76 newborn infants had bacteriemia (73.7 %. Streptococcus agalactiae showed a high sensitivity to penicillin, erythromycine, vancomycin, cefotaxime and cloranphenicol. There were 7 deaths (9.2 %. All of them had infection of the CNS. CONCLUSIONS. Streptococcus agalactiae is an agent that causes infections affecting the newborn infant, both in the community and in the hospital. These infections may be lethal in some patients with infection of the CNS with o without bacteriemia, even when they maintain a pattern of elevated susceptibility to betalactamic antibiotics.

Manuel Díaz Álvarez

2008-12-01

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Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados de infecciones invasivas: serotipos y resistencia antimicrobiana Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive infections: serotypes and antimicrobial resistance  

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Full Text Available Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas constituyen una enfermedad invasiva importante, quizás no tanto por su frecuencia, como por la gravedad de su cuadro. Los cambios en la epidemiología de los síndromes neurológicos infecciosos en Cuba a partir de la vacunación contra meningococo BC y Haemophilus influenzae b han hecho que el Streptococcus pneumoniae constituya el agente causal más frecuente. Debido al incremento de la resistencia de este microorganismo a los antibióticos habituales, se realizaron modificaciones al régimen terapéutico convencional, fundamentalmente en las meningitis pediátricas. Es necesario lograr el aislamiento en cultivo de este agente para conocer los serotipos más frecuentes en el país, y lograr una vacuna neumocócica conjugada, así como para la vigilancia de las cepas frente a los antimicrobianos.The bacterial meningoencephalitis is an important invasive disease, not only because of its frequency, but also because of the severity of its picture. The changes in the epidemiology of the neurological infectious syndromes in Cuba starting from the vaccination against meningococcus BC and Haemophilus infuenzae b have made that Streptococcus pneumoniae be the most frequent causal agent. Due to the increase of the resistance of this microorganism to habitual antibiotics, modifications were made in the conventional therapeutic regimen, mainly in the pediatric meningitis. It is necessary to achieve the isolation in culture of this agent to know the most common serotypes in the country, to attain a conjugated pneumococcal vaccine, and to keep the surveillance of the strains against the antimicrobials.

Gladys Antonia Cueto Montoya

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-3H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

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Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient  

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Full Text Available Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C, vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2 y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La identificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias.A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles were positive. The isolate was preliminary identified by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

A. Nagel

2008-09-01

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Acute meningitis by Streptococcus suis  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a coccus Gram positive, anaerobic optional. Human infection by this microorganism is a zoonoticdisease that usually presents as purulent meningitis. Mortality is low but is common sequelae. A case of meningitis byS. suis secondary to contact with pigs is presented here. A 35-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital complainingof high fever, malaise, vomiting and headache. A physical examination revealed decreased level of consciousness,with adequate response to painful stimulus and his eyes with deconjugated gaze. S. suis was isolated in bloodculture. He was treated with cefotaxime, vancomycin and acyclovir in the intensive care unit. He experienced progressiveimprovement. He was discharged with severe deafness and a minimally unstable gait as sequellae. J Microbiol Infect Dis2012; 2(4: 160-162Key words: Streptococcus suis, meningitis, deafness.

Maria-Jesus Corrales-Arroyo

2012-12-01

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Use of a Bacteriophage Lysin, PlyC, as an Enzyme Disinfectant against Streptococcus equi?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of the purulent infection equine strangles. This disease is transmitted through shedding of live bacteria from nasal secretions and abscess drainage or by contact with surfaces contaminated by the bacteria. Disinfectants are effective against S. equi, but inactivation by environmental factors, damage to equipment, and toxicity are of great concern. Bacteriophage-encoded lysins (cell wall hydrolases) have been investigated as therapeutic agents due to ...

Hoopes, J. Todd; Stark, Caren J.; Kim, Han Ah; Sussman, Daniel J.; Donovan, David M.; Nelson, Daniel C.

2009-01-01

65

Caracterização Genética da Resistência à Eritromicina em Streptococcus agalactia e Degestantes saudáveis  

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Streptococcus agalactiae (Grupo B de Lancefield, EGB), um microrganismo comensal do homem, reconhecido em 1920 como o agente etiológico da mastite bovina, tem sido associado a infecções em parturientes e recém-nascidos, sendo o principal agente de septicemia e meningite neonatal. Para evitar a infecção perinatal recomenda-se a pesquisa da bactéria na região vagino-perianal durante o terceiro semestre de gravidez, indicando o tratamento antibiótico durante o parto das gestantes coloni...

Pinheiro, Sandra Marisa Oliveira Sequeira

2009-01-01

66

Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro del aceite de girasol ozonizado sobre Streptococcus mutans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus mutans es considerado como el principal agente etiológico de las caries bucales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto letal que ejerce el aceite de girasol ozonizado (OLEOZON®) sobre este microorganismo. Se evaluó la influencia que presentan diferentes factores, como el pH, la concentración del agente antimicrobiano OLEOZON® y el tiempo de contacto. Se determinaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias, las que presentaron un comportamiento similar entre e...

Ndez Torres, Ir U. E. N. Fern U. E.; Ol, Vicente Curtiellas Pi U. F.; Nchez Urrutia, Elaine S. U. E.

2006-01-01

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Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations  

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Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestat...

Dragojlovi? Julijana; Miloševi? Branko; Šaši? Neda; Pelemiš Miomir; Šaši? Milan

2005-01-01

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Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae Revisited  

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The sensitivities and specificities of several different diagnostic assays for Streptococcus pneumoniae were assessed using 99 clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae and 101 viridans streptococci and were as follows: Pneumoslide, 99 and 87%, respectively; Directigen, 100 and 85%, respectively; Phadebact, 100 and 98%, respectively; deoxycholate drop test, 99 and 98%, respectively; deoxycholate tube test, 100 and 99%, respectively; optochin, 99 and 98%, respectively; and Gram Positive Identificatio...

Kellogg, James A.; Bankert, David A.; Elder, Carol J.; Gibbs, Joanne L.; Smith, Marie C.

2001-01-01

69

Natural transformation of Streptococcus crista  

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Over the years Streptococcus gordonii (sanguis) Challis has become the workhorse of genetic manipulations for the sanguis group of oral streptococci. This is because strain Challis was shown in early studies to be highly naturally competent for transformation. However, Challis is not usually the most appropriate strain to use in studies which focus on oral microbial adherence. We report that other members of the newly reorganized sanguis group, particularly within the species S. crista, displ...

Correia, Frederick F.; Mckay, Terry L.; Farrow, Mary F.; Rosan, Burton; Dirienzo, Joseph M.

1996-01-01

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Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations  

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Full Text Available Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. Material and methods This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. Results All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awareness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairemnt, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characeteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatment with II and III generation cephalosporins and one with one aminoglycosides. All patients were cured, but 4 of them developed sequelae like permanent sensorineural deafness and mild ataxia. Conclusions Streptococcus suis infection is present as a zoonosis in pigs, while humans are contracted occasionally, most frequently related to occupational risk. In cases with bacterial meningitis with sepsis and hearing loss, Streptococcus suis infections must be suspected. Effective prevention requires collaboration between epidemiologists, veterinarians and human medicine physicians. .

Dragojlovi? Julijana

2005-01-01

71

Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., two novel Streptococcus species isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on two unidentified Gram-stain positive, catalase and oxidase negative, non-hemolytic Streptococcus-like organisms recovered from raw camel milk in Morocco. Phenotypic characterization and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the two strains were highly different from each other and that they did not correspond to any recognized species of the genus Streptococcus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the unidentified organisms each formed a hitherto unknown sub-line within the genus Streptococcus, displaying a close affinity with Streptococcus moroccensis, Streptococcus minor and Streptococcus ovis. DNA G+C content determination, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and biochemical tests demonstrated the bacterial isolates represent two novel species. Based on the phenotypic distinctiveness of the new bacteria and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed to classify the two strains as Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov., with CCMM B832(T) (=LMG 27683(T)) as the type strain, and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., with CCMM B834(T) (=LMG 27685(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25491120

Kadri, Zaina; Vandamme, Peter; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; Elfahime, El Mostafa; Farricha, Omar El; Swings, Jean; Amar, Mohamed

2014-12-10

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Susceptibility of fecal streptococci of poultry origin to nine growth-promoting agents.  

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The minimal inhibitory concentrations of nine growth-promoting agents were determined by an agar-dilution method against 66 bile-tolerant streptococcal (8 Streptococcus faecalis, 23 Streptococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens, 15 Streptococcus faecium, and 20 carboxyphilic streptococci) strains isolated from the ceca of 52 chickens on 19 farms. Avoparcin was equally active on all groups. The natural susceptibilities against the other substances differed among the groups studied. Bacitracin and...

Dutta, G. N.; Devriese, L. A.

1982-01-01

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Streptococcus pneumoniae e inmunidad innata / Streptococcus pneumoniae and innate immunity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus pneumoniae es un patógeno importante del ser humano que causa significativa morbilidad y mortalidad especialmente en las edades extremas de la vida. Posee diversos factores de virulencia que ponen a prueba la inmunidad del huésped. El sistema inmune innato es la primera línea de def [...] ensa para enfrentar a este patógeno, realizándose esta acción de manera precoz y no específica. De la indemnidad de este sistema depende que la infección potencial en una primera instancia sea controlada y que se activen correctamente los mecanismos de la inmunidad específica. En este artículo se revisarán y actualizarán los principales mecanismos defensivos mediados por la inmunidad innata contra este patógeno. Abstract in english Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen of humans that causes significant morbidity and mortality mainly in the extreme ages of life. It has several virulence factors that tested the immunity of the host. The innate immune system is the first line of defense to deal with this pathogen bein [...] g an early and non-specific response. The control of the disease will depend on the activation of the innate immunity in first instance and the development of a proper specific immunity against the pathogen. In this article we make an update of the innate immunity against this pathogen.

Guillermo, Zepeda E; Carolina, Gvirtzman K; Javiera, Kreft V; Erika, Inostroza V; Patricia, Díaz A.

2013-04-01

74

Nisin Resistance of Streptococcus bovis  

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The growth of Streptococcus bovis JB1 was initially inhibited by nisin (1 ?M), and nisin caused a more than 3-log decrease in viability. However, some of the cells survived, and these nisin-resistant cells grew as rapidly as untreated ones. To see if the nisin resistance was merely a selection, nisin-sensitive cells were obtained from agar plates lacking nisin. Results indicated that virtually any nisin-sensitive cell could become nisin-resistant if the ratio of nisin to cells was not too hi...

Mantovani, Hila?rio C.; Russell, James B.

2001-01-01

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Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Colombian children with pneumonia  

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Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de las vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%). Se observó susceptibilidad dismi...

Aura Lucía Leal; Elizabeth Castañeda

1997-01-01

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Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in blood cultures by PCR.  

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We have developed a PCR assay, with primers derived from the autolysin (lyt) gene, for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in blood cultures. The predicted fragment of 247 bp was detected in all strains of pneumococci, embracing 12 different serotypes that were tested. Although DNA extracted from four viridans streptococci spp. Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus parasanguis) gave amplification products, these were quite different from...

Hassan-king, M.; Baldeh, I.; Secka, O.; Falade, A.; Greenwood, B.

1994-01-01

77

Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados de infecciones invasivas: serotipos y resistencia antimicrobiana / Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive infections: serotypes and antimicrobial resistance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas constituyen una enfermedad invasiva importante, quizás no tanto por su frecuencia, como por la gravedad de su cuadro. Los cambios en la epidemiología de los síndromes neurológicos infecciosos en Cuba a partir de la vacunación contra meningococo BC y Haemophilus inf [...] luenzae b han hecho que el Streptococcus pneumoniae constituya el agente causal más frecuente. Debido al incremento de la resistencia de este microorganismo a los antibióticos habituales, se realizaron modificaciones al régimen terapéutico convencional, fundamentalmente en las meningitis pediátricas. Es necesario lograr el aislamiento en cultivo de este agente para conocer los serotipos más frecuentes en el país, y lograr una vacuna neumocócica conjugada, así como para la vigilancia de las cepas frente a los antimicrobianos. Abstract in english The bacterial meningoencephalitis is an important invasive disease, not only because of its frequency, but also because of the severity of its picture. The changes in the epidemiology of the neurological infectious syndromes in Cuba starting from the vaccination against meningococcus BC and Haemophi [...] lus infuenzae b have made that Streptococcus pneumoniae be the most frequent causal agent. Due to the increase of the resistance of this microorganism to habitual antibiotics, modifications were made in the conventional therapeutic regimen, mainly in the pediatric meningitis. It is necessary to achieve the isolation in culture of this agent to know the most common serotypes in the country, to attain a conjugated pneumococcal vaccine, and to keep the surveillance of the strains against the antimicrobials.

Gladys Antonia, Cueto Montoya; María del Carmen, Pérez Cueto.

2007-03-01

78

Pericarditis purulenta con taponamiento cardíaco por asociación de Streptococcus agalactiae y Salmonella enterica no typhi Purulent pericarditis with pericardial tamponade caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Salmonellaenterica no typhi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La pericarditis purulenta (PP es una condición infrecuente, pero con elevada mortalidad. Previo a la era antibiótica, los agentes etiológicos más comúnmente hallados eran Streptococcus pneumoniae y Staphylococcus aureus. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 75 años de edad con un cuadro de shock, PP y taponamiento cardíaco, producto de una sepsis por Streptococcus agalactiae y Salmonella entérica no typhi. No se ha hallado ningún caso similar en la literatura. Se destaca el antecedente previo inmediato de la realización de una endoscopia digestiva alta con toma de biopsia de esófago como posible causa de bacteriemia e impacto pericárdico. El curso evolutivo fue malo y el paciente falleció a los 34 días. Esta inusual asociación bacteriana en un huésped debilitado e inmunodeprimido, debería ser incluida dentro de los diagnósticos etiológicos diferenciales de la pericarditis purulenta.Purulent pericarditis (PP is an uncommon condition with high mortality. In the preantibiotic period, Staphyloccocus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the most common etiologic agents. We describe the case of a 75-year old man with septic shock, PP and cardiac tamponade caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Salmonella enterica no-typhi. To our knowledge this association of pathogenic organisms has not been previously reported in the literature. The pathogenesis is here reviewed, and in our patient presumably, purulent pericarditis occurred via hematogeneus spread undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patient’s course was complicated and he died on 34 th hospital day. After this case report it is considered that differential etiologic diagnosis of PP should include these agents, especially in immunodepressed patients with predisposing factors.

Lourdes Arruvito

2004-08-01

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PREVALENCIA DE COLONIZACIÓN POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B DURANTE EL EMBARAZO PESQUISADO EN MEDIO DE CULTIVO SELECTIVO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente bacteriano responsable de la sepsis neonatal. Para evitar la infección perinatal se recomienda su pesquisa en la región vagino-anal durante el tercer trimestre, y tratamiento antibiótico durante el trabajo de parto en las gestantes colonizadas. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia de colonización del Streptococcus agalactie en la población de embarazadas controladas en la maternidad del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile, en el período comprendido entre el 1 de marzo y el 31 de mayo de 2003. Se tomó cultivo selectivo de Todd Hewitt, entre las 35 y 37 semanas de gestación a 185 embarazadas. Se determinó una prevalencia de colonización vagino-anal de 14,0%Streptococcus agalactiae is the main bacterial agent in neonatal sepsis. To avoid the perinatal infection, a vaginal and anal culture in the third trimester is recommended and then treated with antibiotics during labour. The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant patients in University of Chile Hospital in Santiago. The study period was from March 1 to May 31 of 2003. Vaginal and anal samples were taken at 35-37 weeks using selective medium (Todd Hewitt broth. A total of 185 patients were studied and the prevalence of streptococcus was 14,0%

Enrique Valdés R

2004-01-01

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Preparation against Streptococcus Pneumoniae-Associated Diseases  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Design of Laboratory Sample of Complex Preparation Based on Specific Bacteriophages and their Lytic Enzymes for a Prophylaxis and Treatment of Human and Animals Streptococcus Pneumoniae-Assiciated Diseses

 
 
 
 
81

Actividad antibacteriana de Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Hér. sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis frente a clorhexidina Antibacterial activity of Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Her. against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine  

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Full Text Available Introducción: Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Hér (geranio hiedra es ampliamente utilizado en medicina natural para el tratamiento de enfermedades bucales, pero se desconocen aún sus propiedades farmacológicas, actividad antibacteriana y la composición de sus fitoconstituyentes. Objetivo: realizar un estudio comparativo de la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto acuoso obtenido de las hojas de Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Hér (geranio hiedra sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis, frente a la clorhexidina. Métodos: para el ensayo antibacteriano se empleó el método de difusión en agar. Se trabajó con 18 muestras de microorganismos de cada especie mencionada, aisladas de los pacientes de una clínica dental. Posteriormente, se prepararon 6 concentraciones diferentes del extracto acuoso, para comparar la actividad antibacteriana frente al colutorio de clorhexidina. El análisis fitoquímico preliminar se realizó mediante el ensayo a la gota. Los datos obtenidos se sometieron a análisis estadísticos como estimadores de media y dispersión, análisis de varianza unifactorial y prueba de Tukey. Resultados: la más alta actividad antibacteriana se obtuvo en la concentración de 400 mg/mL y la más baja en la de 25 mg/mL del extracto acuoso, sobre las tres especies de Streptococcus, en comparación con la clorhexidina; con efecto similar a la concentración de 200 mg/mL. El ensayo fitoquímico preliminar indicó la presencia de flavonoides, taninos, esteroides, antocianinas y saponinas. Conclusiones: el extracto acuoso de Pelargonium peltatum tiene actividad antibacteriana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus sanguis.Introduction: Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Her (ivy geranium is widely used in natural medicine for the treatment of oral disease, but its pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity and phytoconstituent composition are still unknown. Objective: carry out a comparative study of the in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract obtained from leaves of Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Her (ivy geranium against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine. Methods: the agar diffusion method was used for the antibacterial assay. A study was conducted of 18 samples of microorganisms from the above-mentioned species, isolated from patients cared for at a dental clinic. Six different concentrations were prepared of the aqueous extract to compare antibacterial activity versus the chlorhexidine gargle. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was conducted by drop assay. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses such as mean and dispersion estimators, unifactorial analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: the highest antibacterial activity against the three species of Streptococcus was obtained with the 400 mg/ml concentration, and the lowest with the 25 mg/ml concentration of the aqueous extract, in comparison with chlorhexidine, with a similar effect to the 200 mg/ml concentration. The preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, anthocyanins and saponins. Conclusions: the aqueous extract of Pelargonium peltatum has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis.

Juana del Carmen Guerrero Hurtado

2013-06-01

82

Surface interactome in Streptococcus pyogenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Very few studies have so far been dedicated to the systematic analysis of protein interactions occurring between surface and/or secreted proteins in bacteria. Such interactions are expected to play pivotal biological roles that deserve investigation. Taking advantage of the availability of a detailed map of surface and secreted proteins in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus (GAS)), we used protein array technology to define the "surface interactome" in this important human pathogen. Eighty-three proteins were spotted on glass slides in high density format, and each of the spotted proteins was probed for its capacity to interact with any of the immobilized proteins. A total of 146 interactions were identified, 25 of which classified as "reciprocal," namely, interactions that occur irrespective of which of the two partners was immobilized on the chip or in solution. Several of these interactions were validated by surface plasmon resonance and supported by confocal microscopy analysis of whole bacterial cells. By this approach, a number of interesting interactions have been discovered, including those occurring between OppA, DppA, PrsA, and TlpA, proteins known to be involved in protein folding and transport. These proteins, all localizing at the septum, might be part, together with HtrA, of the recently described ExPortal complex of GAS. Furthermore, SpeI was found to strongly interact with the metal transporters AdcA and Lmb. Because SpeI strictly requires zinc to exert its function, this finding provides evidence on how this superantigen, a major player in GAS pathogenesis, can acquire the metal in the host environment, where it is largely sequestered by carrier proteins. We believe that the approach proposed herein can lead to a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms underlying bacterial invasion, colonization, and pathogenesis. PMID:22199230

Galeotti, Cesira L; Bove, Elia; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Nogarotto, Renzo; Norais, Nathalie; Pileri, Silvia; Lelli, Barbara; Falugi, Fabiana; Balloni, Sergio; Tedde, Vittorio; Chiarot, Emiliano; Bombaci, Mauro; Soriani, Marco; Bracci, Luisa; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

2012-04-01

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The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries. Materials and Methods: The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4°C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Results: Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms. Interpretation and Conclusion: A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.

Prashant G

2007-01-01

84

Effects of Oxygen on Biofilm Formation and the AtlA Autolysin of Streptococcus mutans?  

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The Streptococcus mutans atlA gene encodes an autolysin required for biofilm maturation and biogenesis of a normal cell surface. We found that the capacity to form biofilms by S. mutans, one of the principal causative agents of dental caries, was dramatically impaired by growth of the organism in an aerated environment and that cells exposed to oxygen displayed marked changes in surface protein profiles. Inactivation of the atlA gene alleviated repression of biofilm formation in the presence ...

Ahn, Sang-joon; Burne, Robert A.

2007-01-01

85

Pharmacodynamic Assessment of Cefprozil against Streptococcus pneumoniae: Implications for Breakpoint Determinations  

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Cefprozil, an oral semisynthetic cephalosporin, is commonly utilized in the treatment of respiratory-tract infections in children. While this agent has provided acceptable clinical success over a number of years, this study was undertaken to better define its pharmacodynamic profile against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Nineteen clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae were utilized in the neutropenic murine thigh infection model. To simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of cefprozil in children, the re...

Nicolau, David P.; Onyeji, Cyprian O.; Zhong, Mingkang; Tessier, Pamela R.; Banevicius, Mary Anne; Nightingale, Charles H.

2000-01-01

86

Streptococcus suis: an important zoonotic pathogen for human – prevention aspects  

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Streptococcus suis is a major porcine pathogen, causing economical health worldwide problems in the global swine industry. It is also emerging as a zoonotic agent capable of causing severe invasive disease in humans exposed to pigs or pork products. The most important clinical sign in swine and human is meningitis, but other pathological conditions have also been described. Serotype 2 is the most commonly associated with diseases in pigs and humans, and also the most frequently reported serot...

Vg, Papatsiros; Vourvidis, D.; Aa, Tzitzis; Ps, Meichanetsidis; Stougiou, D.; Mintza And Ps Papaioannou, D.

2011-01-01

87

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Streptococcus bovis: case report and review of the literature  

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Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication that occurs in patient with cirrhosis and ascites. It occurs in 10% to 30% of patients admitted to hospital. The organisms that cause SBP are predominantly enteric. Escherichia coli is the most frequent recovered pathogen, and Gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp., are being considered an emerging causative agent of SBP. Streptococcus bovis that may be found as part of the commensal bowel flora in about...

Rosmari Hörner; Adenilde Salla; Loiva Otonelli de Oliveira; Nara Lucia Frasson Dal Forno; Roselene Alves Righi; Vanessa Oliveira Domingues; Fabiane Rigatti; Letícia Eichstaedt Mayer

2010-01-01

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Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells  

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Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range...

Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Grignon, Louis; Spolidorio, Denise Palomari; Grenier, Daniel

2014-01-01

89

Innate immune response to intramammary infection with Serratia marcescens and Streptococcus uberis  

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Streptococcus uberis and Serratia marcescens are Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively, that induce clinical mastitis. Once initial host barrier systems have been breached by these pathogens, the innate immune system provides the next level of defense against these infectious agents. The innate immune response is characterized by the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as increases in other accessory proteins that facilitate host recognition and elimination of th...

Bannerman, Douglas; Paape, Max; Goff, Jesse; Kimura, Kayoko; Lippolis, John; Hope, Jayne

2004-01-01

90

Mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of trimethoprim-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

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Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates resistant to several antimicrobial agent classes including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole have been reported with increasing frequency throughout the world. The MICs of trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1:19) for 259 clinical isolates from South Africa were determined, and 166 of these 259 (64%) isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (MICs > or =20 mg/liter). Trimethoprim resistance was found to be more strong...

Adrian, P. V.; Klugman, K. P.

1997-01-01

91

Molecular and Genetic Characterization of a Novel Nisin Variant Produced by Streptococcus uberis  

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Streptococcus uberis is one of the principal causative agents of bovine mastitis. In this study, we report that S. uberis strain 42 produces a lantibiotic, nisin U, which is 78% identical (82% similar) to nisin A from Lactococcus lactis. The 15.6-kb nisin U locus comprises 11 open reading frames, similar in putative functionality but differing in arrangement from that of the nisin A biosynthetic cluster. The nisin U producer strain exhibits specific resistance (immunity) to nisin U and cross-...

Wirawan, Ruth E.; Klesse, Nikolai A.; Jack, Ralph W.; Tagg, John R.

2006-01-01

92

Effect of Spatial Separation of Pigs on Spread of Streptococcus suis Serotype 9  

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The spread of an infectious agent in a population can be reduced by interfering in the infectiousness or susceptibility of individuals, and/or in their contact structure. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of prevention of direct contact between infectious and susceptible pigs on the transmission of Streptococcus suis (S. suis). In three replicate experiments, S. suis-free pigs were housed in boxes either in pairs (25 pairs) or alone (15 pigs). The distance between the ...

Dekker, C. N. T.; Bouma, A.; Daemen, A. J. J. M.; Klinkenberg, D.; Leengoed, L. A. M. G.; Wagenaar, J. A.; Stegeman, J. A.

2013-01-01

93

Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía  

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Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de las vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%). Se observó susceptibilidad dismi...

Leal Aura Lucía; Castañeda Elizabeth

1997-01-01

94

Characterization of porcine dendritic cell response to Streptococcus suis  

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Abstract Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen and important zoonotic agent causing mainly septicemia and meningitis. However, the mechanisms involved in host innate and adaptive immune responses toward S. suis as well as the mechanisms used by S. suis to subvert these responses are unknown. Here, and for the first time, the ability of S. suis to interact with bone marrow-derived swine dendritic cells (DCs) was evaluated. In addition, the r...

Lecours Marie-Pier; Segura Mariela; Lachance Claude; Mussa Tufaria; Surprenant Charles; Montoya Maria; Gottschalk Marcelo

2011-01-01

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Immunoasssay chromatographic antigen test for rapid diagnosis of Group A beta hemolytic Streptococcus pharyngitis in children: A cross/ sectional study  

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Background and Objective: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) is an important pharyngotonsillitis etiologic agent in children. The objective of this study was diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis based on rapid antigen detection test and conventional pharyngeal culture.Materials and Methods: The rapid GABHS antigen detection test was compared to culture on blood agar, the gold standard for the diagnosis of this etiologic agent.Results: Streptococcal antigen was detected in pharynge...

Noorbakhsh, S.; Tabatabaei, A.; Farhadi, M.; Ebrahimi Taj, F.

2011-01-01

96

Prevalência de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico em crianças portadoras de necessidades especiais Prevalence of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus in children with special health care needs  

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Full Text Available Faringotonsilite causada por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico afeta principalmente crianças e imunocomprometidos, sendo Streptococcus pyogenes (Grupo A o agente mais comum em faringotonsilites bacterianas. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou a busca por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico do Grupo A (SBHGA e Não A (SBHGNA na orofaringe de indivíduos com necessidades especiais da APAE (Maceió-AL. MÉTODO:Estudo prospectivo com amostras da orofaringe de pacientes com síndrome de Down e outras desordens mentais (teste e estudantes de escola privada (controle de 5-15 anos. Culturas em ágar sangue (5% foram identificadas através dos testes de Gram/catalase e o método de disco difusão com bacitracina/sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, aplicando-se o teste Chi-quadrado em análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Um total de 222 colônias bacterianas foram isoladas em 74 indivíduos da APAE e 65 no grupo controle. No grupo teste, episódios prévios de faringotonsilites foram relatados por 36,49% (27/74 e 9,46% (7/74 foram diagnosticados com sintomas e/ou sinais sugestivos de infecção orofaríngea. Nenhuma amostra de S. pyogenes foi confirmada na APAE, sendo todas identificadas como SBHGNA, com cinco SBHGA no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO:A identificação precoce de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico é importante para o tratamento rápido de faringotonsilites e a ausência de S. pyogenes evita futuras sequelas supurativas ou não supurativas no grupo da APAE.Pharyngotonsillitis by ?-hemolytic Streptococcus mostly affects children and imunocompromissed, being Streptococcuspyogenes (Group A the most common agent in bacterial pharyngotonsillitis. AIM:This work targeted the research of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus Group-A (SBHGA and No-A (SBHGNA in the oropharynx of individuals with special health needs from the APAE (Maceió-AL. METHOD: A prospective study with oropharynx samples from patients with Down syndrome and other mental disorders (test and students from a private school (control aged 5-15 years. Cultures in blood agar (5% were identified through Gram/catalase tests and bacitracin/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole disk diffusion method, applying the chi-squared statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 222 bacterial colonies were isolated in 74 individuals from APAE and 65 in the control group. In the test group, previous episodes of pharyngotonsillitis were reported by 36.49% (27/74 and 9.46% (7/74 were diagnosed with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of oropharynx infection. No positive sample of S. pyogenes was confirmed at APAE, being all samples classified as SBHGNA, with 5 SBHGA in the control group. CONCLUSION: The early identification of ?-hemolytic Steptococcus is important for the fast treatment of pharyngotonsillitis and the absence of S. pyogenes avoid future suppurative or not-suppurative sequels in the group from APAE.

Viviane Martha Santos de Morais

2012-10-01

97

Streptococcus mutans in denture stomatitis patients under antifungal therapy =Streptococcus mutans em pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Verificar o número de Streptococcus mutans em saliva de pacientes com estomatite protética antes e após a terapia antifúngica. Metodologia: Após exame clínico de 93 pacientes, 47 foram selecionados para exame micológico e desta amostra foram selecionados trinta pacientes: 15 com diagnóstico positivo e 15 com diagnóstico negativo de candidose foram avaliados para contagem de S. mutans, determinação de fluxo salivar e capacidade tampão. Higiene bucal e da prótese, tempo de confecção, tipo de lesão e dados salivares foram relacionados com características clínicas e laboratoriais de Candida. Resultados: As lesões frequentes foram dos tipos I (43,5% e II (53,5%. A quantidade de S. mutans foi seis vezes maior em pacientes com candidose e foi associada com baixo fluxo salivar e higiene oral deficiente. Após a terapia, a redução de S. mutans foi verificada particularmente em pacientes com fluxo salivar normal. Os valores variaram de 0,01 a 3,88 UFC/ml x 104. Conclusão: Os dados sugerem que os Streptococcus colaboram com Candida spp na etiopatogenia da estomatite protética. O uso de agentes antimicrobianos orais pode propiciar efeito benéfico para pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica e que apresentam higiene oral deficiente e parâmetros salivares desfavoráveis.

Vasconcelos, Laurylene César de S. et al.

2010-01-01

98

Purulent pericarditis and pneumonia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purulent pericarditis is a life-threatening disease that usually manifests following bacteraemia or through spreading from an intrathoracic focus. Only a few cases of this disease have been reported with Lancefield group C streptococci as aetiological agents, and the primary focus in these infections remains unknown. We report a case of purulent pericarditis with septic and cardiogenic shock, caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (group C) in a 51-year-old patient. The pathogen was possibly contracted through contact with horses. Most probably, it caused initially pneumonia before spreading to the pericardium, either directly or via the bloodstream. A combined therapeutic approach, consisting of antibiotic therapy and repeated pericardial drainage, was necessary to ensure a clinical cure. After discharge, long-term follow-up for development of constrictive pericarditis is considered mandatory. PMID:24243287

Held, Jürgen; Schmitz, Roland; van der Linden, Mark; Nührenberg, Thomas; Häcker, Georg; Neumann, Franz-Josef

2014-02-01

99

Parotiditis por Streptococcus Pyogenes: Presentacion de un caso  

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Full Text Available La glándula parótida es generalmente afectada por procesos inflamatorios. Su etiología se debe a infecciones primarias de la glándula o como complicación de infecciones sistémicas. Se reporta el Stafilococcus aureus como el agente causal más frecuente de parotiditis aguda supurada, y se señalan además otras bacterias y virus. Se presenta un niño de 9 años de edad con un proceso supurativo agudo de la parótida izquierda de un mes de evolución, con salida de abundante pus por el conducto de Stenon. Se realizó cultivo de la secreción e identificación de Streptococcus B hemolítico grupo A, a pesar de haber recibido antibioticoterapia previa. Se utilizó ampicillina y se tuvo en cuenta la sensibilidad in vitro; no presentó mejoría clínica, por lo que se decidió el empleo de la sialografía como alternativa terapéutica en este caso. Se obtuvo la resolución del proceso supurativo infeccioso y además se evidenció en este estudio la pérdida del estroma parotídeo.

Zoila del S. López-Díaz

1995-08-01

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In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Urease production by Streptococcus thermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to identify potential alternative sources of urease for the removal of urea from alcoholic beverages, 205 strains of lactic acid bacteria belonging to 27 different species were screened for urease production. Only Streptococcus thermophilus produced urease. Cell permeabilization with toluene allowed to increase activity significantly. Optimal pH for urease activity in whole and permeabilized cells and of cell free extracts differed slightly, but was in the range 6.0-7.0. Significant activity was retained at pH 3.0 and 8.0, and, for cell free extracts, at pH 4.0 in the presence of ethanol. Urease production was evaluated in fermentations with pH control (5.25-6.5) and without pH control. Very little urease was produced in absence of urea, which at 5g/l slowed growth significantly in fermentations without pH control, but prevented a decrease in pH below 5.1 and resulted in higher final biomass. Optimal pH for growth was between 6.0 and 6.5 but specific urease activity was higher for fermentations at low pH at the beginning of the exponential phase. However, a higher total urease activity was obtained at pH 6.0 and 6.5 because of higher biomass. Potential technological applications of urease production by S. thermophilus are discussed. PMID:17993384

Zotta, Teresa; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Rossano, Rocco; Parente, Eugenio

2008-02-01

102

Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum  

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Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30% of these cultures, 26 (44.8% corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%, to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%, to Enterococcus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 % to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%, to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7% to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germanyprovides a typical pattern ("good identification" for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

J.M. F. Egido

1995-06-01

103

Aortitis con bacteriemia por Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus Aortitis with bacteriemia by Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus  

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Full Text Available La infección por Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus es propia de animales y en el hombre es generalmente accidental con reporte de pocos casos. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 56 años, matarife, con cuadro de dolor abdominal, documentándose por TAC y en cirugía dilatación aneurismática de la aorta por debajo de las renales, con colección purulenta y ulceración del vaso de donde se aisló Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus, aislándose también la bacteria de los hemocultivos.Infections by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus occur in animals. In human beings these infections are generally accidental, and few cases have been reported. We present the case of a 56-year-old male, a butcher, who presented with abdominal pain. Aneurismatic dilatation of the aorta below the renal arteries was documented by CT-scanning. A purulent collection and arterial ulceration were found during surgery; Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus was isolated from the collection and from blood cultures.

Carlos Alberto Betancur

2009-06-01

104

Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Actinomyces viscosus in the Presence of Human Saliva  

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Glucose uptake was examined by using whole-cell suspensions of Streptococcus mutans (strains BHT, Ingbritt, and GS-5), Streptococcus mitis (strains 9811 and 72×41), and Actinomyces viscosus (strains T6 and WVU626) incubated for up to 90 min in 0 to 82% (vol/vol) human whole salivary supernatant. Glucose uptake by the S. mutans strains was completely inhibited at all saliva concentrations. Dithiothreitol (DTT), present during saliva incubation, prevented saliva inhibition. Glucose uptake was ...

Germaine, Greg; Tellefson, Lois M.

1982-01-01

105

Adherence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis to salivary components bound to glass.  

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Adherence of radiolabeled Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis to saliva-treated glass surfaces was studied under conditions which minimized bacteria-glass interactions. Treatment of glass with an alkylsilane solution decreased nonspecific bacterial adherence and enhanced adsorption of radiolabeled salivary components to these surfaces. Addition of Triton X-100 to the bacterial suspensions also reduced nonspecific adherence to siliconized glass, but did not affect adherence to saliv...

Stinson, M. W.; Jinks, D. C.; Merrick, J. M.

1981-01-01

106

Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis.The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (94.4% and Streptococcus sp. (85.2% showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

Andrea Pinto Loguercio

2006-02-01

107

Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study  

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Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque ...

Jeevarathan J; Deepti A; Muthu M; Rathna Prabhu V; Chamundeeswari G

2007-01-01

108

Incidence and Pathogenic Effect of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the incidence of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae in clinical isolates by phenotypic methods and DNA-DNA hybridization. The pathogenic role of this organism was investigated with the mouse peritonitis/sepsis model. Our results show a low incidence (1/120 pneumococcal isolates) and a potential pathogenic effect for S. pseudopneumoniae. PMID:16757628

Harf-Monteil, Colette; Granello, Carole; Le Brun, Cécile; Monteil, Henri; Riegel, Philippe

2006-01-01

109

Incidence and Pathogenic Effect of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae  

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We evaluated the incidence of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae in clinical isolates by phenotypic methods and DNA-DNA hybridization. The pathogenic role of this organism was investigated with the mouse peritonitis/sepsis model. Our results show a low incidence (1/120 pneumococcal isolates) and a potential pathogenic effect for S. pseudopneumoniae.

Harf-monteil, Colette; Granello, Carole; Le Brun, Ce?cile; Monteil, Henri; Riegel, Philippe

2006-01-01

110

Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae as an Otopathogen  

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Among 34 Spn sequential isolates from middle ear fluid we found a case of a nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae (NT-Spn) in a child with AOM. The strain was pneumolysin PCR positive and capsule gene PCR negative. Virulence of the NT-Spn was confirmed in a chinchilla model of AOM.

Xu, Qingfu; Kaur, Ravinder; Casey, Janet R.; Sabharwal, Vishakha; Pelton, Stephen; Pichichero, Michael E.

2011-01-01

111

Regulation of neuraminidase expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid; NeuNAc is one of the most important carbohydrates for Streptococcus pneumoniae due of its role as a carbon and energy source, receptor for adhesion and invasion and molecular signal for promotion of biofilm formation, nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion of the lung. Results In this work, NeuNAc and its metabolic derivative N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc were used to analyze regulatory mechanisms of the neuraminidase locus expression. Genomic and metabolic comparison to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis elucidates the metabolic association of the two amino sugars to different parts of the locus coding for the two main pneumococcal neuraminidases and confirms the substrate specificity of the respective ABC transporters. Quantitative gene expression analysis shows repression of the locus by glucose and induction of all predicted transcriptional units by ManNAc and NeuNAc, each inducing with higher efficiency the operon encoding for the transporter with higher specificity for the respective amino sugar. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated enhanced surface exposure of NanA on pneumococci grown in NeuNAc and ManNAc and an activity assay allowed to quantify approximately twelve times as much neuraminidase activity on induced cells as opposed to glucose grown cells. Conclusions The present data increase the understanding of metabolic regulation of the nanAB locus and indicate that experiments aimed at the elucidation of the relevance of neuraminidases in pneumococcal virulence should possibly not be carried out on bacteria grown in glucose containing media.

