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Sample records for streptococcus constellatus agente

  1. Resistance of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms to antimicrobial agents

    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E

    1996-01-01

    of Streptococcus sanguis 804 and ATCC 10556 to amoxicillin, doxycycline and chlorhexidine was determined by a broth dilution method. Subsequently, S. sanguis biofilms established in an in vitro flow model were perfused with the antimicrobial agents for 48 h at concentrations equal to and up to 500 times the MIC...

  2. Osseointegrated implants placed at supracrestal level may harbour higher counts of A. gerencseriae and S. constellatus – a randomized, controlled pilot study

    de Moraes Rego, Mariana Ribeiro; Torres, Marcelo Ferreira; Santiago, Luiz Carlos; Lira-Junior, Ronaldo; Lourenço, Eduardo José Veras; de Moraes Telles, Daniel; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed at evaluating the bacterial colonization in dental implants inserted in the crestal or supracrestal position and correlated it to radiographic bone measurements. Methods Thirty-five implants with regular platform in nine patients (mean age 62.4±11.2 years) were inserted either at the bone crest level (control group) or at a suprecrestal level (test group). Radiographic examination was performed at baseline (implant installation) and after 6 months. Clinical and microbiological data were collected after 6 months. Digital radiography was used to assess bone remodeling (marginal bone loss and optical alveolar density). Bacterial profile was analyzed by checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization, including a panel of 40 bacterial species. Results After 6 months, there were significantly higher counts of Actinomyces gerencseriae (p=0.009) and Streptococcus constellatus (p=0.05) in the test group. No significant differences between test and control groups were observed for marginal bone loss (p=0.725) and optical alveolar density (p=0.975). Probing depth was similar in both groups. Conclusion Significantly higher counts of A. gerencseriae and S. constellatus were found in implants placed at the supracrestal level compared to the ones placed at the bone level. No relation was found between the installation level of dental implants and peri-implant bone remodeling. PMID:26499108

  3. Leukotriene B4 enhances innate immune defense against the puerperal sepsis agent Streptococcus pyogenes

    Soares, Elyara M.; Mason, Katie L.; Rogers, Lisa M.; Serezani, Carlos H.; Faccioli, Lucia H.; David M. Aronoff

    2013-01-01

    Puerperal sepsis is a leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS) is a major etiologic agent of severe postpartum sepsis yet little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. Tissue macrophages provide innate defense against GAS and their actions are highly regulated. The intracellular second messenger cAMP can negatively regulate macrophage actions against GAS. Because leukotriene (LT) B4 has been shown to suppress intracel...

  4. In vitro susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and six other antimicrobial agents.

    Järvinen, H; Tenovuo, J; Huovinen, P

    1993-01-01

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and to six commonly used, systemic antibacterial agents (amoxicillin, cefuroxime, penicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracycline, and erythromycin) was studied for 424 clinical isolates from 116 children and students. The MIC of chlorhexidine for all isolates was < or = 1 micrograms/ml. No resistance to the other antimicrobial agents was detected. Although widely exposed to various antimicrobial agents, S. mutans has remaine...

  5. Presumed Hydrogen Sulfide-Mediated Neurotoxicity Following Streptococcus Anginosus Group Meningitis

    Verma, Sumit; Landisch, Rachel; Quirk, Brendan; Schmainda, Kathleen; Prah, Melissa; Whelan, Harry T.; Willoughby, Rodney E.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an environmental toxicant and gaseous neurotransmitter. It is produced enterically by sulfur-reducing bacteria and invasive pathogens including Streptococcus anginosus group, Salmonella and Citrobacter. We describe putative focal H2S neurotoxicity following S. constellatus meningitis, treated with adjunctive sodium nitrite and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

  6. Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Marcos Noronha Frey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade, e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5, e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5 and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

  7. Hydroxychalcone inhibitors of Streptococcus mutans glucosyl transferases and biofilms as potential anticaries agents.

    Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Casals, Luke; Zheng, Ruowen; Wu, Hui; Velu, Sadanandan E

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major etiological agent in the initiation and the development of dental caries due to its robust capacity to form tenacious biofilms. Ideal therapeutics for this disease will aim to selectively inhibit the biofilm formation process while preserving the natural bacterial flora of the mouth. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacies of flavonols on S. mutans biofilms and have suggested the mechanism of action through their effect on S. mutans glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). These enzymes metabolize sucrose into water insoluble and soluble glucans, which are an integral measure of the dental caries pathogenesis. Numerous studies have shown that flavonols and polyphenols can inhibit Gtf and biofilm formation at millimolar concentrations. We have screened a group of 14 hydroxychalcones, synthetic precursors of flavonols, in an S. mutans biofilm assay. Several of these compounds emerged to be biofilm inhibitors at low micro-molar concentrations. Chalcones that contained a 3-OH group on ring A exhibited selectivity for biofilm inhibition. Moreover, we synthesized 6 additional analogs of the lead compound and evaluated their potential activity and selectivity against S. mutans biofilms. The most active compound identified from these studies had an IC50 value of 44μM against biofilm and MIC50 value of 468μM against growth displaying >10-fold selectivity inhibition towards biofilm. The lead compound displayed a dose dependent inhibition of S. mutans Gtfs. The lead compound also did not affect the growth of two commensal species (Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii) at least up to 200μM, indicating that it can selectively inhibit cariogenic biofilms, while leaving commensal and/or beneficial microbes intact. Thus non-toxic compounds have the potential utility in public oral health regimes. PMID:27371109

  8. Leukotriene B4 enhances innate immune defense against the puerperal sepsis agent Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Soares, Elyara M; Mason, Katie L; Rogers, Lisa M; Serezani, Carlos H; Faccioli, Lucia H; Aronoff, David M

    2013-02-15

    Puerperal sepsis is a leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Streptococcus pyogenes [group A Streptococcus; (GAS)] is a major etiologic agent of severe postpartum sepsis, yet little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. Tissue macrophages provide innate defense against GAS, and their actions are highly regulated. The intracellular second messenger cAMP can negatively regulate macrophage actions against GAS. Because leukotriene (LT) B(4) has been shown to suppress intracellular cAMP in macrophages, we hypothesized that it could enhance innate defenses against GAS. We assessed the capacity of LTB(4) to modulate antistreptococcal actions of human macrophages, including placental and decidual macrophages and used a novel intrauterine infection model of GAS in mice lacking the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme to determine the role of endogenous LTs in host defense against this pathogen. Animals lacking 5-lipoxygenase were significantly more vulnerable to intrauterine GAS infection than were wild-type mice and showed enhanced dissemination of bacteria out of the uterus and a more robust inflammatory response than did wild-type mice. In addition, LTB(4) reduced intracellular cAMP levels via the BLT1 receptor and was a potent stimulant of macrophage phagocytosis and NADPH oxidase-dependent intracellular killing of GAS. Importantly, interference was observed between the macrophage immunomodulatory actions of LTB(4) and the cAMP-inducing lipid PGE(2), suggesting that interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory compounds may be important in vivo. This work underscores the potential for pharmacological targeting of lipid mediator signaling cascades in the treatment of invasive GAS infections. PMID:23325886

  9. Mode of action of a lysostaphin-like bacteriolytic agent produced by Streptococcus zooepidemicus 4881.

    Simmonds, R. S.; Pearson, L; Kennedy, R C; Tagg, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Electron microscopy of zoocin A-treated sensitive streptococcus cells revealed cytoplasmic disruption and ultimately complete rupture of the cell wall. Culture viability and optical density were shown to decrease rapidly and simultaneously in Streptococcus pyogenes FF22 but less quickly in the relatively more resistant Streptococcus mutans 10449. Zoocin A was shown to cleave hexaglycine in a colorimetric cell-free microtiter assay system, and it is concluded that the killing action of zoocin ...

  10. Streptococcus pneumoniae as an agent of nosocomial infection: treatment in the era of penicillin-resistant strains

    F. Paradisi; Corti, G.; R. Cinelli

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a well-known agent of community-acquired infections such as sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. However, the role of S.pneumoniae as a cause of nosocomial infections of respiratory tract, bloodstream, and central nervous system is more and more recognised, primarily in high-risk patients with depression of their immune function. Therapy of pneumococcal infections is made diff...

  11. Action of agents on glucosyltransferases from Streptococcus mutans in solution and adsorbed to experimental pellicle.

    Wunder, D; Bowen, W H

    1999-03-01

    Glucosyltransferase (Gtf) activity mediates sucrose-dependent adherence of mutans streptococci to the tooth surface, is essential for the cariogenicity of these micro-organisms, and contributes significantly to the exopolysaccharide component of the dental-plaque matrix. Clearly, agents that inhibit Gtfs could have therapeutic benefit. Here the effects of agents that inhibit Gtfs in solution and adsorbed to a surface were explored. Various classes of chemical reagents were tested for their ability to inhibit the enzymes responsible for insoluble-glucan synthesis (GtfB), insoluble/soluble glucan synthesis (GtfC), and soluble-glucan (GtfD) from Streptococcus mutans. Standard inhibition assays were done with Gtf enzyme in solution or with Gtf adsorbed to parotid saliva-coated hydroxylapatite (surface phase). Reagents tested included the metallic cations Li+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+; the oxidizing compounds hypochlorite, Rose Bengal, perborate, and sodium-meta-periodate; and a panel of sugars and sugar analogues including sorbitol, xylitol, 1',4',6' trideoxy-trichloro-galactosucrose (TGS), and 1-deoxynojirimycin (dNJ). In solution, Gtf activity was inhibited significantly, at the highest concentrations tested: by the metal ions Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ (approx. 40-80% inhibition); by Rose Bengal and hypochlorite (approx. 80-90% inhibition); and by TGS and dNJ (approx. 50-80%). However, surface-adsorbed Gtfs displayed increased resistance to inhibition by the same metal cations and oxidizing compounds that inhibited them in solution. In contrast, both TGS and dNJ possessed similar inhibition profiles for both surface-bound Gtf and enzyme in solution. These data indicate that the nature of the inhibitor is important, and also whether the Gtf enzyme is in solution or adsorbed to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite. PMID:10217511

  12. Modeling transmission of multitype infectious agents: application to carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Erästö, Panu; Hoti, Fabian; Auranen, Kari

    2012-06-30

    We describe a novel Bayesian approach to estimate acquisition and clearance rates for many competing subtypes of a pathogen in a susceptible-infected-susceptible model. The inference relies on repeated measurements of the current status of being a non-carrier (susceptible) or a carrier (infected) of one of the n(q)  > 1 subtypes. We typically collect the measurements with sampling intervals that may not catch the true speed of the underlying dynamics. We tackle the problem of incompletely observed data with Bayesian data augmentation, which integrates over possible carriage histories, allowing the data to contain intermittently missing values, complete dropouts of study subjects, or inclusion of new study subjects during the follow-up. We investigate the performance of the described method through simulations by using two different mixing groups (family and daycare) and different sampling intervals. For comparison, we describe crude maximum likelihood-based estimates derived directly from the observations. We apply the estimation algorithm to data about transmission of Streptococcus pneumonia in Bangladeshi families. The computationally intensive Bayesian approach is a valid method to account for incomplete observations, and we found that it performs generally better than the simple crude method, in particular with large amount of missing data. PMID:22354452

  13. Presence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of contagious mastitis agents (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae) isolated from milks of dairy cows with subclinical mastitis

    İKİZ, Serkan; BAŞARAN, Beren; BİNGÖL, Enver Barış; ÇETİN, Ömer; KAŞIKÇI, Güven; ÖZGÜR, Naciye Yakut; UÇMAK, Melih; Yilmaz, Özge; GÜNDÜZ, Mehmet Can; SABUNCU, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is recognized as one of the most important diseases affecting the dairy industry. The antibiotic susceptibility test is important to achieve accurate treatment in subclinical mastitis. This study was conducted to determine the presence of contagious mastitis agents (Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus) in 270 bovine milk samples collected from 132 dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in 15 different dairy farms located in the Marmara Region of Turkey. A total of 256 ba...

  14. In Vitro Activity of Antimicrobial Agents Against Streptococcus Pyogenes Isolates from patients with Acute Tonsillopharyngitis in Dakar, Senegal

    A. Gueye Ndiaye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes is the most important causative agent of tonsillopharyngitis. Beta-lactam antibiotics, particularly penicillin, are the drug of first choice and macrolides are recommended for patients who are allergic to penicillin. However, other antibiotics are also used for the treatment of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. In recent years, the increase in the incidence of respiratory tract pathogens that are resistant to current antibacterial agents highlights the need to monitor the evolution of the resistance of these pathogens to antibiotics. In this study, we assess the susceptibility of 98 isolates of S. pyogenes to 16 antibiotics. The pathogens were recovered from patients with acute tonsillopharyngitis in Dakar, the Senegalese capital city, who were recruited from May 2005 to August 2006. All strains were susceptible to penicillin with low Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC = 0,016 mg/L. Amoxicillin had high activity (100% showing its importance in treatment of streptococcal infections. Cephalosporins had MIC90 values ranging from 0.016 to 0.094 mg/L. Macrolides have shown high activity. All strains were resistant to tetracyclin. Other molecules such as teicoplanin, levofloxacin and chloramphenicol were also active and would represent alternatives to treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to this pathogen. These results indicate that no significant resistance to antibiotics was found among patients with tonsillopharyngitis studied in Dakar. Limitations of this study were that the number of isolates tested was small and all isolates were collected from one hospital in Dakar. Hence, results may not be representative of the isolates found, in the wider community or other regions of Senegal. Further studies are needed in other parts of Dakar and other geographic regions of Senegal, in order to better clarify the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. pyogenes isolates recovered from patients with tonsillopharyngitis.

  15. Trends in the resistance to antimicrobial agents of Streptococcus suis isolates from Denmark and Sweden.

    Aarestrup, F M; Rasmussen, S R; Artursson, K; Jensen, N E

    1998-08-28

    This study was conducted to determine the MIC values of historical and contemporary Streptoccocus suis (serotypes 2 and 7) from Denmark and S. suis (serotype 2) from Sweden. A total of 52 isolates originating from 1967 through 1981 and 156 isolates from 1992 through 1997 in Denmark and 13 isolates from Sweden were examined for their MICs against 20 different antimicrobial agents. Most antimicrobials were active against most isolates. A frequent occurrence of resistance to sulphamethoxazole was observed, with most resistance among historic isolates of serotype 7 and least resistance among isolates from Sweden. A large number of the isolates was resistant to macrolides. However, all historic serotype 2 isolates from Denmark were susceptible, whereas 20.4% of the contemporary isolates were resistant. Among serotype 7 isolates 23.3% of the historic isolates were resistant to macrolides, whereas resistance was found in 44.8% of the contemporary isolates. All isolates from Sweden were susceptible to macrolides. Time-associated frequency of resistance to tetracycline was also found. Only a single historic isolate of serotype 2 was resistant to tetracycline, whereas 43.9% of the contemporary serotype 2 isolates and 15.5% of the contemporary serotype 7 isolates were resistant. Only one (7.7%) of the isolates from Sweden was resistant. The differences in resistance between historic and contemporary isolates from Denmark were statistically significant. This study demonstrated a significant serotype-associated difference in the susceptibility to macrolides and tetracycline and demonstrated that an increase in resistance among S. suis isolates has taken place during the last 15 years to the two most commonly used antimicrobial agents (tylosin and tetracycline) in pig production in Denmark. PMID:9810623

  16. [Sensitivity surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates for several antibacterial agents in Gifu and Aichi prefectures (2011-2012)].

    Funatsu, Tori; Mizunaga, Shingo; Fukuda, Yoshiko; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Hashido, Hikonori; Mitsuyama, Junichi; Hatano, Masakazu; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Asano, Yuko; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Sawamura, Haruki; Matsukawa, Yoko; Ohta, Hirotoshi; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Matsubara, Shigenori; Shibata, Naohiro

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the susceptibility to antibacterial agents, genotype of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes and macrolide resistant genes, and the serotypes against 270 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from medical facilities in Gifu and Aichi prefectures between October 2011 and April 2012. These results were compared with those against S. pneumoniae isolated in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011. The number of gPSSP with 3 normal PBP genes, gPISP with 1 or 2 normal PBP genes and gPRSP with 3 abnormal genes isolated in 2011-2012 was 15 (5.6%), 162 (60.0%) and 93 (34.4%) strains, respectively. Compared with those isolated in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011, the numbers of gPRSP were decreasing. On the other hand, the isolates with no macrolide-resistant gene, only mefA, only ermB, and both mefA and ermB were 16 (5.9%), 75 (27.8%), 153 (56.7%) and 26 (9.6%). Compared with those isolated in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011, the numbers of isolates with ermB, which was usually associated with high-level resistance, were increasing. The prevalent pneumococcal serotypes in children were type 3 (14.4%), following by type 15 and 19F (9.3%). The coverages of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) were calculated as 22.9% and 49.2%, respectively. The coverages of PCV7 and PCV13 in gPRSP isolated from children were 47.7% (21/44 strains) and 72.7% (32/44 strains). The MIC90 of each antibacterial agent was as follows; 0.125pg/mL for imipenem, panipenem and garenoxacin, 0.25 μg/mL for meropenem and doripenem, 0.5 μg/mL for cefditoren, moxifloxacin and tosufloxacin, 1 μg/mL for amoxicillin, clavulanic acid/amoxicillin, cefteram, cefcapene and ceftriaxone, 2 μg/mL for benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, sulbactam/ampicillin, piperacillin, tazobactam/piperacillin and levofloxacin, 4 μg/mL for cefdinir, flomoxef and pazufloxacin, 16 μg/mL for minocycline, > 64 μg/mL for clarithromycin and azithromycin, and these MIC90s were about the

  17. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as etiological agents of conjunctivitis outbreaks in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

    Marta I. C. MEDEIROS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of conjunctivitis outbreaks occurring from September 1994 to September 1996 in the region of Ribeirão Preto, conjunctival exudates of 92 patients were cultivated in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory I, Ribeirão Preto. Most cases occurred in the age range 2-7 years. The etiological agents which were most frequently isolated from the analyzed cases were: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in 40.22% and 21.74%, respectively. 51.35% of the S. pneumoniae isolated strains were not typable. The oxacillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains were submitted to the minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC and three of them presented intermediate resistance, whereas only one was highly resistant to penicillin.No estudo de surtos de conjuntivite ocorridos no período de setembro de 1994 a setembro de 1996, na região de Ribeirão Preto, foram semeadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratório I, Ribeirão Preto, exsudatos conjuntivais de 92 pacientes, sendo que a maioria dos casos estava na faixa etária de 2-7 anos. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente isolados dos casos analisados foram: Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae em 40,22% e 21,74% respectivamente. 51,35% das cepas de S. pneumoniae isoladas foram não tipáveis. As cepas de S. pneumoniae oxacilina resistente foram submetidas ao teste de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, sendo que três apresentaram resistência intermediária e apenas uma foi altamente resistente à penicilina.

