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Sample records for streptococcus constellatus agente

  1. Streptococcus constellatus: agente etiológico asociado en empiema pleural Streptococcus constellatusas a causative agent of empyema: Report of one case

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    José Antonio Díaz Peromingo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus constellatus is a commensal microorganism in man but may cause infections in different locations. We report a 59 years old male with severe sequelae of a previous cerebrovascular accident that consulted in the emergency room for fever of 15 days of evolution. A right empyema was diagnosed. The bacteriological culture of the effusion disclosed the presence of Streptococcus constellatus and two anaerobic strains (Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium urealyticus. The patient was treated with a pleural drainage and received ceftriaxone and clindamycin during six weeks. He was discharged in good conditions and is asymptomatic after eight months of follow up (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 1030-2

  2. Streptococcus constellatus: agente etiológico asociado en empiema pleural / Streptococcus constellatusas a causative agent of empyema: Report of one case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Antonio, Díaz Peromingo; Joaquín, Sánchez Leira; Florinda, García Suárez; Emilio, Padín Paz; Juan, Saborido Froján.

    1030-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Streptococcus constellatus is a commensal microorganism in man but may cause infections in different locations. We report a 59 years old male with severe sequelae of a previous cerebrovascular accident that consulted in the emergency room for fever of 15 days of evolution. A right empyema was diagno [...] sed. The bacteriological culture of the effusion disclosed the presence of Streptococcus constellatus and two anaerobic strains (Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium urealyticus). The patient was treated with a pleural drainage and received ceftriaxone and clindamycin during six weeks. He was discharged in good conditions and is asymptomatic after eight months of follow up (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 1030-2)

  3. Meningitis aguda por Streptococcus Constellatus: a propósito de un caso fatal

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    Maikel Vargas Sanabria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 14 años, con el único antecedente de sinusitis resuelta hacía un año, que desarrolló de nuevo una pansinusitis y una meningitis aguda que lo llevó en diez días a la muerte. Durante su estancia hospitalaria no fue posible determinar el agente etiológico, sin embargo los cultivos post mortem demostraron que el microorganismo presente era Streptococcus constellatus un comensal habitual de las mucosas del ser humano, del cual se han descrito muy pocos casos de meningitis en pacientes inmunocompetentes, lo cual hace de este caso un verdadero reto diagnóstico para los médicos tratantes y los anatomopatólogos.The present case is of a 14 year-old male with the only history of a sinusitis that solved one year before presentation.The patient developed a newly-onset pansinusitis followed by pyogenic meningitis that lead him to death ten days after. It was not possible to determine the etiologic agent during his hospitalization but postmortem culture tests taken from the leptomeninges and the etmoidal cells showed Streptococcus constellatus, a usual commensal in human mucous membranes. Very few cases of acute meningitis caused by S. constellatus have been described in immunocompetent patients, which makes this case a real diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists.

  4. Meningitis aguda por Streptococcus Constellatus: a propósito de un caso fatal

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    Maikel, Vargas Sanabria; Rodolfo, Guzmán Cervantes.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 14 años, con el único antecedente de sinusitis resuelta hacía un año, que desarrolló de nuevo una pansinusitis y una meningitis aguda que lo llevó en diez días a la muerte. Durante su estancia hospitalaria no fue posible determinar el agente etiológico [...] , sin embargo los cultivos post mortem demostraron que el microorganismo presente era Streptococcus constellatus un comensal habitual de las mucosas del ser humano, del cual se han descrito muy pocos casos de meningitis en pacientes inmunocompetentes, lo cual hace de este caso un verdadero reto diagnóstico para los médicos tratantes y los anatomopatólogos. Abstract in english The present case is of a 14 year-old male with the only history of a sinusitis that solved one year before presentation.The patient developed a newly-onset pansinusitis followed by pyogenic meningitis that lead him to death ten days after. It was not possible to determine the etiologic agent during [...] his hospitalization but postmortem culture tests taken from the leptomeninges and the etmoidal cells showed Streptococcus constellatus, a usual commensal in human mucous membranes. Very few cases of acute meningitis caused by S. constellatus have been described in immunocompetent patients, which makes this case a real diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists.

  5. Streptococcus constellatus community acquired pneumonia with subsequent isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis and abscess formation in a structurally normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhussein, Tarek Ali; Hutchison, Stuart James

    2014-06-01

    Pulmonic valve infective endocarditis in isolation is a rare clinical entity. The formation of an abscess in the right ventricular outflow tract as a consequence of vegetations affecting the pulmonic valve in a structurally normal heart is extremely rare and has not been reported. We report a case of isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis complicated by a regional abscess formed within the right ventricular outflow tract caused by Streptococcus Constellatus (S. Constellatus), a member of the Streptococcus Milleri group in a young male whose risk factor was alcohol abuse and he was treated medically, a comprehensive literature review on the subject is also reported. Our case is the first reported in literature with infective endocarditis caused by S. Constellatus affecting the pulmonic valve, and the first with pulmonic valve endocarditis and perivalvular abscess formation in a structurally normal heart. PMID:25031801

  6. Taxonomy of the Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus and description of Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov

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    Jensen, Anders; Hoshino, Tomonori

    2013-01-01

    The Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus has been the subject of much taxonomic confusion, which has hampered the full appreciation of its clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to critically re-examine the taxonomy of the Anginosus group, with special attention to ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains, using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of seven housekeeping genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished seven distinct and coherent clusters in the Anginosus group. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic characters supported the MLSA clustering and currently recognized taxa of the Anginosus group. Single gene analyses showed considerable allele sharing between species, thereby invalidating identification based on single-locus sequencing. Two novel clusters of ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains within the Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus species and isolated from patients with sore throat showed sufficient phylogenetic distances from other clusters to warrant status as novel subspecies. The novel cluster within S. anginosus was identified as the previously recognized DNA homology cluster, DNA group 2. The names S. anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. (type strain CCUG 39159(T)?=?DSM 25818(T)?=?SK1267(T)) and S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov. (type strain SK1359(T)?=?CCUG 62387(T)?=?DSM 25819(T)) are proposed.

  7. Resistance of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms to antimicrobial agents

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    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E

    1996-01-01

    Bacteria living in biofilms as dental plaque on tooth surfaces are generally more resistant to antimicrobial agents than bacteria in batch culture normally used for in vitro susceptibility testing. In order to compare the resistance of free-living and surface-grown oral bacteria, the MIC of Streptococcus sanguis 804 and ATCC 10556 to amoxicillin, doxycycline and chlorhexidine was determined by a broth dilution method. Subsequently, S. sanguis biofilms established in an in vitro flow model were perfused with the antimicrobial agents for 48 h at concentrations equal to and up to 500 times the MIC, and biofilm cell number was determined during this period. The antibiotics at the MIC did not affect the cell number of S. sanguis biofilms compared to the starting point, and only after 48 h at 500 times the MIC were the biofilm bacteria eliminated. At intermediate concentrations biofilm cell number gradually decreased. Chlorhexidine also gradually reduced biofilm cell number, but was inhibitory at concentrations closer to the MIC than was the case for the antibiotics. Thus S. sanguis in biofilms survived up to 500 times the MIC found in batch culture for up to 48 h.

  8. Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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    Marcos Noronha Frey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade, e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5, e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5 and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

  9. Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível / Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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    Marcos Noronha, Frey; Ana Elisa Empinotti, Ioppi; Renan Rangel, Bonamigo; Guilherme Pinheiro, Prado.

    1205-12-01

    Full Text Available O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade), e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5), e, rar [...] amente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis). Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age) and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile [...] (1-5) and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

  10. Empiema pleural por Streptococcus grupo anginosus en un preescolar y revisión de la literatura: Case report and review Streptococcus anginosus pleural emphyema in a child

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    Paola Pidal M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso clínico de un preescolar con antecedente de malformación pulmonar que 43 días tras una neumonectomía izquierda, ingresó al Hospital Padre Hurtado con fiebre de una semana de evolución. En una TAC pulmonar se demostró una gran colección intrapleural izquierda de la que se aisló Streptococcus grupo anginosus y Prevotella spp. Se efectuó tratamiento antimicrobiano con penicilina más clindamicina. Existe gran confusión en la terminología y clasificación de Streptococcus grupo anginosus. En la actualidad no existe duda que es un grupo que posee tres especies, S. anginosus, S. constellatus y S. intermedius. Son parte de la flora normal de orofaringe, nasofaringe, tracto gastrointestinal y vagina. Este grupo ha sido reconocido como causa de infecciones supurativas en niños y adultos. La mayoría de las cepas se describen como susceptibles a penicilina; sin embargo, existen reportes que sugieren la emergencia de resistencia. Se discuten las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnóstico e informe microbiológicosLeft pneumonectomy in a child with congenital pulmonary malformation was performed two months prior to admission. Within one week he had high fever. Chest CT scan showed massive left pleural effusion. Both Streptococcus anginosus group and Prevotella spp. grew from the fluid obtained by pleural punction. Antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated with clindamycin and penicillin. Streptococus anginosus group is quite confusing in terms of classification and taxonomy. Now it is well recognized that three species belong to this genera: S. anginosus S. constellatus and S. intermedius. They all are considered normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract and vagina but also they have been identified as agents of suppurative infections in children and adults. Many reports show adequate response to penicillin, however there is some emerging resistance in strains isolated in other studies. In this article we also suggest some diagnostic and microbiologic recommendations

  11. Empiema pleural por Streptococcus grupo anginosus en un preescolar y revisión de la literatura: Case report and review / Streptococcus anginosus pleural emphyema in a child

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    Paola, Pidal M.; Javiera, Basaure O.; Priscilla, Prado D.; Pedro, Alarcón L..

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso clínico de un preescolar con antecedente de malformación pulmonar que 43 días tras una neumonectomía izquierda, ingresó al Hospital Padre Hurtado con fiebre de una semana de evolución. En una TAC pulmonar se demostró una gran colección intrapleural izquierda de la que se aisló St [...] reptococcus grupo anginosus y Prevotella spp. Se efectuó tratamiento antimicrobiano con penicilina más clindamicina. Existe gran confusión en la terminología y clasificación de Streptococcus grupo anginosus. En la actualidad no existe duda que es un grupo que posee tres especies, S. anginosus, S. constellatus y S. intermedius. Son parte de la flora normal de orofaringe, nasofaringe, tracto gastrointestinal y vagina. Este grupo ha sido reconocido como causa de infecciones supurativas en niños y adultos. La mayoría de las cepas se describen como susceptibles a penicilina; sin embargo, existen reportes que sugieren la emergencia de resistencia. Se discuten las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnóstico e informe microbiológicos Abstract in english Left pneumonectomy in a child with congenital pulmonary malformation was performed two months prior to admission. Within one week he had high fever. Chest CT scan showed massive left pleural effusion. Both Streptococcus anginosus group and Prevotella spp. grew from the fluid obtained by pleural punc [...] tion. Antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated with clindamycin and penicillin. Streptococus anginosus group is quite confusing in terms of classification and taxonomy. Now it is well recognized that three species belong to this genera: S. anginosus S. constellatus and S. intermedius. They all are considered normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract and vagina but also they have been identified as agents of suppurative infections in children and adults. Many reports show adequate response to penicillin, however there is some emerging resistance in strains isolated in other studies. In this article we also suggest some diagnostic and microbiologic recommendations

  12. Reproduction, distribution and abundance of Bothus constellatus (Pisces: Bothidae, in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico

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    M. Tapia-García

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3 593 individuals of Bothus constellatus was captured during five oceanographic cruises carried out in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Its distribution, abundance, and reproduction patterns were stated by means of the analysis of the population parameters (i.e. density, biomass, weight and size average, visceral and gonadosomatic index, and maturity stages. B. constellatus is a typical demersal marine species, because it does not occur in estuaries, but occurs near to them on the continental shelf. It is distributed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec in depths lesser than 60 m, with high abundance around the 40 m isobath, and in front of Mar Muerto Lagoon. During January and May the biomass and density were high. The size at first maturity of females is 101 mm total length, and maturation occurs first in zones influenced by estuarine processes. Reproduction and recruitment were detected in all the collections.

  13. Halistanol sulfate A and rodriguesines A and B are antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans

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    Bruna de A., Lima; Simone P. de, Lira; Miriam H., Kossuga; Reginaldo B., Gonçalves; Roberto G.S., Berlinck; Regianne U., Kamiya.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation we report the antibacterial activity of halistanol sulfate A isolated from the sponge Petromica ciocalyptoides, as well as of rodriguesines A and B isolated from the ascidian Didemnum sp., against the caries etiologic agent Streptococcus mutans. The transcription levels [...] of S. mutans virulence genes gtfB, gtfC and gbpB, as well as of housekeeping genes groEL and 16S, were evaluated by sqRT-PCR analysis of S. mutans planktonic cells. There were no alterations in the expression levels of groEL and 16S after antimicrobial treatment with halistanol sulfate A and with rodriguesines A and B, but the expression of the genes gtfB, gtfC and gbpB was down-regulated. Halistanol sulfate A displayed the most potent antimicrobial effect against S. mutans, with inhibition of biofilm formation and reduction of biofilm-associated gene expression in planktonic cells. Halistanol sulfate A also inhibited the initial oral bacteria colonizers, such as Streptococcus sanguinis, but at much higher concentrations. The results obtained indicate that halistanol sulfate A may be considered a potential scaffold for drug development in Streptococcus mutans antibiofilm therapy, the main etiologic agent of human dental caries.

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as etiological agents of conjunctivitis outbreaks in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

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    Marta I. C. MEDEIROS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of conjunctivitis outbreaks occurring from September 1994 to September 1996 in the region of Ribeirão Preto, conjunctival exudates of 92 patients were cultivated in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory I, Ribeirão Preto. Most cases occurred in the age range 2-7 years. The etiological agents which were most frequently isolated from the analyzed cases were: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in 40.22% and 21.74%, respectively. 51.35% of the S. pneumoniae isolated strains were not typable. The oxacillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains were submitted to the minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC and three of them presented intermediate resistance, whereas only one was highly resistant to penicillin.No estudo de surtos de conjuntivite ocorridos no período de setembro de 1994 a setembro de 1996, na região de Ribeirão Preto, foram semeadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratório I, Ribeirão Preto, exsudatos conjuntivais de 92 pacientes, sendo que a maioria dos casos estava na faixa etária de 2-7 anos. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente isolados dos casos analisados foram: Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae em 40,22% e 21,74% respectivamente. 51,35% das cepas de S. pneumoniae isoladas foram não tipáveis. As cepas de S. pneumoniae oxacilina resistente foram submetidas ao teste de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, sendo que três apresentaram resistência intermediária e apenas uma foi altamente resistente à penicilina.

  15. Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia / Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia

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    Aura Lucía, Leal; Castañeda, Elizabeth.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares [...] de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, Colombia, entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1996. Se observó que 119 de todos los aislamientos (36,7%) presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida por lo menos a un antimicrobiano, que 39 (12%) presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina y que de estos últimos aislamientos, 29 presentaban resistencia intermedia y 10 resistencia alta. Nueve aislamientos (2,8%) presentaban resistencia a la ceftriaxona, 80 (24,7%) a la combinación de trimetoprima y sulfametoxazol (TMS), 49 (15,1%) al cloranfenicol y 31 (9,6%) a la eritromicina. Se observó resistencia a dos antimicrobianos en 31 aislamientos (9,6%) y multirresistencia en 22 (6,7%). Estos 22 aislamientos mostraron resistencia al TMS. Las asociaciones más frecuentes fueron penicilina, TMS y eritromicina en 5 casos; penicilina, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 4; penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol y TMS en 3; y penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 3 casos. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a la penicilina fueron: 23F (53,8%), 14 (25,6%), 6B (7,7%), 9V (5,1%), 19F (5,1%) y 34 (2,6%). Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a antimicrobianos distintos de la penicilina fueron: 5 (37,5%), 23F (7,5%), 14 (18,8%) y 6B (13,8%). Esta diferencia en la distribución de los serotipos fue estadísticamente significativa (P Abstract in english A study was done to determine the patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae that caused invasive disease diagnosed in children under the age of 5 in Colombia between 1994 and 1996, as well as to establish the distribution of the capsular types of the [...] resistant isolates. The analysis was done using 324 isolates obtained during the performance of the National Serotyping Protocol for S. pneumoniae carried out in Bogotá, Medellín, and Cali, Colombia, between July 1994 and March 1996. Of the 324 isolates, 119 (36.7%) showed diminished susceptibility to at least one antimicrobial agent, including 39 (12%) that showed diminished susceptibility to penicillin. Of these 39 resistant to penicillin, 29 showed intermediate resistance and 10 showed high resistance. Nine isolates (2.8%) showed resistance to ceftriaxone, 80 (24.7%) to the combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMS), 49 (15.1%) to chloramphenicol, and 31 (9.6%) to erythromycin. Resistance to two antimicrobial agents was observed in 31 isolates (9.6%); multiple resistance was found in 22 (6.7%). These 22 multiresistant isolates all showed resistance to TMS. The most frequent associations were penicillin, TMS, and erythromycin (5 cases); penicillin, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (4 cases); penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and TMS (3 cases); and penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (3 cases). The most frequent serotypes in the penicillin-resistant isolates were: 23F (53.8%), 14 (25.6%), 6B (7.7%), 9V (5.1%), 19F (5.1%), and 34 (2.6%). The most frequent serotypes in the isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents other than penicillin were: 5 (37.5%), 23F (7.5%), 14 (18.8%), and 6B (13.8%). This difference in the distribution of the serotypes was statistically significant (P

  16. Influences of naturally occurring agents in combination with fluoride on gene expression and structural organization of Streptococcus mutans in biofilms

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    Xiao Jin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of specific bioactive flavonoids and terpenoids with fluoride can modulate the development of cariogenic biofilms by simultaneously affecting the synthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS and acid production by Streptococcus mutans, which enhanced the cariostatic effectiveness of fluoride in vivo. In the present study, we further investigated whether the biological actions of combinations of myricetin (flavonoid, tt-farnesol (terpenoid and fluoride can influence the expression of specific genes of S. mutans within biofilms and their structural organization using real-time PCR and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Results Twice-daily treatment (one-minute exposure during biofilm formation affected the gene expression by S. mutans both at early (49-h and later (97-h stages of biofilm development. Biofilms treated with combination of agents displayed lower mRNA levels for gtfB and gtfD (associated with exopolysaccharides synthesis and aguD (associated with S. mutans acid tolerance than those treated with vehicle-control (p S. mutans biofilms by reducing the biovolume (biomass and proportions of both EPS and bacterial cells across the biofilm depth, especially in the middle and outer layers (vs. vehicle-control, p p Conclusion The data show that the combination of naturally-occurring agents with fluoride effectively disrupted the expression of specific virulence genes, structural organization and accumulation of S. mutans biofilms, which may explain the enhanced cariostatic effect of our chemotherapeutic approach.

  17. Action of selected agents on the accumulation of /sup 18/F by Streptococcus mutans

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    Yotis, W.W.; Zeb, M.; Brennan, P.C.; Kirchner, F.R.; Glendenin, L.E.; Wu-Yuan, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    The action of certain substances known to induce cellular alterations, or encountered in the oral cavity, on the accumulation of /sup 18/F by Streptococcus mutans GS-5 has been investigated. A 62-67% inhibition in the number of /sup 18/F atoms bound per mg dry weight of cells could be induced by a 15 min pretreatment with 2.7 x 10/sup -4/ M cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide, 1 x 10/sup -1/ M acetic anhydride, or 7 x 10/sup -2/ M HCl. Plate counts indicated that alteration of the cellular composition rather than viability was responsible for this diminution in /sup 18/F accumulation. Prior exposure for 15 min of this organism to 1 M HCHO or 0.1 M NaOH did not alter /sup 18/F accumulation. Of the common salts encountered in the oral cavity, CaCl/sub 2/ enhanced /sup 18/F binding. Pretreatment of the assay cells for 15-160 min with 0.1 mg/ml of trypsin, pronase, protease, ..cap alpha..-glucosidase, dextranase, or lactoferrin had no significant effect on the accumulation of /sup 18/. However, pre-exposure of cells for 60 min to 1-10 mg/ml of either amylase or lipase induced a 40-67% inhibition in the binding of /sup 18/F, while lysozyme enhanced the binding of /sup 18/F by the cells. It would appear then that the binding of /sup 18/F by S. mutans may be altered by certain substances encountered in the oral cavity. 17 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  18. In Vitro Activity of Antimicrobial Agents Against Streptococcus Pyogenes Isolates from patients with Acute Tonsillopharyngitis in Dakar, Senegal

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    A. Gueye Ndiaye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes is the most important causative agent of tonsillopharyngitis. Beta-lactam antibiotics, particularly penicillin, are the drug of first choice and macrolides are recommended for patients who are allergic to penicillin. However, other antibiotics are also used for the treatment of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. In recent years, the increase in the incidence of respiratory tract pathogens that are resistant to current antibacterial agents highlights the need to monitor the evolution of the resistance of these pathogens to antibiotics. In this study, we assess the susceptibility of 98 isolates of S. pyogenes to 16 antibiotics. The pathogens were recovered from patients with acute tonsillopharyngitis in Dakar, the Senegalese capital city, who were recruited from May 2005 to August 2006. All strains were susceptible to penicillin with low Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC = 0,016 mg/L. Amoxicillin had high activity (100% showing its importance in treatment of streptococcal infections. Cephalosporins had MIC90 values ranging from 0.016 to 0.094 mg/L. Macrolides have shown high activity. All strains were resistant to tetracyclin. Other molecules such as teicoplanin, levofloxacin and chloramphenicol were also active and would represent alternatives to treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to this pathogen. These results indicate that no significant resistance to antibiotics was found among patients with tonsillopharyngitis studied in Dakar. Limitations of this study were that the number of isolates tested was small and all isolates were collected from one hospital in Dakar. Hence, results may not be representative of the isolates found, in the wider community or other regions of Senegal. Further studies are needed in other parts of Dakar and other geographic regions of Senegal, in order to better clarify the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. pyogenes isolates recovered from patients with tonsillopharyngitis.

  19. Estudio fitoquímico y actividad antibacterial de Psidium guineense Sw (choba) frente a Streptococcus mutans, agente causal de caries dentales / Phytochemical study and antibacterial activity of Psidium guíneense Sw (choba) against Streptococcus mutans, causal agent of dental caries

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    Adriana María, Neira González; Martha Beatriz, Ramírez González; Nidia Lizbeth, Sánchez Pinto.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comprobaron las potencialidades antibacteriales del extracto etanólicoy de sus fracciones éter de petróleo, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y acuosa obtenidos de la cáscara y pulpa de Psidium guineense Sw (choba) frente a la bacteria Gram positiva Streptococcus mutans ATCC 31089 y a una cepa de l [...] a misma bacteria aislada de paciente. El S. mutans está reconocido como el principal agente causal de las caries dentales. Se comprobó, por técnicas de coloración y cromatografía en capa delgada, el contenido de metabolitos secundarios en los extractos etanólicos crudos y en sus respectivas fracciones. Los ensayos antibacteriales se realizaron por la técnica de perforación en gel empleando la escala de 0,5 de McFarland a 10(8) ufc/mL. Se utilizó agar base sangre y se aplicaron 50 mL de los extractos etanólicos de la cáscara y la pulpa de P. guineense diluidos en DMSO a concentraciones de 400 y 0,4 mg/mL. Según los mayores porcentajes de inhibición obtenidos de estos extractos, se tomaron las fracciones en concentraciones entre 25 y 100 mg/mL y para la cepa S. mutans aislada de paciente, concentraciones de 400 y 200 mg/mL. Los extractos etanólicos crudos mostraron actividad frente a estas bacterias; las fracciones de mayor actividad fueron las nombradas M1FA (fracción acetato de choba fruto cáscara verde seca) y M3FA (fracción acetato de choba fruto pulpa verde seca). La actividad antimicrobiana de la especie P. guineense pudiera ser atribuida a los metabolitos secundarios, taninos, flavonoides, terpenos y aldehídos, presentes en el fruto de esta especie. Abstract in english The antibacterial potentialities of the ethanol extract and its petroleum ether, dicloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions obtained from the peel and pulp of Psidium guineense Sw ( choba) against the Gram positive Streptococcus mutants ATCC 31089 and a strain of the same germ isolated fro [...] m a patient, were proved . S. Mutans is recognized as the causal agent of dental caries. The content of secondary metabolites in the crude ethanol extracts and in its respective fractions were proved by staining and thin layer chromatography. The antibacterial tests were made by means of the gel perforation technique and using McFarland's 0.5 scale at 108 ufc/mL. Blood base agar was utilized and 50 mL of the ethanol extracts from the peel and pulp of P. guineense diluted in DMSO at concentrations of 400 and 0.4 mg/mL were applied. According to the highest percentages of inhibition obtained from these extracts, the fractions were taken in concentrations between 25 and 100 mg/ mL and from 400 and 200 mg/mL for the S. mutans strain isolated from a patient. The crude ethanol extracts showed activity against these bacteria. The fractions with the greatest activity were the so-called M1FA (fraction of acetate of choba fruit's dry green peel) and M3FA (fraction of acetate of choba fruit's dry green pulp). The antimicrobial activity of the P. guineense species may be attributed to secondary metabolites, taninns, flavonoids, terpenes and aldehydes present in the fruit of this species.

  20. [Sensitivity surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates for several antibacterial agents in Gifu and Aichi prefecture (2010-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Maki; Mizunaga, Shingo; Fukuda, Yoshiko; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Matsukawa, Yoko; Mitsuyama, Junichi; Matsubara, Shigenori; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Asano, Yuko; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Sawamura, Haruki; Hashido, Hikonori; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2013-10-01

    We investigated genotype of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes and macrolide resistant genes, the serotypes and the susceptibility to antibacterial agents against 258 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from medical facilities in Gifu and Aichi prefectures between January 2010 and March 2011. These results were compared with those against 377 strains of S. pneumoniae isolated in 2008-2009. The number of genotype penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (gPSSP) with 3 normal PBP genes, genotype penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (gPISP) with 1 or 2 normal PBP genes and genotype penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (gPRSP) with 3 abnormal genes was 11 (4.3%), 135 (52.3%) and 112 (43.4%) strains, respectively. The isolates with no macrolide-resistant gene, only mefA, only ermB, and both mefA and ermB were 17 (6.6%), 65 (25.2%), 143 (55.4%) and 33 (12.8%). The prevalent pneumococcal serotypes isolated from children were type 19F (18.2%), following by type 6A and 15 (11.7%). The potential coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was 43.8%. The prevalent pneumococcal serotypes isolated from adults were high in order of type 19F (12.8%), type 6A, 3 and 11 (10.3%), excepting non-typable strains (17.9%), and from elderly persons were type 6B (23.2%) and type 3 (13.4%). The MIC90 of each antibacterial agents was as follows; 0.0625 microg/mL for garenoxacin, 0.125 microg/mL for panipenem, 0.25 microg/mL for imipenem, doripenem, tosufloxacin, 0.5 microg/mL for cefditoren, meropenem, moxifloxacin, 1 microg/mL for amoxicillin, clavulanic acid/amoxicillin, cefteram, cefcapene, ceftriaxone, 2 microg/mL for benzylpenicillin, piperacillin, tazobactam/ piperacillin, pazufloxacin, levofloxacin, 4 microg/mL for cefdinir, flomoxef, 16 microg/mL for minocycline, > 64 microg/mL for clarithromycin, azithromycin and these MIC90s were about the same as those in 2008-2009. PMID:24527517

  1. Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes / Meningite bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente aos antimicrobianos e seus sorotipos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea Maciel de Oliveira, Rossoni; Libera Maria, Dalla Costa; Denize Bonato, Berto; Sônia Santos, Farah; Marilene, Gelain; Maria Cristina de Cunto, Brandileone; Vitor Hugo Mariano, Ramos; Sergio Monteiro de, Almeida.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as taxas de resistência de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolados de pacientes com meningite, à penicilina G, ceftriaxona e vancomicina; avaliar possíveis fatores de risco para resistência antimicrobiana; descrever os sorotipos encontrados e sugerir a terapêutica e [...] mpírica inicial para meningite. Foram isoladas 100 amostras de S. pneumoniae, encontrando-se 15% de resistência à penicilina, 1% à cefalosporina e 0% à vancomicina. Os sorotipos mais encontrados foram 14 (19%), 3 e 23F (10% cada). Analisando-se os resistentes, o sorotipo 14 (44%) também foi o mais freqüente. Os fatores de risco para resistência de S. pneumoniae encontrados foram: idade menor que um ano (p=0,01) e o uso prévio de antibiótico (p=0,046). As taxas de resistência encontradas, moderada a penicilina, baixa para cefalosporina e nula para vancomicina, sugerem como terapêutica empírica inicial para tratamento da meningite bacteriana aguda de origem comunitária, a cefalosporina de terceira geração isoladamente. Abstract in english The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial em [...] pirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Central Laboratory from April 2001 to august 2002 have been evaluated. One hundred S. pneumoniae have been isolated, of which 15% were resistant to penicillin, 1% to cephalosporin and 0% to vancomycin. The serotypes most found were 14 (19%), 3 and 23F (10% each). When only the resistant serotypes were analyzed, the most prevalent was the 14 with 44%. The risk factors found in relation to the S. pneumoniae resistance were: age under one year old (p=0.01) and previous use of antibiotic (p=0.046). The resistance rates found, which were moderate to penicillin, low to cephalosporin and neutral to vancomycin, suggest the isolated use of a 3rd generation cephalosporin as an initial empirical therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with a communitarian background.