Gualdi Luciana

2012-09-01

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Actividad antibacteriana de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér. sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis frente a clorhexidina Antibacterial activity of Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her. against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine  

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Introducción: Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) es ampliamente utilizado en medicina natural para el tratamiento de enfermedades bucales, pero se desconocen aún sus propiedades farmacológicas, actividad antibacteriana y la composición de sus fitoconstituyentes. Objetivo: realizar un estudio comparativo de la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto acuoso obtenido de las hojas de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococ...

Juana del Carmen Guerrero Hurtado; Zoila Mercedes Ortiz Rubio; Luis Fernando Peralta Berrospi; Fredy Romel Pérez Azahuanche

2013-01-01

113

Infecciones por Streptococcus anginosusen otorrinolaringología: Revisión de 9 casos clínicos / Infections caused by Streptococcus anginosusin otolaryngology: Review of 9 clinical cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El Streptococcus anginosus (SA) es un habitante común de la cavidad oral y tracto gastrointestinal, y puede ser un patógeno agresivo causante de abscesos en varios sitios del cuerpo. Aparentemente, su rol en infecciones de cabeza y cuello está adquiriendo cierta notoriedad y no está cl [...] aramente reportado en la literatura. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las implicancias clínicas de estas infecciones en otorrinolaringología. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo de todos los pacientes diagnosticados microbiológicamente con infecciones causadas por Streptococcus anginosus, tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau entre los años 2007 a 2012. Se describen las características clínicas, microbiológicas y el manejo de los pacientes. Resultados: La muestra estuvo constituida por 9 casos, 3 hombres y 6 mujeres, con una mediana de edad de 52 años (rango 6-70). Los sitios de infección fueron: absceso periamigdalino (2 casos), un absceso peritraqueostoma, un absceso submandibular, un absceso submentoniano, un absceso parafaríngeo con extensión retrofaríngea y mediastino, un caso de absceso cerebral frontal secundario a sinusitis frontal complicada, un caso de otitis media crónica activa, y un caso de sinusitis maxilar crónica. Discusión: El SA ha sido reportado como un agente causal de infecciones potencialmente graves en cabeza y cuello. Su identificación requiere de consideraciones especiales para el cultivo, y al ser un microorganismo común puede ser confundido e informado como S viridans o Streptococcus anaeróbico. Es importante reconocer al SA como un patógeno a considerar en infecciones de cabeza y cuello. Abstract in english Introduction: Streptococcus anginosus (SA) is a common inhabitant of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, and can be an aggressive pathogen causing abscesses in various body sites. Apparently, its role in head and neck infections is gaining some notoriety that it is not clearly reported in th [...] e literature. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical implications of this infections in otolaryngology. Material and method: A retrospective case series study of all patients diagnosed microbiologically with Streptococcus anginosus infections treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, HospitalBarros Luco-Trudeau from 2007 to 2012. We describe the clinical and microbiological features, and treatment of each patient. Results: The sample consisted of 9 patients, 3 men and 6 women, with a median age of 52 years (range 6-70). The sites of infection were: peritonsillar abscess (2 cases), peritracheostomy abscess, submandibular abscess, submental abscess, parapharyngeal abscess with retropharyngeal and mediastinal extension, a case of frontal brain abscess secondary to frontal sinusitis, a case of otitis chronic active half, and one case of chronic maxillary sinusitis. Discussion: SA has been reported as a causative agent ofpotentially serious infections in the head and neck region. Their identification requires special considerations for growing, and because of being a common microorganism may be confused and informed as Streptococcus viridans or anaerobic streptococcus. It is important to recognize SA as a relevant pathogen in head and neck infections.

Felipe, Cardemil M; Daniel, Muñoz S; Maritza, Rahal E; Jaime, Osorio M; René, Sepúlveda S; Rodrigo, Urzúa B.

2013-04-01

114

In Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Ceftaroline against Cephalosporin-Resistant Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae?  

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Increasing pneumococcal resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins warrants the search for novel agents with activity against such resistant strains. Ceftaroline, a parenteral cephalosporin currently in phase 3 clinical development, has demonstrated potent in vitro activity against resistant gram-positive organisms, including penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, the activity of ceftaroline was evaluated against highly cefotaxime-resistant isolates of pneumococci f...

Mcgee, Lesley; Biek, Donald; Ge, Yigong; Klugman, Magderie; Du Plessis, Mignon; Smith, Anthony M.; Beall, Bernard; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Klugman, Keith P.

2009-01-01

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Toll-Like Receptor Stimulation Enhances Phagocytosis and Intracellular Killing of Nonencapsulated and Encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae by Murine Microglia? †  

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity that are expressed in microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain. TLR2, -4, and -9 are important in the responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common agent causing bacterial meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Murine microglial cultures were stimulated with agonists for TLR1/2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide), and TLR9 (CpG oligodeoxynucleotide) for 24 h and then exposed to eith...

Ribes, Sandra; Ebert, Sandra; Regen, Tommy; Agarwal, Amit; Tauber, Simone C.; Czesnik, Dirk; Spreer, Annette; Bunkowski, Stephanie; Eiffert, Helmut; Hanisch, Uwe-karsten; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Nau, Roland

2010-01-01

116

Prevalência de Streptococcus suis sorotipo 2: discussão da literatura brasileira / Prevalence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: discussion of the Brazilian literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Streptococcus suis é mundialmente considerado um dos patógenos de maior impacto sanitário e econômico na indústria suinícola. Dentre os sorotipos descritos como zoonóticos, o sorotipo 2 é o mais frequentemente isolado de animais e humanos doentes na maioria dos países. O estudo da epidemiologia das [...] infecções por S. suis no Brasil é importante para a implantação de medidas efetivas de controle. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma revisão crítica da literatura brasileira, com suporte da literatura mundial, abordando o diagnóstico do agente e sua prevalência em animais clinicamente doentes e portadores sadios, com destaque para a prevalência do sorotipo 2 no país. Abstract in english Streptococcus suis is considered worldwide as one of the pathogens of biggest health and economic impact in the swine industry. Among the serotypes described as zoonotic, serotype 2 is the most frequently isolated from diseased animals and humans in most countries. The study of the epidemiology of S [...] . suis infections in Brazil is important and may help in the development of effective control measures. The aim of this study was to conduct a critical review of Brazilian literature, with support of the world literature, addressing the diagnosis of the agent and its prevalence in clinically ill animals and healthy carriers, especially regarding to the prevalence of the serotype 2 in the country.

Taíssa Cook Siqueira, Soares; Antonio Carlos, Paes.

2013-09-01

117

Streptococcus dysgalactiae endocarditis presenting as acute endophthalmitis  

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Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. The identification of Group C and G streptococci such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae is comparatively uncommon and has only been reported in a few case reports or series. We therefore report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae first presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis, the most likely source being bilateral feet osteomyelitis in a patient with type I diabetes. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous benzylpenicillin, intravitreal antibiotics, bilateral below knee amputations and mitral valve replacement. She survived all surgical procedures and regained partial visual acuity in the affected eye.

Tsung Han Woo

2012-01-01

118

Seeing Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Common Killer Bacteria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Look around you. The diversity and complexity of life on earth is overwhelming and data continues to grow. In our desire to understand and explain everything scientifically from molecular evolution to supernovas we depend on visual representations. This paper investigates visual representations of the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae by use of ink, watercolours and computer graphics. We propose a novel artistic visual rendering of Streptococcus pneumoniae and ask what the value of these kind of representations are compared to traditional scientific data. We ask if drawings and computer-assisted representations can add to our scientific knowledge about this dangerous bacteria. Is there still a role for the scientific illustrator in the scientific process and synthesis of scientific knowledge?

Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

2014-01-01

119

Animal Models of Streptococcus pneumoniae Disease  

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Summary: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a colonizer of human nasopharynx, but it is also an important pathogen responsible for high morbidity, high mortality, numerous disabilities, and high health costs throughout the world. Major diseases caused by S. pneumoniae are otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Despite the availability of antibiotics and vaccines, pneumococcal infections still have high mortality rates, especially in risk groups. For this reason, there is an exceptionally e...

Chiavolini, Damiana; Pozzi, Gianni; Ricci, Susanna

2008-01-01

120

Ornithine transport and exchange in Streptococcus lactis.  

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Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 appeared to accumulate [14C]ornithine to a high concentration in the absence of an exogenous energy source. However, analysis of intracellular amino acid pool constituents and results of transport experiments revealed that the accumulation of ornithine represented a homoexchange between extracellular [14C]ornithine and unlabeled ornithine in the cell. The energy-independent exchange of ornithine was not inhibited by proton-conducting uncouplers or by ...

Thompson, J.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal inject...

Suanyuk, N.; Kanghear, H.; Supamattaya, K.; Khongpradit, R.

2005-01-01

122

Regulation of hexitol catabolism in Streptococcus mutans.  

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Regulation of hexitol catabolism was investigated in Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic human dental plaque bacterium. Induction of hexitol catabolic enzymes and phosphoenolpyruvate:hexitol phosphotransferase and hexitol phosphate dehydrogenase activities was regulated by an inducer exclusion mechanism initiated by D-glucose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Kinetic analysis of the inhibitory effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on initial hexitol uptake illustrated that this was a noncompetitive type of inhibit...

Dills, S. S.; Seno, S.

1983-01-01

123

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of bifunctional ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase–glutatione synthetase from Streptococcus agalactiae  

Science.gov (United States)

?-Glutamylcysteine synthetase–glutathione synthetase (?GCS-GS) is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes two consecutive steps of ATP-dependent peptide formation in glutathione biosynthesis. Streptococcus agalactiae ?GCS-GS is a target for the development of potential therapeutic agents. ?GCS-GS was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals grew to dimensions of 0.3 × 0.2 × 0.2?mm under reducing conditions with 5?mM TCEP. X-ray data were collected to 2.8?Å resolution from a tetragonal crystal that belonged to space group I41. PMID:19574637

Nakashima, Yasunori; Nii, Hiroshi; Janowiak, Blythe E.; Griffith, Owen W.; Hibi, Takao

2009-01-01

124

Molecular Epidemiology of Penicillin-Susceptible Non-?-Lactam-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Greek Children  

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A total of 128 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that were susceptible to penicillin but resistant to non-?-lactam agents were isolated from young carriers in Greece and analyzed by antibiotic susceptibility testing, serotyping, restriction fragment end labeling (RFEL), and antibiotic resistance genotyping. The serotypes 6A/B (49%), 14 (14%), 19A/F (11%), 11A (9%), 23A/F (4%), 15B/C (2%), and 21 (2%) were most prevalent in this collection. Of the isolates, 65% were erythromycin resistant, wh...

Bogaert, D.; Hermans, P. W. M.; Grivea, I. N.; Katopodis, G. S.; Mitchell, T. J.; Sluijter, M.; Groot, R.; Beratis, N. G.; Syrogiannopoulos, G. A.

2003-01-01

125

Functional Genomics Approach to Identifying Genes Required for Biofilm Development by Streptococcus mutans  

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Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, is an obligate biofilm-forming bacterium. The goals of this study were to identify the gene(s) required for biofilm formation by this organism and to elucidate the role(s) that some of the known global regulators of gene expression play in controlling biofilm formation. In S. mutans UA159, the brpA gene (for biofilm regulatory protein) was found to encode a novel protein of 406 amino acid residues. A strain carrying a...

Wen, Zezhang T.; Burne, Robert A.

2003-01-01

126

Diversity of Ribosomal Mutations Conferring Resistance to Macrolides, Clindamycin, Streptogramin, and Telithromycin in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Mechanisms of resistance were studied in 22 macrolide-resistant mutants selected in vitro from 5 parental strains of macrolide-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae by serial passage in various macrolides (T. A. Davies, B. E. Dewasse, M. R. Jacobs, and P. C. Appelbaum, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 44:414–417, 2000). Portions of genes encoding ribosomal proteins L22 and L4 and 23S rRNA (domains II and V) were amplified by PCR and analyzed by single-strand conformational polymorphism analysi...

Canu, Annie; Malbruny, Brigitte; Coquemont, Mae?lle; Davies, Todd A.; Appelbaum, Peter C.; Leclercq, Roland

2002-01-01

127

Sympathetic empyema arising from streptococcus anginosus splenic abscess  

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Full Text Available We report a 52 year old male with a history splenic infarction, abdominal pain and shortness of breath. CT scanning revealed a splenic abcess and empyema. Cultures from both sites grew Streptococcus anginosus. These resolved with drainage and antibiotics. Physicians should consider Streptococcus species when confronted with a patient with splenic infarction.

Wissa E

2012-03-01

128

Infection caused by vancomycin-resistant Streptococcus sanguis II.  

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A patient with bacteremia caused by vancomycin-resistant Streptococcus sanguis II is presented. This rare occurrence suggests that vancomycin may not be a completely reliable antibiotic in the treatment of infections due to viridans species of the genus Streptococcus. Gram-positive isolates from blood and otherwise sterile body fluids should be tested for susceptibility to vancomycin.

Shlaes, D. M.; Marino, J.; Jacobs, M. R.

1984-01-01

129

Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

Evans, Joyce J.; Klesius, Phillip H.; Pasnik, David J.; Bohnsack, John F.

2009-01-01

130

Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). PMID:19402966

Evans, Joyce J; Klesius, Phillip H; Pasnik, David J; Bohnsack, John F

2009-05-01

131

Prevalência de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico em crianças portadoras de necessidades especiais / Prevalence of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus in children with special health care needs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Faringotonsilite causada por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico afeta principalmente crianças e imunocomprometidos, sendo Streptococcus pyogenes (Grupo A) o agente mais comum em faringotonsilites bacterianas. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou a busca por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico do Grupo A (SBHGA) e Não A [...] (SBHGNA) na orofaringe de indivíduos com necessidades especiais da APAE (Maceió-AL). MÉTODO:Estudo prospectivo com amostras da orofaringe de pacientes com síndrome de Down e outras desordens mentais (teste) e estudantes de escola privada (controle) de 5-15 anos. Culturas em ágar sangue (5%) foram identificadas através dos testes de Gram/catalase e o método de disco difusão com bacitracina/sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, aplicando-se o teste Chi-quadrado em análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Um total de 222 colônias bacterianas foram isoladas em 74 indivíduos da APAE e 65 no grupo controle. No grupo teste, episódios prévios de faringotonsilites foram relatados por 36,49% (27/74) e 9,46% (7/74) foram diagnosticados com sintomas e/ou sinais sugestivos de infecção orofaríngea. Nenhuma amostra de S. pyogenes foi confirmada na APAE, sendo todas identificadas como SBHGNA, com cinco SBHGA no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO:A identificação precoce de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico é importante para o tratamento rápido de faringotonsilites e a ausência de S. pyogenes evita futuras sequelas supurativas ou não supurativas no grupo da APAE. Abstract in english Pharyngotonsillitis by ?-hemolytic Streptococcus mostly affects children and imunocompromissed, being Streptococcuspyogenes (Group A) the most common agent in bacterial pharyngotonsillitis. AIM:This work targeted the research of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus Group-A (SBHGA) and No-A (SBHGNA) in the orop [...] harynx of individuals with special health needs from the APAE (Maceió-AL). METHOD: A prospective study with oropharynx samples from patients with Down syndrome and other mental disorders (test) and students from a private school (control) aged 5-15 years. Cultures in blood agar (5%) were identified through Gram/catalase tests and bacitracin/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole disk diffusion method, applying the chi-squared statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 222 bacterial colonies were isolated in 74 individuals from APAE and 65 in the control group. In the test group, previous episodes of pharyngotonsillitis were reported by 36.49% (27/74) and 9.46% (7/74) were diagnosed with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of oropharynx infection. No positive sample of S. pyogenes was confirmed at APAE, being all samples classified as SBHGNA, with 5 SBHGA in the control group. CONCLUSION: The early identification of ?-hemolytic Steptococcus is important for the fast treatment of pharyngotonsillitis and the absence of S. pyogenes avoid future suppurative or not-suppurative sequels in the group from APAE.

Viviane Martha Santos de, Morais; Alice Ramos, Orsi; Fernanda Cristina de Albuquerque, Maranhão; Therezita Maria Peixoto Patury Galvão, Castro; Karina Cavalcante Beltrão de, Castro; Denise Maria Wanderlei, Silva.

2012-10-01

132

Streptococcus suis: an important zoonotic pathogen for human ? prevention aspects  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a major porcine pathogen, causing economical health worldwide problems in the global swine industry. It is also emerging as a zoonotic agent capable of causing severe invasive disease in humans exposed to pigs or pork products. The most important clinical sign in swine and human is meningitis, but other pathological conditions have also been described. Serotype 2 is the most commonly associated with diseases in pigs and humans, and also the most frequently reported serotype isolated from diseased animals worldwide. The majority of human infection occurs in pork handlers, particularly in slaughterhouse workers and by minor wounds or skin abrasions contaminated by raw pork or viscera of pigs. Veterinarians should also be aware that a low but real risk may be present when manipulating S. suis-diseased animals that are probably shedding high numbers of this pathogen. Up today, in Greece there is no published epidemiological data for S. suis serotypes in swine herds and the zoonotic risk of S. suis infection in human with daily contact with pigs and pork meat. However, in our experience clinical forms of S. suis infection are common in most greek swine farms. The aim of this review study is to perform recent information about S. suis infection in swine and human, focus on zoonotic risk of this emerging pathogen and prevention strategies. [Vet. World 2011; 4(5.000: 216-221

VG Papatsiros

2011-10-01

133

Antibacterial substances from Albizia myriophylla wood against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Albizia myriophylla has been used for long by Thai traditional healers as an important ingredient herb in Thai herbal formulas for caries. In this study, three flavonoids lupinifolin (6), 8-methoxy-7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (7), and 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (8), a triterpenoid lupeol (3) as well as four sterols ?-sitosterone (1), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-one (2), ?-sitosterol (4), and stigmasterol (5) were isolated from A. myriophylla wood. The antibacterial activity of these compounds against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 was performed using broth microdilution method. All compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against S. mutans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 1-256 and 2-256 ?g/ml, respectively. Among the isolated compounds, lupinifolin (6) was found to be the most potent with MIC and MBC of 1 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively. Lupinifolin (6) also showed a strong activity against ten clinical isolates of S. mutans with MIC and MBC ranging from 0.25-2 and 0.5-8 ?g/ml, respectively. These results reported the bioactive ingredients of A. myriophylla which support its ethnomedical claims as well. Lupinifolin (6) may have a potential to be a natural anticariogenic agent. PMID:23479194

Joycharat, Nantiya; Thammavong, Sonesay; Limsuwan, Surasak; Homlaead, Sirilux; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek; Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan

2013-06-01

134

Characterization of porcine dendritic cell response to Streptococcus suis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen and important zoonotic agent causing mainly septicemia and meningitis. However, the mechanisms involved in host innate and adaptive immune responses toward S. suis as well as the mechanisms used by S. suis to subvert these responses are unknown. Here, and for the first time, the ability of S. suis to interact with bone marrow-derived swine dendritic cells (DCs was evaluated. In addition, the role of S. suis capsular polysaccharide in modulation of DC functions was also assessed. Well encapsulated S. suis was relatively resistant to phagocytosis, but it increased the relative expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 and triggered the release of several cytokines by DCs, including IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40 and TNF-?. The capsular polysaccharide was shown to interfere with DC phagocytosis; however, once internalized, S. suis was readily destroyed by DCs independently of the presence of the capsular polysaccharide. Cell wall components were mainly responsible for DC activation, since the capsular polysaccharide-negative mutant induced higher cytokine levels than the wild-type strain. The capsular polysaccharide also interfered with the expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80/86 and MHC-II on DCs. To conclude, our results show for the first time that S. suis interacts with swine origin DCs and suggest that these cells might play a role in the development of host innate and adaptive immunity during an infection with S. suis serotype 2.

Lecours Marie-Pier

2011-06-01

135

Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study  

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Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer?s chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU/ml and < 10 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

Jeevarathan J

2007-01-01

136

Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas: Prevalencia en el Hospital Nacional Alejandro Posadas / Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: Prevalence at the Posadas Hospital  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus agalactiae (estreptococo grupo B de Lancefield) es el microorganismo más frecuentemente involucrado en infección neonatal por transmisión vertical madre-feto. También es responsable de infecciones en mujeres embarazadas y adultos con enfermedades de base. El objetivo de este trabajo fu [...] e conocer la prevalencia de portación de S. agalactiae en mujeres embarazadas que concurrieron al Hospital Posadas y determinar la sensibilidad a penicilina, eritromicina y clindamicina de los aislamientos. De las 1203 gestantes estudiadas, se aisló S. agalactiae en 113 muestras, con una prevalencia de 9,39%. Se realizaron las pruebas de sensibilidad a 87 de los 113 aislamientos. Todos ellos resultaron sensibles a penicilina y únicamente 2 cepas fueron resistentes a eritromicina y clindamicina (mecanismo MLS constitutivo). Resaltamos la importancia de conocer la resistencia a estos dos últimos agentes, en el caso de mujeres alérgicas a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos. Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus), is the most frequently microorganism involved in neonatal infections through the mother-fetus vertical transmission. It is also responsible for infections in pregnant women, and adults with underlying diseases. The objective of this work w [...] as to know the S. agalactiae carrier prevalence in pregnant women who attended to Posadas Hospital, and to study the susceptibility pattern of the isolates to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. From 1203 pregnant women studied, S. agalactiae was recovered in 113, which means a prevalence of 9.39%. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested to 87 isolates. All of them were susceptible to penicillin, and only 2 isolates were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (constitutive MLS mechanism). We emphasize the importance of knowing these last resistance, in the case of beta-lactam antibiotics allergic women.

S., Di Bartolomeo; M., Gentile; G., Priore; S., Valle; A., Di Bella.

2005-09-01

137

Uberolysin: a novel cyclic bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus uberis.  

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Streptococcus uberis is commonly found in the environment and in association with various bovine body sites and is a major cause of bovine mastitis. Moreover, S. uberis is known to produce a variety of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, antimicrobial agents that generally inhibit closely related bacterial species. In this respect, S. uberis strain 42 has previously been shown to produce a novel nisin variant named nisin U. This paper reports that, in addition to nisin U, S. uberis strain 42 produces a second bacteriocin that induces the lysis of metabolically active, susceptible target bacteria and which has therefore been named uberolysin. Isolation of the native active antimicrobial agent revealed that uberolysin is a 7048 Da peptide that is refractory to sequence analysis by Edman degradation. Transposon mutagenesis was used to generate a uberolysin-negative mutant of S. uberis 42 and sequencing of DNA flanking the insertion site revealed, in addition to the structural gene (ublA), several open reading frames likely to be involved in post-translational modification, transport and producer self-protection (immunity), and possibly in regulation of the biosynthetic gene cluster. In addition, a pair of direct repeats that may be involved in bacteriocin acquisition were identified; indeed, ublA could be identified in 18 % of tested S. uberis strains. Enzymic hydrolysis of uberolysin was used to confirm that ublA does indeed encode the precursor of uberolysin, that an unusually short leader sequence of only six amino acids is cleaved during processing of the mature peptide and that uberolysin is post-translationally covalently modified to form a head-to-tail monocycle. Thus, uberolysin is a unique cyclic bacteriocin, belonging to the same family of bacteriocins as enterocin AS-48 and circularin A. PMID:17464077

Wirawan, Ruth E; Swanson, Kara M; Kleffmann, Torsten; Jack, Ralph W; Tagg, John R

2007-05-01

138

[Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and its susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents--special references to bacteria isolated between April 2010 and March 2011].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria isolated from surgical infections during the period from April 2010 to March 2011 were investigated in a multicenter study in Japan, and the following results were obtained. In this series, 631 strains including 25 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 170 (81.7%) of 208 patients with surgical infections. Four hundred and twenty two strains were isolated from primary infections, and 184 strains were isolated from surgical site infection. From primary infections, anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were predominant, followed by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, while from surgical site infection aerobic Gram-positive bacteria were predominant, followed by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Among aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. such as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus avium was highest, followed by Streptococcus spp. such as Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus spp. such as Staphylococcus aureus, in this order, from primary infections, while Enterococcus spp. such as E. faecalis and E. faecium was highest, followed by Staphylococcus spp. such as S. aureus from surgical site infection. Among aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominantly isolated from primary infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in this order, and from surgical site infection, E. coli and R aeruginosa were most predominantly isolated, followed by E. cloacae and K. pneumoniae. Among anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rates of Parvimonas micra, Eggerthella lenta, Streptococcus constellatus, Gemella morbillorum, and Collinsella aerofaciens were the highest from primary infections, and the isolation rate from surgical site infection was generally low. Among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, the isolation rate of Bilophila wadsworthia was the highest from primary infections, followed by, Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides ovatus, and from surgical site infection, B. fragilis was most predominantly isolated, followed by Bacteroides thetaiotaomnicron, in this order. In this series, vancomycin-resistant MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. and multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa were not observed. PMID:25549405

Shinagawa, Nagao; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Hirata, Koichi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Fukuhara, Kenichiro; Mizugucwi, Tohru; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Yanai, Yoshiyuki; Hata, Fumitake; Kihara, Chikasi; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Oono, Keisuke; Nakamura, Masashi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Itaru; Kimura, Masami; Watabe, Kosho; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Yamaue, Hiroki; Hirono, Seiko; Takesue, Yoshio; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Shinoura, Susumu; Kimura, Hideyuki; Hoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Oshima, Hideki; Aikawa, Naoki; Sasaki, Junichi; Suzuki, Masaru; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Abe, Shinya; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Mashita, Keiji; Tanaka, Moritsugu; Mizuno, Akira; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Iwai, Akihiko; Saito, Takaaki; Muramoto, Masayuki; Kubo, Shoji; Lee, Shigeru; Fukuhara, Kenichiro; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Tokunaga, Naoyuki; Sueda, Taijliro; Hiyama, Elso; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ohge, Hiroki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Tsumura, Hiroaki; Kanehiro, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Tanakaya, Koujn; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro

2014-10-01

139

Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avaliou a atividade inibitória do óleo de copaíba (Copaifera officinalis contra o microrganismo cariogênico, Streptococcus mutans. Para isso, foi realizado um teste de concentração mínima inibitória do óleo de copaíba contra S. mutans, utilizando a técnica de diluição seriada em caldo, c [...] om um controle negativo, um controle positivo (clorexidina a 0,12%) e uma solução de óleo de copaíba 10% como teste. Também foi conduzido um teste de concentração mínima bactericida com os tubos que apresentaram inibição microbiana. No teste de concentração inibitória mínima, o óleo de copaíba mostrou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em todas as concentrações testadas até 0,78 µL/mL da solução a 10% do óleo de copaíba no caldo. Além disso, o controle negativo não teve nenhuma inibição, e a solução de clorexidina 0,12% foi eficaz até 6,25 µL/mL no caldo. O óleo de copaíba mostrou uma atividade bacteriostática contra S. mutans em baixas concentrações, apresentando-se assim como uma opção de fitoterápico a ser utilizado contra bactérias cariogênicas na prevenção de cáries. Abstract in english This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis against the cariogenic microorganism, Streptococcus mutans. For such purpose, a minimum inhibition concentration test of copaiba oil against S. mutans was performed, using the serial dilution in broth technique, with [...] a negative control, a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine) and a 10% copaíba oil solution as a test. A minimum bactericidal concentration test with tubes presenting microbial inhibition was also conduced. In the minimum inhibitory concentration test, copaiba oil showed inhibition of bacterial growth at all concentrations tested up to 0.78 µL/mL of the 10% copaiba oil solution in the broth. In addition, the negative control had no inhibition, and the 0.12% chlorhexidine solution was effective up to 6.25 µL/mL in the broth. Copaiba oil showed a bacteriostatic activity against S. mutans at low concentrations, and could be a an option of phytotherapic agent to be used against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention of caries disease.

Fábio Alessandro, Pieri; Maria Carolina Martins, Mussi; João Evangelista, Fiorini; Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo, Moreira; José Mauricio, Schneedorf.

140

Características laboratoriais das ceratites e conjuntivites causadas por Streptococcus sp Laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar os resultados laboratoriais de conjuntivites e ceratites com cultura positiva para Streptococcus sp, avaliando a incidência das diferentes espécies e os dados dos antibiogramas. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuários de pacientes encaminhados ao laboratório de Doenças Externas do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP com resultado de cultivo bacteriano positivo de córnea ou conjuntiva e com identificação de alguma cepa do gênero Streptococcus sp, no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2001. Analisou-se idade do paciente, espécie de Streptococcus e os testes de sensibilidade aos seguintes antibióticos: cefalotina, amicacina, gentamicina, tobramicina, ciprofloxacina, lomefloxacina, ofloxacina, norfloxacina e vancomicina. RESULTADOS: As espécies mais encontradas foram Streptococcus pneumoniae e Streptococcus viridans. Com relação aos antibióticos, a sensibilidade foi maior à cefalotina, às quinolonas e à vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se os antibióticos tópicos comercialmente disponíveis, as quinolonas apresentam melhor espectro de ação quando comparadas aos aminoglicosídios.PURPOSE: To evaluate laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis, analyzing the different species and the results of bacterial susceptibility to an antibiotics. METHODS: Retrospective study of the records from the External Disease Laboratory of the Ophthalmology Department of the Federal University of São Paulo, with conjunctival or corneal positive bacterial culture for Streptococcus sp, between January 1995 and December 2001. The collected data were age, Streptococcus species and the bacterial susceptibility to the following antibiotics: cephalotin, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramicin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and vancomicin. RESULTS: The most frequent species were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus viridans. Regarding bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics we found a higher susceptibility to the following antibiotics: cephalotin, quinolones and vancomicin. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the commercially available topic antibiotics, the quinolones presented better results when compared to the aminoglycosides.

Helena Parente Solari

2004-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial photodynamic therapy: a comparison of two different photosensitizers and light sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans is the main etiological agent for dental caries. Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced as a new modality in bacterial decontamination. Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial PDT [...] using two different photosensitizers and light sources. Material and Methods: Standard suspensions of S. mutans were exposed to laser light at 662 nm and Radachlorin® or LED 630 nm in combination with Toluidine blue O (TBO). Radiation-only groups, photosensitizer alone, and groups with no treatment were used as controls. Bacterial suspension from each treatment was subcultured onto the surface of Mueller-Hinton agar plates and bacterial growth was assessed. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p

Neda, HAKIMIHA; Farzaneh, KHOEI; Abbas, BAHADOR; Reza, FEKRAZAD.

2014-04-01

142

Acción de la inmunoglobulina A secretora en el proceso de adherencia del Streptococcus mutans al diente humano / Effect of secretory IgA on the adherence of Streptococcus Mutans on human teeth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La caries dental, es una enfermedad infecciosa crónica que afecta a todas las edades, en la cual la presencia de Streptococcus mutans se constituye en una causa determinante más no suficiente para el desarrollo de dicha enfermedad, siendo éste el microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado en la cavid [...] ad oral. La Inmunoglobulina A secretora actúa como primer agente de defensa inmunológica de la superficie de la mucosa oral interfiriendo en la colonización bacteriana del diente a través de distintos mecanismos, sin embargo existen evidencias contradictorias sobre el verdadero papel en el desarrollo de la caries dental. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en explicar mediante revisión bibliográfica desde 1990 hasta el 2009, la acción de la inmunoglobulina A secretora en el proceso de adherencia de Streptococcus mutans al diente humano. Abstract in english Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease that affects all age groups in which the presence of Streptococcus mutans constitutes a decisive but not sufficient cause for development of the disease, and is the most frequently isolated organism in the oral cavity. On other hand, secretory IgA (IgA-S [...] ) as the first immune defense agent that protects oral mucosal surface by impeding bacterial colonization of the tooth through different mechanisms; however there is contradictory evidence regarding the actual role of IgA-S and its relation with the development of dental caries. The purpose was to complete a review of the literature between 1990 to 2008o in order to explain the action of secretory immunoglobulin A during the adherence process of Streptococcus mutans to human teeth.

Adriana Lucía, Chamorro-Jiménez; Andrea, Ospina-Cataño; Camilo, Arango-Rincón; Cecilia María, Martínez-Delgado.

2013-07-01

143

Activity of vancomycin, teicoplanin and cephalosporins against penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To report in vitro susceptibilities of penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates to cephalosporins, vancomycin and teicoplanin. Design: Minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) were determined according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines for 17 penicillin-susceptible isolates (mic 0.06 mg/L or less) and 16 isolates showing intermediate susceptibility to penicillin (mic 0.12 to 1.0 mg/L). Setting: Tertiary care university centre. Main Results: Comparison of the mic90 values with those of other antibiotics tested demonstrated that ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and teicoplanin were the most active agents against penicillin-susceptible strains. However, teicoplanin had the lowest mic and was superior to other agents against strains with intermediate penicillin susceptibility. The mics of all cephalosporins increased in concordance with the mic of penicillin. Conclusion: Isolates demonstrating intermediate susceptibility or resistance to penicillin should be routinely evaluated for susceptibility to clinically important cephalosporins. PMID:22416208

Loo, Vivian G; Lavallée, Jocelyne; McAlear, Diane; Robson, Hugh G

1995-01-01

144

Erythromycine resistance in streptococcus pyogenes group a throat isolates in sukkur city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine and evaluate the predominant and common etiologic agent(s) of pharyngitis in Sukkur city and to determine their current antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends. Out of 257 throat samples, 149 positive for Streptococcus pyogenes Group A between November 2001 and May 2003 from adult population of Sukkur city were tested for their susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin and clairithromycin. The throat samples (swabs) were examined by Gram-stain, API system, and for presence of a hemolysis. Samples were further cultured on Muller Hinton agar for determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The sensitivity was performed on only those samples which were positive for S. pyogenes. Of all throat isolates, 95% were predominantly resistant to erythromycin. Their sensitivity towards clindamycin was 30%, azithromycin 44% and clairithromycin 76% respectively. The current pharyngeal isolates of S. pyogenes exhibited frequent and alarmingly high erythromycin resistance which may be due to both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms. (author)

145

Otogenic meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available Meningitis/ meningoencephalitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae are with severe course and high mortality rate. Acase of severe meningoencephalitis by S. pneumoniae secondary to chronic bilateral otitis and mastoiditis is presentedhere. A 37-year-old male patient was admitted with fever, excitation, somnolence and meningeal irritation. Investigationof cerebrospinal fluid (CSF revealed increased protein level (11.3 g/L, leucocytes count 59,790/?L (93% neutrophils,extremely decreased glucose level (0.1 mmol/L. S. pneumoniae was confirmed by latex test and culture of CSF.Otitis media and mastoiditis were found bilaterally by computerized tomography. Bilateral cortical mastoidectomy wasperformed together with antibacterial treatment by consequently ceftazidime and cefepime and corticosteroids wereadministered. He experienced progressive improvement and was discharged with normal laboratory parameters andwithout sequels after 17 days hospital treatment. In conclusion, both surgical and conservative treatments are crucialfor outcome of meningitis/ meningoencephalitis by S. pneumoniae secondary to chronic mastoiditis. J Microbiol InfectDis 2013; 3(2: 86-88Key words: Streptococcus pneumoniae, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, mastoiditis

Tsetsa Georgieva Doichinova

2013-06-01

146

Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis / Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Existe un incremento de la meningoencefalitis producida por Streptococcus pneumoniae, después de las campañas exitosas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las caracteristicas clinicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio, [...] las complicaciones y el manejo terapéutico de los pacientes que sufrieron esta enfermedad desde 1993 a 2006. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron doce niños con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana en este periodo. RESULTADOS: Los niños menores de un año son los más frecuentemente afectados. El shock séptico y el edema cerebral las mayores complicaciones. Tres pacientes fallecieron. Esta enfermedad ha tenido un curso serio. El tratamiento temprano del edema cerebral es muy importante para reducir la mortalidad. Los medicamentos de elección para tratar la meningoencefalitis por Strepcococcus pneumoniae en los casos estudiados fueron la vancomicina combinada con cefalosporina del tipo de la cefatoxima o la ceftriaxona. CONCLUSION: Los pacientes con meningoencefalitis por Streptoccocus pneumoniae exhibieron características clínica, complicaciones y secuelas las cuales se diferencian de otras meningoencefalitis bacterianas. Por eso estos elementos pueden ayudar a los médicos en el diagnóstico diferencial Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the [...] complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis admitted to the pediatric hospital of San Miguel del Padron, City of Havana in this period were assessed. RESULTS: Children under one year are the most frequently affected. Septic shock and brain edema were the most severe complications. Three patients died, implying that this disease has a serious course. Early treatment of brain edema is very important to reduce mortality. The elective drugs for treatment of these cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were vancomycin combined with cephalosporin, cefotaxime or ceftriaxone type. CONCLUSION: Patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis show clinical characteristics, complications, and sequels that are different to other bacterial meningoencephalitis, meaning that they could be helpful for physicians considering the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis.

Raisa, Bu-Coifiu Fanego; Alberto J., Dorta-Contreras; Bárbara, Padilla-Docal; Martha, O' Farril-Sanchez; Isabel, Lopez-Hernandez.

1023-10-01

147

Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica y Streptococcus suis EN EL COMPLEJO RESPIRATORIO PORCINO / Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica AND Streptococcus suis IN THE PORCINE RESPIRATORY COMPLEX  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El complejo respiratorio porcino (CRP) es un proceso dinámico que involucra una variedad de factores e incluye las condiciones ambientales, el hospedero y las diferentes interacciones microbianas que se establecen entre los microorganismos primarios como Mycoplasma hyoneumoniae o el virus del síndro [...] me respiratorio-reproductivo porcino y bacterias secundarias como Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica o Streptococcus suis. La mayoría de estas entidades corresponden a géneros y especies que pueden formar parte de la microbiota normal del tracto respiratorio, pero la capacidad patógena de las cepas reside fundamentalmente en la presencia y expresión de genes asociados a la virulencia, que en muchos casos se adquieren por transferencia horizontal, por lo que existen diferentes genotipos y es necesario el monitoreo mediante pruebas sensibles. El propósito de esta revisión es ampliar el conocimiento sobre los atributos de virulencia de las bacterias que actúan como agentes secundarios en el CRP. Al considerar la complejidad del mismo el mejor método de control radica en la prevención, en este sentido los programas vacunales priorizan a los agentes primarios, pero es necesario disponer de ensayos de monitoreo que permitan vigilar la presencia y potencialidades patógenas de las bacterias que incrementan la severidad de los procesos respiratorios actuando como agentes secundarios. Abstract in english The porcine respiratory complex is the denomination for multiple changes and lesions that result in a decreased respiratory capacity of affected pigs. It is a dynamic process which involves different factors such as environment, host and different microbial interactions between primary agents like M [...] ycoplasma hypneumoniae or the porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus with Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica or Streptococcus suis which act as secondary pathogens and increase the severity of the disease. These entities correspond to genera and species being part of the normal flora and the pathogenic capacity lies on different genes which are acquired by horizontal transfer, thus there are different genotypes associated or not to the pathogen. The aim of this article is to make an analysis about bacteria virulence attributes which act as secondary pathogens in the respiratory disease in pigs. It is important to consider the management and control of the farm based on biosecurity and it is necessary to have different diagnostic methods for testing bacteria virulence attributes that act as secondary agents, because nowadays vaccination program are directed to primary agents.

