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Sample records for streptococcus constellatus agente

  1. A streptolysin S homologue is essential for ?-haemolytic Streptococcus constellatus subsp. constellatus cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Atsushi; Sato, Yuji; Maya, Kentaro; Nakano, Kota; Kikuchi, Ken; Whiley, Robert A; Ohkura, Kazuto; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    Streptococcus constellatus is a member of the Anginosus group streptococci (AGS) and primarily inhabits the human oral cavity. S. constellatus is composed of three subspecies: S. constellatus subsp. constellatus (SCC), S. constellatus subsp. pharyngis and the newly described subspecies S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis. Although previous studies have established that SCC contains ?-haemolytic strains, the factor(s) responsible for ?-haemolysis in ?-haemolytic SCC (?-SCC) has yet to be clarified. Recently, we discovered that a streptolysin S (SLS) homologue is the ?-haemolytic factor of ?-haemolytic Streptococcus anginosus subsp. anginosus (?-SAA), another member of the AGS. Furthermore, because previous studies have suggested that other AGS species, except for Streptococcus intermedius, do not possess a haemolysin(s) belonging to the family of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, we hypothesized that, as with ?-SAA, the SLS homologue is the ?-haemolytic factor of ?-SCC, and therefore aimed to investigate and characterize the haemolytic factor of ?-SCC in the present study. PCR amplification revealed that all of the tested ?-SCC strains were positive for the sagA homologue of SCC (sagA(SCC)). Further investigations using ?-SCC strain W277 were conducted to elucidate the relationship between sagA(SCC) and ?-haemolysis by constructing sagA(SCC) deletion mutants, which completely lost ?-haemolytic activity. This loss of ?-haemolytic activity was restored by trans-complementation of sagA(SCC). Furthermore, a co-cultivation assay established that the cytotoxicity of ?-SCC was clearly dependent on the presence of sagA(SCC). These results demonstrate that sagA(SCC) is the factor responsible for ?-SCC ?-haemolysis and cytotoxicity. PMID:24600025

  2. Acute glomerulonephritis associated with streptococcus pyogenes with concomitant spread of streptococcus constellatus in four rural families.

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    Almroth, G; Lindell, A; Aselius, H; Sörén, L; Svensson, L; Hultman, P; Eribe, E R; Olsen, I

    2005-01-01

    We studied history, renal histopathology and microbiology of an epidemic of acute glomerulonephritis associated with throat infections and uncommon culture results in four neighbour families. A 40-year-old man (index patient) was referred to a university hospital for dialysis and kidney biopsy due to a suspected acute glomerulonephritis. An acute tonsillitis had preceded the condition. Penicillin treatment had been started four days before the discovery of renal failure. Throat swabs were positive for beta-hemolytic streptococci, group C (GCS). GCS were also found in throat cultures from his wife and two of their children. The bacteria were typed as Streptococcus constellatus. A third child had S. constellatus expressing Lancefield antigen group G. A neighbour and two of his children fell ill the following week with renal involvement. Throat swabs from both these children were positive for S. constellatus. His third child had erythema multiforme and S. constellatus in the throat while a fourth child had beta-hemolytic streptococci group A; Streptococcus pyogenes. Kidney biopsies on the index patient and his neighbour showed an acute diffuse prolipherative glomerulonephritis compatible with acute post-streptococcal nephritis and microbiological analysis of renal tissue revealed in both cases S. pyogenes and S. constellatus. The families had had much contact and had consumed unpasteurized milk from our index patient's farm. In four of seven persons in two additional neighbouring families S. constellatus was found in throat swabs during the same month while two persons carried Streptococcus anginosus expressing the Lancefield C antigen. In conclusion spread of S. constellatus coincided with the occurrence of four cases of acute glomerulonephritis. The two biopsied patients had both S. pyogenes and S. constellatus present in renal tissue. The epidemic either suggested that the outbreak of glomerulonephritis was due to S. pyogenes but coincided with the transmission and colonization of S. constellatus or that the S. constellatus strains were highly pathogenic or nephritogenic and that this organism can be transmitted in such cases. PMID:16454159

  3. Streptococcus constellatus Causing Septic Thrombophlebitis of the Right Ovarian Vein with Extension into the Inferior Vena Cava.

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    Haidar, Abdallah; Haddad, Amy; Naqvi, Amir; Onyesoh, Ngozi U; Malik, Rushdah; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Streptococcus constellatus collectively with Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius constitute the Streptococcus anginosus (formerly Streptococcus milleri) group. Though they are commonly associated with abscesses, bacteremia with subsequent septic thrombophlebitis is extremely rare, and resulting mortality is infrequent. Case Presentation. We report a case of a previously healthy 60-year-old African American female who presented with Streptococcus constellatus bacteremia associated with septic thrombophlebitis to the right ovarian vein extending into the inferior vena cava. She was urgently treated with antibiotics and anticoagulation. Conclusion. Septic thrombophlebitis has a clinical presentation that is often misleading. Therefore, a high clinical index of suspicion and the use of appropriate imaging modalities (computed tomography) are essential in recognizing and confirming this diagnosis. Prompt treatment is warranted. Surgical thrombectomies have been successfully replaced by a combination of antibiotics and anticoagulation therapy. PMID:26171262

  4. Resistance of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms to antimicrobial agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E

    1996-01-01

    Bacteria living in biofilms as dental plaque on tooth surfaces are generally more resistant to antimicrobial agents than bacteria in batch culture normally used for in vitro susceptibility testing. In order to compare the resistance of free-living and surface-grown oral bacteria, the MIC of...... Streptococcus sanguis 804 and ATCC 10556 to amoxicillin, doxycycline and chlorhexidine was determined by a broth dilution method. Subsequently, S. sanguis biofilms established in an in vitro flow model were perfused with the antimicrobial agents for 48 h at concentrations equal to and up to 500 times the MIC...

  5. In vitro susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and six other antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, H.; J Tenovuo; Huovinen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and to six commonly used, systemic antibacterial agents (amoxicillin, cefuroxime, penicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracycline, and erythromycin) was studied for 424 clinical isolates from 116 children and students. The MIC of chlorhexidine for all isolates was < or = 1 micrograms/ml. No resistance to the other antimicrobial agents was detected. Although widely exposed to various antimicrobial agents, S. mutans has remaine...

  6. Empiema pleural por Streptococcus grupo anginosus en un preescolar y revisin de la literatura: Case report and review Streptococcus anginosus pleural emphyema in a child

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    Paola Pidal M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso clnico de un preescolar con antecedente de malformacin pulmonar que 43 das tras una neumonectoma izquierda, ingres al Hospital Padre Hurtado con fiebre de una semana de evolucin. En una TAC pulmonar se demostr una gran coleccin intrapleural izquierda de la que se aisl Streptococcus grupo anginosus y Prevotella spp. Se efectu tratamiento antimicrobiano con penicilina ms clindamicina. Existe gran confusin en la terminologa y clasificacin de Streptococcus grupo anginosus. En la actualidad no existe duda que es un grupo que posee tres especies, S. anginosus, S. constellatus y S. intermedius. Son parte de la flora normal de orofaringe, nasofaringe, tracto gastrointestinal y vagina. Este grupo ha sido reconocido como causa de infecciones supurativas en nios y adultos. La mayora de las cepas se describen como susceptibles a penicilina; sin embargo, existen reportes que sugieren la emergencia de resistencia. Se discuten las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnstico e informe microbiolgicosLeft pneumonectomy in a child with congenital pulmonary malformation was performed two months prior to admission. Within one week he had high fever. Chest CT scan showed massive left pleural effusion. Both Streptococcus anginosus group and Prevotella spp. grew from the fluid obtained by pleural punction. Antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated with clindamycin and penicillin. Streptococus anginosus group is quite confusing in terms of classification and taxonomy. Now it is well recognized that three species belong to this genera: S. anginosus S. constellatus and S. intermedius. They all are considered normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract and vagina but also they have been identified as agents of suppurative infections in children and adults. Many reports show adequate response to penicillin, however there is some emerging resistance in strains isolated in other studies. In this article we also suggest some diagnostic and microbiologic recommendations

  7. Osseointegrated implants placed at supracrestal level may harbour higher counts of A. gerencseriae and S. constellatus – a randomized, controlled pilot study

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    de Moraes Rego, Mariana Ribeiro; Torres, Marcelo Ferreira; Santiago, Luiz Carlos; Lira-Junior, Ronaldo; Lourenço, Eduardo José Veras; de Moraes Telles, Daniel; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed at evaluating the bacterial colonization in dental implants inserted in the crestal or supracrestal position and correlated it to radiographic bone measurements. Methods Thirty-five implants with regular platform in nine patients (mean age 62.4±11.2 years) were inserted either at the bone crest level (control group) or at a suprecrestal level (test group). Radiographic examination was performed at baseline (implant installation) and after 6 months. Clinical and microbiological data were collected after 6 months. Digital radiography was used to assess bone remodeling (marginal bone loss and optical alveolar density). Bacterial profile was analyzed by checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization, including a panel of 40 bacterial species. Results After 6 months, there were significantly higher counts of Actinomyces gerencseriae (p=0.009) and Streptococcus constellatus (p=0.05) in the test group. No significant differences between test and control groups were observed for marginal bone loss (p=0.725) and optical alveolar density (p=0.975). Probing depth was similar in both groups. Conclusion Significantly higher counts of A. gerencseriae and S. constellatus were found in implants placed at the supracrestal level compared to the ones placed at the bone level. No relation was found between the installation level of dental implants and peri-implant bone remodeling. PMID:26499108

  8. Osseointegrated implants placed at supracrestal level may harbour higher counts of A. gerencseriae and S. constellatus a randomized, controlled pilot study

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    Mariana Ribeiro de Moraes Rego

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed at evaluating the bacterial colonization in dental implants inserted in the crestal or supracrestal position and correlated it to radiographic bone measurements. Methods: Thirty-five implants with regular platform in nine patients (mean age 62.411.2 years were inserted either at the bone crest level (control group or at a suprecrestal level (test group. Radiographic examination was performed at baseline (implant installation and after 6 months. Clinical and microbiological data were collected after 6 months. Digital radiography was used to assess bone remodeling (marginal bone loss and optical alveolar density. Bacterial profile was analyzed by checkerboard DNADNA hybridization, including a panel of 40 bacterial species. Results: After 6 months, there were significantly higher counts of Actinomyces gerencseriae (p=0.009 and Streptococcus constellatus (p=0.05 in the test group. No significant differences between test and control groups were observed for marginal bone loss (p=0.725 and optical alveolar density (p=0.975. Probing depth was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Significantly higher counts of A. gerencseriae and S. constellatus were found in implants placed at the supracrestal level compared to the ones placed at the bone level. No relation was found between the installation level of dental implants and peri-implant bone remodeling.

  9. Use of Penicillin MICs To Predict In Vitro Activity of Other ?-Lactam Antimicrobial Agents against Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Brueggemann, A B; PFALLER, M.A.; Doern, G. V.

    2001-01-01

    Linear regression analysis was used to compare penicillin MICs determined with 3,129 recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to MICs obtained with nine other beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. A strong correlation between penicillin MICs and those obtained with other beta-lactams was demonstrated. It may be possible to test penicillin and use MICs obtained with penicillin to predict MICs of other beta-lactam antimicrobials for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  10. Molecular pathogenicity of Streptococcus anginosus.

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    Asam, D; Spellerberg, B

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus anginosus and the closely related species Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius, are primarily commensals of the mucosa. The true pathogenic potential of this group has been under-recognized for a long time because of difficulties in correct species identification as well as the commensal nature of these species. In recent years, streptococci of the S. anginosus group have been increasingly found as relevant microbial pathogens in abscesses and blood cultures and they play a pathogenic role in cystic fibrosis. Several international studies have shown a surprisingly high frequency of infections caused by the S. anginosus group. Recent studies and a genome-wide comparative analysis suggested the presence of multiple putative virulence factors that are well-known from other streptococcal species. However, very little is known about the molecular basis of pathogenicity in these bacteria. This review summarizes our current knowledge of pathogenicity factors and their regulation in S. anginosus. PMID:24848553

  11. Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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    Marcos Noronha Frey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade, e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5, e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5 and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

  12. Comparative in vitro activity of faropenem and 11 other antimicrobial agents against 250 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from France.

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    Decousser, J W; Pina, P; Picot, F; Allouch, P Y

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the in vitro activity of faropenem, a new member of the penem class intended for oral administration, compared with 11 other antimicrobial agents against a large number of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from adults and children with bloodstream infections in France. The minimum inhibitory concentration of faropenem against 90% of the pediatric strains tested was generally one to two dilutions lower than the most potent beta-lactam agents (i.e., 0.5 micro g/ml for faropenem vs. 1 for amoxicillin, 1 for cefotaxime and 0.5 micro g/ml for ceftriaxone). Against the adult strains, only moxifloxacin had a MIC(90) value similar to faropenem (i.e., 0.25 micro g/ml for both agents). Faropenem seems to be a promising antimicrobial agent for the treatment of adult and pediatric Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. PMID:12942341

  13. Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Noronha Frey; Ana Elisa Empinotti Ioppi; Renan Rangel Bonamigo; Guilherme Pinheiro Prado

    2011-01-01

    O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade), e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5), e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como cor...

  14. Mode of action of a lysostaphin-like bacteriolytic agent produced by Streptococcus zooepidemicus 4881.

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds, R S; Pearson, L.; Kennedy, R. C.; Tagg, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Electron microscopy of zoocin A-treated sensitive streptococcus cells revealed cytoplasmic disruption and ultimately complete rupture of the cell wall. Culture viability and optical density were shown to decrease rapidly and simultaneously in Streptococcus pyogenes FF22 but less quickly in the relatively more resistant Streptococcus mutans 10449. Zoocin A was shown to cleave hexaglycine in a colorimetric cell-free microtiter assay system, and it is concluded that the killing action of zoocin ...

  15. Reproduction, distribution and abundance of Bothus constellatus (Pisces: Bothidae, in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico

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    M. Tapia-García

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3 593 individuals of Bothus constellatus was captured during five oceanographic cruises carried out in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Its distribution, abundance, and reproduction patterns were stated by means of the analysis of the population parameters (i.e. density, biomass, weight and size average, visceral and gonadosomatic index, and maturity stages. B. constellatus is a typical demersal marine species, because it does not occur in estuaries, but occurs near to them on the continental shelf. It is distributed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec in depths lesser than 60 m, with high abundance around the 40 m isobath, and in front of Mar Muerto Lagoon. During January and May the biomass and density were high. The size at first maturity of females is 101 mm total length, and maturation occurs first in zones influenced by estuarine processes. Reproduction and recruitment were detected in all the collections.

  16. Halistanol sulfate A and rodriguesines A and B are antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans

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    Bruna de A. Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation we report the antibacterial activity of halistanol sulfate A isolated from the sponge Petromica ciocalyptoides, as well as of rodriguesines A and B isolated from the ascidian Didemnum sp., against the caries etiologic agent Streptococcus mutans. The transcription levels of S. mutans virulence genes gtfB, gtfC and gbpB, as well as of housekeeping genes groEL and 16S, were evaluated by sqRT-PCR analysis of S. mutans planktonic cells. There were no alterations in the expression levels of groEL and 16S after antimicrobial treatment with halistanol sulfate A and with rodriguesines A and B, but the expression of the genes gtfB, gtfC and gbpB was down-regulated. Halistanol sulfate A displayed the most potent antimicrobial effect against S. mutans, with inhibition of biofilm formation and reduction of biofilm-associated gene expression in planktonic cells. Halistanol sulfate A also inhibited the initial oral bacteria colonizers, such as Streptococcus sanguinis, but at much higher concentrations. The results obtained indicate that halistanol sulfate A may be considered a potential scaffold for drug development in Streptococcus mutans antibiofilm therapy, the main etiologic agent of human dental caries.

  17. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Secreted Glycosidase with Multiple Glycosidase Activities in Streptococcus intermedius

    OpenAIRE

    Imaki, Hidenori; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Taue, Chiharu; Masuda, Sachiko; Takao, Ayuko; Maeda, Nobuko; Tabata, Atsushi; Whiley, Robert A.; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a known human pathogen and belongs to the anginosus group (S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus) of streptococci (AGS). We found a large open reading frame (6,708 bp) in the lac operon, and bioinformatic analysis suggested that this gene encodes a novel glycosidase that can exhibit ?-d-galactosidase and N-acetyl-?-d-hexosaminidase activities. We, therefore, named this protein multisubstrate glycosidase A (MsgA). To test whether MsgA has these glycos...

  18. Streptococcus sanguinis Isolate Displaying a Phenotype with Cross-Resistance to Several rRNA-Targeting Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Rodrigo E.; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M.; Kim, Jihye; Myers, Debra S.; Ross, James E.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a clinical case of a 71-year-old male with a history of ischemic cardiomyopathy after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and a rare linezolid-resistant Streptococcus sanguinis strain (MIC, 32 μg/ml). The patient received courses of several antimicrobial agents, including linezolid for 79 days. The S. sanguinis strain had mutations in the 23S rRNA (T2211C, T2406C, G2576T, C2610T) and an amino...

  19. Mutagenesis in Streptococcus lactis exposed to UV irradiation and alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal and mutagenic effects of various mutagens on three strains of Streptococcus lactis were investigated. Lethality studies demonstrated that S.lactis was relatively sensitive to UV irradiation, methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), and, to a lesser extent, to ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). A spontaneous derivative Lac-, which has lost a 37-Md plasmid, was slightly more resistant and much less mutable than the wild-type after UV irradiation. Although the three strains were strongly mutated by EMS for the genetic marker assayed (Rifsup(r)), an increase in the mutation frequency was also observed after MMS and MNNG treatments. (author)

  20. Influences of naturally occurring agents in combination with fluoride on gene expression and structural organization of Streptococcus mutans in biofilms

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    Xiao Jin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of specific bioactive flavonoids and terpenoids with fluoride can modulate the development of cariogenic biofilms by simultaneously affecting the synthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS and acid production by Streptococcus mutans, which enhanced the cariostatic effectiveness of fluoride in vivo. In the present study, we further investigated whether the biological actions of combinations of myricetin (flavonoid, tt-farnesol (terpenoid and fluoride can influence the expression of specific genes of S. mutans within biofilms and their structural organization using real-time PCR and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Results Twice-daily treatment (one-minute exposure during biofilm formation affected the gene expression by S. mutans both at early (49-h and later (97-h stages of biofilm development. Biofilms treated with combination of agents displayed lower mRNA levels for gtfB and gtfD (associated with exopolysaccharides synthesis and aguD (associated with S. mutans acid tolerance than those treated with vehicle-control (p S. mutans biofilms by reducing the biovolume (biomass and proportions of both EPS and bacterial cells across the biofilm depth, especially in the middle and outer layers (vs. vehicle-control, p p Conclusion The data show that the combination of naturally-occurring agents with fluoride effectively disrupted the expression of specific virulence genes, structural organization and accumulation of S. mutans biofilms, which may explain the enhanced cariostatic effect of our chemotherapeutic approach.

  1. ?acteriology of pleural infection Streptococcus milleri group in the limelight

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    Richard W. Light

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. Bacterial infection of the pleura is an old disease that continues to have a considerable mortality, of >15%. It is more common in males, and in the presence of diabetes mellitus, malignancy and alcoholism. The bacteriology of pleural infection has been changing during the past decades. Although pleural fluid culture is the gold standard for the identification of microorganisms in the pleural fluid, molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR have a notably higher sensitivity (75% versus 60%. Community-acquired pleural infection (CAPI and hospital-acquired pleural infection (HAPI have substantial differences in both their bacteriology and mortality, while the bacteriology of both differs markedly from that of pneumonia. The Streptococcus milleri group is the predominant isolate in CAPI, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae. In HAPI the most common isolates are Staphylococcus aureus, usually methicillin-resistant (MRSA, and Enterococcus spp. Given the higher incidence of CAPI compared to HAPI, Streptococcus milleri accounts for the greatest number of pleural infections. The Streptococcus milleri group consists of Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius. The unique characteristics of these bacteria favour the production of putrifying and necrotizing infections. The most common thoracic infection due to these organisms is empyema. Drainage of the infected pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics are essential components of the management of pleural infection. Knowledge of the pleural infection bacteriology is a useful adjunct in the selection of the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Pneumon 2009; 22(1:4664.

  2. Action of selected agents on the accumulation of /sup 18/F by Streptococcus mutans

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    Yotis, W.W.; Zeb, M.; Brennan, P.C.; Kirchner, F.R.; Glendenin, L.E.; Wu-Yuan, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    The action of certain substances known to induce cellular alterations, or encountered in the oral cavity, on the accumulation of /sup 18/F by Streptococcus mutans GS-5 has been investigated. A 62-67% inhibition in the number of /sup 18/F atoms bound per mg dry weight of cells could be induced by a 15 min pretreatment with 2.7 x 10/sup -4/ M cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide, 1 x 10/sup -1/ M acetic anhydride, or 7 x 10/sup -2/ M HCl. Plate counts indicated that alteration of the cellular composition rather than viability was responsible for this diminution in /sup 18/F accumulation. Prior exposure for 15 min of this organism to 1 M HCHO or 0.1 M NaOH did not alter /sup 18/F accumulation. Of the common salts encountered in the oral cavity, CaCl/sub 2/ enhanced /sup 18/F binding. Pretreatment of the assay cells for 15-160 min with 0.1 mg/ml of trypsin, pronase, protease, ..cap alpha..-glucosidase, dextranase, or lactoferrin had no significant effect on the accumulation of /sup 18/. However, pre-exposure of cells for 60 min to 1-10 mg/ml of either amylase or lipase induced a 40-67% inhibition in the binding of /sup 18/F, while lysozyme enhanced the binding of /sup 18/F by the cells. It would appear then that the binding of /sup 18/F by S. mutans may be altered by certain substances encountered in the oral cavity. 17 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  3. Evaluation of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration of nano-silver base inorganic anti-microbial agent (Novaron® ) against streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Goda Holla; Ramakrishna Yeluri; Autar Krishen Munshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We attempted to find the possibility of determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration needed for nano-silver base inorganic anti-microbial agent (Novaron® AG 300, AG 1100) against Streptococcus mutans in vitro using broth dilution assay. Materials and Methods: An ampoule of freeze-dried S. mutans NCTC reference strain was revived, and the colony-forming units (CFU) were calculated. The MIC and MBC was determined by broth dilution assay usin...

  4. Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes Meningite bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente aos antimicrobianos e seus sorotipos

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Maciel de Oliveira Rossoni; Libera Maria Dalla Costa; Denize Bonato Berto; Sônia Santos Farah; Marilene Gelain; Maria Cristina de Cunto Brandileone; Vitor Hugo Mariano Ramos; Sergio Monteiro de Almeida

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial empirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Central Laboratory from Apri...

  5. Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Aura Lucía Leal; Castañeda Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medell...

  6. Pneumonia and empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius that shows the diagnostic importance of evaluating the microbiota in the lower respiratory tract.

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    Noguchi, Shingo; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yamasaki, Kei; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Naito, Keisuke; Akata, Kentarou; Nagata, Shuya; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial species in the Streptococcus anginosus group (S. constellatus, S. anginosus, S. intermedius) are important causative pathogens of bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary abscesses and empyema. However, the bacteria in this group are primarily oral resident bacteria and unable to grow significantly on ordinary aerobic culture media. We experienced a case of pneumonia and empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius detected using a 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and pleural effusion, but not sputum. Even when applying the molecular method, sputum samples are occasionally unsuitable for identifying the causative pathogens of lower respiratory tract infections. PMID:24390528

  7. [Sensitivity surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates for several antibacterial agents in Gifu and Aichi prefectures (2011-2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatsu, Tori; Mizunaga, Shingo; Fukuda, Yoshiko; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Hashido, Hikonori; Mitsuyama, Junichi; Hatano, Masakazu; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Asano, Yuko; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Sawamura, Haruki; Matsukawa, Yoko; Ohta, Hirotoshi; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Matsubara, Shigenori; Shibata, Naohiro

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the susceptibility to antibacterial agents, genotype of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes and macrolide resistant genes, and the serotypes against 270 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from medical facilities in Gifu and Aichi prefectures between October 2011 and April 2012. These results were compared with those against S. pneumoniae isolated in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011. The number of gPSSP with 3 normal PBP genes, gPISP with 1 or 2 normal PBP genes and gPRSP with 3 abnormal genes isolated in 2011-2012 was 15 (5.6%), 162 (60.0%) and 93 (34.4%) strains, respectively. Compared with those isolated in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011, the numbers of gPRSP were decreasing. On the other hand, the isolates with no macrolide-resistant gene, only mefA, only ermB, and both mefA and ermB were 16 (5.9%), 75 (27.8%), 153 (56.7%) and 26 (9.6%). Compared with those isolated in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011, the numbers of isolates with ermB, which was usually associated with high-level resistance, were increasing. The prevalent pneumococcal serotypes in children were type 3 (14.4%), following by type 15 and 19F (9.3%). The coverages of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) were calculated as 22.9% and 49.2%, respectively. The coverages of PCV7 and PCV13 in gPRSP isolated from children were 47.7% (21/44 strains) and 72.7% (32/44 strains). The MIC90 of each antibacterial agent was as follows; 0.125pg/mL for imipenem, panipenem and garenoxacin, 0.25 ?g/mL for meropenem and doripenem, 0.5 ?g/mL for cefditoren, moxifloxacin and tosufloxacin, 1 ?g/mL for amoxicillin, clavulanic acid/amoxicillin, cefteram, cefcapene and ceftriaxone, 2 ?g/mL for benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, sulbactam/ampicillin, piperacillin, tazobactam/piperacillin and levofloxacin, 4 ?g/mL for cefdinir, flomoxef and pazufloxacin, 16 ?g/mL for minocycline, > 64 ?g/mL for clarithromycin and azithromycin, and these MIC90s were about the same as those in 2010-2011. PMID:26625536

  8. Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes Meningite bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente aos antimicrobianos e seus sorotipos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maciel de Oliveira Rossoni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial empirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paran State Central Laboratory from April 2001 to august 2002 have been evaluated. One hundred S. pneumoniae have been isolated, of which 15% were resistant to penicillin, 1% to cephalosporin and 0% to vancomycin. The serotypes most found were 14 (19%, 3 and 23F (10% each. When only the resistant serotypes were analyzed, the most prevalent was the 14 with 44%. The risk factors found in relation to the S. pneumoniae resistance were: age under one year old (p=0.01 and previous use of antibiotic (p=0.046. The resistance rates found, which were moderate to penicillin, low to cephalosporin and neutral to vancomycin, suggest the isolated use of a 3rd generation cephalosporin as an initial empirical therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with a communitarian background.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as taxas de resistncia de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolados de pacientes com meningite, penicilina G, ceftriaxona e vancomicina; avaliar possveis fatores de risco para resistncia antimicrobiana; descrever os sorotipos encontrados e sugerir a teraputica emprica inicial para meningite. Foram isoladas 100 amostras de S. pneumoniae, encontrando-se 15% de resistncia penicilina, 1% cefalosporina e 0% vancomicina. Os sorotipos mais encontrados foram 14 (19%, 3 e 23F (10% cada. Analisando-se os resistentes, o sorotipo 14 (44% tambm foi o mais freqente. Os fatores de risco para resistncia de S. pneumoniae encontrados foram: idade menor que um ano (p=0,01 e o uso prvio de antibitico (p=0,046. As taxas de resistncia encontradas, moderada a penicilina, baixa para cefalosporina e nula para vancomicina, sugerem como teraputica emprica inicial para tratamento da meningite bacteriana aguda de origem comunitria, a cefalosporina de terceira gerao isoladamente.

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as etiological agents of conjunctivitis outbreaks in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I. C. MEDEIROS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of conjunctivitis outbreaks occurring from September 1994 to September 1996 in the region of Ribeirão Preto, conjunctival exudates of 92 patients were cultivated in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory I, Ribeirão Preto. Most cases occurred in the age range 2-7 years. The etiological agents which were most frequently isolated from the analyzed cases were: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in 40.22% and 21.74%, respectively. 51.35% of the S. pneumoniae isolated strains were not typable. The oxacillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains were submitted to the minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC and three of them presented intermediate resistance, whereas only one was highly resistant to penicillin.No estudo de surtos de conjuntivite ocorridos no período de setembro de 1994 a setembro de 1996, na região de Ribeirão Preto, foram semeadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratório I, Ribeirão Preto, exsudatos conjuntivais de 92 pacientes, sendo que a maioria dos casos estava na faixa etária de 2-7 anos. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente isolados dos casos analisados foram: Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae em 40,22% e 21,74% respectivamente. 51,35% das cepas de S. pneumoniae isoladas foram não tipáveis. As cepas de S. pneumoniae oxacilina resistente foram submetidas ao teste de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, sendo que três apresentaram resistência intermediária e apenas uma foi altamente resistente à penicilina.

  10. Epidural abscess caused by Streptococcus milleri in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bearman Gonzalo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in the Streptococcus milleri group (S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius are associated with bacteremia and abscess formation. While most reports of Streptococcus milleri group (SMG infection occur in patients with underlying medical conditions, SMG infections during pregnancy have been documented. However, SMG infections in pregnant women are associated with either neonatal or maternal puerperal sepsis. Albeit rare, S. milleri spinal-epidural abscess in pregnancy has been reported, always as a complication of spinal-epidural anesthesia. We report a case of spinal-epidural abscess caused by SMG in a young, pregnant woman without an antecedent history of spinal epidural anesthesia and without any underlying risk factors for invasive streptococcal disease. Case presentation A 25 year old pregnant woman developed neurological symptoms consistent with spinal cord compression at 20 weeks gestation. She underwent emergency laminectomy for decompression and was treated with ceftriaxone 2 gm IV daily for 28 days. She was ambulatory at the time of discharge from the inpatient rehabilitation unit with residual lower extremity weakness. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a Streptococcus milleri epidural abscess in a healthy, pregnant woman with no history of epidural anesthesia or invasive procedures. This report adds to the body of literature on SMG invasive infections. Treatment of SMG spinal-epidural abscess with neurologic manifestations should include prompt and aggressive surgical decompression coupled with targeted anti-infective therapy.

  11. Real-time monitoring of the adherence of Streptococcus anginosus group bacteria to extracellular matrix decorin and biglycan proteoglycans in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrygan-Bakri, Janine; Wilson, Melanie J; Williams, David W; Lewis, Michael A O; Waddington, Rachel J

    2012-07-01

    Members of the Streptococcus anginosus group (SAGs) are significant pathogens. However, their pathogenic mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study investigates the adherence of SAGs to the matrix proteoglycans decorin and biglycan of soft gingival and alveolar bone. Recombinant chondroitin 4-sulphate(C4S)-conjugated decorin and biglycan were synthesised using mammalian expression systems. C4S-conjugated decorin/biglycan and dermatan sulphate (DS) decorin/biglycan were isolated from ovine alveolar bone and gingival connective tissue, respectively. Using surface plasmon resonance, adherence of the SAGs S. anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius to immobilised proteoglycan was assessed as a function of real-time biofilm formation. All isolates adhered to gingival proteoglycan, 59% percent of isolates adhered to alveolar proteoglycans, 70% to recombinant decorin and 76% to recombinant biglycan. Higher adherence was generally noted for S. constellatus and S. intermedius isolates. No differences in adherence were noted between commensal and pathogenic strains to decorin or biglycan. DS demonstrated greater adherence compared to C4S. Removal of the glycosaminoglycan chains with chondroitinase ABC resulted in no or minimal adherence for all isolates. These results suggest that SAGs bind to the extracellular matrix proteoglycans decorin and biglycan, with interaction mediated by the conjugated glycosaminoglycan chain. PMID:22835945

  12. Caracterizacin clnica y microbiolgica de las infecciones causadas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caro D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus grupo anginosus, y sus especies constellatus, anginosus e intermedius, causan infecciones supuradas. Su identificacin microbiolgica es compleja pues pueden ser beta-hemolticos y comparten antgenos de Lancefield con otros estreptococos. Si bien morfolgicamente son colonias pequeas y presentan un olor caractersticos, si slo se realiza test de ltex para aglutinacin del carbohidrato C pueden ser clasificados errneamente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar un algoritmo que utiliza 3 pruebas bioqumicas, conocer su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos y describir las caractersticas clnicas de infecciones producidas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus. Se estudiaron cepas de Streptococcus grupo C, G y F, determinando sus caractersticas morfolgicas de colonia, para identificar cepas de colonia pequea que se incluyeron en el algoritmo de bajo costo propuesto (b-glucuronidasa y el test Voges-Proskauer comparndose al mtodo API Rapid ID 32 Strept, establecido como estndar de oro. Se estudiaron 219 cepas, de las cuales 101 presentaron las caractersticas morfolgicas compatibles con grupo anginosus, identificndose S. constellatus en 58% (59/101, S. anginosus en 37% (37/101 y S. intermedius en 5% (5/101. Las cepas aisladas procedan principalmente de infecciones piognicas (61%, 62/101, en especial de foco abdominal. Se observ 98% de susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima y resistencia a eritromicina y clindamicina en 6,8 y 5%, respectivamente. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 30 aos (2-85, con distribucin similar por sexo y predominio de pacientes hospitalizados. Los resultados expuestos demuestra la efectividad del algoritmo de bajo costo para la deteccin de S. grupo anginosus. En nuestra experiencia este grupo bacteriano conserva su susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima, siendo necesario vigilar clindamicina y eritromicinaStreptococcus anginosus group and its species constellatus, anginosus and intermedius, produce suppurative infections. Its microbiological identification is complex because it can be beta-hemolytic and shares Lancefield antigens with other Streptococci. This group grows as small colonies and presents a characteristic smell, but if only latex test for carbohydrate C agglutination is used it can be erroneously classified. The aims of this publication were to evaluate an algorithm that includes three biochemical tests, and to describe in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics and clinical characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group. Streptoccoccal strains belonging to groups C, G and F were evaluated, determining its colony characteristics in order to select small colony strains that were included into the proposed low cost algorithm (beta-glucurosidase and Voges Proskauer tests comparing them with API Rapid ID 32 Strept method, considered the gold standard. Two hundred nineteen strains were studied, 101 had a morphological profile compatible with the anginosus group, identifying S. constellatus in 58% (59/101, S. anginosus in 37% (37/101 and S. intermedius in 5% (5/101. Strains were isolated mainly from pyogenic infections (61%, 62/101, specially from abdominal origin. High grade of penicillin and cefotaxime susceptibility (98% and low grade resistance to erithromycin and clindamycin (6,8 and 5% respectively were observed. Mean patient age was 30 years old (2-85, a similar sex distribution with predominance of inpatients. These results document the usefulness of the proposed low cost algorithm for detection of S. anginosus group. In our experience this bacterial group maintains good susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime, and we recommend a continous surveillance of clindamycin and erythromycin susceptibility

  13. Evaluation of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration of nano-silver base inorganic anti-microbial agent (Novaron® against streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goda Holla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We attempted to find the possibility of determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration needed for nano-silver base inorganic anti-microbial agent (Novaron® AG 300, AG 1100 against Streptococcus mutans in vitro using broth dilution assay. Materials and Methods: An ampoule of freeze-dried S. mutans NCTC reference strain was revived, and the colony-forming units (CFU were calculated. The MIC and MBC was determined by broth dilution assay using different concentrations of Novaron® AG 300 and Novaron® AG 1100 against 1 x 10 5 CFU/ml of S. mutans. Results: The MIC and MBC of Novaron® AG 300 and Novaron® AG 1100 against S. mutans were found to be 40 μg/ml. Conclusions: Novaron® has anti-bacterial effect against S. mutans. Further studies are needed to explore the applicability of these silver-supported anti- microbial agents in clinical dentistry.

  14. An unusual case of Streptococcus anginosus group pyomyositis diagnosed using direct 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkty, Andrew; Embil, John M; Nichol, Kim; Karlowsky, James

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Streptococcus anginosus group (Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus) are capable of causing serious pyogenic infections, with a tendency for abscess formation. The present article reports a case of S anginosus group pyomyositis in a 47-year-old man. The pathogen was recovered from one of two blood cultures obtained from the patient, but speciation was initially not performed because the organism was considered to be a contaminant (viridans streptococci group). The diagnosis was ultimately confirmed using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing of purulent fluid obtained from a muscle abscess aspirate. The present case serves to emphasize that finding even a single positive blood culture of an organism belonging to the S anginosus group should prompt careful evaluation of the patient for a pyogenic focus of infection. It also highlights the potential utility of 16S ribosomal DNA amplification and sequencing in direct pathogen detection from aspirated fluid in cases of pyomyositis in which antimicrobial therapy was initiated before specimen collection. PMID:24634686

  15. Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René; Gaïni, Shahin; Kjaeldgaard, Poul; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Meningitis and spondylodiscitis caused by Streptococcus suis is a rare disease which is contracted by occupational exposure to pigs. We report a 54-y-old pig-farm worker with S. suis meningitis and septicaemia complicated with thoracal and lumbar spine spondylodiscitis. The S. suis strain involved...

  16. Resistance to Mercury and Antimicrobial Agents in Streptococcus mutans Isolates from Human Subjects in Relation to Exposure to Dental Amalgam Fillings

    OpenAIRE

    Leistevuo, Jorma; Jrvinen, Helin; sterblad, Monica; Leistevuo, Tiina; Huovinen, Pentti; Tenovuo, Jorma

    2000-01-01

    Resistance to cefuroxime, penicillin, tetracycline, and mercury is reported for 839 Streptococcus mutans isolates from 209 human study subjects. The MICs of these drugs did not differ for isolates from one dental amalgam group and two nonamalgam subsets: a group with no known exposure to amalgam and a group whose members had their amalgam fillings removed.

  17. [Investigation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric outpatients nationwide with a respiratory tract infection at the first consultation (2002-2003)--proportion of resistant strains and sensitivity to oral antibacterial agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2005-11-01

    The propotions of resistant strains and sensitivity to oral antibacterial agents were determined for 468 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 557 strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric outpatients with a respiratory tract infection at the first consultation at 20 medical institutions nationwide in the predefined 4-week period during November 2002 and June 2003. PRSP of the S. pneumoniae strains, accounted for 27%, and BLNAR accounted for 35% of the H. influenzae strains. Against the S. pneumoniae strains, faropenem showed the best MIC90 value, 0.5 microg/mL, of the beta-lactam antibacterial agents, followed by cefditoren-pivoxil, and among the macrolide and ketolide antibacterial agents, telithromycin showed the best MIC90 value, 0.12 microg/mL. Against the H. influenzae strains, cefditoren-pivoxil showed the best MIC90 value, 0.25 microg/mL, among the beta-lactam antibacterial agents, and among the macrolide and ketolide antibacterial agents, azithromycin showed the best activity, followed by telithromycin. It seems necessary to take these results into consideration when choosing drugs for treatment. It will be necessary to survey the trends in resistant strains and the clinical efficacy of various oral antibacterial agents in the future. PMID:16366360

  18. Streptococcus troglodytidis sp. nov., isolated from a foot abscess of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Michael; Yan, Lifang; Zhu, Guan; Holifield, Michael; Todd, Donna; Zhang, Shuping

    2013-02-01

    A facultative anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive-staining, coccus-shaped bacterium was isolated from an abscess on the right foot of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The colonies were ?-haemolytic. Catalase and oxidase activities were negative. The Lancefield group B antigen was expressed. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterium was tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the bacterium shared 96.7?%, 96.4?%, 96.1?%, 95.8?% and 95.7?% sequence similarities with Streptococcus gordonii, S. cristatus, S. intermedius, S. anginosus and S. constellatus, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping genes encoding D-alanine?:?D-alanine ligase (ddl), the ?-subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (sodA) revealed that the bacterium represented a novel species closely related to, albeit different from, S. gordonii, S. cristatus and the anginosus streptococci. The name Streptococcus troglodytidis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M09-11185(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2337(T)?=?KCTC 33006(T)). PMID:22467158

  19. Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regianne Umeko Kamiya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virulence factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing, classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis.

  20. Bacterial meningitis by streptococcus agalactiae

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    Villarreal-Velásquez Tatiana Paola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: bacterial meningitis is an infectious disease considered a medicalemergency. The timely management has an important impact on the evolution of thedisease. Streptococcus agalactiae, a major causative agent of severe infections innewborns can colonize different tissues, including the central nervous system.Case report: Male patient 47 years old from rural areas, with work activity as amilker of cattle, referred to tertiary care, with disorientation, neck stiffness, and grandmal seizure. CSF study indicates neuroinfection. ICU care with steroids, antibiotics andmechanical ventilation. Cerebrospinal fluid culture reports growth of Streptococcus agalactiae. In coexistencewith the central nervous system involvement appeared otomastoidea infection.Conclusion: Bacterial meningitis can be caused by Streptococcus agalactiae,germ infrequently involved in this pathology. Work activities in non-tech agribusiness,had to be considered risk.RESUMEN:Introducción: la meningitis bacteriana (MB es una enfermedad infecciosa consideradauna emergencia médica. El manejo oportuno tiene importante impacto en la evoluciónde la entidad. El Streptococcus agalactiae, significativo agente causal de infeccionesseveras en recién nacidos, puede colonizar diferentes tejidos, entre ellos el sistemanervioso central.Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 47 años de edad, procedente de zona rural,con actividad laboral ordeñador de reses bovinas, remitido a tercer nivel de atención,con desorientación, rigidez de nuca y convulsión tónico-clónica. Estudio de líquidocefalorraquídeo indica neuroinfección. Manejo en UCI con esteroides, antibióticosy ventilación mecánica. Cultivo de líquido cefalorraquídeo, informa crecimiento deStreptococcus agalactiae. En coexistencia con el compromiso del sistema nerviosocentral se presentaba infección otomastoidea.Conclusión: la MB puede ser causada por el Streptococcus agalactiae, germeninfrecuentemente involucrado en este tipo de patología. Actividades laborales en laagroindustria no tecnificada, debiesen ser consideradas situaciones de riesgo.

  1. Identification of the 'Streptococcus anginosus group' by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization--time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Katherine; Beighton, David; Klein, John L

    2014-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) provides rapid, accurate and cost-effective identification of a range of bacteria and is rapidly changing the face of routine diagnostic microbiology. However, certain groups of bacteria, for example streptococci (in particular viridans or non-haemolytic streptococci), are less reliably identified by this method. We studied the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of the 'Streptococcus anginosus group' (SAG) to species level. In total, 116 stored bacteraemia isolates identified by conventional methods as belonging to the SAG were analysed by MALDI-TOF MS. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, supplemented with sialidase activity testing, was performed on all isolates to provide 'gold standard' identification against which to compare MALDI-TOF MS performance. Overall, 100?% of isolates were correctly identified to the genus level and 93.1?% to the species level by MALDI-TOF MS. However, only 77.6?% were correctly identified to the genus level and 59.5?% to the species level by a MALDI-TOF MS direct transfer method alone. Use of a rapid in situ extraction method significantly improved identification rates when compared with the direct transfer method (PStreptococcus intermedius isolates were reliably identified by MALDI-TOF MS to the species level, even after full extraction. MALDI-TOF MS reliably identifies S. anginosus and Streptococcus constellatus to the species level but does not reliably identify S. intermedius. PMID:24917618

  2. Streptococcus mutans y caries dental / Streptococcus mutans and dental caries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Carlos, Ojeda-Garcs; Eliana, Oviedo-Garca; Luis Andrs, Salas.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans es uno de los microorganismos cariognicos asociados a la caries dental. De acuerdo con la hiptesis de la placa ecolgica, la caries dental es la consecuencia de cambios en el balance natural de la microflora de la placa dental causados por la alteracin de las condiciones ambi [...] entales locales (homeostasis microbiana oral). El estudio de su participacin en la colonizacin de tejidos dentales, implantacin e interaccin con otros microrganismos es de mucha importancia para la comprensin de la dinmica de las biopelculas dentales. Por medio de tcnicas de biologa molecular, se ha avanzado en la identificacin de los diferentes tipos que habitan la cavidad oral, los productos que generan y que son crticos para su implantacin, las interacciones con otras especies y el desarrollo de nuevos procedimientos que ayuden su identificacin como uno de los agentes ms importantes en la caries dental. Esta revisin examina los ltimos avances en la biologa de Streptococcus mutans, su papel en la gnesis de la caries y las tcnicas de identificacin y estudio ms usadas en los ltimos aos. Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans is one of cariogenic microorganisms associated with tooth decay. According with the hypothesis of the ecological plaque, dental caries is the consequence of changes in the natural balance in the dental plaque microflora (oral microbial homeostasis). Its role in the colonization [...] of dental tissues, implantation and interaction with other microorganisms is of paramount importance for the understanding of the dynamics of dental biofilms. By means of molecular biology techniques, there have been advances in the identification of the different types that live in the oral cavity, the products they produce which are critical for its implantation, the interaction with other species and the development of new procedures that help its identification as one of the most important agents in dental caries. This review examines the latest advances in the biology of Streptococcus mutans, its role in the genesis of the caries and the identification and study techniques most used in recent years.

  3. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some women carry in their intestines and vagina. It is not ... for the rest of your life. Note: Strep throat is caused by a different bacterium. If you ...

  4. Recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus faecalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultraviolet radiation-sensitive derivative of Streptococcus faecalis strain JH2-2 was isolated and found to be deficient in recombination, using a plasmid-plasmid recombination system. The strain was sensitive to chemical agents which interact with deoxyribonucleic acid and also underwent deoxyribonucleic acid degradation after ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, the mutant has properties similar to those of recA strains of Escherichia coli

  5. Recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus faecalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yagi, Y; Clewell, D B

    1980-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation-sensitive derivative of Streptococcus faecalis strain JH2-2 was isolated and found to be deficient in recombination, using a plasmid-plasmid recombination system. The strain was sensitive to chemical agents which interact with deoxyribonucleic acid and also underwent deoxyribonucleic acid degradation after ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, the mutant has properties similar to those of recA strains of Escherichia coli.

  6. Streptococcus pneumoniae, mecanismos de resistencia antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Noda Albelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus pneumoniae, principal agente causal de la neumona comunitaria, lder en la etiologa de la otitis media y la meningitis, en las ltimas 3 dcadas ha incrementado, de manera importante, su resistencia a los agentes teraputicos ms utilizados, como los betalactmicos, macrlidos, azlidos y fluroquinolonas. La versatilidad adaptativa del microorganismo le ha permitido crear mecanismos capaces de sobreponerse a cualquiera de estas agresiones teraputicas con un grado variable de eficacia. Se realiza una revisin de los mecanismos ms importantes implicados en la adquisicin de resistencia antimicrobiana por S. pneumoniae, y se precisan algunos de los factores de riesgo implicados en infeccin por S. pneumoniae resistente.