  2. Caracterización clínica y microbiológica de las infecciones causadas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caro D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus grupo anginosus, y sus especies constellatus, anginosus e intermedius, causan infecciones supuradas. Su identificación microbiológica es compleja pues pueden ser beta-hemolíticos y comparten antígenos de Lancefield con otros estreptococos. Si bien morfológicamente son colonias pequeñas y presentan un olor característicos, si sólo se realiza test de látex para aglutinación del carbohidrato C pueden ser clasificados erróneamente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar un algoritmo que utiliza 3 pruebas bioquímicas, conocer su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos y describir las características clínicas de infecciones producidas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus. Se estudiaron cepas de Streptococcus grupo C, G y F, determinando sus características morfológicas de colonia, para identificar cepas de colonia pequeña que se incluyeron en el algoritmo de bajo costo propuesto (b-glucuronidasa y el test Voges-Proskauer comparándose al método API Rapid ID 32 Strept®, establecido como estándar de oro. Se estudiaron 219 cepas, de las cuales 101 presentaron las características morfológicas compatibles con grupo anginosus, identificándose S. constellatus en 58% (59/101, S. anginosus en 37% (37/101 y S. intermedius en 5% (5/101. Las cepas aisladas procedían principalmente de infecciones piogénicas (61%, 62/101, en especial de foco abdominal. Se observó 98% de susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima y resistencia a eritromicina y clindamicina en 6,8 y 5%, respectivamente. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 30 años (2-85, con distribución similar por sexo y predominio de pacientes hospitalizados. Los resultados expuestos demuestra la efectividad del algoritmo de bajo costo para la detección de S. grupo anginosus. En nuestra experiencia este grupo bacteriano conserva su susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima, siendo necesario vigilar clindamicina y eritromicinaStreptococcus anginosus group and its species constellatus, anginosus and intermedius, produce suppurative infections. Its microbiological identification is complex because it can be beta-hemolytic and shares Lancefield antigens with other Streptococci. This group grows as small colonies and presents a characteristic smell, but if only latex test for carbohydrate C agglutination is used it can be erroneously classified. The aims of this publication were to evaluate an algorithm that includes three biochemical tests, and to describe in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics and clinical characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group. Streptoccoccal strains belonging to groups C, G and F were evaluated, determining its colony characteristics in order to select small colony strains that were included into the proposed low cost algorithm (beta-glucurosidase and Voges Proskauer tests comparing them with API Rapid ID 32 Strept® method, considered the gold standard. Two hundred nineteen strains were studied, 101 had a morphological profile compatible with the anginosus group, identifying S. constellatus in 58% (59/101, S. anginosus in 37% (37/101 and S. intermedius in 5% (5/101. Strains were isolated mainly from pyogenic infections (61%, 62/101, specially from abdominal origin. High grade of penicillin and cefotaxime susceptibility (98% and low grade resistance to erithromycin and clindamycin (6,8 and 5% respectively were observed. Mean patient age was 30 years old (2-85, a similar sex distribution with predominance of inpatients. These results document the usefulness of the proposed low cost algorithm for detection of S. anginosus group. In our experience this bacterial group maintains good susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime, and we recommend a continous surveillance of clindamycin and erythromycin susceptibility

  3. Caracterización clínica y microbiológica de las infecciones causadas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus / Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo, Caro D.; Ingrid, Riedel K.; Patricia, García C..

    Full Text Available Streptococcus grupo anginosus, y sus especies constellatus, anginosus e intermedius, causan infecciones supuradas. Su identificación microbiológica es compleja pues pueden ser beta-hemolíticos y comparten antígenos de Lancefield con otros estreptococos. Si bien morfológicamente son colonias pequeñas [...] y presentan un olor característicos, si sólo se realiza test de látex para aglutinación del carbohidrato C pueden ser clasificados erróneamente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar un algoritmo que utiliza 3 pruebas bioquímicas, conocer su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos y describir las características clínicas de infecciones producidas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus. Se estudiaron cepas de Streptococcus grupo C, G y F, determinando sus características morfológicas de colonia, para identificar cepas de colonia pequeña que se incluyeron en el algoritmo de bajo costo propuesto (b-glucuronidasa y el test Voges-Proskauer) comparándose al método API Rapid ID 32 Strept®, establecido como estándar de oro. Se estudiaron 219 cepas, de las cuales 101 presentaron las características morfológicas compatibles con grupo anginosus, identificándose S. constellatus en 58% (59/101), S. anginosus en 37% (37/101) y S. intermedius en 5% (5/101). Las cepas aisladas procedían principalmente de infecciones piogénicas (61%, 62/101), en especial de foco abdominal. Se observó 98% de susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima y resistencia a eritromicina y clindamicina en 6,8 y 5%, respectivamente. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 30 años (2-85), con distribución similar por sexo y predominio de pacientes hospitalizados. Los resultados expuestos demuestra la efectividad del algoritmo de bajo costo para la detección de S. grupo anginosus. En nuestra experiencia este grupo bacteriano conserva su susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima, siendo necesario vigilar clindamicina y eritromicina Abstract in english Streptococcus anginosus group and its species constellatus, anginosus and intermedius, produce suppurative infections. Its microbiological identification is complex because it can be beta-hemolytic and shares Lancefield antigens with other Streptococci. This group grows as small colonies and present [...] s a characteristic smell, but if only latex test for carbohydrate C agglutination is used it can be erroneously classified. The aims of this publication were to evaluate an algorithm that includes three biochemical tests, and to describe in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics and clinical characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group. Streptoccoccal strains belonging to groups C, G and F were evaluated, determining its colony characteristics in order to select small colony strains that were included into the proposed low cost algorithm (beta-glucurosidase and Voges Proskauer tests) comparing them with API Rapid ID 32 Strept® method, considered the gold standard. Two hundred nineteen strains were studied, 101 had a morphological profile compatible with the anginosus group, identifying S. constellatus in 58% (59/101), S. anginosus in 37% (37/101) and S. intermedius in 5% (5/101). Strains were isolated mainly from pyogenic infections (61%, 62/101), specially from abdominal origin. High grade of penicillin and cefotaxime susceptibility (98%) and low grade resistance to erithromycin and clindamycin (6,8 and 5% respectively) were observed. Mean patient age was 30 years old (2-85), a similar sex distribution with predominance of inpatients. These results document the usefulness of the proposed low cost algorithm for detection of S. anginosus group. In our experience this bacterial group maintains good susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime, and we recommend a continous surveillance of clindamycin and erythromycin susceptibility

  4. [Sensitivity surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates for several antibacterial agents in Gifu and Aichi prefecture (2008-2009)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Yuri; Fukuda, Yoshiko; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Mitsuyama, Junichi; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Asano, Yuko; Sawamura, Haruki; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Teraji, Mayumi; Kawahara, Yuuki; Matsukawa, Yoko; Matsubara, Shigenori; Miyabe, Takanori; Arai, Toru; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the susceptibility to antibacterials, genotype of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes and macrolide resistant genes, and the serotypes against 377 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from medical facilities in Gifu and Aichi prefectures between June 2008 and April 2009. These results were compared with those against 160 strains of S. pneumoniae isolated in 2004. Referring to CLSI (M100-S17), the overall incidence of penicillin-susceptible (PSSP), penicillin-intermediate (PISP) and penicillin-resistant (PRSP) S. pneumoniae was 143 (38%), 185 (49%) and 49 (13%) strains, respectively. PISP and PRSP were isolated higher in the material of nasal cavity and throat, and PRSP was isolated higher in the area of Chuno district. The number of gPSSP with 3 normal PBP genes, gPISP with 1 or 2 normal PBP genes and gPRSP with 3 abnormal genes was 23 (6.1%), 173 (46%) and 181 (48%) strains, respectively. The isolates with no macrolide-resistant gene, only mefA, only ermB, and both mefA and ermB were 28 (7.4%), 138 (37%), 166 (44%) and 45 (12%). The prevalent pneumococcal serotypes were type 19 (92 strains; 24%), following by type 23 (60 strains; 16%) and type 6 (56 strains; 15%). The 80% of pneumococcal serotypes of PRSP were serotype 19 and 6. The MIC90 of each antibacterial was as follows; 0.1 microg/mL for imipenem, panipenem and garenoxacin, 0.2 microg/mL for moxifloxacin, 0.39 microg/mL for meropenem and tosufloxacin, 0.78 microg/ mL for amoxicillin, clavulanic acid/amoxicillin, cefditoren and cefcapene, 1.56 microg/mL for benzylpenicillin, piperacillin, cefteram and levofloxacin, 3.13 microg/mL for cefotiam, flomoxef and pazufloxacin, 6.25 microg/mL for cefdinir, 12.5 microg/mL for norfloxacin and minocycline, > 100 microg/mL for clarithromycin, and these MIC90s were about the same as those in 2004. PMID:22808690

  5. Biofilm formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Domenech, Mirian; García, Ernesto; Moscoso, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Biofilm?grown bacteria are refractory to antimicrobial agents and show an increased capacity to evade the host immune system. In recent years, studies have begun on biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, using a variety of in vitro model systems. The bacterial cells in these biofilms are held together by an extracellular matrix composed of DNA, proteins and, possibly, polysaccharide(s). Although neither the precise nature of these proteins nor the compos...

  6. Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regianne Umeko, Kamiya; Tiago, Taiete; Reginaldo Bruno, Gonçalves.

    1248-12-01

    Full Text Available The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virule [...] nce factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing), classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis.

  7. Prevalencia de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae y otros gérmenes causantes de otitis media aguda en niños de Latinoamérica: Revisión sistemática de la bibliografía / Prevalence of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other agents that cause acute otitis media in children in Latin America: A systematic review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Norma Carolina, Barajas Viracachá.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La otitis media aguda (OMA) es un diagnóstico frecuente en pediatría. Streptococcus pneumoniae continúa siendo el germen más prevalente a nivel mundial, seguido de Haemophilus influenzae. Sin embargo, la introducción de vacunas contra el neumococo ha venido cambiando la microbiología de la OMA. Obje [...] tivo. Establecer la prevalencia del neumococo, sus serotipos y la prevalencia de otros gérmenes comunes en niños latinoamericanos con OMA. Fuente de los datos. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de artículos originales en siete bases de datos, limitada a publicaciones entre 1999 y 2010, a menores de 18 años y a idiomas inglés y castellano. Se completó la búsqueda por estrategia de "bola de nieve". Métodos de revisión. Los criterios de elegibilidad incluyeron artículos originales de prevalencia de corte transversal, realizados en población pediátrica latinoamericana y con criterios de inclusión y exclusión homogéneos. Se extrajo la información pertinente de los artículos seleccionados. Resultados. Once artículos cumplieron los criterios de elegibilidad. En Latinoamérica, específcamente en Costa Rica, Chile, Brasil y Argentina, el germen más prevalente fue Streptococcus pneumoniae (43,5%), (el serotipo más frecuente es el 19F, excepto en Argentina, donde es el 14) seguido por Haemophilus influenzae (30%) y Moraxella catarrhalis (6,4%). Conclusiones. El germen más prevalente en OMA en niños latinoamericanos es Streptococcus pneumoniae, hallazgo concordante con lo registrado en Europa y Estados Unidos. Se requieren más estudios en los otros países de la región y su población pediátrica vacunada contra el neumococo, con el fin de establecer un perfil epidemiológico y microbiológico actualizado de Latinoamérica. Abstract in english Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common diagnosis in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most prevalent agent worldwide, followed by Haemophilus influenzae. However, the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has changed the microbiology of AOM. Objective. To establish the prevalence of pneum [...] ococcal serotypes and other common germs in Latin American children with AOM. Source of data. We carried out a systematic search for original articles in seven databases, limited to publications between 1999 and 2010, children under 18, and English and Spanish languages. Search was completed with "snowball" strategy. Review methods. Eligibility criteria included original prevalence cross-sectional articles, conducted in pediatric populations in Latin America, with homogeneous inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant information was extracted from the selected articles. Results. Eleven articles met the eligibility criteria. In Latin America, specifically Costa Rica, Chile, Brazil and Argentina, Streptococcus pneumoniae (43.5%) was the most frequent germ, (serotype 19F is the most frequent, except in Argentina where it is 14) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (30%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (6.4%). Conclusions. The more prevalent germ in Latin American children AOM is Streptococcus pneumoniae, a finding consistent with those from Europe and the U.S. Further studies are required in the other countries of the region and its pediatric pneumococcal vaccinated population, in order to establish an updated epidemiological and microbiological profile in Latin America.

  8. Update of the activity of cefditoren and comparator oral beta-lactam agents tested against community-acquired Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (USA, 2004-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, T R; Biedenbach, D J; Jones, R N

    2008-04-01

    Cefditoren and other orally administered cephalosporins are infrequently included in resistance surveillance studies. Here we evaluated 359 contemporary (2004-2006) strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-intermediate (12.0%) and -resistant (22.8%) subsets from United States patients by reference broth microdilution methods. Cefditoren was the most potent cephalosporin tested (MIC(50), 0.015 mg/L), including against penicillin-intermediate strains (MIC(50), 0.12 mg/L), and was two-, four- and eight-fold more active than cefuroxime, cefdinir and cefprozil, respectively. Penicillin-resistant strains were largely resistant to all tested ss-lactams. We confirm the continued spectrum and potency for cefditoren against S. pneumoniae that surpasses that of other orally administered cephalosporins. PMID:18467241

  9. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and coconut soap used as disinfecting agents in the reduction of denture stomatitis, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabé, W; de Mendonça Neto, T; Pimenta, F C; Pegoraro, L F; Scolaro, J M

    2004-05-01

    This study evaluated the reduction of denture stomatitis and the antimicrobial activity of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite opposed to Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans (SGM) when associated with brushing complete dentures with coconut soap. The mucosal characteristics were evaluated according to Newton's classification at baseline, after cleansing the dentures with coconut soap for 15 days in group 1 (nine patients). In the other group (19 patients) the analysis were made before and after cleansing the dentures with coconut soap and with disinfection in a soak solution of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min during 15 days. Microbiological tests were used to isolate C. albicans and SGM. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare the mucosal characteristics and Fisher test and McNemar test to compare C. albicans and SGM levels. Statistical analysis at the 95% confidence level (P denture stomatitis, (ii) C. albicans did not reduce in counts, (iii) SGM were reduced but not significantly and (iv) the association of coconut soap and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite was effective in controlling denture biofilm. PMID:15140171

  10. Streptococcus mutans y caries dental / Streptococcus mutans and dental caries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Carlos, Ojeda-Garcés; Eliana, Oviedo-García; Luis Andrés, Salas.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans es uno de los microorganismos cariogénicos asociados a la caries dental. De acuerdo con la hipótesis de la placa ecológica, la caries dental es la consecuencia de cambios en el balance natural de la microflora de la placa dental causados por la alteración de las condiciones ambi [...] entales locales (homeostasis microbiana oral). El estudio de su participación en la colonización de tejidos dentales, implantación e interacción con otros microrganismos es de mucha importancia para la comprensión de la dinámica de las biopelículas dentales. Por medio de técnicas de biología molecular, se ha avanzado en la identificación de los diferentes tipos que habitan la cavidad oral, los productos que generan y que son críticos para su implantación, las interacciones con otras especies y el desarrollo de nuevos procedimientos que ayuden su identificación como uno de los agentes más importantes en la caries dental. Esta revisión examina los últimos avances en la biología de Streptococcus mutans, su papel en la génesis de la caries y las técnicas de identificación y estudio más usadas en los últimos años. Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans is one of cariogenic microorganisms associated with tooth decay. According with the hypothesis of the ecological plaque, dental caries is the consequence of changes in the natural balance in the dental plaque microflora (oral microbial homeostasis). Its role in the colonization [...] of dental tissues, implantation and interaction with other microorganisms is of paramount importance for the understanding of the dynamics of dental biofilms. By means of molecular biology techniques, there have been advances in the identification of the different types that live in the oral cavity, the products they produce which are critical for its implantation, the interaction with other species and the development of new procedures that help its identification as one of the most important agents in dental caries. This review examines the latest advances in the biology of Streptococcus mutans, its role in the genesis of the caries and the identification and study techniques most used in recent years.

  11. Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? Group B streptococcus is one of the many types of bacteria that live in the body and ... QUESTIONS FAQ105 PREGNANCY f AQ • What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? • What does it mean to be ...

  12. Streptococcus bovis Meningitis and Hemorrhoids ?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam Hewitt; Sra, Harminder K.; Bawa, Sandeep; Stevens, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of Streptococcus bovis (Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus) meningitis, a rare cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in an adult, and comment on the importance of investigation of the lower gastrointestinal tract to identify a portal of entry in cases of systemic Streptococcus bovis infection.

  13. Genomics, evolution, and molecular epidemiology of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Lacroix, Christophe; Stevens, Marc J A

    2015-07-01

    The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) is a group of human and animal derived streptococci that are commensals (rumen and gastrointestinal tract), opportunistic pathogens or food fermentation associates. The classification of SBSEC has undergone massive changes and currently comprises 7 (sub)species grouped into four branches based on sequences identities: the Streptococcus gallolyticus, the Streptococcus equinus, the Streptococcus infantarius and the Streptococcus alactolyticus branch. In animals, SBSEC are causative agents for ruminal acidosis, potentially laminitis and infective endocarditis (IE). In humans, a strong association was established between bacteraemia, IE and colorectal cancer. Especially the SBSEC-species S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an emerging pathogen for IE and prosthetic joint infections. S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and the S. infantarius branch are further associated with biliary and urinary tract infections. Knowledge on pathogenic mechanisms is so far limited to colonization factors such as pili and biofilm formation. Certain strain variants of S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius are associated with traditional dairy and plant-based food fermentations and display traits suggesting safety. However, due to their close relationship to virulent strains, their use in food fermentation has to be critically assessed. Additionally, implementing accurate and up-to-date taxonomy is critical to enable appropriate treatment of patients and risk assessment of species and strains via recently developed multilocus sequence typing schemes to enable comparative global epidemiology. Comparative genomics revealed that SBSEC strains harbour genomics islands (GI) that seem acquired from other streptococci by horizontal gene transfer. In case of virulent strains these GI frequently encode putative virulence factors, in strains from food fermentation the GI encode functions that are pivotal for strain performance during fermentation. Comparative genomics is a powerful tool to identify acquired pathogenic functions, but there is still an urgent need for more physiological and epidemiological data to understand SBSEC-specific traits. PMID:25233845

  14. Interactions between Oral Bacteria: Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Bacteriocin Production by Streptococcus gordonii

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bing-yan; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been recognized as an important etiological agent in human dental caries. Some strains of S. mutans also produce bacteriocins. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that bacteriocin production by S. mutans strains GS5 and BM71 was mediated by quorum sensing, which is dependent on a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) signaling system encoded by the com genes. We also demonstrated that interactions with some other oral streptococci interfered with S. mutans bacterio...

  15. Primary Targets of Fluoroquinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Hideyuki; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    1999-01-01

    Mutants of wild-type Streptococcus pneumoniae IID553 with mutations in parC were obtained by selection with trovafloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. All of the parC mutants were cross-resistant to the selecting agents but were not resistant to gatifloxacin and sparfloxacin. On the other hand, gyrA mutants were isolated by selection with gatifloxacin and sparfloxacin. The gyrA mutants were cross-resistant to gatifloxacin and sparfloxacin but were not resistant to the other ...

  16. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Dennis; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

    1981-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus mutans belonging to serotypes a, c, and f were transformed to streptomycin resistance by deoxyribonucleic acids derived from homologous and heterologous streptomycin-resistant strains of S. mutans and Streptococcus sanguis strain Challis. Homologous transformation of S. mutans was less efficient than heterologous transformation by deoxyribonucleic acids from other strains of S. mutans.

  17. Biofilm formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Mirian; García, Ernesto; Moscoso, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Summary Biofilm?grown bacteria are refractory to antimicrobial agents and show an increased capacity to evade the host immune system. In recent years, studies have begun on biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, using a variety of in vitro model systems. The bacterial cells in these biofilms are held together by an extracellular matrix composed of DNA, proteins and, possibly, polysaccharide(s). Although neither the precise nature of these proteins nor the composition of the putative polysaccharide(s) is clear, it is known that choline?binding proteins are required for successful biofilm formation. Further, many genes appear to be involved, although the role of each appears to vary when biofilms are produced in batch or continuous culture. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures need to be developed to fight S.?pneumoniae biofilm formation. However, much care needs to be taken when choosing strains for such studies because different S.?pneumoniae isolates can show remarkable genomic differences. Multispecies and in vivo biofilm models must also be developed to provide a more complete understanding of biofilm formation and maintenance. PMID:21906265

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae, mecanismos de resistencia antimicrobiana / Streptococcus pneumoniae, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amauri, Noda Albelo; Lázaro Arturo, Vidal Tallet; Joan Iavier, Vidal Tallet; Leanet, Hernández Álvarez.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus pneumoniae, principal agente causal de la neumonía comunitaria, líder en la etiología de la otitis media y la meningitis, en las últimas 3 décadas ha incrementado, de manera importante, su resistencia a los agentes terapéuticos más utilizados, como los betalactámicos, macrólidos, az [...] álidos y fluroquinolonas. La versatilidad adaptativa del microorganismo le ha permitido crear mecanismos capaces de sobreponerse a cualquiera de estas agresiones terapéuticas con un grado variable de eficacia. Se realiza una revisión de los mecanismos más importantes implicados en la adquisición de resistencia antimicrobiana por S. pneumoniae, y se precisan algunos de los factores de riesgo implicados en infección por S. pneumoniae resistente. Abstract in english The Streptococcus pneumoniae, the main causal agent of community pneumonia, leader in the etiology of the otitis media and the meningitis, during the past three decades has increase in a significant way its resistance to the more used therapeutic agents including the beta-lactamase, macrolides, azal [...] ides and fluroquinolones. Adaptive versatility of the microorganism allows it to create mechanisms able to overcome to any of these therapeutical aggressions with a variable degree of effectiveness. Authors made a review of the more important mechanisms involved in acquisition of the antimicrobial resistance by S. pneumoniae and some of risk factors involved in the infection due to resistant S. pneumoniae are specified.

  19. Sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B / Group B Streptococcus neonatal sepsis: up-to-date

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MAGDALENA, CRUZ O; ADRIANA, DOREN V; JOSÉ LUIS, TAPIA I; FERNANDO, ABARZÚA C.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus grupo B (SGB) es uno de los principales agentes causales de sepsis neonatal precoz, siendo un importante factor de morbimortalidad neonatal y de costos en salud pública. Se han implementado múltiples estrategias para evitar la transmisión vertical desde la madre colonizada a su reci [...] én nacido, de modo de prevenir la infección de éste último. La más usada en la actualidad es la profilaxis antibiótica administrada a la madre en el momento del parto dependiendo del resultado de un cultivo perineal realizado entre las semanas 35 y 37 de gestación. Mediante esta estrategia se ha logrado disminuir de manera importante la incidencia de la sepsis neonatal por este agente, pero existen aprehensiones acerca de la posible generación de resistencia antibiótica o reacciones adversas a fármacos por parte de la madre. Por esto último, nuevas técnicas de prevención se encuentran en estudio, como las vacunas contra el SGB. En los recién nacidos la infección por Streptococcus agalactiae puede manifestarse de diversas maneras, siendo la sepsis y la meningitis las más frecuentes y mortales. El porcentaje de secuelas entre los sobrevivientes es elevado, por lo que ante la sospecha precoz de infección debe iniciarse tratamiento antibiótico a la brevedad. Abstract in english Group B Streptococcus is one of the leading bacterias causing early onset neonatal sepsis. It constitutes an important factor of neonatal morbidity and mortality and high costs in health. Many strategies have been formulated to avoid vertical transmission from the colonized mother to the newborn, in [...] an attempt to prevent infection of the infant. The most used nowadays is antibiotic prophylaxis given to the mother during labor, depending on the results of recto-vaginal culture taken during 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. This strategy has importantly diminished the prevalence of early onset neonatal sepsis by this agent, although there is still concern about the potential generation of antibiotic resistance and drug-induced adverse reactions in the mother. New techniques for prevention are being developed, such as vaccines against Streptococcus. In the newborn, infection caused by Streptococcus has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, like sepsis and meningitis which are the most frequent and lethal. Neurological sequelae are common among the survivors, so an early suspicion of disease must lead to a prompt antibiotic treatment.

  20. Sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B Group B Streptococcus neonatal sepsis: up-to-date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA CRUZ O

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus grupo B (SGB es uno de los principales agentes causales de sepsis neonatal precoz, siendo un importante factor de morbimortalidad neonatal y de costos en salud pública. Se han implementado múltiples estrategias para evitar la transmisión vertical desde la madre colonizada a su recién nacido, de modo de prevenir la infección de éste último. La más usada en la actualidad es la profilaxis antibiótica administrada a la madre en el momento del parto dependiendo del resultado de un cultivo perineal realizado entre las semanas 35 y 37 de gestación. Mediante esta estrategia se ha logrado disminuir de manera importante la incidencia de la sepsis neonatal por este agente, pero existen aprehensiones acerca de la posible generación de resistencia antibiótica o reacciones adversas a fármacos por parte de la madre. Por esto último, nuevas técnicas de prevención se encuentran en estudio, como las vacunas contra el SGB. En los recién nacidos la infección por Streptococcus agalactiae puede manifestarse de diversas maneras, siendo la sepsis y la meningitis las más frecuentes y mortales. El porcentaje de secuelas entre los sobrevivientes es elevado, por lo que ante la sospecha precoz de infección debe iniciarse tratamiento antibiótico a la brevedad.Group B Streptococcus is one of the leading bacterias causing early onset neonatal sepsis. It constitutes an important factor of neonatal morbidity and mortality and high costs in health. Many strategies have been formulated to avoid vertical transmission from the colonized mother to the newborn, in an attempt to prevent infection of the infant. The most used nowadays is antibiotic prophylaxis given to the mother during labor, depending on the results of recto-vaginal culture taken during 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. This strategy has importantly diminished the prevalence of early onset neonatal sepsis by this agent, although there is still concern about the potential generation of antibiotic resistance and drug-induced adverse reactions in the mother. New techniques for prevention are being developed, such as vaccines against Streptococcus. In the newborn, infection caused by Streptococcus has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, like sepsis and meningitis which are the most frequent and lethal. Neurological sequelae are common among the survivors, so an early suspicion of disease must lead to a prompt antibiotic treatment.

  1. Response of Different Antibiotic Resistant Group of Streptococcus pyogenes to Environmental Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Naser; Ismail, Mahmoud; El-shahat Ebeid, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus species is considered as an important pathogen for human and animals. The antibiotic resistance mechanism in this species is continuously increased. On the other side, the tolerance of environmental stresses play an effective role in the severity of many streptococcal causative disease. In this study we assayed survey on the causative agents of pharyngitis and tonsillitis patients. The predominant causative strain was Streptococcus pyogenes with 93 % isolating ratio frequency. ...

  2. Genetic Manipulation of Streptococcus pyogenes (The Group A Streptococcus, GAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Le Breton, Yoann; Mciver, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus, GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild superficial infections (pharyngitis, impetigo) to severe often life-threatening invasive diseases (necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome) in humans. This unit describes molecular techniques for the genetic manipulation of S. pyogenes with detailed protocols for transformation, gene disruption, allelic exchange, transposon mutage...

  3. Genetic manipulation of Streptococcus pyogenes (the Group A Streptococcus, GAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Breton, Yoann; McIver, Kevin S

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (the Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild superficial infections (pharyngitis, impetigo) to severe, often life-threatening invasive diseases (necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome) in humans. This unit describes molecular techniques for the genetic manipulation of S. pyogenes with detailed protocols for transformation, gene disruption, allelic exchange, transposon mutagenesis, and genetic complementation. PMID:24510894

  4. Streptococcus mutans Out-competes Streptococcus gordonii in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzer, J. M.; Thompson, A.; Sharma, K.; Vickerman, M. M.; Haase, E. M.; Scannapieco, F. A.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans avidly colonize teeth. S. gordonii glucosyltransferase (GtfG) and amylase-binding proteins (AbpA/AbpB), and S. mutans glucosyltransferase (GtfB), affect their respective oral colonization abilities. We investigated their interrelationships and caries association in a rat model of human caries, examining the sequence of colonization and non- vs. high-sucrose diets, the latter being associated with aggressive decay in humans and rats. Virulence-ch...

  5. [Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S

    2014-11-01

    The pathogenicity of ß-hemolytic group A streptococcus (GAS) is particularly diverse, ranging from mild infections, such as pharyngitis or impetigo, to potentially debilitating poststreptococcal diseases, and up to severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis or the dreaded streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. This variety of clinical expressions, often radically different in individuals infected with the same strain, results from a complex interaction between the bacterial virulence factors, the mode of infection and the immune system of the host. Advances in comparative genomics have led to a better understanding of how, following this confrontation, GAS adapts to the immune system's pressure, either peacefully by reducing the expression of certain virulence factors to achieve an asymptomatic carriage, or on the contrary, by overexpressing them disproportionately, resulting in the most severe forms of invasive infection. PMID:25456681

  6. Surface Interactome in Streptococcus pyogenes*

    OpenAIRE

    Galeotti, Cesira L.; Bove, Elia; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Nogarotto, Renzo; Norais, Nathalie; Pileri, Silvia; Lelli, Barbara; Falugi, Fabiana; Balloni, Sergio; Tedde, Vittorio; Chiarot, Emiliano; Bombaci, Mauro; Soriani, Marco; Bracci, Luisa; Grandi, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Very few studies have so far been dedicated to the systematic analysis of protein interactions occurring between surface and/or secreted proteins in bacteria. Such interactions are expected to play pivotal biological roles that deserve investigation. Taking advantage of the availability of a detailed map of surface and secreted proteins in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus (GAS)), we used protein array technology to define the “surface interactome” in this important human path...

  7. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kerne?is, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol.

  8. Penicillin-induced lysis of Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kral, T. A.; Callaway, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 cells with concentrations of penicillin G within a relatively narrow range resulted in substantial lysis. This penicillin-induced lysis was dependent upon cell density and pH of the lysis medium. Other oral streptococci (Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus rattus, and Streptococcus cricetus) also demonstrated substantial levels of penicillin-induced lysis under appropriate conditions. Lesser degrees of lysis were seen in a related organism, Streptococc...

  9. Detección y caracterización de Streptococcus agalactiae en muestras para urocultivo Detection and characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in urinary samples for culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Viegas Caetano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La frecuencia de los aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae en el laboratorio clínico es cada vez mayor. Dada su importancia como patógeno, fundamentalmente relacionado a infecciones del tracto urinario, sepsis neonatal y puerperal, se hace necesario mejorar los métodos de detección. El presente trabajo pretende estudiar la frecuencia de los aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae en muestras para urocultivo con especial atención en las pacientes embarazadas. Se evaluaron 17.160 aislamientos durante un período de dos años, tanto de pacientes ambulatorios como de internados, aislándose Streptococcus agalactiae en 170 muestras (1%. Con agar sangre de carnero como medio de aislamiento se logró aumentar la sensibilidad en la detección de este microorganismo al considerar la presencia de colonias beta hemolíticas en las muestras de pacientes embarazadas aún en bajas concentraciones. Sobre un total de 4.868 muestras provenientes de embarazadas se obtuvieron 107 aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae que corresponden al 2,2%. De esta forma, pudo detectarse un gran número de pacientes portadoras y prevenir efectivamente los riesgos potenciales. Sobre 88 aislamientos se ensayó la sensibilidad a diferentes agentes antimicrobianos, y pudo observarse una sensibilidad conservada a los agentes beta-lactámicos y una buena respuesta a los tratamientos instaurados.The frequency of Streptococcus agalactiae is growing in the clinical laboratory. Improved detection methods are needed due to its importance as urinary tract, neonatal and puerperal pathogen. The aim of the present work was to study the frequency of Streptococcus agalactiae isolations in urinary culture samples focused on pregnant women. 170 isolates (1% Streptococcus agalactiae were obtained from 17,160 samples of ambulatory and hospitalized patients in a two year period. It was possible to increase the sensitivity of the detection of this microorganism by considering the presence of beta hemolytic colonies in low concentrations in samples of pregnant patients on sheep blood agar plates. Out of 4,868 samples of pregnant women, 107 isolates (2.2% of Streptococcus agalactiae were obtained. By this means it was possible to detect a great number of carriers and to effectively prevent potential risks. The susceptibility of 88 isolates to different antimicrobial agents was tested. A preserved susceptibility to beta-lactam agents and also a positive response to the established treatments were observed.