  19. Ent-trachyloban-19-oic acid isolated from Iostephane heterophylla as a promising antibacterial agent against Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Hernández, Dulce M; Díaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Rivero-Cruz, Blanca E; Bye, Robert A; Aguilar, María Isabel; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto

    2012-04-01

    From the roots of Iostephane heterophylla, six known compounds, namely, ent-trachyloban-19-oic acid (1), the mixture of ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (2) and ent-beyer-15-en-19-oic acid (3), xanthorrhizol (4), 16α-hydroxy-ent-kaurane (5) and 16α-hydroxy-ent-kaur-11-en-19-oic acid (6) were isolated using a bioassay-guided fractionation method. The known compounds (1-6) were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with reported values in the literature. In an attempt to increase the resultant antimicrobial activity of 1 and 4, a series of reactions was performed on ent-trachyloban-19-oic acid (1) and xanthorrhizol (4), to obtain derivatives 1a, 1b, and 4a-4d. All the isolated compounds (1-6) and the derivatives 1a, 1b, and 4a-4d were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against two oral pathogens, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with caries and periodontal disease, respectively. Compounds 1, 1b, 2+3, 4 and 4d inhibited the growth of S. mutans with concentrations ranging from 4.1 μg/mL to 70.5 μg/mL. No significant activity was found on P. gingivalis except for 4 with an MIC of 6.8 μg/mL. The ability of 1, 1b, 2+3, 4 and 4d to inhibit biofilm formation by S. mutans was evaluated. It was found that 1, 1b, 4 and 4d interfered with the establishment of S. mutans biofilms, inhibiting their development at 32.5, 125.0, 14.1 and 24.4 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:22245083

  20. Activities of a New Oral Streptogramin, XRP 2868, Compared to Those of Other Agents against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus Species

    Pankuch, Glenn A.; Kelly, Linda M.; Lin, Gengrong; Bryskier, Andre; Couturier, Catherine; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2003-01-01

    MIC methodology was used to test the antibacterial activity of XRP 2868, a new oral combination of two semisynthetic streptogramins, RPR 132552A and RPR 202868, compared to activities of other antibacterial agents against pneumococci, Haemophilus influenzae, and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. For 261 pneumococci, XRP 2868 and pristinamycin MICs were similar, irrespective of penicillin G and erythromycin A susceptibilities (MIC at which 50% of isolates were inhibited [MIC50], 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0...

  1. Streptococcus suis

    Poggenborg, René; Gaïni, Shahin; Kjaeldgaard, Poul;

    2008-01-01

    Meningitis and spondylodiscitis caused by Streptococcus suis is a rare disease which is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs. We report a 54-y-old pig-farm worker with S. suis meningitis and septicaemia complicated with thoracal and lumbar spine spondylodiscitis. The S. suis strain involved...

  2. Resistance to Mercury and Antimicrobial Agents in Streptococcus mutans Isolates from Human Subjects in Relation to Exposure to Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Leistevuo, Jorma; Järvinen, Helinä; Österblad, Monica; Leistevuo, Tiina; Huovinen, Pentti; Tenovuo, Jorma

    2000-01-01

    Resistance to cefuroxime, penicillin, tetracycline, and mercury is reported for 839 Streptococcus mutans isolates from 209 human study subjects. The MICs of these drugs did not differ for isolates from one dental amalgam group and two nonamalgam subsets: a group with no known exposure to amalgam and a group whose members had their amalgam fillings removed.

  3. Single- and Multistep Resistance Selection Studies on the Activity of Retapamulin Compared to Other Agents against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

    Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; McGhee, Pamela; Dewasse, Bonifacio; Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Retapamulin had the lowest rate of spontaneous mutations by single-step passaging and the lowest parent and selected mutant MICs by multistep passaging among all drugs tested for all Staphylococcus aureus strains and three Streptococcus pyogenes strains which yielded resistant clones. Retapamulin has a low potential for resistance selection in S. pyogenes, with a slow and gradual propensity for resistance development in S. aureus.

  4. Bacterial meningitis by streptococcus agalactiae

    Villarreal-Velásquez Tatiana Paola; Cortés-Daza César Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: bacterial meningitis is an infectious disease considered a medicalemergency. The timely management has an important impact on the evolution of thedisease. Streptococcus agalactiae, a major causative agent of severe infections innewborns can colonize different tissues, including the central nervous system.Case report: Male patient 47 years old from rural areas, with work activity as amilker of cattle, referred to tertiary care, with disorientation, neck stiffness, and grandmal se...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae PR06

    MZ, Irma Syakina; L. K. Teh; Salleh, M. Z.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium that was first recognized as a causative agent of bovine mastitis. S. agalactiae has subsequently emerged as a significant cause of human diseases. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. agalactiae PR06, which was isolated from a septicemic patient in a local hospital in Malaysia.

  6. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that ...

  7. Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans

    Kamiya, Regianne Umeko; Taiete, Tiago; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virulence factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing), classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis. PMID:24031748

  8. Streptococcus agalactiae

    Sebastian Faro

    1993-01-01

    Статья посвящена исследованию степени колонизации Streptococcus agalactiae мочеполовых (СГВ) органов и прямой кишки беременных на раннем сроке беременности и исходов беременности для матери и плода в зависимости от применения антибиотикопрофилактики. Частота колонизации СГВ составила 15,9 %, при этом в моче СГВ выявлялись с частотой 8,6 %, в отделяемом влагалища 3,5 %, в прямой кишке 10 %. Эффективность амоксициллина клавуланата, назначаемого во II триместре беременности при выявлении СГВ, со...

  9. Streptococcus salivarius Fimbriae Are Composed of a Glycoprotein Containing a Repeated Motif Assembled into a Filamentous Nondissociable Structure

    Lévesque, Céline; Vadeboncoeur, Christian; Chandad, Fatiha; Frenette, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius, a gram-positive bacterium found in the human oral cavity, expresses flexible peritrichous fimbriae. In this paper, we report purification and partial characterization of S. salivarius fimbriae. Fimbriae were extracted by shearing the cell surface of hyperfimbriated mutant A37 (a spontaneous mutant of S. salivarius ATCC 25975) with glass beads. Preliminary experiments showed that S. salivarius fimbriae did not dissociate when they were incubated at 100°C in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. This characteristic was used to separate them from other cell surface components by successive gel filtration chromatography procedures. Fimbriae with molecular masses ranging from 20 × 106 to 40 × 106 Da were purified. Examination of purified fimbriae by electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous structures up to 1 μm long and 3 to 4 nm in diameter. Biochemical studies of purified fimbriae and an amino acid sequence analysis of a fimbrial internal peptide revealed that S. salivarius fimbriae were composed of a glycoprotein assembled into a filamentous structure resistant to dissociation. The internal amino acid sequence was composed of a repeated motif of two amino acids alternating with two modified residues: A/X/T-E-Q-M/φ, where X represents a modified amino acid residue and φ represents a blank cycle. Immunolocalization experiments also revealed that the fimbriae were associated with a wheat germ agglutinin-reactive carbohydrate. Immunolabeling experiments with antifimbria polyclonal antibodies showed that antigenically related fimbria-like structures were expressed in two other human oral streptococcal species, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus constellatus. PMID:11292790

  10. POLA PROTEIN ELEKTROFORESIS DARI STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS DALAM SATU KELUARGA

    Retno Indrawati Roestamadji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutans streptococci is a normal flora of the mouth. Streptococcus mutans is considered to be the main etiological agent of dental caries in human. Many research have been reported about Mutans Streptococci transmission in the family. The infant first became colonized by this organism probably from family cohorts. This research was done to know protein patterns of Streptococcus mutans in an acquired by transmission in the family. Plaque of ten family were taken to isolate Streptococcus mutans isolation and then were extracted as whole cell protein by Artama method (1996. Protein analysis by SDS PAGE to establish the relationship or transmission of Streptococcus mutans in family. The result indicated that protein patterns of Streptococcus mutans found in children identically to those of their parents. Strongly supporting the notion that parents transmit their organism to their ifants.

  11. Streptococcus agalactiae endogenous endophthalmitis

    Saffra, Norman; Rakhamimov, Aleksandr; Husney, Robert; Ghitan, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (SA) is a Group B Streptococcus, which is a common pathogen implicated in neonatal and geriatric sepsis. Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE) is a condition that results from haematogenous seeding of the globe, during transient or persistent bacteremia. We document a case of a non-septic geriatric patient, who developed EBE after a transient bacteraemia with SA.

  12. Group B Streptococcus

    Albert H. Adriaanse

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae is an important cause of neonatal sepsis. Prevention is possible by intrapartum screening for maternal GBS carriership and antimicrobial treatment of colonized women with risk factors during labor. The conflicting results of diagnostic performance are reported both for the newly developed rapid GBS antigen tests and Gram's stain.

  13. Proteomic Biomarkers Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Invasive Genogroups

    Philippe Lanotte; Marylise Perivier; Eve Haguenoer; Laurent Mereghetti; Christophe Burucoa; Stéphane Claverol; Christo Atanassov

    2013-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) is a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis in newborns and an etiological agent of meningitis, endocarditis, osteoarticular and soft tissue infections in adults. GBS isolates are routinely clustered in serotypes and in genotypes. At present one GBS sequence type (i.e. ST17) is considered to be closely associated with bacterial invasiveness and novel proteomic biomarkers could make a valuable contribution to currently available GBS typing ...

  14. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some women carry in their intestines and ... Mosby; 2015:chap 55. Pannaraj PS, Baker CJ. Group B streptococcal infections. In: Cherry J, Harrison GJ, ...

  15. Recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus faecalis.

    Yagi, Y; Clewell, D B

    1980-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation-sensitive derivative of Streptococcus faecalis strain JH2-2 was isolated and found to be deficient in recombination, using a plasmid-plasmid recombination system. The strain was sensitive to chemical agents which interact with deoxyribonucleic acid and also underwent deoxyribonucleic acid degradation after ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, the mutant has properties similar to those of recA strains of Escherichia coli.

  16. Gene Regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae: interplay between nutrition and virulence

    W.T. Hendriksen (Wouter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractStreptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the species of streptococci. Other pathogenic bacteria belonging to this class include Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus bovi

  17. Prophage-Cured Derivatives of Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris

    Gasson, Michael J.; Davies, F. Lyndon

    1980-01-01

    Prophage curing was achieved in Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris, and the cured derivatives were shown to be indicators for their temperate bacteriophages. Relysogenization of these cured derivatives completed the first formal demonstration of the lysogenic state in lactic streptococci.

  18. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  19. Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ105 PREGNANCY Group B Strep and Pregnancy • What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? • What does it mean to be ... a planned cesarean birth? •Glossary What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? Group B streptococcus is one of ...

  20. Septicemia with Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae

    Fuursted, Kurt; Littauer, Pia Jeanette; Greve, Thomas; Scholz, Christian F P

    Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was described in 2004 as a new human pathogen, acknowledged in a range of clinical infections typically associated to the respiratory tract. This report demonstrates that S. pseudopneumoniae has the potential to cause invasive infection. In blood cultures from three...

  1. Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Kaijalainen, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumococcus, is an importanthuman pathogen that causes both serious invasive infections, suchas septicaemia, meningitis and pneumonia, as well as mild upper respiratoryinfections. It also belongs to the normal nasopharyngeal microbialflora. The purpose of this study was to compare bacteriologicalphenotypic methods with genetechnological methods in the identificationof pneumococci, especially among suspect pneumococcal isolateslacking one or more typical ...

  2. The Ecology of Bacteriocin-producing Strains of Streptococcus salivarius

    Tompkins, G R; Tagg, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in bacteriocin-producing components of the human normal oral microbiota centres on their possible interference with colonisation by potentially pathogenic bacteria. Certain strains of Streptococcus salivarius produce bacteriocin-like agents displaying exceptional inhibitory activity toward Lancefield Group A streptococci. Four individuals were identified as naturally harbouring high proportions (> 90 per cent) of bacteriocin-producing strains of S. salivarius. Bacteriocinogenic is...

  3. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization

    Patras, Kathryn A.; Wescombe, Philip A.; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D.; Tagg, John R.; Kelly S. Doran

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to cont...

  4. Resultados de la aplicación del protocolo basado en screening para la búsqueda de Streptococcus agalactiae en el tercer trimestre del embarazo: Posible impacto sobre la sepsis neonatal precoz por este agente PERFORMANCE OF A Streptococcus agalactiae UNIVERSAL SCREENING PROTOCOL DURING THE THIRD THRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY: IMPLICATIONS IN REDUCING NEONATAL GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL SEPSIS

    ANA M. GUZMÁN D.; FERNANDO ABARZÚA C.; CRISTIAN BELMAR J.; PATRICIA GARCÍA C.

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) es la principal causa de sepsis neonatal precoz (SNP). Recientemente el CDC ha planteado tratar sólo pacientes con factores de riesgo o detectar a las portadoras realizando cultivo vaginal-perianal en el 3º trimestre del embarazo (screening universal). En nuestro hospital hasta el año 1999 sólo se trataba a las pacientes con factores de riesgo, presentando en el bienio 1997/1998 una tasa de SNP por SGB de 1,84/1.000 nacidos vivos. Entre octubre 1999 y noviembre ...

  5. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  6. Identification of Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius in clinical laboratories.

    Ruoff, K L; Ferraro, M J; Holden, J; Kunz, L J

    1984-01-01

    Streptococci identified as Streptococcus bovis, S. bovis variant, and Streptococcus salivarius were examined with respect to physiological and serological characteristics and cellular fatty acid content. Similarities in physiological reactions and problems encountered in serological analysis were noted, suggesting that an expanded battery of physiological tests is needed to definitively identify these streptococci. Cellular fatty acid analysis provided an accurate method for distinguishing S....

  7. Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes

    Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered...

  8. Identification of Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius in clinical laboratories.

    Ruoff, K L; Ferraro, M J; Holden, J; Kunz, L J

    1984-01-01

    Streptococci identified as Streptococcus bovis, S. bovis variant, and Streptococcus salivarius were examined with respect to physiological and serological characteristics and cellular fatty acid content. Similarities in physiological reactions and problems encountered in serological analysis were noted, suggesting that an expanded battery of physiological tests is needed to definitively identify these streptococci. Cellular fatty acid analysis provided an accurate method for distinguishing S. salivarius from S. bovis and S. bovis variant. PMID:6490816

  9. Streptococcus mutans Out-competes Streptococcus gordonii in vivo

    Tanzer, J M; Thompson, A; Sharma, K.; Vickerman, M M; Haase, E.M.; Scannapieco, F A

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans avidly colonize teeth. S. gordonii glucosyltransferase (GtfG) and amylase-binding proteins (AbpA/AbpB), and S. mutans glucosyltransferase (GtfB), affect their respective oral colonization abilities. We investigated their interrelationships and caries association in a rat model of human caries, examining the sequence of colonization and non- vs. high-sucrose diets, the latter being associated with aggressive decay in humans and rats. Virulence-ch...

  10. Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE due to Streptococcus gordonii

    Raffaella Battista

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocarditis is an inflammatory state of the endothelium that promotes thrombus formation and tissue damage on the surface of heart valves. Recent studies have reported endocarditis mortality rates ranging from 12% to 46% (2008. The Streptococcus gordonii is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity. It is a component of the microbial communities responsible of plaque formation, associated with dental caries and also regarded as the main causative agent in the development of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE.

  11. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol.

  12. Penicillin-induced lysis of Streptococcus mutans.

    Kral, T A; Callaway, M D

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 cells with concentrations of penicillin G within a relatively narrow range resulted in substantial lysis. This penicillin-induced lysis was dependent upon cell density and pH of the lysis medium. Other oral streptococci (Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus rattus, and Streptococcus cricetus) also demonstrated substantial levels of penicillin-induced lysis under appropriate conditions. Lesser degrees of lysis were seen in a related organism, Streptococc...

  13. Antibacterial activities of modified dentin adhesive agent against Streptococcus mutans%改性牙本质粘接剂对抗变形链球菌的性能*★

    刘梅天; 聂红兵; 张金婷; 周海静

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the treatment of dental caries with bonding repair technique, residual bacteria fol owing the preparation of cavities can survive a long time between the tooth structure and dental prosthesis, which can cause secondary caries or chronic inflammation of the pulp. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial effects of resin-based adhesive modified with the antibacterial monomer 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide against Streptococcus mutans. METHODS: Experimental antibacterial adhesive specimens (GLUMA Comfort Bond) covered with different concentrations of antibacterial monomers (0 as negative control, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide) were prepared, and their antibacterial effects were investigated by the measurement of bacteria liquid absorbance, pH value which contained experimental antibacterial adhesive specimens after 18-hour culture. Clearfil Protect Bond was used as positive control. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was statistical difference in antibacterial effects between the negative control and positive control. The experimental adhesive specimens incorporated with 1% and 2% monomers showed antibacterial activities against Streptococcus mutans similar as the negative control (P > 0.05). There was no statistical difference in antibacterial effects between the positive control and experimental adhesive specimens incorporated with 3% and 4% monomers (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that experimental adhesive specimens containing 3% and 4% 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide monomers showed better antibacterial activities.%  背景:研究证实粘接修复技术治疗龋病过程中,龋洞预备后残留的细菌可在牙体组织与修复体之间继续生存较长时间,诱发继发龋或牙髓的慢性炎症。目的:评价经甲基丙烯酰氧十二烷基溴吡单体改性树脂基粘接剂对变形链球菌的抗菌性能。方法:制备含质量分数0(阴性对照),1%,2%,3

  14. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P; Williams, Matthew L; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Burne, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens. PMID:26826230

  15. Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae: a case of S. agalactiae infection in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus)

    Chutima Tantikitti; Naraid Suanyuk; Akkarawit Itsaro

    2012-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) technique was developed for simultaneous detection of the causative agents responsible forstreptococcosis of cultured fish in Thailand i.e., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae.The study on the sensitivity of the technique indicated that the minimum detected DNA concentration was 9.76, 39.06, and19.53 pg for S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieae, respectively. Detection of streptococcosis in healthy and diseased Niletilapia (Oreoch...

  16. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake...

  17. Development of primer sets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification that enables rapid and specific detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three ...

  18. Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis in children: report of two cases and literature review

    Mariana V. Arnoni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis (SPM occurs sporadically, even with the increase of invasive streptococcal disease observed in the past years. We reported two cases of SPM in infants to alert pediatricians for the possibility of this agent as a cause of meningitis in previously healthy children.

  19. Antagonism between penicillin and erythromycin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo

    Johansen, H K; Jensen, T G; Dessau, Ram;

    2000-01-01

    effect of the bactericidal agent. In this study, the possible interaction between penicillin and erythromycin was investigated in vitro and in vivo against four clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with MICs of penicillin ranging from 0.016 to 0.5 mg/L and of erythromycin from 0. 25 to >128 mg...

  20. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-3H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

  1. The effect of Propolis and Xylitol chewing gums on salivary Streptococcus mutans count: A clinical trial

    Sneha Girdhari Tulsani; Nagarathna Chikkanarasaiah; Shakuntala Bethur Siddaiah; Navin H Krishnamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus mutans is one of the most common cariogenic microorganisms. Use of natural anticariogenic agents, such as Xylitol has been well-established in the literature. On the other hand, there is a scarcity of studies that have reported the antimicrobial potential of Propolis as an anticariogenic chewing agent; hence, the present study was designed. Aims: To evaluate and compare the anticariogenic action of two commercial chewing gums Propolis and Xylitol on the salivary ...

  2. Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Salah Shanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.

  3. Streptococcus mutans: Fructose Transport, Xylitol Resistance, and Virulence

    Tanzer, J M; Thompson, A; Wen, Z. T.; Burne, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, possesses at least two fructose phosphotransferase systems (PTSs), encoded by fruI and fruCD. fruI is also responsible for xylitol transport. We hypothesized that fructose and xylitol transport systems do not affect virulence. Thus, colonization and cariogenicity of fruI− and fruCD− single and double mutants, their WT (UA159), and xylitol resistance (Xr) of S. mutans were studied in rats fed a high-sucrose diet. A suc...