  7. Genomics, evolution, and molecular epidemiology of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Lacroix, Christophe; Stevens, Marc J A

    2015-07-01

    The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) is a group of human and animal derived streptococci that are commensals (rumen and gastrointestinal tract), opportunistic pathogens or food fermentation associates. The classification of SBSEC has undergone massive changes and currently comprises 7 (sub)species grouped into four branches based on sequences identities: the Streptococcus gallolyticus, the Streptococcus equinus, the Streptococcus infantarius and the Streptococcus alactolyticus branch. In animals, SBSEC are causative agents for ruminal acidosis, potentially laminitis and infective endocarditis (IE). In humans, a strong association was established between bacteraemia, IE and colorectal cancer. Especially the SBSEC-species S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an emerging pathogen for IE and prosthetic joint infections. S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and the S. infantarius branch are further associated with biliary and urinary tract infections. Knowledge on pathogenic mechanisms is so far limited to colonization factors such as pili and biofilm formation. Certain strain variants of S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius are associated with traditional dairy and plant-based food fermentations and display traits suggesting safety. However, due to their close relationship to virulent strains, their use in food fermentation has to be critically assessed. Additionally, implementing accurate and up-to-date taxonomy is critical to enable appropriate treatment of patients and risk assessment of species and strains via recently developed multilocus sequence typing schemes to enable comparative global epidemiology. Comparative genomics revealed that SBSEC strains harbour genomics islands (GI) that seem acquired from other streptococci by horizontal gene transfer. In case of virulent strains these GI frequently encode putative virulence factors, in strains from food fermentation the GI encode functions that are pivotal for strain performance during fermentation. Comparative genomics is a powerful tool to identify acquired pathogenic functions, but there is still an urgent need for more physiological and epidemiological data to understand SBSEC-specific traits. PMID:25233845

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae in Urinary Tracts of Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Burckhardt, Irene; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is not commonly considered an agent of urinary tract infections. We report 3 children with urinary tract abnormalities who had high numbers of S. pneumoniae in their urine (>104 CFU/mL) and varying clinical symptoms.

  9. Interactions between Oral Bacteria: Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Bacteriocin Production by Streptococcus gordonii

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bing-yan; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been recognized as an important etiological agent in human dental caries. Some strains of S. mutans also produce bacteriocins. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that bacteriocin production by S. mutans strains GS5 and BM71 was mediated by quorum sensing, which is dependent on a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system encoded by the com genes. We also demonstrated that interactions with some other oral streptococci interfered with S. mutans bacterio...

  10. Septicemia with Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuursted, Kurt; Littauer, Pia Jeanette; Greve, Thomas; Scholz, Christian F P

    patients, growth of an atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae (non-capsular, non-serotypeable, optochin susceptible under ambient atmosphere and bile-intermediately soluble) was recovered. All three patients had a history of a haematological disease (myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma) and an......Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was described in 2004 as a new human pathogen, acknowledged in a range of clinical infections typically associated to the respiratory tract. This report demonstrates that S. pseudopneumoniae has the potential to cause invasive infection. In blood cultures from three...... apparent origin of infection related to the liver or bile duct. All isolates were genome sequenced and subsequently identified as S. pseudopneumoniae by multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA). Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) based on the S. pneumoniae scheme revealed unknown sequence types and the...

  11. Streptococcus mutans Murein Hydrolase

    OpenAIRE

    Catt, Diana M.; Gregory, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Allelic replacement of the C terminus of a Streptococcus mutans surface protein affects murein hydrolase activity. The targeted open reading frame encodes a 67-kDa protein (SmaA) with an N-terminal signal sequence and cleavage site, three 46-amino-acid (aa) direct repeats, and two 88-aa direct repeats. The identical autolytic profile was obtained using a sortase mutant (SrtA−).

  12. Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Regianne Umeko Kamiya; Tiago Taiete; Reginaldo Bruno Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virulence factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental bi...

  13. Resultados de la aplicación del protocolo basado en screening para la búsqueda de Streptococcus agalactiae en el tercer trimestre del embarazo: Posible impacto sobre la sepsis neonatal precoz por este agente PERFORMANCE OF A Streptococcus agalactiae UNIVERSAL SCREENING PROTOCOL DURING THE THIRD THRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY: IMPLICATIONS IN REDUCING NEONATAL GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL SEPSIS

    OpenAIRE

    ANA M. GUZMÁN D.; FERNANDO ABARZÚA C.; CRISTIAN BELMAR J.; PATRICIA GARCÍA C.

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) es la principal causa de sepsis neonatal precoz (SNP). Recientemente el CDC ha planteado tratar sólo pacientes con factores de riesgo o detectar a las portadoras realizando cultivo vaginal-perianal en el 3º trimestre del embarazo (screening universal). En nuestro hospital hasta el año 1999 sólo se trataba a las pacientes con factores de riesgo, presentando en el bienio 1997/1998 una tasa de SNP por SGB de 1,84/1.000 nacidos vivos. Entre octubre 1999 y noviembre ...

  14. Inverse Association between Lancefield Group G Streptococcus Colonization and Sore Throat in Slum and Nonslum Settings in Brazil▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tartof, Sara Yee; Farrimond, Frances; de Matos, Juliana Arruda; Reis, Joice Neves; Ramos, Regina Terse Trindade; Andrade, Aurelio Nei; dos Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Riley, Lee Woodland

    2010-01-01

    Group G Streptococcus has been implicated as a causative agent of pharyngitis in outbreak situations, but its role in endemic disease remains elusive. We found an unexpected inverse association of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis colonization and sore throat in a study of 2,194 children of 3 to 15 years of age in Salvador, Brazil.

  15. [Streptococcus intermedius: a rare cause of brain abscess in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhadi, Z; Sadiki, H; Hafid, I; Najib, J

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group, also known as the Streptococcus milleri group. Although this is a commensal agent of the mouth and upper airways, it has been recognized as an important pathogen in the formation of abscesses. However, it has rarely been involved in the formation of brain abscess in children. We report 4 pediatric cases of brain abscess caused by S. intermedius. Three boys and 1 girl, all aged over 2 years, were admitted for a febrile meningeal syndrome and seizures, caused by a S. intermedius brain abscess. Diagnosis was obtained by brain imaging combined with culture of cerebrospinal fluid. The outcome was favorable after antibiotic therapy and abscess puncture. S. intermedius should be considered a potential pathogen involved in the development of brain abscess in children. PMID:23375710

  16. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Dennis; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    1981-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus mutans belonging to serotypes a, c, and f were transformed to streptomycin resistance by deoxyribonucleic acids derived from homologous and heterologous streptomycin-resistant strains of S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis strain Challis. Homologous transformation of S. mutans was less efficient than heterologous transformation by deoxyribonucleic acids from other strains of S. mutans.

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae, mecanismos de resistencia antimicrobiana Streptococcus pneumoniae, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Noda Albelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus pneumoniae, principal agente causal de la neumona comunitaria, lder en la etiologa de la otitis media y la meningitis, en las ltimas 3 dcadas ha incrementado, de manera importante, su resistencia a los agentes teraputicos ms utilizados, como los betalactmicos, macrlidos, azlidos y fluroquinolonas. La versatilidad adaptativa del microorganismo le ha permitido crear mecanismos capaces de sobreponerse a cualquiera de estas agresiones teraputicas con un grado variable de eficacia. Se realiza una revisin de los mecanismos ms importantes implicados en la adquisicin de resistencia antimicrobiana por S. pneumoniae, y se precisan algunos de los factores de riesgo implicados en infeccin por S. pneumoniae resistente.The Streptococcus pneumoniae, the main causal agent of community pneumonia, leader in the etiology of the otitis media and the meningitis, during the past three decades has increase in a significant way its resistance to the more used therapeutic agents including the beta-lactamase, macrolides, azalides and fluroquinolones. Adaptive versatility of the microorganism allows it to create mechanisms able to overcome to any of these therapeutical aggressions with a variable degree of effectiveness. Authors made a review of the more important mechanisms involved in acquisition of the antimicrobial resistance by S. pneumoniae and some of risk factors involved in the infection due to resistant S. pneumoniae are specified.

  18. Bacteremia with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J S; Jensen, T G; Kolmos, H J; Pedersen, Court; Lassen, A

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among adult patients with first-time Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB) from 2000 through 2008. Patients were identified in a population-based bacteremia database and followed up for mortality through the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS). The...... age of the patients was 65 years. The focal diagnosis of the SPB was pneumonia in 381 (79 %) patients, followed in frequency by meningitis in 33 (7 %) patients. Of the 481 patients, 390 (81 %) had community-acquired SPB. Of these, 23 (6 %) did not have sepsis, 132 (34 %) had sepsis, 224 (57 %) had...

  19. Sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B Group B Streptococcus neonatal sepsis: up-to-date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA CRUZ O

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus grupo B (SGB es uno de los principales agentes causales de sepsis neonatal precoz, siendo un importante factor de morbimortalidad neonatal y de costos en salud pública. Se han implementado múltiples estrategias para evitar la transmisión vertical desde la madre colonizada a su recién nacido, de modo de prevenir la infección de éste último. La más usada en la actualidad es la profilaxis antibiótica administrada a la madre en el momento del parto dependiendo del resultado de un cultivo perineal realizado entre las semanas 35 y 37 de gestación. Mediante esta estrategia se ha logrado disminuir de manera importante la incidencia de la sepsis neonatal por este agente, pero existen aprehensiones acerca de la posible generación de resistencia antibiótica o reacciones adversas a fármacos por parte de la madre. Por esto último, nuevas técnicas de prevención se encuentran en estudio, como las vacunas contra el SGB. En los recién nacidos la infección por Streptococcus agalactiae puede manifestarse de diversas maneras, siendo la sepsis y la meningitis las más frecuentes y mortales. El porcentaje de secuelas entre los sobrevivientes es elevado, por lo que ante la sospecha precoz de infección debe iniciarse tratamiento antibiótico a la brevedad.Group B Streptococcus is one of the leading bacterias causing early onset neonatal sepsis. It constitutes an important factor of neonatal morbidity and mortality and high costs in health. Many strategies have been formulated to avoid vertical transmission from the colonized mother to the newborn, in an attempt to prevent infection of the infant. The most used nowadays is antibiotic prophylaxis given to the mother during labor, depending on the results of recto-vaginal culture taken during 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. This strategy has importantly diminished the prevalence of early onset neonatal sepsis by this agent, although there is still concern about the potential generation of antibiotic resistance and drug-induced adverse reactions in the mother. New techniques for prevention are being developed, such as vaccines against Streptococcus. In the newborn, infection caused by Streptococcus has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, like sepsis and meningitis which are the most frequent and lethal. Neurological sequelae are common among the survivors, so an early suspicion of disease must lead to a prompt antibiotic treatment.

  20. Appendicitis in a Child due to Streptococcus Pneumoniae: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadage, Dnyaneshawari Purushottam; Kamble, Deepali Shivajirao; Nale, Swati Shivajirao; Bhore, Arvind Vamanrao

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bacterial species play a major role in appendicitis. Both aerobic and anaerobic gram positive and gram negative bacteria such as, Bacteroides fragilis, Streptococcus species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Citrobacter freundii cause appendicitis. Appendicitis is usually polymicrobial. The case assumes importance because of single aetiological agent i.e. unimicrobial and no predisposing factors are present to cause infection. We report a rare case of appendicitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae in child. This case emphasizes that Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause wide spectrum of disease like appendicitis. PMID:25737990

  1. Structure and activity of the Streptococcus pyogenes family GH1 6-phospho ?-glycosidase, Spy1599

    OpenAIRE

    Stepper, Judith; Dabin, Jerome; Eklof, Jens M.; Thongpoo, Preeyanuch; Kongsaeree, Prachumporn; Taylor, Edward J; Turkenburg, Johan P; Brumer, Harry; Davies, Gideon J.

    2013-01-01

    The group A streptococcus Streptococcus pyogenes is the causative agent of a wide spectrum of invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis, scarlet fever and toxic shock syndrome. In the context of its carbohydrate chemistry, it is interesting that S. pyogenes (in this work strain M1 GAS SF370) displays a spectrum of oligosaccharide-processing enzymes that are located in close proximity on the genome but that the in vivo function of these proteins remains unknown. These proteins inclu...

  2. Streptococcus mutans Out-competes Streptococcus gordonii in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzer, J M; A Thompson; K Sharma; Vickerman, M. M.; Haase, E.M.; Scannapieco, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans avidly colonize teeth. S. gordonii glucosyltransferase (GtfG) and amylase-binding proteins (AbpA/AbpB), and S. mutans glucosyltransferase (GtfB), affect their respective oral colonization abilities. We investigated their interrelationships and caries association in a rat model of human caries, examining the sequence of colonization and non- vs. high-sucrose diets, the latter being associated with aggressive decay in humans and rats. Virulence-ch...

  3. Transport and Metabolism of Citrate by Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Korithoski, Bryan; Krastel, Kirsten; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a normal inhabitant of dental plaque, is considered a primary etiological agent of dental caries. Two virulence determinants of S. mutans are its acidogenicity and aciduricity (the ability to produce acid and the ability to survive and grow at low pH, respectively). Citric acid is ubiquitous in nature; it is a component of fruit juices, bones, and teeth. In lactic acid bacteria citrate transport has been linked to increased survival in acidic conditions. We identified pu...

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae Is Desiccation Tolerant and Infectious upon Rehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Rebecca L.; Camilli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a frequent colonizer of the nasopharynx and one of the leading causative agents of otitis media, pneumonia, and meningitis. The current literature asserts that S.pneumoniae is transmitted person to person via respiratory droplets; however, environmental surfaces (fomites) have been linked to the spread of other respiratory pathogens. Desiccation tolerance has been to shown to be essential for long-term survival on dry surfaces. This study investigat...

  5. Comparison of transformation frequencies among selected Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Joloba, Moses L; Kidenya, Benson R.; Kateete, David P; Katabazi, Fred A.; Muwanguzi, Julian K.; Benon B. Asiimwe; Alarakol, Simon P.; Nakavuma, Jessica L; Bajaksouzian, Saralee; Windau, Anne; Michael R Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Although there are over 90 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, antimicrobial resistance is predominantly found in a limited number of serotypes/serogroups, namely 6, 9, 14, 19 and 23. There is no compelling mechanism to account for this restriction. We aimed to determine whether serotypes commonly associated with drug resistance have higher transformation frequencies than those that are susceptible to antimicrobial agents. An in vitro investigation of the genetic transformation frequency o...

  6. Extracellular Arginine Aminopeptidase from Streptococcus gordonii FSS2

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, J M; Nelson, D.; Kordula, T.; Mayo, J. A.; Travis, J

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii is a primary etiological agent in the development of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE), producing thrombus formation and tissue damage on the surfaces of heart valves. This is ironic, considering its normal role as a benign inhabitant of the oral microflora. However, strain FSS2 of S. gordonii has been found to produce several extracellular aminopeptidase- and fibrinogen-degrading activities during growth in a pH-controlled batch culture. In this report, we describe...

  7. Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE due to Streptococcus gordonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Battista

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocarditis is an inflammatory state of the endothelium that promotes thrombus formation and tissue damage on the surface of heart valves. Recent studies have reported endocarditis mortality rates ranging from 12% to 46% (2008. The Streptococcus gordonii is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity. It is a component of the microbial communities responsible of plaque formation, associated with dental caries and also regarded as the main causative agent in the development of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE.

  8. Excision-repair capacity in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although deficient in photoreactivation and some SOS-like functions, Streptococcus pneumoniae has the capacity to carry out excision repair when exposed to UV light. The repair ability and sensitivity to UV irradiation or treatment with chemical agents in the wild type and a UV-sensitive mutant strain indicate that UV-induced pyrimidine dimers might be repaired in pneumococcus by a system similar to the uvr-dependent system in Escherichia coli. A gene complementing the mutation conferring UV sensitivityj of the mutant strain has been cloned. The coding region directs the synthesis of a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 78 kDa. The relationship with uvr-like protein in R. coli is discussed. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs

  9. Penicillin-induced lysis of Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kral, T A; Callaway, M D

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 cells with concentrations of penicillin G within a relatively narrow range resulted in substantial lysis. This penicillin-induced lysis was dependent upon cell density and pH of the lysis medium. Other oral streptococci (Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus rattus, and Streptococcus cricetus) also demonstrated substantial levels of penicillin-induced lysis under appropriate conditions. Lesser degrees of lysis were seen in a related organism, Streptococc...

  10. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P; Williams, Matthew L; Nascimento, Marcelle M; Burne, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)-ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens. PMID:26826230

  11. Identification and characterization of a novel secreted glycosidase with multiple glycosidase activities in Streptococcus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaki, Hidenori; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Taue, Chiharu; Masuda, Sachiko; Takao, Ayuko; Maeda, Nobuko; Tabata, Atsushi; Whiley, Robert A; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a known human pathogen and belongs to the anginosus group (S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus) of streptococci (AGS). We found a large open reading frame (6,708 bp) in the lac operon, and bioinformatic analysis suggested that this gene encodes a novel glycosidase that can exhibit ?-d-galactosidase and N-acetyl-?-d-hexosaminidase activities. We, therefore, named this protein "multisubstrate glycosidase A" (MsgA). To test whether MsgA has these glycosidase activities, the msgA gene was disrupted in S. intermedius. The msgA-deficient mutant no longer showed cell- and supernatant-associated ?-d-galactosidase, ?-d-fucosidase, N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase, and N-acetyl-?-d-galactosaminidase activities, and all phenotypes were complemented in trans with a recombinant plasmid carrying msgA. Purified MsgA had all four of these glycosidase activities and exhibited the lowest Km with 4-methylumbelliferyl-linked N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminide and the highest kcat with 4-methylumbelliferyl-linked ?-d-galactopyranoside. In addition, the purified LacZ domain of MsgA had ?-d-galactosidase and ?-d-fucosidase activities, and the GH20 domain exhibited both N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase and N-acetyl-?-d-galactosaminidase activities. The ?-d-galactosidase and ?-d-fucosidase activities of MsgA are thermolabile, and the optimal temperature of the reaction was 40C, whereas almost all enzymatic activities disappeared at 49C. The optimal temperatures for the N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase and N-acetyl-?-d-galactosaminidase activities were 58 and 55C, respectively. The requirement of sialidase treatment to remove sialic acid residues of the glycan branch end for glycan degradation by MsgA on human ?1-antitrypsin indicates that MsgA has exoglycosidase activities. MsgA and sialidase might have an important function in the production and utilization of monosaccharides from oligosaccharides, such as glycans for survival in a normal habitat and for pathogenicity of S. intermedius. PMID:24858187

  12. Transformation of encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Yother, J; McDaniel, L S; Briles, D E

    1986-01-01

    We describe the high-efficiency transformation of several virulent, encapsulated isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transformation was effected by the induction of competence with competence factor and was apparently the result both of inducing noncompetent recipients and overcoming the inhibition imposed by the capsule.

  13. Polyarteritis nodosa associated with streptococcus.

    OpenAIRE

    David, J.; Ansell, B M; Woo, P

    1993-01-01

    Twelve children are described with an essentially benign vasculitic illness in association with streptococcal infection. They demonstrated characteristic clinical features of nodular cutaneous polyarteritis with fever. Laboratory findings showed an acute phase response associated with raised antistreptolysin and antihyaluronidase titres in all patients and a positive throat culture for beta haemolytic streptococcus in three patients. Ten required corticosteroids. Two patients had systemic inv...

  14. Recombination-deficient Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A UV-sensitive derivative was obtained from Streptococcus sanguis Challis. The organism could be transformed with a number of small streptococcal plasmids at frequencies equal to, or 1 logarithm below, the transformation frequencies for the parent organism. However, transformation with chromosomal DNA was greatly impaired in the UV-sensitive derivative

  15. The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial photodynamic therapy: a comparison of two different photosensitizers and light sources

    OpenAIRE

    Neda HAKIMIHA; KHOEI, Farzaneh; Abbas BAHADOR; FEKRAZAD, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the main etiological agent for dental caries. Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced as a new modality in bacterial decontamination. Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial PDT using two different photosensitizers and light sources. Material and Methods: Standard suspensions of S. mutans were exposed to laser light at 662 nm and Radachlorin® or LED 630 nm in combinati...

  16. Streptolysin O and NAD-Glycohydrolase Prevent Phagolysosome Acidification and Promote Group A Streptococcus Survival in Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Bastiat-Sempe, Benedicte; Love, John F.; Lomayesva, Natalie; Wessels, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is an ongoing threat to human health as the agent of streptococcal pharyngitis, skin and soft tissue infections, and life-threatening conditions such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. In animal models of infection, macrophages have been shown to contribute to host defense against GAS infection. However, as GAS can resist killing by macrophages in vitro and induce macrophage cell death, it has been sugg...

  17. Draft genome sequences of nine Streptococcus suis strains isolated in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen responsible for economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Additionally, it is a zoonotic agent that can cause severe infections in those in close contact with infected pigs and/or who consume uncooked or undercooked pork products. Here, we report nine draf...

  18. A Novel Use of a Bacteriophage Lysin, PlyC, as a Disinfectant against Streptococcus equi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of a purulent infection in horses known as equine strangles and is transmitted through shedding of live bacteria from nasal secretions and abscess drainage. There are no accepted cures for equine strangles with conventional antibiotics being only partially ...

  19. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

  20. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-3H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

  1. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 C, vmitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientacin tmporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2 y de lquido cefalorraqudeo fueron positivos. La identificacin preliminar se realiz utilizando las pruebas bioqumicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriologa Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrn". Se comenz el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostr sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucion favorablemente, pero se comprob leve hipoacusia. Reingres a los 4 meses con marcha atxica, anacusia en odo izquierdo e hipoacusia en odo derecho. Contina con seguimiento neurolgico y audiomtrico. Retrospectivamente se constat el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiolgico en meningitis y bacteriemias.A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles were positive. The isolate was preliminary identified by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrn". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patients retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

  2. Group A Streptococcus and its antibiotic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Passàli, D; LAURIELLO, M.; Passàli, GC; Passàli, FM; Bellussi, L

    2007-01-01

    Acute pharyngo-tonsillitis caused by beta-haemolytic group A Streptococcus is a common disease in childhood. Epithelial cells are the initial sites of the host invasion by group A Streptococcus. Although group A Streptococcus has been considered an extracellular pathogen, recent studies have demonstrated that strains of this bacterium can internalize into epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. As adherence to and internalization into host cells significantly contributes to the pathogenes...

  3. Group G Streptococcus Bacteremia in Recurrent Cellulitis

    OpenAIRE

    di Meo, Nicola; Stinco, Giuseppe; Gubertini, Nicoletta; Patriarca, Maria Martina; Trevisan, Giusto

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, group G Streptococcus has been reported with increasing frequency as the cause of a variety of human infections. Underlying host factors such as immunosuppression, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis may be predisposing conditions leading to infection. Toxic involvement and post-streptococcal sequalae, once believed to be exclusive to infections caused by group A Streptococcus, are now known to occur following acute group G Streptococcus and group C Strept...

  4. Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragojlović Julijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. Material and methods This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. Results All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awareness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairemnt, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characeteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatment with II and III generation cephalosporins and one with one aminoglycosides. All patients were cured, but 4 of them developed sequelae like permanent sensorineural deafness and mild ataxia. Conclusions Streptococcus suis infection is present as a zoonosis in pigs, while humans are contracted occasionally, most frequently related to occupational risk. In cases with bacterial meningitis with sepsis and hearing loss, Streptococcus suis infections must be suspected. Effective prevention requires collaboration between epidemiologists, veterinarians and human medicine physicians. .

  5. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  6. Isolation of Streptococcus bovis in a Patient with Undiagnosed Colon Cancer. A Case Report

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    Ledys Pérez Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the bacterial agents commonly associated with colorectal cancer is Streptococcus bovis. Twenty five to 80 % of patients with Streptococcus bovis bacteremia develop colorectal tumors and the incidence of colonic neoplasia associated with S. bovis endocarditis has been shown to be 18 to 62 %. Hence, it was decided to present the case of a 57-year-old patient from an urban area with a 6-year history of diabetes mellitus type I and alcoholism, who was admitted to the hospital in Cienfuegos because of significant gastrointestinal bleeding and fever (39-40 o C. Streptococcus bovis was isolated from the blood culture. The patient died 72 hours after his admission. Autopsy results showed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the right colon.

  7. Group G Streptococcus bacteremia in recurrent cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Meo, Nicola; Stinco, Giuseppe; Gubertini, Nicoletta; Patriarca, Maria Martina; Trevisan, Giusto

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, group G Streptococcus has been reported with increasing frequency as the cause of a variety of human infections. Underlying host factors such as immunosuppression, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis may be predisposing conditions leading to infection. Toxic involvement and post-streptococcal sequalae, once believed to be exclusive to infections caused by group A Streptococcus, are now known to occur following acute group G Streptococcus and group C Streptococcus infections. We report on a case of group G Streptococcus bacteremia and recurrent cellulitis with toxic involvement. Patient blood cultures were always negative for β-hemolytic Streptococci in all the recurrences, except during the last one. Antibiotic therapy based on antibiogram quickly resolved the infection. A regimen of intramuscular injection of 1.2 million units of benzathine penicillin every 15 days for one year prevented recurrences of cellulitis. PMID:25580792

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Auxotrophs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altabe, Silvia; Lopez, Paloma; de Mendoza, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis is essential for the maintenance of membrane structure and function in many groups of anaerobic bacteria. Like Escherichia coli, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae produces straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids. In E. coli UFA synthesis requires the action of two gene products, the essential isomerase/dehydratase encoded by fabA and an elongation condensing enzyme encoded by fabB. S. pneumoniae lacks both genes and instead employs a single enzyme with only an isomerase function encoded by the fabM gene. In this paper we report the construction and characterization of an S. pneumoniae 708 fabM mutant. This mutant failed to grow in complex medium, and the defect was overcome by addition of UFAs to the growth medium. S. pneumoniae fabM mutants did not produce detectable levels of monounsaturated fatty acids as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography analysis of the radiolabeled phospholipids. We also demonstrate that a fabM null mutant of the cariogenic organism Streptococcus mutants is a UFA auxotroph, indicating that FabM is the only enzyme involved in the control of membrane fluidity in streptococci. Finally we report that the fabN gene of Enterococcus faecalis, coding for a dehydratase/isomerase, complements the growth of S. pneumoniae fabM mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that FabM is a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents against streptococci and that S. pneumoniae UFA auxotrophs could help identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in UFA biosynthesis. PMID:17827283

  9. Acute Meningitis by Streptococcus suis

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales-Arroyo, Maria-Jesus; Real-Francia, Maria Angeles Del; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Amalia; Lopez-Gallardo, Gema; Puebla, Jose Manuel Morales; Caston-Osorio, Juan Jose

    2012-01-01

    Maria-Jesus Corrales-Arroyo, Maria Angeles Del Real-Francia, Amalia Hernandez-Gonzalez, Gema Lopez-Gallardo, Jose Manuel Morales Puebla, Juan Jose Caston-Osorio Streptococcus suis is a coccus Gram positive, anaerobic optional. Human infection by this microorganism is a zoonotic disease that usually presents as purulent meningitis. Mortality is low but is common sequelae. A case of meningitis by S. suis secondary to contact with pigs is presented here. A 35-year-old male patient was admi...

  10. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in blood cultures by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan-King, M.; Baldeh, I; Secka, O.; A. Falade; Greenwood, B.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a PCR assay, with primers derived from the autolysin (lyt) gene, for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in blood cultures. The predicted fragment of 247 bp was detected in all strains of pneumococci, embracing 12 different serotypes that were tested. Although DNA extracted from four viridans streptococci spp. Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus parasanguis) gave amplification products, these were quite different from...

  11. ANTIBIOFILM ACTIVITY OF SALIX ALBA PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND STREPTOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM DENTAL PLAQUE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussrat Fayaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the pathogens have the ability to form biofilms which makes them resistant to the antimicrobial agents. The emergence of new multi drug resistant strains is a big concern. Hence there is a growing need to find alternative antimicrobial agents. Plants have been used for ancient years to control many diseases. In the present study we evaluated antibiofilm activity of Salix alba bark extract against the Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus which are the main cause of dental plaque formation. This is the first study of its kind where bark extract of Slaix alba was used for antibiofilm activity. In the present study it was found that the Salix alba bark extract has a good effect on the microbial biofilm formation. Hence the use of Salix alba can be considered for controlling the biofilm formation. This is the primary study and more research is needed in this regard.

  12. Plasmid-mediated transformation of Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuramitsu, H. K.; Long, C M

    1982-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans GS-5 was transformed to erythromycin resistance with streptococcal plasmid pVA736. Transformation frequencies were higher with plasmids reisolated from transformed GS-5 cells relative to plasmid originally derived from S. sanguis Challis.

  13. Surface interactome in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Cesira L; Bove, Elia; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Nogarotto, Renzo; Norais, Nathalie; Pileri, Silvia; Lelli, Barbara; Falugi, Fabiana; Balloni, Sergio; Tedde, Vittorio; Chiarot, Emiliano; Bombaci, Mauro; Soriani, Marco; Bracci, Luisa; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

    2012-04-01

    Very few studies have so far been dedicated to the systematic analysis of protein interactions occurring between surface and/or secreted proteins in bacteria. Such interactions are expected to play pivotal biological roles that deserve investigation. Taking advantage of the availability of a detailed map of surface and secreted proteins in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus (GAS)), we used protein array technology to define the "surface interactome" in this important human pathogen. Eighty-three proteins were spotted on glass slides in high density format, and each of the spotted proteins was probed for its capacity to interact with any of the immobilized proteins. A total of 146 interactions were identified, 25 of which classified as "reciprocal," namely, interactions that occur irrespective of which of the two partners was immobilized on the chip or in solution. Several of these interactions were validated by surface plasmon resonance and supported by confocal microscopy analysis of whole bacterial cells. By this approach, a number of interesting interactions have been discovered, including those occurring between OppA, DppA, PrsA, and TlpA, proteins known to be involved in protein folding and transport. These proteins, all localizing at the septum, might be part, together with HtrA, of the recently described ExPortal complex of GAS. Furthermore, SpeI was found to strongly interact with the metal transporters AdcA and Lmb. Because SpeI strictly requires zinc to exert its function, this finding provides evidence on how this superantigen, a major player in GAS pathogenesis, can acquire the metal in the host environment, where it is largely sequestered by carrier proteins. We believe that the approach proposed herein can lead to a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms underlying bacterial invasion, colonization, and pathogenesis. PMID:22199230

  14. Aortitis with bacteraemia by Streptococcus equi Zooepidemicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infections by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus occur in animals. In human beings these infections are generally accidental, and few cases have been reported. We present the case of a 56-year-old male, a butcher, who presented with abdominal pain. Aneurismatic dilatation of the aorta below the renal arteries was documented by CT-scanning. A purulent collection and arterial ulceration were found during surgery; Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus was isolated from the collection and from blood cultures

  15. Transformation and fusion of Streptococcus faecalis protoplasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M D

    1985-01-01

    Nonconjugative plasmids were transferred by protoplast fusion among Streptococcus faecalis strains and from Streptococcus sanguis to S. faecalis. S. faecalis protoplasts were also transformed with several different plasmids, including the Tn917 delivery vehicle pTV1. Transformation was reproducible, but low in frequency (10(-6) transformants per viable protoplast). A new shuttle vector (pAM610), able to replicate in Escherichia coli and S. faecalis, was constructed and transformed into S. fae...

  16. Adaptive Acid Tolerance Response of Streptococcus sobrinus

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Marcelle M.; Lemos, José A. C.; Abranches, Jacqueline; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B.; Burne, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the bacteria most commonly associated with human dental caries. A major virulence attribute of these and other cariogenic bacteria is acid tolerance. The acid tolerance mechanisms of S. mutans have begun to be investigated in detail, including the adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR), but this is not the case for S. sobrinus. An analysis of the ATR of two S. sobrinus strains was conducted with cells grown to steady state in continuous chem...

  17. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake......, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion...

  18. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Grignon, Louis; Spolidorio, Denise Palomari; Grenier, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range...

  19. Molecular and Genetic Characterization of a Novel Nisin Variant Produced by Streptococcus uberis

    OpenAIRE

    Wirawan, Ruth E.; Klesse, Nikolai A.; Jack, Ralph W.; Tagg, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is one of the principal causative agents of bovine mastitis. In this study, we report that S. uberis strain 42 produces a lantibiotic, nisin U, which is 78% identical (82% similar) to nisin A from Lactococcus lactis. The 15.6-kb nisin U locus comprises 11 open reading frames, similar in putative functionality but differing in arrangement from that of the nisin A biosynthetic cluster. The nisin U producer strain exhibits specific resistance (immunity) to nisin U and cross-...

  20. Appendicitis in a Child due to Streptococcus Pneumoniae: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadage, Dnyaneshawari Purushottam; Kamble, Deepali Shivajirao; Nale, Swati Shivajirao; Bhore, Arvind Vamanrao

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bacterial species play a major role in appendicitis. Both aerobic and anaerobic gram positive and gram negative bacteria such as, Bacteroides fragilis, Streptococcus species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Citrobacter freundii cause appendicitis. Appendicitis is usually polymicrobial. The case assumes importance because of single aetiological agent i.e. unimicrobial and no predisposing factors are present to cause infection. We report a rare case of appendicitis due to ...

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus mutans GS-5, a Serotype c Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Saswati; Biswas, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a principal causative agent of dental caries, is considered to be the most cariogenic among all oral streptococci. Of the four S. mutans serotypes (c, e, f, and k), serotype c strains predominate in the oral cavity. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of S. mutans GS-5, a serotype c strain originally isolated from human carious lesions, which is extensively used as a laboratory strain worldwide.

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility of streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from throat cultures of children with tonsillopharyngitis

    OpenAIRE

    İnce, Erdal; AYSEV, Ahmet Derya; GÜRİZ, Haluk; DOĞRU, Ülker; ÇİFTÇİ, Ergin

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is the most important causative agent of tonsillopharyngitis. Although penicillin is drug of choice, and macrolide antibiotics are recommendeddrugs in patients who have penicillin allergy, various antibiotics other than penicillin and macrolide antibiotics are also used in the treatment of streptococcaltonsillopharyngitis. In addition, resistance to macrolide antibiotics is an important problem in some regions ofthe world. For these reasons, we designed a study to deter...

  3. Lumbar Vertebral Osteomyelitis with Mycotic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Caused by Highly Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Naktin, Jaan; DeSimone, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of vertebral osteomyelitis with an adjacent abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysm caused by a highly penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strain. The occurrence of all three phenomena in a single patient has not been previously described. This presentation offers the opportunity to reflect on the increasing incidence of S. pneumoniae as a resistant pathogen, the treatment of highly penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and the etiologic agents of both vertebral osteomyeli...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence and Immunoproteomic Analyses of the Bacterial Fish Pathogen Streptococcus parauberis?

    OpenAIRE

    Nho, Seong Won; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Cha, In Seok; Park, Seong Bin; Jang, Ho Bin; del Castillo, Carmelo S.; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Takashi AOKI; Jung, Tae Sung

    2011-01-01

    Although Streptococcus parauberis is known as a bacterial pathogen associated with bovine udder mastitis, it has recently become one of the major causative agents of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) streptococcosis in northeast Asia, causing massive mortality resulting in severe economic losses. S. parauberis contains two serotypes, and it is likely that capsular polysaccharide antigens serve to differentiate the serotypes. In the present study, the complete genome sequence of S. parau...

  5. THE MACROPHAGE CHEMOTACTIC ACTIVITY OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE AND STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE EXTRACELLULAR PRODUCTS (ECP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae to attract macrophages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was investigated. The extracellular products (ECP) from S. agalactiae and S. iniae were tested for macrophage chemotaxis using in vitro blind well chambers. The macrophage...

  6. Immunoasssay Chromatographic Antigen Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Pharyngitis in Children: A Cross/ Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    S Noorbakhsh; A.Tabatabaei; Farhadi, M; F Ebrahimi Taj

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) is an important pharyngotonsillitis etiologic agent in children. The objective of this study was diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis based on rapid antigen detection test and conventional pharyngeal culture.Materials and Methods: The rapid GABHS antigen detection test was compared to culture on blood agar, the gold standard for the diagnosis of this etiologic agent.Results: Streptococcal antigen was detected in pharynge...

  7. Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections with Involvement of Multiple Organs in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases particularly lamb pneumonia is a multifactorial disease involving the interaction between host, etiological agent and environment. The present study was carried out to determine the causative agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in a sheep flock and to establish its pathogenicity and public health importance. The incidence occurred in sheep unit at Madhurikund farm of University (DUVASU, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India. At the time of incidence, the population of sheep at the farm was 90. Affected animals were clinically examined and nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from live animals, while morbid materials were collected from dead animals after postmortem examination. The etiological agent was isolated and characterized with conventional microbiological and biochemical methods. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the bacteria isolated from blood, different organs and cerebrospinal fluid. The antibiotic sensitivity revealed resistant to multiple drugs viz., penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Pathological examination revealed multiple involvements of organs with different degrees of inflammation and haemorrhages of the lower respiratory tract, lungs, liver, heart and kidney. Further, its pathogenicity was established by histopathological examination. In conclusion, presence of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in weaning lambs with the involvement of multiple organs appears to be an emerging zoonotic threat to human particularly in shepherds. This seems to be the first report of isolation of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from outbreak in lambs with multiple organ involvement in India.

  8. A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Walker Zettler

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cultura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta. Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica.BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detects the genes responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin within approximately 8 hours. OBJECTIVE: To compare the PCR and MIC methods in determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin. METHOD: A total of 153 Streptococcus pneumoniae samples, isolated from various anatomical sites, were evaluated in order to detect mutations in the genes encoding pbp1a, pbp2a and pbp2x, which are responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance. A correlation was found between mutations and penicillin MIP, as determined by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Overal Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was 22.8% (16.3% intermediate resistance and 6.5% high resistance. In a statistically significant finding, we observed no mutations in the penicillin-sensitive samples and only one mutation, typically in the gene encoding pbp2x, among the samples with intermediate resistance, whereas mutations in all three genes studied were observed in the high-resistance samples. CONCLUSION: For determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin, PCR is a rapid method of detection that could well be used in clinical practice.

  9. Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pinto Loguercio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis.The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (94.4% and Streptococcus sp. (85.2% showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

  10. Infecciones por Streptococcus agalactiae en un servicio de neonatología abierto Infections due to Streptococcus agalactiae at an open neonatology service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de las infecciones por estreptococo del grupo B en recién nacidos egresados de los hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutivos con infecciones por Streptococcus agalactiae, ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre febrero de 1992 y diciembre del 2007. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas, con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad, así como relación entre variables categóricas. RESULTADOS. Hubo 76 recién nacidos con infección por Streptococcus agalactiae, lo cual constituyó una tasa promedio anual de 1,9 x 100 ingresos. Predominaron las infecciones de inicio tardío y las adquiridas en la comunidad (89,5 % y 93,4 %, respectivamente. La meningitis fue la forma clínica más frecuente, seguida de la bacteriemia aislada. Hubo 56 de 76 recién nacidos con bacteriemia (73,7 %. El Streptococcus agalactiae tuvo elevada sensibilidad ante la penicilina, la eritromicina, la vancomicina, la cefotaxima y el cloranfenicol. Hubo 7 fallecidos (9,2 % y todos fueron pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central. CONCLUSIONES. Streptococcus agalactiae es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, tanto en la comunidad como en el medio hospitalario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central con bacteriemia o sin ella, aún manteniendo un patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los antibióticos betalactámicos.INTRODUCCIÓN. The objective of the present study was to know the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infections caused by group B Streptococcus in newborns discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that included consecutive infants with infections due to Streptococcus agalactiae admitted in the Neonatology Service of «Juan M. Márquez» University Pediatric Hospital from February 1992 to December 2007 was conducted. Different clinical and epidemiological variables were processed and analyzed, with calculation of incidence and lethality rates and relation among the categoric variables. RESULTS. There were 76 newborns with infection due to Streptococcus agalactiae for an average annual rate of 1.9 x 100 admissions. It was observed a predominance of late onset infections and of those acquired in the community (89.5 % y 93.4 %, respectively. Meningitis was the most common clinical form followed by isolated bacteriemia. 56 of the 76 newborn infants had bacteriemia (73.7 %. Streptococcus agalactiae showed a high sensitivity to penicillin, erythromycine, vancomycin, cefotaxime and cloranphenicol. There were 7 deaths (9.2 %. All of them had infection of the CNS. CONCLUSIONS. Streptococcus agalactiae is an agent that causes infections affecting the newborn infant, both in the community and in the hospital. These infections may be lethal in some patients with infection of the CNS with o without bacteriemia, even when they maintain a pattern of elevated susceptibility to betalactamic antibiotics.

  11. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfeir, Julien; Lefranois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbr, Sverine; Licznar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

  12. Antagonism between penicillin and erythromycin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Jensen, T G; Dessau, Ram; Lundgren, B; Frimodt-Moller, N

    2000-01-01

    effect of the bactericidal agent. In this study, the possible interaction between penicillin and erythromycin was investigated in vitro and in vivo against four clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with MICs of penicillin ranging from 0.016 to 0.5 mg/L and of erythromycin from 0. 25 to >128 mg......The combination of beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides is often recommended for the initial empirical treatment of acute pneumonia in order to obtain activity against the most important pathogens. Theoretically, this combination may be inexpedient, as the bacteriostatic agent may antagonize the...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are...

  14. Spontaneous retroperitoneal abscess caused by streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Petrogiannopoulos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The retroperitoneum is a potential space that can be infected by several microbes. We describe the case of a 38- year-old woman who was presented to us with abdominal pain and fever for 6 days. Laboratory studies showed leukocytosis (WBC=18000 and an ubnormal liver function tests (AST=91U/l, ALT=122U/l, ALP=277U/l. A computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a retroperitoneal abscess, while the abdominal viscera were normal. Culture of the pus, obtained during surgical drainage, showed Streptococcus pyogenes. Although streptococcal infections are very usual in clinical practice, streptococcus pyogenes has been reported as a very rare cause of spontaneous retroperitoneal abscess, especially for immunocompetent patients. The patient was treated first with intravenous antibiotics with no response, and then with surgical drainage, with fully recovery. Key words: Streptococcus pyogenes, abscess, retroperitoneum

  15. A TRANSGLUCOSYLASE OF STREPTOCOCCUS BOVIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WALKER, G J

    1965-02-01

    1. A transglucosylase has been separated from the alpha-amylase of Streptococcus bovis by chromatography of the cell extract on DEAE-cellulose. 2. The transglucosylase can synthesize higher maltodextrins from maltotriose, but maltose, isomaltose and panose do not function as donors. 3. Iodine-staining polysaccharide may be synthesized from maltotriose provided that glucose is removed. Synthesis from maltohexaose results in dextrins of sufficient chain length to stain with iodine, but again maltodextrins of longer chain length are formed when glucose is removed from the system. 4. The transglucosylase degrades amylose in the presence of a suitable acceptor, transferring one or more glucosyl residues from the non-reducing end of the donor to the non-reducing end of the acceptor. With [(14)C]glucose as acceptor the maltodextrins produced were labelled in the reducing glucose unit only. 5. The acceptor activities of 25 sugars have been compared with that of glucose. Maltose has 50%, methyl alpha-glucoside has 15%, isomaltose and panose each has 8% and sucrose has 6% of the accepting efficiency of glucose. Mannose and sorbose also had detectable activity. With the exception of maltose all these sugars produced a different series of dextrins from that obtained with glucose. 6. It was concluded that S. bovis transglucosylase transfers alpha-(1-->4)-glucosidic linkages in the same manner as D-enzyme, but some differences in specificity distinguish the two enzymes. Unlike D-enzyme, S. bovis transglucosylase can transfer glucosyl units, producing appreciable amounts of maltose both during synthesis from maltotriose and during transfer from amylose to glucose. 7. No evidence was found that the transglucosylase was extracellular. The enzyme is cell-bound, and is released by treatment of the cells with lysozyme and by suspension of the spheroplasts in dilute buffer. 8. The transglucosylase may be responsible for the storage of intracellular iodophilic polysaccharide that occurs when the cells are grown in the presence of suitable carbohydrate sources. PMID:14346086

  16. Streptococcus pneumoniae NanC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, C. David; Lukacik, Petra; Potter, Jane A.; Sleator, Olivia; Taylor, Garry L.; Walsh, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that causes a range of disease states. Sialidases are important bacterial virulence factors. There are three pneumococcal sialidases: NanA, NanB, and NanC. NanC is an unusual sialidase in that its primary reaction product is 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac2en, also known as DANA), a nonspecific hydrolytic sialidase inhibitor. The production of Neu5Ac2en from ?23-linked sialosides by the catalytic domain is confirmed within a crystal structure. A covalent complex with 3-fluoro-?-N-acetylneuraminic acid is also presented, suggesting a common mechanism with other sialidases up to the final step of product formation. A conformation change in an active site hydrophobic loop on ligand binding constricts the entrance to the active site. In addition, the distance between the catalytic acid/base (Asp-315) and the ligand anomeric carbon is unusually short. These features facilitate a novel sialidase reaction in which the final step of product formation is direct abstraction of the C3 proton by the active site aspartic acid, forming Neu5Ac2en. NanC also possesses a carbohydrate-binding module, which is shown to bind ?23- and ?26-linked sialosides, as well as N-acetylneuraminic acid, which is captured in the crystal structure following hydration of Neu5Ac2en by NanC. Overall, the pneumococcal sialidases show remarkable mechanistic diversity while maintaining a common structural scaffold. PMID:26370075

  17. Monoclonal Idiotope Vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Mary K.; Ward, Ronald E.; Kohler, Heinz

    1984-12-01

    A monoclonal anti-idiotope antibody coupled to a carrier protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice against a lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Vaccinated mice developed a high titer of antibody to phosphorylcholine, which is known to protect against infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Measurement of the median lethal dose of the bacteria indicated that anti-idiotope immunization significantly increased the resistance of BALB/c mice to the bacterial challenge. Antibody to an idiotope can thus be used as an antigen substitute for the induction of protective immunity.