  10. Detección y caracterización de Streptococcus agalactiae en muestras para urocultivo / Detection and characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in urinary samples for culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Viegas Caetano; Silvina, Larre; Carmen, Lopreto.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La frecuencia de los aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae en el laboratorio clínico es cada vez mayor. Dada su importancia como patógeno, fundamentalmente relacionado a infecciones del tracto urinario, sepsis neonatal y puerperal, se hace necesario mejorar los métodos de detección. El presente t [...] rabajo pretende estudiar la frecuencia de los aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae en muestras para urocultivo con especial atención en las pacientes embarazadas. Se evaluaron 17.160 aislamientos durante un período de dos años, tanto de pacientes ambulatorios como de internados, aislándose Streptococcus agalactiae en 170 muestras (1%). Con agar sangre de carnero como medio de aislamiento se logró aumentar la sensibilidad en la detección de este microorganismo al considerar la presencia de colonias beta hemolíticas en las muestras de pacientes embarazadas aún en bajas concentraciones. Sobre un total de 4.868 muestras provenientes de embarazadas se obtuvieron 107 aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae que corresponden al 2,2%. De esta forma, pudo detectarse un gran número de pacientes portadoras y prevenir efectivamente los riesgos potenciales. Sobre 88 aislamientos se ensayó la sensibilidad a diferentes agentes antimicrobianos, y pudo observarse una sensibilidad conservada a los agentes beta-lactámicos y una buena respuesta a los tratamientos instaurados. Abstract in english The frequency of Streptococcus agalactiae is growing in the clinical laboratory. Improved detection methods are needed due to its importance as urinary tract, neonatal and puerperal pathogen. The aim of the present work was to study the frequency of Streptococcus agalactiae isolations in urinary cul [...] ture samples focused on pregnant women. 170 isolates (1%) Streptococcus agalactiae were obtained from 17,160 samples of ambulatory and hospitalized patients in a two year period. It was possible to increase the sensitivity of the detection of this microorganism by considering the presence of beta hemolytic colonies in low concentrations in samples of pregnant patients on sheep blood agar plates. Out of 4,868 samples of pregnant women, 107 isolates (2.2%) of Streptococcus agalactiae were obtained. By this means it was possible to detect a great number of carriers and to effectively prevent potential risks. The susceptibility of 88 isolates to different antimicrobial agents was tested. A preserved susceptibility to beta-lactam agents and also a positive response to the established treatments were observed.

  11. A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Walker Zettler

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cultura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta. Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica.BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detects the genes responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin within approximately 8 hours. OBJECTIVE: To compare the PCR and MIC methods in determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin. METHOD: A total of 153 Streptococcus pneumoniae samples, isolated from various anatomical sites, were evaluated in order to detect mutations in the genes encoding pbp1a, pbp2a and pbp2x, which are responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance. A correlation was found between mutations and penicillin MIP, as determined by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Overal Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was 22.8% (16.3% intermediate resistance and 6.5% high resistance. In a statistically significant finding, we observed no mutations in the penicillin-sensitive samples and only one mutation, typically in the gene encoding pbp2x, among the samples with intermediate resistance, whereas mutations in all three genes studied were observed in the high-resistance samples. CONCLUSION: For determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin, PCR is a rapid method of detection that could well be used in clinical practice.

  12. A Novel Use of a Bacteriophage Lysin, PlyC, as a Disinfectant against Streptococcus equi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of a purulent infection in horses known as equine strangles and is transmitted through shedding of live bacteria from nasal secretions and abscess drainage. There are no accepted cures for equine strangles with conventional antibiotics being only partially ...

  13. Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados de infecciones invasivas: serotipos y resistencia antimicrobiana Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive infections: serotypes and antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Antonia Cueto Montoya

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas constituyen una enfermedad invasiva importante, quizás no tanto por su frecuencia, como por la gravedad de su cuadro. Los cambios en la epidemiología de los síndromes neurológicos infecciosos en Cuba a partir de la vacunación contra meningococo BC y Haemophilus influenzae b han hecho que el Streptococcus pneumoniae constituya el agente causal más frecuente. Debido al incremento de la resistencia de este microorganismo a los antibióticos habituales, se realizaron modificaciones al régimen terapéutico convencional, fundamentalmente en las meningitis pediátricas. Es necesario lograr el aislamiento en cultivo de este agente para conocer los serotipos más frecuentes en el país, y lograr una vacuna neumocócica conjugada, así como para la vigilancia de las cepas frente a los antimicrobianos.The bacterial meningoencephalitis is an important invasive disease, not only because of its frequency, but also because of the severity of its picture. The changes in the epidemiology of the neurological infectious syndromes in Cuba starting from the vaccination against meningococcus BC and Haemophilus infuenzae b have made that Streptococcus pneumoniae be the most frequent causal agent. Due to the increase of the resistance of this microorganism to habitual antibiotics, modifications were made in the conventional therapeutic regimen, mainly in the pediatric meningitis. It is necessary to achieve the isolation in culture of this agent to know the most common serotypes in the country, to attain a conjugated pneumococcal vaccine, and to keep the surveillance of the strains against the antimicrobials.

  14. Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-3H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

  15. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C, vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2 y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La identificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias.A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles were positive. The isolate was preliminary identified by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

  16. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente / Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Nagel; V., Manias; N., Busquets; S., Sniadowsky; J., Anzardi; E. De Los A., Méndez.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C), vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2) y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La iden [...] tificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias. Abstract in english A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles) were positive. The isolate was preliminary identi [...] fied by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

  17. Galactose Metabolism by Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Abranches, Jacqueline; Chen, Yi-ywan M.; Burne, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The galK gene, encoding galactokinase of the Leloir pathway, was insertionally inactivated in Streptococcus mutans UA159. The galK knockout strain displayed only marginal growth on galactose, but growth on glucose or lactose was not affected. In strain UA159, the sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) for lactose and the PTS for galactose were induced by growth in lactose and galactose, although galactose PTS activity was very low, suggesting that S. mutans does not have a galactose-specific P...

  18. Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragojlovi? Julijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. Material and methods This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. Results All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awareness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairemnt, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characeteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatment with II and III generation cephalosporins and one with one aminoglycosides. All patients were cured, but 4 of them developed sequelae like permanent sensorineural deafness and mild ataxia. Conclusions Streptococcus suis infection is present as a zoonosis in pigs, while humans are contracted occasionally, most frequently related to occupational risk. In cases with bacterial meningitis with sepsis and hearing loss, Streptococcus suis infections must be suspected. Effective prevention requires collaboration between epidemiologists, veterinarians and human medicine physicians. .

  19. Streptococcus mutans out-competes Streptococcus gordonii in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, J M; Thompson, A; Sharma, K; Vickerman, M M; Haase, E M; Scannapieco, F A

    2012-05-01

    Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans avidly colonize teeth. S. gordonii glucosyltransferase (GtfG) and amylase-binding proteins (AbpA/AbpB), and S. mutans glucosyltransferase (GtfB), affect their respective oral colonization abilities. We investigated their interrelationships and caries association in a rat model of human caries, examining the sequence of colonization and non- vs. high-sucrose diets, the latter being associated with aggressive decay in humans and rats. Virulence-characterized wild-types of both species and well-defined mutants of S. gordonii with interrupted abpA and gtfG genes were studied. While both S. gordonii and S. mutans were abundant colonizers of rat's teeth in the presence of either diet, if inoculated singly, S. mutans always out-competed S. gordonii on the teeth, independent of diet, strain of S. mutans, simultaneous or sequential inoculation, or presence/absence of mutations of S. gordonii's abpA and gtfG genes known to negatively or positively affect its colonization and to interact in vitro with S. mutans GtfB. S. mutans out-competed S. gordonii in in vivo plaque biofilm. Caries induction reflected S. mutans or S. gordonii colonization abundance: the former highly cariogenic, the latter not. S. gordonii does not appear to be a good candidate for replacement therapy. These results are consistent with human data. PMID:22431892

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae e inmunidad innata / Streptococcus pneumoniae and innate immunity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Zepeda E; Carolina, Gvirtzman K; Javiera, Kreft V; Erika, Inostroza V; Patricia, Díaz A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus pneumoniae es un patógeno importante del ser humano que causa significativa morbilidad y mortalidad especialmente en las edades extremas de la vida. Posee diversos factores de virulencia que ponen a prueba la inmunidad del huésped. El sistema inmune innato es la primera línea de def [...] ensa para enfrentar a este patógeno, realizándose esta acción de manera precoz y no específica. De la indemnidad de este sistema depende que la infección potencial en una primera instancia sea controlada y que se activen correctamente los mecanismos de la inmunidad específica. En este artículo se revisarán y actualizarán los principales mecanismos defensivos mediados por la inmunidad innata contra este patógeno. Abstract in english Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen of humans that causes significant morbidity and mortality mainly in the extreme ages of life. It has several virulence factors that tested the immunity of the host. The innate immune system is the first line of defense to deal with this pathogen bein [...] g an early and non-specific response. The control of the disease will depend on the activation of the innate immunity in first instance and the development of a proper specific immunity against the pathogen. In this article we make an update of the innate immunity against this pathogen.

  1. Streptococcus milleri in the appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, P M; Wilson, G

    1977-10-01

    The appendix was investigated as a possible habitat of Streptococcus milleri. Both normal and inflamed appendices were examined and the isolation rates compared. S. milleri was present in a quarter of the normal appendices and more than half of those associated with apendicitis--a difference that was statistically highly significant. The isolation rates throughout were indepencent of age. There was a pronounced connection between the presence of S. milleri in the appendix and the purulent manifestations of appendicitis. S. milleri was isolated from other abdominal sites associated with appendicitis. The frequency of isolation was increased by culture in an enrichment broth containing nalidixic acid and sulphadimidine. PMID:591633

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus gallolyticus isolated from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Ryohei; Tien, Le Hong Thuy; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Osawa, Ro

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibilities to some antimicrobial agents and distribution of genes associated with resistance were examined in a total of 66 Streptococcus gallolyticus isolates and reference strains from various sources. All the tested bacteria were susceptible to vancomycin, penicillin G, and ampicillin. Most of the erythromycin-resistant isolates were observed in human clinical samples. Tetracycline and doxycycline resistance was prevalent in the isolates from human patients, diseased animals, and healthy broiler chickens, while the prevalence was significantly lower in the isolates from healthy mammals. All the isolates resistant to tetracycline possessed tet(M) and/or tet(L) and/or tet(O) genes. However, most isolates from healthy animals, which were susceptible to tetracycline, possessed the above-cited resistance genes, implying the potential ability for resistance under exposure to the corresponding antimicrobial agents. PMID:23883848

  3. Iron starvation causes release from the group A streptococcus of the ADP-ribosylating protein called plasmin receptor or surface glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Eichenbaum, Z; Green, B D; J. R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    In many pathogenic bacteria, iron starvation serves as an environmental signal that triggers the expression of virulence factors, many of which are found on the cell surface or secreted into the culture supernatant. Using the chelating agent nitrilotriacetic acid, we have established conditions for iron starvation of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus) and determined that iron limitation results in the specific appearance of several new proteins in ...

  4. Streptococcus mutans in denture stomatitis patients under antifungal therapy / Streptococcus mutans em pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laurylene César de S., Vasconcelos; Fábio Correia, Sampaio; Maria Carméli Correia, Sampaio; Maria do Socorro Vieira, Pereira; Maria Helena Pereira, Peixoto.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o número de Streptococcus mutans em saliva de pacientes com estomatite protética antes e após a terapia antifúngica. METODOLOGIA: Após exame clínico de 93 pacientes, 47 foram selecionados para exame micológico e desta amostra foram selecionados trinta pacientes: 15 com diagnóstic [...] o positivo e 15 com diagnóstico negativo de candidose foram avaliados para contagem de S. mutans, determinação de fluxo salivar e capacidade tampão. Higiene bucal e da prótese, tempo de confecção, tipo de lesão e dados salivares foram relacionados com características clínicas e laboratoriais de Candida. RESULTADOS: As lesões frequentes foram dos tipos I (43,5%) e II (53,5%). A quantidade de S. mutans foi seis vezes maior em pacientes com candidose e foi associada com baixo fluxo salivar e higiene oral deficiente. Após a terapia, a redução de S. mutans foi verificada particularmente em pacientes com fluxo salivar normal. Os valores variaram de 0,01 a 3,88 UFC/ml x 10(4). CONCLUSÃO: Os dados sugerem que os Streptococcus colaboram com Candida spp na etiopatogenia da estomatite protética. O uso de agentes antimicrobianos orais pode propiciar efeito benéfico para pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica e que apresentam higiene oral deficiente e parâmetros salivares desfavoráveis. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To assess the number of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of patients with denture stomatitis before and after antifungal therapy. METHODS: After examining 93 patients, 47 were selected for fungal test. Then, from this sample, thirty patients were selected: 15 with positive and 15 with negativ [...] e diagnosis for candidiasis that were evaluated for S. mutans counting, salivary flow and buffer capacity evaluation. Oral hygiene and prosthesis hygiene, period using prosthesis, lesion type and salivary data were related with clinical laboratorial characteristics of the patients with Candida. RESULTS: The most frequent lesions were type I (43.5%) and II (53.5%). The amount of S. mutans was six times higher in patients with candidiasis and it was associated with low salivary flow and poor oral hygiene. After therapy, a reduction of S. mutans was verified particularly in patients with normal salivary flow. The values ranged from 0.01 to 3.88 x 10(4) cfu/mL. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that Streptococcus spp collaborates with Candida spp in the etiology and pathogenesis of denture stomatitis. The use of oral antimicrobial agents may provide a beneficial effect for denture stomatitis patients that are under antifungal therapy and that have poor oral hygiene and unfavorable salivary parameters.

  5. Preparation against Streptococcus Pneumoniae-Associated Diseases

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Design of Laboratory Sample of Complex Preparation Based on Specific Bacteriophages and their Lytic Enzymes for a Prophylaxis and Treatment of Human and Animals Streptococcus Pneumoniae-Assiciated Diseses

  6. Plasmid-mediated transformation of Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuramitsu, H. K.; Long, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans GS-5 was transformed to erythromycin resistance with streptococcal plasmid pVA736. Transformation frequencies were higher with plasmids reisolated from transformed GS-5 cells relative to plasmid originally derived from S. sanguis Challis.

  7. Actividad antibacteriana de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér. sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis frente a clorhexidina / Antibacterial activity of Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her. against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juana del Carmen, Guerrero Hurtado; Zoila Mercedes, Ortiz Rubio; Luis Fernando, Peralta Berrospi; Fredy Romel, Pérez Azahuanche.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) es ampliamente utilizado en medicina natural para el tratamiento de enfermedades bucales, pero se desconocen aún sus propiedades farmacológicas, actividad antibacteriana y la composición de sus fitoconstituyentes. Objetivo: realizar un e [...] studio comparativo de la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto acuoso obtenido de las hojas de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis, frente a la clorhexidina. Métodos: para el ensayo antibacteriano se empleó el método de difusión en agar. Se trabajó con 18 muestras de microorganismos de cada especie mencionada, aisladas de los pacientes de una clínica dental. Posteriormente, se prepararon 6 concentraciones diferentes del extracto acuoso, para comparar la actividad antibacteriana frente al colutorio de clorhexidina. El análisis fitoquímico preliminar se realizó mediante el ensayo a la gota. Los datos obtenidos se sometieron a análisis estadísticos como estimadores de media y dispersión, análisis de varianza unifactorial y prueba de Tukey. Resultados: la más alta actividad antibacteriana se obtuvo en la concentración de 400 mg/mL y la más baja en la de 25 mg/mL del extracto acuoso, sobre las tres especies de Streptococcus, en comparación con la clorhexidina; con efecto similar a la concentración de 200 mg/mL. El ensayo fitoquímico preliminar indicó la presencia de flavonoides, taninos, esteroides, antocianinas y saponinas. Conclusiones: el extracto acuoso de Pelargonium peltatum tiene actividad antibacteriana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus sanguis. Abstract in english Introduction: Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her (ivy geranium) is widely used in natural medicine for the treatment of oral disease, but its pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity and phytoconstituent composition are still unknown. Objective: carry out a comparative study of the in vitro a [...] ntibacterial activity of the aqueous extract obtained from leaves of Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her (ivy geranium) against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine. Methods: the agar diffusion method was used for the antibacterial assay. A study was conducted of 18 samples of microorganisms from the above-mentioned species, isolated from patients cared for at a dental clinic. Six different concentrations were prepared of the aqueous extract to compare antibacterial activity versus the chlorhexidine gargle. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was conducted by drop assay. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses such as mean and dispersion estimators, unifactorial analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: the highest antibacterial activity against the three species of Streptococcus was obtained with the 400 mg/ml concentration, and the lowest with the 25 mg/ml concentration of the aqueous extract, in comparison with chlorhexidine, with a similar effect to the 200 mg/ml concentration. The preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, anthocyanins and saponins. Conclusions: the aqueous extract of Pelargonium peltatum has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis.

  8. Actividad antibacteriana de Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Hér. sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis frente a clorhexidina Antibacterial activity of Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Her. against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana del Carmen Guerrero Hurtado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Hér (geranio hiedra es ampliamente utilizado en medicina natural para el tratamiento de enfermedades bucales, pero se desconocen aún sus propiedades farmacológicas, actividad antibacteriana y la composición de sus fitoconstituyentes. Objetivo: realizar un estudio comparativo de la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto acuoso obtenido de las hojas de Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Hér (geranio hiedra sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis, frente a la clorhexidina. Métodos: para el ensayo antibacteriano se empleó el método de difusión en agar. Se trabajó con 18 muestras de microorganismos de cada especie mencionada, aisladas de los pacientes de una clínica dental. Posteriormente, se prepararon 6 concentraciones diferentes del extracto acuoso, para comparar la actividad antibacteriana frente al colutorio de clorhexidina. El análisis fitoquímico preliminar se realizó mediante el ensayo a la gota. Los datos obtenidos se sometieron a análisis estadísticos como estimadores de media y dispersión, análisis de varianza unifactorial y prueba de Tukey. Resultados: la más alta actividad antibacteriana se obtuvo en la concentración de 400 mg/mL y la más baja en la de 25 mg/mL del extracto acuoso, sobre las tres especies de Streptococcus, en comparación con la clorhexidina; con efecto similar a la concentración de 200 mg/mL. El ensayo fitoquímico preliminar indicó la presencia de flavonoides, taninos, esteroides, antocianinas y saponinas. Conclusiones: el extracto acuoso de Pelargonium peltatum tiene actividad antibacteriana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus sanguis.Introduction: Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Her (ivy geranium is widely used in natural medicine for the treatment of oral disease, but its pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity and phytoconstituent composition are still unknown. Objective: carry out a comparative study of the in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract obtained from leaves of Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Her (ivy geranium against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine. Methods: the agar diffusion method was used for the antibacterial assay. A study was conducted of 18 samples of microorganisms from the above-mentioned species, isolated from patients cared for at a dental clinic. Six different concentrations were prepared of the aqueous extract to compare antibacterial activity versus the chlorhexidine gargle. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was conducted by drop assay. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses such as mean and dispersion estimators, unifactorial analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: the highest antibacterial activity against the three species of Streptococcus was obtained with the 400 mg/ml concentration, and the lowest with the 25 mg/ml concentration of the aqueous extract, in comparison with chlorhexidine, with a similar effect to the 200 mg/ml concentration. The preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, anthocyanins and saponins. Conclusions: the aqueous extract of Pelargonium peltatum has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis.

  9. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion

  10. Surface interactome in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Cesira L; Bove, Elia; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Nogarotto, Renzo; Norais, Nathalie; Pileri, Silvia; Lelli, Barbara; Falugi, Fabiana; Balloni, Sergio; Tedde, Vittorio; Chiarot, Emiliano; Bombaci, Mauro; Soriani, Marco; Bracci, Luisa; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

    2012-04-01

    Very few studies have so far been dedicated to the systematic analysis of protein interactions occurring between surface and/or secreted proteins in bacteria. Such interactions are expected to play pivotal biological roles that deserve investigation. Taking advantage of the availability of a detailed map of surface and secreted proteins in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus (GAS)), we used protein array technology to define the "surface interactome" in this important human pathogen. Eighty-three proteins were spotted on glass slides in high density format, and each of the spotted proteins was probed for its capacity to interact with any of the immobilized proteins. A total of 146 interactions were identified, 25 of which classified as "reciprocal," namely, interactions that occur irrespective of which of the two partners was immobilized on the chip or in solution. Several of these interactions were validated by surface plasmon resonance and supported by confocal microscopy analysis of whole bacterial cells. By this approach, a number of interesting interactions have been discovered, including those occurring between OppA, DppA, PrsA, and TlpA, proteins known to be involved in protein folding and transport. These proteins, all localizing at the septum, might be part, together with HtrA, of the recently described ExPortal complex of GAS. Furthermore, SpeI was found to strongly interact with the metal transporters AdcA and Lmb. Because SpeI strictly requires zinc to exert its function, this finding provides evidence on how this superantigen, a major player in GAS pathogenesis, can acquire the metal in the host environment, where it is largely sequestered by carrier proteins. We believe that the approach proposed herein can lead to a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms underlying bacterial invasion, colonization, and pathogenesis. PMID:22199230

  11. The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries. Materials and Methods: The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4°C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Results: Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms. Interpretation and Conclusion: A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.

  12. High incidence of penicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in northern Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan, K; Abu-Hasan, N; Hamdan, A; Al-Khalili, S

    1999-12-01

    One hundred and thirteen consecutive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected in Nablus, Palestine between March and Aug. 1997 from children with acute lower respiratory tract infections. Resistance rates were: penicillin 88%, cefuroxime 85%, erythromycin 63%, tetracycline 45%, chloramphenicol 27% and ofloxacin 2%. Resistances to erythromycin and cefuroxime were significantly associated with penicillin resistance. Ofloxacin may be useful against pneumococci resistant to traditional antimicrobial agents. Factors associated with penicillin resistance included hospitalisation and previous use of beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:10591165

  13. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Grignon, Louis; Spolidorio, Denise Palomari; Grenier, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range...

  14. Role of VltAB, an ABC Transporter Complex, in Viologen Tolerance in Streptococcus mutans? †

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Saswati; Biswas, Indranil

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive organism, is the primary causative agent in the formation of dental caries in humans. To persist in the oral cavity, S. mutans must be able to tolerate rapid environmental fluctuations and exposure to various toxic chemicals. However, the mechanisms underlying the ability of this cariogenic pathogen to survive and proliferate under harsh environmental conditions remain largely unknown. Here, we wanted to understand the mechanisms by which S. mutans withst...

  15. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Aura Lucía; Castañeda Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de las vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%). Se observó susceptibilidad dismi...

  16. Interactions of Streptococcus mutans Fimbria-Associated Surface Proteins with Salivary Components

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Chad A.; Gfell, Linda E.; Buller, Tiffany L.; Gregory, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major causative agent of human dental caries. S. mutans binds to saliva-coated tooth surfaces, and previous studies suggested that fimbriae may play a role in the initial bacterial adherence to salivary components. The objectives of this study were to establish the ability of an S. mutans fimbria preparation to bind to saliva-coated surfaces and determine the specific salivary components that facilitate binding with f...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus mutans GS-5, a Serotype c Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Saswati; Biswas, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a principal causative agent of dental caries, is considered to be the most cariogenic among all oral streptococci. Of the four S. mutans serotypes (c, e, f, and k), serotype c strains predominate in the oral cavity. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of S. mutans GS-5, a serotype c strain originally isolated from human carious lesions, which is extensively used as a laboratory strain worldwide.

  18. Pharmacodynamic Assessment of Cefprozil against Streptococcus pneumoniae: Implications for Breakpoint Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    David P Nicolau; Onyeji, Cyprian O.; Zhong, Mingkang; Tessier, Pamela R.; Banevicius, Mary Anne; Nightingale, Charles H.

    2000-01-01

    Cefprozil, an oral semisynthetic cephalosporin, is commonly utilized in the treatment of respiratory-tract infections in children. While this agent has provided acceptable clinical success over a number of years, this study was undertaken to better define its pharmacodynamic profile against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Nineteen clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae were utilized in the neutropenic murine thigh infection model. To simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of cefprozil in children, the re...

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Suping Wang; Keke Zhang; Xuedong Zhou; Ning Xu; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Weir, Michael D.; Yang Ge; Shida Wang; Mingyun Li; Yuqing Li; Xin Xu; Lei Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays...

  20. THE MACROPHAGE CHEMOTACTIC ACTIVITY OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE AND STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE EXTRACELLULAR PRODUCTS (ECP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus iniae to attract macrophages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was investigated. The extracellular products (ECP) from S. agalactiae and S. iniae were tested for macrophage chemotaxis using in vitro blind well chambers. The macrophage...

  1. Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections with Involvement of Multiple Organs in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases particularly lamb pneumonia is a multifactorial disease involving the interaction between host, etiological agent and environment. The present study was carried out to determine the causative agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in a sheep flock and to establish its pathogenicity and public health importance. The incidence occurred in sheep unit at Madhurikund farm of University (DUVASU, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India. At the time of incidence, the population of sheep at the farm was 90. Affected animals were clinically examined and nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from live animals, while morbid materials were collected from dead animals after postmortem examination. The etiological agent was isolated and characterized with conventional microbiological and biochemical methods. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the bacteria isolated from blood, different organs and cerebrospinal fluid. The antibiotic sensitivity revealed resistant to multiple drugs viz., penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Pathological examination revealed multiple involvements of organs with different degrees of inflammation and haemorrhages of the lower respiratory tract, lungs, liver, heart and kidney. Further, its pathogenicity was established by histopathological examination. In conclusion, presence of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in weaning lambs with the involvement of multiple organs appears to be an emerging zoonotic threat to human particularly in shepherds. This seems to be the first report of isolation of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from outbreak in lambs with multiple organ involvement in India.

  2. Prevalência de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico em crianças portadoras de necessidades especiais / Prevalence of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus in children with special health care needs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane Martha Santos de, Morais; Alice Ramos, Orsi; Fernanda Cristina de Albuquerque, Maranhão; Therezita Maria Peixoto Patury Galvão, Castro; Karina Cavalcante Beltrão de, Castro; Denise Maria Wanderlei, Silva.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Faringotonsilite causada por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico afeta principalmente crianças e imunocomprometidos, sendo Streptococcus pyogenes (Grupo A) o agente mais comum em faringotonsilites bacterianas. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou a busca por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico do Grupo A (SBHGA) e Não A [...] (SBHGNA) na orofaringe de indivíduos com necessidades especiais da APAE (Maceió-AL). MÉTODO:Estudo prospectivo com amostras da orofaringe de pacientes com síndrome de Down e outras desordens mentais (teste) e estudantes de escola privada (controle) de 5-15 anos. Culturas em ágar sangue (5%) foram identificadas através dos testes de Gram/catalase e o método de disco difusão com bacitracina/sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, aplicando-se o teste Chi-quadrado em análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Um total de 222 colônias bacterianas foram isoladas em 74 indivíduos da APAE e 65 no grupo controle. No grupo teste, episódios prévios de faringotonsilites foram relatados por 36,49% (27/74) e 9,46% (7/74) foram diagnosticados com sintomas e/ou sinais sugestivos de infecção orofaríngea. Nenhuma amostra de S. pyogenes foi confirmada na APAE, sendo todas identificadas como SBHGNA, com cinco SBHGA no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO:A identificação precoce de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico é importante para o tratamento rápido de faringotonsilites e a ausência de S. pyogenes evita futuras sequelas supurativas ou não supurativas no grupo da APAE. Abstract in english Pharyngotonsillitis by ?-hemolytic Streptococcus mostly affects children and imunocompromissed, being Streptococcuspyogenes (Group A) the most common agent in bacterial pharyngotonsillitis. AIM:This work targeted the research of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus Group-A (SBHGA) and No-A (SBHGNA) in the orop [...] harynx of individuals with special health needs from the APAE (Maceió-AL). METHOD: A prospective study with oropharynx samples from patients with Down syndrome and other mental disorders (test) and students from a private school (control) aged 5-15 years. Cultures in blood agar (5%) were identified through Gram/catalase tests and bacitracin/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole disk diffusion method, applying the chi-squared statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 222 bacterial colonies were isolated in 74 individuals from APAE and 65 in the control group. In the test group, previous episodes of pharyngotonsillitis were reported by 36.49% (27/74) and 9.46% (7/74) were diagnosed with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of oropharynx infection. No positive sample of S. pyogenes was confirmed at APAE, being all samples classified as SBHGNA, with 5 SBHGA in the control group. CONCLUSION: The early identification of ?-hemolytic Steptococcus is important for the fast treatment of pharyngotonsillitis and the absence of S. pyogenes avoid future suppurative or not-suppurative sequels in the group from APAE.

  3. Streptococcus mutans in denture stomatitis patients under antifungal therapy =Streptococcus mutans em pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos, Laurylene César de S. et al.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Verificar o número de Streptococcus mutans em saliva de pacientes com estomatite protética antes e após a terapia antifúngica. Metodologia: Após exame clínico de 93 pacientes, 47 foram selecionados para exame micológico e desta amostra foram selecionados trinta pacientes: 15 com diagnóstico positivo e 15 com diagnóstico negativo de candidose foram avaliados para contagem de S. mutans, determinação de fluxo salivar e capacidade tampão. Higiene bucal e da prótese, tempo de confecção, tipo de lesão e dados salivares foram relacionados com características clínicas e laboratoriais de Candida. Resultados: As lesões frequentes foram dos tipos I (43,5% e II (53,5%. A quantidade de S. mutans foi seis vezes maior em pacientes com candidose e foi associada com baixo fluxo salivar e higiene oral deficiente. Após a terapia, a redução de S. mutans foi verificada particularmente em pacientes com fluxo salivar normal. Os valores variaram de 0,01 a 3,88 UFC/ml x 104. Conclusão: Os dados sugerem que os Streptococcus colaboram com Candida spp na etiopatogenia da estomatite protética. O uso de agentes antimicrobianos orais pode propiciar efeito benéfico para pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica e que apresentam higiene oral deficiente e parâmetros salivares desfavoráveis.