  4. Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations

    Dragojlović Julijana; Milošević Branko; Šašić Neda; Pelemiš Miomir; Šašić Milan

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestat...

  5. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis: a review.

    Keefe, G P

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae continues to be a major cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle and a source of economic loss for the industry. Veterinarians are often asked to provide information on herd level control and eradication of S. agalactiae mastitis. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject. The literature search was conducted in 1993 on the Agricola database. Articles related to S. agalactiae epidemiology, pathogen identification techniques, milk quali...

  6. Isolation of Streptococcus bovis in a Patient with Undiagnosed Colon Cancer. A Case Report

    Ledys Pérez Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the bacterial agents commonly associated with colorectal cancer is Streptococcus bovis. Twenty five to 80 % of patients with Streptococcus bovis bacteremia develop colorectal tumors and the incidence of colonic neoplasia associated with S. bovis endocarditis has been shown to be 18 to 62 %. Hence, it was decided to present the case of a 57-year-old patient from an urban area with a 6-year history of diabetes mellitus type I and alcoholism, who was admitted to the hospital in Cienfuegos because of significant gastrointestinal bleeding and fever (39-40 o C. Streptococcus bovis was isolated from the blood culture. The patient died 72 hours after his admission. Autopsy results showed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the right colon.

  7. Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations

    Dragojlović Julijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. Material and methods This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. Results All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awareness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairemnt, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characeteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatment with

  8. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  9. Streptococcus pyogenes toxic-shock syndrome

    Antunes, R; Diogo, M; Carvalho, A; Pimentel, T.; Oliveira, J

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been an exponential increase in invasive infections caused by Streptococcus ß hemolyticcus group A. In about one third of cases they are complicated by toxic shock syndrome, characterized by septic shock and multiorgan failure. The authors, by their rarity, report a case of bacteraemia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes complicated by toxic shock syndrome.

  10. Streptococcus pneumoniae Invades Endothelial Host Cells via Multiple Pathways and Is Killed in a Lysosome Dependent Manner

    Gradstedt, Henrik; Iovino, Federico; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major causative agents of pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis and other morbidities. In spite of its heavy disease burden, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms involved in the switch of life style, from commensal colonizer of the nasopharynx to invasive

  11. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells

    Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Grignon, Louis; Spolidorio, Denise Palomari; Grenier, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range...

  12. Antimicrobial Traits of Tea- and Cranberry-Derived Polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans

    Yoo, S.; Murata, R.M.; Duarte, S.

    2011-01-01

    There are over 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the human oral cavity, but only a small fraction of those are attributed to causing plaque-related diseases such as caries. Streptococcus mutans is accepted as the main cariogenic agent and there is substantial knowledge regarding the specific virulence factors that render the organism a pathogen. There has been rising interest in alternative, target-specific treatment options as opposed to nonspecific mechanical plaque removal or applicatio...

  13. Effect of Eugenol against Streptococcus agalactiae and Synergistic Interaction with Biologically Produced Silver Nanoparticles

    Renata Perugini Biasi-Garbin; Eliane Saori Otaguiri; Alexandre Tadachi Morey; Mayara Fernandes da Silva; Ana Elisa Belotto Morguette; César Armando Contreras Lancheros; Danielle Kian; Márcia Regina Eches Perugini; Gerson Nakazato; Nelson Durán; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Lucy Megumi Yamauchi; Sueli Fumie Yamada-Ogatta

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci (GBS)) is an important infections agent in newborns associated with maternal vaginal colonization. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in GBS-colonized pregnant women has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of early neonatal infection in various geographic regions. However, this strategy may lead to resistance selecting among GBS, indicating the need for new alternatives to prevent bacterial transmission and even to treat GBS infection...

  14. Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae

    Tatiana Castro Abreu Pinto; Natália Silva Costa; Ana Beatriz de Almeida Corrêa; Ivi Cristina Menezes Oliveira; Marcos Correa de Mattos; Alexandre Soares Rosado; Leslie Claude Benchetrit

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance genes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated ...

  15. Analysis of RogB-Controlled Virulence Mechanisms and Gene Expression in Streptococcus agalactiae

    Gutekunst, Heike; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Reinscheid, Dieter J.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in neonates and also the causative agent of different serious infections in immunocompromised adults. The wide range of diseases that are caused by S. agalactiae suggests regulatory mechanisms that control the formation of specific virulence factors in these bacteria. The present study describes a gene from S. agalactiae, designated rogB, encoding a protein with significant similarity to members of the RofA-like ...

  16. Oscillations in continuous culture populations of Streptococcus pneumoniae: population dynamics and the evolution of clonal suicide

    2008-01-01

    Agents that kill or induce suicide in the organisms that produce them or other individuals of the same genotype are intriguing puzzles for ecologists and evolutionary biologists. When those organisms are pathogenic bacteria, these suicidal toxins have the added appeal as candidates for the development of narrow spectrum antibiotics to kill the pathogens that produce them. We show that when clinical as well as laboratory strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae are maintained in continuous culture ...

  17. Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus

    Kasraei, Shahin; Sami, Lida; Hendi, Sareh; AliKhani, Mohammad-Yousef; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Khamverdi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent caries was partly ascribed to lack of antibacterial properties in composite resin. Silver and zinc nanoparticles are considered to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of composite resins containing 1% silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods Ninety discoid tablets containing 0%, 1% nano-silver and 1% nano zinc-oxide particles were prepa...

  18. Utilization of Lactose and Galactose by Streptococcus mutans: Transport, Toxicity, and Carbon Catabolite Repression▿ †

    Zeng, Lin; Das, Satarupa; Burne, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Abundant in milk and other dairy products, lactose is considered to have an important role in oral microbial ecology and can contribute to caries development in both adults and young children. To better understand the metabolism of lactose and galactose by Streptococcus mutans, the major etiological agent of human tooth decay, a genetic analysis of the tagatose-6-phosphate (lac) and Leloir (gal) pathways was performed in strain UA159. Deletion of each gene in the lac operon caused various alt...

  19. Interactions of Streptococcus mutans Fimbria-Associated Surface Proteins with Salivary Components

    Ray, Chad A.; Gfell, Linda E.; Buller, Tiffany L.; Gregory, Richard L

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major causative agent of human dental caries. S. mutans binds to saliva-coated tooth surfaces, and previous studies suggested that fimbriae may play a role in the initial bacterial adherence to salivary components. The objectives of this study were to establish the ability of an S. mutans fimbria preparation to bind to saliva-coated surfaces and determine the specific salivary components that facilitate binding with f...

  20. Molecular characterization of a Streptococcus gallolyticus genomic island encoding a pilus involved in endocarditis.

    Danne, Camille; Entenza, José M.; Mallet, Adeline; Briandet, Romain; Débarbouillé, Michel,; Nato, Farida,; Glaser, Philippe; Jouvion, Grégory; Moreillon, Philippe; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2011-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: Streptococcus gallolyticus is a causative agent of infective endocarditis associated with colon cancer. Genome sequence of strain UCN34 revealed the existence of 3 pilus loci (pil1, pil2, and pil3). Pili are long filamentous structures playing a key role as adhesive organelles in many pathogens. The pil1 locus encodes 2 LPXTG proteins (Gallo2178 and Gallo2179) and 1 sortase C (Gallo2177). Gallo2179 displaying a functional collagen-binding domain was refer...

  1. Antibacterial activity of the three essential oils on Streptococcus mutans- an in-vitro study

    reevidhya. T. M; Geetha. R. V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti bacterial activity of three essential oils Thyme, Peppermint and neem oil on Streptococcus mutans, the potent initiator and leading cause of dental caries world wide. Essential oils are distillates of the volatile compounds of a plant’s secondary metabolism and may act as phytoprotective agents. Their curative effect has been known since antiquity. It is based on a variety of pharmacological properties which are specific for each plant spe...

  2. Population diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the upper respiratory tracts of adults, determined by a nonculture strategy

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, H; Hance, I;

    2008-01-01

    We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat...

  3. Adaptive Acid Tolerance Response of Streptococcus sobrinus

    Nascimento, Marcelle M.; Lemos, José A. C.; Abranches, Jacqueline; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B.; Burne, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the bacteria most commonly associated with human dental caries. A major virulence attribute of these and other cariogenic bacteria is acid tolerance. The acid tolerance mechanisms of S. mutans have begun to be investigated in detail, including the adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR), but this is not the case for S. sobrinus. An analysis of the ATR of two S. sobrinus strains was conducted with cells grown to steady state in continuous chem...

  4. Diverse Virulent Pneumophages Infect Streptococcus mitis

    Siham Ouennane; Philippe Leprohon; Sylvain Moineau

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mitis has emerged as one of the leading causes of bacterial endocarditis and is related to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance has also increased among strains of S. mitis and S. pneumoniae. Phages are being reinvestigated as alternatives to antibiotics for managing infections. In this study, the two virulent phages Cp-1 (Podoviridae) and Dp-1 (Siphoviridae), previously isolated from S. pneumoniae, were found to also infect S. mitis. Microbiological assays showed tha...

  5. Cervicale spondylodiscitis veroorzaakt door Streptococcus agalactiae

    Weynants, Luc; Weynants, Laurens; Rimbaut, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The medical history of a previously perfectly healthy 45-year-old male patient with acute cervical pain is presented. From cultures of the discus C5-C6, Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated. The patient was treated with penicillin and clindamycin, and recovered quickly. Streptococcus agalactiae is reported as a cause of invasive infections in neonati and pregnant women, but in recent years, an increasing number of infections have been reported in adults. One of the reasons may be that, nowad...

  6. Cloning of Minor Autolysin of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Mahboobi, R. (MSc); Fallah Mehrabadi, J. (PhD); MR Pourmand; R Mashhadi; Haddadi, A. (MD

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Increased antibiotic resistant strains and inadequacy of current vaccines against pneumococcal infections necessitate the study of novel protein antigens. It seems that minor autolysin of Streptococcus pneumoniae may have antigenicity. Thus, we aimed at cloning its gene for the first time. Material and Methods: After DNA extraction of Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619), Specific primers were designed for amplifying minor autolysin gene fragment, using PCR. The pur...

  7. Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents

    Andrea Pinto Loguercio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis.The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (94.4% and Streptococcus sp. (85.2% showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

  8. The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study

    Prashant G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries. Materials and Methods: The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4°C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Results: Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms. Interpretation and Conclusion: A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.

  9. Proteomic biomarkers associated with Streptococcus agalactiae invasive genogroups.

    Philippe Lanotte

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae is a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis in newborns and an etiological agent of meningitis, endocarditis, osteoarticular and soft tissue infections in adults. GBS isolates are routinely clustered in serotypes and in genotypes. At present one GBS sequence type (i.e. ST17 is considered to be closely associated with bacterial invasiveness and novel proteomic biomarkers could make a valuable contribution to currently available GBS typing data. For that purpose we analyzed the protein profiles of 170 genotyped GBS isolates by Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI. Univariate statistical analysis of the SELDI profiles identified four protein biomarkers significantly discriminating ST17 isolates from those of the other sequence types. Two of these biomarkers (MW of 7878 Da and 12200 Da were overexpressed and the other two (MW of 6258 Da and 10463 Da were underexpressed in ST17. The four proteins were isolated by mass spectrometry-assisted purification and their tryptic peptides analyzed by LC-MS/MS. They were thereby identified as the small subunit of exodeoxyribonuclease VII, the 50S ribosomal protein L7/L12, a CsbD-like protein and thioredoxin, respectively. In conclusion, we identified four candidate biomarkers of ST17 by SELDI for high-throughput screening. These markers may serve as a basis for further studies on the pathophysiology of GBS infection, and for the development of novel vaccines.

  10. A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin

    Eduardo Walker Zettler

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cultura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta. Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica.BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detects the genes

  11. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

  12. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    Julien Sfeir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred.

  13. NEW ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY TESTS OF BIOFILM OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS IN ARTIFICIAL MOUTH MODEL

    李鸣宇; 汪俊; 刘正; 朱彩莲

    2004-01-01

    Objective To develop a new antimicrobial sensitivity test model for oral products in vitro.Methods A biofilm artificial mouth model for antimicrobial sensitivity tests was established by modifying the LKI chromatography chamber. Using sodium fluoride and Tea polyphenol as antimicrobial agent and Streptococcus mutans as target, sensitivity tests were studied. Results The modeling biofilm assay resulted in a MIC of 1.28mg/ml for fluoride against S. mutans, which was 32 times the MIC for broth maco-dilution method. The differential resistance of bacteria bioflim to antimicrobial agent relative to planktonic cells was also demonstrated. Conclusion The biofilm artificial mouth model may be useful in oral products test.

  14. Real-time PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus

    2007-01-01

    Real-time PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus SWEDEN (B?verud, V.) SWEDEN Received: 2006-10-03 Revised: 2007-03-27 Accepted: 2007-04-05

  15. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are...

  16. Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus

    Kasraei, Shahin; Sami, Lida; Hendi, Sareh; AliKhani, Mohammad-Yousef; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent caries was partly ascribed to lack of antibacterial properties in composite resin. Silver and zinc nanoparticles are considered to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of composite resins containing 1% silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods Ninety discoid tablets containing 0%, 1% nano-silver and 1% nano zinc-oxide particles were prepared from flowable composite resin (n = 30). The antibacterial properties of composite resin discs were evaluated by direct contact test. Diluted solutions of Streptococcus mutans (PTCC 1683) and Lactobacillus (PTCC 1643) were prepared. 0.01 mL of each bacterial species was separately placed on the discs. The discs were transferred to liquid culture media and were incubated at 37℃ for 8 hr. 0.01 mL of each solution was cultured on blood agar and the colonies were counted. Data was analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Composites containing nano zinc-oxide particles or silver nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The effect of zinc-oxide on Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of silver (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus between composites containing silver nanoparticles and those containing zinc-oxide nanoparticles. Conclusions Composite resins containing silver or zinc-oxide nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. PMID:24790923

  17. Intracellular α-Amylase of Streptococcus mutans

    Simpson, Christine L.; Russell, Roy R. B.

    1998-01-01

    Sequencing upstream of the Streptococcus mutans gene for a CcpA gene homolog, regM, revealed an open reading frame, named amy, with homology to genes encoding α-amylases. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a strong similarity (60% amino acid identity) to the intracellular α-amylase of Streptococcus bovis and, in common with this enzyme, lacked a signal sequence. Amylase activity was found only in S. mutans cell extracts, with no activity detected in culture supernatants. Inactivation of a...

  18. Antibacterial activity of the three essential oils on Streptococcus mutans- an in-vitro study

    reevidhya. T. M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti bacterial activity of three essential oils Thyme, Peppermint and neem oil on Streptococcus mutans, the potent initiator and leading cause of dental caries world wide. Essential oils are distillates of the volatile compounds of a plant’s secondary metabolism and may act as phytoprotective agents. Their curative effect has been known since antiquity. It is based on a variety of pharmacological properties which are specific for each plant species. Antibacterial activity of the three essential oils, Thyme, Peppermint and neem oil were screened against Streptococcus mutans, using disc diffusion technique. The results of this study showed that the extracts at different concentrations exhibited anti bacterial activity against the bacterial species tested.

  19. A TRANSGLUCOSYLASE OF STREPTOCOCCUS BOVIS.

    WALKER, G J

    1965-02-01

    1. A transglucosylase has been separated from the alpha-amylase of Streptococcus bovis by chromatography of the cell extract on DEAE-cellulose. 2. The transglucosylase can synthesize higher maltodextrins from maltotriose, but maltose, isomaltose and panose do not function as donors. 3. Iodine-staining polysaccharide may be synthesized from maltotriose provided that glucose is removed. Synthesis from maltohexaose results in dextrins of sufficient chain length to stain with iodine, but again maltodextrins of longer chain length are formed when glucose is removed from the system. 4. The transglucosylase degrades amylose in the presence of a suitable acceptor, transferring one or more glucosyl residues from the non-reducing end of the donor to the non-reducing end of the acceptor. With [(14)C]glucose as acceptor the maltodextrins produced were labelled in the reducing glucose unit only. 5. The acceptor activities of 25 sugars have been compared with that of glucose. Maltose has 50%, methyl alpha-glucoside has 15%, isomaltose and panose each has 8% and sucrose has 6% of the accepting efficiency of glucose. Mannose and sorbose also had detectable activity. With the exception of maltose all these sugars produced a different series of dextrins from that obtained with glucose. 6. It was concluded that S. bovis transglucosylase transfers alpha-(1-->4)-glucosidic linkages in the same manner as D-enzyme, but some differences in specificity distinguish the two enzymes. Unlike D-enzyme, S. bovis transglucosylase can transfer glucosyl units, producing appreciable amounts of maltose both during synthesis from maltotriose and during transfer from amylose to glucose. 7. No evidence was found that the transglucosylase was extracellular. The enzyme is cell-bound, and is released by treatment of the cells with lysozyme and by suspension of the spheroplasts in dilute buffer. 8. The transglucosylase may be responsible for the storage of intracellular iodophilic polysaccharide that occurs

  20. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    Jeevarathan J; Deepti A; Muthu M; Rathna Prabhu V; Chamundeeswari G

    2007-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free childr...

  1. Antagonistic action of Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus faecalis to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Darling, C L; Hart, G D

    1976-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus faecalis were found to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 agars, but not on the latter medium when antibacterial drugs were added. S. faecalis was found to be more inhibitory than S. salivarius to 15 strains of M. tuberculosis. S. salivarius produced little or no inhibition of growth of Runyon group III organisms but was very antagonistic to Runyon group I mycobacteria. Images PMID:824304

  2. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Arash Azizi; Shabnam Aghayan; Saeed Zaker; Mahdieh Shakeri; Navid Entezari; Shirin Lawaf

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental stud...

  3. Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Actinomyces viscosus in the Presence of Human Saliva

    Germaine, Greg, R.; Tellefson, Lois M.

    1982-01-01

    Glucose uptake was examined by using whole-cell suspensions of Streptococcus mutans (strains BHT, Ingbritt, and GS-5), Streptococcus mitis (strains 9811 and 72×41), and Actinomyces viscosus (strains T6 and WVU626) incubated for up to 90 min in 0 to 82% (vol/vol) human whole salivary supernatant. Glucose uptake by the S. mutans strains was completely inhibited at all saliva concentrations. Dithiothreitol (DTT), present during saliva incubation, prevented saliva inhibition. Glucose uptake was a...

  4. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Deguo Wang; Yanhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactia...

  5. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  6. Pathogenicity of Streptococcus ictaluri to Channel Catfish

    The infectivity of a Streptococcus ictaluri isolate for fry (0.5 g), fingerling (15 g), and juvenile (55 g) channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was determined by bath immersion and injection infectivity experiments. Channel catfish exposed by immersion were exposed to baths containing 1012, 1011,...

  7. Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette Marie;

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of...... Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing....

  8. STREPTOCOCCUS: A WORLDWIDE FISH HEALTH PROBLEM

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are important emergent pathogens that affect many fish species worldwide, especially in warm-water regions. In marine and freshwater systems, these Gram-positive bacteria cause significant economic losses, estimated at hundreds of millions of dollars annually. ...

  9. Dual Functions of Streptococcus salivarius Urease

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Weaver, Cheryl A.; Burne, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A urease-deficient derivative of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I was constructed by allelic exchange at the ureC locus. The wild-type strain was protected against acid killing through hydrolysis of physiologically relevant concentrations of urea, whereas the mutant was not. Also, S. salivarius could use urea as a source of nitrogen for growth exclusively through a urease-dependent pathway.