  18. Septic Arthritis due to Streptococcus sanguis

    OpenAIRE

    Mandac, Inga; Prkačin, Ingrid; Sabljar Matovinović, Mirjana; Šušterčić, Dunja

    2010-01-01

    SEPTIČKI ARTRITIS UZROKOVAN STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUISOM ----- Septički artritis može nastati nakon izravnog ulaska različitih mikroorganizama (bakterija, virusa, gljiva) u zglobni prostor. Bilo koji uzročnik infekcije može dovesti do bakterijskog artritisa, ali bakterijski patogeni su najznačajniji jer dovode do brzog uništenja zgloba. U radu prikazujemo slučaj 56-godišnjeg bolesnika sa septičkim artritisom uzrokovanog sa Streptococcus viridansom koji pripada viridans grupi streptokoka. Primljen ...

  19. Iron acquisition and regulation systems in Streptococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ruiguang; Sun, Xuesong

    2014-05-01

    Gram-positive Streptococcus species are responsible for millions of cases of meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis. Iron is essential for the growth and survival of Streptococcus in the host environment. Streptococcus species have developed various mechanisms to uptake iron from an environment with limited available iron. Streptococcus can directly extract iron from host iron-containing proteins such as ferritin, transferrin, lactoferrin and hemoproteins, or indirectly by relying on the employment of specialized secreted hemophores (heme chelators) and small siderophore molecules (high affinity ferric chelators). This review presents the most recent discoveries in the iron acquisition system of Streptococcus species - the transporters as well as the regulators. PMID:24663493

  20. In vitro activity of A-16686, a potential antiplaque agent.

    OpenAIRE

    Pallanza, R.; Scotti, R; Beretta, G; Cavalleri, B; Arioli, V.

    1984-01-01

    A-16686, a new glycoproteide antibiotic from Actinoplanes sp., was evaluated as a potential antiplaque agent in comparison with chlorhexidine, benzalkonium chloride, and cetylpyridinium chloride. A-16686 had good activity against gram-positive organisms associated with dental plaque (various streptococci, Streptococcus mutans in particular, lactobacilli, Actinomyces viscosus, and Actinomyces naeslundii); most of the strains tested were clinical isolates. It was bactericidal for streptococci (...

  1. Adherence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis to salivary components bound to glass.

    OpenAIRE

    Stinson, M W; Jinks, D C; Merrick, J M

    1981-01-01

    Adherence of radiolabeled Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis to saliva-treated glass surfaces was studied under conditions which minimized bacteria-glass interactions. Treatment of glass with an alkylsilane solution decreased nonspecific bacterial adherence and enhanced adsorption of radiolabeled salivary components to these surfaces. Addition of Triton X-100 to the bacterial suspensions also reduced nonspecific adherence to siliconized glass, but did not affect adherence to saliv...

  2. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Azizi; Shabnam Aghayan; Saeed Zaker; Mahdieh Shakeri; Navid Entezari; Shirin Lawaf

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental stud...

  3. Functional Variation of the Antigen I/II Surface Protein in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, F. C.; Assev, S.; H.C. van der Mei; Busscher, H J; Scheie, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    Although Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus mutans are regarded as members of the commensal microflora of the body, S. intermedius is often associated with deep-seated purulent infections, whereas S. mutans is frequently associated with dental caries. In this study, we investigated the roles of the S. mutans and S. intermedius antigen I/II proteins in adhesion and modulation of cell surface characteristics. By using isogenic mutants, we show that the antigen I/II in S. mutans, but no...

  4. Streptococcus oligofermentans Inhibits Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms at Both Neutral pH and Cariogenic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xudong,; de Soet, Johannes Jacob; Tong, Huichun; Gao, Xuejun; He, Libang; Loveren, Cor Van; Deng, Dong Mei

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide (HP). Since pH is a critical factor in caries formation, we aimed to study the influence of pH on the competition between S. oligofermentans and S. mutans in biofilms. To this end, S. mutans and S. ...

  5. Population diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the upper respiratory tracts of adults, determined by a nonculture strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, H; Hance, I; Nelson, KE; Kilian, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat...... combined with loss and acquisition from contacts. These findings provide a platform for understanding the mechanisms that govern the balance within the complex microbiota at mucosal sites and between the microbiota and the mucosal immune system of the host....

  6. Cardiac Device Infection due to Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Theresa T.; Nery, Pablo B; Birnie, David; Jessamine, Peter; Suh, Kathryn N

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac device infections (CDIs) are recognized complications of device implantation. Most CDIs are caused by skin flora but can also result from hematogenous seeding of the device. A case involving Streptococcus pneumoniae CDI, which is rare, potentially vaccine preventable and may not be associated with overt antecedent pneumococcal infection, is reported.

  7. Streptococcus pneumoniae as a Cause of Salpingitis

    OpenAIRE

    David Patterson; Johnson, Celeste M.; Gilles R. G. Monif

    1994-01-01

    Background: A case of pneumococcal septicemia associated with laparoscopically documented acute salpingitis is reported.Case: Gram-stained cul-de-sac pus revealed gram-positive encapsulated diplococci.Conclusion: This case coupled with reanalysis of prior genital tract involvement in nonpregnant individuals argues that Streptococcus pneumoniae can mimic gonococcal diseases.

  8. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maini, Baljeet; Bathla, Manish; Dhanjal, Gurdeep S; Sharma, Prem D

    2012-10-01

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a group of disorders recently recognized as a clinical entity. A case of PANDAS is described here, which remitted after 1 month of treatment. Recent Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection should be considered in a child who presents with a sudden explosive onset of tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms. PMID:23372243

  9. Prostatic abscess caused by Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Chau; Dascal, Andre; Mendelson, Jack

    1990-01-01

    The first reported case of prostatic abscess caused by Streptococcus mutans isolated in pure culture is described. Urethral dilation for obstruction was unsuccessful, so suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Perineal aspiration under ultrasonic guidance resulted in 10 mL of pus containing pure Strep mutans. Diagnosis of prostatic abscess is difficult since the clinical manifestations are nonspecific.

  10. Streptococcus equisimilis Pneumonia in a compromised host.

    OpenAIRE

    Siefkin, A D; Peterson, D.L.; Hansen, B.

    1983-01-01

    A fatal case of Streptococcus equisimilis pneumonia and septicemia is described in a young man with Hodgkin's disease. The disease course consisted of exudative pharyngitis, macular rash, septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolization. S. equisimilis was isolated from blood, throat, and sputum cultures antemortem and from lung cultures at autopsy.

  11. Streptococcus pneumoniae appendicitis in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caierão, Juliana; Cornely, Ana Flor Hexel; da Cunha, Gabriela Rosa; Mott, Mariana; Zavascki, Alexandre P; Dias, Cícero

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare cause of appendicitis.We report apneumococcal appendicitis with secondary peritonitis in a human immunodeficiency virus–positive adult, with favorable outcome after surgery and antibiotic therapy. Secondary peritonitis is frequently complication of S pneumoniae appendicitis in the few reported cases,and no specific risk factor has been identified so far. PMID:25676850

  12. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  13. Pathogenicity of Streptococcus ictaluri to Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The infectivity of a Streptococcus ictaluri isolate for fry (0.5 g), fingerling (15 g), and juvenile (55 g) channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was determined by bath immersion and injection infectivity experiments. Channel catfish exposed by immersion were exposed to baths containing 1012, 1011,...

  14. Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Kjerulf, Anne Vinther; Christensen, John Brochorst; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of...... Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing....

  15. Plasmid associated with diplococcin production in Streptococcus.

    OpenAIRE

    Davey, G P

    1984-01-01

    The ability to produce diplococcin (Dip+) was transferred by conjugation from Streptococcus cremoris 346 to two plasmid-free S. cremoris recipients at a high frequency (10(-1) per donor). Dip+ transconjugants from each mating gained a 54-megadalton plasmid. Spontaneous loss of this plasmid restored the Dip- phenotype.

  16. A lingual abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Amanda T; Hsia, Jennifer C; Mendez, Eduardo; Clarridge, Jill E

    2012-04-01

    Lingual abscesses are rare. We describe a case in a healthy female with no recent history of trauma. The organism recovered by culture of drainage material collected prior to antibiotic treatment was Streptococcus intermedius, an organism recognized as flora of the oropharynx and associated with abscess formation. The isolate was resistant to clindamycin, which was the antibiotic therapy that the patient received. PMID:22116986

  17. Regulation of neuraminidase expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualdi Luciana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid; NeuNAc is one of the most important carbohydrates for Streptococcus pneumoniae due of its role as a carbon and energy source, receptor for adhesion and invasion and molecular signal for promotion of biofilm formation, nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion of the lung. Results In this work, NeuNAc and its metabolic derivative N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc were used to analyze regulatory mechanisms of the neuraminidase locus expression. Genomic and metabolic comparison to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis elucidates the metabolic association of the two amino sugars to different parts of the locus coding for the two main pneumococcal neuraminidases and confirms the substrate specificity of the respective ABC transporters. Quantitative gene expression analysis shows repression of the locus by glucose and induction of all predicted transcriptional units by ManNAc and NeuNAc, each inducing with higher efficiency the operon encoding for the transporter with higher specificity for the respective amino sugar. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated enhanced surface exposure of NanA on pneumococci grown in NeuNAc and ManNAc and an activity assay allowed to quantify approximately twelve times as much neuraminidase activity on induced cells as opposed to glucose grown cells. Conclusions The present data increase the understanding of metabolic regulation of the nanAB locus and indicate that experiments aimed at the elucidation of the relevance of neuraminidases in pneumococcal virulence should possibly not be carried out on bacteria grown in glucose containing media.

  18. The antimicrobial sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius to colloidal solutions of different nanoparticles applied as mouthwashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ahrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metal nanoparticles have been recently applied in dentistry because of their antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial effects of colloidal solutions containing zinc oxide (ZnO, copper oxide (CuO, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 and silver (Ag nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius and compare the results with those of chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouthrinses. Materials and Methods: After adding nanoparticles to a water-based solution, six groups were prepared. Groups I to IV included colloidal solutions containing nanoZnO, nanoCuO, nanoTiO 2 and nanoAg, respectively. Groups V and VI consisted of 2.0% sodium fluoride and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes, respectively as controls. We used serial dilution method to find minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and with subcultures obtained minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of the solutions against S. mutans and S. sangius. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Duncan test and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The sodium fluoride mouthrinse did not show any antibacterial effect. The nanoTiO 2 -containing solution had the lowest MIC against both microorganisms and also displayed the lowest MBC against S. mutans (P < 0.05. The colloidal solutions containing nanoTiO 2 and nanoZnO showed the lowest MBC against S. sangius (P < 0.05. On the other hand, chlorhexidine showed the highest MIC and MBC against both streptococci (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The nanoTiO 2 -containing mouthwash proved to be an effective antimicrobial agent and thus it can be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine or sodium fluoride mouthrinses in the oral cavity provided the lack of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on biologic tissues.

  19. Frequency of Spontaneous Resistance to Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor GSK1322322 in Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sharon; Ingraham, Karen; Huang, Jianzhong; McCloskey, Lynn; Rilling, Sarah; Windau, Anne; Pizzollo, Jason; Butler, Deborah; Aubart, Kelly; Miller, Linda A; Zalacain, Magdalena; Holmes, David J; O'Dwyer, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The continuous emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is compromising the successful treatment of serious microbial infections. GSK1322322, a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor, shows good in vitro antibacterial activity and has demonstrated safety and efficacy in human proof-of-concept clinical studies. In vitro studies were performed to determine the frequency of resistance (FoR) to this antimicrobial agent in major pathogens that cause respiratory tract and skin infections. Resistance to GSK1322322 occurred at high frequency through loss-of-function mutations in the formyl-methionyl transferase (FMT) protein in Staphylococcus aureus (4/4 strains) and Streptococcus pyogenes (4/4 strains) and via missense mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae (6/21 strains), but the mutations were associated with severe in vitro and/or in vivo fitness costs. The overall FoR to GSK1322322 was very low in Haemophilus influenzae, with only one PDF mutant being identified in one of four strains. No target-based mutants were identified from S. pyogenes, and only one or no PDF mutants were isolated in three of the four S. aureus strains studied. In S. pneumoniae, PDF mutants were isolated from only six of 21 strains tested; an additional 10 strains did not yield colonies on GSK1322322-containing plates. Most of the PDF mutants characterized from those three organisms (35/37 mutants) carried mutations in residues at or in close proximity to one of three highly conserved motifs that are part of the active site of the PDF protein, with 30 of the 35 mutations occurring at position V71 (using the S. pneumoniae numbering system). PMID:26014938

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Colombian children with pneumonia Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía

    OpenAIRE

    Aura Lucía Leal; Elizabeth Castañeda

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the principal causal agents of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children, and its resistance to antibiotics has increased worldwide. This study examined the patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics of S. pneumoniae that had colonized the upper respiratory tract of 272 children hospitalized for pneumonia in two hospitals in Santafé de Bogotá. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 114 patients (42%). Diminished susceptibility to penicillin was noted in 19 isola...

  1. Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Agent Orange Parkinson's Awareness Month Veterans with Parkinson’s disease who ... U.S. military sprayed millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during ...

  2. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  3. Role of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate in remineralization of white spot lesions and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Vashisht; Rajamani Indira; Ramachandran, S.; Anil Kumar; Manali Ramakrishnan Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To promote the remineralization by ionic exchange mechanism instead of invasive techniques many remineralizing agents can be used. Objective: To evaluate the remineralization effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSLs) and its inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans colonization. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 60 subjects exhibiting at least 1-WSL. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups:...

  4. An investigation into the mechanism of protection by local passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies against Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, J. K.; Hunjan, M; Smith, R.; Kelly, C.; Lehner, T.

    1990-01-01

    Local oral passive immunization with Streptococcus mutans-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) (Guy's 13) prevented recolonization by indigenous S. mutans in human volunteers who had first been treated with a conventional antibacterial agent (chlorhexidine). The F(ab')2 fragment of the MAb was as protective as the intact immunoglobulin G, but the Fab fragment of the molecule failed to prevent recolonization of S. mutans. In subjects receiving the MAb Fab fragment, S. mutans levels in dental pla...

  5. A Bivalent Vaccine Based on a Replication-Incompetent Influenza Virus Protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Influenza Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Katsura, Hiroaki; Piao, Zhenyu; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Akeda, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Shinji; HORIMOTO, Taisuke; Oishi, Kazunori; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia; together with influenza virus, it represents an important public health burden. Although vaccination is the most effective prophylaxis against these infectious agents, no single vaccine simultaneously provides protective immunity against both S. pneumoniae and influenza virus. Previously, we demonstrated that several replication-incompetent influenza viruses efficiently elicit IgG in serum and IgA in the u...

  6. Characterization of biofilm matrix, degradation by DNase treatment and evidence of capsule downregulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Candice; Mershon William J; Nguyen Duc; Dice Bethany; Sambanthamoorthy Karthik; Nistico Laura; Hall-Stoodley Luanne; Ze Hu Fen; Stoodley Paul; Ehrlich Garth D; Post J Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen and a major causative agent of respiratory infections, including otitis media (OM). Pneumococcal biofilms have been demonstrated on biopsies of the middle ear mucosa in children receiving tympanostomy tubes, supporting the hypothesis that chronic OM may involve biofilm development by pathogenic bacteria as part of the infectious process. To better understand pneumococcal biofilm formation six low-passage encapsulate...

  7. Comparative Genomic Characterization of Three Streptococcus parauberis Strains in Fish Pathogen, as Assessed by Wide-Genome Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Nho, Seong-Won; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Park, Seong Bin; Jang, Ho Bin; Cha, In Seok; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nakamura, Yoji; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Sano, Motohiko; Kanai, Kinya; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Takeyama, Haruko; Takashi AOKI; Jung, Tae-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus parauberis, which is the main causative agent of streptococcosis among olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in northeast Asia, can be distinctly divided into two groups (type I and type II) by an agglutination test. Here, the whole genome sequences of two Japanese strains (KRS-02083 and KRS-02109) were determined and compared with the previously determined genome of a Korean strain (KCTC 11537). The genomes of S. parauberis are intermediate in size and have lower GC contents ...

  8. Characteristics of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae Isolated from Purulent Sputum Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Keith, Elaine R.; Podmore, Roslyn G.; Anderson, Trevor P.; Murdoch, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae is a recently described streptococcus that is phenotypically and genetically distinct from Streptococcus pneumoniae and other viridans streptococci. Key characteristics of S. pseudopneumoniae are the absence of a pneumococcal capsule, insolubility in bile, resistance or indeterminate susceptibility to optochin when incubated in 5% CO2 but susceptibility to optochin when incubated in ambient air, and a positive reaction with the AccuProbe DNA probe hybridization ...

  9. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.

    OpenAIRE

    SCANNAPIECO, F.A.; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M. S.; Levine, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

  10. Streptococcus dysgalactiae endocarditis presenting as acute endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Su-Min Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. The identification of Group C and G streptococci such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae is comparatively uncommon and has only been reported in a few case reports or series. We therefore report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae first presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis, the most likely source being bilateral feet osteomyelitis in a patient with type I diabetes. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous benzylpenicillin, intravitreal antibiotics, bilateral below knee amputations and mitral valve replacement. She survived all surgical procedures and regained partial visual acuity in the affected eye.

  11. Agent engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P

    2001-01-01

    Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

  12. Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains by coagglutination.

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, L E

    1986-01-01

    The coagglutination test, which uses staphylococcal protein A, for serotyping strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, was extended to include serotyping within serogroups. Serotyping was performed with "factor sera" prepared in the laboratory. Fifty one strains of S pneumoniae, which belonged to one of the seven serogroups included in the 14 valent vaccine formulation, were tested, and no inconsistency was found when compared with the capsule swelling reaction.

  13. Phenotypic Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Development

    OpenAIRE

    Allegrucci, Magee; Hu, F.Z.; Shen, K.; J. Hayes; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Post, J. Christopher; Sauer, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most common pathogens associated with chronic otitis media with effusion, which has been hypothesized to be a biofilm disease. S. pneumoniae has been shown to form biofilms, however, little is known about the developmental process, the architecture, and the changes that occur upon biofilm development. In the current study we made use of a continuous-culture biofilm system to characterize biofilm development of 14 different S. pneumoniae strains representi...

  14. Streptococcus mutans, Caries and Simulation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Marika Björklund; Forssten, Sofia D.

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries and dental plaque are among the most common diseases worldwide, and are caused by a mixture of microorganisms and food debris. Specific types of acid-producing bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, colonize the dental surface and cause damage to the hard tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates e.g., sucrose and fructose. This paper reviews the link between S. mutans and caries, as well as different simulation models that are available for studying carie...

  15. Animal Models of Streptococcus pneumoniae Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chiavolini, Damiana; Pozzi, Gianni; Ricci, Susanna

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a colonizer of human nasopharynx, but it is also an important pathogen responsible for high morbidity, high mortality, numerous disabilities, and high health costs throughout the world. Major diseases caused by S. pneumoniae are otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Despite the availability of antibiotics and vaccines, pneumococcal infections still have high mortality rates, especially in risk groups. For this reason, there is an exceptionally e...

  16. Interactions Between Streptococcus mutans and Veillonella dispar

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Dental plaque, a collection of bacteria forming a biofilm, is the cause of the most common diseases of mankind: caries and periodontal diseases. This study reports on the interactions occurring between two key species in this biofilm Streptococcus mutans and Veillonella dispar. These organisms are hypothesised to form a cooperative metabolic system in which a waste product, lactic acid, produced by S. mutans is utilised by V. dispar. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate whether these ...

  17. Genome of Streptococcus oralis Strain Uo5?

    OpenAIRE

    Reichmann, Peter; Nuhn, Michael; Denapaite, Dalia; Brckner, Reinhold; Henrich, Bernhard; Maurer, Patrick; Rieger, Martin; Klages, Sven; Reinhard, Richard; Hakenbeck, Regine

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus oralis, a commensal species of the human oral cavity, belongs to the Mitis group of streptococci, which includes one of the major human pathogens as well, S. pneumoniae. We report here the first complete genome sequence of this species. S. oralis Uo5, a high-level penicillin- and multiple-antibiotic-resistant isolate from Hungary, is competent for genetic transformation under laboratory conditions. Comparative and functional genomics of Uo5 will be important in understanding the...

  18. Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae: an emerging respiratory tract pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, J. Sariya; Dhanashree, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae a member of the Viridans Streptococci, is known to be associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory tract infections (RTI). Very scanty information is available on the isolation of S. pseudopneumoniae from India. Hence, the present study was an attempt to isolate S. pseudopneumoniae from clinical samples and to study their drug resistance pattern. Methods: Sputum samples (n=150) submitted to the microbiology labor...

  19. Primary psoas abscess due to Streptococcus milleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeysekara Abeywardana MS

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary Psoas abscess (PPA is an infrequent clinical entity with obscure pathogenesis and vague clinical presentation. High index of clinical suspicion is required for the diagnosis of psoas abscess. We also emphasises the importance of bacteriological confirmation of microorganism involved, although Staphylococcus aureus remains the commonest pathogen. We report an extremely rare case of PPA caused by Streptococcus milleri. Only one case has been reported in literature so far.

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae and the host cell

    OpenAIRE

    Gradstedt, Per Henrik,

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is een bacterie die in de menselijke keel-neusholte voorkomt. Vaak is zij ongevaarlijk, maar soms kan zij van leefomgeving veranderen en zich als invasieve ziekteverwekker door het lichaam verspreiden. Dan kan de bacterie longontsteking, bloedvergiftiging of hersenvliesontsteking veroorzaken. Kleine kinderen, mensen met een verstoord immuunsysteem en ouderen lopen het meeste risico op een pneumokokkenziekte. Het onderzoek van Henrik Gradstedt toont in vitro aan ho...

  1. Risposta adattativa allo stress in Streptococcus thermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Asterinou, Kleopatra

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus è uno dei batteri lattici più utilizzati nell’ industria alimentare per la produzione di cibi fermentati. In questo lavoro sono stati isolati mutanti di S. thermophilus di alcuni geni noti dalla letteratura per essere indotti in condizioni di stress di natura acida, termica ed osmotica, e di alcuni geni che codificano per prodotti implicati nel processo della trans-traduzione. Sono stati condotti esperimenti sui mutanti per studiarne il fenotipo in diverse condizion...

  2. Endocarditis por Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iago Villamil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las especies Streptococcus equi subsp. equi y S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus son especies zoonóticas típicamente patógenas de animales, especialmente en caballos. Es una causa excepcional de enfermedad en humanos. Presentamos un caso de endocarditis por S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus tras un contacto con equinos, con buena evolución con tratamiento antibiótico.

  3. Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered...... specific for S. pneumoniae hamper the exact identification of S. pneumoniae. Based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes of a collection of 634 streptococcal strains, identified by multilocus sequence analysis, we detected a cytosine at position 203 present in all 440 strains of S. pneumoniae but replaced...... by an adenosine residue in all strains representing other species of mitis group streptococci. The S. pneumoniae-specific sequence signature could be demonstrated by sequence analysis or indirectly by restriction endonuclease digestion of a PCR amplicon covering the site. The S. pneumoniae...

  4. Molecular characterization of a Streptococcus gallolyticus genomic island encoding a pilus involved in endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Danne, Camille; Entenza, Jos M; Mallet, Adeline,; Briandet, Romain; Dbarbouill, Michel; Nato, Farida; Glaser, Philippe; Jouvion, Grgory,; Moreillon, Philippe; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus gallolyticus is a causative agent of infective endocarditis associated with colon cancer. Genome sequence of strain UCN34 revealed the existence of 3 pilus loci (pil1, pil2, and pil3). Pili are long filamentous structures playing a key role as adhesive organelles in many pathogens. The pil1 locus encodes 2 LPXTG proteins (Gallo2178 and Gallo2179) and 1 sortase C (Gallo2177). Gallo2179 displaying a functional collagen-binding domain was referred to as the adhesin, whe...

  5. Purification, Characterization, Gene Cloning, Sequencing, and Overexpression of Aminopeptidase N from Streptococcus thermophilus A

    OpenAIRE

    Chavagnat, Frederic; Casey, Michael G.; Meyer, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    The general aminopeptidase PepN from Streptococcus thermophilus A was purified to protein homogeneity by hydroxyapatite, anion-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. The PepN enzyme was estimated to be a monomer of 95 kDa, with maximal activity on N-Lys–7-amino-4-methylcoumarin at pH 7 and 37°C. It was strongly inhibited by metal chelating agents, suggesting that it is a metallopeptidase. The activity was greatly restored by the bivalent cations Co2+, Zn2+, and Mn2+. Except for prolin...

  6. Effect of different types of tea on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Subramaniam; Uma Eswara; K R Maheshwar Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Context: If tea can be shown to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of Streptococcus mutans there can be a basis for using it as an agent for reducing caries. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of aqueous and organic extracts of three types of tea (green, oolong, and black tea) on the growth of S. mutans. Settings and Design: In vitro study. Material and Methods: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the three types of tea was done. Organic...

  7. DETERMINACION DE LA PORTACION DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B EN EMBARAZADAS DURANTE EL TERCER TRIMESTRE MEDIANTE INMUNOENSAYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abarzúa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B es una enfermedad de alta letalidad, y considerando además que la portación de este germen en nuestra población de embarazadas se acerca a 20%, es que, resulta muy importante disponer de algún test rápido y confiable para realizar screening. Este estudio evalúa el rendimiento de un inmunoensayo para pesquisa de Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas sin factores de riesgo y a fines del tercer trimestre. Los resultados muestran una baja sensibilidad y un bajo valor predictivo positivo para este método, lo que no lo hace recomendable para su implementación clínicaNeonatal sepsis of early onset by group B Streptococcus has a high mortality rate. Twenty percent of our pregnant population have vaginal colonization by this bacterial agent, so clinical practice require a fast and efficient screening test. This report checks a Group B Streptococcus immunoassay screening test in the last trimester for pregnant women without risk factors. The low sensitivity and low positive predictive value of the test make it not recomendable for clinical practice

  8. Recombination between Streptococcus suis ICESsu32457 and Streptococcus agalactiae ICESa2603 yields a hybrid ICE transferable to Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Emanuela; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna

    2015-07-01

    Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that reside in the chromosome but retain the ability to undergo excision and to transfer by conjugation. Genes involved in drug resistance, virulence, or niche adaptation are often found among backbone genes as cargo DNA. We recently characterized in Streptococcus suis an ICE (ICESsu32457) carrying resistance genes [tet(O/W/32/O), tet(40), erm(B), aphA, and aadE] in the 15K unstable genetic element, which is flanked by two ∼1.3kb direct repeats. Remarkably, ∼1.3-kb sequences are conserved in ICESa2603 of Streptococcus agalactiae 2603V/R, which carry heavy metal resistance genes cadC/cadA and mer. In matings between S. suis 32457 (donor) and S. agalactiae 2603V/R (recipient), transconjugants were obtained. PCR experiments, PFGE, and sequence analysis of transconjugants demonstrated a tandem array between ICESsu32457 and ICESa2603. Matings between tandem array-containing S. agalactiae 2603V/R (donor) and Streptococcus pyogenes RF12 (recipient) yielded a single transconjugant containing a hybrid ICE, here named ICESa2603/ICESsu32457. The hybrid formed by recombination of the left ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESsu32457 and the ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESa2603. Interestingly, the hybrid ICE was transferable between S. pyogenes strains, thus demonstrating that it behaves as a conventional ICE. These findings suggest that both tandem arrays and hybrid ICEs may contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in streptococci, creating novel mobile elements capable of disseminating new combinations of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:25935120

  9. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  10. Inhibition of transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae by lysogeny.

    OpenAIRE

    Moynet, D J; Tiraby, G J

    1980-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae R6X was lysogenized with bacteriophage 304 isolated after mitomycin induction of an ungrouped alpha-hemolytic streptococcus. Lysogenized pneumococci lost their capacity to undergo genetic transformation: transformability was restored after cells were spontaneously cured of their prophage. Both lysogens and nonlysogens produced activator substance (competence factor), and both bound deoxyribonucleic acid in a deoxyribonuclease-resistant form. However, nonlysogens retai...

  11. Infections Caused by the ‘Streptococcus milleri Group’

    OpenAIRE

    Beighton, D.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently the ‘Streptococcus milleri-group’ (SMG) was considered to be phenotypically heterogeneous4 yet genetically homogeneous, being classified as ‘Streptococcus anginosus’. ’ These organisms are isolated from a wide variety of clinical conditions including deep-seated abscesses (brain and liver), dental abscesses and infections of the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts.

  12. Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Mussi, Maria Carolina Martins; Fiorini, João Evangelista; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo; Schneedorf, José Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis against the cariogenic microorganism, Streptococcus mutans. For such purpose, a minimum inhibition concentration test of copaiba oil against S. mutans was performed, using the serial dilution in broth technique, with a negative control, a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine) and a 10% copaíba oil solution as a test. A minimum bactericidal concentration test with tubes presenting microbial inhibition was also conduced. In the minimum inhibitory concentration test, copaiba oil showed inhibition of bacterial growth at all concentrations tested up to 0.78 µL/mL of the 10% copaiba oil solution in the broth. In addition, the negative control had no inhibition, and the 0.12% chlorhexidine solution was effective up to 6.25 µL/mL in the broth. Copaiba oil showed a bacteriostatic activity against S. mutans at low concentrations, and could be a an option of phytotherapic agent to be used against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention of caries disease. PMID:22460312

  13. Chronic mastitis in cows caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojkić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in dairy cows is an economically important disease because it makes up 38% of all diseases that occur in intensive cattle breeding. Mastitis affects milk production, either temporarily or permanently, depending on the course of infection and type of pathogen agent. Regular and timely therapy of mastitis based on the application antimicrobials, apart from prophylaxis, is very important for good health of breeding stock. This paper presents the case of repeated mastitis in a cow, Holstein-Friesian breed, 5 years old, which did not respond to antibiotic therapy. Milk samples from each separate quarter of the udder were collected under aseptic conditions and sent to the laboratory for further bacteriological tests, for isolation and identification of pathogens, as well as to test pathogen resistance to some antibiotics. On the basis of bacteriological examinations, there was confirmed the presence of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, which showed sensitivity to ampicillin, cloxacillin and augmentin, intermediate resistance to tetracycline and resistance to kotrimeksazol.(cotrimoxazole-proveriti [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31085

  14. Parotiditis por Streptococcus Pyogenes: Presentacion de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila del S. López-Díaz

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available La glándula parótida es generalmente afectada por procesos inflamatorios. Su etiología se debe a infecciones primarias de la glándula o como complicación de infecciones sistémicas. Se reporta el Stafilococcus aureus como el agente causal más frecuente de parotiditis aguda supurada, y se señalan además otras bacterias y virus. Se presenta un niño de 9 años de edad con un proceso supurativo agudo de la parótida izquierda de un mes de evolución, con salida de abundante pus por el conducto de Stenon. Se realizó cultivo de la secreción e identificación de Streptococcus B hemolítico grupo A, a pesar de haber recibido antibioticoterapia previa. Se utilizó ampicillina y se tuvo en cuenta la sensibilidad in vitro; no presentó mejoría clínica, por lo que se decidió el empleo de la sialografía como alternativa terapéutica en este caso. Se obtuvo la resolución del proceso supurativo infeccioso y además se evidenció en este estudio la pérdida del estroma parotídeo.

  15. Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas: Prevalencia en el Hospital Nacional Alejandro Posadas Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: Prevalence at the Posadas Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Di Bartolomeo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (estreptococo grupo B de Lancefield es el microorganismo más frecuentemente involucrado en infección neonatal por transmisión vertical madre-feto. También es responsable de infecciones en mujeres embarazadas y adultos con enfermedades de base. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de portación de S. agalactiae en mujeres embarazadas que concurrieron al Hospital Posadas y determinar la sensibilidad a penicilina, eritromicina y clindamicina de los aislamientos. De las 1203 gestantes estudiadas, se aisló S. agalactiae en 113 muestras, con una prevalencia de 9,39%. Se realizaron las pruebas de sensibilidad a 87 de los 113 aislamientos. Todos ellos resultaron sensibles a penicilina y únicamente 2 cepas fueron resistentes a eritromicina y clindamicina (mecanismo MLS constitutivo. Resaltamos la importancia de conocer la resistencia a estos dos últimos agentes, en el caso de mujeres alérgicas a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos.Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus, is the most frequently microorganism involved in neonatal infections through the mother-fetus vertical transmission. It is also responsible for infections in pregnant women, and adults with underlying diseases. The objective of this work was to know the S. agalactiae carrier prevalence in pregnant women who attended to Posadas Hospital, and to study the susceptibility pattern of the isolates to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. From 1203 pregnant women studied, S. agalactiae was recovered in 113, which means a prevalence of 9.39%. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested to 87 isolates. All of them were susceptible to penicillin, and only 2 isolates were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (constitutive MLS mechanism. We emphasize the importance of knowing these last resistance, in the case of beta-lactam antibiotics allergic women.

  16. StreptoBase: An Oral Streptococcus mitis Group Genomic Resource and Analysis Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenning; Tan, Tze King; Paterson, Ian C; Mutha, Naresh V R; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Tan, Shi Yang; Old, Lesley A; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Choo, Siew Woh

    2016-01-01

    The oral streptococci are spherical Gram-positive bacteria categorized under the phylum Firmicutes which are among the most common causative agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) and are also important agents in septicaemia in neutropenic patients. The Streptococcus mitis group is comprised of 13 species including some of the most common human oral colonizers such as S. mitis, S. oralis, S. sanguinis and S. gordonii as well as species such as S. tigurinus, S. oligofermentans and S. australis that have only recently been classified and are poorly understood at present. We present StreptoBase, which provides a specialized free resource focusing on the genomic analyses of oral species from the mitis group. It currently hosts 104 S. mitis group genomes including 27 novel mitis group strains that we sequenced using the high throughput Illumina HiSeq technology platform, and provides a comprehensive set of genome sequences for analyses, particularly comparative analyses and visualization of both cross-species and cross-strain characteristics of S. mitis group bacteria. StreptoBase incorporates sophisticated in-house designed bioinformatics web tools such as Pairwise Genome Comparison (PGC) tool and Pathogenomic Profiling Tool (PathoProT), which facilitate comparative pathogenomics analysis of Streptococcus strains. Examples are provided to demonstrate how StreptoBase can be employed to compare genome structure of different S. mitis group bacteria and putative virulence genes profile across multiple streptococcal strains. In conclusion, StreptoBase offers access to a range of streptococci genomic resources as well as analysis tools and will be an invaluable platform to accelerate research in streptococci. Database URL: http://streptococcus.um.edu.my. PMID:27138013

  17. StreptoBase: An Oral Streptococcus mitis Group Genomic Resource and Analysis Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenning; Paterson, Ian C.; Mutha, Naresh V. R.; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Tan, Shi Yang; Old, Lesley A.; Jakubovics, Nicholas S.; Choo, Siew Woh

    2016-01-01

    The oral streptococci are spherical Gram-positive bacteria categorized under the phylum Firmicutes which are among the most common causative agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) and are also important agents in septicaemia in neutropenic patients. The Streptococcus mitis group is comprised of 13 species including some of the most common human oral colonizers such as S. mitis, S. oralis, S. sanguinis and S. gordonii as well as species such as S. tigurinus, S. oligofermentans and S. australis that have only recently been classified and are poorly understood at present. We present StreptoBase, which provides a specialized free resource focusing on the genomic analyses of oral species from the mitis group. It currently hosts 104 S. mitis group genomes including 27 novel mitis group strains that we sequenced using the high throughput Illumina HiSeq technology platform, and provides a comprehensive set of genome sequences for analyses, particularly comparative analyses and visualization of both cross-species and cross-strain characteristics of S. mitis group bacteria. StreptoBase incorporates sophisticated in-house designed bioinformatics web tools such as Pairwise Genome Comparison (PGC) tool and Pathogenomic Profiling Tool (PathoProT), which facilitate comparative pathogenomics analysis of Streptococcus strains. Examples are provided to demonstrate how StreptoBase can be employed to compare genome structure of different S. mitis group bacteria and putative virulence genes profile across multiple streptococcal strains. In conclusion, StreptoBase offers access to a range of streptococci genomic resources as well as analysis tools and will be an invaluable platform to accelerate research in streptococci. Database URL: http://streptococcus.um.edu.my. PMID:27138013

  18. Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevarathan J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer′s chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU/ml and < 10 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

  19. Uberolysin: a novel cyclic bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, Ruth E; Swanson, Kara M; Kleffmann, Torsten; Jack, Ralph W; Tagg, John R

    2007-05-01

    Streptococcus uberis is commonly found in the environment and in association with various bovine body sites and is a major cause of bovine mastitis. Moreover, S. uberis is known to produce a variety of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, antimicrobial agents that generally inhibit closely related bacterial species. In this respect, S. uberis strain 42 has previously been shown to produce a novel nisin variant named nisin U. This paper reports that, in addition to nisin U, S. uberis strain 42 produces a second bacteriocin that induces the lysis of metabolically active, susceptible target bacteria and which has therefore been named uberolysin. Isolation of the native active antimicrobial agent revealed that uberolysin is a 7048 Da peptide that is refractory to sequence analysis by Edman degradation. Transposon mutagenesis was used to generate a uberolysin-negative mutant of S. uberis 42 and sequencing of DNA flanking the insertion site revealed, in addition to the structural gene (ublA), several open reading frames likely to be involved in post-translational modification, transport and producer self-protection (immunity), and possibly in regulation of the biosynthetic gene cluster. In addition, a pair of direct repeats that may be involved in bacteriocin acquisition were identified; indeed, ublA could be identified in 18 % of tested S. uberis strains. Enzymic hydrolysis of uberolysin was used to confirm that ublA does indeed encode the precursor of uberolysin, that an unusually short leader sequence of only six amino acids is cleaved during processing of the mature peptide and that uberolysin is post-translationally covalently modified to form a head-to-tail monocycle. Thus, uberolysin is a unique cyclic bacteriocin, belonging to the same family of bacteriocins as enterocin AS-48 and circularin A. PMID:17464077

  20. Lack of SOS repair in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild-type strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were non-mutable by UV radiation and thymidine starvation. Moreover, UV-irradiated pneumococcal ?2 phages were not reactivated in an irradiated host. This suggests that, in pneumococcus, there is no efficient inducible repair process similar to the SOS repair described in detail for E. coli. We also report that mutations cannot be induced by a process thought to be linked to competence during transformation with isogenic wild-type DNA either on wild-type strains or in strains in which the hex function of excision and repair of mismatched bases is inactive. (orig.)

  1. DNA probe for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzi, G.; Oggioni, M.R.; Tomasz, A.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 287 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) were tested for their ability to undergo autolysis when treated with sodium deoxycholate. The test was positive for all but one isolate, strain DOC-1. This autolysis required the activity of an enzyme which is unique and characteristic of S. pneumoniae: a choline-dependent N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, the gene product of the lytA gene. We used lytA as a DNA probe to test the distribution of the autolysin gene a...

  2. Ciprofloxacin Dimers Target Gyrase in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Katherine A.; Pan, Xiao-Su; Kerns, Robert J.; Fisher, L. Mark

    2004-01-01

    We have examined the antipneumococcal activities of novel quinolone dimers in which ciprofloxacin was tethered to itself or to pipemidic acid by linkage of C-7 piperazinyl rings. Symmetric 2,6-lutidinyl- and trans-butenyl-linked ciprofloxacin dimers (dimers 1 and 2, respectively) and a pipemidic acid-ciprofloxacin dimer (dimer 3) had activities against Streptococcus pneumoniae strain 7785 that were comparable to that of ciprofloxacin, i.e., MICs of 2, 1, and 4 to 8 μg/ml versus an MIC of 1 to...

  3. [Necrotizing pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limelette, Anne; Guillard, Thomas; Boubee, Marie Laure; Petit, Jean Sbastien; Vernet-Garnier, Vronique; Grillon, Antoine; Toubas, Olivier; De Champs, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with a necrotizing pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. This complication often affects children and is relatively rare and unrecognized in adults. Its diagnosis is often difficult on chest-X-ray and need a chest computed tomography. No risk factors predisposing to necrosis are described in literature and its mortality is not different from pneumonia without necrosis. The serotype 3 is the most common type implicated in pneumococcal necrotizing pneumonia. Study of virulence factors of S. pneumoniae and various genetic polymorphisms of the host should allow a better understanding of this complication. PMID:26411916

  4. Ferrous iron transport in Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.L.; Arcenaeux, J.E.L.; Byers, B.R.; Martin, M.E.; Aranha, H.

    1986-12-01

    Radioiron uptake from /sup 59/FeCl/sub 3/ by Streptococcus mutans OMZ176 was increased by anaerobiosis, sodium ascorbate, and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), although there was a 10-min lag before PMS stimulation was evident. The reductant ascorbate may have provided ferrous iron. The PMS was reduced by the cells, and the reduced PMS then may have generated ferrous iron for transport; reduced PMS also may have depleted dissolved oxygen. It was concluded that S. mutans transports only ferrous iron, utilizing reductants furnished by glucose metabolism to reduce iron prior to its uptake.

  5. Streptococcus pyogenes vulvovaginitis in children in Nottingham.

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, F. E.; Slack, R. C.; Colman, G

    1991-01-01

    Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes from vaginal swabs of children with vulvovaginitis received at Nottingham Public Health Laboratory during 1986-9 were studied. A total of 159 isolates was made during the 4 years, increasing from 17 in 1986 to 64 in 1989 and accounting for 11% of all vaginal swabs received from children. The numbers of throat swabs yielding S. pyogenes also showed an increase from 974 in 1986 to 1519 in 1989. A winter peak of isolates was noted for both vaginal swabs and thr...

  6. Group B streptococcus induces trophoblast death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Amber; Chung, Kathy; Kocak, Hande; Bertolotto, Cristina; Uh, Andy; Hobel, Calvin J; Simmons, Charles F; Doran, Kelly; Liu, George Y; Equils, Ozlem

    2008-09-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the leading causes of neonatal infection; however the molecular mechanisms involved are not clearly known. Here we used high and low hemolytic GBS isolates and mutant GBS that lacks beta-hemolysin expression and showed that GBS infection or exposure to GBS hemolysin extract induces primary human trophoblast, placental fibroblast and JEG3 trophoblast cell line death, and that GBS-induced trophoblast death was beta-hemolysin dependent. The fibroblasts and trophoblasts provide an innate immune barrier between fetal and maternal circulation in the placenta. These data suggest that GBS may disrupt this barrier to invade fetal circulation. PMID:18599257

  7. Sodium/proton antiporter in Streptococcus faecalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kakinuma, Y

    1987-01-01

    Streptococcus faecalis, like other bacteria, accumulates potassium ions and expels sodium ions. This paper is concerned with the pathway of sodium extrusion. Earlier studies (D.L. Heefner and F.M. Harold, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:2798-2802, 1982) showed that sodium extrusion is effected by a primary, ATP-linked sodium pump. I report here that cells grown under conditions in which sodium ATPase is not induced can still expel sodium ions. This finding suggested the existence of an alternat...

  8. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of the confirmed necrotizing fasciitis caused by Group A Streptococcus in Yugoslavia was presented. Male patient, aged 28, in good health, suddenly developed symptoms and signs of severe infective syndrome and intensive pain in the axillary region. Parenteral antibiotic, substitution and supportive therapy was conducted along with the radical surgical excision of the necrotizing tissue. The patient did not develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome thanks to the early established diagnosis and timely applied aggressive treatment. He was released from the hospital as completely cured two months after the admission.

  9. Recombinant production of Streptococcus equisimilis streptokinase by Streptomyces lividans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallín Carlos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptokinase (SK is a potent plasminogen activator with widespread clinical use as a thrombolytic agent. It is naturally secreted by several strains of beta-haemolytic streptococci. The low yields obtained in SK production, lack of developed gene transfer methodology and the pathogenesis of its natural host have been the principal reasons to search for a recombinant source for this important therapeutic protein. We report here the expression and secretion of SK by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces lividans. The structural gene encoding SK was fused to the Streptomyces venezuelae CBS762.70 subtilisin inhibitor (vsi signal sequence or to the Streptomyces lividans xylanase C (xlnC signal sequence. The native Vsi protein is translocated via the Sec pathway while the native XlnC protein uses the twin-arginine translocation (Tat pathway. Results SK yield in the spent culture medium of S. lividans was higher when the Sec-dependent signal peptide mediates the SK translocation. Using a 1.5 L fermentor, the secretory production of the Vsi-SK fusion protein reached up to 15 mg SK/l. SK was partially purified from the culture supernatant by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. A 44-kDa degradation product co-eluted with the 47-kDa mature SK. The first amino acid residues of the S. lividans-produced SK were identical with those of the expected N-terminal sequence. The Vsi signal peptide was thus correctly cleaved off and the N-terminus of mature Vsi-SK fusion protein released by S. lividans remained intact. This result also implicates that the processing of the recombinant SK secreted by Streptomyces probably occurred at its C-terminal end, as in its native host Streptococcus equisimilis. The specific activity of the partially purified Streptomyces-derived SK was determined at 2661 IU/mg protein. Conclusion Heterologous expression of Streptococcus equisimilis ATCC9542 skc-2 in Streptomyces lividans was successfully achieved. SK can be translocated via both the Sec and the Tat pathway in S. lividans, but yield was about 30 times higher when the SK was fused to the Sec-dependent Vsi signal peptide compared to the fusion with the Tat-dependent signal peptide of S. lividans xylanase C. Small-scale fermentation led to a fourfold improvement of secretory SK yield in S. lividans compared to lab-scale conditions. The partially purified SK showed biological activity. Streptomyces lividans was shown to be a valuable host for the production of a world-wide important, biopharmaceutical product in a bio-active form.