  4. Evaluation of Melia azedarach extracts against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Nedel, Fernanda

    2015-02-01

    Although the incidence of caries worldwide has declined in recent years, it is necessary to search for new means to overcome this disease and its microbiological agents. Phytochemistry can become an effective alternative to antibiotics, offering a promising strategy in the prevention and therapy of dental caries. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the bactericide activity of a bioactive phytocomponent from Melia azedarach against Streptococcus mutans. The crude extract (CEx) from leaves and stem barks of M. azedarach in chloroform, petroleum ether, acetate ethyl, butanol, and aqueous fractions was evaluated using seven different concentrations. Disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assays were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. 0.12% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. The CEx and the petroleum ether fraction from M. azedarach showed significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans, confirming its antibiotic potential. PMID:25069066

  5. Parotiditis por Streptococcus Pyogenes: Presentacion de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila del S. López-Díaz

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available La glándula parótida es generalmente afectada por procesos inflamatorios. Su etiología se debe a infecciones primarias de la glándula o como complicación de infecciones sistémicas. Se reporta el Stafilococcus aureus como el agente causal más frecuente de parotiditis aguda supurada, y se señalan además otras bacterias y virus. Se presenta un niño de 9 años de edad con un proceso supurativo agudo de la parótida izquierda de un mes de evolución, con salida de abundante pus por el conducto de Stenon. Se realizó cultivo de la secreción e identificación de Streptococcus B hemolítico grupo A, a pesar de haber recibido antibioticoterapia previa. Se utilizó ampicillina y se tuvo en cuenta la sensibilidad in vitro; no presentó mejoría clínica, por lo que se decidió el empleo de la sialografía como alternativa terapéutica en este caso. Se obtuvo la resolución del proceso supurativo infeccioso y además se evidenció en este estudio la pérdida del estroma parotídeo.

  6. Urease production by Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotta, Teresa; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Rossano, Rocco; Parente, Eugenio

    2008-02-01

    In order to identify potential alternative sources of urease for the removal of urea from alcoholic beverages, 205 strains of lactic acid bacteria belonging to 27 different species were screened for urease production. Only Streptococcus thermophilus produced urease. Cell permeabilization with toluene allowed to increase activity significantly. Optimal pH for urease activity in whole and permeabilized cells and of cell free extracts differed slightly, but was in the range 6.0-7.0. Significant activity was retained at pH 3.0 and 8.0, and, for cell free extracts, at pH 4.0 in the presence of ethanol. Urease production was evaluated in fermentations with pH control (5.25-6.5) and without pH control. Very little urease was produced in absence of urea, which at 5g/l slowed growth significantly in fermentations without pH control, but prevented a decrease in pH below 5.1 and resulted in higher final biomass. Optimal pH for growth was between 6.0 and 6.5 but specific urease activity was higher for fermentations at low pH at the beginning of the exponential phase. However, a higher total urease activity was obtained at pH 6.0 and 6.5 because of higher biomass. Potential technological applications of urease production by S. thermophilus are discussed. PMID:17993384

  7. Spontaneous retroperitoneal abscess caused by streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Petrogiannopoulos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The retroperitoneum is a potential space that can be infected by several microbes. We describe the case of a 38- year-old woman who was presented to us with abdominal pain and fever for 6 days. Laboratory studies showed leukocytosis (WBC=18000 and an ubnormal liver function tests (AST=91U/l, ALT=122U/l, ALP=277U/l. A computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a retroperitoneal abscess, while the abdominal viscera were normal. Culture of the pus, obtained during surgical drainage, showed Streptococcus pyogenes. Although streptococcal infections are very usual in clinical practice, streptococcus pyogenes has been reported as a very rare cause of spontaneous retroperitoneal abscess, especially for immunocompetent patients. The patient was treated first with intravenous antibiotics with no response, and then with surgical drainage, with fully recovery. Key words: Streptococcus pyogenes, abscess, retroperitoneum

  8. Inhibitory activity by barley coffee components towards Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, Monica; Papetti, Adele; Daglia, Maria; Vezzulli, Luigi; Gazzani, Gabriella; Varaldo, Pietro E; Pruzzo, Carla

    2010-11-01

    It was shown that barley coffee (BC) interferes with Streptococcus mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite. After BC component fractionation by dialysis and gel filtration chromatography (GFC), it was found that the low molecular mass ( 1,000 kDa) melanoidin fraction display strong anti-adhesive properties towards S. mutans. In this study, we have further examined the potential of BC, BC LMM fraction and BC HMM melanoidin fraction as caries controlling agents by evaluating their anti-biofilm activity.The effects of BC and BC fractions on biofilm formation by S. mutans ATCC 25175 and its detachment from pre-developed biofilms were evaluated by microtiter plate assay. It was found that BC and its fractions, at concentrations ranging from 60 to 15 mg ml(-1) that are devoid of antimicrobial activity, inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. An increase of S. mutans ATCC 25175 detachment from 24 h developed biofilm was observed at the highest tested concentrations. Interestingly, BC and BC fractions also showed anti-biofilm activity towards a variety of S. mutans clinical strains isolated from saliva, plaque and caries lesions of adult donors. In general, the HMM melanoidin fraction was more active than the LMM fraction. These findings, classifying BC LMM fraction and BC HMM melanoidin fractions as natural anti-biofilm agents, represent the basis for studying their possible use as anti-caries agents. PMID:20361189

  9. Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Sami, Lida; Hendi, Sareh; AliKhani, Mohammad-Yousef; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent caries was partly ascribed to lack of antibacterial properties in composite resin. Silver and zinc nanoparticles are considered to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of composite resins containing 1% silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods Ninety discoid tablets containing 0%, 1% nano-silver and 1% nano zinc-oxide particles were prepared from flowable composite resin (n = 30). The antibacterial properties of composite resin discs were evaluated by direct contact test. Diluted solutions of Streptococcus mutans (PTCC 1683) and Lactobacillus (PTCC 1643) were prepared. 0.01 mL of each bacterial species was separately placed on the discs. The discs were transferred to liquid culture media and were incubated at 37? for 8 hr. 0.01 mL of each solution was cultured on blood agar and the colonies were counted. Data was analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Composites containing nano zinc-oxide particles or silver nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The effect of zinc-oxide on Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of silver (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus between composites containing silver nanoparticles and those containing zinc-oxide nanoparticles. Conclusions Composite resins containing silver or zinc-oxide nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. PMID:24790923

  10. Galactose metabolism by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abranches, Jacqueline; Chen, Yi-Ywan M; Burne, Robert A

    2004-10-01

    The galK gene, encoding galactokinase of the Leloir pathway, was insertionally inactivated in Streptococcus mutans UA159. The galK knockout strain displayed only marginal growth on galactose, but growth on glucose or lactose was not affected. In strain UA159, the sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) for lactose and the PTS for galactose were induced by growth in lactose and galactose, although galactose PTS activity was very low, suggesting that S. mutans does not have a galactose-specific PTS and that the lactose PTS may transport galactose, albeit poorly. To determine if the galactose growth defect of the galK mutant could be overcome by enhancing lactose PTS activity, the gene encoding a putative repressor of the operon for lactose PTS and phospho-beta-galactosidase, lacR, was insertionally inactivated. A galK and lacR mutant still could not grow on galactose, although the strain had constitutively elevated lactose PTS activity. The glucose PTS activity of lacR mutants grown in glucose was lower than in the wild-type strain, revealing an influence of LacR or the lactose PTS on the regulation of the glucose PTS. Mutation of the lacA gene of the tagatose pathway caused impaired growth in lactose and galactose, suggesting that galactose can only be efficiently utilized when both the Leloir and tagatose pathways are functional. A mutation of the permease in the multiple sugar metabolism operon did not affect growth on galactose. Thus, the galactose permease of S. mutans is not present in the gal, lac, or msm operons. PMID:15466549

  11. Pericarditis purulenta con taponamiento cardíaco por asociación de Streptococcus agalactiae y Salmonella enterica no typhi / Purulent pericarditis with pericardial tamponade caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Salmonellaenterica no typhi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lourdes, Arruvito; Marcos G., Ber; Jose A., Martínez Martínez.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available La pericarditis purulenta (PP) es una condición infrecuente, pero con elevada mortalidad. Previo a la era antibiótica, los agentes etiológicos más comúnmente hallados eran Streptococcus pneumoniae y Staphylococcus aureus. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 75 años de edad con un [...] cuadro de shock, PP y taponamiento cardíaco, producto de una sepsis por Streptococcus agalactiae y Salmonella entérica no typhi. No se ha hallado ningún caso similar en la literatura. Se destaca el antecedente previo inmediato de la realización de una endoscopia digestiva alta con toma de biopsia de esófago como posible causa de bacteriemia e impacto pericárdico. El curso evolutivo fue malo y el paciente falleció a los 34 días. Esta inusual asociación bacteriana en un huésped debilitado e inmunodeprimido, debería ser incluida dentro de los diagnósticos etiológicos diferenciales de la pericarditis purulenta. Abstract in english Purulent pericarditis (PP) is an uncommon condition with high mortality. In the preantibiotic period, Staphyloccocus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the most common etiologic agents. We describe the case of a 75-year old man with septic shock, PP and cardiac tamponade caused by Streptococcu [...] s agalactiae and Salmonella enterica no-typhi. To our knowledge this association of pathogenic organisms has not been previously reported in the literature. The pathogenesis is here reviewed, and in our patient presumably, purulent pericarditis occurred via hematogeneus spread undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patient’s course was complicated and he died on 34 th hospital day. After this case report it is considered that differential etiologic diagnosis of PP should include these agents, especially in immunodepressed patients with predisposing factors.

  12. Aortitis con bacteriemia por Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus Aortitis with bacteriemia by Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Betancur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La infección por Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus es propia de animales y en el hombre es generalmente accidental con reporte de pocos casos. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 56 años, matarife, con cuadro de dolor abdominal, documentándose por TAC y en cirugía dilatación aneurismática de la aorta por debajo de las renales, con colección purulenta y ulceración del vaso de donde se aisló Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus, aislándose también la bacteria de los hemocultivos.Infections by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus occur in animals. In human beings these infections are generally accidental, and few cases have been reported. We present the case of a 56-year-old male, a butcher, who presented with abdominal pain. Aneurismatic dilatation of the aorta below the renal arteries was documented by CT-scanning. A purulent collection and arterial ulceration were found during surgery; Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus was isolated from the collection and from blood cultures.

  13. Aortitis con bacteriemia por Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus / Aortitis with bacteriemia by Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Alberto, Betancur; Juan David, Giraldo; Eugenia Lucía, Saldarriaga Cardeño; Catalina, Mejía Gómez.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La infección por Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus es propia de animales y en el hombre es generalmente accidental con reporte de pocos casos. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 56 años, matarife, con cuadro de dolor abdominal, documentándose por TAC y en cirugía dilatación aneurismática de la aorta [...] por debajo de las renales, con colección purulenta y ulceración del vaso de donde se aisló Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus, aislándose también la bacteria de los hemocultivos. Abstract in english Infections by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus occur in animals. In human beings these infections are generally accidental, and few cases have been reported. We present the case of a 56-year-old male, a butcher, who presented with abdominal pain. Aneurismatic dilatation of the aorta below [...] the renal arteries was documented by CT-scanning. A purulent collection and arterial ulceration were found during surgery; Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus was isolated from the collection and from blood cultures.

  14. Response of Different Antibiotic Resistant Group of Streptococcus pyogenes to Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naser; Ismail, Mahmoud; El-Shahat Ebeid, Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    Streptococcus species is considered as an important pathogen for human and animals. The antibiotic resistance mechanism in this species is continuously increased. On the other side, the tolerance of environmental stresses play an effective role in the severity of many streptococcal causative disease. In this study we assayed survey on the causative agents of pharyngitis and tonsillitis patients. The predominant causative strain was Streptococcus pyogenes with 93 % isolating ratio frequency. The other pathogenic species were S. agalactia 5.3 % and S. pneumonia 1.7 %. According to the antibiotic resistant test the S. pyogenes isolates were classified into six different groups. A selected strain from each antibiotic resistant group was tested for tolerance of a restrictive environmental factors. The variations of the environmental niches of isolates were in consistence with their antibiotic resistant variation. PMID:23997324

  15. Streptococcus gordonii Hsa Environmentally Constrains Competitive Binding by Streptococcus sanguinis to Saliva-Coated Hydroxyapatite?

    OpenAIRE

    Nobbs, Angela H.; Zhang, Yongshu; Khammanivong, Ali; Herzberg, Mark C

    2007-01-01

    Competition between pioneer colonizing bacteria may determine polymicrobial succession during dental plaque development, but the ecological constraints are poorly understood. For example, more Streptococcus sanguinis than Streptococcus gordonii organisms are consistently isolated from the same intraoral sites, yet S. gordonii fails to be excluded and survives as a species over time. To explain this observation, we hypothesized that S. gordonii could compete with S. sanguinis to adhere to sali...

  16. Functional Variation of the Antigen I/II Surface Protein in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, F. C.; Assev, S.; Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Scheie, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    Although Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus mutans are regarded as members of the commensal microflora of the body, S. intermedius is often associated with deep-seated purulent infections, whereas S. mutans is frequently associated with dental caries. In this study, we investigated the roles of the S. mutans and S. intermedius antigen I/II proteins in adhesion and modulation of cell surface characteristics. By using isogenic mutants, we show that the antigen I/II in S. mutans, but no...

  17. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius adhesion to fibronectin films are oppositely influenced by ionic strength

    OpenAIRE

    Busscher, H J; Belt-Gritter, B. van der; Dijkstra, R.J.B.; Norde, W; Van Der Mei, H. C.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to protein-coated surfaces is mediated by an interplay of specific and nonspecific interactions. Although nonspecific interactions are ubiquitously present, little is known about the physicochemical mechanisms of specific interactions. The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of ionic strength on the adhesion of two streptococcal strains to fibronectin films. Streptococcus mutans LT11 and Streptococcus intermedius NCTC11324 both possess antigen I/II with the abil...

  18. Adherence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis to salivary components bound to glass.

    OpenAIRE

    Stinson, M. W.; Jinks, D C; Merrick, J M

    1981-01-01

    Adherence of radiolabeled Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis to saliva-treated glass surfaces was studied under conditions which minimized bacteria-glass interactions. Treatment of glass with an alkylsilane solution decreased nonspecific bacterial adherence and enhanced adsorption of radiolabeled salivary components to these surfaces. Addition of Triton X-100 to the bacterial suspensions also reduced nonspecific adherence to siliconized glass, but did not affect adherence to saliv...

  19. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8?% and 93.1?% similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase ? subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7?% similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0?% and 82.9?% similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5?% similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T)?=?JCM 19287(T)?=?DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T)?=?JCM 19288(T)?=?DSM 27513(T)) are proposed. PMID:24994777

  20. Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae as an Otopathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qingfu; Kaur, Ravinder; Casey, Janet R.; Sabharwal, Vishakha; Pelton, Stephen; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Among 34 Spn sequential isolates from middle ear fluid we found a case of a nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae (NT-Spn) in a child with AOM. The strain was pneumolysin PCR positive and capsule gene PCR negative. Virulence of the NT-Spn was confirmed in a chinchilla model of AOM.

  1. Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing.

  2. Prostatic abscess caused by Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Chau; Dascal, Andre; Mendelson, Jack

    1990-01-01

    The first reported case of prostatic abscess caused by Streptococcus mutans isolated in pure culture is described. Urethral dilation for obstruction was unsuccessful, so suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Perineal aspiration under ultrasonic guidance resulted in 10 mL of pus containing pure Strep mutans. Diagnosis of prostatic abscess is difficult since the clinical manifestations are nonspecific.

  3. Bacteriocin and Hemolysin from Streptococcus faecium

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Shizutoshi; Matsuo, Yoshiyasu

    1981-01-01

    The bacteriocin and hemolysin produced by a Streptococcus faecium strain were partially separated after gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA-22. The molecular weight of bacteriocin was approximately 300,000, and that of hemolysin was 220,000. Non-bacteriocinogenic mutants retained the hemolytic activity. Production of hemolysin required glucose, whereas that of bacteriocin did not.

  4. Plasmid associated with diplococcin production in Streptococcus.

    OpenAIRE

    Davey, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    The ability to produce diplococcin (Dip+) was transferred by conjugation from Streptococcus cremoris 346 to two plasmid-free S. cremoris recipients at a high frequency (10(-1) per donor). Dip+ transconjugants from each mating gained a 54-megadalton plasmid. Spontaneous loss of this plasmid restored the Dip- phenotype.

  5. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus meningitis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Jose M.; Tilley, Drake H.; Briceno, Jesus A.; Zunt, Joseph R.; Montano, Silvia M.

    2013-01-01

    A 59-year-old man with a history of fever, unsteadiness, hemiparesis, motor aphasia and consciousness disturbance was hospitalized for Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus meningitis. He denied contact with farm animals, but had a practice of consuming unpasteurized goats’ cheese from an uncertain source. PMID:23105024

  6. Regulation of neuraminidase expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualdi Luciana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid; NeuNAc is one of the most important carbohydrates for Streptococcus pneumoniae due of its role as a carbon and energy source, receptor for adhesion and invasion and molecular signal for promotion of biofilm formation, nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion of the lung. Results In this work, NeuNAc and its metabolic derivative N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc were used to analyze regulatory mechanisms of the neuraminidase locus expression. Genomic and metabolic comparison to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis elucidates the metabolic association of the two amino sugars to different parts of the locus coding for the two main pneumococcal neuraminidases and confirms the substrate specificity of the respective ABC transporters. Quantitative gene expression analysis shows repression of the locus by glucose and induction of all predicted transcriptional units by ManNAc and NeuNAc, each inducing with higher efficiency the operon encoding for the transporter with higher specificity for the respective amino sugar. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated enhanced surface exposure of NanA on pneumococci grown in NeuNAc and ManNAc and an activity assay allowed to quantify approximately twelve times as much neuraminidase activity on induced cells as opposed to glucose grown cells. Conclusions The present data increase the understanding of metabolic regulation of the nanAB locus and indicate that experiments aimed at the elucidation of the relevance of neuraminidases in pneumococcal virulence should possibly not be carried out on bacteria grown in glucose containing media.

  7. Antibacterial effect of composite incorporating Triclosan against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazato, S; Torii, M; Tsuchitani, Y

    1995-12-01

    It has been shown that composite incorporating the antibacterial agent Triclosan (Irgasan DP 300, which is sparingly soluble in water, inhibited in vitro plaque formation by Streptococcus mutans, although the release of the agent was much less than the minimum inhibitory concentration for the bacterium. In this study, the inhibitory effect of the composite incorporating 1% Triclosan against growth and adherence of S. mutans was investigated. S. mutans was inoculated on the surface of a specimen made of control or Triclosan-incorporated composite and the number of bacteria was compared after 3, 6, 12 and 24 hr of incubation. The adherence of S. mutans to the control and experimental composite, with or without saliva treatment, was also examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composite incorporating Triclosan demonstrated significant inhibition of growth of S. mutans after 6, 12 and 24 hr of incubation. Adherence of S. mutans to the Triclosan-incorporated composite was less compared with control for both non-treated and saliva-treated specimens. It is concluded that the antiplaque effect of composite incorporating Triclosan depends upon its ability to inhibit bacterial growth and adherence, and Triclosan-incorporated composite is able to exhibit the antibacterial activity even after being treated with saliva. PMID:9206462

  8. Endocarditis infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis asociada a instrumentación gastrointestinal / Infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Pila Pérez; Victor Adolfo, Holguín Prieto; Ever, Cetina Lozada; Rafael, Pila Peláez; Leandro, Segura Pujal.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis por Streptococcus bovis representa el 10% de los casos de endocarditis bacteriana, siendo frecuente su asociación con enfermedades intestinales y hepáticas. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 36 años con antecedentes de fiebre reumática en la niñez, quien hace un año comenzó con sin [...] tomatología digestiva, para la cual fue sometida a estudios clínicos invasivos como endoscopia y colonoscopia, desarrollando posteriormente una endocarditis con aislamiento microbiológico de Streptococcus bovis. Se detalla la fisiopatología, clínica, diagnóstico y los aspectos terapéuticos de esta entidad. Además se discuten las posibles relaciones de las enfermedades intestinales, las instrumentaciones del tubo digestivo y las hepatopatías con la bacteriemia por Streptococcus bovis biotipo I. Esta asociación sugiere un posible mecanismo de adherencia biotipo-específica que aún no ha sido fehacientemente demostrado. Por último se resalta la conveniencia de someter a exploración digestiva y ecocardiografía a todo paciente con hemocultivos positivos a este tipo de germen. (MÉD.UIS. 2012;25(3):251-8). Abstract in english Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis represents 10% of the cases of bacterial endocarditis and is frequently associated with intestinal and liver diseases. We present the case of a 36-year old female patient with a history of rheumatic fever in childhood. The gastrointestinal symptomatology be [...] gan one year before the bacterial endocarditis. Several invasive clinical investigations as endoscopy and colonoscopy, were performed and subsequently she developed endocarditis. Streptococcus bovis was isolated in microbiological studies. Pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment are detailed. The association between bacteremia from Streptococcus bovis biotype I and intestinal diseases, instrumentation of the digestive tract, and hepatopathy is reviewed. This association suggests a possible mechanism of bacteremia and endocarditis associated with biotype I but this has not been definitely confirmed. We have highlighted the importance of performing echocardiography in all patients with blood cultures positive for Streptococcus bovis who have had invasive studies of the gastrointestinal tract.(MÉD.UIS. 2012;25(3)251-8).

  9. Infecciones por Streptococcus anginosusen otorrinolaringología: Revisión de 9 casos clínicos / Infections caused by Streptococcus anginosusin otolaryngology: Review of 9 clinical cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe, Cardemil M; Daniel, Muñoz S; Maritza, Rahal E; Jaime, Osorio M; René, Sepúlveda S; Rodrigo, Urzúa B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Streptococcus anginosus (SA) es un habitante común de la cavidad oral y tracto gastrointestinal, y puede ser un patógeno agresivo causante de abscesos en varios sitios del cuerpo. Aparentemente, su rol en infecciones de cabeza y cuello está adquiriendo cierta notoriedad y no está cl [...] aramente reportado en la literatura. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las implicancias clínicas de estas infecciones en otorrinolaringología. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo de todos los pacientes diagnosticados microbiológicamente con infecciones causadas por Streptococcus anginosus, tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau entre los años 2007 a 2012. Se describen las características clínicas, microbiológicas y el manejo de los pacientes. Resultados: La muestra estuvo constituida por 9 casos, 3 hombres y 6 mujeres, con una mediana de edad de 52 años (rango 6-70). Los sitios de infección fueron: absceso periamigdalino (2 casos), un absceso peritraqueostoma, un absceso submandibular, un absceso submentoniano, un absceso parafaríngeo con extensión retrofaríngea y mediastino, un caso de absceso cerebral frontal secundario a sinusitis frontal complicada, un caso de otitis media crónica activa, y un caso de sinusitis maxilar crónica. Discusión: El SA ha sido reportado como un agente causal de infecciones potencialmente graves en cabeza y cuello. Su identificación requiere de consideraciones especiales para el cultivo, y al ser un microorganismo común puede ser confundido e informado como S viridans o Streptococcus anaeróbico. Es importante reconocer al SA como un patógeno a considerar en infecciones de cabeza y cuello. Abstract in english Introduction: Streptococcus anginosus (SA) is a common inhabitant of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, and can be an aggressive pathogen causing abscesses in various body sites. Apparently, its role in head and neck infections is gaining some notoriety that it is not clearly reported in th [...] e literature. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical implications of this infections in otolaryngology. Material and method: A retrospective case series study of all patients diagnosed microbiologically with Streptococcus anginosus infections treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, HospitalBarros Luco-Trudeau from 2007 to 2012. We describe the clinical and microbiological features, and treatment of each patient. Results: The sample consisted of 9 patients, 3 men and 6 women, with a median age of 52 years (range 6-70). The sites of infection were: peritonsillar abscess (2 cases), peritracheostomy abscess, submandibular abscess, submental abscess, parapharyngeal abscess with retropharyngeal and mediastinal extension, a case of frontal brain abscess secondary to frontal sinusitis, a case of otitis chronic active half, and one case of chronic maxillary sinusitis. Discussion: SA has been reported as a causative agent ofpotentially serious infections in the head and neck region. Their identification requires special considerations for growing, and because of being a common microorganism may be confused and informed as Streptococcus viridans or anaerobic streptococcus. It is important to recognize SA as a relevant pathogen in head and neck infections.

  10. A galactose-specific sugar:phosphotransferase permease is prevalent in the non-core genome of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Lin; Xue, Peng; Stanhope, Michael J.; Burne, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Three genes predicted to encode the A, B and C domains of a sugar:phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease specific for galactose (EIIGal) were identified in the genomes of 35 of 57 recently-sequenced isolates of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. Mutants defective in the EIIGal complex were constructed in 6 of the isolates and showed markedly reduced growth rates on galactose-based medium relative to the parental strains. An EIIGal-deficient strain co...

  11. Slaughterhouse Pigs Are a Major Reservoir of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Capable of Causing Human Infection in Southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, TH; Tran, TB; Tran, TT; Nguyen, VD; Campbell, J.; Pham, Ha; Huynh, HT; Nguyen, VV; Bryant, JE; Tran, TH; FARRAR, J; Schultsz, C.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietna...

  12. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain SA20-06, a fish pathogen associated to meningoencephalitis outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ulisses de Pádua; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Guimarães, Luís Carlos; Silva de Almeida, Sintia; Diniz, Carlos Augusto Almeida; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Gomes Sá, Pablo; Amjad ALI; Bakhtiar, Syeda Marriam; Dorella, Fernanda Alves

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is the causative agent of meningoencephalitis in fish, mastitis in cows, and neonatal sepsis in humans. Meningoencephalitis is a major health problem for tilapia farming and is responsible for high economic losses worldwide. Despite its importance, the genomic characteristics and the main molecular mechanisms involved in virulence of S. agalactiae isolated from fish are still poorly understood. Here, we present the genomic features of the 1,8...

  13. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.

    OpenAIRE

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M. S.; LeVine, M.J.(Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973, USA)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

  14. Prevalência de Streptococcus suis sorotipo 2: discussão da literatura brasileira / Prevalence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: discussion of the Brazilian literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Taíssa Cook Siqueira, Soares; Antonio Carlos, Paes.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis é mundialmente considerado um dos patógenos de maior impacto sanitário e econômico na indústria suinícola. Dentre os sorotipos descritos como zoonóticos, o sorotipo 2 é o mais frequentemente isolado de animais e humanos doentes na maioria dos países. O estudo da epidemiologia das [...] infecções por S. suis no Brasil é importante para a implantação de medidas efetivas de controle. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma revisão crítica da literatura brasileira, com suporte da literatura mundial, abordando o diagnóstico do agente e sua prevalência em animais clinicamente doentes e portadores sadios, com destaque para a prevalência do sorotipo 2 no país. Abstract in english Streptococcus suis is considered worldwide as one of the pathogens of biggest health and economic impact in the swine industry. Among the serotypes described as zoonotic, serotype 2 is the most frequently isolated from diseased animals and humans in most countries. The study of the epidemiology of S [...] . suis infections in Brazil is important and may help in the development of effective control measures. The aim of this study was to conduct a critical review of Brazilian literature, with support of the world literature, addressing the diagnosis of the agent and its prevalence in clinically ill animals and healthy carriers, especially regarding to the prevalence of the serotype 2 in the country.

  15. Seeing Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Common Killer Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    Look around you. The diversity and complexity of life on earth is overwhelming and data continues to grow. In our desire to understand and explain everything scientifically from molecular evolution to supernovas we depend on visual representations. This paper investigates visual representations of the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae by use of ink, watercolours and computer graphics. We propose a novel artistic visual rendering of Streptococcus pneumoniae and ask what the value of these kind of representations are compared to traditional scientific data. We ask if drawings and computer-assisted representations can add to our scientific knowledge about this dangerous bacteria. Is there still a role for the scientific illustrator in the scientific process and synthesis of scientific knowledge?

  16. Galactose transport systems in Streptococcus lactis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Galactose-grown cells of Streptococcus lactis ML3 have the capacity to transport the growth sugar by two separate systems: (i) the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and (ii) an adenosine 5'-triphosphate-energized permease system. Proton-conducting uncouplers (tetrachlorosalicylanilide and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone) inhibited galactose uptake by the permease system, but had no effect on phosphotransferase activity. Inhibition and efflux experiments conduct...

  17. Natural transformation in Streptococcus gordonii biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Fatema

    2011-01-01

    Natural transformation is one of the three mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer by which bacteria are able to take up free DNA from the surrounding environment. In natural ecosystems, bacteria preferentially attach to surfaces, forming matrix-enclosed communities known as biofilm. Biofilm cells differ phenotypically and physiologically from their free-floating counterparts. Objective: To estimate transformation frequency in Streptococcus gordonii biofilm and compare that to transformation i...

  18. Phenotypic Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Development

    OpenAIRE

    Allegrucci, Magee; Hu, F.Z.; Shen, K.; Hayes, J.; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Post, J Christopher; Sauer, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most common pathogens associated with chronic otitis media with effusion, which has been hypothesized to be a biofilm disease. S. pneumoniae has been shown to form biofilms, however, little is known about the developmental process, the architecture, and the changes that occur upon biofilm development. In the current study we made use of a continuous-culture biofilm system to characterize biofilm development of 14 different S. pneumoniae strains representi...

  19. Streptococcus mutans, Caries and Simulation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Marika Björklund; Forssten, Sofia D.

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries and dental plaque are among the most common diseases worldwide, and are caused by a mixture of microorganisms and food debris. Specific types of acid-producing bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, colonize the dental surface and cause damage to the hard tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates e.g., sucrose and fructose. This paper reviews the link between S. mutans and caries, as well as different simulation models that are available for studying carie...

  20. Regulation of hexitol catabolism in Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Dills, S. S.; Seno, S.

    1983-01-01

    Regulation of hexitol catabolism was investigated in Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic human dental plaque bacterium. Induction of hexitol catabolic enzymes and phosphoenolpyruvate:hexitol phosphotransferase and hexitol phosphate dehydrogenase activities was regulated by an inducer exclusion mechanism initiated by D-glucose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Kinetic analysis of the inhibitory effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on initial hexitol uptake illustrated that this was a noncompetitive type of inhibit...

  1. Genetic regulation of fructosyltransferase in Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiska, D L; Macrina, F L

    1994-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans possesses several extracellular sucrose-metabolizing enzymes which have been implicated as important virulence factors in dental caries. This study was initiated to investigate the genetic regulation of one of these enzymes, the extracellular fructosyltransferase (Ftf). Fusions were constructed with the region upstream of the S. mutans GS5 Ftf gene (ftf) and a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. The fusions were integrated at a remote site in the ch...

  2. Functional amyloid formation by Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Oli, M. W.; Otoo, H. N.; Crowley, P. J.; Heim, K. P.; Nascimento, M. M.; Ramsook, C. B.; Lipke, P. N.; Brady, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a common infectious disease associated with acidogenic and aciduric bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. Organisms that cause cavities form recalcitrant biofilms, generate acids from dietary sugars and tolerate acid end products. It has recently been recognized that micro-organisms can produce functional amyloids that are integral to biofilm development. We now show that the S. mutans cell-surface-localized adhesin P1 (antigen I/II, PAc) is an amyloid-forming protein. Th...