Ivette, Espinosa; Siomara, Martínez.

2008-12-01

148

Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro del aceite de girasol ozonizado sobre Streptococcus mutans  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans es considerado como el principal agente etiológico de las caries bucales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto letal que ejerce el aceite de girasol ozonizado (OLEOZON® sobre este microorganismo. Se evaluó la influencia que presentan diferentes factores, como el pH, la concentración del agente antimicrobiano OLEOZON® y el tiempo de contacto. Se determinaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias, las que presentaron un comportamiento similar entre especies del mismo género, no así con bacterias de otro género. Se demostró que la actividad del OLEOZON®, no variaba significativamente con las variaciones de pH estudiadas, aunque se obtuvo una ligera disminución en el número de microorganismos a pH ligeramente ácido, la cual fue mayor de un 99,9% del número inicial de microorganismo. El estudio de las distintas concentraciones reveló un efecto significativo sobre la letalidad del microorganismo, siendo la equivalente a 285 mg/mL, la de mayor efectividad. Con un tiempo de contacto de diez minutos entre el microorganismo y el agente, se logró una letalidad del 99,9 %, no así con el de tres minutos, con el cual se logró una reducción de hasta un 95 %, de la concentración inicial del microorganismo. Se obtuvo una ecuación, la cual relaciona los tres parámetros en estudio y que permitió examinar la influencia que ejercía el pH, la concentraci ón del agente antimicrobiano y el tiempo en la muerte del microorganismo. Estos resultados demuestran que el OLEOZON® es un producto eficaz para el tratamiento de las infecciones provocadas por Streptococcus mutans.

Ir\\u00E1n Fern\\u00E1ndez Torres

2006-01-01

149

Liver abscess associated with an oral flora bacterium Streptococcus anginosus  

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Full Text Available Viridans group Streptococcus, a bacterium of the oral flora has a low-virulence and rarely causes liver abscess. A 40-yearoldmale patient was admitted to the hospital complaining of high fever and malaise. A physical examination revealedpoor oral hygiene; there were caries on many teeth, and he had hepatomegaly. A hepatic abscess was identified inhis abdominal tomography. Streptococcus anginosus was isolated from the drainage material, and the bile ducts werenormal in his MRI cholangiography. An immunocompetent case of liver abscess caused by Streptococcus anginosusoriginated most probably from oral flora is presented here. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(1:33-35

Hava Y?lmaz

2012-03-01

150

The macrophage chemotactic activity of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae extracellular products (ECP).  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae to attract macrophages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was investigated. The extracellular products (ECP) from S. agalactiae and S. iniae were tested in vitro for macrophage chemotaxis using blind-well chambers. The macrophages were obtained from the peritoneal cavity 4-5 days after intraperitoneal injection of squalene. Both macrophage chemotactic and chemokinetic activities were demonstrated using the S. agalactiae ECP. However, only chemotactic activity was shown for S. iniae ECP. High-pressure liquid chromatography fractionation revealed that semi-purified S. agalactiae and S. iniae ECPs had estimated molecular weights of 7.54 and 19.2kDa, respectively. The prominent chemotactic activities of ECP from S. agalactiae and S. iniae are likely to be involved in the proinflammatory responses of macrophages to S. agalactiae and S. iniae infections. PMID:17212985

Klesius, Phillip H; Evans, Joyce J; Shoemaker, Craig A

2007-05-01

151

Antibiotic Selection Pressure and Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes  

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We correlated outpatient antibiotic use with prevalence of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSP), macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae (MRSP), and macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes (MRGAS) in 20 countries. Total antibiotic use was correlated with PNSP (r = 0.75; p < 0.001), as was macrolide use with MRSP (r = 0.88; p < 0.001) and MRGAS (r = 0.71; p = 0.004). Streptococcal resistance is directly associated with antibiotic selection pressure on a national level.

Albrich, Werner C.; Monnet, Dominique L.; Harbarth, Stephan

2004-01-01

152

Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered specific for S. pneumoniae hamper the exact identification of S. pneumoniae. Based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes of a collection of 634 streptococcal strains, identified by multilocus sequence analysis, we detected a cytosine at position 203 present in all 440 strains of S. pneumoniae but replaced by an adenosine residue in all strains representing other species of mitis group streptococci. The S. pneumoniae-specific sequence signature could be demonstrated by sequence analysis or indirectly by restriction endonuclease digestion of a PCR amplicon covering the site. The S. pneumoniae-specific signature offers an inexpensive means for validation of the identity of clinical isolates and should be used as an integrated marker in the annotation procedure employed in 16S rRNA-based molecular studies of complex human microbiotas. This may avoid frequent misidentifications such as those we demonstrate to have occurred in previous reports and in reference sequence databases.

Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

2011-01-01

153

Exogenous group G Streptococcus endophthalmitis following intravitreal ranibizumab injection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Suleyman Kugu,1 Mehmet Sahin Sevim,2 Nilufer Zorlutuna Kaymak,1 Gurkan Erdogan,3 Baran Kandemir,1 Omer Kamil Dogan41Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, 2Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, 3Umraniye Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, 4World Eye Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: We report a case of group G Streptococcus endophthalmitis following an intravitreal ranibizumab injection for a choroidal neovascular membrane. Pars plana vitrectomy was applied for endophthalmitis and group G Streptococcus cultures were isolated in the vitreous samples taken from the patient. Twenty-four hours following pars plana vitrectomy the patient underwent myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of group G Streptococcus endophthalmitis following an intravitreal injection.Keywords: group G Streptococcus, endophthalmitis, intravitreal injection

Kugu S

2012-08-01

154

Multiplex quantitative PCR for detection of lower respiratory tract infection and meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis  

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Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae cause pneumonia and as Neisseria meningitidis they are important agents of meningitis. Although several PCR methods have been described for these bacteria the specificity is an underestimated problem. Here we present a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR (qmPCR) for detection of S. pneumoniae (9802 gene fragment), H. influenzae (omp P6 gene) and N...

Welinder-Olsson Christina; Blomberg Jonas; Korsgaard Jens; Strålin Kristoffer; Mk, Abdeldaim Guma; Herrmann Björn

2010-01-01

155

Agglutination of "Streptococcus milleri" by lectins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The agglutination of 218 clinical isolates and three ATCC type strains of "Streptococcus milleri" was tested with 25 different lectins from plants and fungi. An agglutination reaction with one or more lectins was observed with 42 isolates when the cells were untreated. After trypsinisation of the bacteria, 109 strains yielded a positive reaction and after boiling the bacterial cells at pH2, 218 isolates were agglutinated. As an overall result of our experiments with untreated, trypsinised and boiled cells, 17, 37 and 45 different agglutination patterns, respectively, were obtained. The lectins from Datura stramonium, Robinia pseudoacacia and Dolichos biflorus agglutinated isolates belonging only to Lancefield group C, being non-reactive with other isolates. These lectins were also found to be specific for "large colony type" streptococci of group C. The use of lectin agglutination in epidemiological and ecological studies of "S. milleri" is discussed. PMID:8006940

Kellens, J T; Jacobs, J A; Peumans, W J; Stobberingh, E E

1994-07-01

156

Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal injection using 101 -108 CFU/ fish showed 20-90% mortality within 10 days and the LD50 was 3.60x101 - 1.72x107 CFU. Haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and blood cell values of infected and moribund fish were significantly decreased. Histopathological findings included the occurrence of inflammation, cells necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and the formation of granulomas in the infected organs.

Suanyuk, N.

2005-02-01

157

2-KETOGLUCONATE FERMENTATION BY STREPTOCOCCUS FAECALIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Goddard, J. L. (University of Oklahoma School of Medicine, Oklahoma City), and J. R. Sokatch. 2-Ketogluconate fermentation by Streptococcus faecalis. J. Bacteriol. 87:844–851. 1964.—Streptococcus faecalis 10Cl did not grow with 2-ketogluconate alone as an energy source, but did grow when gluconate was added. More growth was obtained than could be accounted for by the gluconate alone. The requirement for gluconate in the stimulation of growth on 2-ketogluconate was found to be stoichiometric, not catalytic. Glucose did not replace gluconate in this phenomenon, apparently owing to the repression of the 2-ketogluconate pathway by glucose. Resting cells grown on a combination of gluconate and 2-ketogluconate did ferment 2-ketogluconate without added gluconate. Fermentation balance studies with resting cells detected the following products in moles (per mole of 2-ketogluconate): carbon dioxide, 0.98; lactic acid, 0.19; formic acid, 1.42; acetic acid, 0.70; and ethanol, 0.42. 2-Ketogluconate-1-C14 and -2-C14 were prepared and fermented. The data were interpreted to show that 90% of the substrate was decarboxylated to carbon dioxide and pentose phosphate. Pentose phosphate was then fermented to pyruvate through the sedoheptulose diphosphate variation of the pentose phosphate pathway found in this organism. The other 10% of the substrate was converted to pyruvate by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Calculations of the energy available by the above combination of pathways indicated that about 2.3 moles of adenosine triphosphate per mole of 2-ketogluconate could be obtained if the energy available in acetate formation is conserved through the acetokinase reaction. PMID:14137623

Goddard, J. L.; Sokatch, J. R.

1964-01-01

158

Contribution of Glutathione Peroxidase to the Virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes  

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Glutathione peroxidases are widespread among eukaryotic organisms and function as a major defense against hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides. However, glutathione peroxidases are not well studied among prokaryotic organisms and have not previously been shown to promote bacterial virulence. Recently, a gene with homology to glutathione peroxidase was shown to contribute to the antioxidant defenses of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus). Since this bacterium causes numerous supp...

Brenot, Audrey; King, Katherine Y.; Janowiak, Blythe; Griffith, Owen; Caparon, Michael G.

2004-01-01

159

Adhesion-related interactions of Actinomyces and Streptococcus biofilm bacteria  

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Adhesion of bacteria is a key event in biofilm formation and is mediated by bacterial adhesins recognising host or bacterial partner receptors. In oral biofilm formation, primary Actinomyces and Streptococcus colonizers adhere to salivary pellicle proteins such as proline-rich proteins (PRPs) as well as to mucosal surfaces. Subsequently, Actinomyces and Streptococcus strains and other bacteria, such as Veillonella, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas, adhere to each other. The nature of this comm...

Drobni, Mirva

2006-01-01

160

Genetic and Epidemiological Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae disease determinants.  

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The Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of community acquired pneumonia as well as of upper respiratory tract infections such as acute otitis media and sinusitis, and invasive diseases like meningitis, bacteremia, and endocarditis. However, S. pneumoniae is also a commensal of the upper respiratory tract, especially of young children, which represent the reservoir for pneumococcal transmission within the community. A major virulence factor of Streptococcus pneu...

Melchiorre, Sara

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Presumptive identification of "Streptococcus milleri" in 5 h.  

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Rapid miniaturized tests for acetoin production, arginine hydrolysis, and sorbitol fermentation were used for presumptive identification of non-beta-hemolytic "Streptococcus milleri" isolates in 5 h. All 77 "S. milleri" strains tested were Voges-Proskauer positive, arginine hydrolysis positive, and sorbitol fermentation negative. On the basis of these reactions, "S. milleri" was differentiated from isolates of other viridans group streptococcal species and from Streptococcus bovis.

Ruoff, K. L.; Ferraro, M. J.

1986-01-01

162

Oral immunization of humans with Streptococcus sobrinus glucosyltransferase.  

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The effect of oral administration of glucosyltransferase (GTF) from Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 on levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody to GTF in parotid saliva and on the number of indigenous Streptococcus mutans in the whole saliva was studied in young adult males. GTF combined with aluminum phosphate (AP) was administered in capsules to 14 subjects, while sodium phosphate buffer combined with AP was administered in the same way to 11 control subjects. Thirteen administrations were giv...

Smith, D. J.; Taubman, M. A.

1987-01-01

163

Phenotypical characteristics of group B streptococcus in parturients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Colonization by Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is highly prevalent among pregnant women, with prevalence rates ranging between 4% and 30%. The infection may be transmitted vertically and may result in serious neonatal consequences. In the period from November 2003 to May 2004, a cross-sectional study w [...] as carried out among 316 parturients at the Jundiaí Teaching Hospital to establish the prevalence of genital GBS colonization, to identify the factors associated with colonization and the characteristic phenotypes of these streptococci. Samples from rectal and vaginal areas were collected for selective culture in Todd-Hewitt broth. Susceptibility to 7 antimicrobial agents was tested using the antibiotic diffusion disk technique, and the isolated strains were classified using specific antisera. The prevalence of GBS colonization was 14.6%. No strain was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin or nitrofurantoin. The majority of strains were sensitive to cephalothin. Greatest resistance was to gentamicin (76.1%), followed by clindamycin (17.4%). The most frequent serotype was Ib (23.9%), followed by serotypes II and Ia (19.6% and 17.4%, respectively). There was no correlation between serotype and greater antimicrobial resistance. In conclusion, the prevalence of GBS in parturients was high and penicillin continues to be the drug of choice for intrapartum prophylaxis. The most frequent serotype (Ib) found in this study differs from those found in the majority of studies carried out in other countries, revealing the need to identify prevalent serotypes in each region so that specific vaccines can be designed.

Jose Antonio, Simoes; Valeria Moraes Neder, Alves; Sergio Eduardo Longo, Fracalanzza; Rodrigo Pauperio Soares de, Camargo; Lenir, Mathias; Helaine Maria Besteti Pires, Milanez; Eliane Melo, Brolazo.

2007-04-01

164

LuxS-based signaling affects Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans is implicated as a major etiological agent in human dental caries, and one of the important virulence properties of this organism is its ability to form biofilms (dental plaque) on tooth surfaces. We examined the role of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) on S. mutans biofilm formation by constructing a GS-5 luxS-null mutant. Biofilm formation by the luxS mutant in 0.5% sucrose defined medium was found to be markedly attenuated compared to the wild type. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed that biofilms of the luxS mutant formed larger clumps in sucrose medium compared to the parental strain. Therefore, the expression of glucosyltransferase genes was examined and the gtfB and gtfC genes, but not the gtfD gene, in the luxS mutant were upregulated in the mid-log growth phase. Furthermore, we developed a novel two-compartment system to monitor AI-2 production by oral streptococci and periodontopathic bacteria. The biofilm defect of the luxS mutant was complemented by strains of S. gordonii, S. sobrinus, and S. anginosus; however, it was not complemented by S. oralis, S. salivarius, or S. sanguinis. Biofilm formation by the luxS mutant was also complemented by Porphyromonas gingivalis 381 and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 but not by a P. gingivalis luxS mutant. These results suggest that the regulation of the glucosyltransferase genes required for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation is regulated by AI-2. Furthermore, these results provide further confirmation of previous proposals that quorum sensing via AI-2 may play a significant role in oral biofilm formation. PMID:15870324

Yoshida, Akihiro; Ansai, Toshihiro; Takehara, Tadamichi; Kuramitsu, Howard K

2005-05-01

165

Detection of Streptococcus suis in Bioaerosols of Swine Confinement Buildings  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia. Also recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent, it is responsible for outbreaks of human infections in Asian countries. Serotype 2 is the predominant isolate from diseased animals and humans. The aerosolization of S. suis in the air of swine confinement buildings (SCB) was studied. The presence of S. suis in bioaerosols was monitored in SCB where cases of infection had been reported and in healthy SCB without reported infections. Using a quantitative-PCR (qPCR) method, we determined the total number of bacteria (1 × 108 to 2 × 108 airborne/m3), total number of S. suis bacteria (4 × 105 to 10 × 105 airborne/m3), and number of S. suis serotype 2 and 1/2 bacteria (1 × 103 to 30 × 103 airborne/m3) present in the air. S. suis serotypes 2 and 1/2 were detected in the air of all growing/finishing SCB that had documented cases of S. suis infection and in 50% of healthy SCB. The total number of bacteria and total numbers of S. suis and S. suis serotype 2 and 1/2 bacteria were monitored in one positive SCB during a 5-week period, and it was shown that the aerosolized S. suis serotypes 2 and 1/2 remain airborne for a prolonged period. When the effect of aerosolization on S. suis was observed, the percentage of intact S. suis bacteria (showing cell membrane integrity) in the air might have been up to 13%. Finally S. suis was found in nasal swabs from 14 out of 21 healthy finishing-SCB workers, suggesting significant exposure to the pathogen. This report provides a better understanding of the aerosolization, prevalence, and persistence of S. suis in SCB. PMID:24632262

Bonifait, Laetitia; Veillette, Marc; Létourneau, Valérie; Grenier, Daniel

2014-01-01

166

Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias siendo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño. Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente.The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children’s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pneumoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution in Costa Rica, the predicted vaccine protection is calculated in 74%.

Hernán Sierra- Fernandez

2006-06-01

167

Detection of Streptococcus suis in bioaerosols of swine confinement buildings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia. Also recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent, it is responsible for outbreaks of human infections in Asian countries. Serotype 2 is the predominant isolate from diseased animals and humans. The aerosolization of S. suis in the air of swine confinement buildings (SCB) was studied. The presence of S. suis in bioaerosols was monitored in SCB where cases of infection had been reported and in healthy SCB without reported infections. Using a quantitative-PCR (qPCR) method, we determined the total number of bacteria (1 × 10(8) to 2 × 10(8) airborne/m(3)), total number of S. suis bacteria (4 × 10(5) to 10 × 10(5) airborne/m(3)), and number of S. suis serotype 2 and 1/2 bacteria (1 × 10(3) to 30 × 10(3) airborne/m(3)) present in the air. S. suis serotypes 2 and 1/2 were detected in the air of all growing/finishing SCB that had documented cases of S. suis infection and in 50% of healthy SCB. The total number of bacteria and total numbers of S. suis and S. suis serotype 2 and 1/2 bacteria were monitored in one positive SCB during a 5-week period, and it was shown that the aerosolized S. suis serotypes 2 and 1/2 remain airborne for a prolonged period. When the effect of aerosolization on S. suis was observed, the percentage of intact S. suis bacteria (showing cell membrane integrity) in the air might have been up to 13%. Finally S. suis was found in nasal swabs from 14 out of 21 healthy finishing-SCB workers, suggesting significant exposure to the pathogen. This report provides a better understanding of the aerosolization, prevalence, and persistence of S. suis in SCB. PMID:24632262

Bonifait, Laetitia; Veillette, Marc; Létourneau, Valérie; Grenier, Daniel; Duchaine, Caroline

2014-06-01

168

Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo1, Donaji Velasco-Arias2, David Diaz2, Katiushka Arevalo-Niño1, Marianela Garza-Enriquez1, Myriam A De la Garza-Ramos1, Claudio Cabral-Romero11Instituto de Biotecnologia, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, CIDICS, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 2Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, MexicoBackground and methods: Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities.Results: Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM.Conclusion: These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation.Keywords: zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles, antimicrobial agent, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans

Hernandez-Delgadillo R

2012-04-01

169

Molecular Epidemiological Monitoring of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Strains Isolated in Elderly Patients with Common-Acquired Pneumoniaes  

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Full Text Available The problem of microbiological monitoring and epidemiological surveillance over S. pneumoniae strains as one of ubiquitous agents causing common-acquired pneumoniaes and other respiratory infections of different severity is still urgent. Multilocus sequence typing is a promising technique of molecular epidemiological monitoring enabling to identify epidemically dangerous clones of ubiquitous agents. The aim of the investigation was to assess the spread of epidemically significant Streptococcus pneumoniae strainsby multi-locus sequence typing in elderly patients with common-acquired pneumoniae, bronchites, and agents, and identify a dominant genotype. Materials and Methods. We studied 14 strains isolated in patients with common-acquired pneumoniaes (among them 7 — multi-resistant, 8 strains — in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 4 strains — in the carriers. Multilocus sequence typing was carried out in accordance with M.C. Enright and B.G. Spratt technique (1998. Results. All strains isolated in three populations are relative isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the majority of them (18 of 26 have a unique genotype determining the presence of one sequence type for each strain. From 14 strains isolated in elderly patients with common-acquired pneumoniae, 6 belonged to Taiwan 19F-14. Among the strains isolated in the carriers, the strain identical to R6 strain prevailed. No genotype was found to prevail among the strains isolated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion. Multi-locus sequence typing enables to identify new genotypes of S. pneumoniaeand prognosticate the appearance of epidemically dangerous strains with new properties.

?.V. Martynova

2014-10-01

170

Multicenter evaluation of the use of Haemophilus test medium for broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and development of quality control limits.  

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A five-laboratory collaborative study was undertaken to determine the precision and accuracy of broth microdilution susceptibility tests of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates performed with Haemophilus test medium (HTM) compared with tests performed with lysed horse blood-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth (LHB). The intra-and interlaboratory reproducibilities of MICs of 10 antimicrobial agents determined with the two media were found to be quite similar and highly reproducible in both media. O...

Jorgensen, J. H.; Doern, G. V.; Ferraro, M. J.; Knapp, C. C.; Swenson, J. M.; Washington, J. A.

1992-01-01

171

Isolation, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of the Streptococcus mutans mannitol-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and the mannitol-specific factor III gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system.  

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Streptococcus mutans, the causative agent of dental caries, utilizes carbohydrates by means of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). The PTS facilitates vectorial translocation of metabolizable carbohydrates to form the corresponding sugar-phosphates, which are subsequently converted to glycolytic intermediates. The PTS consists of both sugar-specific and sugar-independent components. Complementation of an Escherichia coli mtlD mutation with a streptococcal recomb...

Honeyman, A. L.; Curtiss, R.

1992-01-01

172

PREVALENCIA DE COLONIZACION POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B) EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE DEL EMBARAZO. EVALUACION DEL CULTIVO SELECTIVO. EXPERIENCIA EN 2192 PACIENTES  

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Streptococcus grupo B (SGB) es el principal agente bacteriano en sepsis neonatal precoz. La infección generalmente es adquirida durante el trabajo de parto en hijos de madres colonizadas. La prevalencia de colonización reportada es variable (2 a 34%), encontrándose las cifras más altas cuando se utiliza muestra vaginal-perianal y medios de cultivo selectivos. Los objetivos del estudio fueron evaluar la prevalencia de SGB en el embarazo, y conocer el rendimiento del cultivo selectivo versu...

Fernando Abarzúa C.; Ana María Guzmán; Cristián Belmar; Jorge Becker; Patricia García; Alonso Rioseco; Enrique Oyarzún

2002-01-01

173

Sensibilidad antibiótica y recomendaciones de tratamiento para Streptococcus pneumoniae Antibiotic sensitivity and treatment recommendations for Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la sensibilidad antibiótica de Streptococcus pneumoniae a los antimicrobianos usados con más frecuencia en la práctica clínica y revisar las recomendaciones actuales de tratamiento de la enfermedad neumocócica. Durante el periodo octubre 2000 a septiembre 2002 se recogieron los datos demográficos, el diagnóstico clínico del paciente, el origen de la muestra y la sensibilidad antibiótica de todos los Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados en los...

Gil-setas, A.; Mazo?n, A.; Torroba, L.; Barricarte, A.; Garci?a-irure, J. J.; Petit, A.; Polo, M. E.

2004-01-01

174

Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus  

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Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from t...

Barrientos, Leticia; Herrera, Christian L.; Montenegro, Gloria; Ortega, Ximena; Veloz, Jorge; Alvear, Marysol; Cuevas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Nicola?s; Salazar, Luis A.

2013-01-01

175

Differentiation of banding patterns between Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus isolates in rep-PCR using ERIC primer  

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Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are considered to be important bacterial species in the initiation of human dental caries. Therefore, the establishment of a reliable genotyping method to distinguish S. mutans from S. sobrinus is of central importance.We assessed the usefulness of repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) using ERIC primer banding patterns in differentiating S. mutans and S. sobrinus.Five S. mutans and two S. sobrinus prototype strai...

Tamami Okada; Kazuko Takada; Kou Fujita; Takuji Ikemi; Osgood, Robert C.; Childers, Noel K.; Michalek, Suzanne M.

2011-01-01

176

Group A Streptococcus tissue invasion by CD44-mediated cell signalling  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as group A Streptococcus, GAS), the agent of streptococcal sore throat and invasive soft-tissue infections, attaches to human pharyngeal or skin epithelial cells through specific recognition of its hyaluronic acid capsular polysaccharide by the hyaluronic-acid-binding protein CD44 (refs 1, 2). Because ligation of CD44 by hyaluronic acid can induce epithelial cell movement on extracellular matrix, we investigated whether molecular mimicry by the GAS hyaluronic acid capsule might induce similar cellular responses. Here we show that CD44-dependent GAS binding to polarized monolayers of human keratinocytes induced marked cytoskeletal rearrangements manifested by membrane ruffling and disruption of intercellular junctions. Transduction of the signal induced by GAS binding to CD44 on the keratinocyte surface involved Rac1 and the cytoskeleton linker protein ezrin, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. Studies of bacterial translocation in two models of human skin indicated that cell signalling triggered by interaction of the GAS capsule with CD44 opened intercellular junctions and promoted tissue penetration by GAS through a paracellular route. These results support a model of host cytoskeleton manipulation and tissue invasion by an extracellular bacterial pathogen.

Cywes, Colette; Wessels, Michael R.

2001-12-01

177

Acute septicemia caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus in turkey poults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus gallolyticus, previously known as Streptococcus bovis biotypes I and II/2, is a well-known cause of sepsis and meningitis in humans and birds. The present case report describes an outbreak of fatal septicemia associated with S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (S. bovis biotype II/2) in 11 turkey flocks in Pennsylvania between 2010 and 2013. Affected poults were 2-3 wk of age. Major clinical observation was sudden increase in mortality among turkey poults without any premonitory clinical signs. Postmortem examination findings revealed acute septicemia with lesions such as fibrinous pericarditis, meningitis, splenic multifocal fibrinoid necrosis, hepatitis, osteochondritis, myositis, and airsacculitis. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from several organs by routine bacterial culture. Biotyping identified bacteria as streptococci, whereas 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identified them as S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles revealed that all the strains isolated were sensitive to penicillin and erythromycin with different sensitivity profiles for other antibacterial agents tested. The present study reports the first confirmed case of acute septicemia in turkey poults caused by S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. PMID:25055641

Saumya, Dona; Wijetunge, S; Dunn, Patricia; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Pierre, Traci; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

2014-06-01

178

Eritrodermia con bacteriemia por Streptococcus dysgalactiae subespecie equisimilis en un paciente pediátrico: reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura / Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis bacteremic erythroderma in a pediatric patient: a case report and review of literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las infecciones por estreptococos piógenos, comunes en la edad pediátrica, muestran en los últimos años un aumento en la identificación de grupos no A o B. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años, con historia de fiebre de cinco días de evolución asociado a una lesión eritrodérmica con hemocultivo [...] s positivos a Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (confirmado por biología molecular-genotipificación). Recibió terapia antimicrobiana por 14 días con ß-lactámicos con una evolución favorable. Este estreptococo ß-hemolítico, presenta antígenos del grupo A, C y G de Lancefield y una gran similitud con Streptococcus pyogenes en relación a los factores de virulencia. Más frecuentemente aislado en adultos mayores, existen pocos casos descritos en población pediátrica. El tratamiento de primera línea es con ß-lactámicos, para los cuales no hay reportes de resistencia antimicrobiana. Abstract in english Infections caused by pyogenic streptococci are commons in pediatric ages. However, in the last decades there has been an increase in the isolation of no A or B Streptococci. We report a case of a 6 years old girl, who presents fever for 5 days and erythroderma. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies [...] equisimilis was isolated from blood cultures. She receives antibiotics for 14 days with ß-lactams with a good clinic evolution with normalization of the inflammatory parameters. This agent ß-hemolítico presents antigens of Lancefield groups A, C and G, and a great similitude regarding virulence factors, with Streptococcus pyogenes. Frequently in old patients, few reported cases in pediatric population. First line treatment remains ß-lactam antibiotics for which there are no reports of increasing resistance.

Miguel A, Pantoja; Luis, Delpiano; Gia, Haquin.

2014-10-01

179

ESTUDIO DE SENSIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE 183 CEPAS DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE AISLADAS EN REGION VAGINO-PERINEAL DE EMBARAZADAS EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE  

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Full Text Available fluctúa entre 1 y 3 por 1000 recién nacidos vivos. Se han entregado pautas dirigidas a reducir las tasas de sepsis precoz con la administración de antibióticos intraparto. Se ha propuesto como antibiótico de primera elección la Penicilina o Ampicilina, y Clindamicina para pacientes alérgicos a las primeras, pero también se ha planteado el uso de Eritromicina o Cefazolina. Se estudia la sensibilidad a estas drogas, en 183 cepas de Streptococcus Grupo B, aisladas en 917 embarazadas, al final del tercer trimestre, en región vaginal y pStreptococcus agalactiae (Grupo B Streptococcus is the main bacterial agent involved in neonatal sepsis of early onset (1 to 3/1000 live newborns. Has been given standards for reducing the rates of neonatal sepsis of early onset using antibiotics during labor. Has been proposed as the first choice Penicilin or Ampicilin and Clindamicin for allergic patients. Erythromycin and Cefazolin has been proposed to treat this patients. This report study sensibilities for this drugs in 183 Group B Streptococcus strains from vaginal and perianal region of 917 pregnant women during the last trimester

Cristián Belmar J.

2002-01-01

180

Parallel Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis to Pathogenic and Mutualistic Lifestyles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

UNLABELLED: The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analysis shows that the species constitutes one evolutionary lineage in a cluster of the otherwise commensal Streptococcus mitis strains, with which humans live in harmony. In a comparative analysis of 35 genomes, including phylogenetic analyses of all predicted genes, we have shown that the pathogenic pneumococcus has evolved into a master of genomic flexibility while lineages that evolved into the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious coexistence with their host by stabilizing an approximately 15%-reduced genome devoid of many virulence genes. Our data further provide evidence that interspecies gene transfer between S. pneumoniae and S. mitis occurs in a unidirectional manner, i.e., from S. mitis to S. pneumoniae. Import of genes from S. mitis and other mitis, anginosus, and salivarius group streptococci ensured allelic replacements and antigenic diversification and has been driving the evolution of the remarkable structural diversity of capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae. Our study explains how the unique structural diversity of the pneumococcal capsule emerged and conceivably will continue to increase and reveals a striking example of the fragile border between the commensal and pathogenic lifestyles. While genomic plasticity enabling quick adaptation to environmental stress is a necessity for the pathogenic streptococci, the commensal lifestyle benefits from stability. IMPORTANCE: One of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the commensal Streptococcus mitis are closely related obligate symbionts associated with hominids. Faced with a shortage of accessible hosts, the two opposing lifestyles evolved in parallel. We have shown that the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious coexistence with its host by stabilizing a reduced genome devoid of many virulence genes. Meanwhile, the pathogenic pneumococcus evolved into a master of genomic flexibility and imports genes from S. mitis and other related streptococci. This process ensured antigenic diversification and has been driving the evolution of the remarkable structural diversity of capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae, which conceivably will continue to increase and present a challenge to disease prevention.

Kilian, Mogens; Riley, David R

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Sensibilidad antibiótica y recomendaciones de tratamiento para Streptococcus pneumoniae Antibiotic sensitivity and treatment recommendations for Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la sensibilidad antibiótica de Streptococcus pneumoniae a los antimicrobianos usados con más frecuencia en la práctica clínica y revisar las recomendaciones actuales de tratamiento de la enfermedad neumocócica. Durante el periodo octubre 2000 a septiembre 2002 se recogieron los datos demográficos, el diagnóstico clínico del paciente, el origen de la muestra y la sensibilidad antibiótica de todos los Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados en los laboratorios de microbiología del Servicio Navarro de Salud, que atienden a una población de 555.829 habitantes. Se obtuvieron 465 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae (166 de origen invasor. Los aislamientos procedentes de exudado ótico fueron los más resistentes y los de hemocultivo los más sensibles. El porcentaje de resistencia a penicilina fue del 43%, 6,1% para amoxicilina y 6,6% para cefotaxima. El 36,3% de los aislamientos fueron resistentes a eritromicina, de ellos un 85,45% exhibía un fenotipo MLS B y un 14,55% un fenotipo M. Se detectó multirresistencia en un 32,3% de los aislamientos. La resistencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae a betalactámicos, especialmente penicilina, amoxicilina y cefotaxima/ceftriaxona no impide su uso clínico en la mayoría de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae de nuestra área, exceptuando los casos de meningitis neumocócica.The aims of present paper were to determine the susceptibility of the strains to the most usual antibiotics in clinical practice and to review the current recomendations to guide the most appropiate treatment. During the period october 2000 to september 2002, the patient’s data (age and sex, source of the sample, diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility were collected on Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from microbiology laboratories in the Navarra region (555.829 inhabitans. Four hundred and sixty five isolates were identified (166 from invasive infections. Generally, isolates from ear swabs were the most resistant to the antimicrobials tested, while those from blood culture were the most susceptible. Of the Streptococcus pneumoniae tested, 43% were resistant to penicillin, 6.1% to amoxicillin and 6.6% to cefotaxime. Of the 36.3% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that were resistant to erythromycin, 85.45% exhibited the MLS B phenotype while the remaining 14.55% presented with the M phenotype. Multiple-resistance was detected in 32.3% of the strains. The antibiotic resistance rates to beta-lactams (specially penicillin, amoxicillin and cefotaxime/ceftrixone in Streptococcus pneumoniae don’t prevent its clinical use for the most of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in our area, except for pneumococcal meningitis.

A. Gil-Setas

2004-04-01

182

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from clinically healthy swine in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. This study is the first to report on the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis isolated from clinically healthy pigs in Brazil; the fourth major pork producer in the world. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 260 strains was determined by disc diffusion method. Strains were commonly susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, and florfenicol, with more than 80% of the strains being susceptible to these antimicrobials. A high frequency of resistance to some of the antimicrobial agents was demonstrated, with resistance being most common to sulfa-trimethoprim (100%), tetracycline (97.69%), clindamycin (84.61%), norfloxacin (76.92%), and ciprofloxacin (61.15%). A high percentage of multidrug resistant strains (99.61%) were also found. The results of this study indicate that ceftiofur, cephalexin, and florfenicol are the antimicrobials of choice for empirical control of the infections caused by S. suis. PMID:24688177

Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Megid, Jane; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Gottschalk, Marcelo

2014-01-01

183

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Streptococcus bovis: case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP is a frequent and severe complication that occurs in patient with cirrhosis and ascites. It occurs in 10% to 30% of patients admitted to hospital. The organisms that cause SBP are predominantly enteric. Escherichia coli is the most frequent recovered pathogen, and Gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp., are being considered an emerging causative agent of SBP. Streptococcus bovis that may be found as part of the commensal bowel flora in about 10% of healthy adults constitute an uncommon cause of peritonitis that was first reported in 1994. We describe the first case of SBP at the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM caused by S. bovis, resistant to the antibiotics erythromycin and clindamycin (inducible clindamycin resistance detected by disk diffusion test using the D-zone test.

Rosmari Hörner

2010-06-01

184

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from clinically healthy swine in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. This study is the first to report on the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis isolated from clinically healthy pigs in Brazil; the fourth major pork producer in the world. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 260 strains was determined by disc diffusion method. Strains were commonly susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, and florfenicol, with more than 80% of the strains being susceptible to these antimicrobials. A high frequency of resistance to some of the antimicrobial agents was demonstrated, with resistance being most common to sulfa-trimethoprim (100%), tetracycline (97.69%), clindamycin (84.61%), norfloxacin (76.92%), and ciprofloxacin (61.15%). A high percentage of multidrug resistant strains (99.61%) were also found. The results of this study indicate that ceftiofur, cephalexin, and florfenicol are the antimicrobials of choice for empirical control of the infections caused by S. suis. PMID:24688177

Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Megid, Jane; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Gottschalk, Marcelo

2014-04-01

185

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Streptococcus bovis: case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication that occurs in patient with cirrhosis and ascites. It occurs in 10% to 30% of patients admitted to hospital. The organisms that cause SBP are predominantly enteric. Escherichia coli is the most frequent recovered pathogen, [...] and Gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp., are being considered an emerging causative agent of SBP. Streptococcus bovis that may be found as part of the commensal bowel flora in about 10% of healthy adults constitute an uncommon cause of peritonitis that was first reported in 1994. We describe the first case of SBP at the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM) caused by S. bovis, resistant to the antibiotics erythromycin and clindamycin (inducible clindamycin resistance detected by disk diffusion test using the D-zone test).

Rosmari, Hörner; Adenilde, Salla; Loiva Otonelli de, Oliveira; Nara Lucia Frasson Dal, Forno; Roselene Alves, Righi; Vanessa Oliveira, Domingues; Fabiane, Rigatti; Letícia Eichstaedt, Mayer.