  10. Comparative study of the effects of two bleaching agents on oral microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkmin, Yara Tardelli; Sartorelli, Renata; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo effects of bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide (Platinum/Colgate) or 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (Day White 2Z/Discus Dental) on mutans Streptococcus during dental bleaching. The products were applied on 30 volunteers who needed dental bleaching. In each volunteer, one of the two bleaching agents was used on both dental arches one hour a day for three weeks. Analysis of the bacterial counts was made by collecting saliva before (baseline values), during (7 and 21 days) bleaching treatments and 14 days posttreatment. The Friedman non-parametric analysis (alpha=0.05) found no differences in microorganism counts at different times for each group for both agents (p>0.05). The Mann Whitney nonparametric test (alpha=0.05) showed no differences in micro-organism counts for both agents (p>0.05). Different bleaching agents did not change the oral cavity mutans Streptococcus counts. PMID:16130860

  11. Erythromycine resistance in streptococcus pyogenes group a throat isolates in sukkur city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine and evaluate the predominant and common etiologic agent(s) of pharyngitis in Sukkur city and to determine their current antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends. Out of 257 throat samples, 149 positive for Streptococcus pyogenes Group A between November 2001 and May 2003 from adult population of Sukkur city were tested for their susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin and clairithromycin. The throat samples (swabs) were examined by Gram-stain, API system, and for presence of a hemolysis. Samples were further cultured on Muller Hinton agar for determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The sensitivity was performed on only those samples which were positive for S. pyogenes. Of all throat isolates, 95% were predominantly resistant to erythromycin. Their sensitivity towards clindamycin was 30%, azithromycin 44% and clairithromycin 76% respectively. The current pharyngeal isolates of S. pyogenes exhibited frequent and alarmingly high erythromycin resistance which may be due to both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms. (author)

  12. The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial photodynamic therapy: a comparison of two different photosensitizers and light sources

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neda, HAKIMIHA; Farzaneh, KHOEI; Abbas, BAHADOR; Reza, FEKRAZAD.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is the main etiological agent for dental caries. Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced as a new modality in bacterial decontamination. Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial PDT [...] using two different photosensitizers and light sources. Material and Methods: Standard suspensions of S. mutans were exposed to laser light at 662 nm and Radachlorin or LED 630 nm in combination with Toluidine blue O (TBO). Radiation-only groups, photosensitizer alone, and groups with no treatment were used as controls. Bacterial suspension from each treatment was subcultured onto the surface of Mueller-Hinton agar plates and bacterial growth was assessed. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p

  13. [Infectious aortitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizi, O; Jiber, H; Bouarhroum, A

    2016-02-01

    Infectious aortitis is a rare clinical entity that most often manifests itself by an aortic aneurysm. The syphilitic or tubercular forms can be subacute. When it is caused by Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus sp. or Streptococcus pneumoniae, the aortitis is acute with alarming symptoms. Germs found in most cases are Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus. S.pneumoniae rarely causes infectious aortitis. We report the case of a 75-year-old patient seen in an emergency setting for sudden-onset abdominal pain with fever. An abdominal angio-computed tomography (CT) scan showed a sacciform infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, with an inflammatory aspect and periaortic hematoma. Surgical cure was undertaken because of the impending rupture. An interposition aortic replacement graft was implanted. Blood cultures and bacteriological study of the aortic wall isolated a S.pneumoniae. The anatomical pathology study reported fibrin clot leukocyte remodeling of the aortic wall. An intravenous antibiotic regimen was started. Several organisms, including Streptococcus, can cause infectious aortitis. We found 36cases described in the literature in addition to our patient. PMID:26775836

  14. Streptococcus pluranimalium: A novel human pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryasinghe, Lasanthi; Sabbar, Saweera; Kazim, Yasmin; Awan, Liaqat Mahmood; Khan, Hammad Khan Nadir

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We present the first case of a subdural empyema caused by Streptococcus pluranimalium, in a healthy adolescent male as a possible complication of subclinical frontal sinusitis. Clinical features, diagnostic approach and management of subdural empyema are discussed. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 17-year-old male with a 2 day history of headache and nausea was referred to our Emergency Department (ED) as a case of possible meningitis. He was afebrile, lethargic and drowsy with significant neck stiffness on examination. Computerized tomography (CT) revealed a large frontotemporoparietal subdural fluid collection with significant midline shift. Subsequent contrast-enhanced CT established the presence of intracranial empyema; the patient underwent immediate burr-hole evacuation of the pus and received 7 weeks of intravenous antibiotics, recovering with no residual neurological deficit. DISCUSSION The diagnosis of subdural empyema as a complication of asymptomatic sinusitis in an immunocompetent patient with no history of fever or upper respiratory symptoms was unanticipated. Furthermore, the organism Streptococcus pluranimalium that was cultured from the pus has only been documented twice previously in medical literature to cause infection in humans, as it is primarily a pathogen responsible for infection in bovine and avian species. CONCLUSION Subdural empyema represents a neurosurgical emergency and if left untreated is invariably fatal. Rapid diagnosis, surgical intervention and intensive antibiotic therapy improve both morbidity and mortality. PMID:25437686

  15. Intracellular alpha-amylase of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C L; Russell, R R

    1998-09-01

    Sequencing upstream of the Streptococcus mutans gene for a CcpA gene homolog, regM, revealed an open reading frame, named amy, with homology to genes encoding alpha-amylases. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a strong similarity (60% amino acid identity) to the intracellular alpha-amylase of Streptococcus bovis and, in common with this enzyme, lacked a signal sequence. Amylase activity was found only in S. mutans cell extracts, with no activity detected in culture supernatants. Inactivation of amy by insertion of an antibiotic resistance marker confirmed that S. mutans has a single alpha-amylase activity. The amylase activity was induced by maltose but not by starch, and no acid was produced from starch. S. mutans can, however, transport limit dextrins and maltooligosaccharides generated by salivary amylase, but inactivation of amy did not affect growth on these substrates or acid production. The amylase digested the glycogen-like intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) purified from S. mutans, but the amy mutant was able to digest and produce acid from IPS; thus, amylase does not appear to be essential for IPS breakdown. However, when grown on excess maltose, the amy mutant produced nearly threefold the amount of IPS produced by the parent strain. The role of Amy has not been established, but Amy appears to be important in the accumulation of IPS in S. mutans grown on maltose. PMID:9721315

  16. Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis Comportamiento clinico y teraputico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Bu-Coifiu Fanego

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis admitted to the pediatric hospital of San Miguel del Padron, City of Havana in this period were assessed. RESULTS: Children under one year are the most frequently affected. Septic shock and brain edema were the most severe complications. Three patients died, implying that this disease has a serious course. Early treatment of brain edema is very important to reduce mortality. The elective drugs for treatment of these cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were vancomycin combined with cephalosporin, cefotaxime or ceftriaxone type. CONCLUSION: Patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis show clinical characteristics, complications, and sequels that are different to other bacterial meningoencephalitis, meaning that they could be helpful for physicians considering the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis.OBJETIVO: Existe un incremento de la meningoencefalitis producida por Streptococcus pneumoniae, despus de las campaas exitosas de vacunacin contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las caracteristicas clinicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio, las complicaciones y el manejo teraputico de los pacientes que sufrieron esta enfermedad desde 1993 a 2006. MTODO: Se estudiaron doce nios con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae ingresados en el Hospital Peditrico de San Miguel del Padrn, Ciudad de La Habana en este periodo. RESULTADOS: Los nios menores de un ao son los ms frecuentemente afectados. El shock sptico y el edema cerebral las mayores complicaciones. Tres pacientes fallecieron. Esta enfermedad ha tenido un curso serio. El tratamiento temprano del edema cerebral es muy importante para reducir la mortalidad. Los medicamentos de eleccin para tratar la meningoencefalitis por Strepcococcus pneumoniae en los casos estudiados fueron la vancomicina combinada con cefalosporina del tipo de la cefatoxima o la ceftriaxona. CONCLUSION: Los pacientes con meningoencefalitis por Streptoccocus pneumoniae exhibieron caractersticas clnica, complicaciones y secuelas las cuales se diferencian de otras meningoencefalitis bacterianas. Por eso estos elementos pueden ayudar a los mdicos en el diagnstico diferencial

  17. Teachable Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Borjigin, Ailiya

    2015-01-01

    Teachable Agent (TA) is a special type of pedagogical agent which instantiates the educational theory of Learning by Teaching. Soon after its emergence, research of TA becomes an active field, as it can solve the over scaffolded problem in traditional pedagogical systems, and encourage students to take the responsibility of learning. Apart from the benefits, existing TA design also has limitations. One is the lack of enough proactive interactions with students during the learning process, and...

  18. Liver abscess associated with an oral flora bacterium Streptococcus anginosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hava Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Viridans group Streptococcus, a bacterium of the oral flora has a low-virulence and rarely causes liver abscess. A 40-yearoldmale patient was admitted to the hospital complaining of high fever and malaise. A physical examination revealedpoor oral hygiene; there were caries on many teeth, and he had hepatomegaly. A hepatic abscess was identified inhis abdominal tomography. Streptococcus anginosus was isolated from the drainage material, and the bile ducts werenormal in his MRI cholangiography. An immunocompetent case of liver abscess caused by Streptococcus anginosusoriginated most probably from oral flora is presented here. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(1:33-35

  19. Parallel Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis to Pathogenic and Mutualistic Lifestyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Riley, David R; Jensen, Anders; Brüggemann, Holger; Tettelin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analysis shows that the species constitutes one evolutionary lineage in a cluster of the otherwise commensal Streptococcus mitis strains, with which...... humans live in harmony. In a comparative analysis of 35 genomes, including phylogenetic analyses of all predicted genes, we have shown that the pathogenic pneumococcus has evolved into a master of genomic flexibility while lineages that evolved into the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious...... the pneumococcal capsule emerged and conceivably will continue to increase and reveals a striking example of the fragile border between the commensal and pathogenic lifestyles. While genomic plasticity enabling quick adaptation to environmental stress is a necessity for the pathogenic streptococci...

  20. Antibiotic Selection Pressure and Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Albrich, Werner C; MONNET, DOMINIQUE L.; Harbarth, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    We correlated outpatient antibiotic use with prevalence of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSP), macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae (MRSP), and macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes (MRGAS) in 20 countries. Total antibiotic use was correlated with PNSP (r = 0.75; p < 0.001), as was macrolide use with MRSP (r = 0.88; p < 0.001) and MRGAS (r = 0.71; p = 0.004). Streptococcal resistance is directly associated with antibiotic selection pressure on a national level.

  1. Detection of Streptococcus pyogenes by Use of Illumigene Group A Streptococcus Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Henson, Amanda M.; Carter, Donna; Todd, Kathleen; Shulman, Stanford T; Zheng, Xiaotian

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the Illumigene group A Streptococcus assay was evaluated by comparing it to culture using 437 consecutive throat swabs. The Illumigene assay was also directly compared to PCR with 161 samples. This Illumigene assay is rapid and easy to perform. The assay also has high sensitivity (100%) compared to culture or PCR and high specificity (99.2%) compared to PCR. A total of 8.8% of the isolates were erythromycin resistant, and 6.9% were clindamycin resistant.

  2. Sunscreening Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  3. Molecular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic variability among Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from fish was characterized using single-stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) analysis of the intergenic spacer region (ISR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. A total of 49 S. agalactiae ...

  4. Unretrieved Gallstones Presenting as a Streptococcus bovis Liver Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Steerman, Paul H.; Steerman, Samuel N.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a case of a delayed liver abscess presenting two years after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. At exploration, the patient was found to have an unretrieved gallstone as the nidus for the Streptococcus bovis abscess.

  5. Streptococcus dysgalactiae: A Practical Summary for Controlling Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson-Wolfe, Christina S.; Currin, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae is considered both a contagious and an environmental pathogen. These organisms can spread from cow to cow at milking time and are also commonly found in the cow's environment.

  6. Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its close commensal relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Poulsen, Knud; Blomqvist, Trinelise; S. Håvarstein, Leiv; Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, Hervé; Sørensen, Uffe

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a member of the Mitis group of streptococci which, according to 16S rRNA-sequence based phylogenetic reconstruction, includes 12 species. While other species of this group are considered prototypes of commensal bacteria, S. pneumoniae is among the most frequent microbial...... killers worldwide. Population genetic analysis of 118 strains, supported by demonstration of a distinct cell wall carbohydrate structure and competence pheromone sequence signature, shows that S. pneumoniae is one of several hundred evolutionary lineages forming a cluster separate from Streptococcus...... oralis and Streptococcus infantis. The remaining lineages of this distinct cluster are commensals previously collectively referred to as Streptococcus mitis and each represent separate species by traditional taxonomic standard. Virulence genes including the operon for capsule polysaccharide synthesis and...

  7. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suanyuk, N.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal injection using 101 -108 CFU/ fish showed 20-90% mortality within 10 days and the LD50 was 3.60x101 - 1.72x107 CFU. Haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and blood cell values of infected and moribund fish were significantly decreased. Histopathological findings included the occurrence of inflammation, cells necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and the formation of granulomas in the infected organs.

  8. The homodimeric GBS1074 from Streptococcus agalactiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The homodimeric nature of the ESAT-6 homologue GBS1074 and the potential for fibre-like assemblies are revealed by the 2 resolution crystal structure. ESAT-6 is a well characterized secreted protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and represents the archetype of the WXG100 family of proteins. Genes encoding ESAT-6 homologues have been identified in the genome of the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae; one of these genes, esxA, has been cloned and the recombinant protein has been crystallized. In contrast to M. tuberculosis ESAT-6, the crystal structure of GBS1074 reveals a homodimeric structure similar to homologous structures from Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori. Intriguingly, GBS1074 forms elongated fibre-like assemblies in the crystal structure

  9. Acriflavine-resistant mutant of Streptococcus cremoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R P

    1977-09-01

    Selection for resistance to acriflavine in Streptococcus cremoris resulted in cross-resistance to the drugs neomycin, streptomycin, ethidium bromide, mitomycin C, and proflavine. Furthermore, the mutants showed resistance to lytic bacteriophages to which the parental strain was sensitive, and, unlike the parent, the mutants grew well at higher temperatures (40 degrees C). Revertants selected independently either for temperature sensitivity or for acriflavine sensitivity lost resistance to all the drugs and dyes but retained the bacteriophage resistance phenotype. The acriflavine-resistant mutation resulted in an increase in resistance by the bacterial cells to sodium dodecyl sulfate, a potent solvent of lipopolysaccharide and lipoprotein. It is suggested that the acriflavine resistance mutation determines the synthesis of a membrane substance resistant to higher temperatures. PMID:907329

  10. Acriflavine-Resistant Mutant of Streptococcus cremoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    Selection for resistance to acriflavine in Streptococcus cremoris resulted in cross-resistance to the drugs neomycin, streptomycin, ethidium bromide, mitomycin C, and proflavine. Furthermore, the mutants showed resistance to lytic bacteriophages to which the parental strain was sensitive, and, unlike the parent, the mutants grew well at higher temperatures (40C). Revertants selected independently either for temperature sensitivity or for acriflavine sensitivity lost resistance to all the drugs and dyes but retained the bacteriophage resistance phenotype. The acriflavine-resistant mutation resulted in an increase in resistance by the bacterial cells to sodium dodecyl sulfate, a potent solvent of lipopolysaccharide and lipoprotein. It is suggested that the acriflavine resistance mutation determines the synthesis of a membrane substance resistant to higher temperatures. PMID:907329

  11. Design of an Improved Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR Assay for Molecular Detection of Streptococcus pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mohseni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Streptococcus pneumoniae accounts for bacterial meningitis and is an important cause of morbidity among children and elderly. Control of this disease depends on rapid detection of the causative bacteria. The methods for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae are gram staining, culture, and serological tests. These tests are time consuming and are limited by antimicrobial agents leading to false negative results. Currently, molecular methods such as PCR are used routinely for detection of infectious organisms. This study was performed with the aim of designing an improved PCR assay for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae.Methods: The specific diagnostic primers were designed based on ply gene of the bacterium. After amplifying the target gene on the genomic DNA, the PCR product was cloned in pTZ57R/T plasmid and the confirmed pTZ-ply plasmid was used as positive control in next experiments. Sensitivity of the assay was determined by performing the PCR on 10-fold serial dilutions of pTZ-ply. Specificity of the assay was determined using the genomic DNA of other related or unrelated bacterial species.Results: The PCR, as expected, generated a 727bp amplicon. No PCR amplification was observed on the genome of negative controls. These findings indicate high specificity of the PCR. The lowest limit of detection of the assay in the detection of the ply gene was 250 copies in a 25l reaction.Conclusion: The high sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity of the designed assay suggested the assay as an appropriate test for use in clinical laboratories. The further evaluation of the assay using clinical samples or artificially contaminated materials will confirm the application of this assay in clinical settings.

  12. Purification and Some Properties of Diplococcin from Streptococcus cremoris 346

    OpenAIRE

    Davey, G. P.; Richardson, B. C.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven of 150 Streptococcus cremoris strains examined produced the bacteriocin diplococcin. The diplococcin activity spectrum was restricted to S. cremoris and Streptococcus lactis strains, and none of a wide range of other gram-positive or gram-negative strains were inhibited. The diplococcin produced by S. cremoris 346 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. Purified diplococcin was very unstable at room temperature and lost 75% of its activity after heatin...

  13. Horizontal gene transfer and recombination in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis

    OpenAIRE

    McNeilly, Celia L; McMillan, David J

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a human pathogen that colonizes the skin or throat, and causes a range of diseases from relatively benign pharyngitis to potentially fatal invasive diseases. While not as virulent as the close relative Streptococcus pyogenes the two share a number of virulence factors and are known to coexist in a human host. Both pre- and post-genomic studies have revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination occurs between these two or...

  14. Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Pernille; Worm, Signe Westring; Lundgren, Bettina; Konradsen, Helle Bossen; Benfield, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited.Martens P, Worm SW, Lundgren B, Konradsen HB, Benfield T. Department of Infectious Diseases 144, Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. pernillemartens@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: Invasive infection...... with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis and a determinant of disease outcome. METHODS: Retrospective review of 464 cases of invasive disease among...

  15. Responses of innate immune cells to group A Streptococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Fieber, Christina; Kovarik, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), also called Streptococcus pyogenes, is a Gram-positive beta-hemolytic human pathogen which causes a wide range of mostly self-limiting but also several life-threatening diseases. Innate immune responses are fundamental for defense against GAS, yet their activation by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and GAS-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is incompletely understood. In recent years, the use of animal models together with the powerful too...

  16. Liver abscess associated with an oral flora bacterium Streptococcus anginosus

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Hava; Yılmaz, Esmeray Mutlu; Karadag, Adil; Esen, Saban; Sunbul, Mustafa; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Viridans group Streptococcus, a bacterium of the oral flora has a low-virulence and rarely causes liver abscess. A 40-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital complaining of high fever and malaise. A physical examination revealed poor oral hygiene; there were caries on many teeth, and he had hepatomegaly. A hepatic abscess was identified in his abdominal tomography. Streptococcus anginosus was isolated from the drainage material, and the bile ducts were normal in his MRI cholangiogr...

  17. Liver abscess associated with an oral flora bacterium Streptococcus anginosus

    OpenAIRE

    Hava Yılmaz; Esmeray Mutlu Yılmaz; Adil Karadag; Saban Esen; Mustafa Sunbul; Hakan Leblebicioglu

    2012-01-01

    Viridans group Streptococcus, a bacterium of the oral flora has a low-virulence and rarely causes liver abscess. A 40-yearoldmale patient was admitted to the hospital complaining of high fever and malaise. A physical examination revealedpoor oral hygiene; there were caries on many teeth, and he had hepatomegaly. A hepatic abscess was identified inhis abdominal tomography. Streptococcus anginosus was isolated from the drainage material, and the bile ducts werenormal in his MRI cholangiography....

  18. Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Vincent P; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M; Highlander, Sarah K; Town, Christopher D.; Robert A. Burne; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolu...

  19. Evidence for Rare Capsular Switching in Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Elisabete Raquel; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mário

    2009-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule is a major antigenic factor in Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococcus [GBS]). Previous observations suggest that exchange of capsular loci is likely to occur rather frequently in GBS, even though GBS is not known to be naturally transformable. We sought to identify and characterize putative capsular switching events, by means of a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods, including pulsed-field gel electrophoretic profiling, multilocus seq...

  20. Streptococcus gordonii Modulates Candida albicans Biofilm Formation through Intergeneric Communication▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Caroline V.; d'Mello, Anita; Nobbs, Angela H.; Dutton, Lindsay C.; Vickerman, M Margaret; Jenkinson, Howard F

    2009-01-01

    The fungus Candida albicans colonizes human oral cavity surfaces in conjunction with a complex microflora. C. albicans SC5314 formed biofilms on saliva-coated surfaces that in early stages of development consisted of ∼30% hyphal forms. In mixed biofilms with the oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii DL1, hyphal development by C. albicans was enhanced so that biofilms consisted of ∼60% hyphal forms. Cell-cell contact between S. gordonii and C. albicans involved Streptococcus cell wall-anchored...

  1. Adhesion-related interactions of Actinomyces and Streptococcus biofilm bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Drobni, Mirva

    2006-01-01

    Adhesion of bacteria is a key event in biofilm formation and is mediated by bacterial adhesins recognising host or bacterial partner receptors. In oral biofilm formation, primary Actinomyces and Streptococcus colonizers adhere to salivary pellicle proteins such as proline-rich proteins (PRPs) as well as to mucosal surfaces. Subsequently, Actinomyces and Streptococcus strains and other bacteria, such as Veillonella, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas, adhere to each other. The nature of this comm...

  2. Transfer of plasmids by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.D.; Shoemaker, N.B.; Burdett, V.; Guild, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer of resistance plasmids occurred by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) similiarly to the process in other streptococcal groups. The 20-megadalton plasmid pIP501 mediated its own DNase-resistant transfer by filter mating and mobilized the 3.6-megadalton non-self-transmissible pMV158. Pneumococcal strains acted as donors or as recipients for intraspecies transfers and for interspecific transfers with Streptococcus faecalis. Transfer-deficient mutants of pIP501 have been found.

  3. Contribution of Glutathione Peroxidase to the Virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Brenot, Audrey; King, Katherine Y.; Janowiak, Blythe; Griffith, Owen; Caparon, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidases are widespread among eukaryotic organisms and function as a major defense against hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides. However, glutathione peroxidases are not well studied among prokaryotic organisms and have not previously been shown to promote bacterial virulence. Recently, a gene with homology to glutathione peroxidase was shown to contribute to the antioxidant defenses of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus). Since this bacterium causes numerous supp...

  4. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Delgadillo R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo1, Donaji Velasco-Arias2, David Diaz2, Katiushka Arevalo-Niño1, Marianela Garza-Enriquez1, Myriam A De la Garza-Ramos1, Claudio Cabral-Romero11Instituto de Biotecnologia, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, CIDICS, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 2Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, MexicoBackground and methods: Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities.Results: Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM.Conclusion: These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation.Keywords: zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles, antimicrobial agent, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans

  5. Suicin 90-1330 from a Nonvirulent Strain of Streptococcus suis: a Nisin-Related Lantibiotic Active on Gram-Positive Swine Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Lebel, Genevive; Vaillancourt, Katy; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections (meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia) in pigs and is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Antibiotics have long been used in the swine industry for disease treatment/prevention and growth promoters. This pattern of utilization resulted in the spread of antibiotic resistance in S. suis worldwide. Interestingly, pigs may harbor S. suis in their tonsils without developing diseases, while North American strains belonging to ...

  6. Immunogenicity and In Vitro and In Vivo Protective Effects of Antibodies Targeting a Recombinant Form of the Streptococcus mutans P1 Surface Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Milene Tavares; Souza, Renata D.; Ferreira, Ewerton L.; Robinette, Rebekah; Crowley, Paula J.; Rodrigues, Juliana F.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Ferreira, Lus C. S.; Ferreira, Rita C. C.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major etiologic agent of dental caries, a prevalent worldwide infectious disease and a serious public health concern. The surface-localized S. mutans P1 adhesin contributes to tooth colonization and caries formation. P1 is a large (185-kDa) and complex multidomain protein considered a promising target antigen for anticaries vaccines. Previous observations showed that a recombinant P1 fragment (P139512), produced in Bacillus subtilis and encompassing a functional dom...

  7. Effect of Fluoride, Chlorhexidine and Fluoride-chlorhexidine Mouthwashes on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and the Prevalence of Oral Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Sadat Sajadi; Mohammad Moradi; Abbas Pardakhty; Razieh Yazdizadeh; Faezeh Madani

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Streptococcus mutans is the main pathogenic agent involved in dental caries, and may be elimi-nated using mouthwashes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of fluoride, chlorhexidine, and fluoride-chlorhexidine mouthwashes on salivary S. mutanscount after two weeks of use and determine the prevalence of their side effects on the oral mucosa. Materials and methods. In this clinical trial, 120 12-14 year-old students were selected and divided into three...

  8. Evaluation of the Dade MicroScan MICroSTREP Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Panel with Selected Streptococcus pneumoniae Challenge Strains and Recent Clinical Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, J H; McElmeel, M L; Crawford, S A

    1998-01-01

    The MicroScan MICroSTREP panel is a recently marketed frozen broth microdilution panel for susceptibility testing of various streptococci, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The panel contains 10 antimicrobial agents in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 3% lysed horse blood, similar in concept to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) reference broth microdilution method for testing streptococci. A group of 210 isolates of S. pneumoniae were sel...

  9. Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, a Putative Receptor for the Adhesion of Streptococcus pneumoniae to the Vascular Endothelium of the Blood-Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Iovino, Federico; Molema, Grietje; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causative agent of bacterial meningitis. S. pneumoniae is thought to invade the central nervous system via the bloodstream by crossing the vascular endothelium of the blood-brain barrier. The exact mechanism by which pneumococci cross endothelial cell barriers before meningitis develops is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of PECAM-1/CD31, one of the major endothelial cell adhesion molecules, in S. pneumoniae adhesion to v...

  10. Effect of aqueous and alcoholic Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) extracts against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Shamarao, Supreetha; Battur, Hemant; Tikare, Shreyas; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Al Sayed, Mohammed Sayed Al Esawy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stevia (S. rebaudiana) a herb which has medicinal value and was used in ancient times as a remedy for a great diversity of ailments and sweetener. Leaves of Stevia contain a high concentration of Stevioside and Rebaudioside which are supposed to be sweetening agents. Aim: To compare the efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic S. rebaudiana extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: In the first part of the ...

  11. Differentiation of banding patterns between Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus isolates in rep-PCR using ERIC primer

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Tamami; Takada, Kazuko; Fujita, Kou; Ikemi, Takuji; Robert C. Osgood; Noel K. Childers; Michalek, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are considered to be important bacterial species in the initiation of human dental caries. Therefore, the establishment of a reliable genotyping method to distinguish S. mutans from S. sobrinus is of central importance. Objective: We assessed the usefulness of repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) using ERIC primer banding patterns in differentiating S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Design: Five S. mutans an...

  12. Human Fc(gamma) receptors for differentiation in throat cultures of group C "Streptococcus equisimilis" and group C "Streptococcus milleri".

    OpenAIRE

    Lebrun, L.; Guibert, M.; Wallet, P; de Maneville, M M; Pillot, J.

    1986-01-01

    The biochemical characteristics and the presence of human Fc(gamma) receptors of 52 throat isolates of group C beta-hemolytic streptococci were examined. Among these isolates, 38 were identified as "Streptococcus milleri" and 14 were identified as "Streptococcus equisimilis." The differentiation of group C "S. equisimilis" from "S. milleri" with identical group antigens was easy to perform by the measurement of the size of the hemolytic zone on a sheep blood agar plate in an anaerobic atmosph...

  13. Influence of time, toothpaste and saliva in the retention of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMIDT, Julia Caroline; Miriam BUX; Elisabeth FILIPUZZI-JENNY; KULIK, Eva Maria; Waltimo, Tuomas; Weiger, Roland; Walter, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The intraoral transmission of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species seems to be facilitated by contaminated toothbrushes and other oral hygiene devices. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the in vitro retention and survival rate of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes. The impacts of human saliva and antimicrobial toothpaste on these parameters were further evaluated. Material and Methods: Part I: Four toothbrushes (Colgate 3...

  14. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  15. In vitro comparison of antimicrobial activity of aqueous decoction of Coriandrum sativum, and Dentol Drop with chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Moradian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still remained as a major health problem. This problem has created a new interest to search for new antimicrobial agents from various sources including medicinal plants. Since limited data is available so far regarding the antibacterial effect of Coriandrum sativum seed and Dentol Drop against Streptococcus mutans, this study aims to assess this activity.This experimental study was conducted in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In vitro comparison of antimicrobial activity of aqueous decoction of Coriandrum sativum seed and Dentol drop with chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Positive and negative controls were considered. The data was statistically analyzed by applying Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey post-hoc test to compare the groups using SPSS software (version 17.Dentol drop showed a remarkable antibacterial activity, in comparison with chlorhexidine, against S. mutans in the disk diffusion (p value = 0.005, and broth microdilution assays (p value = 0.0001. Based on the results of this study, Coriandrum sativum seed did not posses any antibacterial property.Coriandrum sativum seed showed no anti-Streptococcus mutans activity. Dentol drop exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against S. mutans when tested in vitro. Dentol drop can be further studied as a preventive measure for dental caries.

  16. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Beheshti-Rouy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective:  The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM causing dental plaque in school-aged children.Material and Methods: A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35 using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35 using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: Sage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001. Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn’t significant.Conclusion: The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.Keywords: anti-bacterial agents; dental plaque; Salvia officinalis; Streptococcus mutans

  17. Group A Streptococcus tissue invasion by CD44-mediated cell signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywes, Colette; Wessels, Michael R.

    2001-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as group A Streptococcus, GAS), the agent of streptococcal sore throat and invasive soft-tissue infections, attaches to human pharyngeal or skin epithelial cells through specific recognition of its hyaluronic acid capsular polysaccharide by the hyaluronic-acid-binding protein CD44 (refs 1, 2). Because ligation of CD44 by hyaluronic acid can induce epithelial cell movement on extracellular matrix, we investigated whether molecular mimicry by the GAS hyaluronic acid capsule might induce similar cellular responses. Here we show that CD44-dependent GAS binding to polarized monolayers of human keratinocytes induced marked cytoskeletal rearrangements manifested by membrane ruffling and disruption of intercellular junctions. Transduction of the signal induced by GAS binding to CD44 on the keratinocyte surface involved Rac1 and the cytoskeleton linker protein ezrin, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. Studies of bacterial translocation in two models of human skin indicated that cell signalling triggered by interaction of the GAS capsule with CD44 opened intercellular junctions and promoted tissue penetration by GAS through a paracellular route. These results support a model of host cytoskeleton manipulation and tissue invasion by an extracellular bacterial pathogen.

  18. Stress responses in Streptococcus species and their effects on the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Park, Sang-Sang; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2015-11-01

    Streptococci cause a variety of diseases, such as dental caries, pharyngitis, meningitis, pneumonia, bacteremia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis. The natural niche of this genus of bacteria ranges from the mouth and nasopharynx to the skin, indicating that the bacteria will inevitably be subjected to environmental changes during invasion into the host, where it is exposed to the host immune system. Thus, the Streptococcus-host interaction determines whether bacteria are cleared by the host's defenses or whether they survive after invasion to cause serious diseases. If this interaction was to be deciphered, it could aid in the development of novel preventive and therapeutic agents. Streptococcus species possess many virulent factors, such as peroxidases and heat-shock proteins (HSPs), which play key roles in protecting the bacteria from hostile host environments. This review will discuss insights into the mechanism(s) by which streptococci adapt to host environments. Additionally, we will address how streptococcal infections trigger host stress responses; however, the mechanism by which bacterial components modulate host stress responses remains largely unknown. PMID:26502957

  19. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Colombian children with pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Aura Lucía Leal; Elizabeth Castañeda

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de las vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%). Se observó susceptibilidad disminuida a la...

  20. Eritrodermia con bacteriemia por Streptococcus dysgalactiae subespecie equisimilis en un paciente peditrico: reporte de un caso y revisin de la literatura / Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis bacteremic erythroderma in a pediatric patient: a case report and review of literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel A, Pantoja; Luis, Delpiano; Gia, Haquin.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por estreptococos pigenos, comunes en la edad peditrica, muestran en los ltimos aos un aumento en la identificacin de grupos no A o B. Presentamos el caso de una nia de 6 aos, con historia de fiebre de cinco das de evolucin asociado a una lesin eritrodrmica con hemocultivo [...] s positivos a Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (confirmado por biologa molecular-genotipificacin). Recibi terapia antimicrobiana por 14 das con -lactmicos con una evolucin favorable. Este estreptococo -hemoltico, presenta antgenos del grupo A, C y G de Lancefield y una gran similitud con Streptococcus pyogenes en relacin a los factores de virulencia. Ms frecuentemente aislado en adultos mayores, existen pocos casos descritos en poblacin peditrica. El tratamiento de primera lnea es con -lactmicos, para los cuales no hay reportes de resistencia antimicrobiana. Abstract in english Infections caused by pyogenic streptococci are commons in pediatric ages. However, in the last decades there has been an increase in the isolation of no A or B Streptococci. We report a case of a 6 years old girl, who presents fever for 5 days and erythroderma. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies [...] equisimilis was isolated from blood cultures. She receives antibiotics for 14 days with -lactams with a good clinic evolution with normalization of the inflammatory parameters. This agent -hemoltico presents antigens of Lancefield groups A, C and G, and a great similitude regarding virulence factors, with Streptococcus pyogenes. Frequently in old patients, few reported cases in pediatric population. First line treatment remains -lactam antibiotics for which there are no reports of increasing resistance.

  1. In vitro biofilm forming potential of Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine in China

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guo, Dawei; Wang, Liping; Lu, Chengping.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of bio?lms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by confoca [...] l laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.

  2. In vitro biofilm forming potential of Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Dawei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of bio?lms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.

  3. Perfusion agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging of regional brain metabolism and perfusion has been made possible by positron emission computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The latter may find more clinical application because it employs widely available rotating gamma cameras and does not require a cyclotron on site. However, highly lipophilic radiopharmaceuticals are needed to pass the blood-brain barrier. A previous researcher developed N-isopropyl-p[I-123]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP), which has a high extraction rate during the first pass and a constant brain activity between 20 and 60 min after injection. 123I-IMP has been studies intensively, but the agent is expensive and not readily available, which restricts its clinical use in the study of acute cerebral ischemia. This paper discusses how Thallium-201 diethyldithiocarbamate (201T1-DDC), a recently developed lipophilic agent, could possibly serve as an alternative to 123I-IMP

  4. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage. PMID:19280938

  5. Detecting agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Susan C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as...

  6. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Aura Lucía; Castañeda Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de las vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%). Se observó susceptibilidad disminuida a la...

  7. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A - Z Index FACT SHEET Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ... CR); and combinations of various agents. Where riot control agents are found and how they are used ...

  8. Simultaneous Specific Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Sputum Samples from Patients with Suspected Influenza by Multiplex-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Moazami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are the most common cause in bacterial pneumonia. Also these agents can cause bacterial superinfection in patients with influenza. Aim of this study was Simultaneous specific detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in sputum samples from patients with suspected influenza by Multiplex-PCR. Materials and methods: In this study, 170 sputum samples in patients with suspected influenza with age from 3 months to 70 years, received the Influenza Reference Laboratory Tehran Medical university were tested by Multiplex PCR. Amplified DNA fragments size was 394 bp for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 199 bp for Haemophilus influenzae and 416 bp for Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Results: of all 170 samples, 30 samples were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza. Of the 30 positive samples, 27 samples (15/8 % and 3 samples (1/7 % were positive for S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that Multiplex-PCR able to diagnosis desired bacteria in short time and so this molecular method can use as complementary technique especially when the results of gram stain, culture or serological test are negative.

  9. ESTUDIO DE SENSIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE 183 CEPAS DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE AISLADAS EN REGION VAGINO-PERINEAL DE EMBARAZADAS EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Belmar J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available fluctúa entre 1 y 3 por 1000 recién nacidos vivos. Se han entregado pautas dirigidas a reducir las tasas de sepsis precoz con la administración de antibióticos intraparto. Se ha propuesto como antibiótico de primera elección la Penicilina o Ampicilina, y Clindamicina para pacientes alérgicos a las primeras, pero también se ha planteado el uso de Eritromicina o Cefazolina. Se estudia la sensibilidad a estas drogas, en 183 cepas de Streptococcus Grupo B, aisladas en 917 embarazadas, al final del tercer trimestre, en región vaginal y pStreptococcus agalactiae (Grupo B Streptococcus is the main bacterial agent involved in neonatal sepsis of early onset (1 to 3/1000 live newborns. Has been given standards for reducing the rates of neonatal sepsis of early onset using antibiotics during labor. Has been proposed as the first choice Penicilin or Ampicilin and Clindamicin for allergic patients. Erythromycin and Cefazolin has been proposed to treat this patients. This report study sensibilities for this drugs in 183 Group B Streptococcus strains from vaginal and perianal region of 917 pregnant women during the last trimester

  10. Translation quality control is maintained by the penicillin resistance factor MurM in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Jennifer; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a causative agent of nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis and septicaemia. Penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae depends in part upon MurM, an aminoacyl-tRNA-ligase that attaches L-serine or L-alanine to the stem peptide lysine of Lipid II in cell wall....... pneumoniae tRNAPhe has an unusual U4:C69 mismatch in its acceptor stem that prevents editing by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS), leading to the accumulation of misaminoacylated tRNAs that could serve as substrates for translation or for MurM. Whilst the peptidoglycan layer of S. pneumoniae tolerates a...... combination of both branched and linear muropeptides, deletion of MurM results in a reversion to penicillin sensitivity in strains that were previously resistant. However, since MurM is not required for cell viability, the reason for its functional conservation across all strains of S. pneumoniae has remained...

  11. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  12. recA-Based PCR Assay for Accurate Differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Other Viridans Streptococci?

    OpenAIRE

    Zbinden, A; Khler, N; Bloemberg, G.V.

    2011-01-01

    Proper identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae by conventional methods remains problematic. The discriminatory power of the 16S rRNA gene, which can be considered the gold standard for molecular identification, is too low to differentiate S. pneumoniae from closely related species such as Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus oralis in the routine clinical laboratory. A 313-bp part of recA was selected on the basis of variability within the S. mitis group...

  13. Antigenic relationships among immunoglobulin A1 proteases from Haemophilus, Neisseria, and Streptococcus species.

    OpenAIRE

    Lomholt, H.; Kilian, M

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the antigenic variation and relationships of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases among different species and genera, we examined a comprehensive collection of serine type and metallo-type IgA1 proteases and corresponding antisera in enzyme neutralization assays. Sharing of neutralizing epitopes of metallo-type IgA1 proteases from Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus oralis and of serine type IgA1 proteases from Haemophilus and p...

  14. Discrimination of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Viridans Group Streptococci by Genomic Subtractive Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Nao; Seki, Mitsuko; Nakano, Yoshio; Kiyoura, Yusuke; Maeno, Masao; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2005-01-01

    Two oligonucleotide primer sets for the discrimination of Streptococcus pneumoniae from pneumococcus-like oral streptococcal isolates by PCR were developed. Genomic subtractive hybridization was performed to search for differences between Streptococcus pneumoniae strain WU2 and the most closely related oral streptococcus, Streptococcus mitis strain 903. We identified 19 clones that contained S. pneumoniae-specific nucleotide fragments that were absent from the chromosomal DNA of typical lab...

  15. Generic determinants of Streptococcus colonization and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobbs, Angela H; Jenkinson, Howard F; Everett, Dean B

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria within the genus Streptococcus have evolved to become exquisitely adapted to the colonization of humans and other animals. These bacteria predominantly live in harmony with their hosts, but all have capacity to cause disease should prevailing conditions allow. Streptococci express a myriad of colonization and virulence attributes that promote their survival at a variety of ecological sites. Many of these factors are surface-expressed adhesins that exhibit conservation at structural or functional levels across the genus. This reflects the importance of adherence interactions with a multitude of host substrata, such as epithelia or extracellular matrix components, to streptococcal survival. Other important factors are more restricted in their distribution, often conferring pathogenic capabilities associated with immune evasion or host tissue destruction. Evidence suggests that dissemination of these streptococcal attributes has frequently been driven by the movement of genetic material via lateral gene transfer, reflecting ecological pressures. Such recombination events have simultaneously facilitated extensive diversification, resulting in distinct tropisms at the species- or strain- level. These generic determinants offer significant potential as targets for combating streptococcal disease. However, this will depend upon better understanding of their mechanistic basis, and refined mapping of their distribution by epidemiological and metagenomic studies. PMID:25246075

  16. Sorption of streptococcus faecium to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed by which to study the sorption of Streptococcus faecium to soda-lime cover glasses. Conditions were chosen to minimize the influence on sorption of bacterial polymer production, passive sorption being studied rather than attachment mediated by metabolic activities. Sorption of S. faecium increased with increasing temperature (to 50degC), time, and cell concentration, but equilibrium apparently was not reached even after incubation for 8 hours or at a cell concentration of 3 x 1010 per ml. Sorption increased with solute molarity up to 0.1 M concentration of NaCl and KCl, indicating an effect of the electrical double layers on the apposition of cells to the glass surface. Desorption of bacteria could be obtained after multiple washings of the glasses in buffer or by the action of Tween 80, but not if sorbed bacteria were left in distilled water, various salt solutions, urea, or in suspensions of unlabelled bacteria. It was concluded that sorption occurred as a result of chemical interactions between the glass and the cell surface. Tween 80 at a concentration of 1 per cent inhibited sorption to 26 per cent of buffer controls, 2 M urea was less effective, and 1 M NaCl was without effect. It is suggested that hydrophobic interactions may be of importance in the binding of S. faecium to glass. (author)

  17. Ecology and pathogenicity of gastrointestinal Streptococcus bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Paul; Kwon, Young Min; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis is an indigenous resident in the gastrointestinal tracts of both humans and animals. S. bovis is one of the major causes of bacterial endocarditis and has been implicated in the incidence of human colon cancer, possibly due to chronic inflammatory response at the site of intestinal colonization. Certain feeding regimens in ruminants can lead to overgrowth of S. bovis in the rumen, resulting in the over-production of lactate and capsular polysaccharide causing acute ruminal acidosis and bloat, respectively. There are multiple strategies in controlling acute lactic acidosis and bloat. The incidence of the two diseases may be controlled by strict dietary management. Gradual introduction of grain-based diets and the feeding of coarsely chopped roughage decrease the incidence of the two disease entities. Ionophores, which have been used to enhance feed conversion and growth rate in cattle, have been shown to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen. Other methods of controlling lactic acid bacteria in the ruminal environment (dietary supplementation of long-chain fatty acids, induction of passive and active immune responses to the bacteria, and the use of lytic bacteriophages) have also been investigated. It is anticipated that through continued in-depth ecological analysis of S. bovis the characteristics responsible for human and animal pathogenesis would be sufficiently identified to a point where more effective control strategies for the control of this bacteria can be developed. PMID:19100852

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gr, D; Giz, B; Haselik, G; Esel, D; Smerkan, B; Over, U; Syletir, G; Ongen, B; Kaygusuz, A; Treci, K

    2001-10-01

    Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (750) to penicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole isolated in 4 Turkish hospitals between 1996 and 1999 was evaluated according to year of isolation, patients' age groups and specimen. Penicillin susceptibility was determined by E-test strips and the other antibiotics were tested by disk diffusion test following the NCCLS guidelines in each center. Overall high and intermediate resistance to penicillin was 3% and 29%, respectively. There was a significant difference (p<0.001) between the centers with regard to penicillin resistance. However, there was no significant increase in resistance by year. Penicillin resistance varied significantly among children and adults (36% versus 25%) and according to the specimen. Highest rate of penicillin resistance was observed in respiratory specimens (36%) followed by ear exudates (33.5%). In blood isolates, resistance to penicillin was 28.6%. Overall resistance to erythromycin was 8%, to chloramphenicol 5% and to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 47%. Although overall penicillin resistance in these Turkish S. pneumoniae isolates is high, resistance rates vary in each center and have not increased from 1996 to 1999. PMID:11760219

  19. Ornithine transport and exchange in Streptococcus lactis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 appeared to accumulate [14C]ornithine to a high concentration in the absence of an exogenous energy source. However, analysis of intracellular amino acid pool constituents and results of transport experiments revealed that the accumulation of ornithine represented a homoexchange between extracellular [14C]ornithine and unlabeled ornithine in the cell. The energy-independent exchange of ornithine was not inhibited by proton-conducting uncouplers or by metabolic inhibitors. Intracellular [14C]ornithine was retained by resting cells after suspension in a buffered medium. However, addition of unlabeled ornithine to the suspension elicited rapid exit of labeled amino acid. The initial rate of exist of [14C]ornithine was dependent on the concentration of unlabeled ornithine in the medium, but this accelerative exchange diffusion process caused no net loss of amino acid. By contrast, the presence of a fermentable energy source caused a rapid expulsion of and new decrease in the concentration of intracellular ornithine. Kinetic analyses of amino acid transport demonstrated competitive inhibition between lysine and ornithine, and data obtained by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography established the heteroexchange of these basic amino acids. The effects of amino acids and of ornithine analogs on both entry and exit of [14C]ornithine have been examined. The data suggest that common carrier mediates the entry and exchange of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in cells of S. lactis

  20. Pericarditis purulenta primaria por Streptococcus pneumoniae, a propsito de un caso clnico Primary purulent pericarditis by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Case-report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO DONOSO F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en da la pericarditis purulenta (PP es una patologa poco frecuente, pero de pronstico grave. Comunicamos el caso clnico de un paciente de 3 meses, sano previamente. Consult por palidez, rechazo alimentario y dificultad respiratoria de pocas horas de evolucin. La radiografa de trax demostr cardiomegalia. Evolucion hacia shock cardiognico por taponamiento cardaco. Recibi inicialmente expansores de volumen y drogas vasoactivas. Antibioterapia con vancomicina y ceftriaxona. Ecocar-diograma objetiv derrame pericrdico extenso, complementado con TAC que descart foco infeccioso endotorxico. Se realiz pericardiocentesis y luego ventana pericrdica. Se aisl en hemocultivo Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensible a penicilina. Luego de drenaje quirrgico y control de infeccin present evolucin favorable. No se encontr sitio infeccioso extrapericrdico. Complet tres semanas de tratamiento antibitico. Estudio inmunolgico fue normal. La PP es observada raramente en individuos sanos. La presentacin en este caso fue de horas, por un agente inhabitual y de extrema gravedad. Un diagnstico precoz, en conjunto con un tratamiento mdico-quirrgico es fundamental, como la mejor forma de evitar secuelas.Background: Purulent pericarditis has become a rare clinical entity since the onset of antimicrobial therapy and has a poor outcome in the majority of cases. Case-report: A healthy 3 month-old patient admitted with dyspnea, pallor and anorexia, developing cardiogenic shock due to cardiac tamponade. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly. He required mechanical ventilation, volume resuscitation and vasoactive drugs. Echocardiogram showed a large pericardial effusion, CT sean ruled out lung and mediastinal infection. Pericardial drainage was performed and Vancomycin plus Ceftriaxone were initiated, with a positive blood culture for Penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. The evolution was favourable after surgical drainage and controlling the infection. No extraperdicardial infection was found. He received 3 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Immunological studies were normal. Conclusin: Primary purulent pericarditis is uncommon, so early detection and treatment of this life-threatening condition may lead to a good outcome.