  3. Acid tolerance mechanisms utilized by Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Robert; Cvitkovitch, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1924 by J Clarke, Streptococcus mutans has been the focus of rigorous research efforts due to its involvement in caries initiation and progression. Its ability to ferment a range of dietary carbohydrates can rapidly drop the external environmental pH, thereby making dental plaque inhabitable to many competing species and can ultimately lead to tooth decay. Acid production by this oral pathogen would prove suicidal if not for its remarkable ability to withstand the acid ...

  4. Characterization of the Functional Domains of the SloR Metalloregulatory Protein in Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Haswell, Jeffrey R.; Pruitt, Benjamin W.; Cornacchione, Louis P.; Coe, Christopher L.; Smith, Evan G.; Spatafora, Grace A.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a commensal member of the healthy plaque biofilm and the primary causative agent of dental caries. The present study is an investigation of SloR, a 25-kDa metalloregulatory protein that modulates genes responsible for S. mutans-induced cariogenesis. Previous studies of SloR homologues in other bacterial pathogens have identified three domains critical to repressor functionality: an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, a central dimerization domain, and a C-terminal FeoA (pre...

  5. DETERMINACION DE LA PORTACION DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B EN EMBARAZADAS DURANTE EL TERCER TRIMESTRE MEDIANTE INMUNOENSAYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abarzúa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B es una enfermedad de alta letalidad, y considerando además que la portación de este germen en nuestra población de embarazadas se acerca a 20%, es que, resulta muy importante disponer de algún test rápido y confiable para realizar screening. Este estudio evalúa el rendimiento de un inmunoensayo para pesquisa de Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas sin factores de riesgo y a fines del tercer trimestre. Los resultados muestran una baja sensibilidad y un bajo valor predictivo positivo para este método, lo que no lo hace recomendable para su implementación clínicaNeonatal sepsis of early onset by group B Streptococcus has a high mortality rate. Twenty percent of our pregnant population have vaginal colonization by this bacterial agent, so clinical practice require a fast and efficient screening test. This report checks a Group B Streptococcus immunoassay screening test in the last trimester for pregnant women without risk factors. The low sensitivity and low positive predictive value of the test make it not recomendable for clinical practice

  6. Infection caused by vancomycin-resistant Streptococcus sanguis II.

    OpenAIRE

    Shlaes, D. M.; Marino, J.; Jacobs, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    A patient with bacteremia caused by vancomycin-resistant Streptococcus sanguis II is presented. This rare occurrence suggests that vancomycin may not be a completely reliable antibiotic in the treatment of infections due to viridans species of the genus Streptococcus. Gram-positive isolates from blood and otherwise sterile body fluids should be tested for susceptibility to vancomycin.

  7. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  8. Sepsis neonatal tardía por Streptococcus pyogenes / Late neonatal sepsis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mercedes, Fariñas Salto; Aída, De la Huerga López; Cristina, Menéndez Hernando; Ester Sanz, López.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, Streptococcus grupo A es una causa infrecuente de infección en el período neonatal. La descripción de casos de infección grave en el recién nacido es esporádica. Presentamos un recién nacido de 12 días de vida que acudió al servicio de urgencias por síndrome febril sin foco, que durante [...] su ingreso desarrolló afectación neurológica y sistémica. Describimos la presentación clínica, la evolución y el tratamiento. El aislamiento de Streptococcus grupo A en el hemocultivo confrma la sepsis tardía por este germen con probable meningitis asociada. Abstract in english Currently, the group A Streptococcus is a unusual cause of infection in the neonatal period. The description of cases of severe infection in the newborn is sporadic. We present a 12-days-old newborn attended at the emergency room for fever without focus, which developed neurological and systemic inv [...] olvement during admission. Clinical presentation, evolution and treatment are described. Blood culture isolation of group A Streptococcus confrmed late sepsis by this bacteria, probably with associated meningitis.

  9. Biofilm Formation Avoids Complement Immunity and Phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Mirian; Ramos-Sevillano, Elisa; García, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent member of the microbiota of the human nasopharynx. Colonization of the nasopharyngeal tract is a first and necessary step in the infectious process and often involves the formation of sessile microbial communities by this human pathogen. The ability to grow and persist as biofilms is an advantage for many microorganisms, because biofilm-grown bacteria show reduced susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and hinder recognition by the immune system. The extent of host protection against biofilm-related pneumococcal disease has not been determined yet. Using pneumococcal strains growing as planktonic cultures or as biofilms, we have investigated the recognition of S. pneumoniae by the complement system and its interactions with human neutrophils. Deposition of C3b, the key complement component, was impaired on S. pneumoniae biofilms. In addition, binding of C-reactive protein and the complement component C1q to the pneumococcal surface was reduced in biofilm bacteria, demonstrating that pneumococcal biofilms avoid the activation of the classical complement pathway. In addition, recruitment of factor H, the downregulator of the alternative pathway, was enhanced by S. pneumoniae growing as biofilms. Our results also show that biofilm formation diverts the alternative complement pathway activation by a PspC-mediated mechanism. Furthermore, phagocytosis of pneumococcal biofilms was also impaired. The present study confirms that biofilm formation in S. pneumoniae is an efficient means of evading both the classical and the PspC-dependent alternative complement pathways the host immune system. PMID:23649097

  10. Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Mussi, Maria Carolina Martins; Fiorini, João Evangelista; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo; Schneedorf, José Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis against the cariogenic microorganism, Streptococcus mutans. For such purpose, a minimum inhibition concentration test of copaiba oil against S. mutans was performed, using the serial dilution in broth technique, with a negative control, a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine) and a 10% copaíba oil solution as a test. A minimum bactericidal concentration test with tubes presenting microbial inhibition was also conduced. In the minimum inhibitory concentration test, copaiba oil showed inhibition of bacterial growth at all concentrations tested up to 0.78 µL/mL of the 10% copaiba oil solution in the broth. In addition, the negative control had no inhibition, and the 0.12% chlorhexidine solution was effective up to 6.25 µL/mL in the broth. Copaiba oil showed a bacteriostatic activity against S. mutans at low concentrations, and could be a an option of phytotherapic agent to be used against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention of caries disease. PMID:22460312

  11. Prueba rápida para detección de Streptococcus pyogenes en faringoamigdalitis / Rapid test for detection of Streptococcus pyogenes in pharyngitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iván, Peñaranda Pérez; Miguel, Peñaranda Laura.

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus pyogenes es el agente más importante y frecuente de faringoamigdalitis bacteriana y por sus complicaciones asociadas, es importante su tratamiento específico, y por ello es necesario contar con pruebas rápidas y confiables para su identificación. Actualmente contamos con la "prueba [...] rápida" de su detección en exudado faríngeo, que se realiza en forma expedita en el consultorio. Estudiamos 16 pacientes con la sospecha de infección estreptocócica con esta prueba y en 62% fue positiva y confirmada por cultivos. Esta prueba puede resultar muy útil en la consulta ambulatoria y cuando no se cuenta con laboratorios cercanos. Abstract in english Streptococcal infection of the pharynges and tonsils is one of the more frequent causes of pediatric consultation and it is very important the rapid identification and treatment of the disease, to avoid the severe associated complications. We have done the "rapid strept test" in 16 suspected patient [...] s and found 62% of positive results, confirmed by cultures. This is an easy and rapid test for pediatric patients seen in remote areas.

  12. Cloning of chromosomal genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Stassi, D L; Lopez, P.; Espinosa, M; Lacks, S A

    1981-01-01

    A system for molecular cloning in Streptococcus pneumoniae was developed. The multicopy plasmids pMV158 (5.4 kilobases) and pLS1 (4.3 kilobases), which confer tetracycline resistance, were used as vectors to clone chromosomal genes of S. pneumoniae in host cells of this species. A 3.3-kilobase restriction fragment containing the malM gene, which codes for amylomaltase, was cloned in a deletion mutant lacking chromosomal homology with the fragment. The recombinant plasmid pLS70, could transfor...

  13. Streptococcus pyogenes cervical intertrigo with secondary bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Corominas, Victoria; Yagüe, Francisca; Knöpfel, Nicole; Dueñas, Joaquín; Gil, José; Martín-Santiago, Ana; Hervás, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    We report a 12-month-old infant girl with cervical intertrigo caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. This form of intertrigo has been reported in only five children, but it is clearly underestimated. It should be suspected for well-demarcated beefy-red lesions of the neck not responding to antifungal therapy. A rapid streptococcal antigen test of a lesion specimen is a useful diagnostic tool. Our patient was notable for the development of S. pyogenes bacteremia, a complication that has not been previously associated with this condition. PMID:24456009

  14. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki? Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of the confirmed necrotizing fasciitis caused by Group A Streptococcus in Yugoslavia was presented. Male patient, aged 28, in good health, suddenly developed symptoms and signs of severe infective syndrome and intensive pain in the axillary region. Parenteral antibiotic, substitution and supportive therapy was conducted along with the radical surgical excision of the necrotizing tissue. The patient did not develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome thanks to the early established diagnosis and timely applied aggressive treatment. He was released from the hospital as completely cured two months after the admission.

  15. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosyntheti...

  16. Update on Streptococcus equi subsp equi infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallicote, Martha

    2015-04-01

    There are few diseases that ignite as much fervor among horse owners as strangles. Streptococcus equi subsp equi (strangles) infections frequently require the treating veterinarian to manage not only the clinical cases but also the biosecurity and provision of information to all involved parties. Although the disease is typically characterized by low mortality and high morbidity, restrictions of horse movement that result from appropriate quarantine procedures often frustrate the involved parties. The aims of this article are to provide clinically relevant information for diagnosis, treatment, and biosecurity management of strangles infection. PMID:25600455

  17. Recombinant production of Streptococcus equisimilis streptokinase by Streptomyces lividans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallín Carlos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptokinase (SK is a potent plasminogen activator with widespread clinical use as a thrombolytic agent. It is naturally secreted by several strains of beta-haemolytic streptococci. The low yields obtained in SK production, lack of developed gene transfer methodology and the pathogenesis of its natural host have been the principal reasons to search for a recombinant source for this important therapeutic protein. We report here the expression and secretion of SK by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces lividans. The structural gene encoding SK was fused to the Streptomyces venezuelae CBS762.70 subtilisin inhibitor (vsi signal sequence or to the Streptomyces lividans xylanase C (xlnC signal sequence. The native Vsi protein is translocated via the Sec pathway while the native XlnC protein uses the twin-arginine translocation (Tat pathway. Results SK yield in the spent culture medium of S. lividans was higher when the Sec-dependent signal peptide mediates the SK translocation. Using a 1.5 L fermentor, the secretory production of the Vsi-SK fusion protein reached up to 15 mg SK/l. SK was partially purified from the culture supernatant by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. A 44-kDa degradation product co-eluted with the 47-kDa mature SK. The first amino acid residues of the S. lividans-produced SK were identical with those of the expected N-terminal sequence. The Vsi signal peptide was thus correctly cleaved off and the N-terminus of mature Vsi-SK fusion protein released by S. lividans remained intact. This result also implicates that the processing of the recombinant SK secreted by Streptomyces probably occurred at its C-terminal end, as in its native host Streptococcus equisimilis. The specific activity of the partially purified Streptomyces-derived SK was determined at 2661 IU/mg protein. Conclusion Heterologous expression of Streptococcus equisimilis ATCC9542 skc-2 in Streptomyces lividans was successfully achieved. SK can be translocated via both the Sec and the Tat pathway in S. lividans, but yield was about 30 times higher when the SK was fused to the Sec-dependent Vsi signal peptide compared to the fusion with the Tat-dependent signal peptide of S. lividans xylanase C. Small-scale fermentation led to a fourfold improvement of secretory SK yield in S. lividans compared to lab-scale conditions. The partially purified SK showed biological activity. Streptomyces lividans was shown to be a valuable host for the production of a world-wide important, biopharmaceutical product in a bio-active form.

  18. Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio Alessandro, Pieri; Maria Carolina Martins, Mussi; João Evangelista, Fiorini; Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo, Moreira; José Mauricio, Schneedorf.

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a atividade inibitória do óleo de copaíba (Copaifera officinalis contra o microrganismo cariogênico, Streptococcus mutans. Para isso, foi realizado um teste de concentração mínima inibitória do óleo de copaíba contra S. mutans, utilizando a técnica de diluição seriada em caldo, c [...] om um controle negativo, um controle positivo (clorexidina a 0,12%) e uma solução de óleo de copaíba 10% como teste. Também foi conduzido um teste de concentração mínima bactericida com os tubos que apresentaram inibição microbiana. No teste de concentração inibitória mínima, o óleo de copaíba mostrou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em todas as concentrações testadas até 0,78 µL/mL da solução a 10% do óleo de copaíba no caldo. Além disso, o controle negativo não teve nenhuma inibição, e a solução de clorexidina 0,12% foi eficaz até 6,25 µL/mL no caldo. O óleo de copaíba mostrou uma atividade bacteriostática contra S. mutans em baixas concentrações, apresentando-se assim como uma opção de fitoterápico a ser utilizado contra bactérias cariogênicas na prevenção de cáries. Abstract in english This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis against the cariogenic microorganism, Streptococcus mutans. For such purpose, a minimum inhibition concentration test of copaiba oil against S. mutans was performed, using the serial dilution in broth technique, with [...] a negative control, a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine) and a 10% copaíba oil solution as a test. A minimum bactericidal concentration test with tubes presenting microbial inhibition was also conduced. In the minimum inhibitory concentration test, copaiba oil showed inhibition of bacterial growth at all concentrations tested up to 0.78 µL/mL of the 10% copaiba oil solution in the broth. In addition, the negative control had no inhibition, and the 0.12% chlorhexidine solution was effective up to 6.25 µL/mL in the broth. Copaiba oil showed a bacteriostatic activity against S. mutans at low concentrations, and could be a an option of phytotherapic agent to be used against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention of caries disease.

  19. The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial photodynamic therapy: a comparison of two different photosensitizers and light sources

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neda, HAKIMIHA; Farzaneh, KHOEI; Abbas, BAHADOR; Reza, FEKRAZAD.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is the main etiological agent for dental caries. Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced as a new modality in bacterial decontamination. Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial PDT [...] using two different photosensitizers and light sources. Material and Methods: Standard suspensions of S. mutans were exposed to laser light at 662 nm and Radachlorin® or LED 630 nm in combination with Toluidine blue O (TBO). Radiation-only groups, photosensitizer alone, and groups with no treatment were used as controls. Bacterial suspension from each treatment was subcultured onto the surface of Mueller-Hinton agar plates and bacterial growth was assessed. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p

  20. Acción de la inmunoglobulina A secretora en el proceso de adherencia del Streptococcus mutans al diente humano / Effect of secretory IgA on the adherence of Streptococcus Mutans on human teeth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Lucía, Chamorro-Jiménez; Andrea, Ospina-Cataño; Camilo, Arango-Rincón; Cecilia María, Martínez-Delgado.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La caries dental, es una enfermedad infecciosa crónica que afecta a todas las edades, en la cual la presencia de Streptococcus mutans se constituye en una causa determinante más no suficiente para el desarrollo de dicha enfermedad, siendo éste el microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado en la cavid [...] ad oral. La Inmunoglobulina A secretora actúa como primer agente de defensa inmunológica de la superficie de la mucosa oral interfiriendo en la colonización bacteriana del diente a través de distintos mecanismos, sin embargo existen evidencias contradictorias sobre el verdadero papel en el desarrollo de la caries dental. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en explicar mediante revisión bibliográfica desde 1990 hasta el 2009, la acción de la inmunoglobulina A secretora en el proceso de adherencia de Streptococcus mutans al diente humano. Abstract in english Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease that affects all age groups in which the presence of Streptococcus mutans constitutes a decisive but not sufficient cause for development of the disease, and is the most frequently isolated organism in the oral cavity. On other hand, secretory IgA (IgA-S [...] ) as the first immune defense agent that protects oral mucosal surface by impeding bacterial colonization of the tooth through different mechanisms; however there is contradictory evidence regarding the actual role of IgA-S and its relation with the development of dental caries. The purpose was to complete a review of the literature between 1990 to 2008o in order to explain the action of secretory immunoglobulin A during the adherence process of Streptococcus mutans to human teeth.

  1. Erythromycine resistance in streptococcus pyogenes group a throat isolates in sukkur city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine and evaluate the predominant and common etiologic agent(s) of pharyngitis in Sukkur city and to determine their current antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends. Out of 257 throat samples, 149 positive for Streptococcus pyogenes Group A between November 2001 and May 2003 from adult population of Sukkur city were tested for their susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin and clairithromycin. The throat samples (swabs) were examined by Gram-stain, API system, and for presence of a hemolysis. Samples were further cultured on Muller Hinton agar for determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The sensitivity was performed on only those samples which were positive for S. pyogenes. Of all throat isolates, 95% were predominantly resistant to erythromycin. Their sensitivity towards clindamycin was 30%, azithromycin 44% and clairithromycin 76% respectively. The current pharyngeal isolates of S. pyogenes exhibited frequent and alarmingly high erythromycin resistance which may be due to both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms. (author)

  2. Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica y Streptococcus suis EN EL COMPLEJO RESPIRATORIO PORCINO / Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica AND Streptococcus suis IN THE PORCINE RESPIRATORY COMPLEX

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivette, Espinosa; Siomara, Martínez.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El complejo respiratorio porcino (CRP) es un proceso dinámico que involucra una variedad de factores e incluye las condiciones ambientales, el hospedero y las diferentes interacciones microbianas que se establecen entre los microorganismos primarios como Mycoplasma hyoneumoniae o el virus del síndro [...] me respiratorio-reproductivo porcino y bacterias secundarias como Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica o Streptococcus suis. La mayoría de estas entidades corresponden a géneros y especies que pueden formar parte de la microbiota normal del tracto respiratorio, pero la capacidad patógena de las cepas reside fundamentalmente en la presencia y expresión de genes asociados a la virulencia, que en muchos casos se adquieren por transferencia horizontal, por lo que existen diferentes genotipos y es necesario el monitoreo mediante pruebas sensibles. El propósito de esta revisión es ampliar el conocimiento sobre los atributos de virulencia de las bacterias que actúan como agentes secundarios en el CRP. Al considerar la complejidad del mismo el mejor método de control radica en la prevención, en este sentido los programas vacunales priorizan a los agentes primarios, pero es necesario disponer de ensayos de monitoreo que permitan vigilar la presencia y potencialidades patógenas de las bacterias que incrementan la severidad de los procesos respiratorios actuando como agentes secundarios. Abstract in english The porcine respiratory complex is the denomination for multiple changes and lesions that result in a decreased respiratory capacity of affected pigs. It is a dynamic process which involves different factors such as environment, host and different microbial interactions between primary agents like M [...] ycoplasma hypneumoniae or the porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus with Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica or Streptococcus suis which act as secondary pathogens and increase the severity of the disease. These entities correspond to genera and species being part of the normal flora and the pathogenic capacity lies on different genes which are acquired by horizontal transfer, thus there are different genotypes associated or not to the pathogen. The aim of this article is to make an analysis about bacteria virulence attributes which act as secondary pathogens in the respiratory disease in pigs. It is important to consider the management and control of the farm based on biosecurity and it is necessary to have different diagnostic methods for testing bacteria virulence attributes that act as secondary agents, because nowadays vaccination program are directed to primary agents.

  3. Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis / Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raisa, Bu-Coifiu Fanego; Alberto J., Dorta-Contreras; Bárbara, Padilla-Docal; Martha, O' Farril-Sanchez; Isabel, Lopez-Hernandez.

    1023-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existe un incremento de la meningoencefalitis producida por Streptococcus pneumoniae, después de las campañas exitosas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las caracteristicas clinicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio, [...] las complicaciones y el manejo terapéutico de los pacientes que sufrieron esta enfermedad desde 1993 a 2006. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron doce niños con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana en este periodo. RESULTADOS: Los niños menores de un año son los más frecuentemente afectados. El shock séptico y el edema cerebral las mayores complicaciones. Tres pacientes fallecieron. Esta enfermedad ha tenido un curso serio. El tratamiento temprano del edema cerebral es muy importante para reducir la mortalidad. Los medicamentos de elección para tratar la meningoencefalitis por Strepcococcus pneumoniae en los casos estudiados fueron la vancomicina combinada con cefalosporina del tipo de la cefatoxima o la ceftriaxona. CONCLUSION: Los pacientes con meningoencefalitis por Streptoccocus pneumoniae exhibieron características clínica, complicaciones y secuelas las cuales se diferencian de otras meningoencefalitis bacterianas. Por eso estos elementos pueden ayudar a los médicos en el diagnóstico diferencial Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the [...] complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis admitted to the pediatric hospital of San Miguel del Padron, City of Havana in this period were assessed. RESULTS: Children under one year are the most frequently affected. Septic shock and brain edema were the most severe complications. Three patients died, implying that this disease has a serious course. Early treatment of brain edema is very important to reduce mortality. The elective drugs for treatment of these cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were vancomycin combined with cephalosporin, cefotaxime or ceftriaxone type. CONCLUSION: Patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis show clinical characteristics, complications, and sequels that are different to other bacterial meningoencephalitis, meaning that they could be helpful for physicians considering the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis.

  4. Diverse virulent pneumophages infect Streptococcus mitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouennane, Siham; Leprohon, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mitis has emerged as one of the leading causes of bacterial endocarditis and is related to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance has also increased among strains of S. mitis and S. pneumoniae. Phages are being reinvestigated as alternatives to antibiotics for managing infections. In this study, the two virulent phages Cp-1 (Podoviridae) and Dp-1 (Siphoviridae), previously isolated from S. pneumoniae, were found to also infect S. mitis. Microbiological assays showed that both pneumophages could not only replicate in S. mitis but also produced more visible plaques on this host. However, the burst size and phage adsorption data were lower in S. mitis as compared to S. pneumoniae. A comparison of the genomes of each phage grown on both hosts produced identical nucleotide sequences, confirming that the same phages infect both bacterial species. We also discovered that the genomic sequence of podophage Cp-1 of the Félix d'Hérelle collection is different than the previously reported sequence and thus renamed SOCP. PMID:25692983

  5. Detection of Streptococcus pyogenes by Use of Illumigene Group A Streptococcus Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Henson, Amanda M.; Carter, Donna; Todd, Kathleen; Shulman, Stanford T; Zheng, Xiaotian

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the Illumigene group A Streptococcus assay was evaluated by comparing it to culture using 437 consecutive throat swabs. The Illumigene assay was also directly compared to PCR with 161 samples. This Illumigene assay is rapid and easy to perform. The assay also has high sensitivity (100%) compared to culture or PCR and high specificity (99.2%) compared to PCR. A total of 8.8% of the isolates were erythromycin resistant, and 6.9% were clindamycin resistant.

  6. Galactose fermentation by Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris: pathways, products, and regulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, T. D.; Turner, K. W.; Crow, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    All of the lactic streptococci examined except Streptococcus lactis ML8 fermented galactose to lactate, formate, acetate, and ethanol. The levels of pyruvate-formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated and reduced, respectively, in galactose-grown cells compared with glucose- or lactose-grown cells. Reduced intracellular levels of both the lactate dehydrogenase activator (fructose, 1,6-diphosphate) and pyruvate-formate lyase inhibitors (triose phosphates) appeared to be the main fac...

  7. Isolation and characterization of unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Altabe, Silvia; López, Paloma; de Mendoza, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis is essential for the maintenance of membrane structure and function in many groups of anaerobic bacteria. Like Escherichia coli, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae produces straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids. In E. coli UFA synthesis requires the action of two gene products, the essential isomerase/dehydratase encoded by fabA and an elongation condensing enzyme encoded by fabB. S. pneumoniae lacks both ...

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Auxotrophs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans?

    OpenAIRE

    Altabe, Silvia; Lopez, Paloma; de Mendoza, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis is essential for the maintenance of membrane structure and function in many groups of anaerobic bacteria. Like Escherichia coli, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae produces straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids. In E. coli UFA synthesis requires the action of two gene products, the essential isomerase/dehydratase encoded by fabA and an elongation condensing enzyme encoded by fabB. S. pneumoniae lacks both ...

  9. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA?

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Ayako; FURUKAWA, Soichi; Fujita, Shuhei; Mitobe, Jiro; Kawarai, Taketo; Narisawa, Naoki; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; OGIHARA, Hirokazu; Kosono, Saori; Yoneda, Saori; Watanabe, Haruo; MORINAGA, Yasushi; Uematsu, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus m...

  10. Purification and characterization of Streptococcus adjacens (nutritionally variant Streptococcus serotype II) group antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Sieling, P A; van de Rijn, I

    1991-01-01

    Nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) possess amphiphiles which are serologically distinct from lipoteichoic acid and which serve as group-specific antigens for NVS. The objective of this study was to purify and characterize the NVS serotype II (Streptococcus adjacens) amphiphile. Amphiphile was isolated from stationary-phase culture supernatants of NVS strain 81 (NVS serotype II). Phenol-water extracts of culture supernatants were subjected to hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ge...

  11. Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered specific for S. pneumoniae hamper the exact identification of S. pneumoniae. Based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes of a collection of 634 streptococcal strains, identified by multilocus sequence analysis, we detected a cytosine at position 203 present in all 440 strains of S. pneumoniae but replaced by an adenosine residue in all strains representing other species of mitis group streptococci. The S. pneumoniae-specific sequence signature could be demonstrated by sequence analysis or indirectly by restriction endonuclease digestion of a PCR amplicon covering the site. The S. pneumoniae-specific signature offers an inexpensive means for validation of the identity of clinical isolates and should be used as an integrated marker in the annotation procedure employed in 16S rRNA-based molecular studies of complex human microbiotas. This may avoid frequent misidentifications such as those we demonstrate to have occurred in previous reports and in reference sequence databases.

  12. Molecular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic variability among Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from fish was characterized using single-stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) analysis of the intergenic spacer region (ISR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. A total of 49 S. agalactiae ...

  13. Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Vincent P.; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Town, Christopher D.; Burne, Robert A.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolu...

  14. Adhesion-related interactions of Actinomyces and Streptococcus biofilm bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Drobni, Mirva

    2006-01-01

    Adhesion of bacteria is a key event in biofilm formation and is mediated by bacterial adhesins recognising host or bacterial partner receptors. In oral biofilm formation, primary Actinomyces and Streptococcus colonizers adhere to salivary pellicle proteins such as proline-rich proteins (PRPs) as well as to mucosal surfaces. Subsequently, Actinomyces and Streptococcus strains and other bacteria, such as Veillonella, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas, adhere to each other. The nature of this comm...

  15. Phosphate/hexose 6-phosphate antiport in Streptococcus lactis.

    OpenAIRE

    Maloney, P. C.; Ambudkar, S. V.; Thomas, J.; Schiller, L.

    1984-01-01

    After growth in appropriate media, resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 7962 showed a rapid exchange between external and internal pools of inorganic phosphate. This exchange was not found in other strains of S. lactis (ML3, 133, or K1) or in Streptococcus faecalis. Phosphate exchange in S. lactis 7962 did not require other anions or cations in the assay medium, nor was phosphate influx affected by the membrane potential and pH gradient formed during glycolysis. Thus, the exchange reaction w...

  16. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Delgadillo R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo1, Donaji Velasco-Arias2, David Diaz2, Katiushka Arevalo-Niño1, Marianela Garza-Enriquez1, Myriam A De la Garza-Ramos1, Claudio Cabral-Romero11Instituto de Biotecnologia, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, CIDICS, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 2Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, MexicoBackground and methods: Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities.Results: Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM.Conclusion: These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation.Keywords: zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles, antimicrobial agent, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yashuan; Marks, Laura R.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over one million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease is not yet clear. Pneumococci in biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and this phenotype can be recapitulated when pneumococci are grown on respiratory epithelial cells under conditions found in the nasopharyngeal environment. Pneumococcal biofilms display lower levels of virulence in vivo and provide an optimal environment for increased genetic exchange both in vitro and in vivo, with increased natural transformation seen during co-colonization with multiple strains. Biofilms have also been detected on mucosal surfaces during pneumonia and middle ear infection, although the role of these biofilms in the disease process is debated. Recent studies have shown that changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by concomitant virus infection, changes in the microflora, inflammation, or other host assaults trigger active release of pneumococci from biofilms. These dispersed bacteria have distinct phenotypic properties and transcriptional profiles different from both biofilm and broth-grown, planktonic bacteria, resulting in a significantly increased virulence in vivo. In this review we discuss the properties of pneumococcal biofilms, the role of biofilm formation during pneumococcal colonization, including their propensity for increased ability to exchange genetic material, as well as mechanisms involved in transition from asymptomatic biofilm colonization to dissemination and disease of otherwise sterile sites. Greater understanding of pneumococcal biofilm formation and dispersion will elucidate novel avenues to interfere with the spread of antibiotic resistance and vaccine escape, as well as novel strategies to target the mechanisms involved in induction of pneumococcal disease. PMID:25629011

  18. Cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans Glucan-Binding Protein Deletion Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David J; Michalek, Suzanne M; Zhu, Min; Drake, David; Qian, Fang; Banas, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a principal etiologic agent in the development of dental caries due to its exceptional aciduric and acidogenic properties, and its ability to adhere and accumulate in large numbers on tooth surfaces in the presence of sucrose. Sucrose-dependent adherence is mediated by glucans, polymers of glucose synthesized from sucrose by glucosyltransferase (Gtf) enzymes. S. mutans makes several proteins that have the property of binding glucans. We hypothesized that three of these glucan-binding proteins (Gbps), Gbps A, C and D, contribute to the cariogenicity of S. mutans. A specific pathogen-free rat model was used to compare the cariogenicity of S. mutans UA130 and a panel of mutants with individual or multiple gbp gene deletions. The mutants were also evaluated in vitro for properties related to cariogenicity, such as acidogenicity, aciduricity, and adhesion to glucan. Only a subset of Gbp mutants were attenuated for cariogenicity, with the combined loss of Gbps A and C most affecting smooth surface caries. The attenuation of Gbp mutant strains was unlikely due to differences in acid-related properties since the mutants were at least as acidogenic and acid-tolerant as the parental strain. Additionally, loss of Gbps did not reduce adhesion to a pre-formed biofilm of S. sanguinis. Analyses of the caries data with in vitro biofilm properties previously determined for the mutant panel found correlations between cariogenicity and biofilm depth and substratum coverage. It is concluded that Gbps contribute to the cariogenicity of S. mutans through a mechanism that may involve alteration of biofilm architecture. PMID:24390015

  19. Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Sierra- Fernandez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias siendo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño. Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente.The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children’s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pneumoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution in Costa Rica, the predicted vaccine protection is calculated in 74%.