2010-06-01

186

Ornithine transport and exchange in Streptococcus lactis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 appeared to accumulate [14C]ornithine to a high concentration in the absence of an exogenous energy source. However, analysis of intracellular amino acid pool constituents and results of transport experiments revealed that the accumulation of ornithine represented a homoexchange between extracellular [14C]ornithine and unlabeled ornithine in the cell. The energy-independent exchange of ornithine was not inhibited by proton-conducting uncouplers or by metabolic inhibitors. Intracellular [14C]ornithine was retained by resting cells after suspension in a buffered medium. However, addition of unlabeled ornithine to the suspension elicited rapid exit of labeled amino acid. The initial rate of exist of [14C]ornithine was dependent on the concentration of unlabeled ornithine in the medium, but this accelerative exchange diffusion process caused no net loss of amino acid. By contrast, the presence of a fermentable energy source caused a rapid expulsion of and new decrease in the concentration of intracellular ornithine. Kinetic analyses of amino acid transport demonstrated competitive inhibition between lysine and ornithine, and data obtained by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography established the heteroexchange of these basic amino acids. The effects of amino acids and of ornithine analogs on both entry and exit of [14C]ornithine have been examined. The data suggest that come been examined. The data suggest that common carrier mediates the entry and exchange of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in cells of S. lactis

187

Sorption of streptococcus faecium to glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method has been developed by which to study the sorption of Streptococcus faecium to soda-lime cover glasses. Conditions were chosen to minimize the influence on sorption of bacterial polymer production, passive sorption being studied rather than attachment mediated by metabolic activities. Sorption of S. faecium increased with increasing temperature (to 50degC), time, and cell concentration, but equilibrium apparently was not reached even after incubation for 8 hours or at a cell concentration of 3 x 1010 per ml. Sorption increased with solute molarity up to 0.1 M concentration of NaCl and KCl, indicating an effect of the electrical double layers on the apposition of cells to the glass surface. Desorption of bacteria could be obtained after multiple washings of the glasses in buffer or by the action of Tween 80, but not if sorbed bacteria were left in distilled water, various salt solutions, urea, or in suspensions of unlabelled bacteria. It was concluded that sorption occurred as a result of chemical interactions between the glass and the cell surface. Tween 80 at a concentration of 1 per cent inhibited sorption to 26 per cent of buffer controls, 2 M urea was less effective, and 1 M NaCl was without effect. It is suggested that hydrophobic interactions may be of importance in the binding of S. faecium to glass. (author)

188

Generic determinants of Streptococcus colonization and infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria within the genus Streptococcus have evolved to become exquisitely adapted to the colonization of humans and other animals. These bacteria predominantly live in harmony with their hosts, but all have capacity to cause disease should prevailing conditions allow. Streptococci express a myriad of colonization and virulence attributes that promote their survival at a variety of ecological sites. Many of these factors are surface-expressed adhesins that exhibit conservation at structural or functional levels across the genus. This reflects the importance of adherence interactions with a multitude of host substrata, such as epithelia or extracellular matrix components, to streptococcal survival. Other important factors are more restricted in their distribution, often conferring pathogenic capabilities associated with immune evasion or host tissue destruction. Evidence suggests that dissemination of these streptococcal attributes has frequently been driven by the movement of genetic material via lateral gene transfer, reflecting ecological pressures. Such recombination events have simultaneously facilitated extensive diversification, resulting in distinct tropisms at the species- or strain- level. These generic determinants offer significant potential as targets for combating streptococcal disease. However, this will depend upon better understanding of their mechanistic basis, and refined mapping of their distribution by epidemiological and metagenomic studies. PMID:25246075

Nobbs, Angela H; Jenkinson, Howard F; Everett, Dean B

2014-09-20

189

Quorum sensing in group A Streptococcus  

Science.gov (United States)

Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread phenomenon in the microbial world that has important implications in the coordination of population-wide responses in several bacterial pathogens. In Group A Streptococcus (GAS), many questions surrounding QS systems remain to be solved pertaining to their function and their contribution to the GAS lifestyle in the host. The QS systems of GAS described to date can be categorized into four groups: regulator gene of glucosyltransferase (Rgg), Sil, lantibiotic systems, and LuxS/AI-2. The Rgg family of proteins, a conserved group of transcription factors that modify their activity in response to signaling peptides, has been shown to regulate genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and competence. The sil locus, whose expression is regulated by the activity of signaling peptides and a putative two-component system (TCS), has been implicated on regulating genes involved with invasive disease in GAS isolates. Lantibiotic regulatory systems are involved in the production of bacteriocins and their autoregulation, and some of these genes have been shown to target both bacterial organisms as well as processes of survival inside the infected host. Finally AI-2 (dihydroxy pentanedione, DPD), synthesized by the LuxS enzyme in several bacteria including GAS, has been proposed to be a universal bacterial communication molecule. In this review we discuss the mechanisms of these four systems, the putative functions of their targets, and pose critical questions for future studies. PMID:25309879

Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Federle, Michael J.

2014-01-01

190

Quorum sensing in group A Streptococcus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread phenomenon in the microbial world that has important implications in the coordination of population-wide responses in several bacterial pathogens. In Group A Streptococcus (GAS), many questions surrounding QS systems remain to be solved pertaining to their function and their contribution to the GAS lifestyle in the host. The QS systems of GAS described to date can be categorized into four groups: regulator gene of glucosyltransferase (Rgg), Sil, lantibiotic systems, and LuxS/AI-2. The Rgg family of proteins, a conserved group of transcription factors that modify their activity in response to signaling peptides, has been shown to regulate genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and competence. The sil locus, whose expression is regulated by the activity of signaling peptides and a putative two-component system (TCS), has been implicated on regulating genes involved with invasive disease in GAS isolates. Lantibiotic regulatory systems are involved in the production of bacteriocins and their autoregulation, and some of these genes have been shown to target both bacterial organisms as well as processes of survival inside the infected host. Finally AI-2 (dihydroxy pentanedione, DPD), synthesized by the LuxS enzyme in several bacteria including GAS, has been proposed to be a universal bacterial communication molecule. In this review we discuss the mechanisms of these four systems, the putative functions of their targets, and pose critical questions for future studies. PMID:25309879

Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Federle, Michael J

2014-01-01

191

Is Streptococcus bovis a urinary pathogen?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Streptococcus bovis group (SBG) comprises several microorganisms associated with human infections. They have been associated with bacteremia, endocarditis, biliary tract infection, meningitis, and colorectal cancer, but their role as urinary pathogens is not well known. The objective of this investigation was to discover the incidence and clinical significance of the bacteriuria associated with this complex. A retrospective analysis of all adult patients with bacteriuria caused by SBG during the period 1995-2012 was carried out. During the study period, SBG was isolated in 153 adult patients, who had a mean age of 67 years, most of them being women (80 %). Most of our patients (65 %) had some underlying disease, with urologic disease being the most common (37 %), followed by diabetes mellitus (27 %) and neurologic disease (25 %). Among the 88 patients in whom we were able to correctly assess symptoms, 45 % had asymptomatic bacteriuria, 35 % had lower urinary tract infection, and 20 % had upper urinary tract infection. In 14 cases (9 %), SBG was also isolated in blood cultures. Most of the isolates of SBG (72 %) were S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 98 % to nitrofurantoin, and 77 % to fosfomycin. Although SBG bacteriuria is uncommon, it should not always be taken as a contaminant, mainly when S. pasteurianus is isolated, because it may cause urinary tract infections and, occasionally, sepsis, whereas when S. gallolyticus is isolated from urine, it may be a marker of underlying endocarditis and colorectal cancer. PMID:25416160

Matesanz, M; Rubal, D; Iñiguez, I; Rabuñal, R; García-Garrote, F; Coira, A; García-País, M J; Pita, J; Rodriguez-Macias, A; López-Álvarez, M J; Alonso, M P; Corredoira, J

2014-11-22

192

Caracterización molecular en aislados chilenos de Streptococcus agalactiae / Molecular characterization of Chilean isolates of streptococcus agalactiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae is the main causing organism of invasive infections such as sepsis and meningitis in the newborn. Aim: To perform a genotype characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae strains coming form invasive infections of newborns and colonized pregnant women. Material and methods: A [...] group of 58 strains not related epidemiologically isolated from colonized pregnant women and invasive infections in newborns, were studied. Pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE) and polymerase chain reaction amplification of hylB and IS 1548 genes, as possible virulence markers, were performed. Results: Among the studied strains, 37 genetic subtypes were observed. There were nine groups of identical PFGE patterns. Three corresponded to serotype la and six to serotype III. An erythromycin and clindamycin resistant clone was identified in three colonized women and a newborn with sepsis, which were not epidemiologically related. The hylB gene was equally present in cases of neonatal meningitis or colonized pregnant women. Conclusions: There was a great degree of polymorphism among the studied strains. The ample presence of hylB gene and the absence of the insertion element IS1548 in the hylB gene in invasive and colonizing strains, indicates that both groups of strains are potentially pathogenic

Patricia, Rojo; Pamela, Araya; M Angélica, Martínez T; Juan Carlos, Hormazábal; Aurora, Maldonado; Jorge, Fernández.

2008-05-01

193

Caracterización molecular en aislados chilenos de Streptococcus agalactiae Molecular characterization of Chilean isolates of streptococcus agalactiae  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is the main causing organism of invasive infections such as sepsis and meningitis in the newborn. Aim: To perform a genotype characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae strains coming form invasive infections of newborns and colonized pregnant women. Material and methods: A group of 58 strains not related epidemiologically isolated from colonized pregnant women and invasive infections in newborns, were studied. Pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE and polymerase chain reaction amplification of hylB and IS 1548 genes, as possible virulence markers, were performed. Results: Among the studied strains, 37 genetic subtypes were observed. There were nine groups of identical PFGE patterns. Three corresponded to serotype la and six to serotype III. An erythromycin and clindamycin resistant clone was identified in three colonized women and a newborn with sepsis, which were not epidemiologically related. The hylB gene was equally present in cases of neonatal meningitis or colonized pregnant women. Conclusions: There was a great degree of polymorphism among the studied strains. The ample presence of hylB gene and the absence of the insertion element IS1548 in the hylB gene in invasive and colonizing strains, indicates that both groups of strains are potentially pathogenic

Patricia Rojo

2008-05-01

194

Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina / Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 [...] e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratório e de amostras de sangue não relacionadas a infecções meníngeas e foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretações categóricas de CIM foram baseadas em padrões atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetíveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treate [...] d, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC

Flávia, Rossi; Maria Renata Gomes, Franco; Heleni Mota de Pina, Rodrigues; Denise, Andreazzi.

2012-02-01

195

Swine infection by Streptococcus suis: a retrospective study Infecção em suínos por Streptococcus suis: estudo retrospectivo  

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Full Text Available The epidemic aspects of swine infections caused by Streptococcus suis were studied, focusing mainly on the occurrence of several serotypes. A total of 323 samples of S. suis were isolated from clinically ill animals, serotyped according to the co-agglutination procedure, and analyzed. The serotyping revealed that S. suis was present in several Brazilian states. The largest number was isolated from the states of Minas Gerais (62.5%, São Paulo (10.8%, and Paraná (9.3%. Serotype 2 was the most frequent (61.0%, followed by the serotypes 1, 3, 4, 7, and 8. The largest number of isolations was obtained from the brain (60.1%, followed by the lungs (10.4%. About 9.4% of the cases were due to septicemia.Estudaram-se os aspectos epidêmicos das infecções de suínos causadas por Streptococcus suis, enfocando, principalmente, a ocorrência de diferentes sorotipos. Foram analisadas 323 amostras isoladas de animais clinicamente doentes, as quais foram sorotipadas de acordo com o procedimento de co-aglutinação. Foi verificado que S. suis está presente em vários estados brasileiros e o maior número de isolados originou-se dos estados de Minas Gerais (62,5%, São Paulo (10,8% e Paraná (9,3%. O sorotipo 2 foi o mais freqüente (61.0%, seguido pelos sorotipos 1, 3, 4, 7 e 8. Os isolamentos foram obtidos principalmente de cérebro (60,1% e pulmões (10,4%. Os casos de septicemia representaram 9,4%.

A.E. Del'Arco

2008-08-01

196

In-vitro antibacterial study of zinc oxide nanostructures on Streptococcus sobrinus  

Science.gov (United States)

Zinc oxide nanostructures were prepared using a pilot plant of zinc oxide boiling furnace. Generally, it produced two types of nanostructures different in morphology; one is rod-like shaped (ZnO-1) and a plate-like shape (ZnO-2). The properties of ZnO were studied by structural, optical and morphological using XRD, PL and FESEM respectively. The XRD patterns confirmed the wurtzite structures of ZnO with the calculated crystallite size of 41 nm (ZnO-1) and 42 nm (ZnO-2) using Scherrer formula. The NBE peaks were determined by photoluminescence spectra which reveal peak at 3.25 eV and 3.23 eV for ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 respectively. Prior to that, the morphologies for both ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 were demonstrated from FESEM micrographs. Subsequently the antibacterial study was conducted using in-vitro broth dilution technique towards a gram positive bacterium Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 33478) to investigate the level of antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanostructures as antibacterial agent. Gradual increment of ZnO concentrations from 10-20 mM affected the inhibition level after twenty four hours of incubation. In conjunction with concentration increment of ZnO, the percentage inhibition towards Streptococcus sobrinus was also increased accordingly. The highest inhibition occurred at 20 mM of ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 for 98% and 77% respectively. It showed that ZnO has good properties as antibacterial agent and relevancy with data presented by XRD, PL and FESEM were determined.

Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Rahman, Rosliza Abd

2014-10-01

197

The Collagen-Binding Protein Cnm Is Required for Streptococcus mutans Adherence to and Intracellular Invasion of Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, a global health problem that affects 60 to 90% of the population, and a leading causative agent of infective endocarditis. It can be divided into four different serotypes (c, e, f, and k), with serotype c strains being the most common in the oral cavity. In this study, we demonstrate that in addition to OMZ175 and B14, three other strains (NCTC11060, LM7, and OM50E) of the less prevalent serotypes e and f are abl...

Abranches, Jacqueline; Miller, James H.; Martinez, Alaina R.; Simpson-haidaris, Patricia J.; Burne, Robert A.; Lemos, Jose? A.

2011-01-01

198

Agentes de información / Information Agents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se p [...] ropone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental. Abstract in english This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent a [...] rchitecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

Alfonso, López Yepes; Rodrigo, Sánchez Jiménez; José Ramón, Pérez Agüera.

2005-12-01

199

Evaluación pre-analítica de dos métodos de extracción de ADN para la amplificación del gen de la pneumolisina (PLY) de Streptococcus pneumoniae, en muestras de hemocultivo Assessment of two DNA extraction methods to amplify the pneumolysin gene (PLY) from blood culture samples of Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common etiologic agent of invasive respiratory infections among children under 5 years of age and older adults. Isolation rates of S. pneumoniae by traditional culture techniques are low. Aim: To study the sensitivity and specificity of two different DNA extraction methods to amplify the ply gene, applied to three different types of blood culture broths, experimentally inoculated with S. pneumoniae. Material and methods: DNA w...

Carolina Hernández G; Claudia Durán T; María Teresa Ulloa F; Valeria Prado J.

2004-01-01

200

Group B streptococcus endocarditis associated with multiple pulmonary septic emboli  

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Full Text Available Endocarditis is a rare presentation of group B streptococcal infection. Its association with pulmonary septic embolism was only barely studied and limited data is available up to date. Multiple septic emboli is a common complication of bacterial endocarditis, but only a few cases have been documented in relation to group B streptococcus. We present the case of an 87-year-old female patient with multiple underlying conditions that predisposed the development of bacterial endocarditis secondary to group B streptococcus and subsequently multiple pulmonary septic emboli. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and azythromycin with good response and complete recovery without any further complications. In the event of a diagnosed case of group B streptococcus endocarditis, there should be a low threshold for the suspicion of septic pulmonary emboli especially in cases with right valves involvement.

Deborah Abaitey

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Group B streptococcal neonatal infections in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus is the most common pathogen found in neonatal sepsis in North America. OBJECTIVES: We describe 15 cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public and teaching hospital. METHODS: We conducted a study at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from January 1st, 1996 to June 30, 1999. Diagnosis of neonatal infection was established according to the findings of Group B Streptococcus in blood culture associated with alterations resembling sepsis on the basis of clinical picture and laboratory findings. RESULTS: Fifteen cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus were detected. Eleven cases consisted of early-onset sepsis, 2 cases of occult bacteremia and 2 cases of late-onset sepsis. Eight cases had septic shock (53%, 8 cases had pneumonia (53%, and 4 cases had meningitis (27%. Fourteen cases were diagnosed from a positive blood culture, and 1 case from evidence of these bacteria in pulmonary anatomopathological examination. Thirteen cases (87% were diagnosed before 72 hours of life. We had 3 deaths (20%, and 3 cases of meningitis developing neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus Group B is one of the most important pathogens in the etiology of early-onset neonatal sepsis at our hospital, with high mortality and morbidity. However, we do not know the incidence of GBS neonatal infections at other hospitals. More data are needed to establish a basis for trials of different strategies to reduce these infections.FUNDAMENTOS: Streptococcus do grupo B é o principal agente etiológico responsável pela sepse neonatal na América do Norte. OBJETIVOS: Relatar 15 casos de infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B (Streptococus agalactiae ocorridos na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal de um hospital público e universitário. MÉTODO: O estudo foi realizado no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre no período de 1º de janeiro de 1996 a 30 de junho de 1999. O diagnóstico de infecção neonatal foi feito a partir do isolamento e identificação de Streptococcus do grupo B em hemocultura combinado com alterações clínicas e laboratoriais sugestivas de sepse. RESULTADOS: Foram detectados quinze casos de infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B, sendo onze casos de sepse de origem precoce, dois casos de bacteremia oculta e dois casos de sepse de origem tardia. Oito casos tiveram choque séptico (53%, oito casos com pneumonia (53% e quatro casos com meningite (27%. Quatorze casos foram diagnosticados a partir da hemocultura e um caso através da presença desta bactéria no exame anátomo-patológico do pulmão. Treze casos (87% foram diagnosticados antes de três dias de vida. Ocorreram três óbitos (20% e três pacientes com meningite ficaram com seqüelas neurológicas. CONCLUSÃO: O Streptococcus do Grupo B é uma das bactérias mais importantes na etiologia da sepse neonatal de início precoce em nosso hospital com elevada mortalidade e também com elevada morbidade. Entretanto, não se conhece sua incidência em outros hospitais. São necesssários outros estudos para determinar seu papel na sepse neonatal e assim estabelecer diferentes estratégias para sua redução.

Ernani MIURA

2001-10-01

202

Group B streptococcus cystitis presenting in a diabetic patient with a massive abdominopelvic abscess: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus is a Gram-positive pathogen that is typically associated with neonatal disease and infection in pregnant women. Group B streptococcus also causes invasive infections in non-pregnant adults including urinary tract infections. The spectrum of urinary tract infections caused by group B streptococcus includes cystitis, pyelonephritis, urosepsis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, which is particularly comm...

Ulett Kimberly B; Shuemaker Jennifer H; Benjamin William H; Tan Chee K; Ulett Glen C

2012-01-01

203

Multiple glucan-binding proteins of Streptococcus sobrinus.  

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Several proteins from culture supernatants of Streptococcus sobrinus were able to bind avidly to Sephadex G-75. The proteins could be partially eluted from the Sephadex by low-molecular-weight alpha-1,6 glucan or fully eluted by 4 M guanidine hydrochloride. Elution profiles were complex, yielding proteins of 16, 45, 58 to 60, 90, 135, and 145 kDa, showing that the wild-type strain possessed multiple glucan-binding proteins. Two mutants of Streptococcus sobrinus incapable of aggregation by hig...

Ma, Y.; Lassiter, M. O.; Banas, J. A.; Galperi?n, M. Y.; Taylor, K. G.; Doyle, R. J.

1996-01-01

204

Lysogenic Transfer of Group A Streptococcus Superantigen Gene among Streptococci  

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A group A Streptococcus(GAS) isolate,serotypeM12,recovered from a patient with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was analyzed for superantigen-carrying prophages, revealing 149, which encodes superantigen SSA. Sequence analysis of the att-L proximal region of 149 showed that the phage had a mosaic nature. Remarkably, we successfully obtained lysogenic conversion of GAS clinical isolates of various M serotypes (M1, M3, M5, M12, M19, M28, and M94), as well as of group C Streptococcus equisimil...

Vojtek, Ivo; Pirzada, Zaid A.; Henriques-normark, Birgitta; Mastny, Markus; Janapatla, Rajendra P.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

2008-01-01

205

Horizontal gene transfer and recombination in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a human pathogen that colonizes the skin or throat, and causes a range of diseases from relatively benign pharyngitis to potentially fatal invasive diseases. While not as virulent as the close relative Streptococcus pyogenes the two share a number of virulence factors and are known to coexist in a human host. Both pre- and post-genomic studies have revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination occurs between these two organisms and plays a major role in shaping the population structure of SDSE. This review summarizes our current knowledge of HGT and recombination in the evolution of SDSE. PMID:25566202

McNeilly, Celia L.; McMillan, David J.

2014-01-01

206

Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans  

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To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium.

Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2007-03-15

207

Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans  

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To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects tresults suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium

208

Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias si [...] endo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño). Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente. Abstract in english The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than [...] 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children’s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pneumoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution in Costa Rica, the predicted vaccine protection is calculated in 74%.

Hernán, Sierra- Fernandez; Malka, Schultz- Faingezicht; Carolina, Soley-Gutiérrez; Silvia, Guevara- Jiménez; Adriano, Arguedas- Mohs.

2006-06-01

209

Simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus sp. by polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.  

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The simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus sp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, as well as the applicability of PCR as a routine test. A cohort study was carried out with 182 children (2 months to 12 years of age) with suspicion of bacterial meningitis. Routine tests identified the etiologic agent in 65/84 children whose clinical status and laboratory findings suggested the presence of bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was ruled out in 98 children. In 19 children, the etiologic diagnosis was not possible using standard methods; in 14 of these patients, the etiologic agent was identified by PCR (N. meningitidis=12; H. influenzae=1; Streptococcus sp.=1). The sensitivity of PCR was 88.1%; specificity, 99.0%; positive predictive value, 98.7%; and negative predictive, 90.1%. PCR is a useful complementary diagnostic technique, especially when Gram stain, culture, or antigenic detection are negative or inconclusive. PMID:16400405

Failace, Luciane; Wagner, Mario; Chesky, Marisa; Scalco, Rosana; Jobim, Luiz Fernando

2005-12-01

210

Immunoasssay Chromatographic Antigen Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Pharyngitis in Children: A Cross/ Sectional Study  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS is an important pharyngotonsillitis etiologic agent in children. The objective of this study was diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis based on rapid antigen detection test and conventional pharyngeal culture.Materials and Methods: The rapid GABHS antigen detection test was compared to culture on blood agar, the gold standard for the diagnosis of this etiologic agent.Results: Streptococcal antigen was detected in pharyngeal specimens of 34.5% of cases by rapid strip test. We detected group A Streptococcus in 17.2% of pharyngeal culture. There was no agreement between two methods ( PV < 0.1. The negative pharyngeal culture results are probably due to antibiotic usage in 43.2 % of patients. Positive rapid test results in pharyngeal swab was age dependent ( P < 0.05. There was good correlation between observing the "petechia in pharynx of patients" and positive rapid test in pharyngeal swab (P < 0.004. Throat culture results were relatated to previous antibiotic usage ( P < 0.03.Conclusion: The rapid test in pharyngeal swab is helpful for rapid diagnosis and treatment of GABHS pharyngitis. Diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis based on soley clinical findings is misleading in the majority of cases. Petechia observed in pharynx of the cases was highly predictive of streptococcal pharyngitis.

S Noorbakhsh

2011-06-01

211

Comparison of inhibitory dilutions of a thymol-based mouthwash (Orion® with chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Applying the suitable mouthwash can kill bacteria or reduce the bacterial growth; in the same context, diluting mouthwashes can decrease their probable side effects. In this study, the maximum inhibitory concentrations of two common mouthwashes were evaluated.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, agar dilution and disk diffusion methods were used. Sixty-nine bacterial plates were cultured to evaluate the effects of thymol and chlorhexidine mouthwashes on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. The results of agar dilution method were recorded as "growth' and "no growth", and the results of disk diffusion were recorded as means of growth inhibitory halos. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test using SPSS software. (? = 0.05.Results: Growth inhibitory halos for different concentrations of the two mouthwashes decreased with an increase in dilution rate. In agar dilution method, dilutions less than 80% of the initial concentration for thymol-based mouthwash and less than 70% for chlorhexidine could not inhibit bacterial growth. Growth inhibition halos with 100% thymol-based mouthwash (Orion® were 10.15 ± 0.1 mm for Steptococcus mutans and 9.2 7 ± 0.16 mm for Streptococcus sanguis. Mean rank of the two mouthwashes was statistically significant for the two bacterial strains under study (p value < 0.001.Conclusion: Both mouthwashes were effective on the bacteria under study; however, this efficacy was higher for Streptococcus sanguis. Chlorhexidine mouthwash was more potent to inhibit bacterial growth than thymol-based mouthwash if diluted. Key words: Mouthwash, Chlorhexidine, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Thymol.

Shokrollah Assar

2011-01-01

212

Antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase on planktonic Streptococcus mutans cells and Streptococcus mutans biofilms.  

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The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of vanadium chloroperoxidase (VCPO) reaction products on planktonic and biofilm cells of Streptococcus mutans C180-2. Planktonic and biofilm cells were incubated in a buffered reaction mixture containing VCPO, halide (either chloride or bromide) and hydrogen peroxide, and the killing efficacy was assessed by CFU counts. The enzymatic products formed by VCPO significantly reduced the viability of planktonic and biofilm cells compared to their negative controls and the effect on the biofilm cells was more effective than a 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate treatment. We conclude that VCPO and its reaction products form a potent antimicrobial system against S. mutans. PMID:19648743

Hoogenkamp, M A; Crielaard, W; ten Cate, J M; Wever, R; Hartog, A F; Renirie, R

2009-01-01

213

Isolamento de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite e teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos / Isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigamos a ocorrência de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite que espontaneamente procuraram atendimento em farmácias e unidades de saúde. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Com auxílio de "swab" e abaixador de língua foram coletadas amostra [...] s da orofaringe de 58 indivíduos, as quais foram semeadas por técnica de esgotamento em placas contendo ágar sangue. No momento da coleta, nenhum dos indivíduos estava sob tratamento com antibióticos. A identificação do S. pyogenes foi feita presuntivamente pelo teste de sensibilidade a bacitracina e confirmada pela grupagem sorológica através da extração do antígeno grupo-específico. RESULTADOS: Das 58 amostras de orofaringe analisadas, 32 (55,2%) foram provenientes de indivíduos atendidos em farmácias e 26 (44,8%) foram obtidas daqueles que procuraram as unidades de saúde. Um total de 15 (25,9%) amostras apresentou cultura positiva para S. pyogenes, sendo a maioria dos isolamentos (9/15, 60%) proveniente de indivíduos atendidos em farmácia. Streptococcus pyogenes foi isolado em 33,3% (11/33) dos indivíduos com idade entre zero e 15 anos e em 16% (4/25) daqueles com idade acima de 15 anos. As 15 cepas isoladas foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos testados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do presente estudo enfatizam a importância do diagnóstico bacteriológico no tratamento adequado da faringoamigdalite estreptocócica que permite a prevenção das complicações supurativas ou não supurativas e a erradicação do microrganismo da orofaringe. Abstract in english AIM: We investigate the occurrence of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis that spontaneously sought attendance in drugstores or in health units. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohorte. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Samples from oropharynx of 58 individuals were collected with swab and [...] tongue depressor and inoculated on sheep blood agar plates. At the moment the samples were collected, none of the individuals was under treatment with antibiotics. The presumptive identification of S. pyogenes was made by the susceptibility test to bacitracin and confirmed by the serological grouping through the extraction of the group-specific carbohydrate "C" antigen. RESULTS: From the 58 samples of oropharynx analyzed, 32 (55.2%) were from individuals assisted in drugstores and 26 (44.8%) were obtained from those that sought health units. A total of 15 (25.9%) samples presented positive culture for S. pyogenes, being most of the strains (9/15, 60%) coming from individuals assisted in drugstores. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in 33.3% (11/33) of the individuals from zero to 15 years of age and in 16% (4/25) of those over 15. The strains were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study emphasize the importance of the bacteriological diagnosis in the proper treatment for the streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis that determine the prevention of the supurative or non supurative complications and the eradication of the microorganism of the oropharynx.

Rozana, Scalabrin; Gisele D., Buss; Kelly Cristina S., Iamaguchi; Celso Luiz, Cardoso; Lourdes B., Garcia.

2003-12-01

214

Isolamento de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite e teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos Isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigamos a ocorrência de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite que espontaneamente procuraram atendimento em farmácias e unidades de saúde. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Com auxílio de "swab" e abaixador de língua foram coletadas amostras da orofaringe de 58 indivíduos, as quais foram semeadas por técnica de esgotamento em placas contendo ágar sangue. No momento da coleta, nenhum dos indivíduos estava sob tratamento com antibióticos. A identificação do S. pyogenes foi feita presuntivamente pelo teste de sensibilidade a bacitracina e confirmada pela grupagem sorológica através da extração do antígeno grupo-específico. RESULTADOS: Das 58 amostras de orofaringe analisadas, 32 (55,2% foram provenientes de indivíduos atendidos em farmácias e 26 (44,8% foram obtidas daqueles que procuraram as unidades de saúde. Um total de 15 (25,9% amostras apresentou cultura positiva para S. pyogenes, sendo a maioria dos isolamentos (9/15, 60% proveniente de indivíduos atendidos em farmácia. Streptococcus pyogenes foi isolado em 33,3% (11/33 dos indivíduos com idade entre zero e 15 anos e em 16% (4/25 daqueles com idade acima de 15 anos. As 15 cepas isoladas foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos testados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do presente estudo enfatizam a importância do diagnóstico bacteriológico no tratamento adequado da faringoamigdalite estreptocócica que permite a prevenção das complicações supurativas ou não supurativas e a erradicação do microrganismo da orofaringe.AIM: We investigate the occurrence of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis that spontaneously sought attendance in drugstores or in health units. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohorte. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Samples from oropharynx of 58 individuals were collected with swab and tongue depressor and inoculated on sheep blood agar plates. At the moment the samples were collected, none of the individuals was under treatment with antibiotics. The presumptive identification of S. pyogenes was made by the susceptibility test to bacitracin and confirmed by the serological grouping through the extraction of the group-specific carbohydrate "C" antigen. RESULTS: From the 58 samples of oropharynx analyzed, 32 (55.2% were from individuals assisted in drugstores and 26 (44.8% were obtained from those that sought health units. A total of 15 (25.9% samples presented positive culture for S. pyogenes, being most of the strains (9/15, 60% coming from individuals assisted in drugstores. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in 33.3% (11/33 of the individuals from zero to 15 years of age and in 16% (4/25 of those over 15. The strains were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study emphasize the importance of the bacteriological diagnosis in the proper treatment for the streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis that determine the prevention of the supurative or non supurative complications and the eradication of the microorganism of the oropharynx.

Rozana Scalabrin

2003-12-01

215

Serotipos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus agalactiae Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae  

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Full Text Available Background : Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus, GBS, is the leading cause of neonatal and maternal infections and an opportunistic pathogen in adults with underlying disease. In the last decade, a dramatic increase in the resistance of this microorganism to erythromycin and clindamycin has been observed. Aim: To determine the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of S agalactiae collected from infections and colonization and to assess the genetic mechanisms of macrolide and clindamycin resistance. Material and methods: A total of 100 GBS isolates were collected between 1998 and 2002, in Santiago, Chile. They were isolated from the amniotic fluid from patients with premature rupture of membranes (7 isolates, blood from neonatal sepsis (10 isolates, neonate colonizations (2 strains, skin and soft tissue infections (7 isolates, urinary tract infections (5 isolates, genital infections (3 isolates, articular fluid (one isolate, and 65 strains were recovered from vaginal colonization55. Results: Serotypes Ia, II and III were the predominant serotypes identified in our study, accounting for 90 (90% of the strains. Five isolates belonged to serotypes Ib (5% and two (2% to serotype V respectively; no strains belonging to serotype IV were found. All strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and four isolates (4% were resistant to both erythromycin (MIC >64 µg/ml and clindamycin (MIC >64 µg/ml. The strains had a constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (cMLSB resistance phenotype and the erm(A gene was present in the four isolates. Conclusions: Serotypes Ia, II and III were the predominant serotypes in this study. All strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and four (4% strains were resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin. The cMLSB resistance phenotype, and the erm(A gene was detected in resistant strains (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 549-55.

María Angélica Martínez T

2004-05-01

216

Serotipos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus agalactiae / Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background : Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus, GBS, is the leading cause of neonatal and maternal infections and an opportunistic pathogen in adults with underlying disease. In the last decade, a dramatic increase in the resistance of this microorganism to erythromycin and clindamyc [...] in has been observed. Aim: To determine the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of S agalactiae collected from infections and colonization and to assess the genetic mechanisms of macrolide and clindamycin resistance. Material and methods: A total of 100 GBS isolates were collected between 1998 and 2002, in Santiago, Chile. They were isolated from the amniotic fluid from patients with premature rupture of membranes (7 isolates), blood from neonatal sepsis (10 isolates), neonate colonizations (2 strains), skin and soft tissue infections (7 isolates), urinary tract infections (5 isolates), genital infections (3 isolates), articular fluid (one isolate), and 65 strains were recovered from vaginal colonization55. Results: Serotypes Ia, II and III were the predominant serotypes identified in our study, accounting for 90 (90%) of the strains. Five isolates belonged to serotypes Ib (5%) and two (2%) to serotype V respectively; no strains belonging to serotype IV were found. All strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and four isolates (4%) were resistant to both erythromycin (MIC >64 µg/ml) and clindamycin (MIC >64 µg/ml). The strains had a constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (cMLSB) resistance phenotype and the erm(A) gene was present in the four isolates. Conclusions: Serotypes Ia, II and III were the predominant serotypes in this study. All strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and four (4%) strains were resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin. The cMLSB resistance phenotype, and the erm(A) gene was detected in resistant strains (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 549-55).

María Angélica, Martínez T; Alfredo, Ovalle S; Claudia, Durán T; Iván, Reid S; Gabriela, Urriola J; Beatriz, Garay G; Marcela, Cifuentes D.

2004-05-01

217

PREVALENCIA DE COLONIZACION POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE DEL EMBARAZO PESQUISADO EN MEDIO DE CULTIVO NO SELECTIVO  

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Full Text Available El Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente bacteriano responsable de sepsis neonatal. Para evitar la infección perinatal se recomienda la pesquisa de la bacteria en región vagino-perianal durante el tercer trimestre, indicando tratamiento antibiótico durante el parto en aquellas gestantes colonizadas. La prevalencia de colonización varía según el tipo de cultivo utilizado (selectivo vs no selectivo. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia de colonización del Streptococcus agalactiae en la población de embarazadas controladas en nuestra maternidad durante los años 2001-2002. Se tomó cultivo en medio no selectivo, entre las 35-37 semanas de gestación a 1658 pacientes, encontrando una prevalencia de colonización vagino-perianal de 6,2%. Esta cifra es bastante menor a la comunicada en otros estudios en embarazadas chilenas, por lo que creemos importante la implementación de medios de cultivos selectivos para mejorar el rendimiento de pesquisaStreptococcus agalactiae is the main bacterial agent in neonatal sepsis. To avoid the perinatal infection, a vaginal and anal culture in the third trimester is recomended and then treated with antibiotics during labour. The prevalence varies depending on the type of culture used (selective vs non selective medium. The aim of our study was to know the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women followed in our hospital during 2001-2002. Vaginal and anal samples were taken at 35-37 weeks using non selective medium. We recruited 1658 patients, finding a prevalence of 6.2%. Due to the lower prevalence expected in comparison to other studies in Chilean pregnancies, we believe that the application of selective medium for streptococcal culture may improve results

Enrique Valdés R

2003-01-01

218

PREVALENCIA DE COLONIZACION POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B) EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE DEL EMBARAZO PESQUISADO EN MEDIO DE CULTIVO NO SELECTIVO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente bacteriano responsable de sepsis neonatal. Para evitar la infección perinatal se recomienda la pesquisa de la bacteria en región vagino-perianal durante el tercer trimestre, indicando tratamiento antibiótico durante el parto en aquellas gestantes co [...] lonizadas. La prevalencia de colonización varía según el tipo de cultivo utilizado (selectivo vs no selectivo). El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia de colonización del Streptococcus agalactiae en la población de embarazadas controladas en nuestra maternidad durante los años 2001-2002. Se tomó cultivo en medio no selectivo, entre las 35-37 semanas de gestación a 1658 pacientes, encontrando una prevalencia de colonización vagino-perianal de 6,2%. Esta cifra es bastante menor a la comunicada en otros estudios en embarazadas chilenas, por lo que creemos importante la implementación de medios de cultivos selectivos para mejorar el rendimiento de pesquisa Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae is the main bacterial agent in neonatal sepsis. To avoid the perinatal infection, a vaginal and anal culture in the third trimester is recomended and then treated with antibiotics during labour. The prevalence varies depending on the type of culture used (selective vs non se [...] lective medium). The aim of our study was to know the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women followed in our hospital during 2001-2002. Vaginal and anal samples were taken at 35-37 weeks using non selective medium. We recruited 1658 patients, finding a prevalence of 6.2%. Due to the lower prevalence expected in comparison to other studies in Chilean pregnancies, we believe that the application of selective medium for streptococcal culture may improve results

Enrique, Valdés R; Carolina, Pastene S; T, Masumi Grau; Jorge, Catalán M; Paula, Candia P; Guido, Juarez D; Rafael, Caballero T.

219

A Study of Streptococcus Viridans in the Maxillofacial Region  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Streptococcus viridans is one of the most important microorganisms in the establishment of infections leading to dental caries and heart valve damages. Therefore the diagnosis and prevention of these infections is critical in health care.Purpose: The aim of this in-vivo study was to determine the prevalence of viridans streptococci in abscesses occurring in the maxillofacial region.Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 39 patients with maxillofacial abscesses, referred to the Department of Oral Surgery Faculty of Dentistry Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Dr. Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Extra-oral incision, drainage and pus collection followed by culture, staining and biochemical and sugar fermentation tests were carried out for all participants.Results: In the present study %53.84 and 46.16% of the patients had negative and positive culture results, respectively. In the positive culture group, %2.5 of the viridans streptococci were streptococcus salivarius, %4.6 streptococcus sanguis and %17.9 were streptococcus mutans.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that viridans streptococci are an important factor in the development of metastatic and maxillofacial infections which can pose a significant threat to the patient’s life.

Y. Refoua

2005-12-01

220

Screening Protocols for Group B Streptococcus: Are Transport Media Appropriate?  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate group B streptococcus (GBS detection in an in vitro setting, using a low and controlled inoculum from swabs directly inoculated into a selective medium, as compared to delayed inoculation following a period in a commercial Amies transport medium with charcoal (Venturi Transystem™ Copan, Italy.

Nicolette Teese

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Bacteremia, Finland, 1995–2004  

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We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 140 episodes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia occurring in Finland during 1995–2004. Rare emm types were associated with more severe disease and increased mortality rates. Skin and soft tissue infections were more frequent clinical signs among cases caused by common emm types.

Rantala, Sari; Va?ha?kuopus, Susanna; Vuopio-varkila, Jaana; Vuento, Risto; Syrja?nen, Jaana

2010-01-01

222

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a known zoonotic pathogen. In this public health investigation conducted in Virginia, USA, in 2013, we identified a probable family cluster of S. zooepidemicus cases linked epidemiologically and genetically to infected guinea pigs. S. zooepidemicus infections should be considered in patients who have severe clinical illness and report guinea pig exposure. PMID:25531424

Young, Andrea; Levine, Seth J.; Garvin, Joseph P.; Brown, Susan; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Gertz, Robert E.; Murphy, Julia M.; Vogt, Marshall; Beall, Bernard

2015-01-01

223

Streptococcus pyogenes aortic aneurysm infection: forgotten but not gone  

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Full Text Available Historically, Streptococcus pyogenes was a common cause of endocarditis and infected aortic aneurysm. Today, endovascular infections due to this organism have become exceedingly rare. We report the first case of aortic aneurysm infection due to S. pyogenes treated with initial endoluminal repair, review previous reports and discuss current treatment options.