  1. Pericarditis purulenta primaria por Streptococcus pneumoniae, a propsito de un caso clnico / Primary purulent pericarditis by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Case-report and literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALEJANDRO, DONOSO F; FRANCO, DAZ R; KATALINA, BERTRN S; PABLO, CRUCES R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en da la pericarditis purulenta (PP) es una patologa poco frecuente, pero de pronstico grave. Comunicamos el caso clnico de un paciente de 3 meses, sano previamente. Consult por palidez, rechazo alimentario y dificultad respiratoria de pocas horas de evolucin. La radiografa de trax demos [...] tr cardiomegalia. Evolucion hacia shock cardiognico por taponamiento cardaco. Recibi inicialmente expansores de volumen y drogas vasoactivas. Antibioterapia con vancomicina y ceftriaxona. Ecocar-diograma objetiv derrame pericrdico extenso, complementado con TAC que descart foco infeccioso endotorxico. Se realiz pericardiocentesis y luego ventana pericrdica. Se aisl en hemocultivo Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensible a penicilina. Luego de drenaje quirrgico y control de infeccin present evolucin favorable. No se encontr sitio infeccioso extrapericrdico. Complet tres semanas de tratamiento antibitico. Estudio inmunolgico fue normal. La PP es observada raramente en individuos sanos. La presentacin en este caso fue de horas, por un agente inhabitual y de extrema gravedad. Un diagnstico precoz, en conjunto con un tratamiento mdico-quirrgico es fundamental, como la mejor forma de evitar secuelas. Abstract in english Background: Purulent pericarditis has become a rare clinical entity since the onset of antimicrobial therapy and has a poor outcome in the majority of cases. Case-report: A healthy 3 month-old patient admitted with dyspnea, pallor and anorexia, developing cardiogenic shock due to cardiac tamponade. [...] Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly. He required mechanical ventilation, volume resuscitation and vasoactive drugs. Echocardiogram showed a large pericardial effusion, CT sean ruled out lung and mediastinal infection. Pericardial drainage was performed and Vancomycin plus Ceftriaxone were initiated, with a positive blood culture for Penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. The evolution was favourable after surgical drainage and controlling the infection. No extraperdicardial infection was found. He received 3 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Immunological studies were normal. Conclusin: Primary purulent pericarditis is uncommon, so early detection and treatment of this life-threatening condition may lead to a good outcome.

  2. Streptococcus mutans in denture stomatitis patients under antifungal therapy =Streptococcus mutans em pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos, Laurylene César de S. et al.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Verificar o número de Streptococcus mutans em saliva de pacientes com estomatite protética antes e após a terapia antifúngica. Metodologia: Após exame clínico de 93 pacientes, 47 foram selecionados para exame micológico e desta amostra foram selecionados trinta pacientes: 15 com diagnóstico positivo e 15 com diagnóstico negativo de candidose foram avaliados para contagem de S. mutans, determinação de fluxo salivar e capacidade tampão. Higiene bucal e da prótese, tempo de confecção, tipo de lesão e dados salivares foram relacionados com características clínicas e laboratoriais de Candida. Resultados: As lesões frequentes foram dos tipos I (43,5% e II (53,5%. A quantidade de S. mutans foi seis vezes maior em pacientes com candidose e foi associada com baixo fluxo salivar e higiene oral deficiente. Após a terapia, a redução de S. mutans foi verificada particularmente em pacientes com fluxo salivar normal. Os valores variaram de 0,01 a 3,88 UFC/ml x 104. Conclusão: Os dados sugerem que os Streptococcus colaboram com Candida spp na etiopatogenia da estomatite protética. O uso de agentes antimicrobianos orais pode propiciar efeito benéfico para pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica e que apresentam higiene oral deficiente e parâmetros salivares desfavoráveis.

  3. Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina / Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flvia, Rossi; Maria Renata Gomes, Franco; Heleni Mota de Pina, Rodrigues; Denise, Andreazzi.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentrao inibitria mnima (CIM) de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Mtodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 [...] e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clnicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de So Paulo, em So Paulo (SP). Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratrio e de amostras de sangue no relacionadas a infeces menngeas e foram testados quanto suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretaes categricas de CIM foram baseadas em padres atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treate [...] d, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clnicas complex of the University of So Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of So Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC

  4. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Arash; Aghayan, Shabnam; Zaker, Saeed; Shakeri, Mahdieh; Entezari, Navid; Lawaf, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20). Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100? of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100? of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.02?mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3?mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 0.04?mg for S. mutans and 0.6?mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms. PMID:26347778

  5. In-vitro antibacterial study of zinc oxide nanostructures on Streptococcus sobrinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Rahman, Rosliza Abd

    2014-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanostructures were prepared using a pilot plant of zinc oxide boiling furnace. Generally, it produced two types of nanostructures different in morphology; one is rod-like shaped (ZnO-1) and a plate-like shape (ZnO-2). The properties of ZnO were studied by structural, optical and morphological using XRD, PL and FESEM respectively. The XRD patterns confirmed the wurtzite structures of ZnO with the calculated crystallite size of 41 nm (ZnO-1) and 42 nm (ZnO-2) using Scherrer formula. The NBE peaks were determined by photoluminescence spectra which reveal peak at 3.25 eV and 3.23 eV for ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 respectively. Prior to that, the morphologies for both ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 were demonstrated from FESEM micrographs. Subsequently the antibacterial study was conducted using in-vitro broth dilution technique towards a gram positive bacterium Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 33478) to investigate the level of antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanostructures as antibacterial agent. Gradual increment of ZnO concentrations from 10-20 mM affected the inhibition level after twenty four hours of incubation. In conjunction with concentration increment of ZnO, the percentage inhibition towards Streptococcus sobrinus was also increased accordingly. The highest inhibition occurred at 20 mM of ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 for 98% and 77% respectively. It showed that ZnO has good properties as antibacterial agent and relevancy with data presented by XRD, PL and FESEM were determined.

  6. Simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus sp. by polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bacterial meningits Detecção simultânea da Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae e Streptococcus sp. pela reação em cadeia da polimerase no diagnóstico das meningites bacterianas

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Failace; Mario Wagner; Marisa Chesky; Rosana Scalco; Luiz Fernando Jobim

    2005-01-01

    The simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus sp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, as well as the applicability of PCR as a routine test. A cohort study was carried out with 182 children (2 months to 12 years of age) with suspicion of bacterial meningitis. Routine tests identified the etiologic agent in 65/84 children whose clinical status and laboratory findings suggested the presence ...

  7. Humoral Immunity to Commensal Oral Bacteria in Human Infants: Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Antibodies Reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the First Two Years of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Michael F.; Bryan, Stacey; Evans, Mishell K.; Pearce, Cheryl L.; Sheridan, Michael J; Sura, Patricia A.; Wientzen, Raoul L.; Bowden, George H. W.

    1999-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to age 2 years were analyzed. Low levels of salivary SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of all four species were detected within the first month after birth, even though S. mutans an...

  8. An outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae in an Italian nursing home.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Papalia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of community-acquired pneumonia worldwide; pneumonia occurs sporadically in most cases, but rare outbreaks have been reported. We  describe an outbreak occurred in a 21-guests nursing home for elders in Aosta (Italy; outbreak occurred in april 2014 over a 2 weeks period, resulting in 12 out 20 guests affected (all with high fever and respiratory symptoms, two deaths (at home, nine patients referred  to Hospital Emergency Room, and eight admissions. Urinary streptococcus antigen was positive in seven out of eight patient tested. None of the nursing home guests were vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniaeThe Hospital Medical Direction and Public Health Service gave support and adopted strategies to contain the outbreak spread.We underline the need for pneumococcal vaccination in nursing homes/ Long-term care facilities; accurate check of hygiene behaviours in those setting is also mandatory.   

  9. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  10. Group B streptococcal neonatal infections in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil / Infeco neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernani, MIURA; Maria Cristina, MARTIN.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Streptococcus do grupo B o principal agente etiolgico responsvel pela sepse neonatal na Amrica do Norte. OBJETIVOS: Relatar 15 casos de infeco neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B (Streptococus agalactiae) ocorridos na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal de um hospital pbl [...] ico e universitrio. MTODO: O estudo foi realizado no Hospital de Clnicas de Porto Alegre no perodo de 1 de janeiro de 1996 a 30 de junho de 1999. O diagnstico de infeco neonatal foi feito a partir do isolamento e identificao de Streptococcus do grupo B em hemocultura combinado com alteraes clnicas e laboratoriais sugestivas de sepse. RESULTADOS: Foram detectados quinze casos de infeco neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B, sendo onze casos de sepse de origem precoce, dois casos de bacteremia oculta e dois casos de sepse de origem tardia. Oito casos tiveram choque sptico (53%), oito casos com pneumonia (53%) e quatro casos com meningite (27%). Quatorze casos foram diagnosticados a partir da hemocultura e um caso atravs da presena desta bactria no exame antomo-patolgico do pulmo. Treze casos (87%) foram diagnosticados antes de trs dias de vida. Ocorreram trs bitos (20%) e trs pacientes com meningite ficaram com seqelas neurolgicas. CONCLUSO: O Streptococcus do Grupo B uma das bactrias mais importantes na etiologia da sepse neonatal de incio precoce em nosso hospital com elevada mortalidade e tambm com elevada morbidade. Entretanto, no se conhece sua incidncia em outros hospitais. So necesssrios outros estudos para determinar seu papel na sepse neonatal e assim estabelecer diferentes estratgias para sua reduo. Abstract in english Group B Streptococcus is the most common pathogen found in neonatal sepsis in North America. OBJECTIVES: We describe 15 cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public and teaching hospital. METHODS: We conducted a study [...] at Hospital de Clnicas de Porto Alegre, from January 1st, 1996 to June 30, 1999. Diagnosis of neonatal infection was established according to the findings of Group B Streptococcus in blood culture associated with alterations resembling sepsis on the basis of clinical picture and laboratory findings. RESULTS: Fifteen cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus were detected. Eleven cases consisted of early-onset sepsis, 2 cases of occult bacteremia and 2 cases of late-onset sepsis. Eight cases had septic shock (53%), 8 cases had pneumonia (53%), and 4 cases had meningitis (27%). Fourteen cases were diagnosed from a positive blood culture, and 1 case from evidence of these bacteria in pulmonary anatomopathological examination. Thirteen cases (87%) were diagnosed before 72 hours of life. We had 3 deaths (20%), and 3 cases of meningitis developing neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus Group B is one of the most important pathogens in the etiology of early-onset neonatal sepsis at our hospital, with high mortality and morbidity. However, we do not know the incidence of GBS neonatal infections at other hospitals. More data are needed to establish a basis for trials of different strategies to reduce these infections.

  11. Gene cloning and characterization of MdeA, a novel multidrug efflux pump in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Cho, Eun Ji; Joo, Seoung-Je; Chung, Jung-Min; Son, Byoung Yil; Yum, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young-Man; Kwon, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Byung-Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Eun-Woo

    2013-03-01

    Multidrug resistance, especially multidrug efflux mechanisms that extrude structurally unrelated cytotoxic compounds from the cell by multidrug transporters, is a serious problem and one of the main reasons for the failure of therapeutic treatment of infections by pathogenic microorganisms as well as of cancer cells. Streptococcus mutans is considered one of the primary causative agents of dental caries and periodontal disease, which comprise the most common oral diseases. A fragment of chromosomal DNA from S. mutans KCTC3065 was cloned using Escherichia coli KAM32 as host cells lacking major multidrug efflux pumps. Although E. coli KAM32 cells were very sensitive to many antimicrobial agents, the transformed cells harboring a recombinant plasmid became resistant to several structurally unrelated antimicrobial agents such as tetracycline, kanamycin, rhodamin 6G, ampicillin, acriflavine, ethidium bromide, and tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. This suggested that the cloned DNA fragment carries a gene encoding a multidrug efflux pump. Among 49 of the multidrug-resistant transformants, we report the functional gene cloning and characterization of the function of one multidrug efflux pump, namely MdeA from S. mutans, which was expressed in E. coli KAM32. Judging from the structural and biochemical properties, we concluded that MdeA is the first cloned and characterized multidrug efflux pump using the proton motive force as the energy for efflux drugs. PMID:23462018

  12. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium

  13. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium.

  14. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae: Emergence and Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lance E; Robinson, D Ashley; McDaniel, Larry S

    2016-01-01

    While significant protection from pneumococcal disease has been achieved by the use of polysaccharide and polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines, capsule-independent protection has been limited by serotype replacement along with disease caused by nonencapsulatedStreptococcus pneumoniae(NESp). NESp strains compose approximately 3% to 19% of asymptomatic carriage isolates and harbor multiple antibiotic resistance genes. Surface proteins unique to NESp enhance colonization and virulence despite the lack of a capsule even though the capsule has been thought to be required for pneumococcal pathogenesis. Genes for pneumococcal surface proteins replace the capsular polysaccharide (cps) locus in some NESp isolates, and these proteins aid in pneumococcal colonization and otitis media (OM). NESp strains have been isolated from patients with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal disease, but noninvasive diseases, specifically, conjunctivitis (85%) and OM (8%), are of higher prevalence. Conjunctival strains are commonly of the so-called classical NESp lineages defined by multilocus sequence types (STs) ST344 and ST448, while sporadic NESp lineages such as ST1106 are more commonly isolated from patients with other diseases. Interestingly, sporadic lineages have significantly higher rates of recombination than classical lineages. Higher rates of recombination can lead to increased acquisition of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, increasing the risk of disease and hindering treatment. NESp strains are a significant proportion of the pneumococcal population, can cause disease, and may be increasing in prevalence in the population due to effects on the pneumococcal niche caused by pneumococcal vaccines. Current vaccines are ineffective against NESp, and further research is necessary to develop vaccines effective against both encapsulated and nonencapsulated pneumococci. PMID:27006456

  15. Effect of Plasmid Incompatibility on DNA Transfer to Streptococcus cremoris

    OpenAIRE

    Lelie, Daniel van der; van der Vossen, Jos M.B.M; Venema, Gerard

    1988-01-01

    Several Streptococcus cremoris strains were used in protoplast transformation and interspecific protoplast fusion experiments with Streptococcus lactis and Bacillus subtilis, with pGKV110, pGKV21, and ΔpAMβ1 as the marker plasmids. ΔpAMβ1 is a 15.9-kilobase nonconjugative, deletion derivative of pAMβ1, which is considerably larger than the pGKV plasmids (approximately 4.5 kilobases). In general, ΔpAMβ1 was transferred more efficiently than the pGKV plasmids. Using electroporation, we were abl...

  16. Immunoasssay Chromatographic Antigen Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Pharyngitis in Children: A Cross/ Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Noorbakhsh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS is an important pharyngotonsillitis etiologic agent in children. The objective of this study was diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis based on rapid antigen detection test and conventional pharyngeal culture.Materials and Methods: The rapid GABHS antigen detection test was compared to culture on blood agar, the gold standard for the diagnosis of this etiologic agent.Results: Streptococcal antigen was detected in pharyngeal specimens of 34.5% of cases by rapid strip test. We detected group A Streptococcus in 17.2% of pharyngeal culture. There was no agreement between two methods ( PV < 0.1. The negative pharyngeal culture results are probably due to antibiotic usage in 43.2 % of patients. Positive rapid test results in pharyngeal swab was age dependent ( P < 0.05. There was good correlation between observing the "petechia in pharynx of patients" and positive rapid test in pharyngeal swab (P < 0.004. Throat culture results were relatated to previous antibiotic usage ( P < 0.03.Conclusion: The rapid test in pharyngeal swab is helpful for rapid diagnosis and treatment of GABHS pharyngitis. Diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis based on soley clinical findings is misleading in the majority of cases. Petechia observed in pharynx of the cases was highly predictive of streptococcal pharyngitis.

  17. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Ayako; Furukawa, Soichi; Fujita, Shuhei; Mitobe, Jiro; Kawarai, Taketo; Narisawa, Naoki; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kosono, Saori; Yoneda, Saori; Watanabe, Haruo; Morinaga, Yasushi; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2011-03-01

    The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation were purified from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9759 and HT9R culture supernatants using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis was performed, and the results were compared to databases. The S. salivarius HT9R genome sequence was determined and used to indentify candidate proteins for inhibition. The candidates inhibiting biofilms were identified as S. salivarius fructosyltransferase (FTF) and exo-beta-d-fructosidase (FruA). The activity of the inhibitors was elevated in the presence of sucrose, and the inhibitory effects were dependent on the sucrose concentration in the biofilm formation assay medium. Purified and commercial FruA from Aspergillus niger (31.6% identity and 59.6% similarity to the amino acid sequence of FruA from S. salivarius HT9R) completely inhibited S. mutans GS-5 biofilm formation on saliva-coated polystyrene and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Inhibition was induced by decreasing polysaccharide production, which is dependent on sucrose digestion rather than fructan digestion. The data indicate that S. salivarius produces large quantities of FruA and that FruA alone may play an important role in multispecies microbial interactions for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in the oral cavity. PMID:21239559

  18. Streptococcus oligofermentans Inhibits Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms at Both Neutral pH and Cariogenic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xudong; de Soet, Johannes Jacob; Tong, Huichun; Gao, Xuejun; He, Libang; van Loveren, Cor; Deng, Dong Mei

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide (HP). Since pH is a critical factor in caries formation, we aimed to study the influence of pH on the competition between S. oligofermentans and S. mutans in biofilms. To this end, S. mutans and S. oligofermentans were inoculated alone or mixed at 1:1 ratio in buffered biofilm medium in a 96-well active attachment model. The single- and dual-species biofilms were grown under either constantly neutral pH or pH-cycling conditions. The latter includes two cycles of 8 h neutral pH and 16 h pH 5.5, used to mimic cariogenic condition. The 48 h biofilms were analysed for the viable cell counts, lactate and HP production. The last two measurements were carried out after incubating the 48 h biofilms in buffers supplemented with 1% glucose (pH 7.0) for 4 h. The results showed that S. oligofermentans inhibited the growth of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms under both tested pH conditions. The lactic acid production of dual-species biofilms was significantly lower than that of single-species S. mutans biofilms. Moreover, dual-species and single-species S. oligofermentans biofilms grown under pH-cycling conditions (with a 16 h low pH period) produced a significantly higher amount of HP than those grown under constantly neutral pH. In conclusion, S. oligofermentans inhibited S. mutans in biofilms not only under neutral pH, but also under pH-cycling conditions, likely through HP production. S. oligofermentans may be a compelling probiotic candidate against caries. PMID:26114758

  19. PREVALENCIA DE COLONIZACION POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE DEL EMBARAZO PESQUISADO EN MEDIO DE CULTIVO NO SELECTIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Valdés R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente bacteriano responsable de sepsis neonatal. Para evitar la infección perinatal se recomienda la pesquisa de la bacteria en región vagino-perianal durante el tercer trimestre, indicando tratamiento antibiótico durante el parto en aquellas gestantes colonizadas. La prevalencia de colonización varía según el tipo de cultivo utilizado (selectivo vs no selectivo. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia de colonización del Streptococcus agalactiae en la población de embarazadas controladas en nuestra maternidad durante los años 2001-2002. Se tomó cultivo en medio no selectivo, entre las 35-37 semanas de gestación a 1658 pacientes, encontrando una prevalencia de colonización vagino-perianal de 6,2%. Esta cifra es bastante menor a la comunicada en otros estudios en embarazadas chilenas, por lo que creemos importante la implementación de medios de cultivos selectivos para mejorar el rendimiento de pesquisaStreptococcus agalactiae is the main bacterial agent in neonatal sepsis. To avoid the perinatal infection, a vaginal and anal culture in the third trimester is recomended and then treated with antibiotics during labour. The prevalence varies depending on the type of culture used (selective vs non selective medium. The aim of our study was to know the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women followed in our hospital during 2001-2002. Vaginal and anal samples were taken at 35-37 weeks using non selective medium. We recruited 1658 patients, finding a prevalence of 6.2%. Due to the lower prevalence expected in comparison to other studies in Chilean pregnancies, we believe that the application of selective medium for streptococcal culture may improve results

  20. Colonisation of the urethra with Streptococcus pneumoniae: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, R C

    1985-01-01

    A 25 year old man developed mild urethritis and urethral colonisation with Streptococcus pneumoniae five days after a single orogenital sexual contact. The diagnosis was suspected because of the appearance of Gram positive diplococci in the urethral exudate. The incidence of urethral infection with S pneumoniae is not known. Pneumococci are unlikely to grow on the routine selective media used to identify Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

  1. Serotype Distribution and Drug Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Palestinian Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Kattan, Randa; Abu Rayyan, Amal; Zheiman, Inas; Idkeidek, Suzan; Baraghithi, Sabri; Rishmawi, Nabeel; Turkuman, Sultan; Abu-Diab, Afaf; Ghneim, Riyad; Zoughbi, Madeleine; Dauodi, Rula; Ghneim, Raed; Issa, Abed-El-Razeq; Siryani, Issa; Al Qas, Randa

    2011-01-01

    To determine antimicrobial drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes, we analyzed isolates from blood cultures of sick children residing in the West Bank before initiation of pneumococcal vaccination. Of 120 serotypes isolated, 50.8%, 73.3%, and 80.8% of the bacteremia cases could have been prevented by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Serotype 14 was the most drug-resistant serotype isolated.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hui; Guo, Lihong; Du, Ning; Lin, Jiuxiang; Song, Lai; Liu, Guiming; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of PKUSS-HG01 and PKUSS-LG01, two clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans from human dental plaque. The genomics information will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of pathogenicity and evolution of S. mutans.

  3. Linkage of sucrose-metabolizing genes in Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, D.; Kuramitsu, H. K.

    1990-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance markers inserted adjacent to different cloned genes from Streptococcus mutans were used to determine the relative positions of these genes on the chromosome. The results showed that these genes, fru-1 and gbp, are closely linked to the gtfA-ftf-scrB cluster. However, gtfD was linked neither to this cluster nor to gtfB-gtfC.

  4. Fundus lesions after carotid injection of Streptococcus mutans in monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, S M; Rodrigues, M; Vasil, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Carotid injection of Streptococcus mutans in pigtail monkeys caused fundus lesions clinically resembling those seen in humans with bacteremia. On histopathological examination microabscesses occurred in the retina, choroid, and optic nerve. Bacteria were observed in the histopathological sections of the microabscesses, and S. mutans was cultured from the retina and choroid.

  5. Enhanced toxicity of copper for Streptococcus mutans under anaerobic conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, S L; C Tolbert; Arceneaux, J E; Byers, B R

    1986-01-01

    Copper inhibition of 11 strains (serotypes a through g) of Streptococcus mutans was increased by anaerobic incubation. Anaerobic toxicity was reversed by cuprous, but not by cupric, chelators. Susceptibility to aerobic copper inhibition was related to serotype; serotypes c, e, and f (biotype I) were most sensitive.

  6. Specificity of natural antibodies reactive with Streptococcus mutans in monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, R. R.; Beighton, D.

    1982-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure levels of natural antibody to defined antigens of Streptococcus mutans in sera from monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The results suggest that most of the antibody in young monkeys that binds to whole bacteria is not specific to S. mutans.

  7. Bullous impetigo caused by Streptococcus salivarius: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, I

    1980-01-01

    A 19-month-old child presented with bullous impetigo around the perineal region, penis, and left foot. Streptococcus salivarius was the only isolate recovered from the lesions. The child was treated with parenteral penicillin, debridement of the bulli, and local application of silver sulphadiazine cream. This case of bullous impetigo illustrates another aspect of the pathogenicity of Strep. salivarius.

  8. Amoeba Host Model for Evaluation of Streptococcus suis Virulence ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifait, Laetitia; Charette, Steve J.; Filion, Geneviève; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen worldwide that causes meningitis, septicemia, and endocarditis. In this study, we demonstrate that the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum can be a relevant alternative system to study the virulence of S. suis.

  9. Plasmid mediated enhancement of uv resistance in Streptococcus faecalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 38.5-Mdal plasmid of Streptococcus faecalis subdp. zymogenes has been shown to enhance survival following uv irradiation. In addition, the presence of this plasmid increases the mutation frequencies following uv irradiation and enhanced W-reactivation. The data presented indicate that S. faecalis has an inducible error-prone repair system and that the plasmid enhances these repair functions

  10. Outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Psychiatric Unit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-02

    Dr. Katherine Fleming-Dutra, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses her investigation of a Streptococcus pneumoniae outbreak in a pediatric psychiatric unit.  Created: 11/2/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/5/2012.

  11. Introduction of a Streptococcus cremoris plasmid in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Vosman, B.; Venema, G

    1983-01-01

    Streptococcus cremoris Wg2 plasmid pWV01 was introduced in Bacillus subtilis by protoplast transformation. The yield of pWV01 isolated from B. subtilis was low. pWV01 contains a unique site for the restriction endonuclease MboI.

  12. Transfer of Plasmids between Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Baigorí, Mario; Sesma, Fernando; de Ruiz Holgado, Aída P.; de Mendoza, Diego

    1988-01-01

    The shuttle plasmid pGK12, as well as several Staphylococcus aureus plasmids, was introduced into Streptococcus lactis by intergeneric protoplast fusion with Bacillus subtilis. The S. aureus plasmids were stably inherited in S. lactis, and so they may possibly be used as cloning vectors in lactic streptococci.

  13. Total synthesis of lipoteichoic acid of streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Figueroa-Perez, Ignacio; Lindner, Buko; Ulmer, Artur J.; Zähringer, Ulrich; Schmidt, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common Grampositive pathogens. Upon colonizing the upper respiratory tract it causes severe infections and it causes life-threatening diseases like pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis when it reaches the lower respiratory tract or the bloodstream, thereby resulting in a high mortality rate.

  14. Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae with a DNA probe.

    OpenAIRE

    Denys, G A; Carey, R B

    1992-01-01

    The Accuprobe Streptococcus pneumoniae Culture Identification Test (Gen-Probe, Inc.) was evaluated with 172 isolates of S. pneumoniae and 204 nonpneumococcal isolates. The sensitivity and specificity of the Accuprobe test were 100%. Optimum results were obtained when four or more discrete colonies were selected for testing. The Accuprobe test was determined to be an accurate and rapid method for identification of S. pneumoniae.

  15. Screening Protocols for Group B Streptococcus: Are Transport Media Appropriate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Teese

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate group B streptococcus (GBS detection in an in vitro setting, using a low and controlled inoculum from swabs directly inoculated into a selective medium, as compared to delayed inoculation following a period in a commercial Amies transport medium with charcoal (Venturi Transystem™ Copan, Italy.

  16. A new tool for transcription regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Linda; Přenosilová, Lenka; Sušická, Zuzana; Janeček, Jiří; Novotná, Jana; Ulrych, Aleš; Branny, Pavel

    Washington : American Society for Microbiology, 2006, s. 72-73. ISBN 1-55581-400-X. [ASM Conferences Streptococcal Genetics. Saint Malo (FR), 18.06.2006-21.06.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : streptococcus pneumoniae * rnap Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  17. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jrgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Andersen, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis and...

  18. Prevalência de Streptococcus β-hemolítico em crianças portadoras de necessidades especiais Prevalence of β-hemolytic Streptococcus in children with special health care needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Martha Santos de Morais

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Faringotonsilite causada por Streptococcus β-hemolítico afeta principalmente crianças e imunocomprometidos, sendo Streptococcus pyogenes (Grupo A o agente mais comum em faringotonsilites bacterianas. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou a busca por Streptococcus β-hemolítico do Grupo A (SBHGA e Não A (SBHGNA na orofaringe de indivíduos com necessidades especiais da APAE (Maceió-AL. MÉTODO:Estudo prospectivo com amostras da orofaringe de pacientes com síndrome de Down e outras desordens mentais (teste e estudantes de escola privada (controle de 5-15 anos. Culturas em ágar sangue (5% foram identificadas através dos testes de Gram/catalase e o método de disco difusão com bacitracina/sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, aplicando-se o teste Chi-quadrado em análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Um total de 222 colônias bacterianas foram isoladas em 74 indivíduos da APAE e 65 no grupo controle. No grupo teste, episódios prévios de faringotonsilites foram relatados por 36,49% (27/74 e 9,46% (7/74 foram diagnosticados com sintomas e/ou sinais sugestivos de infecção orofaríngea. Nenhuma amostra de S. pyogenes foi confirmada na APAE, sendo todas identificadas como SBHGNA, com cinco SBHGA no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO:A identificação precoce de Streptococcus β-hemolítico é importante para o tratamento rápido de faringotonsilites e a ausência de S. pyogenes evita futuras sequelas supurativas ou não supurativas no grupo da APAE.Pharyngotonsillitis by β-hemolytic Streptococcus mostly affects children and imunocompromissed, being Streptococcuspyogenes (Group A the most common agent in bacterial pharyngotonsillitis. AIM:This work targeted the research of β-hemolytic Streptococcus Group-A (SBHGA and No-A (SBHGNA in the oropharynx of individuals with special health needs from the APAE (Maceió-AL. METHOD: A prospective study with oropharynx samples from patients with Down syndrome and other mental disorders (test and students from a private school (control aged 5-15 years. Cultures in blood agar (5% were identified through Gram/catalase tests and bacitracin/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole disk diffusion method, applying the chi-squared statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 222 bacterial colonies were isolated in 74 individuals from APAE and 65 in the control group. In the test group, previous episodes of pharyngotonsillitis were reported by 36.49% (27/74 and 9.46% (7/74 were diagnosed with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of oropharynx infection. No positive sample of S. pyogenes was confirmed at APAE, being all samples classified as SBHGNA, with 5 SBHGA in the control group. CONCLUSION: The early identification of β-hemolytic Steptococcus is important for the fast treatment of pharyngotonsillitis and the absence of S. pyogenes avoid future suppurative or not-suppurative sequels in the group from APAE.

  19. Languages for Mobile Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Versteeg, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Mobile agents represent a new model for network computing. Many different languages have been used to implement mobile agents. The characteristics that make a language useful for writing mobile agents are: (1) their support of agent migration, (2) their support for agent-to-agent communication, (3) how they allow agents to interact with local resources, (4) security mechanisms, (5) execution efficiency, (6) language implementation across multiple platforms, and (7) the language's ease of prog...

  20. Interference between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus: In Vitro Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Killing by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Regev-Yochay, Gili; Trzci?ski, Krzysztof; Thompson, Claudette M.; Malley, Richard; Lipsitch, Marc

    2006-01-01

    The bactericidal activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae toward Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by hydrogen peroxide. Catalase eliminated this activity. Pneumococci grown anaerobically or genetically lacking pyruvate oxidase (SpxB) were not bactericidal, nor were nonpneumococcal streptococci. These results provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the interspecies interference observed in epidemiologic studies.

  1. Confirmation of Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae-Like Organisms Isolated from Outbreaks of Epidemic Conjunctivitis as Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Gloria S.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G; Thompson, Terry; Jackson, Delois; Facklam, Richard R.

    2003-01-01

    Eleven isolates representing five distinct outbreaks of pneumococcal conjunctivitis were examined for phenotypic and genetic characteristics. None of the strains possessed capsules, and all strains were susceptible to optochin, bile soluble, and Gen-Probe AccuProbe test positive. All 11 isolates were confirmed as Streptococcus pneumoniae by DNA-DNA reassociation experiments.

  2. Cellular response of the bovine mammary gland after Weissella confusa infusion to control Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Serna-Cock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB as a potential therapeutic agent to control bovine mastitis was previously proposed. However, little is known about the cellular response of the bovine mammary gland in cattle infected with Streptococcus agalactiae and treated with LAB. Objective: to assess the cellular response by the mammary gland in lactating cows after infection with Streptococcus agalactiae followed by infusion with Weissella confusa as antibacterial treatment. Methods: healthy udder quarters of lactating cows were infected with S. agalactiae (10(7 cfu/mL. After 24 h of pathogen infusion, 50% of the quarters were infused with 109 cfu/mL of W. confusa (SW and the remaining 50% were kept as control units (S. At days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 11, and 14 post-infusion of the pathogen, the clinical signs of mastitis and the degree of cellular response by the mammary gland were evaluated using the California mastitis test, somatic cell count, electrical conductivity, and differential leukocyte count in milk. Results: the SW quarters showed clinical inflammation of the mammary gland associated with a significant increase in somatic cell count, California mastitis test, electrical conductivity and high proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results suggest that the infusion with W. confusa cells induced a higher cellular immune response in the bovine mammary gland than S. agalactiae alone. Conclusions: results indicate that W. confusa infusions for controlling S. agalactiae should not be adopted. However, the activation mechanism of somatic cells in the mammary gland needs to be elucidated.

  3. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en nios colombianos con neumona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Luca Leal

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infeccin respiratoria aguda (IRA en nios y su resistencia a antibiticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de las vas respiratorias altas en 272 nios hospitalizados por neumona en dos hospitales de Santaf de Bogot. Se aisl S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%. Se observ susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina en 19 aislamientos (17%, con sensibilidad intermedia en 12 (11% y franca resistencia en 7 (6%. Solo 1 de los 19 aislamientos resistentes a penicilina mostr tambin resistencia a la ceftriaxona. Se observ sensibilidad disminuida a la eritromicina en 3 aislamientos (3%, al cloranfenicol en 6 (5% y al cotrimoxazol (trimetoprima + sulfametoxazol en 46 (40%. Se encontr multirresistencia en 7 aislamientos (6%. El serotipo con sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina que se hall con mayor frecuencia fue el 23F (68,4%. Se observ una asociacin entre la edad, el uso previo de antibiticos y la colonizacin con S. pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina o multirresistencia. Este estudio confirma la presencia de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. pneumoniae en Colombia y resalta la importancia del uso racional de los antibiticos y de la implementacin de la vigilancia epidemiolgica sobre este agente.

  4. New small-molecule inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase inhibit Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Nguyen, Thao; McMichael, Megan; Velu, Sadanandan E; Zou, Jing; Zhou, Xuedong; Wu, Hui

    2015-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major aetiological agent of dental caries. Formation of biofilms is a key virulence factor of S. mutans. Drugs that inhibit S. mutans biofilms may have therapeutic potential. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) plays a critical role in regulating the metabolism of folate. DHFR inhibitors are thus potent drugs and have been explored as anticancer and antimicrobial agents. In this study, a library of analogues based on a DHFR inhibitor, trimetrexate (TMQ), an FDA-approved drug, was screened and three new analogues that selectively inhibited S. mutans were identified. The most potent inhibitor had a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 454.010.2nM for the biofilm and 8.71.9nM for DHFR of S. mutans. In contrast, the IC50 of this compound for human DHFR was ca. 1000nM, a >100-fold decrease in its potency, demonstrating the high selectivity of the analogue. An analogue that exhibited the least potency for the S. mutans biofilm also had the lowest activity towards inhibiting S. mutans DHFR, further indicating that inhibition of biofilms is related to reduced DHFR activity. These data, along with docking of the most potent analogue to the modelled DHFR structure, suggested that the TMQ analogues indeed selectively inhibited S. mutans through targeting DHFR. These potent and selective small molecules are thus promising lead compounds to develop new effective therapeutics to prevent and treat dental caries. PMID:26022931

  5. Protective efficiency of an inactivated vaccine against Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Yong-Uk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a causative agent of hemorrhagic septicemia in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in Korea, resulting in serious economic losses. As a preventive measure, M VAC INIAE (Mastuken, Japan was prepared from the S. iniae F2K strain and tested against the SI-36 strain prevalent on flounder fish farms on Jeju Island, Korea. F2K had a serotype of 38 (− and SI-36 38 (+. The vaccine recognized both serotypes. It showed a very high effective immune response against S. iniae; the challenge test using the S. iniae SI-36 strain resulted in a relative percent survival (RPS of 85.7-87.0% 2 weeks after vaccination and 71.0-80.0% 6 months after vaccination. Field vaccination and clinical challenge tests were performed at local Jeju aquafarms with S. iniae SI-36. These showed significantly reduced cumulative mortality when compared to the control group with RPS rates that ranged between 71-80%. Hence, the present study suggests that this vaccine showed a significant immune response against S. iniae and could be applied in commercial aquafarms as a therapeutic agent against β-hemolytic streptococcosis in cultured P. olivaceus.

  6. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05. In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

  7. Generation of human antibody fragments against Streptococcus mutans using a phage display chain shuffling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common oral diseases and dental caries can be prevented effectively by passive immunization. In humans, passive immunotherapy may require the use of humanized or human antibodies to prevent adverse immune responses against murine epitopes. Therefore we generated human single chain and diabody antibody derivatives based on the binding characteristics of the murine monoclonal antibody Guy's 13. The murine form of this antibody has been used successfully to prevent Streptococcus mutans colonization and the development of dental caries in non-human primates, and to prevent bacterial colonization in human clinical trials. Results The antibody derivatives were generated using a chain-shuffling approach based on human antibody variable gene phage-display libraries. Like the parent antibody, these derivatives bound specifically to SAI/II, the surface adhesin of the oral pathogen S. mutans. Conclusions Humanization of murine antibodies can be easily achieved using phage display libraries. The human antibody fragments bind the antigen as well as the causative agent of dental caries. In addition the human diabody derivative is capable of aggregating S. mutans in vitro, making it a useful candidate passive immunotherapeutic agent for oral diseases.

  8. Development of a 5′ Nuclease-Based Real-Time PCR Assay for Quantitative Detection of Cariogenic Dental Pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus†

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Suzuki, Nao; Nakano, Yoshio; Kawada, Miki; OHO, Takahiko; Koga, Toshihiko

    2003-01-01

    A 5′ nuclease TaqMan PCR assay was developed for the quantitative detection of the major cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. The absolute and relative numbers of bacteria were measured by this method. This assay will be useful for quantifying these organisms in oral specimens and for analyzing biofilm formation.

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flvia Rossi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentrao inibitria mnima (CIM de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Mtodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clnicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de So Paulo, em So Paulo (SP. Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratrio e de amostras de sangue no relacionadas a infeces menngeas e foram testados quanto suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretaes categricas de CIM foram baseadas em padres atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treated, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clnicas complex of the University of So Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of So Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC < 2 g/mL, and, consequently, they were also susceptible to amoxicillin, ampicillin, third/fourth generation cephalosporins, and ertapenem. Of the S. pneumoniae strains, 99% were also susceptible to moxifloxacin, and only one strain showed an MIC = 1.5 g/mL (intermediate. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed high susceptibility rates to parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin among S. pneumoniae isolates unrelated to meningitis, which differs from international reports. Reports on penicillin resistance should be based on updated breakpoints for non-meningitis isolates in order to guide the selection of an antimicrobial therapy and to improve the prediction of the clinical outcomes.

  10. Comparison of transmission dynamics between Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Pinyopummintr, Tanu; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of study were to determine the transmission parameters (β), durations of infection, and basic reproductive numbers (R0) of both Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis as pathogens causing mastitis outbreaks in dairy herds. A 10-mo longitudinal study was performed using 2 smallholder dairy herds with mastitis outbreaks caused by Strep. agalactiae and Strep. uberis, respectively. Both herds had poor mastitis control management and did not change their milking management during the entire study period. Quarter milk samples were collected at monthly intervals from all lactating animals in each herd for bacteriological identification. The durations of infection for Strep. uberis intramammary infection (IMI) and Strep. agalactiae IMI were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the Kaplan-Meier survival functions for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were compared using log rank survival-test. The spread of Strep. uberis and Strep. agalactiae through the population was determined by transmission parameter, β, the probability per unit of time that one infectious quarter will infect another quarter, assuming that all other quarters are susceptible. For the Strep. uberis outbreak herd (31 cows), 56 new infections and 28 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. For the Strep. agalactiae outbreak herd (19 cows), 26 new infections and 9 quarters with spontaneous cure were observed. The duration of infection for Strep. agalactiae (mean=270.84 d) was significantly longer than the duration of infection for Strep. uberis (mean=187.88 d). The transmission parameters (β) estimated (including 95% confidence interval) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI were 0.0155 (0.0035-0.0693) and 0.0068 (0.0008-0.0606), respectively. The R0 (including 95% confidence interval) during the study were 2.91 (0.63-13.47) and 1.86 (0.21-16.61) for Strep. uberis IMI and Strep. agalactiae IMI, respectively. In conclusion, the transmission parameter and R0 values were not different between both pathogens; however, the duration of infection for Strep. agalactiae was longer than Strep. uberis. These suggest that Strep. uberis may have a different transmission dynamic compared with Strep. agalactiae. PMID:26686709

  11. Biofilm formation and virulence expression by Streptococcus mutans are altered when grown in dual-species model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Sang-Joon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial cell-cell interactions in the oral flora are believed to play an integral role in the development of dental plaque and ultimately, its pathogenicity. The effects of other species of oral bacteria on biofilm formation and virulence gene expression by Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, were evaluated using a dual-species biofilm model and RealTime-PCR analysis. Results As compared to mono-species biofilms, biofilm formation by S. mutans was significantly decreased when grown with Streptococcus sanguinis, but was modestly increased when co-cultivated with Lactobacillus casei. Co-cultivation with S. mutans significantly enhanced biofilm formation by Streptococcus oralis and L. casei, as compared to the respective mono-species biofilms. RealTime-PCR analysis showed that expression of spaP (for multi-functional adhesin SpaP, a surface-associated protein that S. mutans uses to bind to the tooth surface in the absence of sucrose, gtfB (for glucosyltransferase B that synthesizes ?1,6-linked glucan polymers from sucrose and starch carbohydrates and gbpB (for surface-associated protein GbpB, which binds to the glucan polymers was decreased significantly when S. mutans were co-cultivated with L. casei. Similar results were also found with expression of spaP and gbpB, but not gtfB, when S. mutans was grown in biofilms with S. oralis. Compared to mono-species biofilms, the expression of luxS in S. mutans co-cultivated with S. oralis or L. casei was also significantly decreased. No significant differences were observed in expression of the selected genes when S. mutans was co-cultivated with S. sanguinis. Conclusions These results suggest that the presence of specific oral bacteria differentially affects biofilm formation and virulence gene expression by S. mutans.

  12. Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en niños: Report of a case due to penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumococcal endocarditis in children

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    M. Soledad Wenzel A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente de infección bacteriana invasora en niños; sin embargo, es extremadamente infrecuente como causa de endocarditis. Esta entidad clínica se manifiesta generalmente como una enfermedad aguda y grave con alta mortalidad, que requiere tratamiento médico-quirúrgico precoz, afectando con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años 4 meses, de extrema ruralidad, que presentó endocarditis infecciosa (EI de válvula mitral asociada a meningitis, aislándose en hemocultivos S. pneumoniae resistente a penicilina y se discute las estrategias terapéuticasDespite S. pneumoniae is one of main etiologies of invasive bacterial infection in children, it rarely causes infectious endocarditis in children. Pneumococcal endocarditis is a serious condition that affects mainly the mitral valve, with a rapidly destructive nature and a high fatality rate, demanding prompt medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a school girl coming from extreme rurality who presented both meningitis and endocarditis, and whose blood cultures isolated penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae

  13. Novel molecular method for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae applicable to clinical microbiology and 16S rRNA sequence-based microbiome studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Christian F. P.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered spe...

  14. Effets d'agents antimicrobiens sur un modle de biofilm dentaire "in vitro"

    OpenAIRE

    Takinami, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    L'objectif de cette tude tait d'valuer l'effet d'agents antimicrobiens sur un modle de biofilm. Des disques d'hydroxypatite sont incubs en prsence de 4 espces bactrienne ("Actinomyces naeslundii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus oralis, Veillonella dispar") en milieu anarobie pendant 12h (biofilm immature) ou 73h (biofilm mature). Les biofilms ont alors t exposs 3x 1min la chlorhexidine(CHX), triclosan (TRI), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) et isopropyl methylphenol (IPMP)....

  15. Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by cellular extracts of human intestinal lactic acid bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, K; Miyakawa, H; Hasegawa, A; Takazoe, I; Kawai, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro growth of Streptococcus mutans was completely inhibited by water-soluble extracts from cells of various intestinal lactic acid bacteria identified as Streptococcus faecium, Streptococcus equinus, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus salivarius. The growth inhibition was dependent on the concentrations of the extracts. In contrast, the extracts did not inhibit the growth of the major indigenous intestinal lactic acid bacteria isolated from humans. These lactic acid bacteria ...

  16. Isolation and characterization of chromosomal promoters of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus.

    OpenAIRE

    Slos, P; Bourquin, J C; Lemoine, Y; Mercenier, A

    1991-01-01

    A promoter probe vector, pTG244, was constructed with the aim of isolating transcription initiation signals from Streptococcus thermophilus (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus). pTG244 is based on the Escherichia coli-streptococcus shuttle vector pTG222, into which the promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene of Bacillus pumilus (cat-86) was cloned. Random Sau3A fragments from the S. thermophilus A054 chromosomal DNA were cloned upstream of the cat-86 gene by using E. col...

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in the nasopharynx of preschool children- survey of Vilnius day care centers attendants

    OpenAIRE

    Petraitien?, Sigita

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic, bile soluble diplococcus aerotolerant anaerobe and a member of the genus Streptococcus (phylum Firmicutes). Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.pneumoniae) is known in medical microbiology as the pneumococcus. It has a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 different serotypes are known, and these types differ in virulence, prevalence, and extent of drug resistance. Strept...

  18. [THE DIAGNOSTIC APPROACHES TO VERIFICATION OF STREPTOCOCCUS INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M A; Labushkina, A V; Simovanian, E N; Kharseeva, G G

    2015-11-01

    The Rostovskii state medical university of Minzdrav of Russia, 344022 Rostov-on-Don, Russia The analysis is applied concerning significance of laboratory techniques of verification of streptococcus infection (bacteriological analysis, detection of anti-streptolysin O in pair serums) in 148 patients with infectious mononucleosis aged from 3 to 15 years. The content of anti-streptolysin O exceeded standard in 41 ± 4.8% of patients with concomitant in acute period and in 49.5 ± 4.9% during period of re-convalescence. This data differed from analogous indicator in patients with negative result of examination on streptococcus infection independently of period of disease (9.3 ± 2.8%). The exceeding of standard of anti-streptolysin O was detected more frequently (t ≥ 2, P ≥ 95%) in patients with isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes (56.9 ± 5.8%) than in patients with Streptococcus viridans (31.2 ± 6.5%). The concentration of anti-streptolysin 0 in patients with concomitant streptococcus infection varied within limits 200-1800 IE/ml. The minimal level of anti-streptolysin O (C = 200 IE/mI) was detected independently of type of isolated Streptococcus and period of disease. The high levels of anti-streptolysin O were observed exclusively in patients with isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes. In blood serum ofpatient with concomitant streptococcus infection (Streptococcus pyogenes + Streptococcus viridans) increasing of level of anti-streptolysin O was detected in dynamics of diseases from minimal (C = 200 IE/ ml) to moderately high (200 mononucleosis the anamnesis data is to be considered. The complex bacteriological and serological examination ofpatients is to be implemented This is necessary for early detection ofpatients with streptococcus infection and decreasing risk of formation of streptococcus carrier state. PMID:26999869

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Iranian Green and Black Tea on Streptococcus Mutans : An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kharazi Fard, M. J.; Niakan, M; N. Jalayer Naderi; S. Zardi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries is a common infectious disease.Streptococcus mutans is the prevalent decay microorganism. The anti Streptococcus mutans activity of non fermented and semi-fermented tea has been shown. The aim of this study was to determine the anti Streptococcus mutans activity of Iranian green and black tea (non fermented and fermented type).Materials and Methods: The study was experimental. The aerial parts of wild-growing Camellia sinensis were collected from Lahijan province. The...