  20. Binding forces of Streptococcus mutans P1 adhesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullan, Ruby May A; Li, James K; Crowley, Paula J; Brady, L Jeannine; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2015-02-24

    Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive oral bacterium that is a primary etiological agent associated with human dental caries. In the oral cavity, S. mutans adheres to immobilized salivary agglutinin (SAG) contained within the salivary pellicle on the tooth surface. Binding to SAG is mediated by cell surface P1, a multifunctional adhesin that is also capable of interacting with extracellular matrix proteins. This may be of particular importance outside of the oral cavity as S. mutans has been associated with infective endocarditis and detected in atherosclerotic plaque. Despite the biomedical importance of P1, its binding mechanisms are not completely understood. In this work, we use atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule and single-cell force spectroscopy to quantify the nanoscale forces driving P1-mediated adhesion. Single-molecule experiments show that full-length P1, as well as fragments containing only the P1 globular head or C-terminal region, binds to SAG with relatively weak forces (?50 pN). In contrast, single-cell analyses reveal that adhesion of a single S. mutans cell to SAG is mediated by strong (?500 pN) and long-range (up to 6000 nm) forces. This is likely due to the binding of multiple P1 adhesins to self-associated gp340 glycoproteins. Such a cooperative, long-range character of the S. mutans-SAG interaction would therefore dramatically increase the strength and duration of cell adhesion. We also demonstrate, at single-molecule and single-cell levels, the interaction of P1 with fibronectin and collagen, as well as with hydrophobic, but not hydrophilic, substrates. The binding mechanism (strong forces, cooperativity, broad specificity) of P1 provides a molecular basis for its multifunctional adhesion properties. Our methodology represents a valuable approach to probe the binding forces of bacterial adhesins and offers a tractable methodology to assess anti-adhesion therapy. PMID:25671413

  1. Increased rate of isolation of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a children's hospital and in vitro susceptibilities to antibiotics of potential therapeutic use.

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, E. O.; Kaplan, S. L.; Lamberth, L. B.; Tillman, J.

    1992-01-01

    The isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae with both high and intermediate resistance to penicillin has increased in our institution since 1989 to an average of 12.1% of all isolates. We determined the susceptibilities of 95 isolates (34 susceptible to penicillin, 42 intermediate in resistance to penicillin, and 19 resistant to penicillin) to 16 antimicrobial agents of potential use in the treatment of disease caused by S. pneumoniae. Susceptibility to penicillin was determined by broth macrod...

  2. Frequent detection of Streptococcus tigurinus in the human oral microbial flora by a specific 16S rRNA gene real-time TaqMan PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Zbinden, Andrea; Aras, Fatma; Zbinden, Reinhard; Mouttet, Forouhar; Schmidlin, Patrick R.; Bloemberg, Guido V.; Bostanci, Nagihan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many bacteria causing systemic invasive infections originate from the oral cavity by entering the bloodstream. Recently, a novel pathogenic bacterium, Streptococcus tigurinus, was identified as causative agent of infective endocarditis, spondylodiscitis and meningitis. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of S. tigurinus in the human oral microbial flora and analyzed its association with periodontal disease or health. Results: We developed a diagnostic highly se...

  3. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos, Leticia; Christian L Herrera; Montenegro, Gloria; Ortega, Ximena; Veloz, Jorge; Alvear, Marysol; Cuevas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Nicolás; Luis A Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from t...

  4. Características laboratoriais das ceratites e conjuntivites causadas por Streptococcus sp Laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Parente Solari; Luciene Barbosa de Sousa; Denise de Freitas; Maria Cecília Zorat Yu; Ana Luisa Höfling - Lima

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Analisar os resultados laboratoriais de conjuntivites e ceratites com cultura positiva para Streptococcus sp, avaliando a incidência das diferentes espécies e os dados dos antibiogramas. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuários de pacientes encaminhados ao laboratório de Doenças Externas do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP com resultado de cultivo bacteriano positivo de córnea ou conjuntiva e com identificação de alguma cepa do gênero Streptococcus ...

  5. Differentiation of banding patterns between Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus isolates in rep-PCR using ERIC primer

    OpenAIRE

    Tamami Okada; Kazuko Takada; Kou Fujita; Takuji Ikemi; Osgood, Robert C.; Childers, Noel K.; Michalek, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are considered to be important bacterial species in the initiation of human dental caries. Therefore, the establishment of a reliable genotyping method to distinguish S. mutans from S. sobrinus is of central importance.We assessed the usefulness of repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) using ERIC primer banding patterns in differentiating S. mutans and S. sobrinus.Five S. mutans and two S. sobrinus prototype strai...

  6. Accuracy of Phenotypic and Genotypic Testing for Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Description of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Arbique, Judy C.; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-cuot, Patrick; Quesne, Gilles; Carvalho, Maria Da Glo?ria S.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Morey, Roger E.; Jackson, Delois; Davidson, Ross J.; Facklam, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    We have identified an unusual group of viridans group streptococci that resemble Streptococcus pneumoniae. DNA-DNA homology studies suggested that a subset of these isolates represent a novel species that may be included in the S. oralis-S. mitis group of viridans group streptococci. We suggest that this novel species be termed Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae. A combination of phenotypic and genetic reactions allows its identification. S. pseudopneumoniae strains do not have pneumococcal capsu...

  7. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  8. Eritrodermia con bacteriemia por Streptococcus dysgalactiae subespecie equisimilis en un paciente pediátrico: reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura / Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis bacteremic erythroderma in a pediatric patient: a case report and review of literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel A, Pantoja; Luis, Delpiano; Gia, Haquin.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por estreptococos piógenos, comunes en la edad pediátrica, muestran en los últimos años un aumento en la identificación de grupos no A o B. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años, con historia de fiebre de cinco días de evolución asociado a una lesión eritrodérmica con hemocultivo [...] s positivos a Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (confirmado por biología molecular-genotipificación). Recibió terapia antimicrobiana por 14 días con ß-lactámicos con una evolución favorable. Este estreptococo ß-hemolítico, presenta antígenos del grupo A, C y G de Lancefield y una gran similitud con Streptococcus pyogenes en relación a los factores de virulencia. Más frecuentemente aislado en adultos mayores, existen pocos casos descritos en población pediátrica. El tratamiento de primera línea es con ß-lactámicos, para los cuales no hay reportes de resistencia antimicrobiana. Abstract in english Infections caused by pyogenic streptococci are commons in pediatric ages. However, in the last decades there has been an increase in the isolation of no A or B Streptococci. We report a case of a 6 years old girl, who presents fever for 5 days and erythroderma. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies [...] equisimilis was isolated from blood cultures. She receives antibiotics for 14 days with ß-lactams with a good clinic evolution with normalization of the inflammatory parameters. This agent ß-hemolítico presents antigens of Lancefield groups A, C and G, and a great similitude regarding virulence factors, with Streptococcus pyogenes. Frequently in old patients, few reported cases in pediatric population. First line treatment remains ß-lactam antibiotics for which there are no reports of increasing resistance.

  9. Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Colombian children with pneumonia / Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aura Lucía, Leal; Elizabeth, Castañeda.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de la [...] s vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%). Se observó susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina en 19 aislamientos (17%), con sensibilidad intermedia en 12 (11%) y franca resistencia en 7 (6%). Solo 1 de los 19 aislamientos resistentes a penicilina mostró también resistencia a la ceftriaxona. Se observó sensibilidad disminuida a la eritromicina en 3 aislamientos (3%), al cloranfenicol en 6 (5%) y al cotrimoxazol (trimetoprima + sulfametoxazol) en 46 (40%). Se encontró multirresistencia en 7 aislamientos (6%). El serotipo con sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina que se halló con mayor frecuencia fue el 23F (68.4%). Se observó una asociación entre la edad, el uso previo de antibióticos y la colonización con S. pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina o multirresistencia. Este estudio confirma la presencia de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. pneumoniae en Colombia y resalta la importancia del uso racional de los antibióticos y de la implementación de la vigilancia epidemiológica sobre este agente. Abstract in english Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the principal causal agents of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children, and its resistance to antibiotics has increased worldwide. This study examined the patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics of S. pneumoniae that had colonized the upper respiratory trac [...] t of 272 children hospitalized for pneumonia in two hospitals in Santafé de Bogotá. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 114 patients (42%). Diminished susceptibility to penicillin was noted in 19 isolates (17%), with 12 (11%) having an intermediate level of sensitivity and 7 (6%) showing outright resistance. Only 1 of the 19 isolates resistant to penicillin also showed resistance to ceftriaxone. There was diminished sensitivity to erythromycin in 3 isolates (3%), to chloramphenicol in 6 (5%), and to co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole) in 46 (40%). Resistance to multiple drugs was found in 7 isolates (6%). The most commonly encountered penicillin-resistant serotype was 23F (68.4%). An association was observed between age, prior use of antibiotics, and colonization by S. pneumoniae with reduced penicillin sensitivity or multiple-drug resistance. This study confirmed the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae in Colombia and highlights the importance of the rational use of antibiotics and of the implementation of epidemiologic surveillance for this agent.

  10. In vitro biofilm forming potential of Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine in China

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guo, Dawei; Wang, Liping; Lu, Chengping.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of bio?lms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by confoca [...] l laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.

  11. ESTUDIO DE SENSIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE 183 CEPAS DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE AISLADAS EN REGION VAGINO-PERINEAL DE EMBARAZADAS EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Belmar J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available fluctúa entre 1 y 3 por 1000 recién nacidos vivos. Se han entregado pautas dirigidas a reducir las tasas de sepsis precoz con la administración de antibióticos intraparto. Se ha propuesto como antibiótico de primera elección la Penicilina o Ampicilina, y Clindamicina para pacientes alérgicos a las primeras, pero también se ha planteado el uso de Eritromicina o Cefazolina. Se estudia la sensibilidad a estas drogas, en 183 cepas de Streptococcus Grupo B, aisladas en 917 embarazadas, al final del tercer trimestre, en región vaginal y pStreptococcus agalactiae (Grupo B Streptococcus is the main bacterial agent involved in neonatal sepsis of early onset (1 to 3/1000 live newborns. Has been given standards for reducing the rates of neonatal sepsis of early onset using antibiotics during labor. Has been proposed as the first choice Penicilin or Ampicilin and Clindamicin for allergic patients. Erythromycin and Cefazolin has been proposed to treat this patients. This report study sensibilities for this drugs in 183 Group B Streptococcus strains from vaginal and perianal region of 917 pregnant women during the last trimester

  12. ESTUDIO DE SENSIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE 183 CEPAS DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE AISLADAS EN REGION VAGINO-PERINEAL DE EMBARAZADAS EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristián, Belmar J.; Fernando, Abarzúa C.; Jorge, Beker V.; Ana María, Guzmán; Patricia, García C.; Enrique, Oyarzún E..

    Full Text Available fluctúa entre 1 y 3 por 1000 recién nacidos vivos. Se han entregado pautas dirigidas a reducir las tasas de sepsis precoz con la administración de antibióticos intraparto. Se ha propuesto como antibiótico de primera elección la Penicilina o Ampicilina, y Clindamicina para pacientes alérgicos a las p [...] rimeras, pero también se ha planteado el uso de Eritromicina o Cefazolina. Se estudia la sensibilidad a estas drogas, en 183 cepas de Streptococcus Grupo B, aisladas en 917 embarazadas, al final del tercer trimestre, en región vaginal y p Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae (Grupo B Streptococcus) is the main bacterial agent involved in neonatal sepsis of early onset (1 to 3/1000 live newborns). Has been given standards for reducing the rates of neonatal sepsis of early onset using antibiotics during labor. Has been proposed as the first choice [...] Penicilin or Ampicilin and Clindamicin for allergic patients. Erythromycin and Cefazolin has been proposed to treat this patients. This report study sensibilities for this drugs in 183 Group B Streptococcus strains from vaginal and perianal region of 917 pregnant women during the last trimester

  13. Sensibilidad antibiótica y recomendaciones de tratamiento para Streptococcus pneumoniae / Antibiotic sensitivity and treatment recommendations for Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Gil-Setas; A., Mazón; L., Torroba; A., Barricarte; J.J., García-Irure; A., Petit; M.E., Polo.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la sensibilidad antibiótica de Streptococcus pneumoniae a los antimicrobianos usados con más frecuencia en la práctica clínica y revisar las recomendaciones actuales de tratamiento de la enfermedad neumocócica. Durante el periodo octubre 2000 a septiembre [...] 2002 se recogieron los datos demográficos, el diagnóstico clínico del paciente, el origen de la muestra y la sensibilidad antibiótica de todos los Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados en los laboratorios de microbiología del Servicio Navarro de Salud, que atienden a una población de 555.829 habitantes. Se obtuvieron 465 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae (166 de origen invasor). Los aislamientos procedentes de exudado ótico fueron los más resistentes y los de hemocultivo los más sensibles. El porcentaje de resistencia a penicilina fue del 43%, 6,1% para amoxicilina y 6,6% para cefotaxima. El 36,3% de los aislamientos fueron resistentes a eritromicina, de ellos un 85,45% exhibía un fenotipo MLS B y un 14,55% un fenotipo M. Se detectó multirresistencia en un 32,3% de los aislamientos. La resistencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae a betalactámicos, especialmente penicilina, amoxicilina y cefotaxima/ceftriaxona no impide su uso clínico en la mayoría de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae de nuestra área, exceptuando los casos de meningitis neumocócica. Abstract in english The aims of present paper were to determine the susceptibility of the strains to the most usual antibiotics in clinical practice and to review the current recomendations to guide the most appropiate treatment. During the period october 2000 to september 2002, the patient’s data (age and sex), source [...] of the sample, diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility were collected on Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from microbiology laboratories in the Navarra region (555.829 inhabitans). Four hundred and sixty five isolates were identified (166 from invasive infections). Generally, isolates from ear swabs were the most resistant to the antimicrobials tested, while those from blood culture were the most susceptible. Of the Streptococcus pneumoniae tested, 43% were resistant to penicillin, 6.1% to amoxicillin and 6.6% to cefotaxime. Of the 36.3% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that were resistant to erythromycin, 85.45% exhibited the MLS B phenotype while the remaining 14.55% presented with the M phenotype. Multiple-resistance was detected in 32.3% of the strains. The antibiotic resistance rates to beta-lactams (specially penicillin, amoxicillin and cefotaxime/ceftrixone) in Streptococcus pneumoniae don’t prevent its clinical use for the most of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in our area, except for pneumococcal meningitis.

  14. Sensibilidad antibiótica y recomendaciones de tratamiento para Streptococcus pneumoniae Antibiotic sensitivity and treatment recommendations for Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gil-Setas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la sensibilidad antibiótica de Streptococcus pneumoniae a los antimicrobianos usados con más frecuencia en la práctica clínica y revisar las recomendaciones actuales de tratamiento de la enfermedad neumocócica. Durante el periodo octubre 2000 a septiembre 2002 se recogieron los datos demográficos, el diagnóstico clínico del paciente, el origen de la muestra y la sensibilidad antibiótica de todos los Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados en los laboratorios de microbiología del Servicio Navarro de Salud, que atienden a una población de 555.829 habitantes. Se obtuvieron 465 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae (166 de origen invasor. Los aislamientos procedentes de exudado ótico fueron los más resistentes y los de hemocultivo los más sensibles. El porcentaje de resistencia a penicilina fue del 43%, 6,1% para amoxicilina y 6,6% para cefotaxima. El 36,3% de los aislamientos fueron resistentes a eritromicina, de ellos un 85,45% exhibía un fenotipo MLS B y un 14,55% un fenotipo M. Se detectó multirresistencia en un 32,3% de los aislamientos. La resistencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae a betalactámicos, especialmente penicilina, amoxicilina y cefotaxima/ceftriaxona no impide su uso clínico en la mayoría de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae de nuestra área, exceptuando los casos de meningitis neumocócica.The aims of present paper were to determine the susceptibility of the strains to the most usual antibiotics in clinical practice and to review the current recomendations to guide the most appropiate treatment. During the period october 2000 to september 2002, the patient’s data (age and sex, source of the sample, diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility were collected on Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from microbiology laboratories in the Navarra region (555.829 inhabitans. Four hundred and sixty five isolates were identified (166 from invasive infections. Generally, isolates from ear swabs were the most resistant to the antimicrobials tested, while those from blood culture were the most susceptible. Of the Streptococcus pneumoniae tested, 43% were resistant to penicillin, 6.1% to amoxicillin and 6.6% to cefotaxime. Of the 36.3% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that were resistant to erythromycin, 85.45% exhibited the MLS B phenotype while the remaining 14.55% presented with the M phenotype. Multiple-resistance was detected in 32.3% of the strains. The antibiotic resistance rates to beta-lactams (specially penicillin, amoxicillin and cefotaxime/ceftrixone in Streptococcus pneumoniae don’t prevent its clinical use for the most of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in our area, except for pneumococcal meningitis.

  15. Parallel Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis to Pathogenic and Mutualistic Lifestyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Riley, David R

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analysis shows that the species constitutes one evolutionary lineage in a cluster of the otherwise commensal Streptococcus mitis strains, with which humans live in harmony. In a comparative analysis of 35 genomes, including phylogenetic analyses of all predicted genes, we have shown that the pathogenic pneumococcus has evolved into a master of genomic flexibility while lineages that evolved into the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious coexistence with their host by stabilizing an approximately 15%-reduced genome devoid of many virulence genes. Our data further provide evidence that interspecies gene transfer between S. pneumoniae and S. mitis occurs in a unidirectional manner, i.e., from S. mitis to S. pneumoniae. Import of genes from S. mitis and other mitis, anginosus, and salivarius group streptococci ensured allelic replacements and antigenic diversification and has been driving the evolution of the remarkable structural diversity of capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae. Our study explains how the unique structural diversity of the pneumococcal capsule emerged and conceivably will continue to increase and reveals a striking example of the fragile border between the commensal and pathogenic lifestyles. While genomic plasticity enabling quick adaptation to environmental stress is a necessity for the pathogenic streptococci, the commensal lifestyle benefits from stability. IMPORTANCE: One of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the commensal Streptococcus mitis are closely related obligate symbionts associated with hominids. Faced with a shortage of accessible hosts, the two opposing lifestyles evolved in parallel. We have shown that the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious coexistence with its host by stabilizing a reduced genome devoid of many virulence genes. Meanwhile, the pathogenic pneumococcus evolved into a master of genomic flexibility and imports genes from S. mitis and other related streptococci. This process ensured antigenic diversification and has been driving the evolution of the remarkable structural diversity of capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae, which conceivably will continue to increase and present a challenge to disease prevention.

  16. Endocarditis por Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus / Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iago, Villamil; Marta, Serrano; Elisabeth, Prieto.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las especies Streptococcus equi subsp. equi y S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus son especies zoonóticas típicamente patógenas de animales, especialmente en caballos. Es una causa excepcional de enfermedad en humanos. Presentamos un caso de endocarditis por S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus tras un contacto co [...] n equinos, con buena evolución con tratamiento antibiótico. Abstract in english Zoonotic infections with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus have been reported occasionally in individuáis with exposure to farm animals, especially horses. They exceptionally present as a human pathogen. We present a S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus well documented endocarditis after a horse's female genital [...] tract contact, and excellent surveillance with exclusive antibiotic management.

  17. Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Agent Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides ... U.S. military sprayed millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during ...

  18. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Streptococcus bovis: case report and review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosmari, Hörner; Adenilde, Salla; Loiva Otonelli de, Oliveira; Nara Lucia Frasson Dal, Forno; Roselene Alves, Righi; Vanessa Oliveira, Domingues; Fabiane, Rigatti; Letícia Eichstaedt, Mayer.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication that occurs in patient with cirrhosis and ascites. It occurs in 10% to 30% of patients admitted to hospital. The organisms that cause SBP are predominantly enteric. Escherichia coli is the most frequent recovered pathogen, [...] and Gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp., are being considered an emerging causative agent of SBP. Streptococcus bovis that may be found as part of the commensal bowel flora in about 10% of healthy adults constitute an uncommon cause of peritonitis that was first reported in 1994. We describe the first case of SBP at the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM) caused by S. bovis, resistant to the antibiotics erythromycin and clindamycin (inducible clindamycin resistance detected by disk diffusion test using the D-zone test).

  19. Streptococcus mutans sortase A inhibitory metabolites from the flowers of Sophora japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Woo-Young; Won, Tae Hyung; Ahn, Chan-Hong; Lee, So-Hyoung; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Ki-Bong

    2015-04-01

    A new maltol derivative (2) along with three known maltol derivative (1) and flavonol glycosides (3 and 4) were isolated from the dried flowers of Sophora japonica. Based upon the results of combined spectroscopic methods, the structure of new compound (2) was determined to be maltol-3-O-(4'-O-cis-p-coumaroyl-6'-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl))-?-glucopyranoside, an isomer of 1. These compounds strongly inhibited the action of sortase A (SrtA) from Streptococcus mutans, a primary etiologic agent of human dental caries. The onset and magnitude of inhibition of the saliva-induced aggregation in S. mutans treated with compound 2 (4×IC50) were comparable to the behavior of untreated srtA-deletion mutant. PMID:25746812

  20. Antibacterial effect of dental adhesive containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate on the development of Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suping; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H K; Weir, Michael D; Ge, Yang; Wang, Shida; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives. PMID:25046750

  1. Pericarditis purulenta primaria por Streptococcus pneumoniae, a propósito de un caso clínico / Primary purulent pericarditis by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Case-report and literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALEJANDRO, DONOSO F; FRANCO, DÍAZ R; KATALINA, BERTRÁN S; PABLO, CRUCES R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en día la pericarditis purulenta (PP) es una patología poco frecuente, pero de pronóstico grave. Comunicamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 3 meses, sano previamente. Consultó por palidez, rechazo alimentario y dificultad respiratoria de pocas horas de evolución. La radiografía de tórax demos [...] tró cardiomegalia. Evolucionó hacia shock cardiogénico por taponamiento cardíaco. Recibió inicialmente expansores de volumen y drogas vasoactivas. Antibioterapia con vancomicina y ceftriaxona. Ecocar-diograma objetivó derrame pericárdico extenso, complementado con TAC que descartó foco infeccioso endotoráxico. Se realizó pericardiocentesis y luego ventana pericárdica. Se aisló en hemocultivo Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensible a penicilina. Luego de drenaje quirúrgico y control de infección presentó evolución favorable. No se encontró sitio infeccioso extrapericárdico. Completó tres semanas de tratamiento antibiótico. Estudio inmunológico fue normal. La PP es observada raramente en individuos sanos. La presentación en este caso fue de horas, por un agente inhabitual y de extrema gravedad. Un diagnóstico precoz, en conjunto con un tratamiento médico-quirúrgico es fundamental, como la mejor forma de evitar secuelas. Abstract in english Background: Purulent pericarditis has become a rare clinical entity since the onset of antimicrobial therapy and has a poor outcome in the majority of cases. Case-report: A healthy 3 month-old patient admitted with dyspnea, pallor and anorexia, developing cardiogenic shock due to cardiac tamponade. [...] Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly. He required mechanical ventilation, volume resuscitation and vasoactive drugs. Echocardiogram showed a large pericardial effusion, CT sean ruled out lung and mediastinal infection. Pericardial drainage was performed and Vancomycin plus Ceftriaxone were initiated, with a positive blood culture for Penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. The evolution was favourable after surgical drainage and controlling the infection. No extraperdicardial infection was found. He received 3 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Immunological studies were normal. Conclusión: Primary purulent pericarditis is uncommon, so early detection and treatment of this life-threatening condition may lead to a good outcome.

  2. Pericarditis purulenta primaria por Streptococcus pneumoniae, a propósito de un caso clínico Primary purulent pericarditis by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Case-report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO DONOSO F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en día la pericarditis purulenta (PP es una patología poco frecuente, pero de pronóstico grave. Comunicamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 3 meses, sano previamente. Consultó por palidez, rechazo alimentario y dificultad respiratoria de pocas horas de evolución. La radiografía de tórax demostró cardiomegalia. Evolucionó hacia shock cardiogénico por taponamiento cardíaco. Recibió inicialmente expansores de volumen y drogas vasoactivas. Antibioterapia con vancomicina y ceftriaxona. Ecocar-diograma objetivó derrame pericárdico extenso, complementado con TAC que descartó foco infeccioso endotoráxico. Se realizó pericardiocentesis y luego ventana pericárdica. Se aisló en hemocultivo Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensible a penicilina. Luego de drenaje quirúrgico y control de infección presentó evolución favorable. No se encontró sitio infeccioso extrapericárdico. Completó tres semanas de tratamiento antibiótico. Estudio inmunológico fue normal. La PP es observada raramente en individuos sanos. La presentación en este caso fue de horas, por un agente inhabitual y de extrema gravedad. Un diagnóstico precoz, en conjunto con un tratamiento médico-quirúrgico es fundamental, como la mejor forma de evitar secuelas.Background: Purulent pericarditis has become a rare clinical entity since the onset of antimicrobial therapy and has a poor outcome in the majority of cases. Case-report: A healthy 3 month-old patient admitted with dyspnea, pallor and anorexia, developing cardiogenic shock due to cardiac tamponade. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly. He required mechanical ventilation, volume resuscitation and vasoactive drugs. Echocardiogram showed a large pericardial effusion, CT sean ruled out lung and mediastinal infection. Pericardial drainage was performed and Vancomycin plus Ceftriaxone were initiated, with a positive blood culture for Penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. The evolution was favourable after surgical drainage and controlling the infection. No extraperdicardial infection was found. He received 3 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Immunological studies were normal. Conclusión: Primary purulent pericarditis is uncommon, so early detection and treatment of this life-threatening condition may lead to a good outcome.

  3. Streptococcus pseudoporcinus sp. nov., a Novel Species Isolated from the Genitourinary Tract of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bekal, Sadjia; Gaudreau, Christiane; Laurence, Robert A.; Simoneau, Esther; Raynal, Le?lia

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus strains from animal and human sources identified biochemically as Streptococcus porcinus were investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The nine human strains isolated between 1997 and 2005 formed a single cluster with more than 2.1% dissimilarity with S. porcinus strains from animal sources. A novel species, Streptococcus pseudoporcinus sp. nov., is proposed.

  4. [Reliability of the rapid Streptococcus A test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuziger, N; Frei, R; Hauser, R; aWengen, D; Probst, R

    1996-07-01

    The results of three second-generation immune assays for direct detection of group A streptococcus were compared in 65 patients with acute pharyngitis. The assays included Strep A Plus, (Abbott), Concise Strep A (Hybritech) and Cards Plus (Pacific Biotech). A standard culture was used as reference. Additionally a nucleic acid hybridization assay (Gen-Probe) was applied after enhanced broth culturing. The sensitivities and specificities of the three immunoassays were similar and showed that Strep A Plus had an 84.2% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity, Concise Strep A an 82.4% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity, and Cards Plus an 84.2% specificity and 90.7% sensitivity. The Concise Strep A had significantly more doubtful results in comparison with the two other rapid immune assays (9.7% versus 2.3%, P = 0.034. The standard culture and the DNA probe test gave the same results in 94% of cases. Clinical parameters were found to be unreliable for the diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. However, findings show that when the rapid immune assay is positive, it is reasonable to start antibiotic treatment without performing a bacterial culture. In cases with a negative assay, management is best tailored to clinical symptoms and laboratory examinations. PMID:8926181

  5. Urticaria recurrente asociada a infección por Streptococcus pyogenes / Recurrent urticaria associated with group Streptococcus pyogenes infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. P., López Sáez; P., Carrillo Fernández-Paredes; A. J., Huertas Amorós; J. A., Pagán Alemán.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de las urticarias crónicas o agudas recidivantes son idiopáticas. Presentamos un caso de urticaria aguda recidivante en una niña de tres años, en la que, tras el estudio realizado, solo se objetivó un valor elevado de anticuerpos antiestreptolisina O (ASLO). La desaparición de la urticari [...] a tras el tratamiento con penicilina G-benzatina intramuscular, junto con la normalización de los ASLO, sugiere que la etiología de esta podría ser las infecciones recurrentes por el Streptococcus pyogenes. Destacar la importancia de incluir en el protocolo diagnóstico de la urticaria la determinación de los ASLO, lo cual permite el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoces de las infecciones por S. pyogenes. Abstract in english We present a case of relapsing acute urticaria in a three years old girl who after the study only showed a high value of ASLO (antistreptolysin O titer). The disappearance of urticaria after intramuscular penicillin G benzathine treatment, together with the ASLO normalization, suggested that the eti [...] ology of this could be recurrent Streptococcal infections. We conclude the importance of including ASLO determination in the diagnostic protocol of urticaria, allowing early diagnosis and treatment of Group A Streptococcus infections.