  10. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection.

    Maini, Baljeet; Bathla, Manish; Dhanjal, Gurdeep S; Sharma, Prem D

    2012-10-01

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a group of disorders recently recognized as a clinical entity. A case of PANDAS is described here, which remitted after 1 month of treatment. Recent Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection should be considered in a child who presents with a sudden explosive onset of tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms. PMID:23372243

  11. Thumb Infection Caused by Streptococcus pseudoporcinus▿

    Mahlen, Steven D.; Clarridge, Jill E.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus pseudoporcinus, a recently described organism found in the genitourinary tract of women, was isolated from a thumb wound in a male patient subsequent to trauma. This case describes a rarely reported non-genitourinary tract clinical isolate of S. pseudoporcinus.

  12. Agent engineering

    Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P

    2001-01-01

    Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

  13. Investigation of photodynamic therapy on streptococcus mutans of oral biofilm

    Zhaohui Zou; Ping Gao; Huijuan Yin; Yingxin Li

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on the viability of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) cells on biofilms in vitro. Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. Since dental caries are localized infections, such plaque-related diseases would be well suited to PDT. The diode laser used in this study had the wavelength of 635 nm, whose output power was 10 mW and the energy density was 12.74 J/cm2. HMME was used as photosensitizer. Samples were prepared and divided into five groups: (1) HMME; (2) Laser; (3) HMME+Laser; (4) Control group (+) with chlorhexidine; and (5) Control group (-) with sterile physiological saline. Inoculum of S. mutans incubated with HMME also examined with fluorescence microscopy. PDT exhibited a significantly (P < 0.05) increased antimicrobial potential compared with 20 μm/mL HMME only, laser only, 0.05% chlorhexidine, and 0.9% sterile physiological saline, which reduced the S. mutans of the biofilm most effectively. Laser and 0.05% chlorhexidine were caused reduction in the viable counts of S. mutans significantly different (P < 0.05) also, but these two test treatments did not statistically differ from each other. HMME group did not statistically differ with negative control group. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that HMME localized primarily in the S. mutans of the biofilm. It was demonstrated that HMME-mediated PDT was efficient at killing S. mutans of biofilms and a useful approach in the treatment of dental plaque-related diseases.

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Streptococcus iniae isolates recovered from cultured and wild fish in North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands

    Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...

  15. Regulation of neuraminidase expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Gualdi Luciana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid; NeuNAc is one of the most important carbohydrates for Streptococcus pneumoniae due of its role as a carbon and energy source, receptor for adhesion and invasion and molecular signal for promotion of biofilm formation, nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion of the lung. Results In this work, NeuNAc and its metabolic derivative N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc were used to analyze regulatory mechanisms of the neuraminidase locus expression. Genomic and metabolic comparison to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis elucidates the metabolic association of the two amino sugars to different parts of the locus coding for the two main pneumococcal neuraminidases and confirms the substrate specificity of the respective ABC transporters. Quantitative gene expression analysis shows repression of the locus by glucose and induction of all predicted transcriptional units by ManNAc and NeuNAc, each inducing with higher efficiency the operon encoding for the transporter with higher specificity for the respective amino sugar. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated enhanced surface exposure of NanA on pneumococci grown in NeuNAc and ManNAc and an activity assay allowed to quantify approximately twelve times as much neuraminidase activity on induced cells as opposed to glucose grown cells. Conclusions The present data increase the understanding of metabolic regulation of the nanAB locus and indicate that experiments aimed at the elucidation of the relevance of neuraminidases in pneumococcal virulence should possibly not be carried out on bacteria grown in glucose containing media.

  16. The antimicrobial sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius to colloidal solutions of different nanoparticles applied as mouthwashes

    Farzaneh Ahrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metal nanoparticles have been recently applied in dentistry because of their antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial effects of colloidal solutions containing zinc oxide (ZnO, copper oxide (CuO, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 and silver (Ag nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius and compare the results with those of chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouthrinses. Materials and Methods: After adding nanoparticles to a water-based solution, six groups were prepared. Groups I to IV included colloidal solutions containing nanoZnO, nanoCuO, nanoTiO 2 and nanoAg, respectively. Groups V and VI consisted of 2.0% sodium fluoride and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes, respectively as controls. We used serial dilution method to find minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and with subcultures obtained minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of the solutions against S. mutans and S. sangius. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Duncan test and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The sodium fluoride mouthrinse did not show any antibacterial effect. The nanoTiO 2 -containing solution had the lowest MIC against both microorganisms and also displayed the lowest MBC against S. mutans (P < 0.05. The colloidal solutions containing nanoTiO 2 and nanoZnO showed the lowest MBC against S. sangius (P < 0.05. On the other hand, chlorhexidine showed the highest MIC and MBC against both streptococci (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The nanoTiO 2 -containing mouthwash proved to be an effective antimicrobial agent and thus it can be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine or sodium fluoride mouthrinses in the oral cavity provided the lack of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on biologic tissues.

  17. Effectiveness of mouthrinse formulated from ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit on salivary Streptococcus mutans among 12 to 15 year old school children of Belgaum city: A randomized field trial

    S S Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease. Streptococcus mutans plays a major role in the occurrence of dental caries. Many antibacterial agents have been developed against dental caries. However, they lack the qualities of an ideal agent. Thus presently, antibacterial activity of herbal agents is being extensively studied. Materials and Methods: In the present study, ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula was prepared and mouthrinse was formulated. A total of 60 children meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into study and control group and respective mouthrinses were administered. Salivary Streptococcus mutans count was assessed at 5 and 60 minutes after rinsing and compared with baseline values. Substantivity of the rinse was assessed among 10 children. Mouthrinse was given to the children and salivary Streptococcus mutans counts were assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 hours postrinsing. Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess the variance of factors like Decayed Missed Filled Teeth, plaque scores, and gingival scores. ANCOVA (Analysis of covariance was used to determine the change in salivary Streptococcus mutans colony forming units taking baseline values as covariates. Results: It was observed that there was 44.42% reduction in salivary Streptococcus mutans colony forming units 5 minutes after rinsing as compared with baseline values and 64.14% reduction in Streptococcus mutans colony forming units at 60 minutes after rinsing as compared with baseline values. There was a reduction of 35.48% in salivary Streptococcus mutans colony forming units at 60 minutes after rinsing as compared with 5 minutes sample. Conclusion: Streptococcus mutans counts were low up to 6 hours postrinsing among 80% of the children.

  18. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain SA20-06, a fish pathogen associated to meningoencephalitis outbreaks

    Pereira, Ulisses de Pádua; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Guimarães, Luís Carlos; Silva Almeida, Sintia; Diniz, Carlos Augusto Almeida; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Gomes Sá, Pablo; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda Marriam; Dorella, Fernanda Alves

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is the causative agent of meningoencephalitis in fish, mastitis in cows, and neonatal sepsis in humans. Meningoencephalitis is a major health problem for tilapia farming and is responsible for high economic losses worldwide. Despite its importance, the genomic characteristics and the main molecular mechanisms involved in virulence of S. agalactiae isolated from fish are still poorly understood. Here, we present the genomic features of the 1,8...

  19. Role of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate in remineralization of white spot lesions and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans?

    Ruchi Vashisht; Rajamani Indira; Ramachandran, S.; Anil Kumar; Manali Ramakrishnan Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To promote the remineralization by ionic exchange mechanism instead of invasive techniques many remineralizing agents can be used. Objective: To evaluate the remineralization effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSLs) and its inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans colonization. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 60 subjects exhibiting at least 1-WSL. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups:...

  20. An investigation into the mechanism of protection by local passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies against Streptococcus mutans.

    Ma, J K; Hunjan, M; Smith, R; Kelly, C; Lehner, T.

    1990-01-01

    Local oral passive immunization with Streptococcus mutans-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) (Guy's 13) prevented recolonization by indigenous S. mutans in human volunteers who had first been treated with a conventional antibacterial agent (chlorhexidine). The F(ab')2 fragment of the MAb was as protective as the intact immunoglobulin G, but the Fab fragment of the molecule failed to prevent recolonization of S. mutans. In subjects receiving the MAb Fab fragment, S. mutans levels in dental pla...

  1. Rabbit antibodies to the cell wall polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae fail to protect mice from lethal challenge with encapsulated pneumococci.

    Szu, S C; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B

    1986-01-01

    A conjugate, composed of the cell wall polysaccharide (C polysaccharide) of Streptococcus pneumoniae and bovine serum albumin (BSA), was prepared with the bifunctional agent N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate. Analysis with monoclonal antibodies provided evidence that the phosphocholine (PC) moiety of the C polysaccharide was retained during the conjugation procedure. The C polysaccharide-BSA conjugate elicited antibodies to C polysaccharide in rabbits; no PC-specific antibodies we...

  2. Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-derived biosurfactant on the gene expression profile of essential adhesion genes (gtfB, gtfC and ftf) of Streptococcus mutans

    Rasoul Salehi; Omid Savabi; Mohammad Kazemi; Sara kamali; Ahmad Reza Salehi; Gilda Eslami; Arezoo Tahmourespour

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococci are the main causative agents in plaque formation and mutans streptococci are the principle etiological agent of dental plaque and caries. The process of biofilm formation is a step-wise process, starting with adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces. It is now a well known fact that expression of glucosyltransferases (gtfs) and fructosyltransferase (ftf) genes play a critical role in the initial adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to the tooth surface, which results...

  3. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    Delannoy Christian MJ; Crumlish Margaret; Fontaine Michael C; Pollock Jolinda; Foster Geoff; Dagleish Mark P; Turnbull James F; Zadoks Ruth N

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmi...

  4. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M. S.; LeVine, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

  5. Pengaruh Pasta Gigi Mengandung Xylitol terhadap Pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans Serotip C In Vitro

    Aulia Agustina; Agoeng Tjahjani; Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans serotype C is a major causative agent to caries and is found predominantly in dental plaque and saliva. Dentrifice containing xylitol has been shown to inhibit the growth of mutans streptococci. The aim of the study was to determine in vitro the influence of dentrifice containing xylitol on S. mutans serotype C. The solution of dentrifice containing xylitol was first diluted with sterile aquadest at 1:1, and then to concentration of 100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%, 0.01% and 0.001%, ...

  6. Translation quality control is maintained by the penicillin resistance factor MurM in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Shepherd, Jennifer; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a causative agent of nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis and septicaemia. Penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae depends in part upon MurM, an aminoacyl-tRNA-ligase that attaches L-serine or L-alanine to the stem peptide lysine of Lipid II in cell wall...... combination of both branched and linear muropeptides, deletion of MurM results in a reversion to penicillin sensitivity in strains that were previously resistant. However, since MurM is not required for cell viability, the reason for its functional conservation across all strains of S. pneumoniae has remained...

  7. Purification, Characterization, Gene Cloning, Sequencing, and Overexpression of Aminopeptidase N from Streptococcus thermophilus A

    Chavagnat, Frederic; Casey, Michael G.; Meyer, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    The general aminopeptidase PepN from Streptococcus thermophilus A was purified to protein homogeneity by hydroxyapatite, anion-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. The PepN enzyme was estimated to be a monomer of 95 kDa, with maximal activity on N-Lys–7-amino-4-methylcoumarin at pH 7 and 37°C. It was strongly inhibited by metal chelating agents, suggesting that it is a metallopeptidase. The activity was greatly restored by the bivalent cations Co2+, Zn2+, and Mn2+. Except for prolin...

  8. Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum

    J.M. F. Egido

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.

  9. Developing oral probiotics from Streptococcus salivarius.

    Wescombe, Philip A; Hale, John D F; Heng, Nicholas C K; Tagg, John R

    2012-12-01

    Considerable human illness can be linked to the development of oral microbiota disequilibria. The predominant oral cavity commensal, Streptococcus salivarius has emerged as an important source of safe and efficacious probiotics, capable of fostering more balanced, health-associated oral microbiota. Strain K12, the prototype S. salivarius probiotic, originally introduced to counter Streptococcus pyogenes infections, now has an expanded repertoire of health-promoting applications. K12 and several more recently proposed S. salivarius probiotics are now being applied to control diverse bacterial consortia infections including otitis media, halitosis and dental caries. Other potential applications include upregulation of immunological defenses against respiratory viral infections and treatment of oral candidosis. An overview of the key steps required for probiotic development is also presented. PMID:23231486

  10. Streptococcus dysgalactiae endocarditis presenting as acute endophthalmitis

    Angelina Su-Min Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. The identification of Group C and G streptococci such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae is comparatively uncommon and has only been reported in a few case reports or series. We therefore report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae first presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis, the most likely source being bilateral feet osteomyelitis in a patient with type I diabetes. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous benzylpenicillin, intravitreal antibiotics, bilateral below knee amputations and mitral valve replacement. She survived all surgical procedures and regained partial visual acuity in the affected eye.

  11. Antibiotic Agents

    ... either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants ... bacteria, however, there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The ... producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many ...

  12. DETERMINACION DE LA PORTACION DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B EN EMBARAZADAS DURANTE EL TERCER TRIMESTRE MEDIANTE INMUNOENSAYO

    Fernando Abarzúa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B es una enfermedad de alta letalidad, y considerando además que la portación de este germen en nuestra población de embarazadas se acerca a 20%, es que, resulta muy importante disponer de algún test rápido y confiable para realizar screening. Este estudio evalúa el rendimiento de un inmunoensayo para pesquisa de Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas sin factores de riesgo y a fines del tercer trimestre. Los resultados muestran una baja sensibilidad y un bajo valor predictivo positivo para este método, lo que no lo hace recomendable para su implementación clínicaNeonatal sepsis of early onset by group B Streptococcus has a high mortality rate. Twenty percent of our pregnant population have vaginal colonization by this bacterial agent, so clinical practice require a fast and efficient screening test. This report checks a Group B Streptococcus immunoassay screening test in the last trimester for pregnant women without risk factors. The low sensitivity and low positive predictive value of the test make it not recomendable for clinical practice

  13. Dual Functions of Streptococcus salivarius Urease

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Weaver, Cheryl A.; Burne, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A urease-deficient derivative of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I was constructed by allelic exchange at the ureC locus. The wild-type strain was protected against acid killing through hydrolysis of physiologically relevant concentrations of urea, whereas the mutant was not. Also, S. salivarius could use urea as a source of nitrogen for growth exclusively through a urease-dependent pathway. PMID:10913107

  14. Risposta adattativa allo stress in Streptococcus thermophilus

    Asterinou, Kleopatra

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus è uno dei batteri lattici più utilizzati nell’ industria alimentare per la produzione di cibi fermentati. In questo lavoro sono stati isolati mutanti di S. thermophilus di alcuni geni noti dalla letteratura per essere indotti in condizioni di stress di natura acida, termica ed osmotica, e di alcuni geni che codificano per prodotti implicati nel processo della trans-traduzione. Sono stati condotti esperimenti sui mutanti per studiarne il fenotipo in diverse condizion...

  15. Phenotypic Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Development

    Allegrucci, Magee; Hu, F.Z.; Shen, K.; J. Hayes; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Post, J Christopher; Sauer, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most common pathogens associated with chronic otitis media with effusion, which has been hypothesized to be a biofilm disease. S. pneumoniae has been shown to form biofilms, however, little is known about the developmental process, the architecture, and the changes that occur upon biofilm development. In the current study we made use of a continuous-culture biofilm system to characterize biofilm development of 14 different S. pneumoniae strains representi...

  16. Effectiveness of mouthrinse formulated from ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit on salivary Streptococcus mutans among 12 to 15 year old school children of Belgaum city: A randomized field trial

    S. S. Nayak; A V Ankola; S C Metgud; U Bolmal

    2012-01-01

    Objectives : Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease. Streptococcus mutans plays a major role in the occurrence of dental caries. Many antibacterial agents have been developed against dental caries. However, they lack the qualities of an ideal agent. Thus presently, antibacterial activity of herbal agents is being extensively studied. Materials and Methods: In the present study, ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula was prepared and mouthrinse was formulated. A total of 60 children m...

  17. Comparative study of the effects of two bleaching agents on oral microbiota.

    Alkmin, Yara Tardelli; Sartorelli, Renata; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo effects of bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide (Platinum/Colgate) or 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (Day White 2Z/Discus Dental) on mutans Streptococcus during dental bleaching. The products were applied on 30 volunteers who needed dental bleaching. In each volunteer, one of the two bleaching agents was used on both dental arches one hour a day for three weeks. Analysis of the bacterial counts was made by collecting saliva before (baseline values), during (7 and 21 days) bleaching treatments and 14 days posttreatment. The Friedman non-parametric analysis (alpha=0.05) found no differences in microorganism counts at different times for each group for both agents (p>0.05). The Mann Whitney nonparametric test (alpha=0.05) showed no differences in micro-organism counts for both agents (p>0.05). Different bleaching agents did not change the oral cavity mutans Streptococcus counts. PMID:16130860

  18. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    Jeevarathan J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer′s chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU/ml and < 10 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

  19. Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Evans, Joyce J.; Klesius, Phillip H.; Pasnik, David J.; Bohnsack, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

  20. Infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus tigurinus-like organisms.

    Peuchant, O; Wirth, G; Tixier, R; Dijos, M; Camou, F; Greib, C; Mégraud, F; Ménard, A

    2016-09-01

    Streptococcus species are important causes of infective endocarditis but species identification remains challenging. We report two cases of infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus tigurinus-like organisms, which were first identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis and subsequently confirmed using phylogeny based on the analysis of the shetA gene encoding exfoliative toxin. PMID:27408744

  1. Inhibition of transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae by lysogeny.

    Moynet, D J; Tiraby, G J

    1980-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae R6X was lysogenized with bacteriophage 304 isolated after mitomycin induction of an ungrouped alpha-hemolytic streptococcus. Lysogenized pneumococci lost their capacity to undergo genetic transformation: transformability was restored after cells were spontaneously cured of their prophage. Both lysogens and nonlysogens produced activator substance (competence factor), and both bound deoxyribonucleic acid in a deoxyribonuclease-resistant form. However, nonlysogens retai...

  2. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  3. Chronic mastitis in cows caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae: Case report

    Cojkić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in dairy cows is an economically important disease because it makes up 38% of all diseases that occur in intensive cattle breeding. Mastitis affects milk production, either temporarily or permanently, depending on the course of infection and type of pathogen agent. Regular and timely therapy of mastitis based on the application antimicrobials, apart from prophylaxis, is very important for good health of breeding stock. This paper presents the case of repeated mastitis in a cow, Holstein-Friesian breed, 5 years old, which did not respond to antibiotic therapy. Milk samples from each separate quarter of the udder were collected under aseptic conditions and sent to the laboratory for further bacteriological tests, for isolation and identification of pathogens, as well as to test pathogen resistance to some antibiotics. On the basis of bacteriological examinations, there was confirmed the presence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, which showed sensitivity to ampicillin, cloxacillin and augmentin, intermediate resistance to tetracycline and resistance to kotrimeksazol.(cotrimoxazole-proveriti [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31085

  4. Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans.

    Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Mussi, Maria Carolina Martins; Fiorini, João Evangelista; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo; Schneedorf, José Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis against the cariogenic microorganism, Streptococcus mutans. For such purpose, a minimum inhibition concentration test of copaiba oil against S. mutans was performed, using the serial dilution in broth technique, with a negative control, a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine) and a 10% copaíba oil solution as a test. A minimum bactericidal concentration test with tubes presenting microbial inhibition was also conduced. In the minimum inhibitory concentration test, copaiba oil showed inhibition of bacterial growth at all concentrations tested up to 0.78 µL/mL of the 10% copaiba oil solution in the broth. In addition, the negative control had no inhibition, and the 0.12% chlorhexidine solution was effective up to 6.25 µL/mL in the broth. Copaiba oil showed a bacteriostatic activity against S. mutans at low concentrations, and could be a an option of phytotherapic agent to be used against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention of caries disease. PMID:22460312

  5. Immune receptors involved in Streptococcus suis recognition by dendritic cells.

    Marie-Pier Lecours

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent of septicemia and meningitis. Knowledge on host immune responses towards S. suis, and strategies used by this pathogen for subversion of these responses is scarce. The objective of this study was to identify the immune receptors involved in S. suis recognition by dendritic cells (DCs. Production of cytokines and expression of co-stimulatory molecules by DCs were shown to strongly rely on MyD88-dependent signaling pathways, suggesting that DCs recognize S. suis and become activated mostly through Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling. Supporting this fact, TLR2(-/- DCs were severely impaired in the release of several cytokines and the surface expression of CD86 and MHC-II. The release of IL-12p70 and CXC10, and the expression of CD40 were found to depend on signaling by both TLR2 and TLR9. The release of IL-23 and CXCL1 were partially dependent on NOD2. Finally, despite the fact that MyD88 signaling was crucial for DC activation and maturation, MyD88-dependent pathways were not implicated in S. suis internalization by DCs. This first study on receptors involved in DC activation by S. suis suggests a major involvement of MyD88 signaling pathways, mainly (but not exclusively through TLR2. A multimodal recognition involving a combination of different receptors seems essential for DC effective response to S. suis.

  6. Streptococcus mutans: Fructose Transport, Xylitol Resistance, and Virulence

    Tanzer, J.M.; Thompson, A.; Wen, Z.T.; Burne, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, possesses at least two fructose phosphotransferase systems (PTSs), encoded by fruI and fruCD. fruI is also responsible for xylitol transport. We hypothesized that fructose and xylitol transport systems do not affect virulence. Thus, colonization and cariogenicity of fruI− and fruCD− single and double mutants, their WT (UA159), and xylitol resistance (Xr) of S. mutans were studied in rats fed a high-sucrose diet. A sucrose phosphorylase (gtfA−) mutant and a reference strain (NCTC-10449S) were additional controls. Recoveries of fruI mutant from the teeth were decreased, unlike those for the other strains. The fruCD mutation was associated with a slight loss of cariogenicity on enamel, whereas mutation of fruI was associated with a loss of cariogenicity in dentin. These results also suggest why xylitol inhibition of caries is paradoxically associated with spontaneous emergence of so-called Xr S. mutans in habitual human xylitol users. PMID:16567561

  7. StreptoBase: An Oral Streptococcus mitis Group Genomic Resource and Analysis Platform.

    Zheng, Wenning; Tan, Tze King; Paterson, Ian C; Mutha, Naresh V R; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Tan, Shi Yang; Old, Lesley A; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Choo, Siew Woh

    2016-01-01

    The oral streptococci are spherical Gram-positive bacteria categorized under the phylum Firmicutes which are among the most common causative agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) and are also important agents in septicaemia in neutropenic patients. The Streptococcus mitis group is comprised of 13 species including some of the most common human oral colonizers such as S. mitis, S. oralis, S. sanguinis and S. gordonii as well as species such as S. tigurinus, S. oligofermentans and S. australis that have only recently been classified and are poorly understood at present. We present StreptoBase, which provides a specialized free resource focusing on the genomic analyses of oral species from the mitis group. It currently hosts 104 S. mitis group genomes including 27 novel mitis group strains that we sequenced using the high throughput Illumina HiSeq technology platform, and provides a comprehensive set of genome sequences for analyses, particularly comparative analyses and visualization of both cross-species and cross-strain characteristics of S. mitis group bacteria. StreptoBase incorporates sophisticated in-house designed bioinformatics web tools such as Pairwise Genome Comparison (PGC) tool and Pathogenomic Profiling Tool (PathoProT), which facilitate comparative pathogenomics analysis of Streptococcus strains. Examples are provided to demonstrate how StreptoBase can be employed to compare genome structure of different S. mitis group bacteria and putative virulence genes profile across multiple streptococcal strains. In conclusion, StreptoBase offers access to a range of streptococci genomic resources as well as analysis tools and will be an invaluable platform to accelerate research in streptococci. Database URL: http://streptococcus.um.edu.my. PMID:27138013

  8. StreptoBase: An Oral Streptococcus mitis Group Genomic Resource and Analysis Platform

    Zheng, Wenning; Paterson, Ian C.; Mutha, Naresh V. R.; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Tan, Shi Yang; Old, Lesley A.; Jakubovics, Nicholas S.; Choo, Siew Woh

    2016-01-01

    The oral streptococci are spherical Gram-positive bacteria categorized under the phylum Firmicutes which are among the most common causative agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) and are also important agents in septicaemia in neutropenic patients. The Streptococcus mitis group is comprised of 13 species including some of the most common human oral colonizers such as S. mitis, S. oralis, S. sanguinis and S. gordonii as well as species such as S. tigurinus, S. oligofermentans and S. australis that have only recently been classified and are poorly understood at present. We present StreptoBase, which provides a specialized free resource focusing on the genomic analyses of oral species from the mitis group. It currently hosts 104 S. mitis group genomes including 27 novel mitis group strains that we sequenced using the high throughput Illumina HiSeq technology platform, and provides a comprehensive set of genome sequences for analyses, particularly comparative analyses and visualization of both cross-species and cross-strain characteristics of S. mitis group bacteria. StreptoBase incorporates sophisticated in-house designed bioinformatics web tools such as Pairwise Genome Comparison (PGC) tool and Pathogenomic Profiling Tool (PathoProT), which facilitate comparative pathogenomics analysis of Streptococcus strains. Examples are provided to demonstrate how StreptoBase can be employed to compare genome structure of different S. mitis group bacteria and putative virulence genes profile across multiple streptococcal strains. In conclusion, StreptoBase offers access to a range of streptococci genomic resources as well as analysis tools and will be an invaluable platform to accelerate research in streptococci. Database URL: http://streptococcus.um.edu.my. PMID:27138013

  9. StreptoBase: An Oral Streptococcus mitis Group Genomic Resource and Analysis Platform.

    Wenning Zheng

    Full Text Available The oral streptococci are spherical Gram-positive bacteria categorized under the phylum Firmicutes which are among the most common causative agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE and are also important agents in septicaemia in neutropenic patients. The Streptococcus mitis group is comprised of 13 species including some of the most common human oral colonizers such as S. mitis, S. oralis, S. sanguinis and S. gordonii as well as species such as S. tigurinus, S. oligofermentans and S. australis that have only recently been classified and are poorly understood at present. We present StreptoBase, which provides a specialized free resource focusing on the genomic analyses of oral species from the mitis group. It currently hosts 104 S. mitis group genomes including 27 novel mitis group strains that we sequenced using the high throughput Illumina HiSeq technology platform, and provides a comprehensive set of genome sequences for analyses, particularly comparative analyses and visualization of both cross-species and cross-strain characteristics of S. mitis group bacteria. StreptoBase incorporates sophisticated in-house designed bioinformatics web tools such as Pairwise Genome Comparison (PGC tool and Pathogenomic Profiling Tool (PathoProT, which facilitate comparative pathogenomics analysis of Streptococcus strains. Examples are provided to demonstrate how StreptoBase can be employed to compare genome structure of different S. mitis group bacteria and putative virulence genes profile across multiple streptococcal strains. In conclusion, StreptoBase offers access to a range of streptococci genomic resources as well as analysis tools and will be an invaluable platform to accelerate research in streptococci. Database URL: http://streptococcus.um.edu.my.

  10. Increase in invasive Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in England, December 2010 to January 2011.

    Zakikhany, K; Degail, M A; Lamagni, T; Waight, P; Guy, R; Zhao, H; Efstratiou, A; Pebody, R; George, R; Ramsay, M

    2011-01-01

    Increases in invasive Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae above the seasonally expected levels are currently being seen in England. Preliminary analyses suggest that the high level of influenza activity seen this winter may be contributing to an increased risk of concurrent invasive bacterial and influenza infections in children and young adults. PMID:21315057

  11. Effects of compounds found in Nidus Vespae on the growth and cariogenic virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans.

    Guan, Xiaoxu; Zhou, Yi; Liang, Xue; Xiao, Jin; He, Libang; Li, Jiyao

    2012-01-20

    Nidus Vespae (honeycomb) is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine that has been demonstrated to inhibit the growth and acid-production of oral cariogenic bacteria. Subsequent studies showed that the chloroform/methanol (Chl/MeOH) chemical extraction of Nidus Vespae was the most effective inhibitor of growth and acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans. In this study, we isolated the chemical compounds of the Nidus Vespae Chl/MeOH extraction, tested their antimicrobial activity against six cariogenic bacteria and further evaluated the acid inhibition properties, anti-F-ATPase activity and anti-LDH activity against S. mutans. The isolated flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol, inhibited the growth of bacteria (S. mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Actinomyces naeslundii and Lactobacillus rhamnosus) with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 1 to 4 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) from 4 to 16 mg/ml. In addition, quercetin and kaempferol at sub-MIC levels significantly inhibited acidogenicity and acidurity of S. mutans cells. Treated with the test agents, the F-ATPase activity was reduced by 47.37% with 1mg/ml quercetin and by 49.66% with 0.5mg/ml kaempferol. The results showed that quercetin and kaempferol contained in Chl/MeOH extraction presented remarkably biological activity, suggesting that Nidus Vespae might be useful as a potential preventive and therapeutic agent in dental caries. PMID:21498060

  12. Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Raisa Bu-Coifiu Fanego; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Bárbara Padilla-Docal; Martha O' Farril-Sanchez; Isabel Lopez-Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephali...

  13. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis. PMID:27220606

  14. Lack of SOS repair in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Wild-type strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were non-mutable by UV radiation and thymidine starvation. Moreover, UV-irradiated pneumococcal ω2 phages were not reactivated in an irradiated host. This suggests that, in pneumococcus, there is no efficient inducible repair process similar to the SOS repair described in detail for E. coli. We also report that mutations cannot be induced by a process thought to be linked to competence during transformation with isogenic wild-type DNA either on wild-type strains or in strains in which the hex function of excision and repair of mismatched bases is inactive. (orig.)

  15. Streptococcus agalactiae pyomyositis in diabetes mellitus.

    Panikkath, Deepa; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Panikkath, Ragesh; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Pyomyositis is an acute infectious disorder affecting the skeletal muscle. Although seen more commonly in the tropics, cases are being reported in temperate countries, including the United States. We report a case of nontropical pyomyositis in a 58-year-old diabetic man who presented with a vague chest wall swelling. His initial clinical presentation and imaging findings suggested an intramuscular hematoma. He later developed fever with increased swelling, and pyomyositis was diagnosed after an aspiration of the swelling yielded Streptococcus agalactiae. Aspiration of the abscess and the use of appropriate antibiotics led to complete resolution of the disease. We discuss possible factors in diabetics that might predispose them to pyomyositis. PMID:27365874

  16. Streptococcus agalactiae pyomyositis in diabetes mellitus

    Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Panikkath, Ragesh; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Pyomyositis is an acute infectious disorder affecting the skeletal muscle. Although seen more commonly in the tropics, cases are being reported in temperate countries, including the United States. We report a case of nontropical pyomyositis in a 58-year-old diabetic man who presented with a vague chest wall swelling. His initial clinical presentation and imaging findings suggested an intramuscular hematoma. He later developed fever with increased swelling, and pyomyositis was diagnosed after an aspiration of the swelling yielded Streptococcus agalactiae. Aspiration of the abscess and the use of appropriate antibiotics led to complete resolution of the disease. We discuss possible factors in diabetics that might predispose them to pyomyositis. PMID:27365874

  17. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus

    Mikić Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of the confirmed necrotizing fasciitis caused by Group A Streptococcus in Yugoslavia was presented. Male patient, aged 28, in good health, suddenly developed symptoms and signs of severe infective syndrome and intensive pain in the axillary region. Parenteral antibiotic, substitution and supportive therapy was conducted along with the radical surgical excision of the necrotizing tissue. The patient did not develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome thanks to the early established diagnosis and timely applied aggressive treatment. He was released from the hospital as completely cured two months after the admission.

  18. Comparrisson of MICs of ceftioufur and other antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens of swine from the United States, Canada and Denmark

    Salmon, S.A.; Watts, J.L.; Case, C.A.; Hoffmann, L.J.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Yancey, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    , Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In addition to ceftiofur, the following antimicrobial agents or combinations were tested: enroflaxacin, ampicillin...... to 8.0, greater than or equal to 256.0, greater than or equal to 32.0, and greater than or equal to 16.0 mu g/ml, respectively. Trimethoprim-sulfadiazine was active against isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae, S. choleraesuis, S. typhimurium, P. multocida, S. equi, and S. suis (MIC(90)s, less than or.......0 mu g/ml). However, this antimicrobial agent was much less active when it was tested against A. pleuropneumoniae, S. cholerae-suis, and E. coli (MIC(90)s, 16.0, >32.0, and >32.0 mu g/ml, respectively). Against the U.S. isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida, tilmicosin was moderately active...

  19. Adherence of Candida albicans to a cell surface polysaccharide receptor on Streptococcus gordonii.

    Holmes, A.R.; Gopal, P K; Jenkinson, H F

    1995-01-01

    Candida albicans ATCC 10261 and CA2 bound to cells of the oral bacteria Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus sanguis when these bacteria were immobilized onto microtiter plate wells, but they did not bind to cells of Streptococcus mutans or Streptococcus salivarius. Cell wall polysaccharide was extracted with alkali from S. gordonii NCTC 7869, the streptococcal species to which C. albicans bound with highest affinity, and was effective in blocking the coaggregation ...

  20. Agent, autonomous

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  1. Intracellular alpha-amylase of Streptococcus mutans.

    Simpson, C L; Russell, R R

    1998-09-01

    Sequencing upstream of the Streptococcus mutans gene for a CcpA gene homolog, regM, revealed an open reading frame, named amy, with homology to genes encoding alpha-amylases. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a strong similarity (60% amino acid identity) to the intracellular alpha-amylase of Streptococcus bovis and, in common with this enzyme, lacked a signal sequence. Amylase activity was found only in S. mutans cell extracts, with no activity detected in culture supernatants. Inactivation of amy by insertion of an antibiotic resistance marker confirmed that S. mutans has a single alpha-amylase activity. The amylase activity was induced by maltose but not by starch, and no acid was produced from starch. S. mutans can, however, transport limit dextrins and maltooligosaccharides generated by salivary amylase, but inactivation of amy did not affect growth on these substrates or acid production. The amylase digested the glycogen-like intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) purified from S. mutans, but the amy mutant was able to digest and produce acid from IPS; thus, amylase does not appear to be essential for IPS breakdown. However, when grown on excess maltose, the amy mutant produced nearly threefold the amount of IPS produced by the parent strain. The role of Amy has not been established, but Amy appears to be important in the accumulation of IPS in S. mutans grown on maltose. PMID:9721315

  2. Diverse virulent pneumophages infect Streptococcus mitis.

    Siham Ouennane

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mitis has emerged as one of the leading causes of bacterial endocarditis and is related to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance has also increased among strains of S. mitis and S. pneumoniae. Phages are being reinvestigated as alternatives to antibiotics for managing infections. In this study, the two virulent phages Cp-1 (Podoviridae and Dp-1 (Siphoviridae, previously isolated from S. pneumoniae, were found to also infect S. mitis. Microbiological assays showed that both pneumophages could not only replicate in S. mitis but also produced more visible plaques on this host. However, the burst size and phage adsorption data were lower in S. mitis as compared to S. pneumoniae. A comparison of the genomes of each phage grown on both hosts produced identical nucleotide sequences, confirming that the same phages infect both bacterial species. We also discovered that the genomic sequence of podophage Cp-1 of the Félix d'Hérelle collection is different than the previously reported sequence and thus renamed SOCP.

  3. [Thousand faces of Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) infections].

    Szabó, Bálint Gergely; Lénárt, Katalin Szidónia; Kádár, Béla; Gombos, Andrea; Dezsényi, Balázs; Szanka, Judit; Bobek, Ilona; Prinz, Gyula

    2015-11-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are high worldwide and in Hungary among paediatric as well as adult populations. Pneumococci account for 35-40% of community acquired adult pneumonias requiring hospitalization, while 25-30% of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonias are accompanied by bacteraemia. 5-7% of all infections are fatal but this rate is exponentially higher in high risk patients and elderly people. Mortality could reach 20% among patients with severe invasive pneumococcal infections. Complications may develop despite administration of adequate antibiotics. The authors summarize the epidemiology of pneumococcal infections, pathogenesis of non-invasive and invasive disease and present basic clinical aspects through demonstration of four cases. Early risk stratification, sampling of hemocultures, administration of antibiotics and wider application of active immunization could reduce the mortality of invasive disease. Anti-pneumococcal vaccination is advisable for adults of ≥50 years and high risk patients of ≥18 years who are susceptible to pneumococcal disease. PMID:26498896

  4. Bacteremia with Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius: clinical correlates of more accurate identification of isolates.

    Ruoff, K L; Miller, S I; Garner, C V; Ferraro, M J; Calderwood, S B

    1989-01-01

    Two biotypes of Streptococcus bovis can be identified by laboratory testing and can be distinguished from the phenotypically similar organism Streptococcus salivarius. We assessed the clinical relevance of careful identification of these organisms in 68 patients with streptococcal bacteremia caused by these similar species. S. bovis was more likely to be clinically significant when isolated from blood (89%) than was S. salivarius (23%). There was a striking association between S. bovis I bacteremia and underlying endocarditis (94%) compared with that of S. bovis II bacteremia (18%). Bacteremia with S. bovis I was also highly correlated with an underlying colonic neoplasm (71% of patients overall, 100% of those with thorough colonic examinations) compared with bacteremia due to S. bovis II or S. salivarius (17% overall, 25% of patients with thorough colonic examinations). We conclude that careful identification of streptococcal bacteremic isolates as S. bovis biotype I provides clinically important information and should be more widely applied. PMID:2915024

  5. Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its close commensal relatives

    Kilian, Mogens; Poulsen, Knud; Blomqvist, Trinelise;

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a member of the Mitis group of streptococci which, according to 16S rRNA-sequence based phylogenetic reconstruction, includes 12 species. While other species of this group are considered prototypes of commensal bacteria, S. pneumoniae is among the most frequent microbial...... killers worldwide. Population genetic analysis of 118 strains, supported by demonstration of a distinct cell wall carbohydrate structure and competence pheromone sequence signature, shows that S. pneumoniae is one of several hundred evolutionary lineages forming a cluster separate from Streptococcus...... oralis and Streptococcus infantis. The remaining lineages of this distinct cluster are commensals previously collectively referred to as Streptococcus mitis and each represent separate species by traditional taxonomic standard. Virulence genes including the operon for capsule polysaccharide synthesis and...