Tony M. Korman

2013-10-01

224

Antimicrobial Drug Use and Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes, Belgium  

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In Belgium, decreasing macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramins B, and tetracycline use during 1997–2007 correlated significantly with decreasing macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes during 1999–2009. Maintaining drug use below a critical threshold corresponded with low-level macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes and an increased number of erm(A)-harboring emm77 S. pyogenes with low fitness costs.

Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel; Lammens, Christine; Hens, Niel; Goossens, Herman; Malhotra-kumar, Surbhi

2012-01-01

225

Outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Psychiatric Unit  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Katherine Fleming-Dutra, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses her investigation of a Streptococcus pneumoniae outbreak in a pediatric psychiatric unit.  Created: 11/2/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/5/2012.

2012-11-02

226

Plasmid Transfer via Transduction from Streptococcus thermophilus to Lactococcus lactis?  

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Using Streptococcus thermophilus phages, plasmid transduction in Lactococcus lactis was demonstrated. The transduction frequencies were 4 orders of magnitude lower in L. lactis than in S. thermophilus. These results are the first evidence that there is phage-mediated direct transfer of DNA from S. thermophilus to L. lactis. The implications of these results for phage evolution are discussed.

Ammann, Andreas; Neve, Horst; Geis, Arnold; Heller, Knut J.

2008-01-01

227

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a known zoonotic pathogen. In this public health investigation conducted in Virginia, USA, in 2013, we identified a probable family cluster of S. zooepidemicus cases linked epidemiologically and genetically to infected guinea pigs. S. zooepidemicus infections should be considered in patients who have severe clinical illness and report guinea pig exposure. PMID:25531424

Gruszynski, Karen; Young, Andrea; Levine, Seth J; Garvin, Joseph P; Brown, Susan; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Gertz, Robert E; Murphy, Julia M; Vogt, Marshall; Beall, Bernard

2015-01-01

228

Celulitis por Streptococcus equi: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura / Streptococcus equi Cellulitis: Case Report and Literature Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus equi es un coco gram positivo, perteneciente al grupo C de Lancefield, causa una enfermedad de gran relevancia en caballos, la gurma o adenitis equina (1-2); en humanos, estas infecciones son poco frecuentes, siendo más frecuentes las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos, faringiti [...] s, neumonía, síndrome tóxico similar al shock y endocarditis. Cuando la infección está asociada a bacteriemia, la mortalidad reportada es del 25%.(3) Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 44 años que ingresa al servicio de urgencias de la Clínica universidad de la Sabana con un cuadro clínico de celulitis en mano derecha por Streptococcus equi . Abstract in english Streptococcus equi is a gram-positive cocci, from group C of Lance 􀃀 eld. It causes an important disease in horses, strangles or equine adenitis (1-2). In humans, these infections are rare, and skin and soft tissue infections, pharyngitis, pneumonia, toxic shock-like syndrome and endocardit [...] is are more frequently observed. When the infection is associated with bacteremia, the reported mortality is near 25% (3). We report the case of a 44-year old man who was admitted to the emergency department of the University of Sabana Clinic with cellulitis due to Streptococcus equi in his right hand.

Julio César, García Casallas; Francisco, Cuervo Millán; Luis Felipe, Kling; M. Angelica, Palencia Boada.

2013-09-01

229

Interactions between endocarditis-derived Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates and human endothelial cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infective endocarditis (IE but the knowledge on virulence factors is limited and the pathogenesis of the infection is poorly understood. In the present study, we established an experimental in vitro IE cell culture model using EA.hy926 and HUVEC cells to investigate the adhesion and invasion characteristics of 23 Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strains from different origins (human IE-derived isolates, other human clinical isolates, animal isolates. Adhesion to eight components of the extracellular matrix (ECM and the ability to form biofilms in vitro was examined in order to reveal features of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus endothelial infection. In addition, the strains were analyzed for the presence of the three virulence factors gtf, pilB, and fimB by PCR. Results The adherence to and invasion characteristics of the examined S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strains to the endothelial cell line EA.hy926 differ significantly among themselves. In contrast, the usage of three different in vitro models (EA.hy926 cells, primary endothelial cells (HUVECs, mechanical stretched cells revealed no differences regarding the adherence to and invasion characteristics of different strains. Adherence to the ECM proteins collagen I, II and IV revealed the highest values, followed by fibrinogen, tenascin and laminin. Moreover, a strong correlation was observed in binding to these proteins by the analyzed strains. All strains show the capability to adhere to polystyrole surfaces and form biofilms. We further confirmed the presence of the genes of two known virulence factors (fimB: all strains, gtf: 19 of 23 strains and demonstrated the presence of the gene of one new putative virulence factor (pilB: 9 of 23 strains by PCR. Conclusion Our study provides the first description of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus adhesion and invasion of human endothelial cells, revealing important initial information of strain variability, behaviour and characteristics of this as yet barely analyzed pathogen.

Dreier Jens

2010-03-01

230

Genetic polymorphism of Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members Polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans em membros de famílias brasileiras  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether random amplified polymorphic DNA (AP-PCR analysis is able to differentiate genetically different clones of mutans streptococci, in 22 Brazilian family members. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from fathers, mothers and infants. For 5-18 months babies with erupting primary dentition, plaque samples were collected using sterile tooth pick tips. From these samples, mutans streptococci were isolated on SB-20 agar plates. After growth, representative colonies were identified by biochemical methods on the basis of carbohydrate fermentation. Streptococcus mutans isolates were obtained from all family members and AP-PCR typed separately with a random primer (OPA-13. Bacterial cell lysates were used as template in PCR reactions and the amplified DNA fragments obtained were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results demonstrated that the father shared the baby's genotype in three families and the mother shared the baby's genotype in 12 families seven babies harbored Streptococcus mutans strains similar to those of their siblings. The technique was able to demonstrate the genetic Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar, através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR a capacidade de diferenciar clones geneticamente distintos de Streptococcus mutans e estabelecer o grau de similaridade intrafamilial para os isolados. Para o presente estudo, foram selecionadas 22 famílias brasileiras. Amostras de saliva foram coletadas de todos os membros das famílias. Das crianças com idade entre 5-18 meses obteve-se amostras de placa dental. Após o isolamento das colônias com características morfológicas, realizou-se a identificação bioquímica com base na fermentação de carboidratos. O polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans foi pesquisado através da técnica de AP-PCR utilizando-se o primer OPA-13. Os fragmentos de DNA obtidos foram amplificados e comparados através de eletroforese em gel de agarose. Dentre as espécies identificadas nas 22 famílias analisadas, o pai apresentou cepas com similaridade genética aos dos bebês em três das famílias analisadas; em 12 famílias a mãe apresentou cepas com similaridade com as cepas de Streptococcus mutans do bebê e 7 bebês apresentaram cepas de S. mutans com similaridade genética das cepas do irmão mais velho. A técnica de AP-PCR foi eficaz em demonstrar a heterogeneidade genética de Streptococcus mutans entre os membros das famílias brasileiras analisadas.

Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio

2003-07-01

231

Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes a Penicilina en Lima - Perú / Streptococcus pneumoniae resisting to penicilin in Lima Peru  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina (SPRP). Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, multicéntrico, entre Noviembre de 1993 y Noviembre de 1994. Cultivos de sangre, líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR), líquido pleural (LP), material de timpano [...] centesis y esputo fueron coleccionados de los laboratorios de microbiología de cuatro hospitales de Lima. Las pruebas de concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM), fueron realizados usando métodos de dilución en agar, en el laboratorio del Instituto de Medicina Tropical. Se aislaron 61 cepas. Resultados: Solo 2 (3.3%) fueron resistentes a penicilina (SPRP), con CIM > 0.12 µg/mL. Las otras 59(96.7%) fueron susceptibles a penicilina (CIM: 0.006 - 1.00 µg/mL), no se encontraron cepas con alto nivel de resistencia a penicilina (CIM ? 2.0 µg/mL). Ambas cepas fueron susceptibles a cefotaxime (CIM = 0.251µg/mL), a trimethoprim/sulfametoxazole (CIM = 8 µg/mL, 16 µg/mL) y a cloramfenicol (CIM =1.0 µg/mL), pero fueron resistentes a ampicilina (CIM = 0.5 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL). Cuatro (6.6%) cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae fueron resistentes a ampicilina, (CIM: 0.06 - 4.00 µg/mL). Solo 1 (1.7%) fue resistente a trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, (CIM: 1.0 - 32.0 µg/mL). Todas las 61 cepas fueron susceptibles a cefotaxime (CIM: 0.007 - 0.251 µg/mL). (Rev Med Hered 1996; 7: 11-16). Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains to penicillin. Material y methods: A multicentric transversal survey was performance between November 1993 to November 1994, in four hospitals of Lima-Perú. Samples of sputum, blood, CSF, and other fluids were co [...] llected from the microbiology laboratories of those centers. Susceptibility tests of the strains were performed by conventional methods in the laboratory of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical, 61 strains were included. Results: Only 2 (3.3%) of the strains isolated were resistant (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC>0.12 µg/mL). No high level resistant strains (MIC >2.0 µg/mL) were found in these samples. The other 59 (97.8%) strains were susceptible to penicillin (MIC range: 0.006-1.0 µg/mL). Both penicillin-resistant strains were susceptible to cefotaxime (MIC = 0.251 µg/mL), trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole (MIC = 8 µg/mL, 16 µg/mL), chloramphenicol (MIC = 1.0 µg/mL); Both strains were resistant to ampicillin, (MIC = 0.5 µg/mL, 1µg/mL). Four (6.6%) strains were resistant to ampicillin, (MIC: 0.06 - 4.0 µg/mL). One strain was (1.7%) resistant to Chloramphenicol, (MIC: 1.0 - 32.0 µg/mL). Only 1 (1.7%) was resistant to Trimethoprin/Sulfamethoxazole, (MIC: 1.00 - 32 µg/mL). All the strains were susceptible to Cefotaxime (MIC range: 0.007-0.251 µg/mL). (Rev Med Hered 1996; 7: 11-16).

Juan, Fukuda Sharizawa; Juan, Echevarria Zarate; Fernando, Llanos Zavalaga; Augusto, Yi Chu; Sara, Palomino; Eduardo, Gotuzzo Herencia; Carlos, Carrillo Parodi.

1996-01-01

232

In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from clinically healthy sows in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. Because transmission is generally thought to occur between healthy carrier sows and their offspring, it is important to understand which antimicrobial agents are likely to be effective against the strains isolated. This study is the first to report on the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis isolated from clinical healthy sows. From 2005 to 2007 a total of 421 S. suis isolates were recovered from sows in China and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards. High-level resistance were found with tetracycline (91.7%) and sulfisoxazole (86.7%), followed by clindamycin (68.4%), erythromycin (67.2%), tilmicosin (66.7%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (59.1%). These six antimicrobial agents presented the highest MIC50 values and the antibiogram (19.2%) most frequently observed. Lower resistance rates among the beta-Lactams support their use as the primary drugs to treat the infection of S. suis. However, appropriate dosing or combination antibiotic therapeutic regimens should be adhered to in view of the resistant and intermediate strains to penicillin (9.5% and 42.3%), ampicillin (4.0% and 29.9%) and ceftiofur (22.1% and 37.3%), respectively. PMID:18499362

Zhang, Chunping; Ning, Yibao; Zhang, Zhongqiu; Song, Li; Qiu, Huishen; Gao, Heyi

2008-10-15

233

Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm  

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Full Text Available Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05. In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

Suping Wang

2014-07-01

234

Usnic acid, a lichen secondary metabolite inhibits Group A Streptococcus biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Group A Streptococci (GAS) are involved in a number of life threatening diseases and biofilm formation by these pathogens are considered as an important virulence determinant as it mediates antibiotic resistance among them. In the present study, we have explored the ability of (+)-usnic acid, a lichen secondary metabolite, as an antibiofilm agent against four serotypes of Streptococcus pyogenes causing pharyngitis. Usnic acid inhibited the biofilms of M serotypes M56, st38, M89 efficiently and the biofilm of M74 to a lesser extent. Confocal imaging of the treated samples showed that usnic acid reduced the biomass of the biofilms when compared to that of the control. Fourier Transfer Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated that usnic acid reduced the cellular components (proteins and fatty acids) of the biofilms. Interestingly, the FT-IR spectrum further revealed that usnic acid probably acted upon the fatty acids of the biofilms as evident from the disappearance of a peak at 2,455-2,100 cm(-1) when compared to the control only in serotypes M56, st38 and M89 but not in M74. The present study shows, for the first time, that usnic acid can act as an effective antibiofilm agent against GAS. PMID:25367342

Nithyanand, Paramasivam; Beema Shafreen, Raja Mohmed; Muthamil, Subramanian; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

2015-01-01

235

Biofilm formation and virulence expression by Streptococcus mutans are altered when grown in dual-species model  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial cell-cell interactions in the oral flora are believed to play an integral role in the development of dental plaque and ultimately, its pathogenicity. The effects of other species of oral bacteria on biofilm formation and virulence gene expression by Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, were evaluated using a dual-species biofilm model and RealTime-PCR analysis. Results As compared to mono-species biofilms, biofilm formation by S. mutans was significantly decreased when grown with Streptococcus sanguinis, but was modestly increased when co-cultivated with Lactobacillus casei. Co-cultivation with S. mutans significantly enhanced biofilm formation by Streptococcus oralis and L. casei, as compared to the respective mono-species biofilms. RealTime-PCR analysis showed that expression of spaP (for multi-functional adhesin SpaP, a surface-associated protein that S. mutans uses to bind to the tooth surface in the absence of sucrose, gtfB (for glucosyltransferase B that synthesizes ?1,6-linked glucan polymers from sucrose and starch carbohydrates and gbpB (for surface-associated protein GbpB, which binds to the glucan polymers was decreased significantly when S. mutans were co-cultivated with L. casei. Similar results were also found with expression of spaP and gbpB, but not gtfB, when S. mutans was grown in biofilms with S. oralis. Compared to mono-species biofilms, the expression of luxS in S. mutans co-cultivated with S. oralis or L. casei was also significantly decreased. No significant differences were observed in expression of the selected genes when S. mutans was co-cultivated with S. sanguinis. Conclusions These results suggest that the presence of specific oral bacteria differentially affects biofilm formation and virulence gene expression by S. mutans.

Ahn Sang-Joon

2010-04-01

236

Sunscreening Agents  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

2013-01-01

237

Vasoactive Agents  

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Full Text Available This article is a short review of vasoactive drugs which are in use in todays clinical practice. In the past century, development of vasoactive drugs went through several phases. All of these drugs are today divided into several groups, depending on their place of action, pharmacological pathways and/or effects on target organ or organ system. Hence, many different agents are today in clinical practice, we have shown comparison between them. These agents provide new directions in the treatment of cardiovascular compromise, suggesting that the primary goal of therapy is to produce a vasodilatory effect of the circulation rather than to reverse hemodynamic failure by using inotropic agents, with their inherent risks and side effects.

Goranovic, Tanja

2006-10-01

238

Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae: a case of S. agalactiae infection in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus  

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Full Text Available A multiplex PCR (m-PCR technique was developed for simultaneous detection of the causative agents responsible forstreptococcosis of cultured fish in Thailand i.e., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae.The study on the sensitivity of the technique indicated that the minimum detected DNA concentration was 9.76, 39.06, and19.53 pg for S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieae, respectively. Detection of streptococcosis in healthy and diseased Niletilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus cultured in Paphayomand Bangkaew District, Phatthalung Province and Sichon and Hua Sai District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand, bym-PCR technique showed positive results for S. agalactiae from tilapia cultured in Bangkaew and Hua Sai and negativeresults for samples from Paphayom and Sichon. The m-PCR results were in accordance with microbiological culture techniques,which detected S. agalactiae from tilapia cultured in Bangkaew and Hua Sai indicating that our m-PCR assay is a sensitiveand specific diagnostic tool for simultaneous detection of streptococcosis caused by S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieaein cultured fish in Thailand.

Chutima Tantikitti

2012-11-01

239

Trends in Drug Resistance, Serotypes, and Molecular Types of Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonizing Preschool-Age Children Attending Day Care Centers in Lisbon, Portugal: a Summary of 4 Years of Annual Surveillance  

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Of the nasopharyngeal cultures recovered from 942 day care center (DCC) attendees in Lisbon, Portugal, 591 (62%) yielded Streptococcus pneumoniae during a surveillance performed in February and March of 1999. Forty percent of the isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. In particular, 2% were penicillin resistant and 20% had intermediate penicillin resistance. Multidrug resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was the most frequent antibiotype (17% of all i...

Nunes, S.; Sa?-lea?o, R.; Carric?o, J.; Alves, C. R.; Mato, R.; Avo?, A. Brito; Saldanha, J.; Almeida, J. S.; Sanches, I. Santos; Lencastre, H.

2005-01-01

240

Antibacterial Activity of Iranian Green and Black Tea on Streptococcus Mutans : An In Vitro Study  

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Objective: Dental caries is a common infectious disease.Streptococcus mutans is the prevalent decay microorganism. The anti Streptococcus mutans activity of non fermented and semi-fermented tea has been shown. The aim of this study was to determine the anti Streptococcus mutans activity of Iranian green and black tea (non fermented and fermented type).Materials and Methods: The study was experimental. The aerial parts of wild-growing Camellia sinensis were collected from Lahijan province. The...

Kharazi Fard, M. J.; Niakan, M.; Jalayer Naderi, N.; Zardi, S.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by cellular extracts of human intestinal lactic acid bacteria.  

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The in vitro growth of Streptococcus mutans was completely inhibited by water-soluble extracts from cells of various intestinal lactic acid bacteria identified as Streptococcus faecium, Streptococcus equinus, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus salivarius. The growth inhibition was dependent on the concentrations of the extracts. In contrast, the extracts did not inhibit the growth of the major indigenous intestinal lactic acid bacteria isolated from humans. These lactic acid bacteria ...

Ishihara, K.; Miyakawa, H.; Hasegawa, A.; Takazoe, I.; Kawai, Y.

1985-01-01

242

Emended description of Streptococcus ferus isolated from pigs and rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus ferus is a mutans-like streptococcus originally isolated from wild rats fed with sugar cane. Taxonomically, this species has not been studied extensively. Ten Gram-positive coccal strains, isolated from the tonsils and nasal conchae of piglets, were identified as S. ferus by 16S rDNA sequencing, tRNA-intergenic spacer length polymorphism analysis (tDNA-PCR), whole-cell protein profiling using SDS-PAGE, G+C content determination and extensive biochemical testing. In all these tests, the type strain of S. ferus (LMG 16520T), from a rat, was included. The results of the tests are described and an emended species description is presented. PMID:12656166

Baele, Margo; Devriese, Luc A; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Snauwaert, Cindy; Swings, Jean; Haesebrouck, Freddy

2003-01-01

243

Antimicrobial resistant profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the nasopharynx of secondary school students in Jos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has compromised the effectiveness of therapy for pneumococcal diseases and asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriers play an important role in transmission of resistant strains. Method : Eighty-eight volunteer students attending 2 secondary schools in Jos, Nigeria were involved in this study to determine the antimicrobial resistant profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the nasopharynx. The study population consisted of males and females between the ages of 15 - 25 years. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were analyzed for the presence of S. pneumoniae using standard bacteriological methods. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method. Results : S. pneumoniae was isolated from 37(42.04% of the 88 samples. Isolates showed the highest resistance of 12 (32.43% to erythromycin and lowest resistance of 4(10.81% to ciprofloxacin. The resistance profiles for the 26(70.27% penicillin-sensitive and 11(29.72% penicillin-resistant isolates were similar. Both exhibited varying degrees of resistance to several groups of antimicrobials. However, isolates found to be resistant to penicillin showed a higher degree of resistance to other antimicrobial agents. Conclusion : This study has shown that some secondary school students are carriers of multiple antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae .

Kandakai-Olukemi Y

2009-03-01

244

Group B Streptococcus detection: comparison of PCR assay and culture as a screening method for pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most important causal agents of serious neonatal infections. Numerous assays have been evaluated for GBS screening in order to validate a fast and efficient method. The aim of this study was to compare the culture technique (estab [...] lished as the gold standard) with the molecular method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers (atr gene). Two hundred and sixty-three samples were analyzed. Vaginal samples were collected, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations, from women over 35 weeks of pregnancy at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA). Two different extraction methods were tested in all samples collected. PCR technique yielded 71 (26.99%) positive results. Sensitivity and specificity for PCR were 100% and 86.88%, respectively. PCR demonstrated a shorter turnaround time than the culture. The molecular methodology proved to be a useful screening for GBS, allowing effective treatment to be initiated in shorter time to prevent newborn infection.

Fernanda, de-Paris; Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro, Machado; Tailise Conte, Gheno; Bruna Maria, Ascoli; Kátia Ruschel Pilger de, Oliveira; Afonso Luis, Barth.

2011-08-01

245

Group B Streptococcus detection: comparison of PCR assay and culture as a screening method for pregnant women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS is one of the most important causal agents of serious neonatal infections. Numerous assays have been evaluated for GBS screening in order to validate a fast and efficient method. The aim of this study was to compare the culture technique (established as the gold standard with the molecular method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR with specific primers (atr gene. Two hundred and sixty-three samples were analyzed. Vaginal samples were collected, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC recommendations, from women over 35 weeks of pregnancy at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA. Two different extraction methods were tested in all samples collected. PCR technique yielded 71 (26.99% positive results. Sensitivity and specificity for PCR were 100% and 86.88%, respectively. PCR demonstrated a shorter turnaround time than the culture. The molecular methodology proved to be a useful screening for GBS, allowing effective treatment to be initiated in shorter time to prevent newborn infection.

Fernanda de-Paris

2011-08-01

246

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE TO FORMALIN INACTIVATED STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE ISOLATES IN RABBITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate primary and secondary immune response to formalin inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in rabbits. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from mastitic buffaloes. The organism was characterized on the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical tests. An increased geomean antibody titer was observed in rabbits inoculated with single dose (Group A and double dose (Group B of Streptococcus agalactiae antigen. It was also evident from the results that the double dose of Streptococcus agalactiae antigen in rabbits (Group B showed better and long lasting humoral antibody response as compared to single dose (Group A.

M. ABUBAKAR, G. MUHAMMAD1 AND K. IBRAHIM

2006-07-01

247

Agent, autonomous  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

Luciani, Annie

2007-01-01

248

Typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains using the phage profiling method  

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We recently developed a method that allows fast differentiation between Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) strains. The method named phage profiling (PP) is based on a simple assumption that a regular PCR reaction with Taq polymerase and relatively short elongation time is not able to yield long DNA fragment, such as ~40–50 kb integrated prophage. Only fragments without any integrated DNA or short fragments inserted between integration sites can be efficiently amplified. We designed primers that ...

Borek, Anna L.; Obszan?ska, Katarzyna; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Sitkiewicz, Izabela

2012-01-01

249

Specific coaggregation and the cell wall of Streptococcus sanguis.  

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Sacculi prepared from Streptococcus sanguis 34 by extensive extraction of cells with hot sodium dodecyl sulfate-2-mercaptoethanol retained the ability to coaggregate with Actinomyces viscosus T14V. When S. sanguis 34 was disrupted by homogenization with glass beads and fractionated by differential centrifugation, only the cell wall fraction agglutinated A. viscosus T14V. When strain 34 was treated with lysozyme, the coaggregating capability of the cells was essentially unaltered. Sacculi prep...

1983-01-01

250

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae: quality assessment results.  

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Six strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were distributed to 405 United Kingdom laboratories who were asked to test the susceptibility of the strains to penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and erythromycin and to provide details of methodology to test the standards of susceptibility testing. High error rates were seen only in failure to detect moderate resistance to penicillin (12%) and resistance to chloramphenicol (16%). Increased error rates were associated with several methods or pra...

Snell, J. J.; George, R. C.; Perry, S. F.; Erdman, Y. J.

1988-01-01

251

Purification and Cloning of a Streptokinase from Streptococcus uberis  

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A bovine plasminogen activator was purified from the culture supernatant of the bovine pathogen Streptococcus uberis NCTC 3858. After the final reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography step a single protein with a molecular mass of 32 kDa was detected in the active fraction. A partial peptide map was established, and degenerate primers were designed and used for amplification of fragments of the gene encoding the activator. Inverse PCR was subsequently used for obtaining the full-...

Johnsen, Laust B.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens; Petersen, Torben E.

1999-01-01

252

Resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae: Patterns, mechanisms, interpreting the breakpoints  

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Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent cause of respiratory tract infections. In the United States and worldwide, antimicrobial resistance of S pneumoniae has complicated the management of infections caused by this organism. In the United States, antimicrobial resistance with S pneumoniae has evolved almost entirely during the 1990s. Resistance currently exists at high rates with beta-lactams, macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Multiresistant strain...

Brueggemann, Ab; Doern, Gv

2000-01-01

253

Streptococcus thermophilus Wzh functions as a phosphotyrosine phosphatase  

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Amino acid residues that are important for metal binding and catalysis in Gram-positive phosphotyrosine phosphatases were identified in the Wzh protein of Streptococcus thermophilus MR-1C by using sequence comparisons. A His-tagged fusion Wzh protein was purified from Escherichia coli cultures and tested for phosphatase activity against synthetic phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine–threonine peptides. Purified Wzh released 2316.5 ± 138.7 pmol PO4·min?1·?g?1 from phosphotyrosine peptid...

Cefalo, A. D.; Broadbent, Jeffery R.; Welker, D. L.

2013-01-01

254

Pyridine analogs inhibit the glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soluble glucan synthesis catalyzed by dextransucrase preparations from Streptococcus mutans 6715 were inhibited by pyridoxal-5-phosphate and several other pyridine analogs, including pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxamine-5-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid. Pyridine and pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde were not effective inhibitors of the enzyme. Kinetic analyses suggested that pyridoxal-5-phosphate is a noncompetitive inhibitor of dextransucrase. The inactivation was dependent on time, py...

Thaniyavarn, S.; Taylor, K. G.; Singh, S.; Doyle, R. J.

1982-01-01

255

Group B streptococcus endocarditis associated with multiple pulmonary septic emboli  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endocarditis is a rare presentation of group B streptococcal infection. Its association with pulmonary septic embolism was only barely studied and limited data is available up to date. Multiple septic emboli is a common complication of bacterial endocarditis, but only a few cases have been documented in relation to group B streptococcus. We present the case of an 87 year old female patient with multiple underlying conditions that predisposed the development of bacterial endocarditis secondary...

Deborah Abaitey; Jerome Salvani; Teran, Carlos G.; Antezana, Ariel O.

2011-01-01

256

Antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Implications for medical practice.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To review the definition and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, its links with antibiotic prescribing, data on antibiotic prescribing and prescribing appropriateness, and evidence-based treatment guidelines for common respiratory tract syndromes. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Primary studies consist of cross-sectional surveys and case-control studies. Treatment guidelines are based on clinical trials, meta-analyses, and cohort studies. Study designs were appropriat...

Wang, E. E.; Kellner, J. D.; Arnold, S.

1998-01-01

257

Glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus sobrinus Catalyzes Glucosylation of Catechin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We previously showed that the polymeric forms of polyphenols present in oolong tea extract exhibited strong inhibitory activities against glucosyltransferases (GTases) of mutans streptococci, while green tea extract, which is rich in catechins, did not show such GTase-inhibitory activities. In this study, (+)-catechin [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-3,5,7-triol] was found to be glucosylated by the GTase of Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 with sucrose as the substrate, and the...

Nakahara, K.; Kontani, M.; Ono, H.; Kodama, T.; Tanaka, T.; Ooshima, T.; Hamada, S.

1995-01-01

258

Structural basis of hyaluronan degradation by Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase (spnHL) is a pathogenic bacterial spreading factor and cleaves hyaluronan, an important constituent of the extra– cellular matrix of connective tissues, through an enzymatic ?–elimination process, different from the hyaluronan degradation by hydrolases in animals. The mechanism of hyaluronan binding and degradation was proposed based on the 1.56 ? resolution crystal structure, substrate modeling and mutagenesis studies on spnHL. Five mutants, ...

Li, Songlin; Kelly, Stephen J.; Lamani, Ejvis; Ferraroni, Marta; Jedrzejas, Mark J.

2000-01-01

259

ATP-driven sodium pump in Streptococcus faecalis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sodium extrusion by bacteria is generally attributed to secondary antiport of Na+ for H+ energized by the proton circulation. Streptococcus faecalis is an exception, in that sodium expulsion from intact cells requires the generation of ATP but does not depend on the protonmotive force. Unfortunately, studies with everted membrane vesicles failed to reveal the expected sodium pump; instead, the vesicles contained a conventional secondary Na+/H+ antiporter. We report here that everted membrane ...

Heefner, D. L.; Harold, F. M.

1982-01-01

260

Comparison of Streptokinase Activity from Streptococcus mutans using Different Substrates  

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Streptokinase is a novel bacterial fibrinolytic enzyme that binds and activates plasminogen and is produced by several species of Streptococci. Streptococcus mutans was selected for optimum production of streptokinase using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass in liquid state fermentation. Substrates were applied in different concentrations ranging from 0.1-0.8%. Maximum fibrinolytic activity was observed by 0.3% corn steep liquor, 0.5% molasses and rice polishing ...

Muhammad Anjum Zia, Rana Faisal

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Assessment of Genes Associated with Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus mutans, the major pathogen responsible for dental caries in humans, is a biofilm-forming bacterium. In the present study, 17 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of genomic DNA were identified in S. mutans organisms isolated clinically from whole saliva. The S. mutans isolates showed different abilities to form biofilms on polystyrene surfaces in semidefined minimal medium cultures. Following cultivation in a flow cell system in tryptic soy broth with 0.25% sucros...

Motegi, Mizuho; Takagi, Yuzo; Yonezawa, Hideo; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Terajima, Jun; Watanabe, Haruo; Senpuku, Hidenobu

2006-01-01

262

Diversity of Bacteriocins and Activity Spectrum in Streptococcus pneumoniae?  

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The production of bacteriocins can be favorable for colonization of the host by eliminating other bacterial species that share the same environment. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pnc (blp) locus encoding putative bacteriocins, immunity, and export proteins is controlled by a two-component system similar to the comCDE system required for the induction of genetic competence. A detailed comparison of the pnc clusters of four genetically distinct isolates confirmed the great plasticity of this...

Lux, Thomas; Nuhn, Michael; Hakenbeck, Regine; Reichmann, Peter

2007-01-01

263

Genetic Locus for Streptolysin S Production by Group A Streptococcus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Streptolysin S (SLS) is the cytolytic factor that creates the zone of beta-hemolysis surrounding GAS colonies grown on blood agar. We recently reported the discovery of a potential genetic determinant involved in SLS production, sagA, encoding a small peptide of 53 amino acids (S. D. Betschel, S. M. Borgia, N. L. Barg, D. E. Low, and J. C. De Azavedo, In...

Nizet, Victor; Beall, Bernard; Bast, Darrin J.; Datta, Vivekananda; Kilburn, Laurie; Low, Donald E.; Azavedo, Joyce C. S.

2000-01-01

264

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils...

Julien Sfeir; Corinne Lefrançois; Dominique Baudoux; Amp Xe Verine Derbr Amp Xe, S.; Patricia Licznar

2013-01-01

265

Testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae for resistance to penicillin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing prevalence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae requires antibiotic susceptibility tests that can be done with greater ease and reliability. We measured the MIC of penicillin for pneumococci by the tube macrodilution method with Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB), Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM), Todd-Hewitt broth with 0.5% yeast extract (THY), and MHB with 3% lysed horse blood (LHB). Eight (19%) and 6 (14%) of 42 pneumococcal isolates failed to generate turbid growth in MHB ...

Marshall, K. J.; Musher, D. M.; Watson, D.; Mason, E. O.

1993-01-01

266

Streptococcus suis in slaughter pigs and abattoir workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The detection and identification of Streptococcus suis type 2 in 8.1% of 347 pig herds of southwestern Ontario revealed that the infection is widespread in this area. A herd suspected to be infected showed a carrier rate of 9.7% among the 62 animals sampled. These subclinical carriers represent a potential source of infection for slaughterhouse workers. From studies of contamination of hands and knives, it was concluded that eviscerators involved in removing the larynx and lungs from the carc...

Breton, J.; Mitchell, W. R.; Rosendal, S.

1986-01-01

267

Serotype Distribution and Drug Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Palestinian Territories  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine antimicrobial drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes, we analyzed isolates from blood cultures of sick children residing in the West Bank before initiation of pneumococcal vaccination. Of 120 serotypes isolated, 50.8%, 73.3%, and 80.8% of the bacteremia cases could have been prevented by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Serotype 14 was the most drug-resistant serotype isolated. PMID:21192863

Kattan, Randa; Abu Rayyan, Amal; Zheiman, Inas; Idkeidek, Suzan; Baraghithi, Sabri; Rishmawi, Nabeel; Turkuman, Sultan; Abu-Diab, Afaf; Ghneim, Riyad; Zoughbi, Madeleine; Dauodi, Rula; Ghneim, Raed; Issa, Abed-El-Razeq; Siryani, Issa; Al Qas, Randa; Liddawi, Rawan; Khamash, Hatem; Kanaan, Moein; Marzouqa, Hiyam

2011-01-01

268

The Streptococcus pneumoniae Pilus-1 Displays a Biphasic Expression Pattern  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-1 is encoded by pilus islet 1 (PI-1), which has three clonal variants (clade I, II and III) and is present in about 30% of clinical pneumococcal isolates. In vitro and in vivo assays have demonstrated that pilus-1 is involved in attachment to epithelial cells and virulence, as well as protection in mouse models of infection. Several reports suggest that pilus-1 expression is tightly regulated and involves the interplay of numerous genetic regulators, includi...

Angelis, Gabriella; Moschioni, Monica; Muzzi, Alessandro; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Censini, Stefano; Delany, Isabel; Lo Sapio, Morena; Sinisi, Antonia; Donati, Claudio; Masignani, Vega; Barocchi, Miche?le A.

2011-01-01

269

Genetic transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae by heterologous plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of heterologous plasmid deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) coding for erythromycin, tylosin, lincomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol resistance have been introduced into Streptococcus pneumoniae via genetic transformation with frequencies that varied between 10(-5) to as high as 5 x 10(-1) per colony-forming unit. Transformation with plasmid DNA required pneumococcal competence, was competed by chromosomal DNA, and showed a saturation at about 0.5 micrograms/ml (with a recipient popu...

Barany, F.; Tomasz, A.

1980-01-01

270

Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the res...

Shifeng Wang; Iii, Roy Curtiss

2014-01-01

271

cadDX Operon of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A CadDX system that confers resistance to Cd2+ and Zn2+ was identified in Streptococcus salivarius 57.I. Unlike with other CadDX systems, the expression of the cad promoter was negatively regulated by CadX, and the repression was inducible by Cd2+ and Zn2+, similar to what was found for CadCA systems. The lower G+C content of the S. salivarius cadDX genes suggests acquisition by horizontal gene transfer.

Chen, Yi-ywan M.; Feng, C. W.; Chiu, C. F.; Burne, Robert A.

2008-01-01

272

[Dynamics of nisin accumulation in a culture of Streptococcus lactis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics of nisine accumulation by its producer Streptococcus lactis, str. MSU was studied. In the course of the producer cultivation on the liquid nutrient medium there was a correlation between total, cellular and filtrate nysine. The content of cellular nysine increased gradually to reach maximum by the 6th day of the strain cultivation. The content of filtrate nisine reached maximum on the 2nd day and declined two-fold by the 7th day of cultivation. PMID:37497

Grushina, V A; Baranova, I P; Egorov, N S

1979-01-01

273

First Characterization of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Streptococcus suis?  

Science.gov (United States)

We have identified and sequenced the genes encoding the quinolone-resistance determining region (QRDR) of ParC and GyrA in fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus suis clinical isolates. Resistance is the consequence of single point mutations in the QRDRs of ParC and GyrA and is not due to clonal spread of resistant strains or horizontal gene transfer with other bacteria. PMID:17116660

Escudero, Jose Antonio; San Millan, Alvaro; Catalan, Ana; de la Campa, Adela G.; Rivero, Estefania; Lopez, Gema; Dominguez, Lucas; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

2007-01-01

274

First Characterization of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Streptococcus suis?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have identified and sequenced the genes encoding the quinolone-resistance determining region (QRDR) of ParC and GyrA in fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus suis clinical isolates. Resistance is the consequence of single point mutations in the QRDRs of ParC and GyrA and is not due to clonal spread of resistant strains or horizontal gene transfer with other bacteria.

Escudero, Jose Antonio; San Millan, Alvaro; Catalan, Ana; La Campa, Adela G.; Rivero, Estefania; Lopez, Gema; Dominguez, Lucas; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez-zorn, Bruno

2007-01-01

275

Intestinal translocation of Streptococcus suis type 2 EF+ in pigs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sepsis with subsequent multisystem organ failure after translocation of bacteria from the gut is a serious risk associated with stress situations. We showed that intestinal bacterial translocation could be one of the pathways for pathogenic Streptococcus suis infections in the pig. In 24 piglets weighing 10¿14 kg, free of the extracellular factor (EF+) producing phenotype of S. suis serotype 2, a silicon canula was placed in the proximal jejunum to enable intestinal inoculation and bypassing...

Swildens, B.; Stockhofe-zurwieden, N.; Meulen, J.; Wisselink, H. J.; Nielen, M.; Niewold, T. A.

2004-01-01

276

Streptococcus suis Infection in Hospitalized Patients, Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

In Nakhon Phanom, Thailand, we identified 38 hospitalized patients with Streptococcus suis infection during 2006–2012. Deafness developed in 12 patients; none died. Thirty-five reported recent exposure to pigs/pork. Annual incidence was 0.1–2.2 cases/100,000 population (0.2–3.2 in persons >20 years of age). Clinicians should consider S. suis infection in areas where pig exposure is common. PMID:25625540

Owusu, Jocelynn T.; Thammathitiwat, Somsak; Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Boonmongkon, Pimpawan; Sangwichian, Ornuma; Prasert, Kriengkrai; Srihapanya, Sankhom; Sornwong, Kanlaya; Kerdsin, Anusak; Dejsirilert, Surang; Baggett, Henry C.; Olsen, Sonja J.