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Iranian Green and Black Tea on Streptococcus Mutans: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naderi, N. Jalayer; Niakan, M; Kharazi Fard, M. J.; S. Zardi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries is a common infectious disease. Streptococcus mutans is the pre-valent decay microorganism. The anti Streptococcus mutans activity of non fermented and semi-fermented tea has been shown. The aim of this study was to determine the anti Streptococcus mutans activity of Iranian green and black tea (non fermented and fermented type). Materials and Methods: The study was experimental. The aerial parts of wild-growing Camellia sinensis were collected from Lahijan province. ...

  1. Production of probiotic fresh white cheese using co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Oktay Yerlikaya; Elif Ozer

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus was inoculated into milk as co-culture to produce probiotic cheese. The effects of using Streptococcus thermophilus with other probiotic bacteria on cheese composition, and microbiological viability during 28 days of storage were investigated. Sensorial properties were determined only at 1st and 28th days of storage. The results showed that the use of Streptococcus thermophilus as co-culture in probiotic cheese production did not affe...

  2. Bacteriuria with group B streptococcus and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M. R.; Uldbjerg, N.; Thorsen, P.; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    Objectives: Preterm delivery (PTD) contributes to 70% of all perinatal deaths and nearly 50% of permanent neurological damages in children. Treatment and follow-up to prevent recolonization in pregnant women with Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the urine may reduce the frequency of PTD. In a...... used bivariate tests including Chi-square, Student's t-test, stratified analyzes, and multivariate regression analyzes. Results: Out of 13,417 singleton deliveries, 6.9% (n 921) of women had asymptomatic GBS BU during their pregnancy, and 9.1% (n 1,218) delivered preterm. Among women with GBS BU 133...... delivered preterm (10.9%), while among the GBS BU negative 1,085 (8.7%) delivered preterm; indicating an association between GBS BU and PTD in crude analyzes (Odds Ratio 1.8; 95% Confidence Interval 1.5-2.2; P30, and 19.0% were smokers in pregnancy. Conclusions: Group B Streptococcus bacteriuria might be a...

  3. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus in identical siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K

    2011-04-01

    Termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS), these cases of childhood-onset obsessive compulsive disorder and tic disorders resemble the presentation of Sydenham chorea, in that they have an acute onset following a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection (group A Streptococcus), with accompanying neurological signs, and an episodic or sawtooth course. Familial associations of this subgroup of patients remain understudied. This report provides phenotypic descriptions of three youth with PANDAS as well as their genetically identical siblings (in two cases of twins and one case of triplets). These cases highlight the potential for environmental influences for discordant presentations in genetically identical siblings. Despite identical genetics, presentations showed marked variation across siblings (from a full PANDAS presentation to asymptomatic). Further research into environmentally driven influences such as postinfectious molecular mimicry and epigenetic factors that may influence the manifestation of these pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders will promote our understanding of their prevention and treatment. PMID:21486169

  4. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine and combination mouth rinse in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi S Lakade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The removal of plaque is utmost important to control dental caries. But in children, factors like lack of dexterity, individual motivation and monitoring limit the effectiveness of tooth brushing. This necessitates the use of chemotherapeutic agents for control of plaque. Aims: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and mouth rinse containing 0.03% triclosan, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 5% xylitol in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy children aged 8-10 years with dmft (decay component of three or four were selected. They were divided randomly into two groups: The control or chlorhexidine group and the study group or combination mouth rinse. Both the groups practiced rinsing with respective mouth wash for 1 min for 15 d twice a day. The plaque samples were collected and after incubation Mutans streptococcus count was estimated on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and evaluated using manufacture′s chart. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the findings. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the Mutans streptococci count in the plaque was seen in the control and study group from baseline level. But when both the groups were compared, the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine was more.

  5. The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial photodynamic therapy: a comparison of two different photosensitizers and light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda HAKIMIHA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is the main etiological agent for dental caries. Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT has been introduced as a new modality in bacterial decontamination. Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial PDT using two different photosensitizers and light sources. Material and Methods: Standard suspensions of S. mutans were exposed to laser light at 662 nm and Radachlorin® or LED 630 nm in combination with Toluidine blue O (TBO. Radiation-only groups, photosensitizer alone, and groups with no treatment were used as controls. Bacterial suspension from each treatment was subcultured onto the surface of Mueller-Hinton agar plates and bacterial growth was assessed. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p<0.05. Results: PDT with TBO and Radachlorin® significantly reduced S. mutans viability, whereas no difference was observed between two groups of PDT. In the groups treated just with the photosensitizer or irradiated alone, no significant reduction of S. mutans colonies was observed. Conclusion: S. mutans colonies were susceptible to either 662 nm laser or LED light in the presence of Radachlorin® and TBO respectively with no priority.

  6. [Evaluation of rapid diagnostic kits for the detection of group A streptococcus to Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus spp. with Lancefield's group A antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuno, Noriko; Hari, Tomohiro; Tamagawa, Nobuyoshi; Itoi, Juichi; Ikeda, Eiji; Hamasaki, Kazuko; Katsukawa, Chihiro; Okuyama, Michiko

    2006-11-01

    We studied the basic performance of eight rapid diagnostic kits for the detection of Group A streptococcus by immunochromatography under the same conditions. Kits were the; QuickVue Dipstick Strep A (Sumitomo Seiyaku Biomedical Co., Ltd.), TESTPACK Plus STREP A (ABBOTT JAPAN Co., Ltd), CLEAVIEW STREP A (Nihon Schering K. K.), QuickVue STREP A (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd), ImmunoCard STAT! STREP A (TFB, INC.), DIPSTICK 'Eiken' STREP A (Eiken Chemical Co., Ltd.), Rapid Testa Strep A (Daiichi Pure Chemical Co., Ltd.), and StatCheck Strep A (KAINOS Laboratories, Inc.). Four of these kits, i.e. QuickVue Dipstick Strep A, TESTPACK Plus STREP A, Rapid Testa Strep A, and StatCheck Strep A showed sensitivity at 1.0 x 10(5) CFU/mL (1.0 x 10(4)CFU/test) with all of S. pyogenes tested, while the Anginosus group and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis with Lancefield' s group A antigen showed sensitivity very similar to S. pyogenes. Of these strains, S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis formed a beta-hemolytic colony resembling that of S. pyogenes on sheep blood agar, and was sensitive to bacitracin. It is thus indispensable to identify the colony using biochemical tests such as the PYR (pyrrolidonylarylamidase production) test. In using rapid diagnostic kits for the detection of Group A streptococcus, it is important to rule out the possibility of Group A streptococcus other than S. pyogenes in throats. Severe invasive group-G streptococcal infections are increasing recently. Concerning S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, it is especially important to conduct these identification tests. PMID:17176853

  7. Streptococcus pneumoniae and its bacteriophages: one long argument

    OpenAIRE

    Lpez, Rubens

    2004-01-01

    Infectious diseases currently kill more than 15 million people annually, and the WHO estimates that every year 1.6 million people die from pneumococcal diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), a bacterium with a long biological pedigree, best illustrates the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance, which has led to major public health concern. This article discusses the molecular basis of the two main virulence factors of pneumococcus, the capsule and cell-wall hydrolases, as well ...

  8. Systems biology of the central metabolism of Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Levering, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes gehört zu den häufigsten Erregern von Haut- und Atemwegserkrankungen beim Menschen und verursacht verschiedene Krankheiten, von leichten Hautinfektionen bis hin zu schweren immunologisch bedingten Folgeerkrankungen der Streptokokkeninfektion, beispielsweise rheumatisches Fieber. Wie alle Milchsäurebakterien gewinnt S. pyogenes die zum Wachstum benötigte Energie mittels Substratkettenphosphorylierung in der Glykolyse. Das dabei gebildete Pyruvat wird hauptsächlich zu Lac...

  9. Distribusi Streptococcus mutans pada Tepi Tumpatan Glass Ionomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muthalib

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries always occurs as a result of the filling not being hermetically. Purposes of this research is to prove whether there is a leak on the border of the tooth enamel and border between the Glass-ionomer filling with the Streptococcus mutans infection with parameter of SMAAPPI (Simplified S. mutans Approximal Plaque Index by Keeni et al, 1981. The subject of the research were 20 patients who came to the Dental Clinic at University of Indonesia with criteria possessing Glass-ionomer filling at the lower jaws. Collection of the samples were dental plaque gathered using a 1.5 mm excavator to scrape one way direction from the enamel, along the border between the enamel and Glass-ionomer filling and Glass-ionomer filling's surface. Isolation with medium transport sem-synthetic Cariostat and TSY20B and identification by using biochemical test. isolated colony strain local Streptococcus mutans from enamel, the border enamel and Glass-ionomer and the surface of the Glass-ionomer. The results were Streptococcus mutans were found from enamel 3006 colonies, on the border between the enamel and Glass-ionomer 143 colonies and on the surface of the Glss-ionomer 7291 colonies. Amoung of Streptococcus mutans colony obtained on the border of the enamel and Glass-ionomer were smaller compared to the surface of the Glass-ionomer and tooth enamel. Concluded that the leak of the filling was not caused by the number of distributed Streptooccus mutans colonies on the side, because the fluoroapatite fastener occurred due to the Glass-ionomer releasing in fluor along the border of the filling.

  10. The Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Inhibits Biofilm Development of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Inaba, Tomohiro; Oura, Hiromu; Morinaga, Kana; Toyofuku, Masanori; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria often thrive in natural environments through a sessile mode of growth, known as the biofilm. Biofilms are well-structured communities and their formation is tightly regulated. However, the mechanisms by which interspecies interactions alter the formation of biofilms have not yet been elucidated in detail. We herein demonstrated that a quorum-sensing signal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (the Pseudomonas quinolone signal; PQS) inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Although t...

  11. Erythromycin and Clindamycin Resistance and Telithromycin Susceptibility in Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Betriu, C.; Culebras, E.; Gómez, M.; Rodríguez-Avial, I.; Sánchez, B. A.; Ágreda, M. C.; Picazo, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The rates of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin among Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated in our hospital increased from 4.2 and 0.8% in 1993 to 17.4 and 12.1%, respectively, in 2001. Erythromycin resistance was mainly due to the presence of an Erm(B) methylase, while the M phenotype was detected in 3.8% of the strains. Telithromycin was very active against erythromycin-resistant strains, irrespective of their mechanisms of macrolide resistance.

  12. Screening Protocols for Group B Streptococcus: Are Transport Media Appropriate?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolette Teese; Daneeta Henessey; Christopher Pearce; Nigel Kelly; Suzanne Garland

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate group B streptococcus (GBS) detection in an in vitro setting, using a low and controlled inoculum from swabs directly inoculated into a selective medium, as compared to delayed inoculation following a period in a commercial Amies transport medium with charcoal (Venturi Transystem™ Copan, Italy). Study design: Clinical isolates of GBS (n = 103), were inoculated into the Amies transport medium with charcoal in a concentration of 100 colony-forming units (cfu)/ml (10 cfu/s...

  13. Serotype distribution and drug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Palestinian Territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Randa; Abu Rayyan, Amal; Zheiman, Inas; Idkeidek, Suzan; Baraghithi, Sabri; Rishmawi, Nabeel; Turkuman, Sultan; Abu-Diab, Afaf; Ghneim, Riyad; Zoughbi, Madeleine; Dauodi, Rula; Ghneim, Raed; Issa, Abed-El-Razeq; Siryani, Issa; Al Qas, Randa; Liddawi, Rawan; Khamash, Hatem; Kanaan, Moein; Marzouqa, Hiyam; Hindiyeh, Musa Y

    2011-01-01

    To determine antimicrobial drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes, we analyzed isolates from blood cultures of sick children residing in the West Bank before initiation of pneumococcal vaccination. Of 120 serotypes isolated, 50.8%, 73.3%, and 80.8% of the bacteremia cases could have been prevented by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Serotype 14 was the most drug-resistant serotype isolated. PMID:21192863

  14. Human plasma fibronectin inhibits adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to hexadecane.

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, H S; Ofek, I.; Simpson, W A; Whitnack, E; Beachey, E H

    1985-01-01

    The effect of human plasma fibronectin on the adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to hexadecane droplets was investigated. Fibronectin blocked the adherence of streptococci to hexadecane in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect resulted from the binding of fibronectin to the streptococcal cells; radiolabeled fibronectin failed to bind to the hexadecane but bound readily to untreated streptococci. Chemical treatments of streptococci that decreased streptococcal binding of fibronectin ...

  15. Hydrophobic interactions and the adherence of Streptococcus sanguis to hydroxylapatite.

    OpenAIRE

    Nesbitt, W E; Doyle, R J; Taylor, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguis demonstrated a high affinity for hydrocarbon solvents. When aqueous suspensions of the organism were mixed with either hexadecane or toluene, the cells tended to bind to the nonaqueous solvent. Increases in temperature resulted in a greater affinity of cells for hexadecane. Interaction between the cells and hexadecane was also enhanced by dilute aqueous sodium chloride and by low pH (pH less than 5). The results suggest that the cell surface of S. sanguis has hydrophobic...

  16. Streptococcus mutans Clonal Variation Revealed by Multilocus Sequence Typing▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Kazuhiko; Lapirattanakul, Jinthana; NOMURA, Ryota; Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Alaluusua, Satu; Grönroos, Lisa; Vaara, Martti; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Ooshima, Takashi; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, a biofilm-dependent infectious disease, and occasionally causes infective endocarditis. S. mutans strains have been classified into four serotypes (c, e, f, and k). However, little is known about the S. mutans population, including the clonal relationships among strains of S. mutans, in relation to the particular clones that cause systemic diseases. To address this issue, we have developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme ...

  17. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Sfeir; Corinne Lefrançois; Dominique Baudoux; Séverine Derbré; Patricia Licznar

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils...

  18. Association between Streptococcus milleri and abscess formation after appendicitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardwick, R. H.; Taylor, A.; M. H. Thompson; Jones, E.; Roe, A. M.

    2000-01-01

    Abscesses after appendicitis occur in some patients despite timely surgery and antibiotics. The Streptococcus milleri group of bacteria are commonly associated with gastrointestinal abscesses. This study investigated the relationship between S. milleri and abscess formation after appendicectomy a total of 301 patients (172 males, 129 females, median age 22 years) with appendicitis were identified retrospectively from the hospital PAS computer system who had an appendicectomy and peritoneal ba...

  19. Antibiotic Susceptibilities and Serotyping of Clinical Streptococcus Agalactiae Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Altay Atalay; Mehmet Ölçü; Duygu Perçin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci, GBS) are frequently responsible for sepsis and meningitis seen in the early weeks of life. GBS may cause perinatal infection and premature birth in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to serotype GBS strains isolated from clinical samples and evaluate their serotype distribution according to their susceptibilities to antibiotics and isolation sites. Material and Methods: One hundred thirty one S. agalactiae strains isolated from...

  20. Streptococcus Gallolyticus Bacteraemia associated with colonic adenomatous polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Murinello

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus is frequently associated with colorectal carcinoma, making evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract by colonoscopy obligatory in such cases. Bacterial endocarditis and purulent arthritis are also common in patients with these bacteraemias. Intestinal bacteria could behave as promoters of aberrant hyperproliferative behaviour in preneoplastic colorectal lesions, apparently due to chronic inflammatory processes and production of carcinogenic metabolites. The authors treated a patient with several tubular adenomatous polyps of the right colon, two of which showed areas of high-grade dysplasia adjacent to areas of infectious bacterial colitis associated with Streptococcus gallolyticus bacteraemia and unilateral ankle arthritis.A bacteriémia por Streptococcus gallolyticus associa-se frequentemente ao carcinoma colorrectal, tornando obrigatória a colonoscopia nestas situações. A endocardite bacteriana e a artrite séptica são também comuns neste tipo de bacteriémias. Tem sido levantada a hipótese das bactérias intestinais poderem ter um papel promotor de hiperproliferação celular aberrante em lesões cólicas pré-neoplásicas, aparentemente devido a processos inflamatórios crónicos e produção de metabolitos carcinogénicos. Os autores apresentam o caso dum doente com vários pólipos adenomatosos tubulares do cólon direito, em dois dos quais se demonstrou uma área de displasia de alto grau adjacente a zona de colite infecciosa bacteriana, associados a quadro clínico de infecção sistémica por Streptococcus gallolyticus e artrite do tornozelo.

  1. Investigation of Probiotic Chocolate Effect on Streptococcus mutans Growth Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Khanafari; Sepideh Hosseini Porgham

    2012-01-01

    Background: One of the most important factors in inducing the logarithmic growth of Streptococcus mutans, is a diet containing fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose. Objectives: The aim of the current research was to compare the ability of ordinary and probiotic chocolate to induce or inhibit the growth of S. mutans..Materials and Methods: Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum and L. acidophilus as probiotic strains, were cultivated on MRS agar for 24 hours at 35° C in 5% CO2. S. mutans w...

  2. Localization of Surface Immunogenic Protein on Group B Streptococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Rioux, Stphane; Martin, Denis; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Dumont, Julie; Hamel, Jose; Brodeur, Bernard R

    2001-01-01

    The localization and accessibility of the group B streptococcus (GBS) surface immunogenic protein (Sip) at the surface of intact GBS cells were studied by flow cytometric assay and immunogold electron microscopy. Antibodies present in pooled sera collected from mice after immunization with purified recombinant Sip efficiently recognized native Sip at the surfaces of the different GBS strains tested, which included representatives of all nine serotypes. Examination of GBS cells by immunogold e...

  3. Facilitation of Plasmid Transfer in Streptococcus pneumoniae by Chromosomal Homology

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Paloma; Espinosa, Manuel; Stassi, Diane L.; Lacks, Sanford A.

    1982-01-01

    The frequency of plasmid establishment in the transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae by plasmid DNA was increased more than 10-fold when the plasmid carried DNA homologous to the host chromosome. Perfect homology was not necessary for such facilitation; small additions or deletions were tolerated, but extensive deletions in the homologous segment of either plasmid or chromosome reduced or eliminated facilitation. The facilitated plasmid transfer showed a linear dependence on monomeric pla...

  4. CRISPR Inhibition of Prophage Acquisition in Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Nozawa, Takashi; Furukawa, Nayuta; Aikawa, Chihiro; Watanabe, Takayasu; Haobam, Bijaya; Kurokawa, Ken; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the major human pathogens, is a unique species since it has acquired diverse strain-specific virulence properties mainly through the acquisition of streptococcal prophages. In addition, S. pyogenes possesses clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas systems that can restrict horizontal gene transfer (HGT) including phage insertion. Therefore, it was of interest to examine the relationship between CRISPR and acquisition of prophages i...

  5. cadDX Operon of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Feng, C. W.; Chiu, C. F.; Burne, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    A CadDX system that confers resistance to Cd2+ and Zn2+ was identified in Streptococcus salivarius 57.I. Unlike with other CadDX systems, the expression of the cad promoter was negatively regulated by CadX, and the repression was inducible by Cd2+ and Zn2+, similar to what was found for CadCA systems. The lower G+C content of the S. salivarius cadDX genes suggests acquisition by horizontal gene transfer.

  6. "THE RESISTANCE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE AGAINST PENICILLIN AND OTHER ANTIBIOTICS"

    OpenAIRE

    M. Soltani Radd Gh. Behzadian Nejad; Rajabi, A.; S.A.H. Jahanmehr

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae against penicillin is considered to be of great importance. While low-resistant strains could be treated by penicillin, treatment of highly resistant strains is very difficult and needs broad-spectrum antibiotics. This study was performed in Imam Khomeini Medical Center, Tehran, Iran, from 1999 to 2001 to evaluate pneumococcal resistance against penicillin and some other antibiotics. Specimens were collected from different hospitals. Samples were culture...

  7. Immunogenicity of ribosomes from enzymatically lysed Streptococcus pyogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, B.A.; Johnson, W.

    1980-01-01

    Ribosomal fractions isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes by physical and enzymatic disruption of the cell wall were found to provide protection in mice against challenge with the homologous M type. Although ribosomal fractions isolated by physical disruption of the cells also provided protection against challenge with several heterologous M types, ribosomal fractions from enzymatically lysed cells did not provide protection against any of the heterologous M types. Ribosomes isolated by either...

  8. Significant variation in transformation frequency in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Benjamin A; Rozen, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    The naturally transformable bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is able to take up extracellular DNA and incorporate it into its genome. Maintaining natural transformation within a species requires that the benefits of transformation outweigh its costs. Although much is known about the distribution of natural transformation among bacterial species, little is known about the degree to which transformation frequencies vary within species. Here we find that there is significant variation in trans...

  9. Mutacin II, a bactericidal antibiotic from Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Chikindas, M.L.; J. Novk; Driessen, A.J.; Konings, W. N.; Schilling, K M; Caufield, P. W.

    1995-01-01

    Mutacin II is an antibiotic that is produced by group II Streptococcus mutans. It inhibits the growth of other streptococci as well as many other gram-positive microorganisms by a hitherto unknown mechanism. Mutacin II possess bactericidal activity against susceptible cells. It transiently depolarizes the transmembrane electrical potential (delta psi) and the transmembrane pH gradient (delta pH) and partially inhibits amino acid transport. However, it rapidly depletes the intracellular ATP po...

  10. Interference with the oxidative response of neutrophils by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, F E; Elson, C J; Greenham, L W; Catterall, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Pneumococcal infections are still a major clinical problem. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (neutrophils) are considered to have a key role in the host's defence against Streptococcus pneumoniae but the mechanisms by which they kill the pneumococcus remain unclear. As reactive oxygen species are regarded as a major antimicrobial defence of phagocytes an attempt has been made to establish their role in the response of neutrophils to S pneumoniae. METHODS--S pneumoniae isolated from pa...

  11. Difference in Resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Dong-Gu; Jeong, Eui-Suk; Seo, Jin-Hee; Heo, Seung-Ho; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen that causes various diseases, including pneumonia and sepsis, as millions of people suffer from S. pneumoniae infection worldwide. To better understand the immune and inflammatory responses to S. pneumoniae, we produced murine models. To investigate the differences between intranasal and intratracheal infection, BALB/c mice were infected with S. pneumoniae D39 intranasally or intratracheally. Mice showed no significant differences in survival rates...

  12. Insights from Streptococcus pneumoniae glucose kinase structural model

    OpenAIRE

    Mulakayala, Chaitanya; Banaganapalli, Babajan Nawaz; Anuradha, CM; Chitta, Suresh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumonia is the common cause of sepsis and meningitis. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistant strains in the community?acquired bacterium is catastrophic. Glucose kinase (GLK) is a regulatory enzyme capable of adding phosphate group to glucose in the first step of streptomycin biosynthesis. The activity of glucose kinase was regulated by the Carbon Catabolite Repression (CCR) system. Therefore, it is important to establish the structure?function rela...

  13. Streptococcus suis in slaughter pigs and abattoir workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, J.; Mitchell, W. R.; Rosendal, S

    1986-01-01

    The detection and identification of Streptococcus suis type 2 in 8.1% of 347 pig herds of southwestern Ontario revealed that the infection is widespread in this area. A herd suspected to be infected showed a carrier rate of 9.7% among the 62 animals sampled. These subclinical carriers represent a potential source of infection for slaughterhouse workers. From studies of contamination of hands and knives, it was concluded that eviscerators involved in removing the larynx and lungs from the carc...

  14. Streptococcus salivarius meningitis after dental care: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Zoppelletto; Dario Cesco; Dina Bonini; Alessandra Dinale; Maria Frizzo; Gilberto Lorenzin; Elide Marcon; Alessandra Vigolo; Francesco Malfa; Giorgio Da Rin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Streptococcus salivarius is a common commensal of the oral mucosa, associated with infections in different sites. Meningitis due to this species are described in a few occasions . In this study refer to a case recently diagnosed in our hospital for treatment of a subsequent dental caries. Case report. A man of 35 years, presents to the emergency room with fever, headache, confusion, marked nuchal rigor.Anamnesis is the treatment of dental caries on the previous day.The blood cou...

  15. Management of Infections Due to Antibiotic-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Sheldon L.; MASON, EDWARD O.

    1998-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae are becoming more prevalent throughout the world; this has resulted in modifications of treatment approaches. Management of bacterial meningitis has the greatest consensus. Strategies for treating other systemic infections such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and musculoskeletal infections are evolving, in part related to the availability of new antibiotics which are active in vitro against isolates resistant to penicillin and the extended-sp...

  16. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Yashuan; Marks, Laura R.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over one million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease...

  17. Cytokine Induction by Streptococcus mutans and Pulpal Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Chin-Lo; Al M. Best; Tew, John G.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic pulpal inflammation under caries appears to be elicited by bacterial antigens that diffuse into the pulp through dentinal tubules. This prompted the hypothesis that cytokines elicited by antigens from Streptococcus mutans, which frequently dominates shallow lesions, could play a major role in eliciting the initial T-cell response in the pulp. To test this, we examined the ability of S. mutans to stimulate T cells and elicit cytokines and used Lactobacillus casei, which often predomina...

  18. Multifaceted RNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms in Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Le Rhun, Anaïs

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on precise regulation of gene expression to coordinate host infection processes and resist invasion by mobile genetic elements. An interconnected network of protein and RNA regulators dynamically controls the expression of virulence factors using a variety of mechanisms. In this thesis, the role of selected regulators, belonging to the class of small RNAs (sRNAs), is investigated. Streptococcus pyogenes is a pathogen responsible for a wide range of human diseases. Gen...

  19. Typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains using the phage profiling method

    OpenAIRE

    Borek, Anna L.; Obsza?ska, Katarzyna; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Sitkiewicz, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    We recently developed a method that allows fast differentiation between Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) strains. The method named phage profiling (PP) is based on a simple assumption that a regular PCR reaction with Taq polymerase and relatively short elongation time is not able to yield long DNA fragment, such as ~4050 kb integrated prophage. Only fragments without any integrated DNA or short fragments inserted between integration sites can be efficiently amplified. We designed primers that an...

  20. Streptococcus gordonii glucosyltransferase promotes biofilm interactions with Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Austin Ricker; Margaret Vickerman; Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans co-aggregates with Streptococcus gordonii to form biofilms and their interactions in mucosal biofilms may lead to pathogenic synergy. Although the functions of glucosyltransferases (Gtf) of Mutans streptococci have been well characterized, the biological roles of these enzymes in commensal oral streptococci, such as S. gordonii, in oral biofilm communities are less clear. Objective: The objective of this work was to explore the role of GtfG, the single Gtf enzyme ...

  1. Ecology of Streptococcus faecium bacteriophage in chicken gut.

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton, S B; Fuller, R.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction in the chick gut between Streptococcus faecium and its phage was examined. In conventional chicks, large numbers of S. faecium and phage were found in the cecum and smaller numbers were found in the anterior gut. In gnotobiotic chicks associated with S. faecium SY1 and its phage, there was no marked effect on bacterial numbers, but resistance to the phage rapidly developed. Depression of chick growth caused by S. faecium strain SY1 was partially reversed by its phage.

  2. Evaluacin de la colonizacin del tracto digestivo de cerdos por cepas de Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus, componentes de un producto probitico / Gastrointestinal tract colonization evaluation in pigs by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophile strains, components of a probiotic product

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Prez Ruano; Mabelin, Armenteros Amaya; Ernesto, Vega Caizares.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la posible utilizacin como probitico, de un producto compuesto por Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus, se estudi la colonizacin del tracto intestinal de cerdos recin nacidos, por los agentes componentes de este producto. Como probitico se utiliz u [...] na mezcla de miel de caa, levadura torula y agua hasta completar 1000 ml y 25 ml del cultivo de Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus. Se conformaron cuatro grupos experimentales de la siguiente manera: Grupo 1: 18 cras (camada de dos cerdas) a las cuales se les aplic 5 ml del producto por va oral al nacimiento; Grupo 2: 17 cras (camada de dos cerdas) a las cuales se les aplic 5 ml del producto por va oral al nacimiento y 24 horas despus del primer tratamiento; Grupo 3: 10 cras (camada de una cerda) a las que se les aplic 5 ml del placebo por va oral al nacimiento; Grupo 4: 12 cras (camada de una cerda) a las cuales se les aplic 5 ml del placebo por va oral al nacimiento y 24 horas despus del primer tratamiento. A todos los animales se les realiz un hizopaje rectal a los 7, 14 y 21 das de finalizado el tratamiento. Se comprob la colonizacin del tracto gastrointestinal por Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus en los cerdos tratados con el producto probitico hasta los 14 das postratamiento y que esta no se encuentra influida por la frecuencia de aplicacin del probitico. Abstract in english With the aim of evaluating the possible use as a probiotic product composed by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus, the intestinal tract colonization of newborn pigs was studied by the components of this product. As a probiotic, a mixture of 150 ml of molasses and 100 mg torula [...] yeast was used and water was added completing 1000 ml and 25 ml of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus culture was added. Four experimental groups were formed as follows: Group 1: 18 piglets (a litter of two sows) which was applied 5 ml of the probiotic product orally at birth; Group 2: 17 piglets (a litter of two sows) which were applied 5 ml of the probiotic product orally at birth and at 24 hours after the first treatment; Group 3: 10 piglets (a litter of one sow) which were applied 5 ml of placebo orally at birth and Group 4: 12 piglets (a litter of one sow) which were applied 5 ml of placebo orally at birth and at 24 hours after the first treatment. A microbiological sampling by rectal swabs at 7, 14 and 21 days postreatment was applied to all animals. The gastrointestinal tract colonization by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was observed in pigs treated with the probiotic product until 14 days postreatment not being and this is not influenced by the frequency of probiotic application.

  3. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  4. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

  5. Activities of Faropenem, an Oral β-Lactam, against Recent U.S. Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis

    OpenAIRE

    Critchley, Ian A.; Karlowsky, James A.; Draghi, Deborah C.; Jones, Mark E.; Thornsberry, Clyde; Murfitt, Kate; Sahm, Daniel F.

    2002-01-01

    The in vitro activities of faropenem and other antimicrobial agents were determined against 4,725 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 2,614 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 1,193 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 273 U.S. laboratories during 1999. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.008, 0.25, and 1 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant S. pneumoniae strains, respectively; 0.5 and 1 μg/ml for β-lactamase-positive and -negative ...

  6. PREVALENCIA DE COLONIZACION POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B) EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE DEL EMBARAZO. EVALUACION DEL CULTIVO SELECTIVO. EXPERIENCIA EN 2192 PACIENTES

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Abarzúa C.; Ana María Guzmán; Cristián Belmar; Jorge Becker; Patricia García; Alonso Rioseco; Enrique Oyarzún

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus grupo B (SGB) es el principal agente bacteriano en sepsis neonatal precoz. La infección generalmente es adquirida durante el trabajo de parto en hijos de madres colonizadas. La prevalencia de colonización reportada es variable (2 a 34%), encontrándose las cifras más altas cuando se utiliza muestra vaginal-perianal y medios de cultivo selectivos. Los objetivos del estudio fueron evaluar la prevalencia de SGB en el embarazo, y conocer el rendimiento del cultivo selectivo versus el...

  7. Preliminary phytochemical analysis & Invitro Antibacterial activity of Acacia catechu willd Bark against Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis & Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study is to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of ethanolic  bark extract of Acacia catechu willd against selected oral microbes and to investigate the phytochemicals present in it. The inhibitory effect of the extract were tested against selected oral microbes by using the Macro broth dilution method .The ethanolic bark extract of Acacia catechu exhibited antibacterial activity against streptococcus mitis with minimum bactericidal concentration of  500µg/ml whereas the MBC for streptococcus sanguis and Lactobacillus acidophilus were found to be 1mg/ml, 5mg/ml,10mg/ml and the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, amino acids , saponins, triterpenoids. The ethanolic  bark extract of Acacia catechu willd was found to be bactericidal  in action against tested bacterial strains and these action may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents in it.  

  8. Autolisis de Streptococcus pneumoniae en hemocultivos Autolysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Edgardo Villar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de autolisis de Streptococcus pneumoniae en medios lquidos puede ocasionar problemas en muestras de hemocultivos impidiendo su recuperacin y, por lo tanto, el diagnstico microbiolgico, as como el estudio de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la frecuencia de este fenmeno en muestras clnicas y determinar las mejores condiciones de deteccin para este germen en los sistemas automatizados. Fueron incluidos todos los pacientes con diagnstico de neumona y hemocultivos positivos por S. pneumoniae y pacientes con diagnstico de neumona, botellas positivas y subcultivos negativos. Se evalu el tipo de botella empleada, tiempo de deteccin, tiempo de demora en subcultivar las botellas y recuperacin del germen. El procesamiento de las botellas, identificacin del microorganismo y el estudio de sensibilidad a los antibiticos se realizaron segn el protocolo habitual del laboratorio. Se evaluaron 110 botellas distribuidas de la siguiente manera: 104 FAN aerobias y 6 FAN anaerobias pertenecientes a 51 pacientes. Se obtuvo seal de positividad en 96 FAN aerobias (92,3% y en 2 FAN anaerobias (33,3%. Todas las botellas positivas fueron detectadas en las primeras 26 h de incubacin con una media de 11 h. En 38 de 51 pacientes (74,5% se recuper S. pneumoniae en los subcultivos, mientras que en 13 (25,5% no se obtuvo desarrollo. La prdida de viabilidad en estos casos se correlacion con la demora en subcultivar las botellas positivas. La recuperacin del germen fue del 100, 78,9 y 25% cuando la demora en subcultivar fue 14 h respectivamente. Se concluye que la utilizacin de botellas FAN aerobias permiti una adecuada recuperacin de S. pneumoniae. Aquellos laboratorios que no poseen un servicio de guardia de Bacteriologa podran perder un porcentaje significativo de aislamientos de S. pneumoniae debido a fenmenos de autolisis. A fin de evitar este problema se recomienda implementar un sistema de vigilancia cada 7 h con descarga y subcultivo de botellas positivas.Spontaneous autolysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures causes a serious problem. Clinically relevant microorganisms are not detected and antimicrobial susceptibility testing cannot be performed. The aim of this study was to review the frequency of spontaneous autolysis in blood cultures and to analyze the detection and isolation of S. pneumoniae from blood cultures. Patients with clinically diagnosed pneumonia and positive blood cultures were included. Another group of patients with pneumonia, positive blood culture but negative subcultures was also included. Type of bottle, time of detection and recovery of S. pneumoniae in subcultures were recorded. All bottles were processed according to the manufacturers instructions. A total of 110 bottles from 51 patients were evaluated. Out of 104 FAN aerobic bottles, 96 (92.3% were positive. Out of 6 FAN anaerobic bottles only 2 (33.3% were positive. Mean time detection was 11 hours and all positive bottles were detected after 26 hours of incubation. S. pneumoniae was recovered in subcultures in 38 of 51 patients (74.5%. Loss of viability associated to autolysis was detected in 13 patients (25.5%. Loss of viability was related to delay in removal of positive bottles from incubator. The recovery of microorganisms was 100, 78.9 and 25% when the time of delay was 14 h respectively. Detection of S. pneumoniae was more frequent in FAN aerobic bottles. Isolates clinically significative of S. pneumoniae cannot be recovered if positive bottles remain inside incubator more than 7 hs. Microbiology laboratories should have personnel to remove positive bottles during the night and at weekends.

  9. Reasoning about emotional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  10. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de las infecciones por Streptococcus pyogenes en el período neonatal Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in the neonatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Alvarez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la infección por Estreptococo del grupo A en los recién nacidos egresados de hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutivos, quienes tuvieron infecciones por estreptococos del grupo A y que estuvieron ingresados en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre 1992 y el 2005. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad. RESULTADOS. Se registraron 20 recién nacidos con infección por estreptococos del grupo A, lo cual representó una tasa promedio anual de 0,2 cada 100 ingresos. Esta infección muestra una incidencia con tendencia significativa a disminuir en los últimos años. Según la clasificación utilizada, todas las infecciones fueron de inicio tardío y, de acuerdo al origen, predominaron las adquiridas en la comunidad (95,0 %. La infección de tejidos blandos fue la forma clínica más frecuente (10 de 20; 50 % y cursó con bacteriemia. Los aislamientos de estreptococos del grupo A tuvieron un 100 % de sensibilidad ante los betalactámicos. Hubo un solo paciente fallecido, afecto de meningitis, lo cual significó una tasa de letalidad del 5,0 %. CONCLUSIONES. El estreptococo del grupo A es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, fundamentalmente en el ambiente comunitario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central, a pesar del patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los betalactámicos.INTRODUCTION. The objective of the present investigation was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infection caused by group A Streptococcus in the newborn infants discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that included consecutive newborn infants who had infections caused by group A Streptococcus and that were admitted in the neonatology service of "Juan M. Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital between 1992 and 2005 was carried out. Different clinical and epidemiological variables were processed and analyzed by calculating the incidence and lethality rates. RESULTS. 20 newborn infants with infection caused by group A Streptococcus were registered, accounting for an annual average rate of 0.2 per 100 admissions. This infection shows an incidence with a significant trend to decrease in the last years. According to the classification used, all the infections had a late onset, and regarding their origin those acquired in the community prevailed (95.0 %. The infection of the soft tissues was the most common clinical form (10 of 20; 50 % and evolved with bacteremia. The isolations of group A Streptococcus has 100 % of sensitivity to betalactamics. Only one patient affected with meningitis died, which represented a lethality rate of 5.0 %. CONCLUSIONS. The group A Streptococcus is an agent causing infections that affect the newborn infant, mainly in the community environment. These infections may be lethal in some patients with infection of the central nervous system, in spite of the pattern of elevated susceptibility to betalactamics.

  11. Assessment of GFP fluorescence in cells of Streptococcus gordonii under conditions of low pH and low oxygen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.C.; Palmer, R.J.; Udsen, C.; White, D.C.; Molin, Søren

    2001-01-01

    Use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a molecular reporter is restricted by several environmental factors, such as its requirement for oxygen in the development of the fluorophore, and its poor fluorescence at low pH. There are conflicting data on these limitations, however, and systematic...... studies to assess the importance of these factors for growing bacterial cultures are lacking. In the present study, homogeneous expression of the gfpmut3* gene directed by a synthetic constitutive lactococcal promoter was demonstrated in batch cultures and in biofilms of Streptococcus gordonii DL1. A...... (obtained by addition of L-cysteine as reducing agent). When an anaerobically grown (nonfluorescent) >50 mum thick biofilm was shifted to aerobic conditions, fluorescence could be detected within 4 min, reaching a maximum over the next 16 min. It was not possible to detect any fluorescence gradients...

  12. Group B streptococcus cystitis presenting in a diabetic patient with a massive abdominopelvic abscess: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ulett Kimberly B; Shuemaker Jennifer H; Benjamin William H; Tan Chee K; Ulett Glen C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus is a Gram-positive pathogen that is typically associated with neonatal disease and infection in pregnant women. Group B streptococcus also causes invasive infections in non-pregnant adults including urinary tract infections. The spectrum of urinary tract infections caused by group B streptococcus includes cystitis, pyelonephritis, urosepsis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, which is particularly common among elderly individua...

  13. Non-infectivity of Cattle Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as a Lancefields group B Streptococcus (GBS). It is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis that is responsible for severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish, worldwide. Streptococcus agalactiae also causes bovine mastitis. Only limited comparativ...

  14. [Evaluation of antigen diagnostic kit in group A streptococcus mass infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihonyanagi, Shin; Obata, Susumu; Nakazaki, Nobuhiko; Hirai, Makoto; Hirata, Yasuyosi; Takayama, Yoko; Ohtani, Shinichi; Kanoh, Yuhsaku; Akahoshi, Tohru; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Inoue, Matsuhisa

    2007-07-01

    We report a Food-borne group A streptococcus epidemic at Kitasato University campus on July 30 and 31, 2005, believed caused by lunch. A current mass group A streptococcus infection differing from the food-borne epidemic above occurred at Kitasato University East Hospital, also believed caused by lunch. Group A streptococcus was detected using a prompt diagnostic kit and bacterial culture from 116 clinical specimens taken from 116 patients with group A streptococcus pharyngitis at Kitasato University East Hospital on August 5, 2005. To investigate the utility of immunochromatographic detection of group A streptococcus antigen, 116 clinical specimens obtained from pharyngeal membranes by swab were examined using a prompt diagnostic kit for group A streptococcus (ImmunoCard STAT! STREP A TEST) and conventional bacterial culture. Group A streptococcus positivity differed between the two methods. Fourteen patients were found to be positive by the prompt diagnostic kit and 23 by bacterial culture. Four patients showing 1.0 x 10(6) cfu/mL estimated by the culture were difficult to diagnose with the prompt diagnostic kit,even though the detection sensitivity of this kit was 1.0 x 10(6) cfu/mL or more. Conventional bacterial culture should therefore be used in addition to the prompt diagnostic kit to detect group A streptococcus, especially in pharyngeal samples obtained from patients with pharyngitis. PMID:17695800

  15. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices...

  16. A novel method for rapid detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kiyoyasu; Kubo, Toru; Ehara, Naomi; Nakano, Reiji; Matsutake, Toyoshi; Ishimatu, Yuji; Tanaka, Yumi; Akamatsu, Suguru; Izumikawa, Koichi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we used "RAPIRUN()Streptococcus pneumoniae HS (otitis media/sinusitis) (RAPIRUN-HS)," a rapid S. pneumoniae antigen detection kit, to investigate methods for detecting S. pneumoniae antigens in blood of 32 bacterial pneumonia patients. We simultaneously performed PCR to detect S. pneumoniae in blood samples. The results of these tests were compared based on pneumonia severity, determined using the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) score classification. Four S. pneumoniae PCR-positive patients of the six severe pneumococcal pneumonia patients (PSI risk class IV/V) also tested positive using RAPIRUN-HS. Twenty-four mild to moderate pneumonia patients (PSI risk class I-III) were S. pneumoniae PCR-negative; of these, 21 tested negative using RAPIRUN-HS. The pneumococcal pneumonia patients testing positive using RAPIRUN-HS had low leukocyte counts and elevated C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels, indicating that RAPIRUN-HS results were correlated with pneumonia severity. The time course evaluations of the laboratory tests for severe pneumococcal pneumonia patients showed that RAPIRUN-HS and S. pneumoniae PCR yielded positive results earlier than the changes in procalcitonin and IL-6. Thus, concomitant pneumococcal bacteremia was strongly suspected in patients testing positive using RAPIRUN-HS. In conclusion, RAPIRUN-HS may be useful for determining whether to admit patients into hospitals and selecting the appropriate antimicrobial agents. PMID:26778250

  17. Crystallization of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from a clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria highlights the importance of identifying potential drug targets. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) is a valid but as yet unexploited antimicrobial target that functions in the biosynthesis of (S)-lysine. In this study, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS from S. pneumoniae are described. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.2.1.52) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the (S)-lysine biosynthesis pathway of bacteria and plants. Here, the cloning of the DHDPS gene from a clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae (OXC141 strain) and the strategy used to express, purify and crystallize the recombinant enzyme are described. Diffracting crystals were grown in high-molecular-weight PEG precipitants using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystal, from which data were collected, diffracted to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. Initially, the crystals were thought to belong to space group P42212, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.5, b = 105.5, c = 62.4 Å. However, the R factors remained high following initial processing of the data. It was subsequently shown that the data set was twinned and it was thus reprocessed in space group P2, resulting in a significant reduction in the R factors. Determination of the structure will provide insight into the design of novel antimicrobial agents targeting this important enzyme from S. pneumoniae

  18. Evaluation of genotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans using distinct arbitrary primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cínthia Pereira Machado Tabchoury

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR with arbitrary primers, several primers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11 presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.