  6. Case Report of Necrotizing Fasciitis Associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Lei Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, is an extremely rare and life-threatening bacterial soft tissue infection. We report a case of early necrotizing fasciitis associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in a 26-year-old man who was immunocompromised with mixed connective tissue disease. The patient presented with acute, painful, erythematous, and edematous skin lesions of his right lower back, which rapidly progressed to the right knee. The patient underwent surgical exploration, and a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was confirmed by pathological evidence of necrosis of the fascia and neutrophil infiltration in tissue biopsies. Cultures of fascial tissue biopsies and blood samples were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of necrotizing fasciitis resulting from Streptococcus pneumoniae diagnosed at early phase; the patient recovered well without surgical debridement.

  7. Molecular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from fish

    The genetic variability among Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from fish was characterized using single-stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) analysis of the intergenic spacer region (ISR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. A total of 49 S. agalactiae ...

  8. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

    Hernandez-Delgadillo R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo1, Donaji Velasco-Arias2, David Diaz2, Katiushka Arevalo-Niño1, Marianela Garza-Enriquez1, Myriam A De la Garza-Ramos1, Claudio Cabral-Romero11Instituto de Biotecnologia, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, CIDICS, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 2Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, MexicoBackground and methods: Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities.Results: Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM.Conclusion: These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation.Keywords: zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles, antimicrobial agent, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans

  9. Effect of Fluoride, Chlorhexidine and Fluoride-chlorhexidine Mouthwashes on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and the Prevalence of Oral Side Effects

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Streptococcus mutans is the main pathogenic agent involved in dental caries, and may be eliminated using mouthwashes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of fluoride, chlorhexidine, and fluoride-chlorhexidine mouthwashes on salivary S. mutans count after two weeks of use and determine the prevalence of their side effects on the oral mucosa. Materials and methods. In this clinical trial, 120 12-14 year-old students were selected and divided into three gr...

  10. Effect of aqueous and alcoholic Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) extracts against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine: An in vitro study

    Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Shamarao, Supreetha; Battur, Hemant; Tikare, Shreyas; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Al Sayed, Mohammed Sayed Al Esawy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stevia (S. rebaudiana) a herb which has medicinal value and was used in ancient times as a remedy for a great diversity of ailments and sweetener. Leaves of Stevia contain a high concentration of Stevioside and Rebaudioside which are supposed to be sweetening agents. Aim: To compare the efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic S. rebaudiana extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: In the first part of the ...

  11. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Suanyuk, N.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal injection using 101 -108 CFU/ fish showed 20-90% mortality within 10 days and the LD50 was 3.60x101 - 1.72x107 CFU. Haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and blood cell values of infected and moribund fish were significantly decreased. Histopathological findings included the occurrence of inflammation, cells necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and the formation of granulomas in the infected organs.

  12. STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE KERATITIS FOLLOWING LASER IN SITU KERATOMILEUSIS

    2011-01-01

    A 22-year-old man underwent bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis and developed Streptococcus pneumoniae keratitis after surgery.This complication occurred one day after the procedure in both eyes.Topical and systemic antibiotics were promptly administered.Bacterial culture was performed following corneal flap lift and scraping of the lesions.Afterwards,the therapeutic regimen was readjusted according to the culture results.Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified from the culture.Three months after the sur...

  13. Evidence for Rare Capsular Switching in Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    Martins, Elisabete Raquel; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mário

    2009-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule is a major antigenic factor in Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococcus [GBS]). Previous observations suggest that exchange of capsular loci is likely to occur rather frequently in GBS, even though GBS is not known to be naturally transformable. We sought to identify and characterize putative capsular switching events, by means of a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods, including pulsed-field gel electrophoretic profiling, multilocus seq...

  14. DNA Microarray-Based Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates

    Nitschke, Heike; Slickers, Peter; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae frequently colonizes the urogenital tract, and it is a major cause of bacterial septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia in newborns. For typing purposes, a microarray targeting group B streptococcus (GBS) virulence-associated markers and resistance genes was designed and validated with reference strains, as well as clinical and veterinary isolates. Selected isolates were also subjected to multilocus sequence typing. It was observed that putative typing markers, such as ...

  15. Identification of Major Outer Surface Proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae

    Hughes, Martin J. G.; Moore, Joanne C.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wilson, Rebecca; Pribul, Philippa K.; Younes, Zabin N.; Dobson, Richard J; Everest, Paul; Reason, Andrew J.; Redfern, Joanne M.; Greer, Fiona M.; Paxton, Thanai; Panico, Maria; Morris, Howard R; Feldman, Robert G.

    2002-01-01

    To identify the major outer surface proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus), a proteomic analysis was undertaken. An extract of the outer surface proteins was separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The visualized spots were identified through a combination of peptide sequencing and reverse genetic methodologies. Of the 30 major spots identified as S. agalactiae specific, 27 have been identified. Six of these proteins, previously unidentified in S. agalactiae, were ...

  16. Characterization of the adherence properties of Streptococcus salivarius.

    Weerkamp, A H; McBride, B C

    1980-01-01

    The adherence and aggregation properties of 46 human oral Streptococcus salivarius isolates were examined. A total of 41% of the isolates aggregated with whole human saliva, 50% aggregated with human erythrocytes, and 85% adhered to human buccal epithelial cells. Strains that aggregated with saliva and erythrocytes usually reacted with Streptococcus group K typing serum whereas the non-hemagglutinating strains did not. K+ strains also adhered more strongly to human buccal epithelial cells tha...

  17. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae

    Peng, Lianci; Kang, Shuai; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Li, Zhengwen; Zou, Yuanfeng; Liang, Xiaoxia; Li, Lixia; He, Changliang; Ye, Gang; Yin, Lizi; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae were investigated in this study by analyzing the growth, morphology and protein of the S. agalactiae cells treated with berberine. The antibacterial susceptibility test result indicated minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae was 78 μg/mL and the time-kill curves showed the correlation of concentration-time. After the bacteria was exposed to 78 μg/mL berberine, t...

  18. Phenotypical characteristics of group B streptococcus in parturients

    Jose Antonio Simoes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Colonization by Group B Streptococcus (GBS is highly prevalent among pregnant women, with prevalence rates ranging between 4% and 30%. The infection may be transmitted vertically and may result in serious neonatal consequences. In the period from November 2003 to May 2004, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 316 parturients at the Jundiaí Teaching Hospital to establish the prevalence of genital GBS colonization, to identify the factors associated with colonization and the characteristic phenotypes of these streptococci. Samples from rectal and vaginal areas were collected for selective culture in Todd-Hewitt broth. Susceptibility to 7 antimicrobial agents was tested using the antibiotic diffusion disk technique, and the isolated strains were classified using specific antisera. The prevalence of GBS colonization was 14.6%. No strain was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin or nitrofurantoin. The majority of strains were sensitive to cephalothin. Greatest resistance was to gentamicin (76.1%, followed by clindamycin (17.4%. The most frequent serotype was Ib (23.9%, followed by serotypes II and Ia (19.6% and 17.4%, respectively. There was no correlation between serotype and greater antimicrobial resistance. In conclusion, the prevalence of GBS in parturients was high and penicillin continues to be the drug of choice for intrapartum prophylaxis. The most frequent serotype (Ib found in this study differs from those found in the majority of studies carried out in other countries, revealing the need to identify prevalent serotypes in each region so that specific vaccines can be designed.

  19. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease

    Yashuan eChao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over 1 million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease is not yet clear. Pneumococci in biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and this phenotype can be recapitulated when pneumococci are grown on respiratory epithelial cells under conditions found in the nasopharyngeal environment. Pneumococcal biofilms display lower levels of virulence in vivo and provide an optimal environment for increased genetic exchange both in vitro and in vivo, with increased natural transformation seen during co-colonization with multiple strains. Biofilms have also been detected on mucosal surfaces during pneumonia and middle ear infection, although the role of these biofilms in the disease process is debated. Recent studies have shown that changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by concomitant virus infection, changes in the microflora, inflammation, or other host assaults trigger active release of pneumococci from biofilms. These dispersed bacteria have distinct phenotypic properties and transcriptional profiles different from both biofilm and broth-grown, planktonic bacteria, resulting in a significantly increased virulence in vivo.In this review we discuss the properties of pneumococcal biofilms, the role of biofilm formation during pneumococcal colonization, including their propensity for increased ability to exchange genetic material, as well as mechanisms involved in transition from asymptomatic biofilm colonization to dissemination and disease of otherwise sterile sites. Greater understanding of

  20. Mechanisms of genome evolution of Streptococcus.

    Andam, Cheryl P; Hanage, William P

    2015-07-01

    The genus Streptococcus contains 104 recognized species, many of which are associated with human or animal hosts. A globally prevalent human pathogen in this group is Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). While being a common resident of the upper respiratory tract, it is also a major cause of otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis, accounting for a high burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent findings demonstrate the importance of recombination and selection in driving the population dynamics and evolution of different pneumococcal lineages, allowing them to successfully evade the impacts of selective pressures such as vaccination and antibiotic treatment. We highlight the ability of pneumococci to respond to these pressures through processes including serotype replacement, capsular switching and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of antibiotic resistance genes. The challenge in controlling this pathogen also lies in the exceptional genetic and phenotypic variation among different pneumococcal lineages, particularly in terms of their pathogenicity and resistance to current therapeutic strategies. The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, which target only a small subset of the more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes, provides us with a unique opportunity to elucidate how the processes of selection and recombination interact to generate a remarkable level of plasticity and heterogeneity in the pneumococcal genome. These processes also play an important role in the emergence and spread of multi-resistant strains, which continues to pose a challenge in disease control and/or eradication. The application of population of genomic approaches at different spatial and temporal scales will help improve strategies to control this global pathogen, and potentially other pathogenic streptococci. PMID:25461843

  1. Antifungal agents.

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  2. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial

    Maryam Beheshti-Rouy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective:  The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM causing dental plaque in school-aged children.Material and Methods: A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35 using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35 using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: Sage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001. Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn’t significant.Conclusion: The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.Keywords: anti-bacterial agents; dental plaque; Salvia officinalis; Streptococcus mutans

  3. Trading Agents

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  4. In vitro biofilm forming potential of Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine in China

    Guo Dawei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of biofilms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.

  5. In Vitro Activities of Tigecycline against Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae: Mechanisms of Macrolide and Tetracycline Resistance

    Betriu, C.; Culebras, E.; Rodríguez-Avial, I.; Gómez, M.; Sánchez, B. A.; Picazo, J J

    2004-01-01

    The activity of tigecycline was tested against erythromycin-resistant streptococci (107 Streptococcus pyogenes and 98 Streptococcus agalactiae strains). The presence of erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes was determined by PCR. Among S. pyogenes strains the most prevalent gene was mef(A) (91.6%). The erm(B) gene was the most prevalent (65.3%) among S. agalactiae strains. Tigecycline proved to be very active against all the isolates tested (MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested we...

  6. Extensive Adaptive Changes Occur in the Transcriptome of Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) in Response to Incubation with Human Blood

    Laurent Mereghetti; Izabela Sitkiewicz; Nicole M Green; Musser, James M.

    2008-01-01

    To enhance understanding of how Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) adapts during invasive infection, we performed a whole-genome transcriptome analysis after incubation with whole human blood. Global changes occurred in the GBS transcriptome rapidly in response to blood contact following shift from growth in a rich laboratory medium. Most (83%) of the significantly altered transcripts were down-regulated after 30 minutes of incubation in blood, and all functional categories...

  7. Influence of time, toothpaste and saliva in the retention of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes

    SCHMIDT, Julia Caroline; BUX, Miriam; Elisabeth FILIPUZZI-JENNY; KULIK, Eva Maria; Waltimo, Tuomas; Roland WEIGER; WALTER, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The intraoral transmission of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species seems to be facilitated by contaminated toothbrushes and other oral hygiene devices. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the in vitro retention and survival rate of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes. The impacts of human saliva and antimicrobial toothpaste on these parameters were further evaluated. Material and Methods: Part I: Four toothbrushes (Colgate 3...

  8. The antimicrobial sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius to colloidal solutions of different nanoparticles applied as mouthwashes

    Farzaneh Ahrari; Neda Eslami; Omid Rajabi; Kiarash Ghazvini; Sahar Barati

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metal nanoparticles have been recently applied in dentistry because of their antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial effects of colloidal solutions containing zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO), titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius and compare the results with those of chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouthrinses. Materials and Methods: After adding nanoparticles to a water-bas...

  9. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    Leticia Barrientos; Herrera, Christian L.; Gloria Montenegro; Ximena Ortega; Jorge Veloz; Marysol Alvear; Alejandro Cuevas; Nicolás Saavedra; Salazar, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from t...

  10. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Deguo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  11. Research progress on drug prevention of Streptococcus mutants%变异链球菌防治药物的研究现状

    刘开云; 孙红武; 张卫军

    2012-01-01

    变异链球菌是人类丰要的致龋微生物,其在口腔中的定植与龋病的发生密切相关.国内外学者多年来一直致力于寻找和研究抑制或杀灭变异链球菌的药物,曾运用抗生素、消毒剂、氟化物和免疫制剂等抗变异链球菌感染.本文就抗变异链球菌化学合成药物和抗变异链球菌植物提取物等研究进展作一综述.%Streptococcus mutans colonization in the oral cavity is closely related to the incidence of dental caries. It is the main cariogenic micro-organisms to human. Domestic and foreign scholars, who engaged in finding and research to inhibit or kill Streptococcus mutans drugs, used the agents of antibiotics, disinfectants, fluoride and immune products to anti -Streptococcus mutans infection. Chemistry of synthetic and plant extract drugs anti -Streptococcus mutans drugs reviewed in the paper.

  12. Salivaricin D, a novel intrinsically trypsin-resistant lantibiotic from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c isolated from a healthy infant.

    Birri, Dagim Jirata; Brede, Dag Anders; Nes, Ingolf F

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we purified and characterized a newly identified lantibiotic (salivaricin D) from Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c. Salivaricin D is a 34-amino-acid-residue peptide (3,467.55 Da); the locus of the gene encoding this peptide is a 16.5-kb DNA segment which contains genes encoding the precursor of two lantibiotics, two modification enzymes (dehydratase and cyclase), an ABC transporter, a serine-like protease, immunity proteins (lipoprotein and ABC transporters), a response regulator, and a sensor histidine kinase. The immunity gene (salI) was heterologously expressed in a sensitive indicator and provided significant protection against salivaricin D, confirming its immunity function. Salivaricin D is a naturally trypsin-resistant lantibiotic that is similar to nisin-like lantibiotics. It is a relatively broad-spectrum bacteriocin that inhibits members of many genera of Gram-positive bacteria, including the important human pathogens Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Thus, Streptococcus salivarius 5M6c may be a potential biological agent for the control of oronasopharynx-colonizing streptococcal pathogens or may be used as a probiotic bacterium. PMID:22101034

  13. ESTUDIO DE SENSIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE 183 CEPAS DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE AISLADAS EN REGION VAGINO-PERINEAL DE EMBARAZADAS EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE

    Cristián Belmar J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available fluctúa entre 1 y 3 por 1000 recién nacidos vivos. Se han entregado pautas dirigidas a reducir las tasas de sepsis precoz con la administración de antibióticos intraparto. Se ha propuesto como antibiótico de primera elección la Penicilina o Ampicilina, y Clindamicina para pacientes alérgicos a las primeras, pero también se ha planteado el uso de Eritromicina o Cefazolina. Se estudia la sensibilidad a estas drogas, en 183 cepas de Streptococcus Grupo B, aisladas en 917 embarazadas, al final del tercer trimestre, en región vaginal y pStreptococcus agalactiae (Grupo B Streptococcus is the main bacterial agent involved in neonatal sepsis of early onset (1 to 3/1000 live newborns. Has been given standards for reducing the rates of neonatal sepsis of early onset using antibiotics during labor. Has been proposed as the first choice Penicilin or Ampicilin and Clindamicin for allergic patients. Erythromycin and Cefazolin has been proposed to treat this patients. This report study sensibilities for this drugs in 183 Group B Streptococcus strains from vaginal and perianal region of 917 pregnant women during the last trimester

  14. Radioprotective Agents

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  15. Coaggregation of Streptococcus sanguis and other streptococci with Candida albicans.

    Jenkinson, H F; Lala, H C; Shepherd, M G

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen strains of viridans group streptococci and two strains of other streptococci were tested for coaggregation with Candida albicans. Streptococcus sanguis strains generally exhibited low levels of adherence to 28 degrees C-grown exponential-phase yeast cells, but starvation of yeast cells for glucose at 37 degrees C (or at 28 degrees C) increased their coaggregating activity with these streptococci by at least tenfold. This was a property common to four C. albicans strains tested, two of which were able to form mycelia (6406 and MEN) and two of which were not (MM2002 and CA2). The expression of the coaggregation adhesin during yeast cell starvation was inhibited by addition of trichodermin or amphotericin B. The strains of S. sanguis, Streptococcus gordonii, and Streptococcus oralis tested for coaggregating activity encompassed a diverse range of physiological and morphological types, yet all exhibited saturable coaggregation with starved C. albicans cells. There was no correlation of cell surface hydrophobicity, of either yeast or streptococcal cells, with their abilities to coaggregate. Strains of Streptococcus anginosus also coaggregated with starved yeast cells; Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus pyogenes coaggregated to a lesser degree with C. albicans, and the coaggregation with S. pyogenes was not promoted by yeast cell starvation; Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis did not coaggregate with yeast. The coaggregation reactions of S. sanguis and S. gordonii with C. albicans were inhibited by EDTA and by heat or protease treatment of the yeast cells and were not reversible by the addition of lactose or other simple sugars. These observations extend the range of intergeneric coaggregations that are known to occur between oral microbes and suggest that coaggregations of C. albicans with viridans group streptococci may be important for colonization of oral surfaces by the yeast. PMID:2182544

  16. Effect of acid shock on protein expression by biofilm cells of Streptococcus mutans

    Welin, J; Wilkins, J C; Beighton, D;

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a component of the dental plaque biofilm and a major causal agent of dental caries. Log-phase cells of the organism are known to induce an acid tolerance response (ATR) at sub-lethal pH values ( approximately 5.5) that enhances survival at lower pH values such as those...... suggested that surface growth itself triggered an ATR in biofilm cells, we were interested in comparing the effects of a pH change from 7.5 to 5.5 on protein synthesis by the two cell types. For this, cells were pulse labeled with [(14)C]-amino acids following the pH change to pH 5.5, the proteins extracted...

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GREEN TEA POLYPHENOL AND FLUORIDE ON STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

    李鸣宇; 刘正

    2000-01-01

    Objective To disclose the mechanism of green tea polyphenol in the prevention of dental caries.Methods Using sodium fluoride (highly effective anticaries agent) as control and Streptococcus mutans (carigenous microbe) as target, green tea polyphenol (potential bacterial inhibitor) was used to testify its action on the change of microbial morphology, extramicrobial sucrase, glucosyltransferase (GTF), lactate hydrogenase (LDH),protein and pH values of the culture media. Results GTF activities were inhibited both by green tea polyphenol and sodium fluoride, the inhibitory efficacy was stronger in green tea polyphenol. Morphologic changes consisted of membrane disruption in tea polyphenol treated microbes, and cytoplasmic vacuolization in fluoride treated bacteria.High protein level in fluoride treated culture media means cytoplasmic decomposition, intracellular protein leakage into media. Conclusion The inhibition of GTF activity was stronger in green tea polyphenol treated microbes.The target of action was cell membrane disruption in green tea polyphenol treated cell and cytoplasmic in fluoride treated microbes.