2015-01-01

277

Isolation of a Streptococcus mutans strain producing a novel bacteriocin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A strain of Streptococcus mutans has been isolated that produces a bacteriocin with novel properties. Its antibiotic spectrum includes 123 of 124 strains of S. mutans tested and a variety of other gram-positive microorganisms. Experiments with dialysis membranes indicate that the molecular weight of the bacteriocin is less than 1,000. Mutants of the producer strain were obtained that are deficient in bacteriocin production or produce twofold elevated amounts. The ability of these strains to s...

Hillman, J. D.; Johnson, K. P.; Yaphe, B. I.

1984-01-01

278

CRISPR Inhibition of Prophage Acquisition in Streptococcus pyogenes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the major human pathogens, is a unique species since it has acquired diverse strain-specific virulence properties mainly through the acquisition of streptococcal prophages. In addition, S. pyogenes possesses clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas systems that can restrict horizontal gene transfer (HGT) including phage insertion. Therefore, it was of interest to examine the relationship between CRISPR and acquisition of prophages i...

Nozawa, Takashi; Furukawa, Nayuta; Aikawa, Chihiro; Watanabe, Takayasu; Haobam, Bijaya; Kurokawa, Ken; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro

2011-01-01

279

Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: phenotypic and genotypic characters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is considered a leading cause of neonatal sepsis. We evaluated the phenotypic and genotypic characters of 73 S. agalactiae strains isolated from different women at the 35-37 weeks of pregnancy. METHODS: Isolates were characterized by serotyping (direct agglutination) and by pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis (PFGE). Resistance to antimicrobials (penicillin, macrolides, lincosamides, quinolones and tetracyclines) was assessed. RESULTS: All isolates were ...

Savoia, Dianella; Zucca, Mario

2008-01-01

280

Evaluación de la colonización del tracto digestivo de cerdos por cepas de Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus, componentes de un producto probiótico / Gastrointestinal tract colonization evaluation in pigs by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophile strains, components of a probiotic product  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de evaluar la posible utilización como probiótico, de un producto compuesto por Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus, se estudió la colonización del tracto intestinal de cerdos recién nacidos, por los agentes componentes de este producto. Como probiótico se utilizó u [...] na mezcla de miel de caña, levadura torula y agua hasta completar 1000 ml y 25 ml del cultivo de Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus. Se conformaron cuatro grupos experimentales de la siguiente manera: Grupo 1: 18 crías (camada de dos cerdas) a las cuales se les aplicó 5 ml del producto por vía oral al nacimiento; Grupo 2: 17 crías (camada de dos cerdas) a las cuales se les aplicó 5 ml del producto por vía oral al nacimiento y 24 horas después del primer tratamiento; Grupo 3: 10 crías (camada de una cerda) a las que se les aplicó 5 ml del placebo por vía oral al nacimiento; Grupo 4: 12 crías (camada de una cerda) a las cuales se les aplicó 5 ml del placebo por vía oral al nacimiento y 24 horas después del primer tratamiento. A todos los animales se les realizó un hizopaje rectal a los 7, 14 y 21 días de finalizado el tratamiento. Se comprobó la colonización del tracto gastrointestinal por Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus en los cerdos tratados con el producto probiótico hasta los 14 días postratamiento y que esta no se encuentra influida por la frecuencia de aplicación del probiótico. Abstract in english With the aim of evaluating the possible use as a probiotic product composed by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus, the intestinal tract colonization of newborn pigs was studied by the components of this product. As a probiotic, a mixture of 150 ml of molasses and 100 mg torula [...] yeast was used and water was added completing 1000 ml and 25 ml of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus culture was added. Four experimental groups were formed as follows: Group 1: 18 piglets (a litter of two sows) which was applied 5 ml of the probiotic product orally at birth; Group 2: 17 piglets (a litter of two sows) which were applied 5 ml of the probiotic product orally at birth and at 24 hours after the first treatment; Group 3: 10 piglets (a litter of one sow) which were applied 5 ml of placebo orally at birth and Group 4: 12 piglets (a litter of one sow) which were applied 5 ml of placebo orally at birth and at 24 hours after the first treatment. A microbiological sampling by rectal swabs at 7, 14 and 21 days postreatment was applied to all animals. The gastrointestinal tract colonization by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was observed in pigs treated with the probiotic product until 14 days postreatment not being and this is not influenced by the frequency of probiotic application.

Miguel, Pérez Ruano; Mabelin, Armenteros Amaya; Ernesto, Vega Cañizares.

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Conventional use of honey as antibacterial agent  

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Full Text Available Background : Honey has since been found to possess antibacterial property and is therefore employed for wound therapy. The current problems with conventional antibacterial agents, led to the choice of honey as well as other natural products by the populace, in the treatment of bacterial infections. The present study evaluates the antibacterial spectrum and efficacy of honey and compared same with tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Methods : Different concentrations (12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100.0 % of honey were studied in - vitro using Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella sp., Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Results :The data obtained showed a dose dependent inhibitory action of honey, except with Streptococcus faecalis where there was no growth inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of honey presented Staphylococcus albus as the most susceptible organism and Escherichia coli, the least. While ciprofloxacin (2.0 mg/ml exerted a greater potency than honey, tetracycline was found to be less potent than 100% concentration of honey, except with Escherichia coli. Conclusion :The antibacterial action of honey was observed with 50% as well as the neat concentration. However, ciprofloxacin exhibited a greater potency and efficacy as well as a broader spectrum than honey, which shows that where a broad spectrum antibacterial is required, the conventional drugs, especially the newer ones are preferred to honey.

Agbaje E

2006-06-01

282

Antibacterial activity of dentinal bonding agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility of five bacterial species to seven dentinal bonding agents was examined in vitro. Agar diffusion tests using filterpaper disks containing 10 microL each of conditioner, primer, or resin were performed on blood agar and mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) was used as a positive control. After incubation, zones of inhibited bacterial growth were measured. Of all the compounds tested, Gluma cleanser and Gluma etchant showed the strongest growth inhibition for all bacterial strains. No antibacterial effect was noted for Prisma Universal Bond 2 and Superlux Universal Bond 2 systems. The primers of Gluma, Denthesive, and Scotchbond 2 displayed antibacterial activity that, in some cases, was comparable to that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. Zones of inhibition were seen for the resin materials of Scotchbond 2 and Tripton with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus. No inhibition was seen after these resins were cured, whereas the antibacterial effect of XR-Bond on S sanguis and A viscosus was not affected by light curing. PMID:8210322

Emilson, C G; Bergenholtz, G

1993-07-01

283

Use of a bacteriophage lysin, PlyC, as an enzyme disinfectant against Streptococcus equi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of the purulent infection equine strangles. This disease is transmitted through shedding of live bacteria from nasal secretions and abscess drainage or by contact with surfaces contaminated by the bacteria. Disinfectants are effective against S. equi, but inactivation by environmental factors, damage to equipment, and toxicity are of great concern. Bacteriophage-encoded lysins (cell wall hydrolases) have been investigated as therapeutic agents due to their ability to lyse susceptible gram-positive organisms. Here, we investigate the use of one lysin, PlyC, as a narrow-spectrum disinfectant against S. equi. This enzyme was active against >20 clinical isolates of S. equi, including both S. equi subsp. equi and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Significantly, PlyC was 1,000 times more active on a per weight basis than Virkon-S, a common disinfecting agent, with 1 microg of enzyme able to sterilize a 10(8) CFU/ml culture of S. equi in 30 min. PlyC was subjected to a standard battery of tests including the Use Dilution Method for Testing Disinfectants and the Germicidal Spray Products Test. Results indicate that aerosolized PlyC can eradicate or significantly reduce the S. equi load on a variety of materials found on common stable and horse-related equipment. Additionally, PlyC was shown to retain full activity under conditions that mimic a horse stable, i.e., in the presence of nonionic detergents, hard water, or organic materials. We propose PlyC as the first protein-based, narrow-spectrum disinfectant against S. equi, which may augment or supplement the use of broad-spectrum disinfectants in barns and stables where equine strangles is prevalent. PMID:19139235

Hoopes, J Todd; Stark, Caren J; Kim, Han Ah; Sussman, Daniel J; Donovan, David M; Nelson, Daniel C

2009-03-01

284

Use of a Bacteriophage Lysin, PlyC, as an Enzyme Disinfectant against Streptococcus equi?  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of the purulent infection equine strangles. This disease is transmitted through shedding of live bacteria from nasal secretions and abscess drainage or by contact with surfaces contaminated by the bacteria. Disinfectants are effective against S. equi, but inactivation by environmental factors, damage to equipment, and toxicity are of great concern. Bacteriophage-encoded lysins (cell wall hydrolases) have been investigated as therapeutic agents due to their ability to lyse susceptible gram-positive organisms. Here, we investigate the use of one lysin, PlyC, as a narrow-spectrum disinfectant against S. equi. This enzyme was active against >20 clinical isolates of S. equi, including both S. equi subsp. equi and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Significantly, PlyC was 1,000 times more active on a per weight basis than Virkon-S, a common disinfecting agent, with 1 ?g of enzyme able to sterilize a 108 CFU/ml culture of S. equi in 30 min. PlyC was subjected to a standard battery of tests including the Use Dilution Method for Testing Disinfectants and the Germicidal Spray Products Test. Results indicate that aerosolized PlyC can eradicate or significantly reduce the S. equi load on a variety of materials found on common stable and horse-related equipment. Additionally, PlyC was shown to retain full activity under conditions that mimic a horse stable, i.e., in the presence of nonionic detergents, hard water, or organic materials. We propose PlyC as the first protein-based, narrow-spectrum disinfectant against S. equi, which may augment or supplement the use of broad-spectrum disinfectants in barns and stables where equine strangles is prevalent. PMID:19139235

Hoopes, J. Todd; Stark, Caren J.; Kim, Han Ah; Sussman, Daniel J.; Donovan, David M.; Nelson, Daniel C.

2009-01-01

285

Clinical resistance and decreased susceptibility in Streptococcus suis isolates from clinically healthy fattening pigs.  

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Streptococcus suis (S. suis) has often been reported as an important swine pathogen and is considered as a new emerging zoonotic agent. Consequently, it is important to be informed on its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. In the current study, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) population distribution of nine antimicrobial agents has been determined for nasal S. suis strains, isolated from healthy pigs at the end of the fattening period from 50 closed or semiclosed pig herds. The aim of the study was to report resistance based on both clinical breakpoints (clinical resistance percentage) and epidemiological cutoff values (non-wild-type percentage). Non-wild-type percentages were high for tetracycline (98%), lincomycin (92%), tilmicosin (72%), erythromycin (70%), tylosin (66%), and low for florfenicol (0%) and enrofloxacin (0.3%). Clinical resistance percentages were high for tetracycline (95%), erythromycin (66%), tylosin (66%), and low for florfenicol (0.3%) and enrofloxacin (0.3%). For tiamulin, for which no clinical breakpoint is available, 57% of the isolates did not belong to the wild-type population. Clinical resistance and non-wild-type percentages differed substantially for penicillin. Only 1% of the tested S. suis strains was considered as clinically resistant, whereas 47% of the strains showed acquired resistance when epidemiological cutoff values were used. In conclusion, MIC values for penicillin are gradually increasing, compared to previous reports, although pigs infected with strains showing higher MICs may still respond to treatment with penicillin. The high rate of acquired resistance against tiamulin has not been reported before. Results from this study clearly demonstrate that the use of different interpretive criteria contributes to the extent of differences in reported antimicrobial resistance results. The early detection of small changes in the MIC population distribution of isolates, while clinical failure may not yet be observed, provides the opportunity to implement appropriate risk management steps. PMID:23249177

Callens, Bénédicte F; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek; Butaye, Patrick; Dewulf, Jeroen; Boyen, Filip

2013-04-01

286

Aneurisma micótico de la aorta abdominal por Streptococcus pneumoniae / Mycotic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm due to Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El aneurisma micótico o infeccioso de la aorta es infrecuente y, dadas la recurrencia de la infección, la sepsis fulminante o la rotura aórtica, posee una morbimortalidad elevada. En esta presentación se describe un caso de aneurisma micótico de la aorta abdominal por Streptococcus pneumoniae en una [...] paciente con múltiples factores de riesgo de inmunodepresión, que fue tratada exitosamente en forma quirúrgica y con antibioticoterapia sistémica prolongada. Abstract in english Mycotic or infectious aortic aneurysm is rare and presents high morbidity and mortality rates given the infection recurrence, fulminant sepsis or aortic rupture. We report a case of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm due to Streptococcus pneumoniae in a female patient with multiple immunosuppressive [...] risk factors, who was successfully treated with surgery and prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy.

Mariano, Norese; Mónica, Davaro; Sergio, Ferreyra Fernández.

2013-02-01

287

Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus difficile 16S-23S intergenic rDNA: genetic homogeneity and species-specific PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus difficile is a non-hemolytic Gram-positive bacterial coccus that causes septicemia and meningoencephalitis in farmed tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Recent studies have demonstrated S. difficile to be a group B, type Ib streptococcus with a whole cell protein electrophoretic profile indistinguishable from S. agalactiae and a biochemical profile similar to that observed for other group B, type Ib streptococci isolated from fish and frogs. The aim of this study was to expand on these findings by comparative nucleic acid sequence analysis of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacers of S. difficile and S. agalactiae. The 97.7% sequence homology identified in these studies supports the taxonomic relationship of these two organisms. The sequence data generated were also used to construct a pair of species-specific PCR primers for use in molecular detection and identification schemes. PMID:11163706

Berridge, B R; Bercovier, H; Frelier, P F

2001-01-26

288

Streptococcus pneumoniae: estudo das cepas isoladas de liquor Streptococcus pneumoniae: a study of strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid  

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OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência dos sorotipos capsulares e a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, assim como dar suporte à indicação de vacinas disponíveis e ao uso de antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo retrospectivo, foram adotadas metodologias padronizadas para identificar, sorotipar e determinar a susceptibilidade à penicilina, cefotaxima e vancomicina. O estudo foi realizado com cepas de pneumococo isoladas de liquor em pacientes atendidos no...

Vieira, Ataiza C.; Gomes, Marizoneide C.; Maurício Rolo Filho; João Eudes Filho; Bello, Edson Jose? M.; Figueiredo, Rosane B.

2007-01-01

289

Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de las infecciones por Streptococcus pyogenes en el período neonatal Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in the neonatal period  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la infección por Estreptococo del grupo A en los recién nacidos egresados de hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutivos, quienes tuvieron infecciones por estreptococos del grupo A y que estuvieron ingresados en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre 1992 y el 2005. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad. RESULTADOS. Se registraron 20 recién nacidos con infección por estreptococos del grupo A, lo cual representó una tasa promedio anual de 0,2 cada 100 ingresos. Esta infección muestra una incidencia con tendencia significativa a disminuir en los últimos años. Según la clasificación utilizada, todas las infecciones fueron de inicio tardío y, de acuerdo al origen, predominaron las adquiridas en la comunidad (95,0 %. La infección de tejidos blandos fue la forma clínica más frecuente (10 de 20; 50 % y cursó con bacteriemia. Los aislamientos de estreptococos del grupo A tuvieron un 100 % de sensibilidad ante los betalactámicos. Hubo un solo paciente fallecido, afecto de meningitis, lo cual significó una tasa de letalidad del 5,0 %. CONCLUSIONES. El estreptococo del grupo A es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, fundamentalmente en el ambiente comunitario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central, a pesar del patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los betalactámicos.INTRODUCTION. The objective of the present investigation was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infection caused by group A Streptococcus in the newborn infants discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that included consecutive newborn infants who had infections caused by group A Streptococcus and that were admitted in the neonatology service of "Juan M. Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital between 1992 and 2005 was carried out. Different clinical and epidemiological variables were processed and analyzed by calculating the incidence and lethality rates. RESULTS. 20 newborn infants with infection caused by group A Streptococcus were registered, accounting for an annual average rate of 0.2 per 100 admissions. This infection shows an incidence with a significant trend to decrease in the last years. According to the classification used, all the infections had a late onset, and regarding their origin those acquired in the community prevailed (95.0 %. The infection of the soft tissues was the most common clinical form (10 of 20; 50 % and evolved with bacteremia. The isolations of group A Streptococcus has 100 % of sensitivity to betalactamics. Only one patient affected with meningitis died, which represented a lethality rate of 5.0 %. CONCLUSIONS. The group A Streptococcus is an agent causing infections that affect the newborn infant, mainly in the community environment. These infections may be lethal in some patients with infection of the central nervous system, in spite of the pattern of elevated susceptibility to betalactamics.

Manuel Díaz Alvarez

2008-03-01

290

Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de las infecciones por Streptococcus pyogenes en el período neonatal / Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in the neonatal period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la infección por Estreptococo del grupo A en los recién nacidos egresados de hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutiv [...] os, quienes tuvieron infecciones por estreptococos del grupo A y que estuvieron ingresados en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre 1992 y el 2005. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad. RESULTADOS. Se registraron 20 recién nacidos con infección por estreptococos del grupo A, lo cual representó una tasa promedio anual de 0,2 cada 100 ingresos. Esta infección muestra una incidencia con tendencia significativa a disminuir en los últimos años. Según la clasificación utilizada, todas las infecciones fueron de inicio tardío y, de acuerdo al origen, predominaron las adquiridas en la comunidad (95,0 %). La infección de tejidos blandos fue la forma clínica más frecuente (10 de 20; 50 %) y cursó con bacteriemia. Los aislamientos de estreptococos del grupo A tuvieron un 100 % de sensibilidad ante los betalactámicos. Hubo un solo paciente fallecido, afecto de meningitis, lo cual significó una tasa de letalidad del 5,0 %. CONCLUSIONES. El estreptococo del grupo A es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, fundamentalmente en el ambiente comunitario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central, a pesar del patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los betalactámicos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION. The objective of the present investigation was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infection caused by group A Streptococcus in the newborn infants discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that included consecutive newborn infants [...] who had infections caused by group A Streptococcus and that were admitted in the neonatology service of "Juan M. Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital between 1992 and 2005 was carried out. Different clinical and epidemiological variables were processed and analyzed by calculating the incidence and lethality rates. RESULTS. 20 newborn infants with infection caused by group A Streptococcus were registered, accounting for an annual average rate of 0.2 per 100 admissions. This infection shows an incidence with a significant trend to decrease in the last years. According to the classification used, all the infections had a late onset, and regarding their origin those acquired in the community prevailed (95.0 %). The infection of the soft tissues was the most common clinical form (10 of 20; 50 %) and evolved with bacteremia. The isolations of group A Streptococcus has 100 % of sensitivity to betalactamics. Only one patient affected with meningitis died, which represented a lethality rate of 5.0 %. CONCLUSIONS. The group A Streptococcus is an agent causing infections that affect the newborn infant, mainly in the community environment. These infections may be lethal in some patients with infection of the central nervous system, in spite of the pattern of elevated susceptibility to betalactamics.

Manuel, Díaz Alvarez; Bárbara, Acosta Batista; Daniel, Claver Isás; María Teresa, Fernández de la Paz; Alicia, Martínez Izquierdo.

2008-03-01

291

Radioprotective Agents  

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Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction ...

Ilker Kelle

2008-01-01

292

Effect of emodin on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and the development of caries in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emodin is an active herbal component traditionally used in East Asian countries for treating a variety of diseases. The present study investigated the effects of emodin on specific virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in vitro and on caries development in vivo. The growth and acid production of S. mutans were significantly inhibited by emodin (0.5-2 mg/ml). Emodin also significantly suppressed the synthesis of insoluble glucans by S. mutans. Furthermore, the topical application of emodin reduced the incidence and severity of carious lesions in rats. These results suggest that the natural compound emodin may be a novel pharmacological agent for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. PMID:25187845

Xu, Jing-Shu; Cui, Yun; Liao, Xian-Min; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Cao, Xue

2014-10-01

293

Antimicrobial Activity of Ceftaroline Tested against Drug-Resistant Subsets of Streptococcus pneumoniae from U.S. Medical Centers  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (6,958) were collected from patients at 163 U.S. medical centers during 2009 through 2012. Isolates were evaluated for multidrug resistance (MDR) to penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. Ceftaroline was 16-fold more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC50/MIC90, ?0.25/2 ?g/ml) against all isolates. For MDR isolates (35.2% of tested strains), ceftaroline (MIC50/MIC90, 0.06/0.25 ?g/ml; 100.0% susceptible) was the most active agent tested, being 8-fold more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC50/MIC90, 0.5/2 ?g/ml) and 16-fold more potent than penicillin (MIC50/MIC90, 1/4 ?g/ml). PMID:24514082

Sader, Helio S.; Farrell, David J.; Jones, Ronald N.

2014-01-01

294

Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain SA20-06, a fish pathogen associated to meningoencephalitis outbreaks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is the causative agent of meningoencephalitis in fish, mastitis in cows, and neonatal sepsis in humans. Meningoencephalitis is a major health problem for tilapia farming and is responsible for high economic losses worldwide. Despite its importance, the genomic characteristics and the main molecular mechanisms involved in virulence of S. agalactiae isolated from fish are still poorly understood. Here, we present the genomic features of the 1,820,886 bp long complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SA20-06 isolated from a meningoencephalitis outbreak in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil, and its annotation, consisting of 1,710 protein-coding genes (excluding pseudogenes), 7 rRNA operons, 79 tRNA genes and 62 pseudogenes. PMID:23991251

Pereira, Ulisses de Pádua; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Guimarães, Luís Carlos; Silva de Almeida, Sintia; Diniz, Carlos Augusto Almeida; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Gomes de Sá, Pablo; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda Marriam; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Araújo, Flávio Marcos Gomes; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Oliveira, Guilherme; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco; Figueiredo, Henrique César Pereira

2013-01-01

295

Meningitis bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus suis en criadores de cerdos: comunicación de los primeros dos casos en Chile / Streptococcus suis meningitis in pig farmers: report of first two cases in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La infección humana por Streptococcus suis es una zoonosis con riesgo ocupacional conocido, siendo la meningitis aguda su manifestación clínica más frecuente. Se presentan los dos primeros casos en Chile. Primer caso: Mujer de 54 años con un cuadro de cefalea y vómitos, confusión y signos meníngeos. [...] Evolucionó con un shock séptico. Segundo caso: Varón de 48 años, refirió cefalea y vómitos. Presentó signos meníngeos al examen físico. En ambos casos en la tinción de Gram de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) se observaron cocáceas grampositivas. Fueron tratados con ceftriaxona y dexametasona. El cultivo de LCR fue positivo en ambos casos para S. suis serotipo 2. En los dos pacientes la evolución clínica fue favorable, sin alteraciones neurológicas al alta. En ambos casos se obtuvo en forma retrospectiva el antecedente de realizar labores de crianza de ganado porcino. Se destaca la importancia de investigar los antecedentes epidemiológicos para sospechar este agente etiológico en meningitis aguda. Se debe considerar el riesgo ocupacional en una posible infección por este patógeno humano emergente y educar a la población en riesgo sobre medidas preventivas simples. Abstract in english Human infection by Streptococcus suis is a zoonosis with a known occupational risk. Meningitis is its most frequent clinical manifestation. We present the first two cases in Chile. First case: 54-year-old female patient, pig-farmer. She presented headache, vomiting, confusion and meningismus. She pr [...] esented septic shock. Second case: 48-year-old male patient, also pig farmer, presented headache, vomiting and meningismus. A Gram's staining of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed gram-positive cocci in both cases. Ceftriaxone and dexamethasone treatment was administered. The CSF cultures were positive for Streptococcus suis serotype 2. The patients experienced a good outcome, without neurological sequelae at the time of discharge. It is considerable to evaluate epidemiologic factors in order to suspect this etiological agent in cases of meningitis. These cases enhance the need of heighten awareness of potential for occupational exposure and infection by this emerging human pathogen. Educating population at risk about simple preventive measures must be considered.

Erica, Koch; Gino, Fuentes; Rodrigo, Carvajal; Ricardo, Palma; Verónica, Aguirre; Carolina, Cruz; Ruby, Henríquez; Mario, Calvo.

2013-10-01

296

Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin and ceftriaxone in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia.  

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With the high prevalence in Streptococcus pneumoniae antimicrobial resistance to penicillin and ceftriaxone, it is important to continue surveillance of infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, and also we recommend that guidelines for treatment and prevention of pneumococcal infection must be addressed by health care and public health agencies.

Ahmed A. Al-Aqeeli

2002-04-01

297

Significance of Gram's Stain in Rapid Intrapartum Screening for Maternal Carriership of Group B Streptococcus  

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Objective: Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) is an important cause of neonatal sepsis. Prevention is possible by intrapartum screening for maternal GBS carriership and antimicrobial treatment of colonized women with risk factors during labor. The conflicting results of diagnostic performance are reported both for the newly developed rapid GBS antigen tests and Gram's stain.

Adriaanse, Albert H.; Muytjens, Harry L.; Kolle?e, Louis A. A.; Nijhuis, Jan G.; Hoogkamp-korstanje, Jacomina A. A.

1995-01-01

298

Comparative transcriptomic analysis of streptococcus pseudopneumoniae with viridans group streptococci  

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Abstract Background Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, is a novel member of the genus Streptococcus, falling close to related members like S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, and S. oralis. Its recent appearance has shed light on streptococcal infections, which has been unclear till recently. In this study, the transcriptome of S. pseudopneumoniae CCUG 49455T was analyzed using the S. pneumoniae R6 microarray platform and com...

Park Hee; Myung Soon; Kim Wonyong

2012-01-01

299

Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae CNCTC 10/84, a Hypervirulent Sequence Type 26 Strain  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a human pathogen with a propensity to cause neonatal infections. We report the complete genome sequence of GBS strain CNCTC 10/84, a hypervirulent clinical isolate frequently used to study GBS pathogenesis. Comparative analysis of this sequence may shed light on novel pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25540350

Hooven, Thomas A.; Randis, Tara M.; Daugherty, Sean C.; Narechania, Apurva; Planet, Paul J.; Tettelin, Hervé

2014-01-01

300

Perfil fermentativo e valor nutritivo de silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis / Fermentation and nutritive value of elephant grass silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi desenvolvido objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da inoculação de estirpes de Streptococcus bovis (HC5 e JB1) sobre o pH, a produção de amônia e o valor nutricional em silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, c [...] om três tratamentos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - capimelefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis HC5 e T3 - capim-elefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis JB1, utilizando cinco repetições por tratamento. A menor concentração de amônia foi observada na silagem tratada com inoculante à base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5,90 p.100 N-total). A inoculação aumentou os teores de ácido láctico e diminuiu os teores de ácidos acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo que as silagens inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 e HC5 foram os que apresentaram os maiores valores de ácido láctico. Não houve diferença estatística para os teores de MS e PB. Para os valores das fibras, a silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 apresentou o menor valor de FDN (59,77 p.100) e HEM (26,71 p.100). O maior valor da DIVMS foi observado na silagem com Streptococcus bovis JB1, mostrando superioridade de quatro pontos percentuais (64,23 p.100) em relação ao tratamento sem inoculante bacteriano (60,35 p.100). O uso Streptococcus bovis JB1 melhora o processo fermentativo além de promover melhorarias na qualidade da fibra e na DIVMS da silagem estudada. Abstract in english The experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of strains of Streptococcus bovis (HC5 and JB1) on pH, ammonia production and nutritional value in elephant-grass silages (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). The experimental design was entirely randomized, with three treatments: T1 elephant- grass, T2 - [...] grass-elephant inoculated with Streptococcus bovis HC5, T3 - elephant grass inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, totaling five replicates per treatment. The smallest value of ammonia was observed in the silage treated with inoculante the base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5.90% N-total). Inoculation increased the levels of lactic acid and decreased levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids, and the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 were those with the highest values of lactic acid. There were not statistical differences for the tenors of dry matter (MS) and crude protein (PB). For the values of the fibers, the grass-elephant silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, it presented the smallest value of neutral detergent fiber (59.77 %) and Hemicellulose (26.71 %). The largest value of in vitro dry matter digestibility (DIVMS) was observed in the silage with Streptococcus bovis JB1, showing superiority of four percentile points (64.23 %) in relation to the treatment without bacterial inoculante (60.35 %). The use Streptococcus bovis JB1 was efficient in the process fermentativo besides promoting would get better in the quality of the fiber and DIVMS in the studied silage.

D.J., Ferreira; A.M., Zanine; E.M., Santos; R.P., Lana; W.L., Silva; A.L., Souza; O.G., Pereira.

1223-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Antimicrobial Susceptibilities and Distribution of Resistance Genes for ?-Lactams in Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated in Hamadan  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: ?-lactams resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae are an emerging problem throughout the world. Several resistance mechanisms have been reported, including expression of drug-destroying enzymes such as ?-lactamases, altered drug targets such as conformational changes in PBPs, decreased bacterial permeability, and increased drug efflux. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the relationship between the results of polymerase chain reaction identification of the Pbp1a, Pbp2b and Pbp2x genes (penicillin-binding proteins) and susceptibilities of ?-lactam antibiotics against S. pneumoniae. Materials and Methods: Fifty five isolates of S. pneumoniae were obtained from clinical samples with antimicrobial tests. The susceptibilities of isolates to benzylpenicillin, imipenem, oxacillin, ceftazidime were determined. The resistance genotype was determined by the polymerase chain reaction with primers designed for the PBP genes. Results: The number of S. pneumoniae isolates resistant to benzylpenicillin, imipenem, oxacillin and ceftazidime were 94.5%, 100%, 100%, and 21.8%, respectively. Analysis of mutation in the genes for pbp showed that 85% of isolates had mutations in pbp2x, pbp2b and pbp1a. Susceptibility to benzylpenicillin was decreased once the number of mutated pbp genes in S. pneumonia increased. According to the results of this study, S. pneumoniae isolates showed reduced susceptibility due to accumulation of resistance genes. Conclusions: We suggest that studies should be performed to evaluate changes in Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values as well as genetic mutations in order to determine prevalence of S. pneumoniae resistance against antimicrobial agents.

Najafi Mosleh, Mohammad; Gharibi, Marzieh; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Saidijam, Massoud; Kalantarian, Giti

2014-01-01

302

Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Supplemented-Chewing Candy Against Streptococcus mutans  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is considered to play a major etiological role in development of human dental plaque believed to related to dental caries, the most prevalent disease of the human oral cavity. The objectives of the present study were to formulate and produce propolis supplemented-chewing candy and to investigate its antibacterial activity against S. mutans. Propolis is a natural resinous bee-hive product thought to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating activities. Propolis was extracted from hives of bees of Trigona spp. using ethanol. The extract was coated with maltodextrine and homogenized to generate propolis microparticles. The particles were introduced into chewing candy preparations for the production of propolis supplemented-chewing candy. The candy was then subjected to in vitro antibacterial assays to test its activity against S. mutans isolated from human dental plaque. Results showed that the ethanol extracted propolis of Trigona spp. bee-hives can be homogenized to form propolis microparticles. The propolis microparticles could be used as a supplement in the formulation of chewing candy preparations. The propolis supplemented-chewing candy showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans. The candy, therefore, has the potential to be used as an antiplaque agent for prevention of dental caries.

AHMAD ENDANG ZAINAL HASAN

2011-09-01

303

Diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the gene for pneumolysin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis has long been based on classical methods of Gram stain, serological tests, and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of these methods, especially culture and direct smear, is thwarted by failure to detect bacteria following administration of antimicr [...] obial agents and reluctance to performance lumbar punctures at admission. Indeed, patients with meningitis frequently receive antibiotics orally or by injection before the diagnosis is suspected or established. Thus an alternative method has become necessary to help clinicians and epidemiologists to management and control of bacterial meningitis. We evaluate the application of a polymerase chain reaction-based (PCR) assay for amplification of pneumolysin gene (ply) to diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. The PCR assay sensitivity for CSF was 96% (95% confidence interval, CI, 90-99%) compared to a sensitivity of 59% for culture (95% CI 49-69%), 66% for Gram stain (95% CI 56-74%), and 78% for latex agglutination test (95% CI 69-86%); PCR specificity was 100% (95% CI 83-100%). PCR results were available within 4 h of the start of the assay. This molecular approach proved to be reliable and useful to identify this bacterium compared with other classical laboratory methods for identification of bacterial meningitis pathogens.

Juliana de A, Matos; Danielle J, Madureira; Maria C, Rebelo; Cristina B, Hofer; David E, Barroso.

2006-08-01

304

Antibiotic susceptibility and prevalence of erythromycin ribosomal methylase gene, erm(B) in Streptococcus spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate drug resistance and the genetic relatedness of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus spp. from different animals and humans in Taiwan. Cumulatively, 248 isolates were collected from 15 animal species and human patients and the susceptibilities of the isolates to six antimicrobial agents including azithromycin (AZI), clarithromycin (CLAR), erythromycin (ERY), spiramycin (SPIR), amoxicillin (AMO), and enrofloxacin (ENRO) were determined by the agar dilution method. The results indicated that resistance among the 248 strains was highest for SPIR, followed by ENRO, CLAR, ERY, AZI, and AMO. The most common resistotypes of the isolates from mammals and aquatic animals were AZI-CLAR-ERY-SPIR (27.5%) and SPIR (55.1%), respectively. The presence of ERY-resistant genes was confirmed by PCR. The erm gene was amplified from 28 isolates (20.6%) by PCR for further investigation. The predominant erm gene in the ERY-resistant isolates was the erm(B) gene. The phylogenetic analysis of the erm(B) gene results indicated that there was a close genetic relationship among all the strains but the genotypic clusters did not show clear segregation of the isolates according to the source or region. PMID:17400007

Hung, Shao-Wen; Wang, Shu-Ling; Tu, Ching-Yu; Tsai, Yueh-Chih; Chuang, Shih-Te; Shieh, Meng-Tong; Liu, Pan-Chen; Wang, Way-Shyan

2008-05-01

305

Quantification of vital adherent Streptococcus sanguinis cells on protein-coated titanium after disinfectant treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantification of vital adherent bacteria is challenging, especially when efficacy of antimicrobial agents is to be evaluated. In this study three different methods were compared in order to quantify vital adherent Streptococcus sanguinis cells after exposure to disinfectants. An anaerobic flow chamber model accomplished initial adhesion of S. sanguinis on protein-coated titanium. Effects of chlorhexidine, Betadine®, Octenidol®, and ProntOral® were assessed by quantifying vital cells using Live/Dead BacLight™, conventional culturing and isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). Results were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. Live/dead staining revealed highest vital cell counts (P 0.05), indicating equivalent numbers of bacteria were created and disinfectants delayed growth but did not eliminate it. In conclusion, contrary to culturing, live/dead staining enables detection of cells that may be viable but non-cultivable. Microcalorimetry allows unique evaluation of relative disinfectant effects by quantifying differences in time delay of regrowth of remaining vital cells. PMID:21670995

Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Monika; Braissant, Olivier; Hauser-Gerspach, Irmgard; Daniels, A U; Wirz, Dieter; Weiger, Roland; Waltimo, Tuomas

2011-09-01

306

Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance g [...] enes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated the presence of Tet resistance genes (tetM and tetO) and CTns among Ery-resistant (Ery-R) and Ery-susceptible (Ery-S) GBS strains isolated from human and bovine sources; and analyzed the ability for transferring resistance determinants between strains from both origins. Tet resistance and int-Tn genes were more common among Ery-R when compared to Ery-S isolates. Conjugative transfer of all resistance genes detected among the GBS strains included in this study (ermA, ermB, mef, tetM and tetO), in frequencies between 1.10-7 and 9.10-7, was possible from bovine donor strains to human recipient strain, but not the other way around. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of in vitro conjugation of Ery and Tet resistance genes among GBS strains recovered from different hosts.

Tatiana Castro Abreu, Pinto; Natália Silva, Costa; Ana Beatriz de Almeida, Corrêa; Ivi Cristina Menezes de, Oliveira; Marcos Correa de, Mattos; Alexandre Soares, Rosado; Leslie Claude, Benchetrit.

2014-09-01

307

Diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the gene for pneumolysin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis has long been based on classical methods of Gram stain, serological tests, and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The performance of these methods, especially culture and direct smear, is thwarted by failure to detect bacteria following administration of antimicrobial agents and reluctance to performance lumbar punctures at admission. Indeed, patients with meningitis frequently receive antibiotics orally or by injection before the diagnosis is suspected or established. Thus an alternative method has become necessary to help clinicians and epidemiologists to management and control of bacterial meningitis. We evaluate the application of a polymerase chain reaction-based (PCR assay for amplification of pneumolysin gene (ply to diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. The PCR assay sensitivity for CSF was 96% (95% confidence interval, CI, 90-99% compared to a sensitivity of 59% for culture (95% CI 49-69%, 66% for Gram stain (95% CI 56-74%, and 78% for latex agglutination test (95% CI 69-86%; PCR specificity was 100% (95% CI 83-100%. PCR results were available within 4 h of the start of the assay. This molecular approach proved to be reliable and useful to identify this bacterium compared with other classical laboratory methods for identification of bacterial meningitis pathogens.

Juliana de A Matos

2006-08-01

308

Trading Agents  

CERN Document Server

Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

Wellman, Michael

2011-01-01

309

Deep neck infection complicating lymphadenitis caused by Streptococcus intermedius in an immunocompetent child  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus intermedius belongs to the Streptococcus anginosus group. It is part of the normal flora of the human mouth, but it can be etiologically associated with deep-site infections. Case presentation We present a case of deep neck infection complicating Streptococcus intermedius lymphadenitis, which developed in an immunocompetent 14-year-old boy with a history of recent dental work. The infection was ultimately eradicated by a combined medical and surgical approach. Conclusion Our report suggests that combined medical and surgical therapy is essential for the complete resolution of deep infections caused by Streptococcus intermedius. Molecular biological techniques can be useful in guiding the diagnostic investigation and providing insight into the possibility of occult abscesses, which are particularly common with Streptococcus intermedius infections.

D'Inzeo Tiziana

2006-03-01

310

Co-infection by Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: three case reports  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bacterial infections may appear as sequelae of remote tuberculous infections, especially thoracic infections. The simultaneous appearance of tuberculosis and bacterial infection is not common, and, to our knowledge, the association of infection by Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has not been reported previously in the literature. Case presentation We report three cases of dual infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that were first diagnosed as pyogenic abscesses because of an isolation of Streptococcus anginosus. Despite a course of antibiotics and drainage, the outcome of this initial treatment was unfavourable. A re-evaluation yielded a diagnosis of mixed infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusion In a geographical area with a high prevalence of tuberculous disease, the rare possibility of dual infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be considered.