  19. Calcium fluoride nanoparticles induced suppression of Streptococcus mutans biofilm: an in vitro and in vivo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shatavari; Khan, Shakir; Hasan, Sadaf; Khan, M Ehtisham; Misba, Lama; Khan, Asad U

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm formation on the tooth surface is the root cause of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Streptococcus mutans is known to produce biofilm which is one of the primary causes of dental caries. Acid production and acid tolerance along with exopolysaccharide (EPS) formation are major virulence factors of S. mutans biofilm. In the current study, calcium fluoride nanoparticles (CaF2-NPs) were evaluated for their effect on the biofilm forming ability of S. mutans in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro studies revealed 89 % and 90 % reduction in biofilm formation and EPS production, respectively. Moreover, acid production and acid tolerance abilities of S. mutans were also reduced considerably in the presence of CaF2-NPs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images were in accordance with the other results indicating inhibition of biofilm without affecting bacterial viability. The qRT-PCR gene expression analysis showed significant downregulation of various virulence genes (vicR, gtfC, ftf, spaP, comDE) associated with biofilm formation. Furthermore, CaF2-NPs were found to substantially decrease the caries in treated rat groups as compared to the untreated groups in in vivo studies. Scanning electron micrographs of rat's teeth further validated our results. These findings suggest that the CaF2-NPs may be used as a potential antibiofilm applicant against S. mutans and may be applied as a topical agent to reduce dental caries. PMID:26610805

  20. Regulation of oxidative response and extracellular polysaccharide synthesis by a diadenylate cyclase in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xingqun; Zheng, Xin; Zhou, Xuedong; Zeng, Jumei; Ren, Zhi; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun; Li, Jiyao; Li, Yuqing

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) has been implicated in the control of many important bacterial activities. However, the function of this molecule in Streptococcus mutans, the primary aetiological agent of human dental caries, is unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a diadenylate cyclase, named CdaA, in S. mutans. Furthermore, we showed that in-frame deletion of the cdaA gene in S. mutans causes decreased c-di-AMP levels, increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and increased production of extracellular polysaccharides. Global gene expression profiling revealed that more than 200 genes were significantly upregulated or downregulated (> 2.0-fold) in the cdaA mutant. Interestingly, genes with increased or decreased expression were clustered in cellular polysaccharide biosynthetic processes and oxidoreductase activity respectively. Notably, the expression of several genomic islands, such as GTF-B/C, TnSmu, CRISPR1-Cas and CRISPR2-Cas, was found to be altered in the cdaA mutant, indicating a possible link between these genomic islands and c-di-AMP signalling. Collectively, the results reported here show that CdaA is an important global modulator in S. mutans and is required for optimal growth and environmental adaption. This report also paves the way to unveil further the roles of c-di-AMP signalling networks in the biology and pathogenicity of S. mutans. PMID:26548332

  1. Biofilm formation by Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans in the presence of farnesol: a quantitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Renan Aparecido; Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Arias, Laís Salomão; Fernandes, Gabriela Lopes; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Barbosa, Debora Barros

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the QS molecule farnesol on single and mixed species biofilms formed by Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The anti-biofilm effect of farnesol was assessed through total biomass quantification, counting of colony forming units (CFUs) and evaluation of metabolic activity. Biofilms were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was observed that farnesol reduced the formation of single and mixed biofilms, with significant reductions of 37% to 90% and 64% to 96%, respectively, for total biomass and metabolic activity. Regarding cell viability, farnesol treatment promoted significant log reductions in the number of CFUs, ie 1.3-4.2 log10 and 0.67-5.32 log10, respectively, for single and mixed species biofilms. SEM images confirmed these results, showing decreases in the number of cells in all biofilms. In conclusion, these findings highlight the role of farnesol as an alternative agent with the potential to reduce the formation of pathogenic biofilms. PMID:26905659

  2. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing noninvasive diseases in a Children's Hospital, Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Streptococcus pneumoniae, which cause noninvasive pneumococcal diseases, severely impair children's health. This study analyzed serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae from January 2012 to December 2012 in a Children's Hospital, Shanghai.Methods:A total of 328 pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by multiplex sequential PCR and/or capsule-quellung reaction. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for 11 antimi- crobial agents were determined by broth microdilution method.Results:Among 328 strains, 19F (36.3%, 19A (13.4%, 6A (11.9%, 23F (11.0%, 14 (5.8%, 6B (5.2%, and 15B/C (4.3% were the most common serotypes. The coverage rates of 7-, 10-, and 13-valent conjugate vaccines (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were 58.2%, 58.2%, and 84.1%, respectively. Out of the isolates, 26 (7.9% strains were penicillin resistant. Most of the strains displayed high resistance rate to macrolides (98.5% to erythromycin, 97.9% to azithromycin, and 97.0% to clindamycin.Conclusions:The potential coverage of PCV13 is higher than PCV7 and PCV10 because of the emergence of 19A and there should be long-term and systematic surveillance for non-vaccine serotypes.

  3. Emodin affects biofilm formation and expression of virulence factors in Streptococcus suis ATCC700794.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Bei; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Chang; Huang, Quan-Yong; Bai, Jing-Wen; Chen, Jian-Qing; Chen, Xue-Ying; Li, Yan-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. In this study, the effects of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of emodin on biofilm formation by S. suis ATCC700794 were evaluated. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by S. suis ATCC700794 was dose-dependently decreased after growth with 1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC, or 1/8 MIC of emodin. By scanning electron microscopy, the structural architecture of the S. suis ATCC700794 biofilms was examined following growth in culture medium supplemented with 1/2 MIC, 1/4 MIC, 1/8 MIC, or 1/16 MIC of emodin. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the potential effect of emodin on biofilm formation by S. suis ATCC700794. The expression of luxS gene and virulence genes in S. suis ATCC700794 was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that sub-MICs of emodin significantly decreased the expression of gapdh, sly, fbps, ef, and luxS. However, it was found that sub-MICs of emodin significantly increased the expression of cps2J, mrp, and gdh. These findings showed that sub-MICs of emodin could cause the difference in the expression level of the virulence genes. PMID:26446827

  4. Control of Streptococcus sanguinis oral biofilm by novel chlorhexidine-chitosan mouthwash: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangalore V. Karthikeyan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most common prevalent infectious oral diseases in humans are caries and periodontal diseases, which are usually associated with dental plaque. The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate and compare the impact of new mouthwash formulation consisting of chlorhexidine (0.1% and bioadhesive chitosan (0.5% on dental plaque bacterial reduction, to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. Methods: In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Streptococcus sanguinis from clinical plaque samples to four different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates to chlorhexidine (0.2%, chitosan (0.5%, chlorhexidine (0.1% plus chitosan (0.5% combination and saline were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Results: The zone of inhibition showed that chlorhexidine, chitosan and chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthwash exert an antimicrobial activity. A markedly higher and significant activity was obtained with chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthwash. On intergroup comparison there were statistically significant differences between all the tested solutions, except between chlorhexidine and chitosan mouthwash. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the present study, results showed that chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthrinse are superior in antimicrobial activity than chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 165-169

  5. [Antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from sterile body sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oznur, A K; Ozer, Serdar; Benzonana, Nur A

    2006-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has become an important issue in the last years. Penicillin resistance rates vary among countries and among different regions in countries. It is important to know penicillin resistance rates among isolates, in planning empirical antimicrobial therapy in pneumococcal infections. In this study, the antibiotic resistance rates of S. pneumoniae strains isolated from sterile body sites were investigated with both E-test and disc diffusion methods for penicillin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, and with only disc diffusion method for chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, rifampin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), clindamycin, and tetracycline. A total of 165 strains were included into the study of which 52 were isolated from blood, 46 from cerebrospinal fluids, 25 from pleural fluids, 24 from dacryocystitis materials, 13 from tympanocentesis materials, 3 from joint fluids and 2 from wound specimens. Intermediate resistance to penicilin was 18.8%, while the resistance rates to TMP-SMX, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and levofloxacin were detected as 21.2%, 10.9%, 9.7%, 5.4% and 0.6%, respectively. None of the isolates were highly resistant to penicillin, nor resistant to vancomycin, ceftriaxone and rifampin. In conclusion, penicillin is still the first line therapeutic agent for pneumococcal infections except for severe infections such as meningitis, in our region. PMID:17001846

  6. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing noninvasive diseases in a Children's Hospital, Shanghai

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fen, Pan; Lizhong, Han; Jing, Kong; Chun, Wang; Huihong, Qin; Shuzhen, Xiao; Junying, Zhu; Hong, Zhang.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae, which cause noninvasive pneumococcal diseases, severely impair children's health. This study analyzed serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae from January 2012 to December 2012 in a Children's Hospital, Shanghai. Methods: A total of [...] 328 pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by multiplex sequential PCR and/or capsule-quellung reaction. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for 11 antimi- crobial agents were determined by broth microdilution method. Results: Among 328 strains, 19F (36.3%), 19A (13.4%), 6A (11.9%), 23F (11.0%), 14 (5.8%), 6B (5.2%), and 15B/C (4.3%) were the most common serotypes. The coverage rates of 7-, 10-, and 13-valent conjugate vaccines (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13) were 58.2%, 58.2%, and 84.1%, respectively. Out of the isolates, 26 (7.9%) strains were penicillin resistant. Most of the strains displayed high resistance rate to macrolides (98.5% to erythromycin, 97.9% to azithromycin, and 97.0% to clindamycin). Conclusions: The potential coverage of PCV13 is higher than PCV7 and PCV10 because of the emergence of 19A and there should be long-term and systematic surveillance for non-vaccine serotypes.

  7. [Selection of virulent mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Utilization of a murine model of septicemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory-Rivier, C; Rieux, V; Azoulay-Dupuis, E; Carbon, C; Trombe, M C

    1999-05-01

    Genetic construction of virulence deficient mutant is a strategy to analyse virulence genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and was used to virulence factors as capsule, pneumolysin, autolysin and PspA. We perform a model allowing the in vivo positive selection of virulent S. pneumoniae mutants. Mice which are the most susceptible animals to pneumococcal infection, offer the best model for screening virulent S. pneumoniae. Indeed, after intraperitoneal injection of bacterial mix which was composed to a lot of avirulent bacteria (6 log10 CFU per mouse) (V1015 strain, DL50 = 7.05) and few virulent pneumococci (1 to 2 log10 CFU per mouse) (P4241 strain, DL50 DL50 = 4.1) which was obtained after transformation of avirulent strain V1015 with the genomic fragment of virulent strain P4241. Our model of screening was the only one allowing detection of virulent S. pneumoniae mutants. This new genetic strategy which consisted in gene addition and used mouse as selection agent, could be used to discover new virulence genes required to in vivo bacterial development. PMID:10418032

  8. Effect of acid shock on protein expression by biofilm cells of Streptococcus mutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welin, J; Wilkins, J C; Beighton, D; Wrzesinski, K; Fey, S J; Mose-Larsen, P; Hamilton, Andrew Raymond; Svensäter, G; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof

    2003-01-01

    suggested that surface growth itself triggered an ATR in biofilm cells, we were interested in comparing the effects of a pH change from 7.5 to 5.5 on protein synthesis by the two cell types. For this, cells were pulse labeled with [(14)C]-amino acids following the pH change to pH 5.5, the proteins extracted......Streptococcus mutans is a component of the dental plaque biofilm and a major causal agent of dental caries. Log-phase cells of the organism are known to induce an acid tolerance response (ATR) at sub-lethal pH values ( approximately 5.5) that enhances survival at lower pH values such as those...... encountered in caries lesions. In this study, we have employed a rod biofilm chemostat system to demonstrate that, while planktonic cells induced a strong ATR at pH 5.5, biofilm cells were inherently more acid resistant than such cells in spite of a negligible induction of an ATR. Since these results...

  9. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Sichani, Maryam; Karbasizadeh, Vajihe; Dokhaharani, Samaneh Chaharmiri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting humans of all ages. Streptococcus mutans has an important role in the development of dental caries by acid production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm disinfective effects of the oak tree Quercus infectoria galls against S. mutans. Materials and Methods: The bacterial strain used in this study was S. mutans (ATCC: 35668). Two kinds of galls, Mazouj and Ghalghaf were examined. Galls were extracted by methanol, ethanol and acetone by Soxhlet apparatus, separately. Extracts were dissolved in sterile distilled water to a final concentration of 10.00, 5.00, 2.50, 1.25, 0.63, 0.31, and 0.16 mg/ml. Microdilution determined antibacterial activities. The biofilm removal activities of the extracts were examined using crystal violet-stained microtiter plate method. One-way ANOVA was used to compare biofilm formation in the presence or absence of the extracts. Results: The methanolic, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Q. infectoria galls showed the strong inhibitory effects on S. mutans (P biofilm biomass of S. mutans at the concentrations higher than 9.8 ?g/ml. Conclusion: Three different extracts of Q. infectoria galls were similar in their antibacterial activity against S. mutans. These extracts had the highest biofilm removal activities at 312.5 ?g/ml concentration. The galls of Q. infectoria are potentially good sources of antibacterial and biofilm disinfection agent.

  10. Low Concentrations of Nitric Oxide Modulate Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Metabolism and Antibiotic Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Raymond N; Morgan, Samantha; Brito-Mutunayagam, Sanjita; Skipp, Paul; Feelisch, Martin; Hayes, Stephen M; Hellier, William; Clarke, Stuart C; Stoodley, Paul; Burgess, Andrea; Ismail-Koch, Hasnaa; Salib, Rami J; Webb, Jeremy S; Faust, Saul N; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniaeis one of the key pathogens responsible for otitis media (OM), the most common infection in children and the largest cause of childhood antibiotic prescription. Novel therapeutic strategies that reduce the overall antibiotic consumption due to OM are required because, although widespread pneumococcal conjugate immunization has controlled invasive pneumococcal disease, overall OM incidence has not decreased. Biofilm formation represents an important phenotype contributing to the antibiotic tolerance and persistence ofS. pneumoniaein chronic or recurrent OM. We investigated the treatment of pneumococcal biofilms with nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous signaling molecule and therapeutic agent that has been demonstrated to trigger biofilm dispersal in other bacterial species. We hypothesized that addition of low concentrations of NO to pneumococcal biofilms would improve antibiotic efficacy and that higher concentrations exert direct antibacterial effects. Unlike in many other bacterial species, low concentrations of NO did not result inS. pneumoniaebiofilm dispersal. Instead, treatment of bothin vitrobiofilms andex vivoadenoid tissue samples (a reservoir forS. pneumoniaebiofilms) with low concentrations of NO enhanced pneumococcal killing when combined with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, an antibiotic commonly used to treat chronic OM. Quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) identified 13 proteins that were differentially expressed following low-concentration NO treatment, 85% of which function in metabolism or translation. Treatment with low-concentration NO, therefore, appears to modulate pneumococcal metabolism and may represent a novel therapeutic approach to reduce antibiotic tolerance in pneumococcal biofilms. PMID:26856845

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Supplemented-Chewing Candy Against Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD ENDANG ZAINAL HASAN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is considered to play a major etiological role in development of human dental plaque believed to related to dental caries, the most prevalent disease of the human oral cavity. The objectives of the present study were to formulate and produce propolis supplemented-chewing candy and to investigate its antibacterial activity against S. mutans. Propolis is a natural resinous bee-hive product thought to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating activities. Propolis was extracted from hives of bees of Trigona spp. using ethanol. The extract was coated with maltodextrine and homogenized to generate propolis microparticles. The particles were introduced into chewing candy preparations for the production of propolis supplemented-chewing candy. The candy was then subjected to in vitro antibacterial assays to test its activity against S. mutans isolated from human dental plaque. Results showed that the ethanol extracted propolis of Trigona spp. bee-hives can be homogenized to form propolis microparticles. The propolis microparticles could be used as a supplement in the formulation of chewing candy preparations. The propolis supplemented-chewing candy showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans. The candy, therefore, has the potential to be used as an antiplaque agent for prevention of dental caries.

  12. Performance of the Vitek MS v2.0 System in Distinguishing Streptococcus pneumoniae from Nonpneumococcal Species of the Streptococcus mitis Group

    OpenAIRE

    Branda, John A.; Markham, Rachelle P.; Garner, Cherilyn D.; Rychert, Jenna A.; Ferraro, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    The Vitek MS v2.0 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionizationtime of flight mass spectrometry system accurately distinguished Streptococcus pneumoniae from nonpneumococcal S. mitis group species. Only 1 of 116 nonpneumococcal isolates (

  13. Perfil fermentativo e valor nutritivo de silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis / Fermentation and nutritive value of elephant grass silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.J., Ferreira; A.M., Zanine; E.M., Santos; R.P., Lana; W.L., Silva; A.L., Souza; O.G., Pereira.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da inoculao de estirpes de Streptococcus bovis (HC5 e JB1) sobre o pH, a produo de amnia e o valor nutricional em silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, c [...] om trs tratamentos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - capimelefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis HC5 e T3 - capim-elefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis JB1, utilizando cinco repeties por tratamento. A menor concentrao de amnia foi observada na silagem tratada com inoculante base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5,90 p.100 N-total). A inoculao aumentou os teores de cido lctico e diminuiu os teores de cidos actico, butrico e propinico, sendo que as silagens inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 e HC5 foram os que apresentaram os maiores valores de cido lctico. No houve diferena estatstica para os teores de MS e PB. Para os valores das fibras, a silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 apresentou o menor valor de FDN (59,77 p.100) e HEM (26,71 p.100). O maior valor da DIVMS foi observado na silagem com Streptococcus bovis JB1, mostrando superioridade de quatro pontos percentuais (64,23 p.100) em relao ao tratamento sem inoculante bacteriano (60,35 p.100). O uso Streptococcus bovis JB1 melhora o processo fermentativo alm de promover melhorarias na qualidade da fibra e na DIVMS da silagem estudada. Abstract in english The experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of strains of Streptococcus bovis (HC5 and JB1) on pH, ammonia production and nutritional value in elephant-grass silages (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). The experimental design was entirely randomized, with three treatments: T1 elephant- grass, T2 - [...] grass-elephant inoculated with Streptococcus bovis HC5, T3 - elephant grass inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, totaling five replicates per treatment. The smallest value of ammonia was observed in the silage treated with inoculante the base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5.90% N-total). Inoculation increased the levels of lactic acid and decreased levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids, and the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 were those with the highest values of lactic acid. There were not statistical differences for the tenors of dry matter (MS) and crude protein (PB). For the values of the fibers, the grass-elephant silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, it presented the smallest value of neutral detergent fiber (59.77 %) and Hemicellulose (26.71 %). The largest value of in vitro dry matter digestibility (DIVMS) was observed in the silage with Streptococcus bovis JB1, showing superiority of four percentile points (64.23 %) in relation to the treatment without bacterial inoculante (60.35 %). The use Streptococcus bovis JB1 was efficient in the process fermentativo besides promoting would get better in the quality of the fiber and DIVMS in the studied silage.

  14. Effects of different antibacterial agents on enamel in a biofilm caries model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Selcuk; Kucuky?lmaz, Ebru; U Celik, Esra; Ates, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Using a mature biofilm model, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different antibacterial agents in comparison with silver diamine fluoride (SDF). Forty-eight saliva-coated enamel slabs were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans monospecies biofilm. The biofilms were then exposed to 10% sucrose in tryptone yeast-extract culture medium, 8 times per day for 7 days. After the biofilm growth period, the enamel slabs were treated with one of the following substances: 1) distilled water; 2) SDF; 3) acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF); 4) ammonium hexafluorosilicate (AHF); 5) ammonium hexafluorosilicate + cetylpyridinium chloride (AHF+CPC); or 6) 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX). After these treatment procedures, the samples were incubated at 37C for 2 days, and the numbers of viable microorganisms in the biofilms were counted. The number of viable bacteria was significantly reduced by all of the antibacterial agents (P < 0.05). However, SDF showed the highest antibacterial activity (P < 0.05), and the effectiveness of the other agents was lower (P < 0.05). SDF has a highly effective antibacterial action against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm; none of the other fluoride agents used in this study, or 0.2 CHX agent, showed an antibacterial effect comparable to that of SDF. (J Oral Sci 57, 367-372, 2015). PMID:26666861

  15. Deep neck infection complicating lymphadenitis caused by Streptococcus intermedius in an immunocompetent child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Inzeo Tiziana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus intermedius belongs to the Streptococcus anginosus group. It is part of the normal flora of the human mouth, but it can be etiologically associated with deep-site infections. Case presentation We present a case of deep neck infection complicating Streptococcus intermedius lymphadenitis, which developed in an immunocompetent 14-year-old boy with a history of recent dental work. The infection was ultimately eradicated by a combined medical and surgical approach. Conclusion Our report suggests that combined medical and surgical therapy is essential for the complete resolution of deep infections caused by Streptococcus intermedius. Molecular biological techniques can be useful in guiding the diagnostic investigation and providing insight into the possibility of occult abscesses, which are particularly common with Streptococcus intermedius infections.

  16. Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis Specifically Selects for Cotrimoxazole Resistance in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus with Varied Polymorphisms in the Target Genes folA and folP

    OpenAIRE

    Buwembo William; Charles Mugisha Rwenyonyi; Göte Swedberg; Fred Kironde

    2012-01-01

    The selection of antibiotic resistance by cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was evaluated, and we characterized the mechanism of cotrimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. In vitro susceptibility to six antibiotics was evaluated on 64 mutans streptococci group (MSG) isolates from a cotrimoxazole prophylaxis group and compared to 84 MSG isolates from a nonprophylaxis group. The folA and folP genes were sequenced and compared with reference sequences at NCBI. Only resi...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of emm4 Streptococcus pyogenes MEW427, a Throat Isolate from a Child Meeting Clinical Criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Kristin M; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J; Dawid, Suzanne R; Watson, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome assembly of the Streptococcus pyogenes type emm4 strain MEW427 (also referred to as strain UM001 in the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome [PANS] Research Consortium), a throat isolate from a child with acute-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms meeting clinical criteria for PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus). The genome length is 1,814,455 bp with 38.51% G+C%. PMID:26988046

  18. Frequency, biofilm formation and acid susceptibility of streptococcus mutans and streptococcus sobrinus in saliva of preschool children with different levels of caries activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Rajabnia, Ramazan; Irannejad, Azin; Hamzeh, Mahtab; Ferdosi, Elahe; Bagheri, Meghdad

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the causative factors in development of dental caries is microorganisms. Two species of Mutans streptococci including Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are associated with dental caries in human beings. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in saliva of children with different caries activity and ability to form biofilm and acid susceptibility of these microorganisms. Materials and Methods: This analytical case-con...

  19. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes resistant to macrolides but sensitive to clindamycin: a common resistance pattern mediated by an efflux system.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, J.; Tait-Kamradt, A; Wondrack, L

    1996-01-01

    Macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from Finland, Australia, and the United Kingdom and, more recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes strains from the United States were shown to have an unusual resistance pattern to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B antibiotics. This pattern, referred to as M resistance, consists of susceptibility to clindamycin and streptogramin B antibiotics but resistance to 14- and 15-membered macrolides. An evaluation of the macrol...

  20. Interaction of Salivary alpha-Amylase and Amylase-Binding-Protein A (AbpA) of Streptococcus gordonii with Glucosyltransferase of S. gordonii and Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzer Jason M; Vickerman M; Rojek Jennifer; Chaudhuri Biswendu; Scannapieco Frank A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Glucosyltransferases (Gtfs), enzymes that produce extracellular glucans from dietary sucrose, contribute to dental plaque formation by Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans. The alpha-amylase-binding protein A (AbpA) of S. gordonii, an early colonizing bacterium in dental plaque, interacts with salivary amylase and may influence dental plaque formation by this organism. We examined the interaction of amylase and recombinant AbpA (rAbpA), together with Gtfs of S. ...

  1. Tn5253 Family Integrative and Conjugative Elements Carrying mef(I) and catQ Determinants in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Mingoia, Marina; Morici, Eleonora; Morroni, Gianluca; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Del Grosso, Maria; Pantosti, Annalisa; Varaldo, Pietro E.

    2014-01-01

    The linkage between the macrolide efflux gene mef(I) and the chloramphenicol inactivation gene catQ was first described in Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain Spn529), where the two genes are located in a module designated IQ element. Subsequently, two different defective IQ elements were detected in Streptococcus pyogenes (strains Spy029 and Spy005). The genetic elements carrying the three IQ elements were characterized, and all were found to be Tn5253 family integrative and conjugative element...

  2. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delannoy Christian MJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26, seals (n = 6, a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host-associated genome content of S. agalactiae strains.

  3. Genomics of Streptococcus salivarius, a major human commensal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Christine; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Renault, Pierre; Guédon, Eric

    2015-07-01

    The salivarius group of streptococci is of particular importance for humans. This group consists of three genetically similar species, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus vestibularis and Streptococcus thermophilus. S. salivarius and S. vestibularis are commensal organisms that may occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans, whereas S. thermophilus is a food bacterium widely used in dairy production. We developed Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and comparative genomic analysis to confirm the clear separation of these three species. These analyses also identified a subgroup of four strains, with a core genome diverging by about 10%, in terms of its nucleotide sequence, from that of S. salivarius sensu stricto. S. thermophilus species displays a low level of nucleotide variability, due to its recent emergence with the development of agriculture. By contrast, nucleotide variability is high in the other two species of the salivarius group, reflecting their long-standing association with humans. The species of the salivarius group have genome sizes ranging from the smallest (∼ 1.7 Mb for S. thermophilus) to the largest (∼ 2.3 Mb for S. salivarius) among streptococci, reflecting genome reduction linked to a narrow, nutritionally rich environment for S. thermophilus, and natural, more competitive niches for the other two species. Analyses of genomic content have indicated that the core genes of S. salivarius account for about two thirds of the genome, indicating considerable variability of gene content and differences in potential adaptive features. Furthermore, we showed that the genome of this species is exceptionally rich in genes encoding surface factors, glycosyltransferases and response regulators. Evidence of widespread genetic exchanges was obtained, probably involving a natural competence system and the presence of diverse mobile elements. However, although the S. salivarius strains studied were isolated from several human body-related sites (all levels of the digestive tract, skin, breast milk, and body fluids) and included clinical strains, no genetic or genomic niche-specific features could be identified to discriminate specific group. PMID:25311532

  4. AgentChess : An Agent Chess Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Henric

    2003-01-01

    The game of chess has many times been discussed and used for test purpose by science departments of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Although the technique of agent and as well multi-agent systems is quite old, the use of these offspring of AI within chess is limited. This report describes the project performed applying the use of agents to a chess program. To measure the performance of the logic has tests between the developed program main parts been performed. Further tests against a tradition...

  5. Peritoneal culture alters Streptococcus pneumoniae protein profiles and virulence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, C. J.; Janssen, R.; Robb, C. W.; Watson, D. A.; Niesel, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    We have examined the properties of Streptococcus pneumoniae cultured in the murine peritoneal cavity and compared its virulence-associated characteristics to those of cultures grown in vitro. Analysis of mRNA levels for specific virulence factors demonstrated a 2.8-fold increase in ply expression and a 2.2-fold increase in capA3 expression during murine peritoneal culture (MPC). Two-dimensional gels and immunoblots using convalescent-phase patient sera and murine sera revealed distinct differences in protein production in vivo (MPC). MPC-grown pneumococci adhered to A549 epithelial cell lines at levels 10-fold greater than those cultured in vitro.

  6. Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines.

  7. Unraveling the Function of Glycosyltransferases in Streptococcus thermophilus Sfi6

    OpenAIRE

    Stingele, Francesca; Newell, John W.; Neeser, Jean-Richard

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus Sfi6 produces a texturizing exopolysaccharide (EPS) consisting of a ?3)[?-d-Galp-(1?6)]-?-d-Glcp-(1?3)-?-d-GalpNAc-(1?3)-?-d-Galp-(1??repeating unit. We previously identified and analyzed a 14.5-kb gene cluster from S. thermophilus Sfi6 consisting of 13 genes responsible for its EPS production. Within this gene cluster, we found a central region of genes (epsE, epsF, epsG, and epsI) that showed similarity to glycosyltransferases. In this study, we investigated the s...

  8. Dynamic Production of Soluble Extracellular Polysaccharides by Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Eva-Maria Decker; Ilka Dietrich; Christian Klein; Christiane von Ohle

    2011-01-01

    Caries development in the presence of Streptococcus mutans is associated not only with the production of extracellular water-insoluble polymers but also is based on water-soluble polysaccharides. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a novel glucan-specific Lectin assay for monitoring water-soluble EPS produced by S. mutans during several growth periods in different media. S. mutans cultures were grown for 24 h, 48 h, and 144 h in medium deficient of sucrose (A) and medium supplemented ...

  9. Poststreptococcal keratouveitis associated with group C streptococcus pharyngitis

    OpenAIRE

    Nataneli N; Aguilera ZP; Rosenbaum PS; Goldstein T; Mayers M

    2011-01-01

    Nathaniel Nataneli1, Zenia P Aguilera1, Pearl S Rosenbaum1, Tamar Goldstein1,2, Martin Mayers11Department of Ophthalmology, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelPurpose: To report the first case of poststreptococcal syndrome uveitis (PSU) in association with group C streptococcus (GCS).Patients and methods: Chart review of a 24-year-old man who presented with bilateral ocular redne...

  10. Chromosome and cell wall segregation in Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segregation was studied by measuring the positions of autoradiographic grain clusters in chains formed from single cells containing on average less than one radiolabeled chromosome strand. The degree to which chromosomal and cell wall material cosegregated was quantified by using the methods of S. Cooper and M. Weinberger, dividing the number of chains labeled at the middle. This analysis indicated that in contrast to chromosomal segregation in Escherichia coli and, in some studies, to that in gram-positive rods, chromosomal segregation in Streptococcus faecium was slightly nonrandom and did not vary with growth rate. Results were not significantly affected by strand exchange. In contrast, labeled cell wall segregated predominantly nonrandomly

  11. Production and optimisation of hyaluronic acid extracted from Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kawkab Abdulla Al-Saadiaa; Hassan Fadhil Naji; Ali Hmood Al-Saadi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Because of the less studies in this field in Iraq, this study aimed to use local Streptococcus pyogenes isolates to produce hyluronic acid. Methods The quantitative estimation of hyaluronic acid (HA) produced from eight local S. pyogenes isolates at different pH (6.3, 6.6, 6.9, 7.2, and 7.5) and glucose concentration (4%, 6%, 8%, and 1%) were done using the HA ELISA kit. Results This study showed that the maximum yield of HA was obtained at pH 7.5, and it was found that th...

  12. Specificity of the glucan-binding lectin of Streptococcus cricetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, D.; Taylor, K. G.; Bleiweis, A. S.; Doyle, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    The specificity of the glucan-binding lectin (GBL) of Streptococcus cricetus AHT was determined. Examination of the kinetics of aggregation of cell suspensions with glucans containing various percentages of alpha-1,6, alpha-1,4, alpha-1,3, and alpha-1,2 anomeric linkages revealed that only glucans with at least 80% alpha-1,6 linkages promoted strong aggregation. Moreover, only linear glucans with molecular weights greater than 5 X 10(5) were capable of causing rapid aggregation of the bacteri...

  13. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in whole blood by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y.; Isaacman, D J; Wadowsky, R. M.; Rydquist-White, J; Post, J.C.; Ehrlich, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacteremia in both children and adults. Currently, the diagnosis of pneumococcal bacteremia relies on the isolation and identification of the bacteria from blood cultures. We have developed a sensitive assay for the detection of S. pneumoniae in whole blood by the PCR. A specific primer-probe set (JM201 and JM202 primers with JM204 probe) designed from the penicillin-binding protein 2B gene was demonstrated to reproducibly detect between 10 and 100...

  14. Clonal differences among erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes in Spain.

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Trallero, E.; Marimón, J. M.; Montes, M.; Orden, B.; M. Pablos

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the high levels of erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes found in Spain are due to the introduction and spread of one or more clones. Phenotypic and genotypic techniques were used to characterize all erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes (ErR) isolated in Gipuzkoa, Spain, in the last 10 years and 128 ErR isolated in Vitoria and Madrid during 1996. Of 437 ErR, 97% had the M phenotype; all 283 of the strains studied had the mefA determinan...

  15. Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes a Penicilina en Lima - Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Fukuda Sharizawa; Juan Echevarria Zarate; Fernando Llanos Zavalaga; Augusto Yi Chu; Sara Palomino; Eduardo Gotuzzo Herencia; Carlos Carrillo Parodi

    1996-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina (SPRP). Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, multicéntrico, entre Noviembre de 1993 y Noviembre de 1994. Cultivos de sangre, líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR), líquido pleural (LP), material de timpanocentesis y esputo fueron coleccionados de los laboratorios de microbiología de cuatro hospitales de Lima. Las pruebas de concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM), fueron realizados usando métodos de ...

  16. Streptococcus suis Sequence Type 7 Outbreak, Sichuan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Changyun; Zhu, Xiaoping; Jing, Huaiqi; Du, Huamao; Segura, Mariela; Zheng, Han; Kan, Biao; Wang, Lili; Bai, xuemei; Zhou, Yongyun; CUI, ZHIGANG; Zhang, Shouying; Jin, Dong; Sun, Na; Luo, Xia

    2006-01-01

    An outbreak of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 emerged in the summer of 2005 in Sichuan Province, and sporadic infections occurred in 4 additional provinces of China. In total, 99 S. suis strains were isolated and analyzed in this study: 88 isolates from human patients and 11 from diseased pigs. We defined 98 of 99 isolates as pulse type I by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA. Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing classified 97 of 98 members of t...

  17. Collagen mediates adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to human dentin.

    OpenAIRE

    Switalski, L M; Butcher, W G; Caufield, P C; Lantz, M S

    1993-01-01

    Some strains of Streptococcus mutans were found to recognize and bind collagen type I. Binding of 125I-labeled collagen type I was specific in that collagen types I and II, but not unrelated proteins, were able to inhibit binding of the labeled ligand to bacteria. Collagen binding to S. mutans was partially reversible and involved a limited number of bacterial binding sites per cell. S. mutans UA 140 cells bound collagen type I with high affinity (Kd = 8 x 10(-8) M). The number of binding sit...

  18. Streptococcus salivarius meningitis after dental care: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Zoppelletto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcus salivarius is a common commensal of the oral mucosa, associated with infections in different sites. Meningitis due to this species are described in a few occasions . In this study refer to a case recently diagnosed in our hospital for treatment of a subsequent dental caries. Case report. A man of 35 years, presents to the emergency room with fever, headache, confusion, marked nuchal rigor.Anamnesis is the treatment of dental caries on the previous day.The blood count showed 24.7x109 / L with WBC 22.9x109 / L (92.9% neutrophils. The lumbar puncture CSF noted cloudy with 15.0 x 109 / L WBC, glicorrachia 5 g / L, protidorrachia 6.5 g / L. Microscopic examination showed numerous granulocytes and prevalence of Gram-positive cocci.The pneumococcal antigen was negative.The blood cultures before starting antibiotic therapy, were negative. CSF was isolated from the culture of a Streptococcus salivarius. To antibiotic therapy started in the ED, after lumbar puncture is associated with the Ampicillin Ceftriaxone and continued for 15 days to improve the patient’s general condition, then resigned in the 17 th day. Materials and methods. From CSF inoculated in blood agar plates and chocolate agar alpha hemolytic colonies were isolated, catalysis negative, optochin resistant. The biochemical identification performed with Phoenix (BD and confirmed by PCR Pan bacterial (16S rDNA bacterial strain identified as Streptococcus salivarius.The antibiogram performed with Phoenix (BD according to the CLSI guidelines indicated sensitivity to penicillin, vancomycin, cefotaxime, cefepime, and chloramphenicol. Conclusions. Meningitis by Streptococcus salivarius was found in a few cases, mainly related to the transmission of health personnel from the oral cavity during lumbar punctures performed without the use of surgical masks. The following bacterial meningitis in dental treatment having a low incidence and often fatal course be suspected by history.The patient should be further investigated because the infection may indicate a compromised immune unknown (Diabetes, HIV....

  19. Changes in the pattern of infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaworzewska, E.; Colman, G

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of T- and M-protein antigens was determined in 12,469 cultures of Streptococcus pyogenes sent to a reference laboratory. Of these 7232 (58%) were isolates from hospital patients, 249 (2%) from hospital staff and 4988 (40%) from the community. The survey extended from January 1980 to June 1987. During this time the numbers of isolates of M-types 6, 49 and 81 rose then fell, being replaced by types 1, 3 and 28. The proportion of isolates of M-types 4 and 12 remained constant. F...

  20. Aumento de resistencia de Streptococcus agalactiae vaginal-anal en el tercer trimestre de gestación a eritromicina y clindamicina al cabo de una década de tamizaje universal Streptococcus agalactiae increase in resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin in vaginal-anal colonization in third quarter of pregnancy in one decade of universal screening

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Abarzúa C.; Alejandra Arias E; Patricia García C; Constanza Ralph T; Jaime Cerda L; Ingrid Riedel K; Cynthia Gárate O

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente causal de sepsis perinatal precoz. La adquisición de políticas de prevención ha traído consigo la utilización frecuente de antimicrobianos intra-parto. La vigilancia de resistencia antimicrobiana se hace indispensable para definir el fármaco de elección y alternativas en dicha profilaxis. Nuestro centro realiza tamizaje universal desde hace 10 años. Objetivos: Determinar la evolución de la resistencia antimicrobiana de S. agalactia...

  1. Reporte de campo y aislamiento de Streptococcus spp beta hemolítico en aves de línea ligera en el centro de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellanos-Suárez, Omar I.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn una granja avícola del centro de Cuba en aves ligeras en la semana32-33 de vida productiva se observaron síntomas clínicos y lesionesmacroscópicas de una patología en cavidades que permitió la sospecha de un agente bacteriano. Posteriormente se aisló por primera vez en el Laboratorio Provincial de Diagnóstico de Medicina Veterinaria deCienfuegos la presencia del Streptococcus spp beta hemolítico en ovarios y vías respiratorias altas.SummaryIn a poultry farm of central Cuba in light birds during of 32-33 weekproductive life macroscopic lesions and clinical symptoms were observed in cavities a pathology, that allowed thesuspicion of a bacterial agent. Subsequently was isolated for the first time in the Laboratory of Diagnosis of Provincial Veterinary Medicine´ Cienfuegos the presence of Streptococcus spp beta hemolytic in ovaries and upper respiratory tract.

  2. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  3. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in the genus Streptococcus: characterization of a vanB transferable determinant in Streptococcus bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    Poyart, C.; Pierre, C.; Quesne, G.; Pron, B; Berche, P; Trieu-Cuot, P.

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis NEM760 was isolated from a stool swab collected on admission from a patient as surveillance for vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Strain NEM760 was identified as S. bovis by conventional biochemical methods and partial sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA. This strain was resistant to a low level of vancomycin (MIC, 64 micrograms/ml) but was susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC, 1 micrograms/ml), and vancomycin induced resistance to both glycopeptides. The presence of a vanB-relat...

  4. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  5. [Streptococcus pyogenes and the brain: living with the enemy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, R C

    Streptococcus pyogenes (or group A beta hemolytic streptococcus) is a pathogenic bacterium that can give rise to a range of invasive and autoimmune diseases, although it is more widely known as the cause of tonsillitis. It is particularly interesting to note that this germ only causes disease in humans. For many years it has been acknowledged that it can cause an autoimmune brain disease (Sydenham s chorea). Yet, the spectrum of post streptococcal brain disorders has recently been extended to include other movement disorders such as tics or dystonia. A number of systematic psychiatric studies have shown that certain emotional disorders generally accompany the movement disorder (particularly, obsessive compulsive disorder). The proposed pathogenetic mechanism is that of a neuronal dysfunction in which antibodies play a mediating role. The antibodies that are produced after the streptococcal infection cross react with neuronal proteins, and more especially so in individuals with a propensity. This represents a possible model of immunological mimicry and its potential importance with respect to certain idiopathic disorders such as Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder. PMID:12861520

  6. Comparative genomic analysis of ten Streptococcus pneumoniae temperate bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Patricia; Croucher, Nicholas J; Hiller, N Luisa; Hu, Fen Z; Ehrlich, Garth D; Bentley, Stephen D; Garca, Ernesto; Mitchell, Tim J

    2009-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that often carries temperate bacteriophages. As part of a program to characterize the genetic makeup of prophages associated with clinical strains and to assess the potential roles that they play in the biology and pathogenesis in their host, we performed comparative genomic analysis of 10 temperate pneumococcal phages. All of the genomes are organized into five major gene clusters: lysogeny, replication, packaging, morphogenesis, and lysis clusters. All of the phage particles observed showed a Siphoviridae morphology. The only genes that are well conserved in all the genomes studied are those involved in the integration and the lysis of the host in addition to two genes, of unknown function, within the replication module. We observed that a high percentage of the open reading frames contained no similarities to any sequences catalogued in public databases; however, genes that were homologous to known phage virulence genes, including the pblB gene of Streptococcus mitis and the vapE gene of Dichelobacter nodosus, were also identified. Interestingly, bioinformatic tools showed the presence of a toxin-antitoxin system in the phage phiSpn_6, and this represents the first time that an addition system in a pneumophage has been identified. Collectively, the temperate pneumophages contain a diverse set of genes with various levels of similarity among them. PMID:19502408

  7. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Ten Streptococcus pneumoniae Temperate Bacteriophages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Patricia; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Hiller, N. Luisa; Hu, Fen Z.; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Bentley, Stephen D.; Garca, Ernesto; Mitchell, Tim J.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that often carries temperate bacteriophages. As part of a program to characterize the genetic makeup of prophages associated with clinical strains and to assess the potential roles that they play in the biology and pathogenesis in their host, we performed comparative genomic analysis of 10 temperate pneumococcal phages. All of the genomes are organized into five major gene clusters: lysogeny, replication, packaging, morphogenesis, and lysis clusters. All of the phage particles observed showed a Siphoviridae morphology. The only genes that are well conserved in all the genomes studied are those involved in the integration and the lysis of the host in addition to two genes, of unknown function, within the replication module. We observed that a high percentage of the open reading frames contained no similarities to any sequences catalogued in public databases; however, genes that were homologous to known phage virulence genes, including the pblB gene of Streptococcus mitis and the vapE gene of Dichelobacter nodosus, were also identified. Interestingly, bioinformatic tools showed the presence of a toxin-antitoxin system in the phage ?Spn_6, and this represents the first time that an addition system in a pneumophage has been identified. Collectively, the temperate pneumophages contain a diverse set of genes with various levels of similarity among them. PMID:19502408

  8. Poststreptococcal keratouveitis associated with group C streptococcus pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataneli N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nathaniel Nataneli1, Zenia P Aguilera1, Pearl S Rosenbaum1, Tamar Goldstein1,2, Martin Mayers11Department of Ophthalmology, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelPurpose: To report the first case of poststreptococcal syndrome uveitis (PSU in association with group C streptococcus (GCS.Patients and methods: Chart review of a 24-year-old man who presented with bilateral ocular redness, pain, and photophobia for 5 days and "white rings" around his eyes for a duration of 3 days. The patient further reported fever and sore throat in the preceding week. Slit-lamp examination showed bilateral keratouveitis. A thorough uveitis workup, antistreptolysin O (ASLO titer, and throat culture were obtained. The patient was treated with frequent topical steroids and systemic doxycycline. The uveitis and keratitis subsided over the next few weeks, leaving extensive peripheral keratolysis.Results: The results of laboratory diagnostic testing revealed an elevated ASLO, C-reactive protein, as well as HLA-B27 positivity. Throat cultures grew beta-hemolytic GCS; group A streptococcus was culture negative.Conclusion: GCS pharyngitis may be a causative organism of PSU.Keywords: pharyngitis, keratolysis, keratouveitis

  9. Responses of innate immune cells to group A Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieber, Christina; Kovarik, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), also called Streptococcus pyogenes, is a Gram-positive beta-hemolytic human pathogen which causes a wide range of mostly self-limiting but also several life-threatening diseases. Innate immune responses are fundamental for defense against GAS, yet their activation by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and GAS-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is incompletely understood. In recent years, the use of animal models together with the powerful tools of human molecular genetics began shedding light onto the molecular mechanisms of innate immune defense against GAS. The signaling adaptor MyD88 was found to play a key role in launching the immune response against GAS in both humans and mice, suggesting that PRRs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are involved in sensing this pathogen. The specific TLRs and their ligands have yet to be identified. Following GAS recognition, induction of cytokines such as TNF and type I interferons (IFNs), leukocyte recruitment, phagocytosis, and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been recognized as key events in host defense. A comprehensive knowledge of these mechanisms is needed in order to understand their frequent failure against GAS immune evasion strategies. PMID:25325020

  10. THE CELL-BOUND ALPHA-AMYLASES OF STREPTOCOCCUS BOVIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WALKER, G J

    1965-02-01

    1. The cell-bound alpha-amylase of Streptococcus bovis has been isolated from other carbohydrases in the cell extract by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The enzyme has been compared with the extracellular alpha-amylase produced by this organism. 2. The two amylases had similar action patterns on amylose, the main product being maltotriose with smaller amounts of maltose and a little glucose. 3. The cell-bound amylase hydrolysed maltopentaose and maltohexaose at a similar rate to the hydrolysis of amylose. Maltotetraose was hydrolysed six times more slowly, and maltotriose 280 times more slowly, than amylose. 4. Studies with end-labelled maltodextrins revealed that the cell-bound alpha-amylase preferentially hydrolysed the third linkage from the non-reducing end, liberating maltotriose. The linkage at the reducing end of maltotriose was more easily hydrolysed than the other. 5. Egg-white lysozyme and the extracellular enzymes of Streptomyces albus lysed the cell walls of Streptococcus bovis, releasing amylase into the medium. In the presence of 0.6 m-sucrose 10% of the maximal amylase activity was released by lysozyme. Suspension of the spheroplasts in dilute buffer caused the rupture of the cytoplasmic membrane and the liberation of amylase. 6. A sensitive method for determining the ability of amylases to degrade starch granules is described. PMID:14346085

  11. Characterisation of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Briones, Víctor; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Vela, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Wild boar are widely distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula and can carry potentially virulent strains of Streptococcus suis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. suis in wild boars from two large geographical regions of Spain. Serotypes 1, 2, 7 and 9 identified were further genetically characterised by virulence-associated genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the population structure of S. suis carried by these animals. Streptococcus suis was isolated from 39.1% of the wild boars examined: serotype 9 was the most frequently isolated (12.5%), followed by serotype 1 (2.5%). Serotype 2 was rarely isolated (0.3%). Eighteen additional serotypes were identified indicating wide diversity of this pathogen within the wild boar population. This heterogeneity was confirmed by PFGE and MLST analyses and the majority of isolates exhibited the virulence-associated genotype mrp-/epf-/sly-. The results of this study highlight that the carriage of S. suis by wild boars is commonplace. However, MLST data indicate that these isolates are not related to prevalent clonal complexes ST1, ST16, ST61 and ST87 typically associated with infection of pigs or humans in Europe. PMID:24726078

  12. Properties and transforming activities of two plasmids in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, C.W.; Guild, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Two plasmids from group B streptococcus were introduced into pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and examined for copy number, stability, and some features of the process by which they transform pneumococcal recipients. The 3.6 Mdal pMV158 (tet) was present at a minimum of 12 to 16 copies per chromosome and was never observed to be cured. The 20 Mdal pIP501 (cat erm) had a minimum copy number of 3 to 4 per chromosome and was lost spontaneously at a frequency near 0.03 per division. The presence of novobiocin increased this frequency 2 to 3-fold. Competence for chromosomal transformation and the membrane endonuclease needed for normal DNA entry were required for plasmid transformation. Plasmid transformants segregated transformed cells one generation ahead of chromosomal transformants. Both single and multiple hit components of the transformation reaction kinetics were observed, but the latter could not be seen in the presence of competing chromosomal DNA. The majority of the transforming activity behaved as covalently closed circular DNA in dye-buoyancy gradients.

  13. Comparative genome analysis of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18, an African fermented camel milk isolate with adaptations to dairy environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jans, Christoph; Follador, Rainer; Hochstrasser, Mira; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo; Stevens, Marc J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex associated with several human and animal infections. Sii is a predominant bacterium in spontaneously fermented milk products in Africa. The genome sequence of Sii strain CJ18 was compared with that of other Streptococcus species to identify dairy adaptations including genome decay such as in Streptococcus thermophilus, traits for its competitiveness in spontaneous mil...