  18. Antagonism between penicillin and erythromycin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo

    Johansen, H K; Jensen, T G; Dessau, R B;

    2000-01-01

    effect of the bactericidal agent. In this study, the possible interaction between penicillin and erythromycin was investigated in vitro and in vivo against four clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with MICs of penicillin ranging from 0.016 to 0.5 mg/L and of erythromycin from 0. 25 to >128 mg....../L. In vitro time-kill curves were generated with clinically relevant concentrations of penicillin (10 mg/L) and erythromycin (1 mg/L), either individually or in combination. Antagonism between penicillin and erythromycin was observed for the four isolates. In vivo interaction was investigated in the...... mouse peritonitis model. After intraperitoneal inoculation, penicillin and erythromycin were given either individually or in combination. For two of the four isolates, mortality was significantly higher in the groups treated with the combination of penicillin and erythromycin than in the groups treated...

  19. The Collagen-Binding Protein Cnm Is Required for Streptococcus mutans Adherence to and Intracellular Invasion of Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells ▿

    Abranches, Jacqueline; Miller, James H.; Martinez, Alaina R.; Simpson-Haidaris, Patricia J.; Burne, Robert A.; Lemos, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, a global health problem that affects 60 to 90% of the population, and a leading causative agent of infective endocarditis. It can be divided into four different serotypes (c, e, f, and k), with serotype c strains being the most common in the oral cavity. In this study, we demonstrate that in addition to OMZ175 and B14, three other strains (NCTC11060, LM7, and OM50E) of the less prevalent serotypes e and f are abl...

  20. Antigenic relationships among immunoglobulin A1 proteases from Haemophilus, Neisseria, and Streptococcus species.

    Lomholt, H.; Kilian, M

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the antigenic variation and relationships of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases among different species and genera, we examined a comprehensive collection of serine type and metallo-type IgA1 proteases and corresponding antisera in enzyme neutralization assays. Sharing of neutralizing epitopes of metallo-type IgA1 proteases from Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus oralis and of serine type IgA1 proteases from Haemophilus and p...

  1. An agent framework for dynamic agent retraining: Agent academy

    Mitkas, P.; A. Symeonidis; Kechagias, D.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Laleci, G.; KURT, G.; Kabak, Y.; Acar, A.; Dogac, A.

    2004-01-01

    Agent Academy (AA) aims to develop a multi-agent society that can train new agents for specific or general tasks, while constantly retraining existing agents in a recursive mode. The system is based on collecting information both from the environment and the behaviors of the acting agents and their related successes/failures to generate a body of data, stored in the Agent Use Repository, which is mined by the Data Miner module, in order to generate useful knowledge about the application domai...

  2. Streptococcus mutans in denture stomatitis patients under antifungal therapy =Streptococcus mutans em pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica

    Vasconcelos, Laurylene César de S. et al.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Verificar o número de Streptococcus mutans em saliva de pacientes com estomatite protética antes e após a terapia antifúngica. Metodologia: Após exame clínico de 93 pacientes, 47 foram selecionados para exame micológico e desta amostra foram selecionados trinta pacientes: 15 com diagnóstico positivo e 15 com diagnóstico negativo de candidose foram avaliados para contagem de S. mutans, determinação de fluxo salivar e capacidade tampão. Higiene bucal e da prótese, tempo de confecção, tipo de lesão e dados salivares foram relacionados com características clínicas e laboratoriais de Candida. Resultados: As lesões frequentes foram dos tipos I (43,5% e II (53,5%. A quantidade de S. mutans foi seis vezes maior em pacientes com candidose e foi associada com baixo fluxo salivar e higiene oral deficiente. Após a terapia, a redução de S. mutans foi verificada particularmente em pacientes com fluxo salivar normal. Os valores variaram de 0,01 a 3,88 UFC/ml x 104. Conclusão: Os dados sugerem que os Streptococcus colaboram com Candida spp na etiopatogenia da estomatite protética. O uso de agentes antimicrobianos orais pode propiciar efeito benéfico para pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica e que apresentam higiene oral deficiente e parâmetros salivares desfavoráveis.

  3. In-vitro antibacterial study of zinc oxide nanostructures on Streptococcus sobrinus

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Rahman, Rosliza Abd

    2014-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanostructures were prepared using a pilot plant of zinc oxide boiling furnace. Generally, it produced two types of nanostructures different in morphology; one is rod-like shaped (ZnO-1) and a plate-like shape (ZnO-2). The properties of ZnO were studied by structural, optical and morphological using XRD, PL and FESEM respectively. The XRD patterns confirmed the wurtzite structures of ZnO with the calculated crystallite size of 41 nm (ZnO-1) and 42 nm (ZnO-2) using Scherrer formula. The NBE peaks were determined by photoluminescence spectra which reveal peak at 3.25 eV and 3.23 eV for ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 respectively. Prior to that, the morphologies for both ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 were demonstrated from FESEM micrographs. Subsequently the antibacterial study was conducted using in-vitro broth dilution technique towards a gram positive bacterium Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 33478) to investigate the level of antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanostructures as antibacterial agent. Gradual increment of ZnO concentrations from 10-20 mM affected the inhibition level after twenty four hours of incubation. In conjunction with concentration increment of ZnO, the percentage inhibition towards Streptococcus sobrinus was also increased accordingly. The highest inhibition occurred at 20 mM of ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 for 98% and 77% respectively. It showed that ZnO has good properties as antibacterial agent and relevancy with data presented by XRD, PL and FESEM were determined.

  4. A Fishy Tale: a Man with Empyema Caused by Streptococcus halichoeri

    Foo, Rui Min; Chan, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, veterinary laboratories in the United Kingdom reported a novel Lancefield group B streptococcus, Streptococcus halichoeri, in seals. We report a case of Streptococcus halichoeri causing postoperative empyema in a patient. A search of the literature revealed that this is the first case of S. halichoeri ever reported in humans.

  5. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae

    Tettelin, H; Masignani, [No Value; Cieslewicz, MJ; Eisen, JA; Peterson, S; Paulsen, IT; Nelson, KE; Margarit, [No Value; Read, TD; Madoff, LC; Beanan, MJ; Brinkac, LM; Daugherty, SC; DeBoy, RT; Durkin, AS; Kolonay, JF; Madupu, R; Lewis, MR; Radune, D; Fedorova, NB; Scanlan, D; Khouri, H; Mulligan, S; Carty, HA; Cline, RT; Van Aken, SE; Gill, J; Scarselli, M; Mora, M; Iacobini, ET; Brettoni, C; Galli, G; Mariani, M; Vegni, F; Maione, D; Rinaudo, D; Rappuoli, R; Telford, JL; Kasper, DL; Grandi, G; Fraser, CM

    2002-01-01

    The 2,160,267 bp genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae, the leading cause of bacterial sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis in neonates in the U.S. and Europe, is predicted to encode 2,175 genes. Genome comparisons among S. agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and the oth

  6. Immunochemical Properties of Glucosyltransferases from Streptococcus mutans

    Fukui, Kazuhiro; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Kato, Keijiro; Miyake, Yoichiro; Nogami, Ryuzo; Moriyama, Takafumi

    1983-01-01

    Antiserum against purified mutansynthetase (EC 2.4.1.?) of Streptococcus mutans 6715 (serotype g), which is responsible for the synthesis of water-insoluble glucan (ISG) in the presence of both sucrose and water-soluble glucan, was prepared. The specificity of the antiserum was tested by using crude enzyme preparations (CEPs) of S. mutans strains of various serotypes. On immunodiffusion, the antiserum cross-reacted with CEPs from strains of serotypes a (HS-6 and AHT), d (OMZ176), and g (OMZ65 and KIR), but not with those from strains of serotypes b (BHT and FA-1) and c (GS-5 and Ingbritt). The antiserum inhibited the synthesis of ISG by crude or purified mutansynthetase of S. mutans 6715. The activities of ISG synthesis by CEPs from the strains antigenically related in the foregoing immunodiffusion were inhibited by the antiserum against strain 6715 mutansynthetase. The antiserum, however, also inhibited the enzyme activity of the strains of serotype b. The finding that the antiserum against purified dextransucrase of S. mutans HS-6 inhibited ISG synthesis by a CEP of strain HS-6 and also by CEPs of antigenically related strains suggested that dextransucrase activity is involved in ISG synthesis. Images PMID:6187685

  7. Phenotypic heterogeneity of Streptococcus mutans in dentin.

    Rupf, S; Hannig, M; Breitung, K; Schellenberger, W; Eschrich, K; Remmerbach, T; Kneist, S

    2008-12-01

    Information concerning phenotypic heterogeneity of Streptococcus mutans in carious dentin is sparse. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) facilitates the phenotypic differentiation of bacteria to the subspecies level. To verify a supposed influence of restorative treatment on the phenotypic heterogeneity of S. mutans, we isolated and compared a total of 222 S. mutans strains from dentin samples of 21 human deciduous molars during caries excavation (T(1)) and 8 wks (T(2)) after removal of the temporary restoration. Phenotypic heterogeneity was determined by MALDI-TOF-MS and hierarchical clustering. Thirty-six distinct S. mutans phenotypes could be identified. Although indistinguishable phenotypes were found in the same teeth at T(1) and T(2), as well as in different teeth of individual participants, the phenotypic heterogeneity increased significantly, from 1.4 phenotypes per S. mutans-positive dentin sample at T(1) to 2.2 phenotypes at T(2). We attribute this to an adaptation of S. mutans to the modified environment under the restoration following caries excavation. PMID:19029088

  8. Ecology and pathogenicity of gastrointestinal Streptococcus bovis.

    Herrera, Paul; Kwon, Young Min; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis is an indigenous resident in the gastrointestinal tracts of both humans and animals. S. bovis is one of the major causes of bacterial endocarditis and has been implicated in the incidence of human colon cancer, possibly due to chronic inflammatory response at the site of intestinal colonization. Certain feeding regimens in ruminants can lead to overgrowth of S. bovis in the rumen, resulting in the over-production of lactate and capsular polysaccharide causing acute ruminal acidosis and bloat, respectively. There are multiple strategies in controlling acute lactic acidosis and bloat. The incidence of the two diseases may be controlled by strict dietary management. Gradual introduction of grain-based diets and the feeding of coarsely chopped roughage decrease the incidence of the two disease entities. Ionophores, which have been used to enhance feed conversion and growth rate in cattle, have been shown to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen. Other methods of controlling lactic acid bacteria in the ruminal environment (dietary supplementation of long-chain fatty acids, induction of passive and active immune responses to the bacteria, and the use of lytic bacteriophages) have also been investigated. It is anticipated that through continued in-depth ecological analysis of S. bovis the characteristics responsible for human and animal pathogenesis would be sufficiently identified to a point where more effective control strategies for the control of this bacteria can be developed. PMID:19100852

  9. Ornithine transport and exchange in Streptococcus lactis

    Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 appeared to accumulate [14C]ornithine to a high concentration in the absence of an exogenous energy source. However, analysis of intracellular amino acid pool constituents and results of transport experiments revealed that the accumulation of ornithine represented a homoexchange between extracellular [14C]ornithine and unlabeled ornithine in the cell. The energy-independent exchange of ornithine was not inhibited by proton-conducting uncouplers or by metabolic inhibitors. Intracellular [14C]ornithine was retained by resting cells after suspension in a buffered medium. However, addition of unlabeled ornithine to the suspension elicited rapid exit of labeled amino acid. The initial rate of exist of [14C]ornithine was dependent on the concentration of unlabeled ornithine in the medium, but this accelerative exchange diffusion process caused no net loss of amino acid. By contrast, the presence of a fermentable energy source caused a rapid expulsion of and new decrease in the concentration of intracellular ornithine. Kinetic analyses of amino acid transport demonstrated competitive inhibition between lysine and ornithine, and data obtained by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography established the heteroexchange of these basic amino acids. The effects of amino acids and of ornithine analogs on both entry and exit of [14C]ornithine have been examined. The data suggest that common carrier mediates the entry and exchange of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in cells of S. lactis

  10. Sorption of streptococcus faecium to glass

    A method has been developed by which to study the sorption of Streptococcus faecium to soda-lime cover glasses. Conditions were chosen to minimize the influence on sorption of bacterial polymer production, passive sorption being studied rather than attachment mediated by metabolic activities. Sorption of S. faecium increased with increasing temperature (to 50degC), time, and cell concentration, but equilibrium apparently was not reached even after incubation for 8 hours or at a cell concentration of 3 x 1010 per ml. Sorption increased with solute molarity up to 0.1 M concentration of NaCl and KCl, indicating an effect of the electrical double layers on the apposition of cells to the glass surface. Desorption of bacteria could be obtained after multiple washings of the glasses in buffer or by the action of Tween 80, but not if sorbed bacteria were left in distilled water, various salt solutions, urea, or in suspensions of unlabelled bacteria. It was concluded that sorption occurred as a result of chemical interactions between the glass and the cell surface. Tween 80 at a concentration of 1 per cent inhibited sorption to 26 per cent of buffer controls, 2 M urea was less effective, and 1 M NaCl was without effect. It is suggested that hydrophobic interactions may be of importance in the binding of S. faecium to glass. (author)

  11. Effect of immunization on susceptibility to experimental Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis.

    Durack, D T; Gilliland, B C; Petersdorf, R G

    1978-01-01

    It has been asserted that humoral immunity is an important potentiating factor in pathogenesis of infective endocarditis, in that prior immunization to certain bacteria may predispose the host to endocarditis caused by those organisms. If so, possible future vaccination of humans with streptococcal antigens for the prevention of dental caries might increase the susceptibility of the population to streptococcal endocarditis. To examine this hypothesis further, we immunized rabbits with killed Streptococcus sanguis or Streptococcus mutans. After complement-fixing antibody had developed, the rabbits were tested for susceptibility to experimental infective endocarditis. Rabbits with high titers of complement-fixing antibody to the infecting organism developed streptococcal endocarditis less often (13%) than animals with lower titers (69%; P less than 0.0002). These findings do not support the hypothesis that pre-immunization predisposes to infective endocarditis and lend no credence to the concept that vaccination of human subjects against dental caries might increase their susceptibility to streptococcal endocarditis. On the contrary, the results of these experiments indicate that specific antibody can confer relative immunity to infective endocarditis. PMID:730349

  12. Conjugal mobilization of the mega element carrying mef(E) from Streptococcus salivarius to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Santagati, Maria; Lupo, Agnese; Scillato, Marina; Di Martino, Andrea; Stefani, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of an unusual strain of Streptococcus salivarius, 3C30, displaying both the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B and the tetracycline resistance phenotypes. It harbours the mef(E), erm(B), and tet(M) genes carried by different genetic elements. The genetic element carrying mef(E), named mega, was investigated by long PCR and sequencing, while the presence of the Tn3872-like element, carrying tet(M) and erm(B), was demonstrated by sequencing of both the int-xis-Tn and the fragment between the two resistance genes. In strain 3C30 the mega element is 5388 bp in size and its nucleotide sequence is identical to that of the element described previously in S. salivarius, with the exception of a 912 bp deletion at the left end. The composite Tn3872-like element appeared to be nonconjugative while the mega element was transferred by conjugation to Streptococcus pneumoniae. It was, however, impossible to transfer it again from these transconjugants to other strains. In addition, only in the 3C30 strain did mega form circular structures, as identified by real-time PCR. In conclusion, we found a clinical strain of S. salivarius carrying both mega and Tn3872-like genetic elements. Mega is transferable by conjugation to S. pneumoniae but it is not transferable again from the transconjugants, suggesting a possible mobilization by recombinases of the coresident Tn3872-like transposon. PMID:19025575

  13. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Arash Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20. Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  14. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Azizi, Arash; Aghayan, Shabnam; Zaker, Saeed; Shakeri, Mahdieh; Entezari, Navid; Lawaf, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20). Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms. PMID:26347778

  15. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans polysaccharide synthesis by molecules targeting glycosyltransferase activity

    Zhi Ren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycosyltransferase (Gtf is one of the crucial virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans, a major etiological pathogen of dental caries. All the available evidence indicates that extracellular polysaccharide, particularly glucans produced by S. mutans Gtfs, contribute to the cariogenicity of dental biofilms. Therefore, inhibition of Gtf activity and the consequential polysaccharide synthesis may impair the virulence of cariogenic biofilms, which could be an alternative strategy to prevent the biofilm-related disease. Up to now, many Gtf inhibitors have been recognized in natural products, which remain the major and largely unexplored source of Gtf inhibitors. These include catechin-based polyphenols, flavonoids, proanthocyanidin oligomers, polymeric polyphenols, and some other plant-derived compounds. Metal ions, oxidizing agents, and some other synthetic compounds represent another source of Gtf inhibitors, with some novel molecules either discovered by structure-based virtual screening or synthesized based on key structures of known inhibitors as templates. Antibodies that inhibit one or more Gtfs have also been developed as topical agents. Although many agents have been shown to possess potent inhibitory activity against glucan synthesis by Gtfs, bacterial cell adherence, and caries development in animal models, much research remains to be performed to find out their mechanism of action, biological safety, cariostatic efficacies, and overall influence on the entire oral community. As a strategy to inhibit the virulence of cariogenic microbes rather than eradicate them from the microbial community, Gtf inhibition represents an approach of great potential to prevent dental caries.

  16. [THE INFECTION INDUCED BY STREPTOCOCCUS OF SEROGROUP B IN PREGNANT WOMEN, PUERPERA AND NEWBORNS].

    Naumkina, E V; Abrosimova, O A; Pakhalkova, E V; Rogatikh, N A; Mironov A Yu

    2016-02-01

    The streptococci of serogroup B (Streptococcus agalactiae) are one of major etiologic agents responsible for occurrence of severe perinatal infections in puerpera and newborns. The prevalence of streptococci of group B is analyzed in various categories of women (stage of preconception training, pregnancy, puerpera) and newborns transferred for particular reasons to second stage of raising. The data of microbiological monitoring during four years was involved. It is established that prevalence of carriage of streptococci of serogroup B in genital tracts of women of reproductive age on territory of Omsk consists 6-8% in different categories of female patients and has no tendency to decrease. In most cases, high or moderate level of dissemination, association with other opportunistic microorganisms. The perinatal infection of premature newborns with low body mass at birth with S. agalactiae results in clinical manifestation of generalized infectious process. The infection of healthy premature newborns most often does not result in severe infectious pathology. However; in the half of all cases development of local (significantly more rarely - generalized) pyoinflammatory induced by S. agalactiae as both isolated and in association with other opportunistic microorganisms. The relatively high rate of realization of potential of agent in newborns of risk group requires attention to the issues of diagnostic of carriage of streptococci group B in pregnant women, inclusion of this type of analysis into standards of observation for given category of female patients with purpose of timely sanitation, development and elaboration of standards of laboratory analysis on this agent. PMID:27455565

  17. The streptococcal inhibitor of complement (SIC) protects Streptococcus pyogenes from bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from Streptococcus salivarius.