  6. Caracterización molecular en aislados chilenos de Streptococcus agalactiae Molecular characterization of Chilean isolates of streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rojo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is the main causing organism of invasive infections such as sepsis and meningitis in the newborn. Aim: To perform a genotype characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae strains coming form invasive infections of newborns and colonized pregnant women. Material and methods: A group of 58 strains not related epidemiologically isolated from colonized pregnant women and invasive infections in newborns, were studied. Pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE and polymerase chain reaction amplification of hylB and IS 1548 genes, as possible virulence markers, were performed. Results: Among the studied strains, 37 genetic subtypes were observed. There were nine groups of identical PFGE patterns. Three corresponded to serotype la and six to serotype III. An erythromycin and clindamycin resistant clone was identified in three colonized women and a newborn with sepsis, which were not epidemiologically related. The hylB gene was equally present in cases of neonatal meningitis or colonized pregnant women. Conclusions: There was a great degree of polymorphism among the studied strains. The ample presence of hylB gene and the absence of the insertion element IS1548 in the hylB gene in invasive and colonizing strains, indicates that both groups of strains are potentially pathogenic

  7. Caracterización molecular en aislados chilenos de Streptococcus agalactiae / Molecular characterization of Chilean isolates of streptococcus agalactiae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia, Rojo; Pamela, Araya; M Angélica, Martínez T; Juan Carlos, Hormazábal; Aurora, Maldonado; Jorge, Fernández.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae is the main causing organism of invasive infections such as sepsis and meningitis in the newborn. Aim: To perform a genotype characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae strains coming form invasive infections of newborns and colonized pregnant women. Material and methods: A [...] group of 58 strains not related epidemiologically isolated from colonized pregnant women and invasive infections in newborns, were studied. Pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE) and polymerase chain reaction amplification of hylB and IS 1548 genes, as possible virulence markers, were performed. Results: Among the studied strains, 37 genetic subtypes were observed. There were nine groups of identical PFGE patterns. Three corresponded to serotype la and six to serotype III. An erythromycin and clindamycin resistant clone was identified in three colonized women and a newborn with sepsis, which were not epidemiologically related. The hylB gene was equally present in cases of neonatal meningitis or colonized pregnant women. Conclusions: There was a great degree of polymorphism among the studied strains. The ample presence of hylB gene and the absence of the insertion element IS1548 in the hylB gene in invasive and colonizing strains, indicates that both groups of strains are potentially pathogenic

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina / Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávia, Rossi; Maria Renata Gomes, Franco; Heleni Mota de Pina, Rodrigues; Denise, Andreazzi.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 [...] e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratório e de amostras de sangue não relacionadas a infecções meníngeas e foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretações categóricas de CIM foram baseadas em padrões atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetíveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treate [...] d, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC

  9. PCR de "Salmonella" spp, "Streptococcus suis", "Brucella abortus" e circovírus suíno tipo 2 em taiassuídeos de vida livre e cativeiro PCR of “Salmonella” spp, “Streptococcus suis”, “Brucella abortus” e Porcine circovirus type 2 in free-living and captive peccaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os taiassuídeos são animais silvestres pertencentes a mesma ordem taxonômica dos suínos (Artiodactyla, que apesar de pertencerem a famílias diferentes apresentam várias doenças em comum. Das três espécies existentes, duas ocorrem naturalmente no Brasil: Tayassu tajacu e Tayassu pecari, conhecidas como cateto e queixada, respectivamente. A importância do estudo dos microrganismos encontrados nestas populações, justifica-se pelo fato destes poderem agir como reservatórios de doenças para animais domésticos, crescente aumento na criação comercial de espécies silvestres com objetivos de complementar a renda de produtores rurais e preservação ecológica, além de questões de saúde pública. Este estudo verificou a ocorrência de microrganismos patogênicos para suínos em taiassuídeos de cativeiro e de vida livre. A presença de Salmonella spp., Streptococcus suis, Brucella abortus e Circovírus suíno tipo 2 foi pesquisada pela Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase. Dos 31 animais de cativeiro, 25,80% (8/31 foram positivos para Salmonella spp., 22,58% (7/31 para Brucella abortus e 3,22% (1/31 para Streptococcus suis. Das 15 amostras de swab de tonsila dos queixadas de vida livre 13,33% (2/15 foram positivas para Brucella abortus e negativo para Streptococcus suis e Salmonella spp. Todos os animais estudados foram negativos para circovírus suíno tipo 2. A ocorrência de microrganismos foi significativamente (p = 0,0011 maior nos animais de cativeiro do que nos de vida livre, demonstrando a necessidade de abrangência nestas pesquisas tendo em vista o caráter zoonótico da maioria dos agentes pesquisados e da proximidade destes animais ao homem. Palavras-chave: Brucella abortus, Circovírus suíno tipo 2, Salmonella spp., Streptococcus suis, taiassuídeosThe tayassuideos are wild animals in the same taxonomic order of pigs (Artiodactyla and, although belonging to different families, have more in common diseases, which are characterized by the same clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment. From the three species, two occur naturally in Brazil: Tayassu tajacu and Tayassu peccary, also known as collered peccary and white lipped peccary, respectively. The importance of the study of microorganisms found in these populations is because these animals can act as reservoirs of diseases to domestic animal, potential zoonotic risk and a problem to specie conservation. In this study, it was examined the occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms for pigs in tayassuideos from captivity and living free. The presence of Salmonella spp., Streptococcus suis, Brucella abortus and Porcine circovirus type 2 was investigated by the Polymerase Chain Reaction. From the 31 animals of captivity, 25.8% (8/31 were positive for Salmonella spp., 22.58% (7/31 for Brucella abortus and 3.22% (1/31 for Streptococcus suis. From the 15 swab samples from the tonsil of free-living peccaries, 13.33% (2/ 15 were positive for Brucella abortus and negative for Streptococcus suis and Salmonella spp. All animals were negative for Porcine circovirus type 2. Occurrence of microorganisms was significantly (p = 0,0011 higher in animals in captivity than in free-living, demonstrating the needing for inclusiveness in research aimed at the character of the majority of zoonotic agents that were searched and proximity of these animals to humans.

  10. Agent engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P

    2001-01-01

    Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

  11. Group B streptococcal neonatal infections in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani MIURA

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus is the most common pathogen found in neonatal sepsis in North America. OBJECTIVES: We describe 15 cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public and teaching hospital. METHODS: We conducted a study at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from January 1st, 1996 to June 30, 1999. Diagnosis of neonatal infection was established according to the findings of Group B Streptococcus in blood culture associated with alterations resembling sepsis on the basis of clinical picture and laboratory findings. RESULTS: Fifteen cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus were detected. Eleven cases consisted of early-onset sepsis, 2 cases of occult bacteremia and 2 cases of late-onset sepsis. Eight cases had septic shock (53%, 8 cases had pneumonia (53%, and 4 cases had meningitis (27%. Fourteen cases were diagnosed from a positive blood culture, and 1 case from evidence of these bacteria in pulmonary anatomopathological examination. Thirteen cases (87% were diagnosed before 72 hours of life. We had 3 deaths (20%, and 3 cases of meningitis developing neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus Group B is one of the most important pathogens in the etiology of early-onset neonatal sepsis at our hospital, with high mortality and morbidity. However, we do not know the incidence of GBS neonatal infections at other hospitals. More data are needed to establish a basis for trials of different strategies to reduce these infections.FUNDAMENTOS: Streptococcus do grupo B é o principal agente etiológico responsável pela sepse neonatal na América do Norte. OBJETIVOS: Relatar 15 casos de infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B (Streptococus agalactiae ocorridos na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal de um hospital público e universitário. MÉTODO: O estudo foi realizado no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre no período de 1º de janeiro de 1996 a 30 de junho de 1999. O diagnóstico de infecção neonatal foi feito a partir do isolamento e identificação de Streptococcus do grupo B em hemocultura combinado com alterações clínicas e laboratoriais sugestivas de sepse. RESULTADOS: Foram detectados quinze casos de infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B, sendo onze casos de sepse de origem precoce, dois casos de bacteremia oculta e dois casos de sepse de origem tardia. Oito casos tiveram choque séptico (53%, oito casos com pneumonia (53% e quatro casos com meningite (27%. Quatorze casos foram diagnosticados a partir da hemocultura e um caso através da presença desta bactéria no exame anátomo-patológico do pulmão. Treze casos (87% foram diagnosticados antes de três dias de vida. Ocorreram três óbitos (20% e três pacientes com meningite ficaram com seqüelas neurológicas. CONCLUSÃO: O Streptococcus do Grupo B é uma das bactérias mais importantes na etiologia da sepse neonatal de início precoce em nosso hospital com elevada mortalidade e também com elevada morbidade. Entretanto, não se conhece sua incidência em outros hospitais. São necesssários outros estudos para determinar seu papel na sepse neonatal e assim estabelecer diferentes estratégias para sua redução.

  12. Group B streptococcal neonatal infections in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil / Infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernani, MIURA; Maria Cristina, MARTIN.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Streptococcus do grupo B é o principal agente etiológico responsável pela sepse neonatal na América do Norte. OBJETIVOS: Relatar 15 casos de infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B (Streptococus agalactiae) ocorridos na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal de um hospital públ [...] ico e universitário. MÉTODO: O estudo foi realizado no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre no período de 1º de janeiro de 1996 a 30 de junho de 1999. O diagnóstico de infecção neonatal foi feito a partir do isolamento e identificação de Streptococcus do grupo B em hemocultura combinado com alterações clínicas e laboratoriais sugestivas de sepse. RESULTADOS: Foram detectados quinze casos de infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B, sendo onze casos de sepse de origem precoce, dois casos de bacteremia oculta e dois casos de sepse de origem tardia. Oito casos tiveram choque séptico (53%), oito casos com pneumonia (53%) e quatro casos com meningite (27%). Quatorze casos foram diagnosticados a partir da hemocultura e um caso através da presença desta bactéria no exame anátomo-patológico do pulmão. Treze casos (87%) foram diagnosticados antes de três dias de vida. Ocorreram três óbitos (20%) e três pacientes com meningite ficaram com seqüelas neurológicas. CONCLUSÃO: O Streptococcus do Grupo B é uma das bactérias mais importantes na etiologia da sepse neonatal de início precoce em nosso hospital com elevada mortalidade e também com elevada morbidade. Entretanto, não se conhece sua incidência em outros hospitais. São necesssários outros estudos para determinar seu papel na sepse neonatal e assim estabelecer diferentes estratégias para sua redução. Abstract in english Group B Streptococcus is the most common pathogen found in neonatal sepsis in North America. OBJECTIVES: We describe 15 cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public and teaching hospital. METHODS: We conducted a study [...] at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from January 1st, 1996 to June 30, 1999. Diagnosis of neonatal infection was established according to the findings of Group B Streptococcus in blood culture associated with alterations resembling sepsis on the basis of clinical picture and laboratory findings. RESULTS: Fifteen cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus were detected. Eleven cases consisted of early-onset sepsis, 2 cases of occult bacteremia and 2 cases of late-onset sepsis. Eight cases had septic shock (53%), 8 cases had pneumonia (53%), and 4 cases had meningitis (27%). Fourteen cases were diagnosed from a positive blood culture, and 1 case from evidence of these bacteria in pulmonary anatomopathological examination. Thirteen cases (87%) were diagnosed before 72 hours of life. We had 3 deaths (20%), and 3 cases of meningitis developing neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus Group B is one of the most important pathogens in the etiology of early-onset neonatal sepsis at our hospital, with high mortality and morbidity. However, we do not know the incidence of GBS neonatal infections at other hospitals. More data are needed to establish a basis for trials of different strategies to reduce these infections.

  13. Gene cloning and characterization of MdeA, a novel multidrug efflux pump in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Cho, Eun Ji; Joo, Seoung-Je; Chung, Jung-Min; Son, Byoung Yil; Yum, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young-Man; Kwon, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Byung-Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Eun-Woo

    2013-03-01

    Multidrug resistance, especially multidrug efflux mechanisms that extrude structurally unrelated cytotoxic compounds from the cell by multidrug transporters, is a serious problem and one of the main reasons for the failure of therapeutic treatment of infections by pathogenic microorganisms as well as of cancer cells. Streptococcus mutans is considered one of the primary causative agents of dental caries and periodontal disease, which comprise the most common oral diseases. A fragment of chromosomal DNA from S. mutans KCTC3065 was cloned using Escherichia coli KAM32 as host cells lacking major multidrug efflux pumps. Although E. coli KAM32 cells were very sensitive to many antimicrobial agents, the transformed cells harboring a recombinant plasmid became resistant to several structurally unrelated antimicrobial agents such as tetracycline, kanamycin, rhodamin 6G, ampicillin, acriflavine, ethidium bromide, and tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. This suggested that the cloned DNA fragment carries a gene encoding a multidrug efflux pump. Among 49 of the multidrug-resistant transformants, we report the functional gene cloning and characterization of the function of one multidrug efflux pump, namely MdeA from S. mutans, which was expressed in E. coli KAM32. Judging from the structural and biochemical properties, we concluded that MdeA is the first cloned and characterized multidrug efflux pump using the proton motive force as the energy for efflux drugs. PMID:23462018

  14. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  15. Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects tresults suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium

  16. Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hernán, Sierra- Fernandez; Malka, Schultz- Faingezicht; Carolina, Soley-Gutiérrez; Silvia, Guevara- Jiménez; Adriano, Arguedas- Mohs.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias si [...] endo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño). Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente. Abstract in english The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than [...] 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children’s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pneumoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution in Costa Rica, the predicted vaccine protection is calculated in 74%.

  17. Comparison of inhibitory dilutions of a thymol-based mouthwash (Orion® with chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Assar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Applying the suitable mouthwash can kill bacteria or reduce the bacterial growth; in the same context, diluting mouthwashes can decrease their probable side effects. In this study, the maximum inhibitory concentrations of two common mouthwashes were evaluated.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, agar dilution and disk diffusion methods were used. Sixty-nine bacterial plates were cultured to evaluate the effects of thymol and chlorhexidine mouthwashes on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. The results of agar dilution method were recorded as "growth' and "no growth", and the results of disk diffusion were recorded as means of growth inhibitory halos. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test using SPSS software. (? = 0.05.Results: Growth inhibitory halos for different concentrations of the two mouthwashes decreased with an increase in dilution rate. In agar dilution method, dilutions less than 80% of the initial concentration for thymol-based mouthwash and less than 70% for chlorhexidine could not inhibit bacterial growth. Growth inhibition halos with 100% thymol-based mouthwash (Orion® were 10.15 ± 0.1 mm for Steptococcus mutans and 9.2 7 ± 0.16 mm for Streptococcus sanguis. Mean rank of the two mouthwashes was statistically significant for the two bacterial strains under study (p value < 0.001.Conclusion: Both mouthwashes were effective on the bacteria under study; however, this efficacy was higher for Streptococcus sanguis. Chlorhexidine mouthwash was more potent to inhibit bacterial growth than thymol-based mouthwash if diluted. Key words: Mouthwash, Chlorhexidine, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Thymol.

  18. Negotiating Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, Catholijn M. Delft University Of Technology; Hindriks, Koen V. Delft University Of Technology; Wiggers, Pascal Delft University Of Technology; Broekens, Joost Delft University Of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Negotiation is a complex emotional decision-making process aiming to reach an agreement to exchange goods or services. From an agent technological perspective creating negotiating agents that can support humans with their negotiations is an interesting challenge. Already more than a decade, negotiating agents can outperform human beings (in terms of deal optimality) if the negotiation space is well-understood. However, the inherent semantic problem and the emotional issues involved make that ...

  19. The cell-bound fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius: the carboxyl terminus specifies attachment in a Streptococcus gordonii model system.

    OpenAIRE

    Rathsam, C; Giffard, P M; Jacques, N A

    1993-01-01

    The ftf gene, coding for the cell-bound beta-D-fructosyltransferase (FTF) of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, has been analyzed, and its deduced amino acid sequence has been compared with that of the secreted FTF of Streptococcus mutans and the levansucrases (SacBs) of Bacillus species. A unique proline-rich region detected at the C terminus of the FTF of S. salivarius preceded a hydrophobic terminal domain. This proline-rich region was shown to possess strong homology to the product of t...

  20. Infecciones invasoras por Streptococcus b hemolítico Grupo A / Grupo Invasive infections by group a streptococcus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Alarcón O; Mary Carmen, Ordenes P; Marisol, Denegri M; Jorge, Zúñiga.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años ochenta ha habido un resurgimiento de infecciones severas por Streptococcus b hemolítico Grupo A (SBHGA). Objetivo: Evaluar en nuestro medio el comportamiento clínico y los factores predisponentes en infecciones invasoras por SBHGA. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron antecedentes clíni [...] cos de 37 fichas de niños con cultivo positivo al SBHGA hospitalizados en el Servicio de Pediatría y Cirugía Infantil del Hospital Dr. Félix Bulnes Cerda entre marzo de 1995 y enero de 2005. Resultados: 81% fueron pacientes eutróficos sin patología asociada. Destacan como factores condicionantes: quemadura (30%), varicela (19%) y traumatismo (16%). La sintomatología más frecuente fue fiebre (84%) y signos inflamatorios locales (40%). Los cuadros clínicos fueron: infección de tejido blando (32%), bacteremia sin focalización (30%), osteoartritis (10,8%), pleuroneumonía (10,8%), shock tóxico (8,1%) y fasceitis necrotizante (5,4%). Tres pacientes fallecieron. Conclusión: Las infecciones invasoras por SBHGA afectan mayoritariamente a niños sanos cuyo principal factor predisponente es una puerta cutánea, y puede ser fatal Abstract in english Since 1980 there has been a resurgence of severe infections by Group A Streptococcus (GAS). Objective: To evaluate in our hospital the clinical behaviour and predisposing factors for GAS infections. Methods: Clinical information from 37 charts of children with GAS positive cultures hospitalized in F [...] élix Bulnes Cerda Hospital were analyzed between March 1995 and January 2005. Results: 81% healthy children with predisposing factors: burns (30%), varicella (19%) and trauma (16%). The main symptoms were fever (84%) and local inflammatory signs (40%). The clinical manifestations include soft tissue infections (32%), bacteremia (30%), osteoarthritis (10,8%), empyema (10,8%), toxic shock (8,1%) and necrotizing fasciitis (5,4%). Three patients died. Conclusion: Invasive GAS mainly affects healthy children with skin port of entry and may cause death

  1. Infecciones invasoras por Streptococcus b hemolítico Grupo A Grupo Invasive infections by group a streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alarcón O

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años ochenta ha habido un resurgimiento de infecciones severas por Streptococcus b hemolítico Grupo A (SBHGA. Objetivo: Evaluar en nuestro medio el comportamiento clínico y los factores predisponentes en infecciones invasoras por SBHGA. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron antecedentes clínicos de 37 fichas de niños con cultivo positivo al SBHGA hospitalizados en el Servicio de Pediatría y Cirugía Infantil del Hospital Dr. Félix Bulnes Cerda entre marzo de 1995 y enero de 2005. Resultados: 81% fueron pacientes eutróficos sin patología asociada. Destacan como factores condicionantes: quemadura (30%, varicela (19% y traumatismo (16%. La sintomatología más frecuente fue fiebre (84% y signos inflamatorios locales (40%. Los cuadros clínicos fueron: infección de tejido blando (32%, bacteremia sin focalización (30%, osteoartritis (10,8%, pleuroneumonía (10,8%, shock tóxico (8,1% y fasceitis necrotizante (5,4%. Tres pacientes fallecieron. Conclusión: Las infecciones invasoras por SBHGA afectan mayoritariamente a niños sanos cuyo principal factor predisponente es una puerta cutánea, y puede ser fatalSince 1980 there has been a resurgence of severe infections by Group A Streptococcus (GAS. Objective: To evaluate in our hospital the clinical behaviour and predisposing factors for GAS infections. Methods: Clinical information from 37 charts of children with GAS positive cultures hospitalized in Félix Bulnes Cerda Hospital were analyzed between March 1995 and January 2005. Results: 81% healthy children with predisposing factors: burns (30%, varicella (19% and trauma (16%. The main symptoms were fever (84% and local inflammatory signs (40%. The clinical manifestations include soft tissue infections (32%, bacteremia (30%, osteoarthritis (10,8%, empyema (10,8%, toxic shock (8,1% and necrotizing fasciitis (5,4%. Three patients died. Conclusion: Invasive GAS mainly affects healthy children with skin port of entry and may cause death

  2. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Ayako; Furukawa, Soichi; Fujita, Shuhei; Mitobe, Jiro; Kawarai, Taketo; Narisawa, Naoki; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kosono, Saori; Yoneda, Saori; Watanabe, Haruo; Morinaga, Yasushi; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2011-03-01

    The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation were purified from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9759 and HT9R culture supernatants using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis was performed, and the results were compared to databases. The S. salivarius HT9R genome sequence was determined and used to indentify candidate proteins for inhibition. The candidates inhibiting biofilms were identified as S. salivarius fructosyltransferase (FTF) and exo-beta-d-fructosidase (FruA). The activity of the inhibitors was elevated in the presence of sucrose, and the inhibitory effects were dependent on the sucrose concentration in the biofilm formation assay medium. Purified and commercial FruA from Aspergillus niger (31.6% identity and 59.6% similarity to the amino acid sequence of FruA from S. salivarius HT9R) completely inhibited S. mutans GS-5 biofilm formation on saliva-coated polystyrene and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Inhibition was induced by decreasing polysaccharide production, which is dependent on sucrose digestion rather than fructan digestion. The data indicate that S. salivarius produces large quantities of FruA and that FruA alone may play an important role in multispecies microbial interactions for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in the oral cavity. PMID:21239559

  3. PREVALENCIA DE COLONIZACION POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE DEL EMBARAZO PESQUISADO EN MEDIO DE CULTIVO NO SELECTIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Valdés R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente bacteriano responsable de sepsis neonatal. Para evitar la infección perinatal se recomienda la pesquisa de la bacteria en región vagino-perianal durante el tercer trimestre, indicando tratamiento antibiótico durante el parto en aquellas gestantes colonizadas. La prevalencia de colonización varía según el tipo de cultivo utilizado (selectivo vs no selectivo. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia de colonización del Streptococcus agalactiae en la población de embarazadas controladas en nuestra maternidad durante los años 2001-2002. Se tomó cultivo en medio no selectivo, entre las 35-37 semanas de gestación a 1658 pacientes, encontrando una prevalencia de colonización vagino-perianal de 6,2%. Esta cifra es bastante menor a la comunicada en otros estudios en embarazadas chilenas, por lo que creemos importante la implementación de medios de cultivos selectivos para mejorar el rendimiento de pesquisaStreptococcus agalactiae is the main bacterial agent in neonatal sepsis. To avoid the perinatal infection, a vaginal and anal culture in the third trimester is recomended and then treated with antibiotics during labour. The prevalence varies depending on the type of culture used (selective vs non selective medium. The aim of our study was to know the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women followed in our hospital during 2001-2002. Vaginal and anal samples were taken at 35-37 weeks using non selective medium. We recruited 1658 patients, finding a prevalence of 6.2%. Due to the lower prevalence expected in comparison to other studies in Chilean pregnancies, we believe that the application of selective medium for streptococcal culture may improve results

  4. Bullous impetigo caused by Streptococcus salivarius: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, I.

    1980-01-01

    A 19-month-old child presented with bullous impetigo around the perineal region, penis, and left foot. Streptococcus salivarius was the only isolate recovered from the lesions. The child was treated with parenteral penicillin, debridement of the bulli, and local application of silver sulphadiazine cream. This case of bullous impetigo illustrates another aspect of the pathogenicity of Strep. salivarius.

  5. Extracellular chemiluminescence of isolated human leukocytes induced by Streptococcus mutans.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubala, Lukáš; Lojek, Antonín; ?íž, Milan; Nuutila, J.; Lilius, E. M.

    Island of Spetses : NATO, 2002. s. 53. [NATO / FEBS Advanced Study Institute - INTAS Symposium: Chemical Probes in Biology. 18.08.2002-30.08.2002, Island of Spetses] R&D Projects: GA ?R GP524/02/P005 Keywords : reactive oxygen species (ROS) * Streptococcus mutans * chemiluminescence Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hui; Guo, Lihong; Du, Ning; Lin, Jiuxiang; Song, Lai; Liu, Guiming; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of PKUSS-HG01 and PKUSS-LG01, two clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans from human dental plaque. The genomics information will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of pathogenicity and evolution of S. mutans.

  7. Fundus lesions after carotid injection of Streptococcus mutans in monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, S. M.; Rodrigues, M.; Vasil, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Carotid injection of Streptococcus mutans in pigtail monkeys caused fundus lesions clinically resembling those seen in humans with bacteremia. On histopathological examination microabscesses occurred in the retina, choroid, and optic nerve. Bacteria were observed in the histopathological sections of the microabscesses, and S. mutans was cultured from the retina and choroid.

  8. Specificity of natural antibodies reactive with Streptococcus mutans in monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, R. R.; Beighton, D.

    1982-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure levels of natural antibody to defined antigens of Streptococcus mutans in sera from monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The results suggest that most of the antibody in young monkeys that binds to whole bacteria is not specific to S. mutans.

  9. Colonisation of the urethra with Streptococcus pneumoniae: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, R C

    1985-01-01

    A 25 year old man developed mild urethritis and urethral colonisation with Streptococcus pneumoniae five days after a single orogenital sexual contact. The diagnosis was suspected because of the appearance of Gram positive diplococci in the urethral exudate. The incidence of urethral infection with S pneumoniae is not known. Pneumococci are unlikely to grow on the routine selective media used to identify Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

  10. Outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Psychiatric Unit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-02

    Dr. Katherine Fleming-Dutra, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses her investigation of a Streptococcus pneumoniae outbreak in a pediatric psychiatric unit.  Created: 11/2/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/5/2012.

  11. Streptococcus: A World-Wide Fish Health Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are important emergent-epizootic pathogens which affect many fish species world-wide, especially in warm-water regions. Further, these Gram-positive bacteria cause significant economic losses in marine and freshwater aquaculture systems with an estimated loss i...

  12. Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae with a DNA probe.

    OpenAIRE

    Denys, G. A.; Carey, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    The Accuprobe Streptococcus pneumoniae Culture Identification Test (Gen-Probe, Inc.) was evaluated with 172 isolates of S. pneumoniae and 204 nonpneumococcal isolates. The sensitivity and specificity of the Accuprobe test were 100%. Optimum results were obtained when four or more discrete colonies were selected for testing. The Accuprobe test was determined to be an accurate and rapid method for identification of S. pneumoniae.

  13. Cations and oxidative stress response in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Andisi, Vahid Farshchi

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is een bacterie die voorkomt in de menselijke neus-keelholte en ernstige ziekten kan veroorzaken, zoals longontsteking, oorontsteking, hersenvliesontsteking en bloedvergiftiging. Vooral kleine kinderen en ouderen lopen risico. In het menselijk lichaam wordt de bacterie blootgesteld aan diverse zuurstofradicalen, die de bacterie kunnen doden of beschadigen. UMCG-promovendus Vahid Farshchi Andisi onderzocht hoe de bacterie zich tegen zuurstofradicalen ‘wapent’. ...

  14. Heterogeneity of Hemolysin Expression during Neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae Sepsis?

    OpenAIRE

    Sigge, Anja; Schmid, Manuel; Mauerer, Stefanie; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The ?-hemolysin of Streptococcus agalactiae is a major virulence factor; consequently, nonhemolytic strains rarely cause infections. We report on a case of neonatal sepsis caused by a strain displaying heterogeneous hemolysin expression. It was detected by the simultaneous isolation of hemolytic and nonhemolytic colonies from cultures of the infant's blood.

  15. Introduction of a Streptococcus cremoris plasmid in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Vosman, B.; Venema, G

    1983-01-01

    Streptococcus cremoris Wg2 plasmid pWV01 was introduced in Bacillus subtilis by protoplast transformation. The yield of pWV01 isolated from B. subtilis was low. pWV01 contains a unique site for the restriction endonuclease MboI.

  16. Characterization of the Streptococcus adjacens group antigen structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Sieling, P A; Thomas, M.J.; van de Rijn, I

    1992-01-01

    Serological classification of bacteria requires the presence of an antigen unique to the organism of interest. Streptococci are serologically differentiated by group antigens, many of which are carbohydrates, although some are amphiphiles. This report describes the chemical characterization of the Streptococcus adjacens group antigen structure. Previous studies demonstrated that the amphiphile contained phosphorus, ribitol, galactose, galactosamine, alanine, and fatty acids. Phosphodiester bo...

  17. Celulitis por Streptococcus equi: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura / Streptococcus equi Cellulitis: Case Report and Literature Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio César, García Casallas; Francisco, Cuervo Millán; Luis Felipe, Kling; M. Angelica, Palencia Boada.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus equi es un coco gram positivo, perteneciente al grupo C de Lancefield, causa una enfermedad de gran relevancia en caballos, la gurma o adenitis equina (1-2); en humanos, estas infecciones son poco frecuentes, siendo más frecuentes las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos, faringiti [...] s, neumonía, síndrome tóxico similar al shock y endocarditis. Cuando la infección está asociada a bacteriemia, la mortalidad reportada es del 25%.(3) Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 44 años que ingresa al servicio de urgencias de la Clínica universidad de la Sabana con un cuadro clínico de celulitis en mano derecha por Streptococcus equi . Abstract in english Streptococcus equi is a gram-positive cocci, from group C of Lance 􀃀 eld. It causes an important disease in horses, strangles or equine adenitis (1-2). In humans, these infections are rare, and skin and soft tissue infections, pharyngitis, pneumonia, toxic shock-like syndrome and endocardit [...] is are more frequently observed. When the infection is associated with bacteremia, the reported mortality is near 25% (3). We report the case of a 44-year old man who was admitted to the emergency department of the University of Sabana Clinic with cellulitis due to Streptococcus equi in his right hand.

  18. Confirmation of Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae-Like Organisms Isolated from Outbreaks of Epidemic Conjunctivitis as Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Gloria S.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Thompson, Terry; Jackson, Delois; Facklam, Richard R.

    2003-01-01

    Eleven isolates representing five distinct outbreaks of pneumococcal conjunctivitis were examined for phenotypic and genetic characteristics. None of the strains possessed capsules, and all strains were susceptible to optochin, bile soluble, and Gen-Probe AccuProbe test positive. All 11 isolates were confirmed as Streptococcus pneumoniae by DNA-DNA reassociation experiments.

  19. Genetic polymorphism of Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members Polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans em membros de famílias brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether random amplified polymorphic DNA (AP-PCR analysis is able to differentiate genetically different clones of mutans streptococci, in 22 Brazilian family members. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from fathers, mothers and infants. For 5-18 months babies with erupting primary dentition, plaque samples were collected using sterile tooth pick tips. From these samples, mutans streptococci were isolated on SB-20 agar plates. After growth, representative colonies were identified by biochemical methods on the basis of carbohydrate fermentation. Streptococcus mutans isolates were obtained from all family members and AP-PCR typed separately with a random primer (OPA-13. Bacterial cell lysates were used as template in PCR reactions and the amplified DNA fragments obtained were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results demonstrated that the father shared the baby's genotype in three families and the mother shared the baby's genotype in 12 families seven babies harbored Streptococcus mutans strains similar to those of their siblings. The technique was able to demonstrate the genetic Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar, através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR a capacidade de diferenciar clones geneticamente distintos de Streptococcus mutans e estabelecer o grau de similaridade intrafamilial para os isolados. Para o presente estudo, foram selecionadas 22 famílias brasileiras. Amostras de saliva foram coletadas de todos os membros das famílias. Das crianças com idade entre 5-18 meses obteve-se amostras de placa dental. Após o isolamento das colônias com características morfológicas, realizou-se a identificação bioquímica com base na fermentação de carboidratos. O polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans foi pesquisado através da técnica de AP-PCR utilizando-se o primer OPA-13. Os fragmentos de DNA obtidos foram amplificados e comparados através de eletroforese em gel de agarose. Dentre as espécies identificadas nas 22 famílias analisadas, o pai apresentou cepas com similaridade genética aos dos bebês em três das famílias analisadas; em 12 famílias a mãe apresentou cepas com similaridade com as cepas de Streptococcus mutans do bebê e 7 bebês apresentaram cepas de S. mutans com similaridade genética das cepas do irmão mais velho. A técnica de AP-PCR foi eficaz em demonstrar a heterogeneidade genética de Streptococcus mutans entre os membros das famílias brasileiras analisadas.