Rabuñal Ramón

2009-01-01

311

Streptococcus pneumoniae and its bacteriophages: one long argument / Streptococcus pneumoniae e seus bacteriófagos: uma prolongada controvérsia / Streptococcus pneumoniae y sus bacteriófagos: una prolongada controversia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As enfermidades infecciosas matam anualmente cêrca de 15 milhões de pessoas. A OMS estima que 1,6 milhões dessas mortes são decorrentes de infeccões pneumocócicas. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococo), uma bactéria com uma notável contribuição histórica para a biologia, é o melhor exemplo que ilust [...] ra o rápido desenvolvimento da resistência aos antibióticos, o que pode originar um grave problema sanitário. Esta revisão analisa as bases moleculares dos fatores principais de virulência no pneumococo, a cápsula e as hidrolases da parede celular e descreve novos enfoques para o desenvolvimento de ferramentas médicas inovadoras para prevenir as infecções pneumocócicas. Também foi analisado o atual conhecimento da possível contribuição dos fagos de pneumococo para a virulência desta bactéria e o uso como arma terapéutica das enzimas líticas codificadas por estes fagos. Abstract in spanish Las enfermedades infecciosas matan anualmente a unos 15 millones de personas y la OMS estima que 1,6 millones de esas muertes se deben a infecciones neumocócicas. Streptococcus pneumoniae (neumococo), una bacteria con una notable contribución histórica a la biología, es el mejor ejemplo que ilustra [...] el rápido desarrollo de la resistencia a los antibióticos, lo que puede originar un grave problema sanitario. Esta revisión analiza las bases moleculares de los dos factores principales de virulencia en el neumococo, la cápsula y las hidrolasas de la pared celular y describe nuevos enfoques para el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas médicas para prevenir las infecciones neumocócicas. También se analizan el conocimiento actual de la posible contribución de los fagos de neumococo a la virulencia de esta bacteria y el uso como arma terapéutica de las enzimas líticas codificadas por estos fagos. Abstract in english Infectious diseases currently kill more than 15 million people annually, and the WHO estimates that every year 1.6 million people die from pneumococcal diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), a bacterium with along biological pedigree, best illustrates the rapid evolution of antibiotic re [...] sistance,which has led to major public health concern. This article discusses the molecularbasis of the two main virulence factors of pneumococcus, the capsule and cell-wall hydrolases, as well as new approaches to developing medicinal weapons for preventing pneumococcal infections. In addition, current knowledge regarding pneumococcal phages as potential contributors to virulence and the use of lytic enzymes encoded by these phages as therapeutic tools is reviewed.

Rubens, López.

2004-09-01

312

Meningite neonatal por Streptococcus pyogenes e trombose de seio sagital: relato de caso Neonatal Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis and sagittal sinus thrombosis: case report  

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Relatamos um caso de meningite por Streptococcus pyogenes em menina de 18 dias de vida, com evolução complicada por trombose de seio sagital. São discutidos alguns aspectos da patogênese, tratamento e seguimento da doença. Frente ao aumento mundial das infecções estreptocócicas graves nos últimos 10 anos, é provável que a meningite neonatal por Streptococcus pyogenes se torne mais frequente no futuro, sendo importante estar alerta para o diagnóstico precoce e as possíveis complic...

VERA LÚCIA JORNADA KREBS; LUCIANA NAVARRETTI CHIEFFI; MARIA ESTHER JURFEST RIVERO CECCON; EDNA MARIA DE ALBUQUERQUE DINIZ; RUBENS FEFERBAUM; CARLOS AUGUSTO TAKEUCHI; MARIA JOAQUINA MARQUES-DIAS; JORGE DAVID AIVAZOGLOU CARNEIRO; FLÁVIO ADOLFO COSTA VAZ

1998-01-01

313

Use of partial budgeting to determine the economic benefits of antibiotic treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis or Streptococcus dysgalactiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic effect of lactational antibiotic treatment of chronic subclinical intramammary infections due to Streptococcus uberis or Streptococcus dysgalactiae was explored by means of partial budgeting. Effects at cow level and herd level were modelled, including prevention of clinical mastitis episodes and the prevention of transmission of infections. Input variables for our deterministic model were derived from literature or based on 2002/2003 dairy prices and farming conditions in The Ne...

Swinkels, J. M.; Rooijendijk, J. G. A.; Zadoks, R. N.; Hogeveen, H.

2005-01-01

314

A Collagen-Binding Adhesin, Acb, and Ten Other Putative MSCRAMM and Pilus Family Proteins of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis Group, Biotype I)? §  

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Members of the Streptococcus bovis group are important causes of endocarditis. However, factors associated with their pathogenicity, such as adhesins, remain uncharacterized. We recently demonstrated that endocarditis-derived Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates frequently adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Here, we generated a draft genome sequence of an ECM protein-adherent S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain and found, by genome-wide analyses, 11 predi...

Sillanpa?a?, Jouko; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Qin, Xiang; Singh, Kavindra V.; Muzny, Donna M.; Kovar, Christie L.; Nazareth, Lynne V.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Ferraro, Mary J.; Steckelberg, James M.; Weinstock, George M.; Murray, Barbara E.

2009-01-01

315

Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26, seals (n = 6, a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host-associated genome content of S. agalactiae strains.

Delannoy Christian MJ

2013-02-01

316

Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in sputum samples by PCR.  

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A method for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in sputum samples by PCR has been developed. The assay employs oligonucleotide primers specific for a portion of the autolysin gene lytA of S. pneumoniae. Other closely related streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis do not give a positive result in the assay. The assay was capable of detecting between 10 and 100 CFU of S. pneumoniae in distilled water and 1.4 x 10(4) CFU/ml in simulated sputum samples. Sputum samp...

Gillespie, S. H.; Ullman, C.; Smith, M. D.; Emery, V.

1994-01-01

317

Contribution of autolysin to virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

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Insertion-duplication mutagenesis was used to construct an autolysin-negative derivative of Streptococcus pneumoniae. This derivative was obtained by first transforming the nonencapsulated strain Rx1 with a derivative of the vector pVA891 carrying a 375-base-pair TaqI DNA fragment from the middle of the autolysin structural gene. DNA was extracted from the resultant erythromycin-resistant, autolysin-negative rough pneumococcus and used to transform S. pneumoniae D39, a virulent type 2 strain....

Berry, A. M.; Lock, R. A.; Hansman, D.; Paton, J. C.

1989-01-01

318

Vitamin B6 requirements of nutritionally variant Streptococcus mitior.  

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The growth rate of three vitamin B6-dependent Streptococcus mitior (B6DS) and two non-B6DS strains in Todd-Hewitt broth, with and without vitamin B6 supplementation, was examined. Even in optimally supplemented culture media, the growth rate of the three B6DS strains was much slower than that of comparable non-B6DS strains. Uptake studies with [3H] pyridoxine suggest that these B6DS strains cannot assimilate pyridoxine. Although not transported intracellularly, pyridoxine inhibited the growth...

Schiller, N. L.; Roberts, R. B.

1982-01-01

319

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PURIFIED HYALURONAN SYNTHASE FROM STREPTOCOCCUS EQUISIMILIS*  

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Hyaluronan synthase (HAS) utilizes UDP-GlcUA and UDP-GlcNAc in the presence of Mg2+ to form the GAG hyaluronan (HA). The purified HAS from Streptococcus equisimilis (seHAS) shows high fidelity in that it only polymerizes the native substrates, UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcUA. However, other uridinyl nucleotides and UDP-sugars inhibited enzyme activity, including UDP-GalNAc, UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal, UDP-GalUA, UMP, UDP and UTP. Purified seHAS was ~40% more active in 25 mM, compared to 50 mM, PO4 in the pres...

Tlapak-simmons, Valarie L.; Baron, Christina A.; Weigel, Paul H.

2004-01-01

320

Uptake of Branched-Chain Amino Acids by Streptococcus thermophilus  

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The transport of branched-chain amino acids in Streptococcus thermophilus was energy dependent. The metabolic inhibitors of glycolysis and ATPase enzymes were active, but the proton-conducting uncouplers were not. Transport was optimal at temperatures of between 30 and 45°C and at pH 7.0 for the three amino acids leucine, valine, and isoleucine; a second peak existed at pH 5.0 with valine and isoleucine. By competition and kinetics studies, the branched-chain amino acids were found to share ...

Akpemado, K. M.; Bracquart, P. A.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Isolation, Production And Purification Of Streptokinase From Streptococcus Pyogenes  

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Full Text Available Streptokinase a fibrinolytic enzyme is very effective in treating acute myocardial infarction and it iscertainly more cost-effective. In view of the relatively recent availability of the competing recombinant tPA,skepticism is being expressed about the continued viability of streptokinase therapy. Despite this research onstreptokinase continues, and it remains a vital and affordable therapy especially in the world's poorer healthcaresystems. Our present study focuses on the production of streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes species andpartial purification of streptokinase by ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and column chromatography. Theenzyme is quantified by Lowry's method and its electrophoretic mobility and molecular weight were determined bySDS-PAGE.

V.S. Shembekar

2013-07-01

322

Effect of Lactobacillus casei on Streptococcus bovis in faecal flora  

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Bacteraemia caused by Streptococcus bovis is often associated with colorectal tumours. Also, experimental studies have been proposed that S bovis acts as a promoter of tumours. We report the case of a man with colon adenoma who had a high proportion of S bovis in his faecal flora. He was treated with a Lactobacillus casei preparation (BLP) and the effect on the faecal flora was examined. L casei reduced the proportion of S bovis (from 43% down to 9%), and the effect continued after the admini...

Kawano, Atsuko; Ishikawa, Hideki; Akedo, Ikuko; Nakamura, Tomiyo; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Takayama, Hiroo; Imaoka, Akemi; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Otani, Toru; Sakai, Toshiyuki

2010-01-01

323

Effect of Lactobacillus casei on Streptococcus bovis in faecal flora.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteraemia caused by Streptococcus bovis is often associated with colorectal tumours. Also, experimental studies have been proposed that S bovis acts as a promoter of tumours. We report the case of a man with colon adenoma who had a high proportion of S bovis in his faecal flora. He was treated with a Lactobacillus casei preparation (BLP) and the effect on the faecal flora was examined. L casei reduced the proportion of S bovis (from 43% down to 9%), and the effect continued after the administration of BLP was stopped. Our data indicate that BLP can repress the excessive colonisation of S bovis. PMID:22242064

Kawano, Atsuko; Ishikawa, Hideki; Akedo, Ikuko; Nakamura, Tomiyo; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Takayama, Hiroo; Imaoka, Akemi; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Otani, Toru; Sakai, Toshiyuki

2010-01-01

324

Identification of Rgg Binding Sites in the Streptococcus pyogenes Chromosome ? †  

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Streptococcus pyogenes Rgg is a regulatory protein that controls the transcription of 588 genes in strain NZ131 during the post-exponential phase of growth, including the virulence-associated genes encoding the extracellular SpeB protease, pullulanase A (PulA), and two extracellular nucleases (SdaB and Spd-3). Rgg binds to DNA proximally to the speB promoter (PspeB) to activate transcription; however, it is not known if Rgg binds to the promoters of other genes to influence expression, or if ...

Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Mcshan, W. Michael; Dunman, Paul M.; Chaussee, Michael S.

2011-01-01

325

Collagen mediates adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to human dentin.  

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Some strains of Streptococcus mutans were found to recognize and bind collagen type I. Binding of 125I-labeled collagen type I was specific in that collagen types I and II, but not unrelated proteins, were able to inhibit binding of the labeled ligand to bacteria. Collagen binding to S. mutans was partially reversible and involved a limited number of bacterial binding sites per cell. S. mutans UA 140 cells bound collagen type I with high affinity (Kd = 8 x 10(-8) M). The number of binding sit...

Switalski, L. M.; Butcher, W. G.; Caufield, P. C.; Lantz, M. S.

1993-01-01

326

Saliva-binding region of Streptococcus mutans surface protein antigen.  

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A 190-kDa surface protein antigen (PAc) of Streptococcus mutans binds to human salivary components. For detection of specific binding of the PAc protein to human salivary components, a simple sandwich assay was used. Microtiter plates precoated with recombinant PAc (rPAc), PAc fragments, or S. mutans whole cells were allowed to react with human whole saliva and then were incubated with biotinylated rPAc. The biotinylated rPAc bound to salivary components was detected by use of alkaline phosph...

Nakai, M.; Okahashi, N.; Ohta, H.; Koga, T.

1993-01-01

327

Molecular architecture of Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 pili  

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Although the pili of Gram-positive bacteria are putative virulence factors, little is known about their structure. Here we describe the molecular architecture of pilus-1 of Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One major (RrgB) and two minor components (RrgA and RrgC) assemble into the pilus. Results from TEM and scanning transmission EM show that the native pili are approximately 6 nm wide, flexible filaments that can be over 1 ?m long. They ...

Hilleringmann, Markus; Ringler, Philippe; Mu?ller, Shirley A.; Angelis, Gabriella; Rappuoli, Rino; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Engel, Andreas

2009-01-01

328

Group A Streptococcus Induces Apoptosis in Human Epithelial Cells  

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Internalization of group A streptococcus (GAS) by epithelial cells may have a role in causing invasive diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the fate of GAS-infected epithelial cells. GAS has the ability to invade A-549 and HEp-2 cells. Both A-549 and HEp-2 cells were killed by infection with GAS. Epithelial cell death mediated by GAS was at least in part through apoptosis, as shown by changes in cellular morphology, DNA fragmentation laddering, and propidium iodide staining for ...

Tsai, Pei-jane; Lin, Yee-shin; Kuo, Chih-feng; Lei, Huan-yao; Wu, Jiunn-jong

1999-01-01

329

Bioenergetic consequences of lactose starvation for continuously cultured Streptococcus cremoris.  

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Streptococcus cremoris cells that had been grown in a chemostat were starved for lactose. The viability of the culture remained essentially constant in the first hours of starvation and subsequently declined logarithmically. The viability pattern during starvation varied with the previously imposed growth rates. The death rates were 0.029, 0.076, and 0.298 h-1 for cells grown at dilution rates of 0.07, 0.11 and 0.38 h-1, respectively. The proton motive force and the pools of energy-rich phosp...

Poolman, B.; Smid, E. J.; Veldkamp, H.; Konings, W. N.

1987-01-01

330

A new structural paradigm in copper resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Copper resistance has emerged as an important virulence determinant of microbial pathogens. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, copper resistance is mediated by the copper-responsive repressor CopY, CupA, and CopA, a copper effluxing P1B-type ATPase. We show here that CupA is a novel cell membrane-anchored Cu(I) chaperone, and that a Cu(I)-binding competent, membrane-localized CupA is obligatory for copper resistance. The crystal structures of the soluble domain of CupA (sCupA) and the N-terminal me...

Fu, Yue; Tsui, Ho-ching Tiffany; Bruce, Kevin E.; Sham, Lok-to; Higgins, Khadine A.; Lisher, John P.; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M.; Maroney, Michael J.; Dann, Charles E.; Winkler, Malcolm E.; Giedroc, David P.

2013-01-01

331

Antimicrobial activity of nisin against the swine pathogen Streptococcus suis and its synergistic interaction with antibiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections in pigs, including meningitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Furthermore, this bacterium is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Recently, increased antibiotic resistance in S. suis has been reported worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of nisin, a bacteriocin of the lantibiotic class, as an antibacterial agent against the pathogen S. suis serotype 2. In addition, the synergistic activity of nisin in combination with conventional antibiotics was assessed. Using a plate assay, the nisin-producing strain Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454 proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of S. suis (n=18) belonging to either sequence type (ST)1, ST25, or ST28. In a microdilution broth assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of purified nisin ranged between 1.25 and 5 ?g/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 5 and 10 ?g/mL toward S. suis. The use of a capsule-deficient mutant of S. suis indicated that the presence of this polysaccharidic structure has no marked impact on susceptibility to nisin. Following treatment of S. suis with nisin, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed lysis of bacteria resulting from breakdown of the cell membrane. A time-killing curve showed a rapid bactericidal activity of nisin. Lastly, synergistic effects of nisin were observed in combination with several antibiotics, including penicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and ceftiofur. This study brought clear evidence supporting the potential of nisin for the prevention and treatment of S. suis infections in pigs. PMID:24096107

Lebel, Geneviève; Piché, Fanny; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

2013-12-01

332

The cell envelope subtilisin-like proteinase is a virulence determinant for Streptococcus suis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen and zoonotic agent that mainly causes septicemia, meningitis, and endocarditis. It has recently been suggested that proteinases produced by S. suis (serotype 2 are potential virulence determinants. In the present study, we screened a S. suis mutant library created by the insertion of Tn917 transposon in order to isolate a mutant deficient in a cell surface proteinase. We characterized the gene and assessed the proteinase for its potential as a virulence factor. Results Two mutants (G6G and M3G possessing a single Tn917 insertion were isolated. The affected gene coded for a protein (SSU0757 that shared a high degree of identity with Streptococccus thermophilus PrtS (95.9% and, to a lesser extent, with Streptococcus agalactiae CspA (49.5%, which are cell surface serine proteinases. The SSU0757 protein had a calculated molecular mass of 169.6 kDa and contained the catalytic triad characteristic of subtilisin family proteinases: motif I (Asp200, motif II (His239, and motif III (Ser568. SSU0757 also had the Gram-positive cell wall anchoring motif (Leu-Pro-X-Thr-Gly at the carboxy-terminus, which was followed by a hydrophobic domain. All the S. suis isolates tested, which belonged to different serotypes, possessed the gene encoding the SSU0757 protein. The two mutants devoid of subtilisin-like proteinase activity had longer generation times and were more susceptible to killing by whole blood than the wild-type parent strain P1/7. The virulence of the G6G and M3G mutants was compared to the wild-type strain in the CD1 mouse model. Significant differences in mortality rates were noted between the P1/7 group and the M3G and G6G groups (p Conclusion In summary, we identified a gene coding for a cell surface subtilisin-like serine proteinase that is widely distributed in S. suis. Evidences were brought for the involvement of this proteinase in S. suis virulence.

Gottschalk Marcelo

2010-02-01

333

Streptococcus agalactiae, an emerging pathogen for cultured ya-fish, Schizothorax prenanti, in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. S. agalactiae infections are becoming an increasing problem in aquaculture and have been reported worldwide in a variety of fish species, especially those living in warm water. Recently, a very serious infectious disease of unknown aetiology broke out in ya-fish (Schizothorax prenanti) farms in Sichuan Province. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from moribund cultured ya-fish. The goals of this study were to identify the bacterial strains isolated from diseased fish between 2009 and 2011 in Sichuan Province, China, to evaluate the pathogenicity of the pathogen in ya-fish, crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus); and to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to many currently available anti-microbial agents. The virulence tests were conducted by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial suspensions. In this study, four strains of a Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus were isolated from moribund cultured ya-fish (S. prenanti). The coccoid microorganism was identified as S. agalactiae using a commercial streptococcal grouping kit and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. Susceptibility of the isolates to 22 antibiotics was tested using the disc diffusion method. All isolates showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, chloramphenicol, rifampin, vancomycin, azithromycin, florfenicol, cefalexin, cefradine and deoxycycline and resistant to gentamicin, sinomin (SMZ/TMP), penicillin, tenemycin, fradiomycin and streptomycin. Furthermore, the virulence tests were conducted by intraperitoneal injection of the isolated strain GY101 in ya-fish, crucian carp and the Nile tilapia. This coccus was lethal to ya-fish, Nile tilapia and crucian carp. The mortality rates of infected ya-fish were 100%, 100%, 60% and 20% at doses of 1.0?×?10?, 1.0?×?10?, 1.0?×?10? and 1.0?×?10? CFU/fish, respectively. The values were 100%, 80%, 60% and 30% for Nile tilapia and 100%, 60%, 10% and 0% for crucian carp. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. agalactiae as a pathogen of ya-fish. PMID:22146014

Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Huang, X L; Chen, D F; Li, C W; Ren, S Y; Liao, Y T; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, Q F; Du, Z J; Lai, W M

2012-08-01

334

Aspectos clinicos y neuroinmunologicos de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae / Clinical and neuroimmunological aspects of meningoencephalitis by Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Después de exitosas campañas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae hubo un aumento de casos de meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio y las complicaciones encontradas a un [...] grupo de pacientes que sufrieron de esta enfermedad entre 1993 y 2006, evaluar el estado de la barrera sangre-líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) y el patrón de respuesta de síntesis intratecal de inmunoglobulinas a través del reibergrama, se estudiaron 12 niños con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae que ingresaron en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana, en ese periodo. Se dosificaron albúmina, IgA, IgM e IgG y sus subclases por inmunodifusión radial en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. La edad más frecuente resultó la menor de un año. Las mayores complicaciones fueron: shock séptico y edema cerebral. Hubo tres pacientes fallecidos. Los patrones de las tres clases mayores de inmunoglobulinas aparecieron en el 33% del total. Los dos patrones de subclases de IgG más IgM tuvieron en común la disfunción de la barrera sangre-líquido cefalorraquídeo. La respuesta inmune intratecal en los pacientes con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae tiene características distintivas que lo diferencian de otras meningoencefalitis de origen bacteriano por lo que en su conjunto podrían ser elementos a ser tomados en cuenta para auxiliar al médico en su diagnóstico diferencial y en la táctica para una vacuna cubana Abstract in english After successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae, there was an increase of cases of meningoencephalitis by Streptococcus pneumoniae. With the aim to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and complications found in a group of patien [...] ts suffering from this disease between 1993 and 2006, to evaluate the state of the barrier blood-cephalo rachideous liquid (LCR) and the response pattern of intratecal synthesis of immunogobulins through reibergram, 12 children with meningo-encephalitis by Streptococcus pneumoniae who were hospitalized in the Pediatric Hospital of San Miguel del Padrón, Havana City, were studied. Albumin, IgA, IgM and IgG and their subclasses were dossified by radial immuno-diffusion in serum and cephalo-rachideous liquid. The most frequent age was that lower than one year. The greater complications were: septic and brain edema. There were three deceased patients. Patterns of the three greater classes of immunoglobulins appeared in 33% from the total. The two patterns of subclasses of IgG more IgM had in common the dysfunction of the barrier blood-cephalorachideous liquid. The intratecal immune response in patients with meningo-encephalitis by Streptococcus pneumoniae has distinctive characteristics differentiating it from other meningoencephalitis of bacterial origin; so as a whole they could be elements to be taken into account to help the doctor in its differential diagnosing and in the tactic to develop a Cuban vaccine.

Raisa, Bu-Coifiu; Alberto J., Dorta; Elena, Noris; Bárbara, Padilla; Marlén, González.

2007-12-01

335

Radioprotective Agents  

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Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

Ilker Kelle

2008-01-01

336

Structure determination of Streptococcus suis serotype 14 capsular polysaccharide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of Streptococcus suis serotype 14 was purified, chemically modified, and characterized. Sugar and absolute configuration analyses gave the following CPS composition: D-Gal, 3; D-Glc, 1; D-GlcNAc, 1; D-Neu5Ac, 1. The Sambucus nigra lectin, which recognizes the Neu5Ac(?2-6)Gal/GalNAc sequence, showed binding to the native CPS. Sialic acid was found to be terminal, and the CPS was quantitatively desialylated by mild acid hydrolysis. It was also submitted to periodate oxidation followed by borohydride reduction and Smith degradation. Sugar and methylation analyses, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry of the native CPS or of its specifically modified products allowed to determine the repeating unit sequence: [6)[Neu5Ac(?2-6)Gal(?1-4)GlcNAc(?1-3)]Gal(?1-3)Gal(?1-4)Glc(?1-](n). S. suis serotype 14 CPS has an identical sialic acid-containing side chain as serotype 2 CPS, but differs by the absence of rhamnose in its composition. The same side chain is also present in group B Streptococcus type Ia CPS, except that in the latter sialic acid is 2,3- rather than 2,6-linked to the following galactose. A correlation between the S. suis CPS sequence and genes of the serotype 14 cps locus encoding putative glycosyltransferases and polymerase responsible for the biosynthesis of the repeating unit is proposed. PMID:23527632

Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose; Gagnon, Fleur; Calzas, Cynthia; Goyette-Desjardins, Guillaume; Okura, Masatoshi; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Segura, Mariela

2013-04-01

337

[Systemic infection due to group A Streptococcus pyogenes].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 47-year-old woman developed oedematous swelling of the skin over the left hip and leg, with joint pains and reddening over joints of the hands and left ankle. 2 months before her son had had scarlet fever, following which the patient had two episodes of fever. Shortly before hospitalization she was treated with a glucocorticoid because a rheumatic disease had been suspected. On admission the blood sedimentation rate was 58/90, the white cell count was 15.100/microliters with left shift in the differential count. The swellings in arms and legs became abscesses which were incised. An abscess over the left buttock, diagnosed by 67-gallium whole-body scintigraphy, was also treated surgically. On the day of admission penicillin (10 mill. IU three times daily intravenously) and, from the 4th day onwards, gentamicin (80 mg three times daily intravenously) were administered. Histological examination of fascia and muscle biopsies revealed nonspecific inflammation without signs of malignancy, white blood culture grew group A Streptococcus pyogenes. 20 days after the surgical intervention the patient was discharged in full health. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes has become more frequent in the last few years and has often been accompanied by severe systemic complications. PMID:7768163

Pohl, T S; Shah, P M; Hertel, A; Adams, S; Koch, U; Wenisch, H C; Hör, G; Usadel, K H

1995-05-12

338

Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited.Martens P, Worm SW, Lundgren B, Konradsen HB, Benfield T. Department of Infectious Diseases 144, Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. pernillemartens@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: Invasive infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis and a determinant of disease outcome. METHODS: Retrospective review of 464 cases of invasive disease among adults diagnosed between 1990 and 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for other markers of disease severity, we found that infection with serotype 3 was associated with an increased relative risk (RR) of death of 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-5.27), whereas infection with serotype 1 was associated with a decreased risk of death (RR 0.23 (95% CI, 0.06-0.97)). Additionally, older age, relative leucopenia and relative hypothermia were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that capsular serotypes independently influenced the outcome from invasive pneumococcal disease. The limitations of the current polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine warrant the development of alternative vaccines. We suggest that the virulence of pneumococcal serotypes should be considered in the design of novel vaccines.

Martens, Pernille; Worm, Signe Westring

2004-01-01

339

THE CELL-BOUND ALPHA-AMYLASES OF STREPTOCOCCUS BOVIS.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The cell-bound alpha-amylase of Streptococcus bovis has been isolated from other carbohydrases in the cell extract by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The enzyme has been compared with the extracellular alpha-amylase produced by this organism. 2. The two amylases had similar action patterns on amylose, the main product being maltotriose with smaller amounts of maltose and a little glucose. 3. The cell-bound amylase hydrolysed maltopentaose and maltohexaose at a similar rate to the hydrolysis of amylose. Maltotetraose was hydrolysed six times more slowly, and maltotriose 280 times more slowly, than amylose. 4. Studies with end-labelled maltodextrins revealed that the cell-bound alpha-amylase preferentially hydrolysed the third linkage from the non-reducing end, liberating maltotriose. The linkage at the reducing end of maltotriose was more easily hydrolysed than the other. 5. Egg-white lysozyme and the extracellular enzymes of Streptomyces albus lysed the cell walls of Streptococcus bovis, releasing amylase into the medium. In the presence of 0.6 m-sucrose 10% of the maximal amylase activity was released by lysozyme. Suspension of the spheroplasts in dilute buffer caused the rupture of the cytoplasmic membrane and the liberation of amylase. 6. A sensitive method for determining the ability of amylases to degrade starch granules is described. PMID:14346085

WALKER, G J

1965-02-01

340

Quorum sensing and biofilms in the pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria are able to colonize and thrive in a variety of different environments as a biofilm, but only within the last half century new insights have been gained in this complex biosystem. Bacterial biofilms play a major role in human health by forming a defensive barrier against antibacterial chemical therapeutics and other potential pathogens, and in infectious disease when the bacteria invade normally sterile compartments. Quorum sensing is the signaling network for cell-to-cell communication and utilized by bacteria to regulate biofilms and other cellular processes. This review will describe recent advances in quorum sensing and biofilms. Initially, it will focus on Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm regulation and the involvement of the ComABCDE pathway. As part of this review an original analysis of the genotypic and phenotypic variation of the signaling molecule, ComC and its cognate receptor ComD, firstly within the pneumococcal species and then within the genus Streptococcus will be presented. Additionally, a pathway similar to ComABCDE, the BlpABCSRH that regulates bacteriocin and immunity protein production that inhibit the growth of competing bacteria will be described. This review will then examine a third quorum sensing mechanism in the pneumococcus, the LuxS/AI-2, and present a novel gene and protein sequence comparative analysis that indicates its occurrence is more universal across bacterial genera compared with the Com pathway, with more sequence similarities between bacterial genera that are known to colonize the mucosal epithelium. PMID:25189864

Galante, Joana; Ho, Alfred C-Y; Tingey, Sarah; Charalambous, Bambos M

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Poststreptococcal keratouveitis associated with group C streptococcus pharyngitis  

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Full Text Available Nathaniel Nataneli1, Zenia P Aguilera1, Pearl S Rosenbaum1, Tamar Goldstein1,2, Martin Mayers11Department of Ophthalmology, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelPurpose: To report the first case of poststreptococcal syndrome uveitis (PSU in association with group C streptococcus (GCS.Patients and methods: Chart review of a 24-year-old man who presented with bilateral ocular redness, pain, and photophobia for 5 days and "white rings" around his eyes for a duration of 3 days. The patient further reported fever and sore throat in the preceding week. Slit-lamp examination showed bilateral keratouveitis. A thorough uveitis workup, antistreptolysin O (ASLO titer, and throat culture were obtained. The patient was treated with frequent topical steroids and systemic doxycycline. The uveitis and keratitis subsided over the next few weeks, leaving extensive peripheral keratolysis.Results: The results of laboratory diagnostic testing revealed an elevated ASLO, C-reactive protein, as well as HLA-B27 positivity. Throat cultures grew beta-hemolytic GCS; group A streptococcus was culture negative.Conclusion: GCS pharyngitis may be a causative organism of PSU.Keywords: pharyngitis, keratolysis, keratouveitis

Nataneli N

2011-09-01

342

Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavities of elephants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two strains were isolated from oral cavity samples of healthy elephants. The isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organisms that were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of these organisms in the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus criceti ATCC 19642(T) and Streptococcus orisuis NUM 1001(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbours with 98.2 and 96.9% gene sequence similarity, respectively. When multi-locus sequence analysis using four housekeeping genes, groEL, rpoB, gyrB and sodA, was carried out, similarity of concatenated sequences of the four housekeeping genes from the new isolates and Streptococcus mutans was 89.7%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments suggested that the new isolates were distinct from S. criceti and other species of the genus Streptococcus. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic differences, it is proposed that the novel isolates are classified in the genus Streptococcus as representatives of Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov. The type strain of S. oriloxodontae is NUM 2101(T) (?=JCM 19285(T)?=DSM 27377(T)). PMID:25139416

Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Saito, Masanori; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

2014-11-01

343

MOBILE AGENT: EMERGING TECHNOLOGY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, ...

Rajguru Dr Deshmukh, P. V. S. D.

2011-01-01

344

Conjugative transfer of R-plasmids from Streptococcus faecalis to Staphylococcus aureus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

R-plasmids originally isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes(pAC1,pAM15346), Streptococcus agalactiae(pIP501), and Streptococcus faecalis(pAM beta 1) were shown to be self-transferable on filter membranes from S. faecalis JH2-2 to Staphylococcus aureus recipients. The nonconjugative plasmid pAM alpha 1 was mobilized into S. aureus by pAM beta 1. Once in S. aureus, conjugative R-plasmids could be transferred to a second S. aureus recipient or back into S. faecalis. Determinants for chloramphenic...

Schaberg, D. R.; Clewell, D. B.; Glatzer, L.

1982-01-01

345

Fulminant neonatal sepsis due to Streptococcus alactolyticus - A case report and review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Group D streptococci have rarely been associated with neonatal infections. We report a case of fulminant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) caused by Streptococcus alactolyticus in a term neonate. Gram staining revealed gram-positive cocci and culture grew group D streptococci in samples taken from trachea, ear, and nasopharynx. Streptococcus alactolyticus was identified using automated microbial identification system (Vitek 2). Histopathology showed massive pulmonary inflammation with intra-alveolar granulocytosis and secondary pulmonary bleeding as etiology of fatal outcome. To our knowledge, this is first case presenting neonatal infection caused by Streptococcus alactolyticus. PMID:24475920

Toepfner, Nicole; Shetty, Sindhu; Kunze, Mirjam; Orlowska-Volk, Marzenna; Krüger, Markus; Berner, Reinhard; Hentschel, Roland

2014-07-01

346

IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Immunosuppressive drugs play an important role in preventing the rejection of organ or tissue grafts and in the treatment of certain diseases that arise from dysregulation of the immune response. In recent years, many new immunosuppressive drugs have been discovered and developed for clinical use. The wide array of new drugs offers the opportunity to use combinations that block different pathways of immune activation. In transplantation, the major classes of immunosuppressive drugs used are: Glucocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative/antimetabolic agents, and biologics (antibodies. Newer drugs like Mizoribine, RS61443, Brequinar sodium are inhibitors of DNA synthesis and inhibitors of cell activation/maturation like (Deoxyspergualin, CP 17193 have also showed promising results. Tacrolimus (FK 506 and Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF have already replaced immunosuppressive maintenance protocols. The other two drugs, Leflunomide and Sirolimus (SRL, are still under investigation for use in solid organ transplantation. Anti-interleukin-2 (IL-2 receptor antibodies, anti-CD25 [interleukin (IL-2 receptor] antibodies (basiliximab, daclizumab target growth factor pathways, have shown promising results in phase III trials. These drugs have met with a high degree of clinical success in treating conditions such as acute immune rejection of organ transplants and severe autoimmune diseases. This article reviews the pharmacodynamics, adverse effects and uses of the major classes of immunosuppressive drugs.

Dr Pramila Yadav

2010-05-01

347

Antibiogram Sensitivity Pattern of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Patients with Sore Throat and Pneumonia Infections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolated from clinical samples (125 throat swabs and 100 sputum from patients suffering from sore throat and pneumonia infections, were subjected to a series of culture sensitivity tests against known antibiotics to determine their antibiogram patterns. Of the S. pyogenes isolates, all were found to be sensitive to penicillin and cefrioxone, whereas some of the strains showed complete resistance against cotrimoxazole (88.9%, oxacillin (22.2%, cephradine (22.2% and erythromycin (11.1%. As for the S. pneumoniae strains, all the isolates in this study were sensitive to vancomycin and cephradine, whereas 80% showed complete resistance to kanamycin, 60% to gentamycin, 20% to cotrimoxazole, 20% to tetracycline and 10% to penicillin. Strains of S. pneumoniae (20% displayed intermediate resistance to erythromycin. Inadequate diagnostic procedures, un-supervised, improper use of antibiotics and easy access to prescription drugs may contribute to the rise of resistant strains. To combat such trends approved strategies must encompass legislative enforcement through strict enforcement of the laws related to sales of prescription drugs, involvement of clinicians, pharmacies and civil society pressure groups to ensure the rational and correct use of prescription drugs.

Uzma Malik

2005-01-01

348

Meningitis bacteriana por Streptococcus pyogenes: revisión de la literatura / Bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes: literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) es una etiología poco habitual de meningitis bacteriana a pesar de ser un germen que frecuentemente produce infecciones en otras localizaciones en la edad pediátrica. Material y métodos: se revisaron los casos de bacteriemia por S. pyogenes y los [...] factores de riesgo asociados en la base de datos del Servicio de Microbiología del Hospital Universitario La Paz desde junio de 2002 a junio de 2012. Resultados: únicamente se encontró un caso de bacteremia por S. pyogenes asociado a meningitis, que se describe en este artículo. Conclusiones: a pesar de su baja incidencia, se debe tener en cuenta el S. pyogenes en el diagnóstico diferencial de meningitis bacterianas, especialmente en pacientes con factores de riesgo asociados Abstract in english Introduction: Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) is a rare cause of meningitis despite being a common source of pediatric infections in other sites. Material and methods: A search was performed of the pediatric patients with S. pyogenes bacteremia in the microbiology database of the Hospital Infan [...] til La Paz from June 2002 until June 2012. Results: A single case of S. pyogenes meningitis was found and is reported in this article. Conclusions: Despite its low incidence, S. pyogenes should be considered in the differential diagnosis of meningitis, particularly in patients with associated risk factors.

E., Ballesteros Moya; L., Herrera Castillo; L., Escosa García; M.P., Romero González; F., Lázaro Perona; M.I. de, José Gómez.

2013-12-01

349

Pericarditis purulenta y empiema pleural por Streptococcus pneumoniae / Purulent pericarditis and pleural empyema due to Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de 59 años de edad sin historia clínica previa que ingresó en nuestra Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) al presentar un cuadro de insuficiencia respiratoria e inestabilidad hemodinámica. Se le diagnosticó una pericarditis purulenta causada por Streptococcus [...] pneumoniae complicada con un derrame pericárdico masivo y un empiema pleural. Se realizó una punción pericardica que no fue efectiva y el derrame pericárdico se evacuó finalmente mediante drenaje quirúrgico. El empiema pleural fue igualmente evacuado. Recibió tratamiento antibiótico y se recuperó, normalizandose la función cardiaca. Abstract in english We present the case of a 59 years old woman with no previous clinical history of disease who was admitted in our ICU due to respiratory failure and hemodynamic inestabillity. She was found to have purulent pericarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, complicated by masive pericardial effusion and p [...] leural empyema. A pericardial tap was performed unsuccessfully and finally pericardial effusion was evacuated by surgical drainage. Pleural empyema was also evacuated. She received antibiotical treatment and recovered with normalisation of heart function.

B., Suberviola Cañas; J. C., Rodríguez Borregan; A., González Castro; E., Miñambres; F. J., Burón Mediavilla.

2007-01-01

350

Simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus sp. by polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bacterial meningits Detecção simultânea da Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae e Streptococcus sp. pela reação em cadeia da polimerase no diagnóstico das meningites bacterianas  

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Full Text Available The simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus sp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, as well as the applicability of PCR as a routine test. A cohort study was carried out with 182 children (2 months to 12 years of age with suspicion of bacterial meningitis. Routine tests identified the etiologic agent in 65/84 children whose clinical status and laboratory findings suggested the presence of bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was ruled out in 98 children. In 19 children, the etiologic diagnosis was not possible using standard methods; in 14 of these patients, the etiologic agent was identified by PCR (N. meningitidis=12; H. influenzae=1; Streptococcus sp.=1. The sensitivity of PCR was 88.1%; specificity, 99.0%; positive predictive value, 98.7%; and negative predictive, 90.1%. PCR is a useful complementary diagnostic technique, especially when Gram stain, culture, or antigenic detection are negative or inconclusive.Avaliamos o desempenho da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR para detecção simultânea da Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae e Streptococcus sp. no diagnóstico das meningites bacterianas e sua aplicabilidade na rotina diagnóstica. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte com 182 crianças apresentando suspeita de meningite bacteriana. Em 84, havia alterações clínicas e laboratoriais sugestivas de meningite bacteriana. Destas, 65 tiveram o agente etiológico identificado pelos métodos laboratoriais de rotina e 19 ficaram sem diagnóstico etiológico. Em 98 pacientes foi excluído o diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana. Analisando o desempenho da PCR encontramos sensibilidade de 88,1%, especificidade de 99,0% e valores preditivos positivo e negativo de 98,7% e 90,1% respectivamente. Nos 19 pacientes com meningite bacteriana mas sem diagnóstico etiológico a PCR detectou microrganismos em 14, sendo 12 N. meningitidis, um H. influenzae e um Streptococcus sp. A PCR possui o potencial de poder aumentar os índices de identificação das técnicas tradicionais, principalmente nas situações onde a microscopia direta, cultura ou identificação antigênica são negativos ou inconclusivos.