    Minami, Masaaki; Ohmori, Daisuke; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Isaka, Masanori; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Ohta, Michio; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2009-09-01

    Streptococcus salivarius inhibits the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes in vitro. Streptococcus pyogenes has various virulence factors, including the streptococcus inhibitor of complement (SIC). Although SIC inhibits the activity of the peptides LL-37 and NAP1, the relationship between SIC and the bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) has not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated whether S. salivarius BLIS affects S. pyogenes SIC. We created three deltasic mutant strains from three S. pyogenes strains and performed deferred antagonism assays. The test strains were BLIS-positive S. salivarius JCM5707 and BLIS-negative S. salivarius NCU12. Deferred antagonism assays with JCM5707 showed that the inhibitory zones in the three deltasic mutant strains were wider than those in the three wild-type strains. Streptococcus pyogenes was cultured in BLIS-containing broth and the change in SIC in the supernatant was assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The 2-DE analysis of S. pyogenes exoproteins with the JCM5707 supernatant showed reduced SIC compared with those without the JCM5707 supernatant. Changes in sic mRNA levels affected by S. salivarius BLIS were evaluated by a reverse transcriptase-PCR. The sic mRNA level was affected more by the BLIS-positive S. salivarius than by the BLIS-negative strain. Our result indicates that SIC plays a role in the inhibition of S. salivarius BLIS. PMID:19594623

  18. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  19. Transformation of Streptococcus zooepidemicus with Genes Responsible for Polyhydroxybutyrate Synthesis

    吴小明; 高海军; 田格; 陈国强

    2002-01-01

    A procedure for transformation of intact Streptococcus zooepidemicus cells by electroporation was developed through a systematic examination of the effects of various parameters, including growth conditions, electric field strengths used for electroporation, and concentrations of plasmid used for transformation. Efficiencies higher than 104 cfu/μg(cfu, clone forming unit) plasmid DNA were obtained for Streptococcus zooepidemicus H2004 cells. Results demonstrate that the broad-host-range plasmid pDL276 can be replicated in Streptococcus zooepidemicus H2004 and foreign genes responsible for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis inserted into the pDL276 can be successfully expressed in the transformant, in which PHB is detected using the Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) method.

  20. Immunoasssay Chromatographic Antigen Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Pharyngitis in Children: A Cross/ Sectional Study

    S Noorbakhsh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS is an important pharyngotonsillitis etiologic agent in children. The objective of this study was diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis based on rapid antigen detection test and conventional pharyngeal culture.Materials and Methods: The rapid GABHS antigen detection test was compared to culture on blood agar, the gold standard for the diagnosis of this etiologic agent.Results: Streptococcal antigen was detected in pharyngeal specimens of 34.5% of cases by rapid strip test. We detected group A Streptococcus in 17.2% of pharyngeal culture. There was no agreement between two methods ( PV < 0.1. The negative pharyngeal culture results are probably due to antibiotic usage in 43.2 % of patients. Positive rapid test results in pharyngeal swab was age dependent ( P < 0.05. There was good correlation between observing the "petechia in pharynx of patients" and positive rapid test in pharyngeal swab (P < 0.004. Throat culture results were relatated to previous antibiotic usage ( P < 0.03.Conclusion: The rapid test in pharyngeal swab is helpful for rapid diagnosis and treatment of GABHS pharyngitis. Diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis based on soley clinical findings is misleading in the majority of cases. Petechia observed in pharynx of the cases was highly predictive of streptococcal pharyngitis.

  1. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik;

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis and...... only a few isolates belonged to other Streptococcus species. Typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of a selection of isolates revealed several patterns and several different clones. Attempts to reproduce disease by the injection of cultures of a field isolate into healthy mink failed....

  2. Bacteriuria with group B streptococcus and preterm birth

    Khalil, M. R.; Uldbjerg, N.; Thorsen, P.;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Preterm delivery (PTD) contributes to 70% of all perinatal deaths and nearly 50% of permanent neurological damages in children. Treatment and follow-up to prevent recolonization in pregnant women with Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the urine may reduce the frequency of PTD. In a...... delivered preterm (10.9%), while among the GBS BU negative 1,085 (8.7%) delivered preterm; indicating an association between GBS BU and PTD in crude analyzes (Odds Ratio 1.8; 95% Confidence Interval 1.5-2.2; P30, and 19.0% were smokers in pregnancy. Conclusions: Group B Streptococcus bacteriuria might be a...

  3. Fluoroquinolone Resistance among Clonal Complex 1 Group B Streptococcus Strains

    Teatero, Sarah; Patel, Samir N.

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in group B Streptococcus is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here, we correlated fluoroquinolone resistance with mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, identified by mining whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 190 clonal complex 1 group B Streptococcus strains recovered from patients with invasive diseases in North America. We report a high prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance (12%) among GBS strains in our collection. Our approach is the first step towards accurate prediction of fluoroquinolone resistance from WGS data in this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27559344

  4. Fluoroquinolone Resistance among Clonal Complex 1 Group B Streptococcus Strains.

    Neemuchwala, Alefiya; Teatero, Sarah; Patel, Samir N; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in group B Streptococcus is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here, we correlated fluoroquinolone resistance with mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, identified by mining whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 190 clonal complex 1 group B Streptococcus strains recovered from patients with invasive diseases in North America. We report a high prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance (12%) among GBS strains in our collection. Our approach is the first step towards accurate prediction of fluoroquinolone resistance from WGS data in this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27559344

  5. Status of research and development of vaccines for Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Steer, Andrew C; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Dale, James B; Fraser, John D; Good, Michael F; Guilherme, Luiza; Moreland, Nicole J; Mulholland, E Kim; Schodel, Florian; Smeesters, Pierre R

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an important global pathogen, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, especially in low and middle income countries where rheumatic heart disease and invasive infections are common. There is a number of promising vaccine candidates, most notably those based on the M protein, the key virulence factor for the bacterium. Vaccines against Streptococcus pyogenes are considered as impeded vaccines because of a number of crucial barriers to development. Considerable effort is needed by key players to bring current vaccine candidates through phase III clinical trials and there is a clear need to develop a roadmap for future development of current and new candidates. PMID:27032515

  6. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium

  7. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium.

  8. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae: Emergence and Pathogenesis.

    Keller, Lance E; Robinson, D Ashley; McDaniel, Larry S

    2016-01-01

    While significant protection from pneumococcal disease has been achieved by the use of polysaccharide and polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines, capsule-independent protection has been limited by serotype replacement along with disease caused by nonencapsulatedStreptococcus pneumoniae(NESp). NESp strains compose approximately 3% to 19% of asymptomatic carriage isolates and harbor multiple antibiotic resistance genes. Surface proteins unique to NESp enhance colonization and virulence despite the lack of a capsule even though the capsule has been thought to be required for pneumococcal pathogenesis. Genes for pneumococcal surface proteins replace the capsular polysaccharide (cps) locus in some NESp isolates, and these proteins aid in pneumococcal colonization and otitis media (OM). NESp strains have been isolated from patients with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal disease, but noninvasive diseases, specifically, conjunctivitis (85%) and OM (8%), are of higher prevalence. Conjunctival strains are commonly of the so-called classical NESp lineages defined by multilocus sequence types (STs) ST344 and ST448, while sporadic NESp lineages such as ST1106 are more commonly isolated from patients with other diseases. Interestingly, sporadic lineages have significantly higher rates of recombination than classical lineages. Higher rates of recombination can lead to increased acquisition of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, increasing the risk of disease and hindering treatment. NESp strains are a significant proportion of the pneumococcal population, can cause disease, and may be increasing in prevalence in the population due to effects on the pneumococcal niche caused by pneumococcal vaccines. Current vaccines are ineffective against NESp, and further research is necessary to develop vaccines effective against both encapsulated and nonencapsulated pneumococci. PMID:27006456

  9. Agent Chameleons: Virtual Agents Real Intelligence

    O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Martin, Alan; Bradley, John

    2003-01-01

    Agent Chameleons provides virtual agents powered by real intelligence, delivering next generation autonomic entities that can seamlessly migrate, mutate and evolve on their journey between and within physical and digital information spaces.

  10. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA.

    Ogawa, Ayako; Furukawa, Soichi; Fujita, Shuhei; Mitobe, Jiro; Kawarai, Taketo; Narisawa, Naoki; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kosono, Saori; Yoneda, Saori; Watanabe, Haruo; Morinaga, Yasushi; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2011-03-01

    The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation were purified from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9759 and HT9R culture supernatants using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis was performed, and the results were compared to databases. The S. salivarius HT9R genome sequence was determined and used to indentify candidate proteins for inhibition. The candidates inhibiting biofilms were identified as S. salivarius fructosyltransferase (FTF) and exo-beta-d-fructosidase (FruA). The activity of the inhibitors was elevated in the presence of sucrose, and the inhibitory effects were dependent on the sucrose concentration in the biofilm formation assay medium. Purified and commercial FruA from Aspergillus niger (31.6% identity and 59.6% similarity to the amino acid sequence of FruA from S. salivarius HT9R) completely inhibited S. mutans GS-5 biofilm formation on saliva-coated polystyrene and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Inhibition was induced by decreasing polysaccharide production, which is dependent on sucrose digestion rather than fructan digestion. The data indicate that S. salivarius produces large quantities of FruA and that FruA alone may play an important role in multispecies microbial interactions for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in the oral cavity. PMID:21239559

  11. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA▿

    Ogawa, Ayako; Furukawa, Soichi; Fujita, Shuhei; Mitobe, Jiro; Kawarai, Taketo; Narisawa, Naoki; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kosono, Saori; Yoneda, Saori; Watanabe, Haruo; Morinaga, Yasushi; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2011-01-01

    The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation were purified from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9759 and HT9R culture supernatants using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis was performed, and the results were compared to databases. The S. salivarius HT9R genome sequence was determined and used to indentify candidate proteins for inhibition. The candidates inhibiting biofilms were identified as S. salivarius fructosyltransferase (FTF) and exo-beta-d-fructosidase (FruA). The activity of the inhibitors was elevated in the presence of sucrose, and the inhibitory effects were dependent on the sucrose concentration in the biofilm formation assay medium. Purified and commercial FruA from Aspergillus niger (31.6% identity and 59.6% similarity to the amino acid sequence of FruA from S. salivarius HT9R) completely inhibited S. mutans GS-5 biofilm formation on saliva-coated polystyrene and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Inhibition was induced by decreasing polysaccharide production, which is dependent on sucrose digestion rather than fructan digestion. The data indicate that S. salivarius produces large quantities of FruA and that FruA alone may play an important role in multispecies microbial interactions for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in the oral cavity. PMID:21239559

  12. Streptococcus oligofermentans Inhibits Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms at Both Neutral pH and Cariogenic Conditions.

    Xudong Bao

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide (HP. Since pH is a critical factor in caries formation, we aimed to study the influence of pH on the competition between S. oligofermentans and S. mutans in biofilms. To this end, S. mutans and S. oligofermentans were inoculated alone or mixed at 1:1 ratio in buffered biofilm medium in a 96-well active attachment model. The single- and dual-species biofilms were grown under either constantly neutral pH or pH-cycling conditions. The latter includes two cycles of 8 h neutral pH and 16 h pH 5.5, used to mimic cariogenic condition. The 48 h biofilms were analysed for the viable cell counts, lactate and HP production. The last two measurements were carried out after incubating the 48 h biofilms in buffers supplemented with 1% glucose (pH 7.0 for 4 h. The results showed that S. oligofermentans inhibited the growth of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms under both tested pH conditions. The lactic acid production of dual-species biofilms was significantly lower than that of single-species S. mutans biofilms. Moreover, dual-species and single-species S. oligofermentans biofilms grown under pH-cycling conditions (with a 16 h low pH period produced a significantly higher amount of HP than those grown under constantly neutral pH. In conclusion, S. oligofermentans inhibited S. mutans in biofilms not only under neutral pH, but also under pH-cycling conditions, likely through HP production. S. oligofermentans may be a compelling probiotic candidate against caries.

  13. Antibacterial activity of Bixa orellana L. (achiote) against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Dyanne Medina-Flores; Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar; Rosella Camere-Colarossi; Stefany Caballero-Garca; Frank Mayta-Tovalino; Juana del Valle-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of Bixa orellana L. (B. orellana) (achiote) methanol extract against Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 10556) (S. sanguinis). Methods: Two methanol extracts of B. orellana were prepared in vitro, from the seeds and leaves. The antibacterial activity of extracts against S. mutans and S. sanguinis was evaluated using the cup-plate agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concen-tration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method and the cytotoxic activity was determinated by using the cell line MDCK. Results: A stronger antibacterial effect was observed with the leaves methanolic extract with an inhibition zone of (19.97 ± 1.31) mm against S. mutans and (19.97 ± 1.26) mm against S. sanguinis. The methanolic extract of the seeds had an activity of (15.11 ± 1.03) mm and (16.15 ± 2.15) mm against S. mutans and S. sanguinis, respectively. The MIC of the leaf and the seed extracts against S. sanguinis was 62.5 and 125 mg/mL, respectively, and the MIC of the leaf extract against S. mutans was 62.5 mg/mL, and for the seed extract it was 31.25 mg/mL. The 50%cytotoxic concentration was 366.45 and 325.05 mg/mL for the leaves and seeds extracts, respectively. Conclusions: The experimental findings demonstrated the antibacterial effect of the methanolic extract of B. orellana (achiote) on S. mutans and S. sanguinis. The extract of this plant is cytotoxic at high concentrations.

  14. Different bacteriocin activities of Streptococcus mutans reflect distinct phylogenetic lineages

    Balakrishnan, M; Simmonds, RS; Kilian, Mogens;

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by mutans streptococci are known as mutacins. In this study 16 broadly active mutacin-producing Streptococcus mutans strains from New Zealand, North America and Europe were classified into four groups (A-D) on the basis of differences in their activity in deferred antagonism...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Type Strain Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558

    Rasmussen, Louise Hesselbjerg; Dargis, Rimtas; Christensen, Jens Jørgen Elmer;

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558T was isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis in 1946 and announced as a type strain in 1989. Here, we report the 2,154,510-bp draft genome sequence of S. gordonii ATCC 10558T. This sequence will contribute to knowledge about the pathogenesis of...

  16. Outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Psychiatric Unit

    2012-11-02

    Dr. Katherine Fleming-Dutra, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses her investigation of a Streptococcus pneumoniae outbreak in a pediatric psychiatric unit.  Created: 11/2/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/5/2012.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus mutans JH1140

    Escano, Jerome; Deng, Peng; Lu, Shi-En

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is an oral bacterium known to produce the bacteriocin mutacin 1140, and the strain has been genetically engineered to combat dental caries. Here, we report the 2.0-Mb draft genome of S. mutans JH1140. This genome provides new insights into the strain’s superior colonization properties and its utility in replacement therapy. PMID:27257196

  18. Reevaluating the Serotype II Capsular Locus of Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    Martins, E. R.; Melo-Cristino, J.; Ramirez, M.

    2007-01-01

    We report a novel sequence of the serotype II capsular locus of group B streptococcus that resolves inconsistencies among the results of various groups and the sequence in GenBank. This locus was found in diverse lineages and presents genes consistent with the complete synthesis of the type II polysaccharide.

  19. Deletion of a Cation Transporter Promotes Lysis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Neef, Jolanda; Andisi, Vahid Farshchi; Kim, Kwang S.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.; Weiser, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant human pathogen which causes respiratory and serious invasive diseases. Mg(2+) is essential for life, and its concentration varies throughout the human body. Magnesium uptake plays an important role in the virulence of many bacterial pathogens. To study the M

  20. Bullous impetigo caused by Streptococcus salivarius: a case report.

    Brook, I

    1980-01-01

    A 19-month-old child presented with bullous impetigo around the perineal region, penis, and left foot. Streptococcus salivarius was the only isolate recovered from the lesions. The child was treated with parenteral penicillin, debridement of the bulli, and local application of silver sulphadiazine cream. This case of bullous impetigo illustrates another aspect of the pathogenicity of Strep. salivarius.

  1. A new tool for transcription regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Nováková, Linda; Přenosilová, Lenka; Sušická, Zuzana; Janeček, Jiří; Novotná, Jana; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    Washington : American Society for Microbiology, 2006, s. 72-73. ISBN 1-55581-400-X. [ASM Conferences Streptococcal Genetics. Saint Malo (FR), 18.06.2006-21.06.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptococcus pneumoniae * rnap Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  2. Subtyping of Streptococcus uberis by DNA amplification fingerprinting.

    Jayarao, B. M.; Bassam, B J; Caetano-Anollés, G; Gresshoff, P M; Oliver, S P

    1992-01-01

    Total DNA of Streptococcus uberis from cows with mastitis was analyzed by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and compared with restriction endonuclease fingerprinting (REF). DAF grouped 22 strains into 15 distinct patterns, while REF grouped them into 12 patterns. These results suggest that DAF is a useful technique for subtyping strains of S. uberis.

  3. Screening Protocols for Group B Streptococcus: Are Transport Media Appropriate?

    Nicolette Teese

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate group B streptococcus (GBS detection in an in vitro setting, using a low and controlled inoculum from swabs directly inoculated into a selective medium, as compared to delayed inoculation following a period in a commercial Amies transport medium with charcoal (Venturi Transystem™ Copan, Italy.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus mutans JH1140

    Escano, Jerome; Deng, Peng; Lu, Shi-En; Smith, Lief

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is an oral bacterium known to produce the bacteriocin mutacin 1140, and the strain has been genetically engineered to combat dental caries. Here, we report the 2.0-Mb draft genome of S. mutans JH1140. This genome provides new insights into the strain’s superior colonization properties and its utility in replacement therapy.

  5. Maternal Obesity and Rectovaginal Group B Streptococcus Colonization at Term

    Shelby M. Kleweis; CAHILL, Alison G.; Odibo, Anthony O.; TUULI, Methodius G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To test the hypothesis that maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for rectovaginal group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization at term. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study of consecutive women with singleton term pregnancies admitted in labor at Barnes-Jewish Hospital (2004–2008). Maternal BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m2 (obese) or

  6. In Vitro Activity of AR-709 against Streptococcus pneumoniae▿

    Jansen, W.T.M.; Verel, A.; Verhoef, J.; Milatovic, D.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro activity of AR-709, a novel diaminopyrimidine antibiotic currently in development for treatment of community-acquired upper and lower respiratory tract infections, against 151 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains from various European countries. AR-709 showed excellent activity against both drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant pneumococci.

  7. Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.

    Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Shim, Jae-Seok; Chung, Jae-Youn

    2004-09-01

    The methanol extracts of five tropical plants, Baeckea frutescens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Kaempferia pandurata, Physalis angulata and Quercus infectoria, exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. In particular, G. glabra, K. pandurata and P. angulata conferred fast killing bactericidal effect against S. mutans in 2 min at 50 microg/ml of extract concentration. PMID:15351117

  8. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Andersen, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis and...

  9. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Streptococcus agalactiae: Epidemiology and Mechanism of Resistance

    Wehbeh, Wehbeh; Rojas-Diaz, Roberto; Li, Xinying; Mariano, Noriel; Grenner, Louise; Segal-Maurer, Sorana; Tommasulo, Barbara; Drlica, Karl; Urban, Carl; Rahal, James J.

    2005-01-01

    Quinolone-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria were recovered from single-patient isolates and found to contain mutations in the gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that four isolates from the same long-term care facility were closely related; in seven cases, quinolone-resistant Haemophilus influenzae and S. agalactiae bacteria were isolated from the same patient.

  10. Heterogeneity of Hemolysin Expression during Neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae Sepsis▿

    Sigge, Anja; Schmid, Manuel; Mauerer, Stefanie; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The β-hemolysin of Streptococcus agalactiae is a major virulence factor; consequently, nonhemolytic strains rarely cause infections. We report on a case of neonatal sepsis caused by a strain displaying heterogeneous hemolysin expression. It was detected by the simultaneous isolation of hemolytic and nonhemolytic colonies from cultures of the infant's blood.