  14. Streptococcus danieliae sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the caecum of a mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Thomas; Charrier, Cdric; Haller, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterization of one novel bacterium, strain ERD01G(T), isolated from the cecum of a TNF(deltaARE) mouse. The strain was found to belong to the genus Streptococcus based on phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. The bacterial species with standing name in nomenclature that was most closely related to our isolate was Streptococcus alactolyticus (97 %). The two bacteria were characterized by a DNA-DNA hybridization similarity value of 35 %, demonstrating that they belong to different species. The new isolate was negative for acetoin production, esculin hydrolysis, urease, ?-galactosidase and ?-glucosidase, was able to produce acid from starch and trehalose, grew as beta-hemolytic coccobacilli on blood agar, did not grow at >40 C, did not survive heat treatment at 60 C for 20 min and showed negative agglutination in Lancefield tests. On the basis of these characteristics, strain ERD01G(T) differed from the most closely related species S. alactolyticus, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus sanguinis. Thus, based on genotypic and phenotypic evidence, we propose that the isolate belongs to a novel bacterial taxon within the genus Streptococcus, for which the name Streptococcus danieliae is proposed. The type strain is ERD01G(T) (= DSM 22233(T) = CCUG 57647(T)). PMID:23052149

  15. Antibiogram Sensitivity Pattern of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Patients with Sore Throat and Pneumonia Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Malik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolated from clinical samples (125 throat swabs and 100 sputum from patients suffering from sore throat and pneumonia infections, were subjected to a series of culture sensitivity tests against known antibiotics to determine their antibiogram patterns. Of the S. pyogenes isolates, all were found to be sensitive to penicillin and cefrioxone, whereas some of the strains showed complete resistance against cotrimoxazole (88.9%, oxacillin (22.2%, cephradine (22.2% and erythromycin (11.1%. As for the S. pneumoniae strains, all the isolates in this study were sensitive to vancomycin and cephradine, whereas 80% showed complete resistance to kanamycin, 60% to gentamycin, 20% to cotrimoxazole, 20% to tetracycline and 10% to penicillin. Strains of S. pneumoniae (20% displayed intermediate resistance to erythromycin. Inadequate diagnostic procedures, un-supervised, improper use of antibiotics and easy access to prescription drugs may contribute to the rise of resistant strains. To combat such trends approved strategies must encompass legislative enforcement through strict enforcement of the laws related to sales of prescription drugs, involvement of clinicians, pharmacies and civil society pressure groups to ensure the rational and correct use of prescription drugs.

  16. Solitary Pyomyositis of the Left Rhomboideus Muscle Caused by Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius in an Immunocompetent Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Takaya, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Go; Shinzato, Isaku; Takafuta, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Primary pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle commonly affecting children with Staphylococcus aureus most often isolated as a pathogen. However, pyomyositis caused by anaerobic bacteria is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of solitary Pyomyositis of the left rhomboideus muscle in an immunocompetent person. A 70-year-old Japanese male presented with high fever and left shoulder pain. His muscle below the lower edge of the left scapula was tender and swollen. His laboratory examinations revealed severe inflammation. Computed tomography showed a solitary low-density area around a contrast enhancement in the left rhomboideus muscle. He was diagnosed as having solitary pyomyositis. Although his symptoms did not improve despite empiric intravenous administration of antibiotics, an incision was performed. Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from the culture of drainage fluid. His symptoms gradually disappeared after the incisional drainage and continuous administration of antibiotics. Pyomyositis did not recur after his discharge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on anaerobic pyomyositis of the shoulder muscle. PMID:26185692

  17. Mobile agent security using proxy-agents and trusted domains

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Nikola; Arronategui Arribalzaga, Unai

    2009-01-01

    Commercial or wide-network deployment of Mobile Agent Systems is not possible without satisfying security architecture. In this paper we propose architecture for secure Mobile Agent Systems, using Trusted Domains and Proxy agents. Existing approaches are based on security services at the level of an agent system, library or specific objects. Our concept uses proxy agents to enable transparent security services both to security-aware mobile agents and legacy agents. Per-agent and domain-level...

  18. Simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus sp. by polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bacterial meningits Detecção simultânea da Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae e Streptococcus sp. pela reação em cadeia da polimerase no diagnóstico das meningites bacterianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Failace

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus sp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, as well as the applicability of PCR as a routine test. A cohort study was carried out with 182 children (2 months to 12 years of age with suspicion of bacterial meningitis. Routine tests identified the etiologic agent in 65/84 children whose clinical status and laboratory findings suggested the presence of bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was ruled out in 98 children. In 19 children, the etiologic diagnosis was not possible using standard methods; in 14 of these patients, the etiologic agent was identified by PCR (N. meningitidis=12; H. influenzae=1; Streptococcus sp.=1. The sensitivity of PCR was 88.1%; specificity, 99.0%; positive predictive value, 98.7%; and negative predictive, 90.1%. PCR is a useful complementary diagnostic technique, especially when Gram stain, culture, or antigenic detection are negative or inconclusive.Avaliamos o desempenho da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR para detecção simultânea da Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae e Streptococcus sp. no diagnóstico das meningites bacterianas e sua aplicabilidade na rotina diagnóstica. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte com 182 crianças apresentando suspeita de meningite bacteriana. Em 84, havia alterações clínicas e laboratoriais sugestivas de meningite bacteriana. Destas, 65 tiveram o agente etiológico identificado pelos métodos laboratoriais de rotina e 19 ficaram sem diagnóstico etiológico. Em 98 pacientes foi excluído o diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana. Analisando o desempenho da PCR encontramos sensibilidade de 88,1%, especificidade de 99,0% e valores preditivos positivo e negativo de 98,7% e 90,1% respectivamente. Nos 19 pacientes com meningite bacteriana mas sem diagnóstico etiológico a PCR detectou microrganismos em 14, sendo 12 N. meningitidis, um H. influenzae e um Streptococcus sp. A PCR possui o potencial de poder aumentar os índices de identificação das técnicas tradicionais, principalmente nas situações onde a microscopia direta, cultura ou identificação antigênica são negativos ou inconclusivos.

  19. Prevalence of viridans streptococci exhibiting lactose-inhibitable coaggregation with oral actinomycetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kolenbrander, P. E.; B. L. Williams

    1983-01-01

    Fresh oral isolates from human dental plaque were selected on the basis of their spherical morphology. In a double-blind experiment, their species identity and ability to coaggregate with human oral Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii were determined. Of the 110 isolates characterized, 30 were identified as either Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus-constellatus, or Veillonella parvula; none of these coaggregated with the actinomycetes. The remaining 80 isolates were ide...

  20. Purification and Characterization of Suicin 65, a Novel Class I Type B Lantibiotic Produced by Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Katy; LeBel, Genevive; Frenette, Michel; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin that are considered as a promising alternative to the use of conventional antibiotics. Recently, our laboratory reported the purification and characterization of two lantibiotics, suicin 90-1330 and suicin 3908, produced by the swine pathogen and zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis (serotype 2). In this study, a novel bacteriocin produced by S. suis has been identified and characterized. The producing strain S. suis 65 (serotype 2) was found to belong to the sequence type 28, that includes strains known to be weakly or avirulent in a mouse model. The bacteriocin, whose production was only possible following growth on solid culture medium, was purified to homogeneity by cationic exchange and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The bacteriocin, named suicin 65, was heat, pH and protease resistant. Suicin 65 was active against all S. suis isolates tested, including antibiotic resistant strains. Amino acid sequencing of the purified bacteriocin by Edman degradation revealed the presence of modified amino acids suggesting a lantibiotic. Using the partial sequence obtained, a blast was performed against published genomes of S. suis and allowed to identify a putative lantibiotic locus in the genome of S. suis 89-1591. From this genome, primers were designed and the gene cluster involved in the production of suicin 65 by S. suis 65 was amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of ten open reading frames, including a duplicate of the structural gene. The structural genes (sssA and sssA') of suicin 65 encodes a 25-amino acid residue leader peptide and a 26-amino acid residue mature peptide yielding an active bacteriocin with a deducted molecular mass of 3,005 Da. Mature suicin 65 showed a high degree of identity with class I type B lantibiotics (globular structure) produced by Streptococcus pyogenes (streptococcin FF22; 84.6%), Streptococcus macedonicus (macedocin ACA-DC 198; 84.6%), and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (lacticin 481; 74.1%). Further studies will evaluate the ability of suicin 65 or the producing strain to prevent experimental S. suis infections in pigs. PMID:26709705

  1. Purification and Characterization of Suicin 65, a Novel Class I Type B Lantibiotic Produced by Streptococcus suis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Katy; LeBel, Genevive; Frenette, Michel; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin that are considered as a promising alternative to the use of conventional antibiotics. Recently, our laboratory reported the purification and characterization of two lantibiotics, suicin 901330 and suicin 3908, produced by the swine pathogen and zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis (serotype 2). In this study, a novel bacteriocin produced by S. suis has been identified and characterized. The producing strain S. suis 65 (serotype 2) was found to belong to the sequence type 28, that includes strains known to be weakly or avirulent in a mouse model. The bacteriocin, whose production was only possible following growth on solid culture medium, was purified to homogeneity by cationic exchange and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The bacteriocin, named suicin 65, was heat, pH and protease resistant. Suicin 65 was active against all S. suis isolates tested, including antibiotic resistant strains. Amino acid sequencing of the purified bacteriocin by Edman degradation revealed the presence of modified amino acids suggesting a lantibiotic. Using the partial sequence obtained, a blast was performed against published genomes of S. suis and allowed to identify a putative lantibiotic locus in the genome of S. suis 891591. From this genome, primers were designed and the gene cluster involved in the production of suicin 65 by S. suis 65 was amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of ten open reading frames, including a duplicate of the structural gene. The structural genes (sssA and sssA) of suicin 65 encodes a 25-amino acid residue leader peptide and a 26-amino acid residue mature peptide yielding an active bacteriocin with a deducted molecular mass of 3,005 Da. Mature suicin 65 showed a high degree of identity with class I type B lantibiotics (globular structure) produced by Streptococcus pyogenes (streptococcin FF22; 84.6%), Streptococcus macedonicus (macedocin ACA-DC 198; 84.6%), and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (lacticin 481; 74.1%). Further studies will evaluate the ability of suicin 65 or the producing strain to prevent experimental S. suis infections in pigs. PMID:26709705

  2. Etiologic agents of otitis media in Benin city, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Otitis Media continues to be a major presentation in the ear, nose and throat clinic. Aim : This study aimed to isolate, characterize and identify the bacteriological and mycological etiologic agents of otitis media in Benin city. Patients and Methods : Ear discharge from 569 (299 males and 270 females patients diagnosed clinically of otitis media between August 2009 and August 2010 were processed to recover the bacterial and fungal etiologic agents. Susceptibility test was performed on all bacterial isolate. Result : Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.3% was the predominant bacteria isolate causing otitis media followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.0%, Klebsiella sp (8.9%, Proteus sp (8.2%, Alkaligenes spp (4.3%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (3.9%, Escherichia coli (3.0% and Citrobacter freundi (1.7%. Fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger (9.2%, Candida albicans (5.4%, Candida tropicalis (3.0%, Aspergillus flavus (2.1% and Candida parasilopsis (1.5%. 413 had a single organism isolated from the middle ear culture while twenty (3.51% patients had mixed organisms isolated. Infection was highest among 0 - 5 years, and lowest among aged 18 - 23. All bacterial isolates were poorly susceptible to the antibacterial agents. Conclusion : The study uncovers a high frequency of bacteria associated otitis media with the finding of fungi too as a significant etiologic agent.

  3. Etiologic agents of otitis media in Benin city, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Otitis Media continues to be a major presentation in the ear, nose and throat clinic. Aim: This study aimed to isolate, characterize and identify the bacteriological and mycological etiologic agents of otitis media in Benin city. Patients and Methods: Ear discharge from 569 (299 males and 270 females patients diagnosed clinically of otitis media between August 2009 and August 2010 were processed to recover the bacterial and fungal etiologic agents. Susceptibility test was performed on all bacterial isolate. Result: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.3% was the predominant bacteria isolate causing otitis media followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.0%, Klebsiella sp (8.9%, Proteus sp (8.2%, Alkaligenes spp (4.3%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (3.9%, Escherichia coli (3.0% and Citrobacter freundi (1.7%. Fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger (9.2%, Candida albicans (5.4%, Candida tropicalis (3.0%, Aspergillus flavus (2.1% and Candida parasilopsis (1.5%. 413 had a single organism isolated from the middle ear culture while twenty (3.51% patients had mixed organisms isolated. Infection was highest among 0 - 5 years, and lowest among aged 18 - 23. All bacterial isolates were poorly susceptible to the antibacterial agents. Conclusion: The study uncovers a high frequency of bacteria associated otitis media with the finding of fungi too as a significant etiologic agent.

  4. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  5. PCR de "Salmonella" spp, "Streptococcus suis", "Brucella abortus" e circovírus suíno tipo 2 em taiassuídeos de vida livre e cativeiro PCR of “Salmonella” spp, “Streptococcus suis”, “Brucella abortus” e Porcine circovirus type 2 in free-living and captive peccaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os taiassuídeos são animais silvestres pertencentes a mesma ordem taxonômica dos suínos (Artiodactyla, que apesar de pertencerem a famílias diferentes apresentam várias doenças em comum. Das três espécies existentes, duas ocorrem naturalmente no Brasil: Tayassu tajacu e Tayassu pecari, conhecidas como cateto e queixada, respectivamente. A importância do estudo dos microrganismos encontrados nestas populações, justifica-se pelo fato destes poderem agir como reservatórios de doenças para animais domésticos, crescente aumento na criação comercial de espécies silvestres com objetivos de complementar a renda de produtores rurais e preservação ecológica, além de questões de saúde pública. Este estudo verificou a ocorrência de microrganismos patogênicos para suínos em taiassuídeos de cativeiro e de vida livre. A presença de Salmonella spp., Streptococcus suis, Brucella abortus e Circovírus suíno tipo 2 foi pesquisada pela Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase. Dos 31 animais de cativeiro, 25,80% (8/31 foram positivos para Salmonella spp., 22,58% (7/31 para Brucella abortus e 3,22% (1/31 para Streptococcus suis. Das 15 amostras de swab de tonsila dos queixadas de vida livre 13,33% (2/15 foram positivas para Brucella abortus e negativo para Streptococcus suis e Salmonella spp. Todos os animais estudados foram negativos para circovírus suíno tipo 2. A ocorrência de microrganismos foi significativamente (p = 0,0011 maior nos animais de cativeiro do que nos de vida livre, demonstrando a necessidade de abrangência nestas pesquisas tendo em vista o caráter zoonótico da maioria dos agentes pesquisados e da proximidade destes animais ao homem. Palavras-chave: Brucella abortus, Circovírus suíno tipo 2, Salmonella spp., Streptococcus suis, taiassuídeosThe tayassuideos are wild animals in the same taxonomic order of pigs (Artiodactyla and, although belonging to different families, have more in common diseases, which are characterized by the same clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment. From the three species, two occur naturally in Brazil: Tayassu tajacu and Tayassu peccary, also known as collered peccary and white lipped peccary, respectively. The importance of the study of microorganisms found in these populations is because these animals can act as reservoirs of diseases to domestic animal, potential zoonotic risk and a problem to specie conservation. In this study, it was examined the occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms for pigs in tayassuideos from captivity and living free. The presence of Salmonella spp., Streptococcus suis, Brucella abortus and Porcine circovirus type 2 was investigated by the Polymerase Chain Reaction. From the 31 animals of captivity, 25.8% (8/31 were positive for Salmonella spp., 22.58% (7/31 for Brucella abortus and 3.22% (1/31 for Streptococcus suis. From the 15 swab samples from the tonsil of free-living peccaries, 13.33% (2/ 15 were positive for Brucella abortus and negative for Streptococcus suis and Salmonella spp. All animals were negative for Porcine circovirus type 2. Occurrence of microorganisms was significantly (p = 0,0011 higher in animals in captivity than in free-living, demonstrating the needing for inclusiveness in research aimed at the character of the majority of zoonotic agents that were searched and proximity of these animals to humans.

  6. Susceptibility of respiratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children hospitalized in the Clinical center Niš

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinić Marina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of respiratory infections. The aim was to study the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of respiratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from hospitalized children. Material and Methods. A total of 190 respiratory pneumococcal isolates obtained from children aged from 0 to 14 years were isolated and identified by using standard microbiological methods. Susceptibility to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin and rifampicin was tested by disc diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for amoxicillin and ceftriaxone were determined by means of E test. The macrolide-resistant phenotype was detected by double disc diffusion test. Results. All tested isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftriaxone. The minimal amoxicillin concentration inhibiting the growth of 50% of isolates and of 90% of isolates was 0.50 μg/ml and 1.0 μg/ml, respectively and the minimal ceftriaxone concentration inhibiting the growth of 50% of isolates and of 90% of isolates was 0.25 μg/ml and 0.50 μg/ml, respectively. Susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin was observed in 21.6% and 29.47% of isolates, respectively. The resistence to macrolides - M phenotype was detected in 10.07% of isolates and constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin phenotype (constitutive MLS phenotype was found in 89.93% of isolates. All tested isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin and rifampicin. Conclusion. Amoxicillin could be the therapy of choice in pediatric practice. The macrolides should not be recommended for the empirical therapy of pneumococcal respiratory tract infection in our local area.

  7. Agents and principals

    OpenAIRE

    Sunderland, David

    1997-01-01

    The Office of the Crown agents acted as the UK commercial and financial agent of the Crown colonies, supplying all non-locally manufactured stores, organising the provision of external finance, supervising the construction of infrastructure, and performing various personnel services. Although under the supervision of the colonial Secretary, who appointed the Agents and fixed their salaries, the Office, through a system of charges for work done, was financially and administrati...

  8. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Mobile Agent Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Mrigank Rajya

    2011-01-01

    In a broad sense, an agent is any program that acts on behalf of a (human) user. A mobile agent then is a program which represents a user in a computer network, and is capable of migrating autonomously from node to node, to perform some computation on behalf of the user. In computer science, a mobile agent is a composition of computer software and data which is able to migrate (move) from one computer to another autonomously and continue its execution on the destination computer. Mobile Agent...

  10. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in lower respiratory tract specimens by anaerobic culture technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Baesman, R K; Strand, C L

    1984-01-01

    The relative efficacy of aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques for the recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae from 1,173 lower respiratory tract specimens was determined. Unlike previous studies, this investigation found no significant difference between the two techniques.

  11. 77 FR 26014 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae AGENCY: Technology Transfer Office, Centers for Disease Control and... Prevention (CDC), Technology Transfer Office, Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), is... Licensing and Marketing Specialist, Technology Transfer Office, Centers for Disease Control and...

  12. Mechanism of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics in Streptococcus thermophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) group antibiotics in the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) is documented but the mechanism of resistance has not been elucidated. MIC values for erythromycin (Erm), azithromycin (Azm), tylosin (Tyl), spiramycin (Spm), pristinamyci...

  13. Expression of the Streptococcus mutans fructosyltransferase gene within a mammalian host.

    OpenAIRE

    Grey, W T; Curtiss, R; Hudson, M C

    1997-01-01

    In vivo expression of the virulence-associated fructosyltransferase gene (ftf) of Streptococcus mutans has been examined. S. mutans ftf expression is affected by both the specific carbohydrate consumed and the age of the host animal.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of S-­ribosylhomocysteinase from Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui; Zhao, Hongyan; Zhu, Laikuan; Hong, Lihua; Zhang, Hong; Lin, Fanjing; Xu, Chunyan; Li, Shentao; Zhang, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    S-Ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS) encoded by the LuxS gene from Streptococcus mutans was solubly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction by the crystal extended to 2.4 Å resolution.

  15. Effects of Salts and Metal Oxides on Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Nagame, Seigo; Kambara, Masaki; Yoshino, Katsumi

    1994-10-01

    The effects of calcium salts and metal oxide powders on electrochemical, optical and biological properties of Streptococcus mutans have been studied as a novel method to determine the strain. Electrochemical signals of Streptococcus mutans show remarkable decrease in the presence of saturated calcium salts such as CaHPO4, Ca3(PO4)2, and Ca5(PO4)3OH depending on the strains of Streptococcus mutans: Ingbritt, NCTC-10449, or GS-5. The number of viable cells also decreases upon addition of these powders. The effects of metal oxides such as ZnO and BaTiO3 on the electrochemical characteristics and photoluminescence of Streptococcus mutans have also been studied.

  16. PROTECTIVE ANTIBODY RESPONSES FOLLOWING VACCINATION WITH STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE IN NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments using Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were conducted to further characterize a highly efficacious Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine containing extracellular products [ECP] and formalin-killed whole cells. One study assessed the efficacy of stored reconstituted S. agalactiae vaccine,...

  17. Neonatal Mortality in Puppies Due to Bacteremia by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Vela, Ana I.; Falsen, Enevold; Simarro, Isabel; Rollan, Eduardo; Collins, Matthew D.; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernandez-Garayzabal, Jose F.

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of bacteremia in puppies caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. Identification was achieved by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. This is the first report of the recovery of S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae from dogs.

  18. Late, Late-Onset Group B Streptococcus Cellulitis With Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokouchi, Yukako; Katsumori, Hiroshi; Koike, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection remains a leading cause of serious neonatal and early infantile infection. As the infection often presents with nonspecific symptoms, and is associated with underlying bacteremia, prompt investigation and treatment is required. We report a case of late, late-onset GBS infection with bacteremia in a 94-day-old boy experiencing cellulitis of the left hand. Although late-onset disease or late, late-onset disease has been reported to be common among infants with underlying conditions such as premature birth, immunocompromised status, trauma, or among those using medical devices, no such underlying medical condition predisposed this infant to invasive GBS infection. Recent reports including the present case underscore the risk of GBS infection among previously healthy infants beyond the neonatal period. Thus, clinicians should especially be aware of unusual presentations of GBS invasive disease with bacteremia. PMID:26720063

  19. Production and partial purification of streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeda Felsia X

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Streptokinase is as effective as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA in treating acute myocardial infarction and it is certainly more cost-effective. In view of the relatively recent availability of the competing recombinant tPA, skepticism is being expressed about the continued viability of streptokinase therapy. Despite this research on streptokinase continues, and it remains a vital affordable therapy especially in the worlds poorer healthcare systems. Our present study focused on production of streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes species and partial purification of streptokinase by ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and column chromatography. The enzyme was quantified by Lowrys method and its electrophoretic mobility and molecular weight were determined by SDS-PAGE.

  20. Modelling the dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae transmission in children

    OpenAIRE

    Pessoa, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, também denominado pneumococo, é uma bactéria comensal que só coloniza o homem. A aquisição desta bactéria começa pela colonização da nasofaringe, o indivíduo torna-se portador e pode transmitir a bactéria a outras pessoas através de contacto directo. Devido aos contactos frequentes e próximos entre crianças a frequentar infantários e à imaturidade do seu sistema imunitário, as crianças até aos seis anos de idade representam um grupo onde a prevalência de portadores d...

  1. Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Huang, Jun; Liu, Xiaodi; Peng, Lei; Guo, Lihong; Lv, Guohua; Chen, Wei; Feng, Kecheng; Yang, Si-ze

    2009-03-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O2 does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals.

  2. Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O2 does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals

  3. Plasmid-mediated UV-protection in Streptococcus lactis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streptococcus lactis strain IL594 contains 9 plasmids, designated pIL1 to pIL9. On the basis of protoplast-induced curing experiments the authors showed that derivatives containing pIL7 were resistant to UV-irradiation while derivatives lacking pIL7 were sensitive. The pIL7-determined UV-protection was confirmed by cotransfer of the plasmid and of the character into a plasmid-free derivative of S. lactis IL594. Moreover, prophage induction required higher UV-fluence in this derivative carrying pIL7 than in the plasmid-free strain. This is the first report of a plasmid-mediated UV-protection in group N streptococci. (orig.)

  4. Effect of ionizing radiation on transmembrane potential of Streptococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of Streptococcus faecalis with ionizing radiation at doses of 5 to 100 krad is shown to reduce the energy-dependent accumulation of dibenzyldimethylammonium (DDA+) by the cell. Since transmembrane potential is the moving force of DDA+ transport across the membrane, the decrease in DDA+ accumulation is suggested to be due to potential reduction. This radiation effect was not due to inactivation of the potential-generating mechanism; thus, the ATPase activity and glycolytic activity of the irradiated cells were higher than in the control. At the same time, the membranes exhibited an increased permeability for K+ and protons, which is probably due to structural rearrangements in the membranes after irradiation. It is suggested that the potential reduction results from the increase in proton permeability of membranes

  5. Labeled OK-432, immunomodulator of streptococcus preparation, in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the pharmacokinetics of OK-432, an immunomodulator of streptococcus preparation which, is used in cancer patients for active nonspecific immunotherapy. First, OK-432 was labeled with sup(99m)Technetium in vitro. Four patients with malignancy were studied. By the method of scintigraphy using gamma camera, OK-432 administered intravenously was found to be distributed in the liver, lung and spleen, by the decreasing grade. When OK-432 was administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly in the buttocks, most of the radioactivity of sup(99m)Technetium remained locally at the injected site. These results suggested that OK-432 given intravenously was effectively phagocytized by cells of reticuloendothelial system (RES). Compared with other routes of administration, the intravenous route of OK-432 administration is thus considered more effective in order to stimulate RES, which is responsible for the first step of immune reaction. (author)

  6. Genetic patterns of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina B Reinoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection.

  7. Streptococcus pneumoniae proteomics: determinants of pathogenesis and vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittaye, Mustapha; Cash, Phil

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen that is responsible for a variety of invasive diseases. The bacteria gain entry initially by establishing a carriage state in the nasopharynx from where they migrate to other sites in the body. The worldwide distribution of the bacteria and the severity of the diseases have led to a significant level of interest in the development of vaccines against the bacteria. Current vaccines, based on the bacterial polysaccharide, have a number of limitations including poor immunogenicity and limited effectiveness against all pneumococcal serotypes. There are many challenges in developing vaccines that will be effective against the diverse range of isolates and serotypes for this highly variable bacterial pathogen. This review considers how proteomic technologies have extended our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of nasopharyngeal colonization and disease development as well as the critical areas in developing protein-based vaccines. PMID:26524107

  8. Streptococcus pyogenes degrades extracellular matrix in chondrocytes via MMP-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of human diseases, including bacterial arthritis. The pathogenesis of arthritis is characterized by synovial proliferation and the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We report here that GAS strain JRS4 invaded a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 and induced the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas an isogenic mutant of JRS4 lacking a fibronectin-binding protein, SAM1, failed to invade the chondrocytes or degrade the ECM. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was strongly elevated during the infection with GAS. A reporter assay revealed that the activation of the AP-1 transcription factor and the phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinase participated in MMP-13 expression. These results suggest that MMP-13 plays an important role in the destruction of infected joints during the development of septic arthritis

  9. The role of Streptococcus intermedius in brain abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Fournier, P-E

    2013-04-01

    Brain abscess represents a significant medical problem, despite recent advances made in detection and therapy. Streptococcus intermedius, a commensal organism, has the potential to cause significant morbidity. S. intermedius expresses one or more members of a family of structurally and antigenically related surface proteins termed antigen I/II, which plays a potential role in its pathogenesis. It is involved in binding to human fibronectin and laminin and in inducing IL-8 release from monocytes, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. There are few published data on the role of this organism in brain abscess. This review focuses on the clinical evidence, pathogenic role, mechanism of predisposition, and currently employed strategies to fight against S. intermedius associated to brain abscess. PMID:23187823

  10. An Unusual Cause of Flexor Tenosynovitis: Streptococcus mitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Anil Bingol, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Streptococcus mitis is a commensal organism of the human oropharynx that rarely causes infection in healthy individuals. Herein, we describe a previously healthy 35-year-old woman who presented with acute pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis of the left index finger due to S. mitis infection. The patient’s infection was treated successfully via surgical and medical interventions, and during follow-up, it was determined that she was complement component C3 deficient. Tenosynovitis is an emergent clinical syndrome that can result in permanent disability or amputation. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first to describe tenosynovitis due to S. mitis; in addition, it highlights the importance of initiating therapy with antibiotics that are effective against this rare pathogen.

  11. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia: an emerging infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, S

    2014-08-01

    The importance of group C and G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) as a significant pathogen has recently been better recognized. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis disease can range in severity from milder skin and soft-tissue conditions such as wound infection, erysipelas, and cellulitis, to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, thus sharing the clinical picture with S. pyogenes. The most common clinical manifestation of bacteremia is cellulitis. An increase in the incidence of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia has been recognized. Invasive forms of this infection are most commonly found in elderly patients with underlying comorbidities and skin breakdown. The case fatality in bacteremia has been reported to be 15-18%. In this review, the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and emm types of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia are summarized. PMID:24682845

  12. Involvement of NADH Oxidase in Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus sanguinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiuchun; Shi, Xiaoli; Shi, Limei; Liu, Jinlin; Stone, Victoria; Kong, Fanxiang; Kitten, Todd; Xu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms play important roles in microbial communities and are related to infectious diseases. Here, we report direct evidence that a bacterial nox gene encoding NADH oxidase is involved in biofilm formation. A dramatic reduction in biofilm formation was observed in a Streptococcus sanguinis nox mutant under anaerobic conditions without any decrease in growth. The membrane fluidity of the mutant bacterial cells was found to be decreased and the fatty acid composition altered, with increased palmitic acid and decreased stearic acid and vaccenic acid. Extracellular DNA of the mutant was reduced in abundance and bacterial competence was suppressed. Gene expression analysis in the mutant identified two genes with altered expression, gtfP and Idh, which were found to be related to biofilm formation through examination of their deletion mutants. NADH oxidase-related metabolic pathways were analyzed, further clarifying the function of this enzyme in biofilm formation. PMID:26950587

  13. [Comparison of culture and real-time PCR methods in the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in acute otitis media effusion specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Ozgen Kseo?lu; Alp, Sehnaz; Ergin, Alper; Ipi, Kaan; Alp, Alpaslan; Gr, Deniz; Haselik, Gl?en

    2012-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are the major etiologic agents of acute otitis media. This study was aimed to compare the detection rate of S.pneumoniae and H.influenzae by culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) in the middle ear effusions of patients diagnosed as acute otitis media. A total of 60 middle ear effusion samples collected from children with acute otitis media were included in the study. The samples were inoculated and incubated in BACTEC Ped Plus blood culture bottles and BACTEC 9120 system (BD Diagnostic Systems, MD), respectively, and the isolates were identified by conventional methods. For the molecular diagnosis of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae, ply pneumolysin gene and HIB capsule region, respectively were amplified by Rt-PCR (LightCycler, Roche Diagnostics, Germany). H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were isolated from 5 (8.3%) and 3 (5%) of the patient samples with conventional culture methods, respectively. In addition in 11.6% of the samples other microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans) were also isolated. On the other hand H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were detected in 38 (63.3%) and 24 (40%) of the samples with Rt-PCR, respectively. There was about eight fold increase in the detection frequency of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae with Rt-PCR compared to culture methods. When culture was accepted as the gold standard method, the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of Rt-PCR in the detection of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were estimated as 80%, 51% and 98.2%, respectively. As a result, Rt-PCR was shown to be a sensitive method and could be preferred for the rapid diagnosis of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae in the etiological diagnosis of acute otitis media, especially in culture negative cases. PMID:23188581

  14. Meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga María Rodríguez Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Streptococcus pneumoniae es una bacteria que reside en el aparato respiratorio superior de las personas saludables, pero resulta una infección cuando alcanza localizaciones normalmente estériles, tales como el aparato respiratorio inferior, sistema circulatorio, y sistema nervioso central. Esto ocurre en personas inmunodeprimidas, por diferentes causas. Objetivo: destacar la virulencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae drogo resistente. Caso clínico: niña que llega al hospital por presentar un proceso respiratorio, de varios días de evolución, con fiebre y rinorrea. Ingresó en la sala de Infecciones Respiratorias. Comenzó con deshidratación y somnolencia, por lo que se le realizó una segunda punción lumbar, que resultó con salida de líquido cefalorraquídeo, purulento y presencia de 202 células a predominio de polimorfonucleares, glucosa disminuida, aumento de las proteínas, y Pandy xxxx. La niña se agrava y presenta signos de intenso edema cerebral, con fontanela abombada. Se trató con antimicrobianos como la vancomicina y el ceftriaxone, por varios días. En el laboratorio de Microbiología se confirmó el crecimiento de Streptococccus pneumoniae sensible al meronem que pasa a reemplazar al ceftriaxone. La paciente salió paulatinamente de su gravedad hasta que fue dada de alta con seguimiento y rehabilitación, por presentar secuelas. Conclusiones: este patógeno tan peligroso con sus atributos de virulencia y su elevada resistencia a los antimicrobianos, constituye un fenómeno emergente.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Levofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in Human Skin Blister Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Trampuz, Andrej; Wenk, Markus; Rajacic, Zarko; Zimmerli, Werner

    2000-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in serum and in skin blister fluid (SBF) was determined for 20 volunteers after a single 500-mg oral dose of levofloxacin. In addition, ex vivo bactericidal activity of SBF against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus was studied. SBF containing levofloxacin and granulocytes killed 5.2 log of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria and 2.0 log of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria during a 6-h incubation.

  16. Acute Neonatal Parotitis with Late-Onset Septic Shock due to Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Boulyana, M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute neonatal parotitis (ANP) is a very rare disease. Most cases are managed conservatively; early antibiotics and adequate hydration may reduce the need for surgery. The most common cause of ANP is Staphylococcus aureus. We report a rare case of acute neonatal parotitis with late-onset septic shock due to Streptococcus agalactiae. The diagnosis was confirmed with ultrasound and isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae from blood culture. The patient was treated successfully with 10 days of int...

  17. Genome Sequence of Streptococcus parauberis Strain KCTC11980, Isolated from Diseased Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ae; Kwon, Mun Gyeong; Hwang, Jee Youn; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Ji-Sun; Na, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Dae-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus parauberis is a coccoid, nonmotile, alpha-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium of the Streptococcaceae family. Streptococcus parauberis strain KCTC11980 was isolated from the kidney of a diseased olive flounder collected from an aquaculture farm on Jeju Island in 2010. The 2.12-Mb genome sequence consists of 44 large contigs in 16 scaffolds and contains 2,214 predicted protein-coding genes, with a G+C content of 35.4%. PMID:24092782

  18. The structural characterization of a prophage-encoded extracellular DNase from Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Korczynska, Justyna E.; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Taylor, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenic bacterium Group A Streptococcus pyogenes produces several extracellular DNases that have been shown to facilitate invasive infection by evading the human host immune system. DNases degrade the chromatin in neutrophil extracellular traps, enabling the bacterium to evade neutrophil capture. Spd1 is a type I, nonspecific ββα/metal-dependent nuclease from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is encoded by the SF370.1 prophage and is likely to be expressed as a result of prophage induction...

  19. Antibiofilm Activity of Chilean Propolis on Streptococcus mutans Is Influenced by the Year of Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Jesús Veloz; Nicolás Saavedra; Alexis Lillo; Marysol Alvear; Leticia Barrientos; Salazar, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of propolis varies according to factors that could have an influence on its biological properties. Polyphenols from propolis have demonstrated an inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans growth. However, it is not known if different years of propolis collection may affect its activity. We aimed to elucidate if the year of collection of propolis influences its activity on Streptococcus mutans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from propolis collected in three dif...

  20. Intracerebral hemorrhage and deep microbleeds associated with cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans; a hospital cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Shuichi Tonomura; Masafumi Ihara; Tomohiro Kawano; Tomotaka Tanaka; Yoshinori Okuno; Satoshi Saito; Robert P. Friedland; Nagato Kuriyama; Ryota Nomura; Yoshiyuki Watanabe; Kazuhiko Nakano; Kazunori Toyoda; Kazuyuki Nagatsuka

    2016-01-01

    Oral infectious diseases are epidemiologically associated with stroke. We previously showed that oral Streptococcus mutans with the cnm gene encoding a collagen-binding Cnm protein induced intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) experimentally and was also associated with cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in our population-based cohort study. We therefore investigated the roles of cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans in this single hospital-based, observational study that enrolled 100 acute stroke subjects. Th...

  1. EVALUATION OF EFFICACY OF 2% POVIDONE IODINE & CHLORHEXIDINE IN REDUCING SALIVARY STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

    OpenAIRE

    Hemant; Sumeet

    2014-01-01

    : AIM: The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of mouthrinses. Povidone iodine (PI) (2%) and Chlorhexidine (CHX) (0.2%) in reducing the count of streptococcus mutans (SM) in saliva and to compare the effectiveness of these drugs with each other in reducing the count of Streptococcus mutans. MATERIALS & METHODS: 20 subjects were randomly selected between the age group of 25 to 60 years from the OPD of Modern Dental College & Research Centre, Indore and ...

  2. Comparing the cariogenic species Streptococcus sobrinus and S. mutans on whole genome level

    OpenAIRE

    Conrads, Georg; de Soet, Hans J.; Song, Lifu; Henne, Karsten; Sztajer, Helena; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Zeng, An-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two closely related species of mutans streptococci, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, are associated with dental caries in humans. Their acidogenic and aciduric capacity is directly associated with the cariogenic potential of these bacteria. To survive acidic and temporarily harsh conditions in the human oral cavity with hundreds of other microbial co-colonizers as competitors, both species have developed numerous mechanisms for adaptation.Objectives: The rec...

  3. Antibodies against a Surface Protein of Streptococcus pyogenes Promote a Pathological Inflammatory Response

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, Fredrik; Mörgelin, Matthias; Shannon, Oonagh; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Herwald, Heiko; Olin, Anders I.; Björck, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Author Summary Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus, is a common bacterial pathogen mostly causing rather harmless infections such as pharyngitis (“strep throat”) and impetigo (a superficial skin infection). However, sometimes these bacteria give rise to severe invasive infections, and one of the most feared conditions in infection medicine is streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). In STSS, the mortality remains high despite modern intensive care and the fact that S...

  4. Clinical laboratory and epidemiological investigations of a Streptococcus pyogenes cluster epidemic in a newborn nursery.

    OpenAIRE

    Isenberg, H. D.; Tucci, V.; Lipsitz, P; FAcklam, R R

    1984-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, nontypable with available M antisera, T type 12, and reactive in the serum opacity test, produced various lesions in 10 newborn infants during a 2-month period. All infants except one were discharged from the nursery before overt disease manifestations. Colonization studies of newborn infants showed a streptococcal carrier rate of 19% (27 of 140). Only 1 of 154 staff members yielded the same streptococcus from the throat, but it could not be implicated as the source fo...

  5. Characterization of -hemolytic Streptococcus Strains Isolated from Patients of Severe Invasive Streptococcal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Tadayoshi Ikebe; Haruo Watanabe

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) is one of the most common human pathogens. It causes a wide array of infections, the most frequent of which is acute pharyngitis (strep throat). From the late 1980s, Streptococcal Toxic Shock-like Syndrome (STSS) caused by S. pyogenes became a serious problem in both developed and developing countries. Symptoms such as pharyngitis, fever and pain may suddenly develop and the disease may progress very rapidly in some patients to soft tissue necros...

  6. Rapid detection of Streptococcus pyogenes in pediatric patient specimens by DNA probe.

    OpenAIRE

    Steed, L L; Korgenski, E K; Daly, J A

    1993-01-01

    A chemiluminescent DNA probe test (Group A Streptococcus Direct Test; Gen-Probe, Inc., San Diego, Calif.) for rapid, direct detection of cRNA of Streptococcus pyogenes in throat swabs was compared with conventional culture and identification techniques. Throat swabs from 277 patients suspected of having streptococcal pharyngitis were examined. By DNA probe alone, 10 specimens were positive, 51 were positive by both assays, and 8 were positive by culture alone. Thus, DNA probe sensitivity, spe...

  7. Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis With Group B Streptococcus After an Elective Abortion: The Need for New Data

    OpenAIRE

    W. David Hardy; Gaut, Paula L.; John Li; Palys, Erica E.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B streptococcus (GBS), was originally discovered as a cause of bovine mastitis. GBS colonizes the genital tract of up to 40% of women and has become a major pathogen in neonatal meningitis. GBS endocarditis is thought to be an uncommon manifestation of this infection and carries a higher mortality compared to other streptococcal pathogens. Studies have shown that endocarditis after abortion has an incidence of about one per million. Howev...

  8. A CORRELATION STUDY OF TOTAL SALIVARY COUNTS AND VIRULENT MARKERS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS WITH CARIES EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhimathi C; Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate an impending relationship between salivary Streptococcus mutans count, sucrose dependent glass adherence, and water insoluble glucan synthesis of isolated strains of Streptococcus mutans with caries experience among young adults between the age group of 20 to 23 years which may enable future planning of caries prevention in adults. A total of 70 dental students undergoing compulsory rotary internship were selected for the study based on...

  9. Time to positivity in blood cultures of adults with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Ansorena Luis; Garrido Jose; Rodrguez-Lera Mara; Peralta Galo; Roiz Mara

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background previous studies have established that bacterial blood concentration is related with clinical outcome. Time to positivity of blood cultures (TTP) has relationship with bacterial blood concentration and could be related with prognosis. As there is scarce information about the usefulness of TTP, we study the relationship of TTP with clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods TTP of all cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, detec...

  10. Production of recombinant streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes isolate and its potential for thrombolytic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah S. Assiri; El-Gamal, Basiouny A.; Hafez, Elsayed E; Haidara, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To produce an effective recombinant streptokinase (rSK) from pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes isolate in yeast, and evaluate its potential for thrombolytic therapy. Methods: This study was conducted from November 2012 to December 2013 at King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Throat swabs collected from 45 pharyngitis patients in Asser Central Hospital, Abha, KSA were used to isolate Streptococcus pyogenes. The bacterial DNA was used for amplification of the...

  11. Incomplete Kawasaki Disease Associated with Complicated Streptococcus pyogenes Pneumonia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, Timothy Ronan; Cohen, Eyal; Allen, Upton D

    2012-01-01

    A three-year-old boy presented with community-acquired pneumonia complicated by empyema. Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) was identified on culture of the pleural fluid. The patient improved with antibiotic therapy and drainage of the empyema.During his convalescence, the patient developed persistent fever, lethargy and anorexia. His inflammatory markers were elevated, and repeat cultures were negative. Although the patient had none of the classical mucocutaneous features of Kaw...

  12. Plasmid complements of Streptococcus lactis NCDO 712 and other lactic streptococci after protoplast-induced curing.

    OpenAIRE

    Gasson, M J

    1983-01-01

    The production and regeneration of bacterial protoplasts promoted the loss of three different plasmid-specified traits in Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis strains. The loss of five different plasmids, including small multicopy molecules, was readily detected in Streptococcus lactis 712 by screening lysates of random protoplast regenerants on agarose gels. In this strain sequential rounds of protoplast regeneration were used to produce a plasmid-free strain and derivatives carrying on...

  13. A case of disseminated infection caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus

    OpenAIRE

    Poulin, Marie-France; Boivin, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Human infections with Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, a group C streptococcus, are very rare and are generally associated with contact with horses, and consumption of unpasteurized milk products, goat cheese or pork. In most cases S zooepidemicus leads to fulminant infections. The case of a middle-aged woman who had sporadic contact with horses is described in the present report. She developed a bacteremia with severe and extensive complications that included meningitis, mitral e...

  14. A Case of Disseminated Infection Caused by Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus

    OpenAIRE

    Poulin, Marie-France; Boivin, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Human infections with Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, a group C streptococcus, are very rare and are generally associated with contact with horses, and consumption of unpasteurized milk products, goat cheese or pork. In most cases S zooepidemicus leads to fulminant infections. The case of a middle-aged woman who had sporadic contact with horses is described in the present report. She developed a bacteremia with severe and extensive complications that included meningitis, mitral e...

  15. Optochin Revisited: Defining the Optimal Type of Blood Agar for Presumptive Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Gardam, M. A.; Miller, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the optimal media for optochin susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae, we measured inhibition zones for 72 S. pneumoniae and 22 Streptococcus viridans isolates on three blood-containing media. Because 15.3, 0, and 22.2% of S. pneumoniae organisms were misidentified on Columbia agar, Trypticase soy agar (TSA), and Mueller-Hinton agar, respectively, each containing sheep blood, we recommend that TSA-sheep blood agar be used.

  16. Protective Role of the Capsule and Impact of Serotype 4 Switching on Streptococcus mitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rukke, Hkon V.; Kalluru, Raja Sab; Repnik, Urska; Gerlini, Alice; Ricardo J Jos; Periselneris, Jimstan; Marshall, Helina; Griffiths, Gareth; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Brown, Jeremy S.; Petersen, Fernanda C

    2014-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule surrounding Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for virulence. Recently, Streptococcus mitis, a human commensal and a close relative of S. pneumoniae, was also shown to have a capsule. In this study, the S. mitis type strain switched capsule by acquisition of the serotype 4 capsule locus of S. pneumoniae TIGR4, following induction of competence for natural transformation. Comparison of the wild type with the capsule-switching mutant and with a capsule deletion mut...

  17. Genetic regulation of allolysis in response to sub-lethal antibiotic stress in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    MANISHA DASH; HIRAK R. DASH; SURAJIT DAS

    2014-01-01

    Dash M, Dash HR, Das S. 2014. Genetic regulation of allolysis in response to sub-lethal antibiotic stress in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 111-117. Allolysis is the phenomenon of cell lysis induced by other cells of the same species. Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen exhibits competence induced allolysis that increases the genetic recombination and enhances the virulence. During allolysis, a group of non-competent bacterial cells are ...

  18. Associations of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 ribotype profiles with clinical disease and antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S. R.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    1999-01-01

    A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting in the identificat......A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting in the...

  19. Zinc disrupts central carbon metabolism and capsule biosynthesis in Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y.; Walker, Mark J.; McEwan, Alastair G.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils release free zinc to eliminate the phagocytosed bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underpinning zinc toxicity towards this human pathogen, responsible for diseases ranging from pharyngitis and impetigo, to severe invasive infections. Using the globally-disseminated M1T1 GAS strain, we demonstrate that zinc stress impairs glucose metabolism through the inhibition of the glycolytic enzymes phosphofruc...

  20. Essential Genes in the Core Genome of the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Le Breton, Yoann; Belew, Ashton T.; Valdes, Kayla M.; Islam, Emrul; Curry, Patrick; Tettelin, Hervé; Shirtliff, Mark E; El-Sayed, Najib M.; Kevin S. McIver

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) remains a major public health burden worldwide, infecting over 750 million people leading to over 500,000 deaths annually. GAS pathogenesis is complex, involving genetically distinct GAS strains and multiple infection sites. To overcome fastidious genetic manipulations and accelerate pathogenesis investigations in GAS, we developed a mariner-based system (Krmit) for en masse monitoring of complex mutant pools by transposon sequencing (Tn-seq...