Luciane Failace

2005-12-01

351

Simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus sp. by polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bacterial meningits / Detecção simultânea da Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae e Streptococcus sp. pela reação em cadeia da polimerase no diagnóstico das meningites bacterianas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliamos o desempenho da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para detecção simultânea da Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae e Streptococcus sp. no diagnóstico das meningites bacterianas e sua aplicabilidade na rotina diagnóstica. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte com 182 crianças apres [...] entando suspeita de meningite bacteriana. Em 84, havia alterações clínicas e laboratoriais sugestivas de meningite bacteriana. Destas, 65 tiveram o agente etiológico identificado pelos métodos laboratoriais de rotina e 19 ficaram sem diagnóstico etiológico. Em 98 pacientes foi excluído o diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana. Analisando o desempenho da PCR encontramos sensibilidade de 88,1%, especificidade de 99,0% e valores preditivos positivo e negativo de 98,7% e 90,1% respectivamente. Nos 19 pacientes com meningite bacteriana mas sem diagnóstico etiológico a PCR detectou microrganismos em 14, sendo 12 N. meningitidis, um H. influenzae e um Streptococcus sp. A PCR possui o potencial de poder aumentar os índices de identificação das técnicas tradicionais, principalmente nas situações onde a microscopia direta, cultura ou identificação antigênica são negativos ou inconclusivos. Abstract in english The simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus sp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, as well as the applicability of PCR as a routine test. A cohort study was carried out with 182 children (2 mo [...] nths to 12 years of age) with suspicion of bacterial meningitis. Routine tests identified the etiologic agent in 65/84 children whose clinical status and laboratory findings suggested the presence of bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was ruled out in 98 children. In 19 children, the etiologic diagnosis was not possible using standard methods; in 14 of these patients, the etiologic agent was identified by PCR (N. meningitidis=12; H. influenzae=1; Streptococcus sp.=1). The sensitivity of PCR was 88.1%; specificity, 99.0%; positive predictive value, 98.7%; and negative predictive, 90.1%. PCR is a useful complementary diagnostic technique, especially when Gram stain, culture, or antigenic detection are negative or inconclusive.

Luciane, Failace; Mario, Wagner; Marisa, Chesky; Rosana, Scalco; Luiz Fernando, Jobim.

2005-12-01

352

Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes: prevalência de colonização e avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos / Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: prevalence of colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: verificar a ocorrência de colonização por Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes e avaliar a suscetibilidade das amostras isoladas aos antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 167 grávidas entre a 32ª e a 41ª semana de gestação, independente da presença ou não de fatores de risco, atendid [...] as no ambulatório de pré-natal entre fevereiro de 2003 e fevereiro de 2004. O material vaginal/anal, colhido com um único swab, foi inoculado em caldo Todd-Hewitt acrescido de ácido nalidíxico (15 µg/mL) e gentamicina (8 µg/mL), com posterior subcultura no meio de ágar sangue. A identificação foi feita por meio da avaliação da morfologia e tipo de hemólise das colônias no meio de ágar sangue, teste da catalase, teste de cAMP e testes sorológicos. A avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos foi realizada pelos testes de difusão e de diluição em ágar. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do teste de chi2; valores de p0,05). Todas as 32 amostras isoladas foram sensíveis a penicilina, cefotaxima, ofloxacina, cloranfenicol, vancomicina e meropenem. A resistência a eritromicina e clindamicina foi detectada em 9,4 e 6,2% das amostras, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: a incidência relativamente elevada (19,2%) de colonização por S. agalactiae entre as gestantes avaliadas e o isolamento de amostras resistentes, especialmente aos antimicrobianos recomendados nos casos de alergia à penicilina, enfatizam a importância de detectar esta colonização no final da gravidez, associada à avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos, para uma prevenção eficaz da infecção neonatal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to verify the occurrence of colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women attended at the prenatal outpatient clinic of the Teaching Maternity Hospital of Rio de Janeiro University (UFRJ) and to evaluate the susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobial agents. METHODS: a tot [...] al of 167 pregnant women between the 32nd and 41st week of gestation, regardless of risk factors, attended at the antenatal clinic between February 2003 and February 2004, were evaluated. The vaginal/anal material, collected by the same swab, was inoculated in Todd-Hewitt broth to which nalidixic acid (15 µg/mL) and gentamicin (8 µg/mL) were added, with following subcultures onto sheep blood-agar. Identification was carried out observing colony morphology and beta-hemolysis type on blood-agar, catalase, cAMP, and serological tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing used agar diffusion and agar dilution methods. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi2 test with the level of significance set at p0.05). All 32 isolated strains were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin and meropenem. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was detected in 9.4 and 6.2% of the isolates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: the relatively high incidence (19.2%) of colonization by S. agalactiae among the evaluated pregnant women and the recovery of antimicrobial resistant strains, especially those recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, emphasize the importance, for a correct prevention of neonatal infections, of detecting colonization at the end of pregnancy and evaluating antimicrobial susceptibility.

Irina Lermontov, Borger; Rachel Elise Cerqueira, d' Oliveira; Angela Christina Dias de, Castro; Silvia Susana Bona de, Mondino.

2005-10-01

353

Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes: prevalência de colonização e avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: prevalence of colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a ocorrência de colonização por Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes e avaliar a suscetibilidade das amostras isoladas aos antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 167 grávidas entre a 32ª e a 41ª semana de gestação, independente da presença ou não de fatores de risco, atendidas no ambulatório de pré-natal entre fevereiro de 2003 e fevereiro de 2004. O material vaginal/anal, colhido com um único swab, foi inoculado em caldo Todd-Hewitt acrescido de ácido nalidíxico (15 µg/mL e gentamicina (8 µg/mL, com posterior subcultura no meio de ágar sangue. A identificação foi feita por meio da avaliação da morfologia e tipo de hemólise das colônias no meio de ágar sangue, teste da catalase, teste de cAMP e testes sorológicos. A avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos foi realizada pelos testes de difusão e de diluição em ágar. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do teste de chi2; valores de p0,05. Todas as 32 amostras isoladas foram sensíveis a penicilina, cefotaxima, ofloxacina, cloranfenicol, vancomicina e meropenem. A resistência a eritromicina e clindamicina foi detectada em 9,4 e 6,2% das amostras, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: a incidência relativamente elevada (19,2% de colonização por S. agalactiae entre as gestantes avaliadas e o isolamento de amostras resistentes, especialmente aos antimicrobianos recomendados nos casos de alergia à penicilina, enfatizam a importância de detectar esta colonização no final da gravidez, associada à avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos, para uma prevenção eficaz da infecção neonatal.PURPOSE: to verify the occurrence of colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women attended at the prenatal outpatient clinic of the Teaching Maternity Hospital of Rio de Janeiro University (UFRJ and to evaluate the susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobial agents. METHODS: a total of 167 pregnant women between the 32nd and 41st week of gestation, regardless of risk factors, attended at the antenatal clinic between February 2003 and February 2004, were evaluated. The vaginal/anal material, collected by the same swab, was inoculated in Todd-Hewitt broth to which nalidixic acid (15 µg/mL and gentamicin (8 µg/mL were added, with following subcultures onto sheep blood-agar. Identification was carried out observing colony morphology and beta-hemolysis type on blood-agar, catalase, cAMP, and serological tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing used agar diffusion and agar dilution methods. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi2 test with the level of significance set at p0.05. All 32 isolated strains were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin and meropenem. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was detected in 9.4 and 6.2% of the isolates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: the relatively high incidence (19.2% of colonization by S. agalactiae among the evaluated pregnant women and the recovery of antimicrobial resistant strains, especially those recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, emphasize the importance, for a correct prevention of neonatal infections, of detecting colonization at the end of pregnancy and evaluating antimicrobial susceptibility.

Irina Lermontov Borger

2005-10-01

354

Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes Neonatal Sepsis by Streptococcus pyogenes  

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Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respiratorio que amerita ventilación mecánica asistida por varios días en diferentes ocasiones, derrame pleural exudativo, convulsiones de origen hipóxico isquémico. Con reporte de hemocultivos positivos por Estreptococos pyogenes. El Estreptococos pyogenes o estreptococo ?-hemol?tico del grupo A, fue un problema en los comienzos del siglo pasado, siendo frecuente en las infecciones puerperales y del reci?n nacido. En la actualidad es un germen sumamente raro en los procesos de sepsis neonatal.2 La gravedad de la enfermedad causada por este microorganismo en el periodo neonatal var?a desde una onfalitis crónica de bajo grado a una septicemia, una meningitis fulminante y la muerte.1 El presente artículo pretende hacer un resumen del paciente, con su evolución clínica, radiológica y además ejemplificar todas las complicaciones que tuvimos con este germen tan poco frecuente en la actualidad en sepsis neonatal.We present herein the case of a newborn patient of appropriate gestational age weight ( 3700 grams, born by vaginal delivery, from a mother that had had 2 previous pregnancies (2 normal deliveries. During the immediate puerperium she had fever. The parents consulted at the age of 2 days, stating that they had noticed difficult breathing since his birth, hipoactivity and poor appetite. He was admitted to the hospital and underwent several studies searching for the origin and germ causing the sepsis. He developed respiratory failure and needed mechanical ventilation for several days on different occasions. He had exudative pleural effusion and hypoxic ischemic seizures. Later on, his blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus ?- hemolytic group A infection, used to be a common entity in the beginning of the past century, it was commonly associated with puerperal infections and newborn infections, but its incidence declined and nowadays, is uncommon during the neonatal period. Its clinical manifestations could vary from chronic omphalitis up to a low grade septicemia or fulminant meningitis. Since its incidence has declined, at the present time; is an unusual infection of the neonatal period. Ampicillin and gentamicin are currently recommended as first-line antimicrobials, ampicillin replacing the previously recommended penicillin.

Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera

2009-09-01

355

Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes / Neonatal Sepsis by Streptococcus pyogenes  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, [...] hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respiratorio que amerita ventilación mecánica asistida por varios días en diferentes ocasiones, derrame pleural exudativo, convulsiones de origen hipóxico isquémico. Con reporte de hemocultivos positivos por Estreptococos pyogenes. El Estreptococos pyogenes o estreptococo ?-hemol?tico del grupo A, fue un problema en los comienzos del siglo pasado, siendo frecuente en las infecciones puerperales y del reci?n nacido. En la actualidad es un germen sumamente raro en los procesos de sepsis neonatal.2 La gravedad de la enfermedad causada por este microorganismo en el periodo neonatal var?a desde una onfalitis crónica de bajo grado a una septicemia, una meningitis fulminante y la muerte.1 El presente artículo pretende hacer un resumen del paciente, con su evolución clínica, radiológica y además ejemplificar todas las complicaciones que tuvimos con este germen tan poco frecuente en la actualidad en sepsis neonatal. Abstract in english We present herein the case of a newborn patient of appropriate gestational age weight ( 3700 grams), born by vaginal delivery, from a mother that had had 2 previous pregnancies (2 normal deliveries). During the immediate puerperium she had fever. The parents consulted at the age of 2 days, stating t [...] hat they had noticed difficult breathing since his birth, hipoactivity and poor appetite. He was admitted to the hospital and underwent several studies searching for the origin and germ causing the sepsis. He developed respiratory failure and needed mechanical ventilation for several days on different occasions. He had exudative pleural effusion and hypoxic ischemic seizures. Later on, his blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus ?- hemolytic group A infection, used to be a common entity in the beginning of the past century, it was commonly associated with puerperal infections and newborn infections, but its incidence declined and nowadays, is uncommon during the neonatal period. Its clinical manifestations could vary from chronic omphalitis up to a low grade septicemia or fulminant meningitis. Since its incidence has declined, at the present time; is an unusual infection of the neonatal period. Ampicillin and gentamicin are currently recommended as first-line antimicrobials, ampicillin replacing the previously recommended penicillin.

Gilberto, Rodríguez-Herrera; Cinthya, Ramírez-Navarro.

2009-09-01

356

Infecciones tisulares por Streptococcus ß-hemolítico grupo A en Hospital Regional de Talca Tissue infections caused by group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus in a Regional Chilean Hospital  

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Full Text Available Background: A resurgence of group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus infections such as fasciitis, cellulitis and Strptococcal Toxic Syndrome has been observed recently. Aim: To study the clinical features of patients with group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus infections in a regional hospital. Patients and methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients notified as having a group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus tissue infection, between 1994 and 1999. Results: twenty four patients were notified in the period as having a group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus infection and 18 (13 male, mean age 39 tears old had tissue involvement. Eleven patients had a fasciitis (61%, six had a cellulitis (33% and 14 patients (77%, a Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome. Eight patients died during hospital stay. The infection portal of entry was identify in 13 patients (the skin in 10 and intramuscular injections in three. Deceased patients had a longer lapse of disease before admission than patients discharged alive (5(range 3h-7 days and 2.1 (range 6h-5 days respectively. In seven patients a quick serological test, designed for pharyngeal infections was performed and it was positive in five. Blood cultures were positive in seven patients and in 11, the germ was isolated from the lesions. Conclusions: As the early diagnosis of group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus tissue infections has a prognostic value, the population should be instructed to recognize early signs and symptoms of these infections (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 1215-19

Sandra Hasbún A

2000-11-01

357

Salivaricin G32, a Homolog of the Prototype Streptococcus pyogenes Nisin-Like Lantibiotic SA-FF22, Produced by the Commensal Species Streptococcus salivarius.  

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Salivaricin G32, a 2667?Da novel member of the SA-FF22 cluster of lantibiotics, has been purified and characterized from Streptococcus salivarius strain G32. The inhibitory peptide differs from the Streptococcus pyogenes-produced SA-FF22 in the absence of lysine in position 2. The salivaricin G32 locus was widely distributed in BLIS-producing S. salivarius, with 6 (23%) of 26 strains PCR-positive for the structural gene, slnA. As for most other lantibiotics produced by S. salivarius, the salivaricin G32 locus can be megaplasmid encoded. Another member of the SA-FF22 family was detected in two Streptococcus dysgalactiae of bovine origin, an observation supportive of widespread distribution of this lantibiotic within the genus Streptococcus. Since the inhibitory spectrum of salivaricin G32 includes Streptococcus pyogenes, its production by S. salivarius, either as a member of the normal oral microflora or as a commercial probiotic, could serve to enhance protection of the human host against S. pyogenes infection. PMID:22567013

Wescombe, Philip A; Dyet, Kristin H; Dierksen, Karen P; Power, Daniel A; Jack, Ralph W; Burton, Jeremy P; Inglis, Megan A; Wescombe, Anna L; Tagg, John R

2012-01-01

358

Epidemic Assessment of Bacterial Agents in Osteomyelitis and Their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Determination  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the causative agents of osteomyelitis and specifying their antibiotic resistance pattern in patients referred to pediatrics ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital. This study has been performed in Tehran during January to December 2006. In this study, synovial fluid was taken from 90 patients who referred to pediatrics ward of Imam Khomeini. Samples were examined by direct test, culture and biochemical tests. In next step, antibiogram by disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer Test was established on each positive sample and finally, the results were analyzed. Of 90 examined samples, 27 bacterial cases were isolated; Staphylococcus aureus with 55.9% was the most epidemic agent and Klebsiella sp., coagulase negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterobacter sp. were the next common agents, respectively. However, it was revealed that more than 40% Staphylococcus aureus are sensitivity to Vancomycin, Gentamicin, Sulfamethoxazole and Erythromycin and most of gram negative Rods isolated of were sensitivity to Amikacin, Ampicillin and Cephalothin (50-100%. The most of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterobacter sp. were sensitive to Vancomycin, gentamicin and Cephalothin. Similar to previous results, it was proved either in our study that Staphylococcus aureus is the main agent of osteomyelitis and gram negative bacteria with coagulase negative Staphylococci and Streptococci are other agents. Also, it was observed that the most isolated bacteria had high antibiotic resistance to common drugs.

Reza Mirnejad

2008-01-01

359

Withania somnifera attenuates acid production, acid tolerance and extra-cellular polysaccharide formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is a plant of the Solanaceae family. It has been widely used as a remedy for a variety of ailments in India and Nepal. The plant has also been used as a controlling agent for dental diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of the methanol extract of W. somnifera against the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms and to identify the components of the extract. To determine the activity of the extract, assays for sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence, glycolytic acid production, acid tolerance, and extracellular polysaccharide formation were performed using Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The viability change of S. mutans biofilms cells was also determined. A phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed using TLC and LC/MS/MS. The extract showed inhibitory effects on sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence (? 100 ?g/ml), glycolytic acid production (? 300 ?g/ml), acid tolerance (? 300 ?g/ml), and extracellular polysaccharide formation (? 300 ?g/ml) of S. mutans biofilms. However, the extract did not alter the viability of S. mutans biofilms cells in all concentrations tested. Based on the phytochemical analysis, the activity of the extract may be related to the presence of alkaloids, anthrones, coumarines, anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, and steroid lactones (withanolide A, withaferin A, withanolide B, withanoside IV, and 12-deoxy withastramonolide). These data indicate that W. somnifera may be a potential agent for restraining the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms. PMID:24467542

Pandit, Santosh; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

2014-01-01

360

Neonatal Mortality in Puppies Due to Bacteremia by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae  

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We report a case of bacteremia in puppies caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. Identification was achieved by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. This is the first report of the recovery of S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae from dogs.

Vela, Ana I.; Falsen, Enevold; Simarro, Isabel; Rollan, Eduardo; Collins, Matthew D.; Domi?nguez, Lucas; Fernandez-garayzabal, Jose F.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Postcaesarean open-heart surgery for Streptococcus sanguinis infective endocarditis.  

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A 33-week pregnant (gravida 3), 29-year-old woman was transferred for management of Streptococcus sanguinis infective endocarditis. A vegetation was present on the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve with moderate mitral regurgitation. On admission (day 1), the ultrasound examination revealed splenic abscesses and retarded intrauterine growth albeit with normal vessels. The fetal heart rate was 140 bpm. On day 11, the baby was delivered by Caesarean, and then the mother underwent tubal ligation followed by a mitral valve repair. The splenic abscess was treated with antibiotics. The woman was clinically stable and recovered uneventfully. This successful outcome was achieved by a strategic (optimal and sequential) timeline for selecting the mode of delivery and type of mitral valve correction. PMID:24234426

Kongwattanakul, Kiattisak; Tribuddharat, Sirirat; Prathanee, Sompop; Pachirat, Orathai

2013-01-01

362

Solution properties of capsular polysaccharides from Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Capsular polysaccharides from ten different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae have been studied with regards their hydrodynamic properties in solution, namely their sedimentation coefficient and molar mass distributions, solution conformations and flexibilities (persistence lengths Lp), important properties for the construction of polysaccharide and glycoconjugate vaccines. Sedimentation and molar mass distributions (obtained by sedimentation velocity and equilibrium analysis in the analytical ultracentrifuge supported by size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle light scattering measurements) were generally unimodal, with weight (mass) average molar masses ranging from 100×10(3) to 1300×10(3) g/mol. Estimates of chain flexibilities from three different procedures applied to intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation coefficient and molar mass data, showed that the polysaccharides from all the serotypes studied had semi-flexible structures in solution with persistence lengths in the range from ?4 to 9 nm. PMID:24751036

Harding, Stephen E; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Morris, Gordon A; Adams, Gary; Laloux, Olivier; Cerny, Louis; Bonnier, Benjamin; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Lenfant, Christophe

2012-09-01

363

Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O2 does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals

364

Production and partial purification of streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Streptokinase is as effective as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA in treating acute myocardial infarction and it is certainly more cost-effective. In view of the relatively recent availability of the competing recombinant tPA, skepticism is being expressed about the continued viability of streptokinase therapy. Despite this research on streptokinase continues, and it remains a vital affordable therapy especially in the world’s poorer healthcare systems. Our present study focused on production of streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes species and partial purification of streptokinase by ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and column chromatography. The enzyme was quantified by Lowry’s method and its electrophoretic mobility and molecular weight were determined by SDS-PAGE.

Vijayakumar Rajendran

2011-11-01

365

Comparison of Streptokinase Activity from Streptococcus mutans using Different Substrates  

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Full Text Available Streptokinase is a novel bacterial fibrinolytic enzyme that binds and activates plasminogen and is produced by several species of Streptococci. Streptococcus mutans was selected for optimum production of streptokinase using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass in liquid state fermentation. Substrates were applied in different concentrations ranging from 0.1-0.8%. Maximum fibrinolytic activity was observed by 0.3% corn steep liquor, 0.5% molasses and rice polishing and 0.4% by sugarcane bagass. The fibrinolytic activity achieved by fibrin clot lysis method was 5.5, 5.08, 5.16 and 4.75 units using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass, respectively.

Muhammad Anjum Zia*, Rana Faisal, Rao Zahid Abbas1, Gull-e-Faran, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Junaid Ali Khan3

2013-01-01

366

BlpC-regulated bacteriocin production in Streptococcus thermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus thermophilus B59671 produces a bacteriocin with anti-pediococcal activity, but genes required for its production are not characterized. Genome sequencing of S. thermophilus has identified a genetic locus encoding a quorum sensing (QS) system that regulates production of class II bacteriocins. However, in strains possessing this gene cluster, production of bacteriocin like peptides (Blp) was only observed when excess pheromone was provided. PCR analysis revealed this strain possessed blpC, which encodes the 30-mer QS pheromone. To investigate if BlpC regulates bacteriocin production in S. thermophilus B59671, an integrative vector was used to replace blpC with a gene encoding for kanamycin resistance and the resulting mutant did not inhibit the growth of Pediococcus acidilactici. Constitutive expression of blpC from a shuttle vector restored the bacteriocin production, confirming the blp gene cluster is essential for bacteriocin activity in S. thermophilus B59671. PMID:23183916

Renye, John A; Somkuti, George A

2013-03-01

367

Interferon-? inhibits group B Streptococcus survival within human endothelial cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Endothelial dysfunction is a major component of the pathophysiology of septicaemic group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections. Although cytokines have been shown to activate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the capacity of interferon (IFN)-? to enhance the microbicidal activity of HUVECs [...] against GBS has not been studied. We report that the viability of intracellular bacteria was reduced in HUVECs activated by IFN-?. Enhanced fusion of lysosomes with bacteria-containing vacuoles was observed by acid phosphatase and the colocalisation of Rab-5, Rab-7 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 with GBS in IFN-?-activated HUVECs. IFN-? resulted in an enhancement of the phagosome maturation process in HUVECs, improving the capacity to control the intracellular survival of GBS.

Viviane de Oliveira Freitas, Lione; Michelle Hanthequeste Bittencourt dos, Santos; Jessica Silva Santos de, Oliveira; Ana Luiza, Mattos-Guaraldi; Prescilla Emy, Nagao.

2014-11-01

368

Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle  

Science.gov (United States)

A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O2 does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals.

Zhang, Xianhui; Huang, Jun; Liu, Xiaodi; Peng, Lei; Guo, Lihong; Lv, Guohua; Chen, Wei; Feng, Kecheng; Yang, Si-ze

2009-03-01

369

Proteomic analysis of proteins secreted by Streptococcus pyogenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pyogenes secretes various proteins to the extracellular environment. During infection, these proteins interact with human macromolecules and contribute to pathogenesis. We describe a proteomic approach routinely used in our laboratory to characterize culture supernatant proteins using small-format two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins are collected after overnight growth of the bacteria in broth media. Compounds that inhibit isoelectric focusing, such as salts, are removed by enzymatic treatment and precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and acetone. Following resuspension in denaturing solution, the proteins are separated by isoelectric focusing using a 7-cm immobilized strip with a pH gradient of 4-7. Subsequently, proteins are further separated with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and stained with SYPRO Ruby. The small-gel format requires less time, reagents, and smaller culture volumes compared with large-format approaches, while still resolving and detecting a large proportion of the exoprotein fraction. PMID:18287744

Chaussee, Michelle A; McDowell, Emily J; Chaussee, Michael S

2008-01-01

370

The Transforming Streptococcus Pneumoniae in the 21st Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important pathogen causingsepsis, sinusitis, otitis media, bacterial meningitis and bacterialpneumonia, results in global morbidity and mortality eachyear. The burden of pneumococcal disease is highest in childrenand the elderly. Treatment of pneumococcal infection hasbeen hampered by the complexity of the host immuneresponse. In recent decades, the increase of S. pneumoniaestrains’ resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics and other classes ofantimicrobials has made treatment even more complicated.Fortunately, the advent of heptavalent conjugate vaccine confersa high degree of protection against pneumococcal diseaseand colonization caused by vaccine serotype strains. After theintroduction of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, invasivepneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes and antibiotic-resistant isolates has been reduced. However, naturallytransformable pneumococci may escape vaccine-induced immunity by switching their capsulargenes to non-vaccine serotypes. Development of cheaper, serotype-independent vaccinesbased on a combination of protein antigens should be pursued.

Pei-Lan Shao

2008-04-01

371

DNA microarray-based typing of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae frequently colonizes the urogenital tract, and it is a major cause of bacterial septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia in newborns. For typing purposes, a microarray targeting group B streptococcus (GBS) virulence-associated markers and resistance genes was designed and validated with reference strains, as well as clinical and veterinary isolates. Selected isolates were also subjected to multilocus sequence typing. It was observed that putative typing markers, such as alleles of the alpha-like protein or capsule types, vary independently of each other, and they also vary independently from the affiliation to their multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-defined sequence types. Thus, it is not possible to assign isolates to sequence types based on the identification of a single distinct marker, such as a capsule type or alp allele. This suggests the occurrence of frequent genomic recombination. For array-based typing, a set of 11 markers (bac, alp, pil1 locus, pepS8, fbsB, capsule locus, hylB, abiG-I/-II plus Q8DZ34, pil2 locus, nss plus srr plus rogB2, and rgfC/A/D/B) was defined that provides a framework for splitting the tested 448 S. agalactiae isolates into 76 strains that clustered mainly according to MLST-defined clonal complexes. There was evidence for region- and host-specific differences in the population structure of S. agalactiae, as well as an overrepresentation of strains related to sequence type 17 among the invasive isolates. The arrays and typing scheme described here proved to be a convenient tool for genotyping large numbers of clinical/veterinary isolates and thus might help obtain insight into the epidemiology of S. agalactiae. PMID:25165085

Nitschke, Heike; Slickers, Peter; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan

2014-11-01

372

vanG Element Insertions within a Conserved Chromosomal Site Conferring Vancomycin Resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus anginosus  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Three vancomycin-resistant streptococcal strains carrying vanG elements (two invasive Streptococcus agalactiae isolates [GBS-NY and GBS-NM, both serotype II and multilocus sequence type 22] and one Streptococcus anginosus [Sa]) were examined. The 45,585-bp elements found within Sa and GBS-NY were nearly identical (together designated vanG-1) and shared near-identity over an ~15-kb overlap with a previously described vanG element from Enterococcus faecalis. Unexpectedly, vanG-1 shared much less homology with the 49,321-bp vanG-2 element from GBS-NM, with widely different levels (50% to 99%) of sequence identity shared among 44 related open reading frames. Immediately adjacent to both vanG-1 and vanG-2 were 44,670-bp and 44,680-bp integrative conjugative element (ICE)-like sequences, designated ICE-r, that were nearly identical in the two group B streptococcal (GBS) strains. The dual vanG and ICE-r elements from both GBS strains were inserted at the same position, between bases 1328 and 1329, within the identical RNA methyltransferase (rumA) genes. A GenBank search revealed that although most GBS strains contained insertions within this specific site, only sequence type 22 (ST22) GBS strains contained highly related ICE-r derivatives. The vanG-1 element in Sa was also inserted within this position corresponding to its rumA homolog adjacent to an ICE-r derivative. vanG-1 insertions were previously reported within the same relative position in the E. faecalis rumA homolog. An ICE-r sequence perfectly conserved with respect to its counterpart in GBS-NY was apparent within the same site of the rumA homolog of a Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain. Additionally, homologous vanG-like elements within the conserved rumA target site were evident in Roseburia intestinalis. PMID:25053786

Srinivasan, Velusamy; Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Knipe, Kristen M.; Ouattara, Mahamoudou; McGee, Lesley; Shewmaker, Patricia L.; Glennen, Anita; Nichols, Megin; Harris, Carol; Brimmage, Mary; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Park, Connie J.; Schrag, Stephanie J.; Frace, Michael A.; Sammons, Scott A.

2014-01-01

373

vanG element insertions within a conserved chromosomal site conferring vancomycin resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus anginosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three vancomycin-resistant streptococcal strains carrying vanG elements (two invasive Streptococcus agalactiae isolates [GBS-NY and GBS-NM, both serotype II and multilocus sequence type 22] and one Streptococcus anginosus [Sa]) were examined. The 45,585-bp elements found within Sa and GBS-NY were nearly identical (together designated vanG-1) and shared near-identity over an ~15-kb overlap with a previously described vanG element from Enterococcus faecalis. Unexpectedly, vanG-1 shared much less homology with the 49,321-bp vanG-2 element from GBS-NM, with widely different levels (50% to 99%) of sequence identity shared among 44 related open reading frames. Immediately adjacent to both vanG-1 and vanG-2 were 44,670-bp and 44,680-bp integrative conjugative element (ICE)-like sequences, designated ICE-r, that were nearly identical in the two group B streptococcal (GBS) strains. The dual vanG and ICE-r elements from both GBS strains were inserted at the same position, between bases 1328 and 1329, within the identical RNA methyltransferase (rumA) genes. A GenBank search revealed that although most GBS strains contained insertions within this specific site, only sequence type 22 (ST22) GBS strains contained highly related ICE-r derivatives. The vanG-1 element in Sa was also inserted within this position corresponding to its rumA homolog adjacent to an ICE-r derivative. vanG-1 insertions were previously reported within the same relative position in the E. faecalis rumA homolog. An ICE-r sequence perfectly conserved with respect to its counterpart in GBS-NY was apparent within the same site of the rumA homolog of a Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain. Additionally, homologous vanG-like elements within the conserved rumA target site were evident in Roseburia intestinalis. Importance: These three streptococcal strains represent the first known vancomycin-resistant strains of their species. The collective observations made from these strains reveal a specific hot spot for insertional elements that is conserved between streptococci and different Gram-positive species. The two GBS strains potentially represent a GBS lineage that is predisposed to insertion of vanG elements. PMID:25053786

Srinivasan, Velusamy; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Knipe, Kristen M; Ouattara, Mahamoudou; McGee, Lesley; Shewmaker, Patricia L; Glennen, Anita; Nichols, Megin; Harris, Carol; Brimmage, Mary; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Park, Connie J; Schrag, Stephanie J; Frace, Michael A; Sammons, Scott A; Beall, Bernard

2014-01-01

374

Counteractive Balancing of Transcriptome Expression Involving CodY and CovRS in Streptococcus pyogenes?†  

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Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) responds to environmental changes in a manner that results in an adaptive regulation of the transcriptome. The objective of the present study was to understand how two global transcriptional regulators, CodY and CovRS, coordinate the transcriptional network in S. pyogenes. Results from expression microarray data and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that the global regulator CodY controls the expression of about 250 ge...

Kreth, Jens; Chen, Zhiyun; Ferretti, Joseph; Malke, Horst

2011-01-01

375

Structure-Informed Design of an Enzymatically Inactive Vaccine Component for Group A Streptococcus  

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Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) causes ~700 million human infections/year, resulting in >500,000 deaths. There is no commercial GAS vaccine available. The GAS surface protein arginine deiminase (ADI) protects mice against a lethal challenge. ADI is an enzyme that converts arginine to citrulline and ammonia. Administration of a GAS vaccine preparation containing wild-type ADI, a protein with inherent enzymatic activity, may present a safety risk. In an approach intended to...

Henningham, Anna; Ericsson, Daniel J.; Langer, Karla; Casey, Lachlan W.; Jovcevski, Blagojce; Chhatwal, G. Singh; Aquilina, J. Andrew; Batzloff, Michael R.; Kobe, Bostjan; Walker, Mark J.

2013-01-01

376

Involvement of T6 Pili in Biofilm Formation by Serotype M6 Streptococcus pyogenes  

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The group A streptococcus (GAS) Streptococcus pyogenes is known to cause self-limiting purulent infections in humans. The role of GAS pili in host cell adhesion and biofilm formation is likely fundamental in early colonization. Pilus genes are found in the FCT (fibronectin-binding protein, collagen-binding protein, and trypsin-resistant antigen) genomic region, which has been classified into nine subtypes based on the diversity of gene content and nucleotide sequence. Several epidemiological ...

Kimura, Keiji Richard; Nakata, Masanobu; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Podbielski, Andreas; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

2012-01-01

377

Induction of a putative laminin-binding protein of Streptococcus gordonii in human infective endocarditis.  

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There is evidence to suggest that the virulence of Streptococcus strains in infective endocarditis might be due to the expression of binding sites for the extracellular matrix proteins of damaged valves. In this communication, we draw attention to one laminin-binding protein from a strain of Streptococcus gordonii isolated from a patient with human endocarditis. This 145-kDa protein was found on the cell wall of the bacterium. The level of expression of this binding protein might be regulated...

Sommer, P.; Gleyzal, C.; Guerret, S.; Etienne, J.; Grimaud, J. A.

1992-01-01

378

Methodological variations in the isolation of genomic DNA from Streptococcus bacteria  

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In this work, genomic DNA of Streptococcus pyogenes, S. mutans and S. sobrinus was isolated using two methods: either using the detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 65ºC; or by applying ultrasound to a mixture of silica and celite in CTAB. The composite method that used ultrasound was the more efficient, allowing the straightforward extraction of genomic DNA from Gram-positive bacteria with good quality and reproducibility.O gênero Streptococcus encontra-se amplamente dist...

Mônica Moreira; Juliana Noschang; Ivana Froede Neiva; Yanê Carvalho; llma Hiroko Higuti; Vânia Aparecida Vicente

2010-01-01

379

Acquisition of Host Plasmin Activity by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis Serotype 2  

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In this study, the plasminogen-binding activity of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 was investigated. Bound human plasminogen was activated by purified streptokinase, urokinase, or Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis culture supernatant. Both human and porcine plasminogen were bound by S. suis. Binding was inhibited by ?-aminocaproic acid, and the plasminogen receptor was heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate resistant. One of the receptors was identified as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehyd...

Jobin, Marie-claude; Brassard, Julie; Quessy, Sylvain; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

2004-01-01

380

Detection of diacetyl (caramel odor) in presumptive identification of the "Streptococcus milleri" group.  

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The caramel odor associated with the "Streptococcus milleri" group was shown to be attributable to the formation of the metabolite diacetyl. Levels of diacetyl in the 22- to 200-mg/liter range were produced by 68 strains of the "S. milleri" group; apart from one strain of Streptococcus mutans, all 92 other strains of streptococci belonging to 12 species produced < 13 mg of diacetyl per liter. Quantitation of diacetyl levels from cultures of streptococci is suggested as a rapid presumptive tes...

Chew, T. A.; Smith, J. M.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Targeted Amino Acid Substitutions Impair Streptolysin O Toxicity and Group A Streptococcus Virulence  

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Streptolysin O is a potent pore-forming toxin produced by group A Streptococcus. The aims of the present study were to dissect the relative contributions of different structural domains of the protein to hemolytic activity, to obtain a detoxified form of streptolysin O amenable to human vaccine formulation, and to investigate the role of streptolysin O-specific antibodies in protection against group A Streptococcus infection. On the basis of in silico structural predictions, we introduced two...

Chiarot, Emiliano; Faralla, Cristina; Chiappini, Nico; Tuscano, Giovanna; Falugi, Fabiana; Gambellini, Gabriella; Taddei, Annarita; Capo, Sabrina; Cartocci, Elena; Veggi, Daniele; Corrado, Alessia; Mangiavacchi, Simona; Tavarini, Simona; Scarselli, Maria; Janulczyk, Robert

2013-01-01

382

Evaluation of ten commercial blood culture systems to isolate a pyridoxal-dependent streptococcus.  

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This study evaluated the ability of ten commercial blood cultures to support the growth of a nutritional variant Streptococcus mitior (pyridoxal-dependent). The abilities of two established and two new agar formulations are also reported. The dependable isolation of a fastidious streptococcus can best be obtained with fastidious anaerobe broth (FAB) (Lab M Ltd, Ford Lane, Salford) for blood cultures in conjunction with one of the new media. FAB agar with the addition of heated blood was found...

Tillotson, G. S.

1981-01-01

383

Development of an unambiguous and discriminatory multilocus sequence typing scheme for the Streptococcus zooepidemicus group.  

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The zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is commonly found harmlessly colonizing the equine nasopharynx. Occasionally, strains can invade host tissues or cross species barriers, and S. zooepidemicus is associated with numerous different diseases in a variety of hosts, including inflammatory airway disease and abortion in horses, pneumonia in dogs and meningitis in humans. A biovar of S. zooepidemicus, Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, is the causative age...

Webb, K.; Jolley, Ka; Mitchell, Z.; Robinson, C.; Newton, Jr; Maiden, Mc; Waller, A.

2008-01-01

384

Optochin Revisited: Defining the Optimal Type of Blood Agar for Presumptive Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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To determine the optimal media for optochin susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae, we measured inhibition zones for 72 S. pneumoniae and 22 Streptococcus viridans isolates on three blood-containing media. Because 15.3, 0, and 22.2% of S. pneumoniae organisms were misidentified on Columbia agar, Trypticase soy agar (TSA), and Mueller-Hinton agar, respectively, each containing sheep blood, we recommend that TSA-sheep blood agar be used.

Gardam, M. A.; Miller, M. A.

1998-01-01

385

Serotype Prevalence and Penicillin-susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Oman  

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Objectives: to determine the prevalent serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and the rate of penicillin-nonsusceptibility among pneumococci in Oman.Methods: Pneumococcal isolates encountered during the period of September 2002 to December 2007 in the Royal Hospital were serotyped. Clinical information as well as the penicillin susceptibility reports were retrieved from the hospital information system and medical records.Results: 120 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were isolated of which 8...

Al-yaqoub, Mubarak M.

2011-01-01