  20. Systems biosynthesis of secondary metabolic pathways within the oral human microbiome member Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvanych, Rostyslav; Lukenda, Nikola; Li, Xiang; Kim, Janice J; Tharmarajah, Satheeisha; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive human commensal and pathogen, is commonly recognized as a primary causative agent in dental caries. Metabolic activity of this strain results in the creation of acids and secreted products are recognized as pathogenic factors and agents that promote immunomodulation by stimulating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Products of secondary metabolic pathways of microorganisms from the human microbiome are increasingly investigated for their immunomodulatory functions. In this study, we sought to explore the metabolomic output of nonribosomal peptide pathways within the model S. mutans strain, S. mutans UA159, using a systems metabolomic approach to gain in-depth analysis on products created by this organism and probe these molecules for their immunomodulatory function. Comparative metabolomics and biosynthetic studies using wild-type and nonribosomal peptide deletion strains (within the mutanobactin biosynthetic locus), precursor feedings (fatty acid derivatives) led to the identification of 58 metabolites, 13 of which were structurally elucidated. In addition to these, an assembly line derailment product, mutanamide, was also identified and used to assess immunomodulatory properties of mutanobactins and actions relating to their previously reported functions describing hyphal inhibitory profiles in Candida albicans. The results of this study demonstrate both the complexity and the divergent roles of products stemming from this unique biosynthetic assembly line. PMID:25209237

  1. Antagonism between penicillin and erythromycin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Jensen, T G

    2000-01-01

    The combination of beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides is often recommended for the initial empirical treatment of acute pneumonia in order to obtain activity against the most important pathogens. Theoretically, this combination may be inexpedient, as the bacteriostatic agent may antagonize the effect of the bactericidal agent. In this study, the possible interaction between penicillin and erythromycin was investigated in vitro and in vivo against four clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with MICs of penicillin ranging from 0.016 to 0.5 mg/L and of erythromycin from 0. 25 to >128 mg/L. In vitro time-kill curves were generated with clinically relevant concentrations of penicillin (10 mg/L) and erythromycin (1 mg/L), either individually or in combination. Antagonism between penicillin and erythromycin was observed for the four isolates. In vivo interaction was investigated in the mouse peritonitis model. After intraperitoneal inoculation, penicillin and erythromycin were given either individually or in combination. For two of the four isolates, mortality was significantly higher in the groups treated with the combination of penicillin and erythromycin than in the groups treated with penicillin alone [32/36 (86%) vs. 3/12 (25%), P

  2. Generation of human antibody fragments against Streptococcus mutans using a phage display chain shuffling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common oral diseases and dental caries can be prevented effectively by passive immunization. In humans, passive immunotherapy may require the use of humanized or human antibodies to prevent adverse immune responses against murine epitopes. Therefore we generated human single chain and diabody antibody derivatives based on the binding characteristics of the murine monoclonal antibody Guy's 13. The murine form of this antibody has been used successfully to prevent Streptococcus mutans colonization and the development of dental caries in non-human primates, and to prevent bacterial colonization in human clinical trials. Results The antibody derivatives were generated using a chain-shuffling approach based on human antibody variable gene phage-display libraries. Like the parent antibody, these derivatives bound specifically to SAI/II, the surface adhesin of the oral pathogen S. mutans. Conclusions Humanization of murine antibodies can be easily achieved using phage display libraries. The human antibody fragments bind the antigen as well as the causative agent of dental caries. In addition the human diabody derivative is capable of aggregating S. mutans in vitro, making it a useful candidate passive immunotherapeutic agent for oral diseases.

  3. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05. In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes a Penicilina en Lima - Perú / Streptococcus pneumoniae resisting to penicilin in Lima Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Fukuda Sharizawa; Juan, Echevarria Zarate; Fernando, Llanos Zavalaga; Augusto, Yi Chu; Sara, Palomino; Eduardo, Gotuzzo Herencia; Carlos, Carrillo Parodi.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina (SPRP). Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, multicéntrico, entre Noviembre de 1993 y Noviembre de 1994. Cultivos de sangre, líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR), líquido pleural (LP), material de timpano [...] centesis y esputo fueron coleccionados de los laboratorios de microbiología de cuatro hospitales de Lima. Las pruebas de concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM), fueron realizados usando métodos de dilución en agar, en el laboratorio del Instituto de Medicina Tropical. Se aislaron 61 cepas. Resultados: Solo 2 (3.3%) fueron resistentes a penicilina (SPRP), con CIM > 0.12 µg/mL. Las otras 59(96.7%) fueron susceptibles a penicilina (CIM: 0.006 - 1.00 µg/mL), no se encontraron cepas con alto nivel de resistencia a penicilina (CIM ? 2.0 µg/mL). Ambas cepas fueron susceptibles a cefotaxime (CIM = 0.251µg/mL), a trimethoprim/sulfametoxazole (CIM = 8 µg/mL, 16 µg/mL) y a cloramfenicol (CIM =1.0 µg/mL), pero fueron resistentes a ampicilina (CIM = 0.5 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL). Cuatro (6.6%) cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae fueron resistentes a ampicilina, (CIM: 0.06 - 4.00 µg/mL). Solo 1 (1.7%) fue resistente a trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, (CIM: 1.0 - 32.0 µg/mL). Todas las 61 cepas fueron susceptibles a cefotaxime (CIM: 0.007 - 0.251 µg/mL). (Rev Med Hered 1996; 7: 11-16). Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains to penicillin. Material y methods: A multicentric transversal survey was performance between November 1993 to November 1994, in four hospitals of Lima-Perú. Samples of sputum, blood, CSF, and other fluids were co [...] llected from the microbiology laboratories of those centers. Susceptibility tests of the strains were performed by conventional methods in the laboratory of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical, 61 strains were included. Results: Only 2 (3.3%) of the strains isolated were resistant (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC>0.12 µg/mL). No high level resistant strains (MIC >2.0 µg/mL) were found in these samples. The other 59 (97.8%) strains were susceptible to penicillin (MIC range: 0.006-1.0 µg/mL). Both penicillin-resistant strains were susceptible to cefotaxime (MIC = 0.251 µg/mL), trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole (MIC = 8 µg/mL, 16 µg/mL), chloramphenicol (MIC = 1.0 µg/mL); Both strains were resistant to ampicillin, (MIC = 0.5 µg/mL, 1µg/mL). Four (6.6%) strains were resistant to ampicillin, (MIC: 0.06 - 4.0 µg/mL). One strain was (1.7%) resistant to Chloramphenicol, (MIC: 1.0 - 32.0 µg/mL). Only 1 (1.7%) was resistant to Trimethoprin/Sulfamethoxazole, (MIC: 1.00 - 32 µg/mL). All the strains were susceptible to Cefotaxime (MIC range: 0.007-0.251 µg/mL). (Rev Med Hered 1996; 7: 11-16).

  5. Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en niños: Report of a case due to penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae / Pneumococcal endocarditis in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. Soledad, Wenzel A; Marlis, Täger F; Roberto, Burgos L; M. Teresa, Bilbao M.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente de infección bacteriana invasora en niños; sin embargo, es extremadamente infrecuente como causa de endocarditis. Esta entidad clínica se manifiesta generalmente como una enfermedad aguda y grave con alta mortalidad, que requiere tratamiento médico-qui [...] rúrgico precoz, afectando con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años 4 meses, de extrema ruralidad, que presentó endocarditis infecciosa (EI) de válvula mitral asociada a meningitis, aislándose en hemocultivos S. pneumoniae resistente a penicilina y se discute las estrategias terapéuticas Abstract in english Despite S. pneumoniae is one of main etiologies of invasive bacterial infection in children, it rarely causes infectious endocarditis in children. Pneumococcal endocarditis is a serious condition that affects mainly the mitral valve, with a rapidly destructive nature and a high fatality rate, demand [...] ing prompt medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a school girl coming from extreme rurality who presented both meningitis and endocarditis, and whose blood cultures isolated penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae

  6. Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en niños: Report of a case due to penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumococcal endocarditis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soledad Wenzel A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente de infección bacteriana invasora en niños; sin embargo, es extremadamente infrecuente como causa de endocarditis. Esta entidad clínica se manifiesta generalmente como una enfermedad aguda y grave con alta mortalidad, que requiere tratamiento médico-quirúrgico precoz, afectando con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años 4 meses, de extrema ruralidad, que presentó endocarditis infecciosa (EI de válvula mitral asociada a meningitis, aislándose en hemocultivos S. pneumoniae resistente a penicilina y se discute las estrategias terapéuticasDespite S. pneumoniae is one of main etiologies of invasive bacterial infection in children, it rarely causes infectious endocarditis in children. Pneumococcal endocarditis is a serious condition that affects mainly the mitral valve, with a rapidly destructive nature and a high fatality rate, demanding prompt medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a school girl coming from extreme rurality who presented both meningitis and endocarditis, and whose blood cultures isolated penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae

  7. Streptococcus salivarius urease: genetic and biochemical characterization and expression in a dental plaque streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y Y; Clancy, K A; Burne, R A

    1996-02-01

    The hydrolysis of urea by urease enzyme of oral bacteria is believed to have a major impact on oral microbial ecology and to be intimately involved in oral health and diseases. To begin to understand the biochemistry and genetics of oral ureolysis, a study of the urease of Streptococcus salivarius, a highly ureolytic organism which is present in large numbers on the soft tissues of the oral cavity, has been initiated. By using as a probe a 0.6-kpb internal fragment of the S. salivarius 57.I ureC gene, two clones from subgenomic libraries of S. salivarius 57.I in an Escherichia coli plasmid vector were identified. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of one partial and six complete open reading frames which were most homologous to ureIAB-CEFGD of other ureolytic bacteria. Plasmid clones were generated to construct a complete gene cluster and used to transform E. coli and Streptococcus gordonii DL1, a nonureolytic, dental plaque microorganism. The recombinant organisms expressed high levels of urease activity when the growth medium was supplemented with NiCl2. The urease enzyme was purified from E. coli, and its biochemical properties were compared with those of the urease produced by S. salivarius and those of the urease produced by S. gordonii carrying the plasmid-borne ure genes. In all cases, the enzyme had a Km of 3.5 to 4.1 mM, a pH optimum near 7.0, and a temperature optimum near 60 degrees C. S. gordonii carrying the urease genes was then demonstrated to have a significant capacity to temper glycolytic acidification in vitro in the presence of concentrations of urea commonly found in the oral cavity. The ability to genetically engineer plaque bacteria that can modulate environmental pH through ureolysis will open the way to using recombinant ureolytic organisms to test hypotheses regarding the role of oral ureolysis in dental caries, calculus formation, and periodontal diseases. Such recombinant organisms may eventually prove useful for controlling dental caries by replacement therapy. PMID:8550211

  8. Colonización faucial por Streptococcus pyogenes en pacientes con impétigo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Cristina, Ronconi; Luis Antonio, Merino; Olga, Miranda.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la portación faucial de Streptococcus pyogenes en pacientes con impétigo, como factor de riesgo para la presentación de complicaciones no supurativas (glomerulonefritis aguda). Los cultivos de fauces de estos pacientes revelaron una colonización con S. pyogenes de 65 %, todos los aislam [...] ientos fueron sensibles a la penicilina. Se concluyó que este alto porcentaje de colonización faucial justificaba un tratamiento antibiótico sistémico. Abstract in english The faucial carrying of Streptococcus pyogenes in patients presenting impetigo was determined as a risk factor for non-suppurative complications (acute glomerulonephritis). The fauces cultures of these patients revealed a S. pyogenes colonization of 65 % and all the isolates were penicilline-sensiti [...] ve. It was concluded that the high percent of faucial colonization made a systemic antimicrobial treatment necessary.

  9. Colonización faucial por Streptococcus pyogenes en pacientes con impétigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Ronconi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la portación faucial de Streptococcus pyogenes en pacientes con impétigo, como factor de riesgo para la presentación de complicaciones no supurativas (glomerulonefritis aguda. Los cultivos de fauces de estos pacientes revelaron una colonización con S. pyogenes de 65 %, todos los aislamientos fueron sensibles a la penicilina. Se concluyó que este alto porcentaje de colonización faucial justificaba un tratamiento antibiótico sistémico.The faucial carrying of Streptococcus pyogenes in patients presenting impetigo was determined as a risk factor for non-suppurative complications (acute glomerulonephritis. The fauces cultures of these patients revealed a S. pyogenes colonization of 65 % and all the isolates were penicilline-sensitive. It was concluded that the high percent of faucial colonization made a systemic antimicrobial treatment necessary.

  10. Colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae during pregnancy: maternal and perinatal prognosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia, El Beitune; Geraldo, Duarte; Cláudia Maria Leite, Maffei.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed colonization by group B Streptococcus beta-haemolyticus of Lancefield (SGB), or Streptococcus agalactiae, in pregnant women, and the consequences of infection for the mother and newborn infant, including factors that influence the risk for anogenital colonization by SGB. We also examined [...] the methods for diagnosis and prophylaxis of SGB to prevent early-onset invasive neonatal bacterial disease. At present, it is justifiable to adopt anal and vaginal SGB culture as part of differentiated obstetrical care in order to reduce early neonatal infection. The rates, risk factors of maternal and neonatal SGB colonization, as well as the incidence of neonatal disease, may vary in different communities and need to be thoroughly evaluated in each country to allow the most appropriate preventive strategy to be selected.

  11. Evaluación de la colonización del tracto digestivo de cerdos por cepas de Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus, componentes de un producto probiótico / Gastrointestinal tract colonization evaluation in pigs by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophile strains, components of a probiotic product

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Pérez Ruano; Mabelin, Armenteros Amaya; Ernesto, Vega Cañizares.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la posible utilización como probiótico, de un producto compuesto por Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus, se estudió la colonización del tracto intestinal de cerdos recién nacidos, por los agentes componentes de este producto. Como probiótico se utilizó u [...] na mezcla de miel de caña, levadura torula y agua hasta completar 1000 ml y 25 ml del cultivo de Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus. Se conformaron cuatro grupos experimentales de la siguiente manera: Grupo 1: 18 crías (camada de dos cerdas) a las cuales se les aplicó 5 ml del producto por vía oral al nacimiento; Grupo 2: 17 crías (camada de dos cerdas) a las cuales se les aplicó 5 ml del producto por vía oral al nacimiento y 24 horas después del primer tratamiento; Grupo 3: 10 crías (camada de una cerda) a las que se les aplicó 5 ml del placebo por vía oral al nacimiento; Grupo 4: 12 crías (camada de una cerda) a las cuales se les aplicó 5 ml del placebo por vía oral al nacimiento y 24 horas después del primer tratamiento. A todos los animales se les realizó un hizopaje rectal a los 7, 14 y 21 días de finalizado el tratamiento. Se comprobó la colonización del tracto gastrointestinal por Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus en los cerdos tratados con el producto probiótico hasta los 14 días postratamiento y que esta no se encuentra influida por la frecuencia de aplicación del probiótico. Abstract in english With the aim of evaluating the possible use as a probiotic product composed by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus, the intestinal tract colonization of newborn pigs was studied by the components of this product. As a probiotic, a mixture of 150 ml of molasses and 100 mg torula [...] yeast was used and water was added completing 1000 ml and 25 ml of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus culture was added. Four experimental groups were formed as follows: Group 1: 18 piglets (a litter of two sows) which was applied 5 ml of the probiotic product orally at birth; Group 2: 17 piglets (a litter of two sows) which were applied 5 ml of the probiotic product orally at birth and at 24 hours after the first treatment; Group 3: 10 piglets (a litter of one sow) which were applied 5 ml of placebo orally at birth and Group 4: 12 piglets (a litter of one sow) which were applied 5 ml of placebo orally at birth and at 24 hours after the first treatment. A microbiological sampling by rectal swabs at 7, 14 and 21 days postreatment was applied to all animals. The gastrointestinal tract colonization by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was observed in pigs treated with the probiotic product until 14 days postreatment not being and this is not influenced by the frequency of probiotic application.

  12. Hyaluronidase production in Streptococcus milleri in relation to infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Unsworth, P. F.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and seven (41%) of 262 isolates of Streptococcus milleri, from human sources, produced hyaluronidase. Hyaluronidase production was commoner in beta haemolytic isolates 32 of 39 (82%), many of which were of Lancefield group F. But hyaluronidase was also found in alpha and non-haemolytic isolates, and in groups A, C, G, and non-groupable isolates. There was a strong association between hyaluronidase production and isolation from known internal abscesses (48/58, 83%) compared with is...

  13. Comparison of Streptokinase Activity from Streptococcus mutans using Different Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Anjum Zia, Rana Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Streptokinase is a novel bacterial fibrinolytic enzyme that binds and activates plasminogen and is produced by several species of Streptococci. Streptococcus mutans was selected for optimum production of streptokinase using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass in liquid state fermentation. Substrates were applied in different concentrations ranging from 0.1-0.8%. Maximum fibrinolytic activity was observed by 0.3% corn steep liquor, 0.5% molasses and rice polishing ...

  14. Effect of Streptococcus pneumoniae on human respiratory epithelium in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinfort, C; WILSON, R; Mitchell, T; Feldman, C; Rutman, A.; H. Todd; Sykes, D; Walker, J.; Saunders, K; Andrew, P. W.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 11 of 15 Streptococcus pneumoniae culture filtrates and all five bacterial autolysates produced by cell death in the stationary phase caused slowed ciliary beating and disruption of the surface integrity of human respiratory epithelium in organ culture. This effect was inhibited by cholesterol and was heat labile and reduced by standing at room temperature but was stable at -40 degrees C. The activity was detected at the late stationary phase of culture and was associated with the ...

  15. Diversity, Activity, and Evolution of CRISPR Loci in Streptococcus thermophilus? †

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Philippe; Romero, Dennis A.; Coûté-Monvoisin, Anne-Claire; Richards, Melissa; Deveau, Hélène; Moineau, Sylvain; Boyaval, Patrick; Fremaux, Christophe; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2007-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are hypervariable loci widely distributed in prokaryotes that provide acquired immunity against foreign genetic elements. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus thermophilus locus, CRISPR3, and experimentally demonstrate its ability to integrate novel spacers in response to bacteriophage. Also, we analyze CRISPR diversity and activity across three distinct CRISPR loci in several S. thermophilus strains. We show that both ...

  16. CRISPR Inhibition of Prophage Acquisition in Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Nozawa, Takashi (JAEA); Furukawa, Nayuta; Aikawa, Chihiro; Watanabe, Takayasu; Haobam, Bijaya; Kurokawa, Ken; Maruyama, Fumito; NAKAGAWA, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the major human pathogens, is a unique species since it has acquired diverse strain-specific virulence properties mainly through the acquisition of streptococcal prophages. In addition, S. pyogenes possesses clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas systems that can restrict horizontal gene transfer (HGT) including phage insertion. Therefore, it was of interest to examine the relationship between CRISPR and acquisition of prophages i...

  17. Differentiation of cultured keratinocytes promotes the adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    Darmstadt, G. L.; Fleckman, P.; Jonas, M.; Chi, E.; Rubens, C. E.

    1998-01-01

    Based on a consideration of the histopathology of nonbullous impetigo that shows localization of Streptococcus pyogenes to highly differentiated, subcorneal keratinocytes, we hypothesized that adherence of an impetigo strain of S. pyogenes would be promoted by terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. An assay was developed in which S. pyogenes adhered via pilus-like projections from the cell wall to the surface of cultured human keratinocytes in a time- and inoculum-dependent manner suggest...

  18. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Sfeir; Corinne Lefrançois; Dominique Baudoux; Séverine Derbré; Patricia Licznar

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils...

  19. Immunogenic Properties of Streptococcus agalactiae FbsA Fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Papasergi, Salvatore; Lanza Cariccio, Veronica; Pietrocola, Giampiero; Domina, Maria; D’Aliberti, Deborah; Trunfio, Maria Grazia; Signorino, Giacomo; Peppoloni, Samuele; Biondo, Carmelo; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Midiri, Angelina; Rindi, Simonetta; Teti, Giuseppe; SPEZIALE, PIETRO; Felici, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Gram-positive bacteria can avidly bind soluble and surface-associated fibrinogen (Fng), a property that is considered important in the pathogenesis of human infections. To gain insights into the mechanism by which group B Streptococcus (GBS), a frequent neonatal pathogen, interacts with Fng, we have screened two phage displayed genomic GBS libraries. All of the Fng-binding phage clones contained inserts encoding fragments of FbsA, a protein displaying multiple repeats. Sinc...

  20. The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection

    OpenAIRE

    Loof, Torsten G.; Deicke, Christin; Medina, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolysis and is a host defense mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system after tissue injury. During bacterial infections, the coagulation system cooperates with the inflammatory system to eliminate the invading pathogens. However, pathogenic bacteria have frequently evolved mechanisms to exploit the hemostatic system components for their own benefit. Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Stre...

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae y sus bacteriófagos: una prolongada controversia

    OpenAIRE

    López, Rubens

    2004-01-01

    Las enfermedades infecciosas matan anualmente a unos 15 millones de personas y la OMS estima que 1,6 millones de esas muertes se deben a infecciones neumocócicas. Streptococcus pneumoniae (neumococo), una bacteria con una notable contribución histórica a la biología, es el mejor ejemplo que ilustra el rápido desarrollo de la resistencia a los antibióticos, lo que puede originar un grave problema sanitario. Esta revisión analiza las bases moleculares de los dos factores principales d...

  2. Effects of monocytopenia and anticoagulation in experimental Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tho?rig, L.; Thompson, J.; Eulderink, F.; Emeis, J. J.; Furth, R.

    1980-01-01

    The role of blood monocytes in the attachment of streptococci to endocardial vegetations was investigated in an experimental Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis by depletion of blood monocytes with the cytostatic drug VP 16-213 alone and combined with anticoagulant treatment with warfarin sodium. The numbers of streptococci in the vegetations of control, monocytopenic, and monocytopenic/anticoagulated rabbits were comparable. In the vegetations streptococci were found mainly in areas free of p...

  3. Streptococcus suis Meningitis with Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Hee Jae; Park, Kyoung-jin; Jang, Ja-hyun; Lee, Mina; Lee, Jang Ho; Ahn, Yoon Hee; Kang, Cheol-in; Ki, Chang-seok; Lee, Nam Yong

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infection is an emerging zoonosis in Asia. The most common disease manifestation is meningitis, which is often associated with hearing loss and cochleovestibular signs. S. suis infection in humans mainly occurs among risk groups that have frequent exposure to pigs or raw pork. Here, we report a case of S. suis meningitis in a 67-yr-old pig carcass handler, who presented with dizziness and sensorineural hearing loss followed by headaches. Gram-positive diplococci were isolat...

  4. CcpA Ensures Optimal Metabolic Fitness of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Sandra M.; Kloosterman, Tomas G.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Neves, Ana Rute

    2011-01-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, the transcriptional regulator CcpA is at the core of catabolite control mechanisms. In the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, links between CcpA and virulence have been established, but its role as a master regulator in different nutritional environments remains to be elucidated. Thus, we performed whole-transcriptome and metabolic analyses of S. pneumoniae D39 and its isogenic ccpA mutant during growth on glucose or galactose, rapidly and slowly metabolized c...

  5. Catabolic control of sugar metabolism in Streptococcus thermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Bogaard, P. T. C.

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is used in many industrial dairy fermentations that require processing of milk at elevated temperatures. Its primary function is the rapid conversion of lactose to lactate while it also contributes to important sensory qualities. S. thermophilus strain CNRZ302 is unable to ferment galactose, neither the free sugar, nor when it is generated intracellularly by lactose hydrolysis. Nevertheless, sequence analysis demonstrated that strain CNRZ302 contained structurally i...

  6. Aryl-l-Aminoacylamidase Activities in Extracts of Streptococcus durans

    OpenAIRE

    Machuga, Edward J.

    1982-01-01

    Two distinct enzymes with aryl-l-aminoacylamidase activity were found in cellular extracts of Streptococcus durans. One of these enzymes was strictly an arylamidase lacking any observable N-terminal exopeptidase activity. The other enzyme functioned as an aminopeptidase capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of a variety of l-peptide and arylamide substrates. The arylamidase (molecular weight, 80,000) purified 425-fold to homogeneity preferred arylamides containing large hydrophobic side chains...

  7. Identification of Group A Streptococcus Antigenic Determinants Upregulated In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Kowthar Y.; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.; Chang, Peter; Bast, Darrin J.; Handfield, Martin; Hillman, Jeffrey D; De Azavedo, Joyce C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes a range of diseases in humans, from mild noninvasive infections to severe invasive infections. The molecular basis for the varying severity of disease remains unclear. We identified genes expressed during invasive disease using in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT), applied for the first time in a gram-positive organism. Convalescent-phase sera from patients with invasive disease were pooled, adsorbed against antigens derived from in vitro-grown GAS, an...

  8. Cytokine Induction by Streptococcus mutans and Pulpal Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Chin-lo; Best, Al M.; Tew, John G.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic pulpal inflammation under caries appears to be elicited by bacterial antigens that diffuse into the pulp through dentinal tubules. This prompted the hypothesis that cytokines elicited by antigens from Streptococcus mutans, which frequently dominates shallow lesions, could play a major role in eliciting the initial T-cell response in the pulp. To test this, we examined the ability of S. mutans to stimulate T cells and elicit cytokines and used Lactobacillus casei, which often predomina...

  9. Macrolide Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Ip, Margaret; Lyon, Donald J.; Yung, Raymond W. H.; Chan, Colin; Cheng, Augustine F. B.

    2001-01-01

    Erythromycin resistance rates among penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae were 38 and 92% among penicillin-intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae isolates from Hong Kong, respectively, and 27% (43 of 158) of the isolates showed the MLSB phenotype, and the majority carried the ermB gene; 73% (115 of 158) displayed the M phenotype, and all possessed the mef gene. The MLSB phenotype was predominant in penicillin-susceptible, macrolide-resistant isolates and in penicillin-nonsuscepti...

  10. Effects of Streptococcus Thermophilus Bacteria on rat gene expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Chegdani, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the impact of Streptococcus thermophiluds on the rat colonic epithelium. After generation of the model axenic rat and inoculated with S. thermophilus we have investigated the interplay between bacteria and host colon. Colonic epithelium gene expression was investigated also, with two different approaches: Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization. The subtraction library was prepared subtracting mRNA between epithelial cells from colonic mono-associa...

  11. Genetic analysis of fructan-hyperproducing strains of Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiska, D L; Macrina, F L

    1994-01-01

    Fructan polymer, synthesized from sucrose by the extracellular fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans, is thought to contribute to the progression of dental caries. It may serve as an extracellular storage polysaccharide facilitating survival and acid production. It may also have a role in adherence or accumulation of bacterial cells on the tooth surface. A number of clinical isolates of S. mutans which produce large, mucoid colonies on sucrose-containing agar as a result of increased p...

  12. Regulation of expression of Streptococcus mutans genes important to virulence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, M C; Curtiss, R

    1990-01-01

    Studies were initiated to investigate the regulation of Streptococcus mutans genes which are believed to be important to virulence. Operon fusions were constructed between S. mutans gene regulatory regions and a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) found on the plasmid pMH109. Specifically, fusions were generated between cat and the S. mutans genes encoding fructosyltransferase (ftf) and the glucosyltransferase B/C (gtfB/C) operon. Constructs were confirmed by restriction...

  13. Inactivation of cell-associated fructosyltransferase in Streptococcus salivarius.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, N A; Wittenberger, C L

    1981-01-01

    In stationary phase, 95% of the fructosyltransferase (FTase) activity of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975 was found associated with the cells. Within the first 15 min after inoculation into fresh medium, the specific activity of cell-associated FTase decreased by 92% of its initial value. After this period of initial loss, the enzyme was synthesized during exponential growth until a maximum level equivalent to that present before inoculation was obtained. The inactivation of FTase was also...

  14. Identification and preliminary characterization of a Streptococcus sanguis fibrillar glycoprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, E. J.; Ganeshkumar, N.; Song, M.(Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea); McBride, B. C.

    1987-01-01

    Cell surface fibrils could be released from Streptococcus sanguis 12 but not from strains 12na or N by freeze-thawing followed by brief homogenization. Fibrils were isolated from the homogenate by ultracentrifugation or ammonium sulfate precipitation. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of dense masses of aggregated fibrils in these preparations. Under nondenaturing conditions, no proteins were seen in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE anal...

  15. cadDX Operon of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-ywan M.; Feng, C. W.; Chiu, C. F.; Burne, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    A CadDX system that confers resistance to Cd2+ and Zn2+ was identified in Streptococcus salivarius 57.I. Unlike with other CadDX systems, the expression of the cad promoter was negatively regulated by CadX, and the repression was inducible by Cd2+ and Zn2+, similar to what was found for CadCA systems. The lower G+C content of the S. salivarius cadDX genes suggests acquisition by horizontal gene transfer.

  16. Small regulatory RNAs in Streptococcus pneumoniae: discovery and biological functions

    OpenAIRE

    Wilton, Joana; Acebo, Paloma; Herranz, Cristina; Gómez, Alicia; Amblar, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a prominent human pathogen responsible for many severe diseases and the leading cause of childhood mortality worldwide. The pneumococcus is remarkably adept at colonizing and infecting different niches in the human body, and its adaptation to dynamic host environment is a central aspect of its pathogenesis. In the last decade, increasing findings have evidenced small RNAs (sRNAs) as vital regulators in a number of important processes in bacteria. In S. pneumoniae, ...

  17. Erythromycin and Clindamycin Resistance and Telithromycin Susceptibility in Streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Betriu, C.; Culebras, E.; Go?mez, M.; Rodri?guez-avial, I.; Sa?nchez, B. A.; A?greda, M. C.; Picazo, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The rates of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin among Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated in our hospital increased from 4.2 and 0.8% in 1993 to 17.4 and 12.1%, respectively, in 2001. Erythromycin resistance was mainly due to the presence of an Erm(B) methylase, while the M phenotype was detected in 3.8% of the strains. Telithromycin was very active against erythromycin-resistant strains, irrespective of their mechanisms of macrolide resistance.

  18. Specific detection by PCR of Streptococcus agalactiae in milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, G.; Harel, J; Gottschalk, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and specific method for direct detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from cow's milk. The method was based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific and universal primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene. The amplification product was verified by restriction endonuclease digest and sequencing. Specific identification was proven on a collection of 147 S. agalactiae isolates of bovine and human origin. In addition, 17 strains belonging...

  19. Significant variation in transformation frequency in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Benjamin A.; Rozen, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    The naturally transformable bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is able to take up extracellular DNA and incorporate it into its genome. Maintaining natural transformation within a species requires that the benefits of transformation outweigh its costs. Although much is known about the distribution of natural transformation among bacterial species, little is known about the degree to which transformation frequencies vary within species. Here we find that there is significant variation in trans...

  20. Selection and application of Streptococcus bovis as a silage inoculant.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, B. A.; Muck, R E; Ricke, S. C.

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus bovis, a homolactic bacterium capable of utilizing starch, were evaluated for growth kinetics and ability to decrease the pH of alfalfa silage. A selected strain was evaluated for its competitiveness as an inoculant with Enterococcus faecium, an organism used in inoculants, and for its ability to enhance the effect of a commercial inoculant. Testing was completed over three studies using wilted alfalfa (28 to 34% dry matter) ensiled into laboratory silos. Treatm...

  1. Efficacies of cefotaxime and ceftriaxone in a mouse model of pneumonia induced by two penicillin- and cephalosporin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Sauve, C.; Azoulay-dupuis, E.; Moine, P.; Darras-joly, C.; Rieux, V.; Carbon, C.; Be?dos, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of ceftriaxone (CRO), at 50 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h, against a highly penicillin-resistant (MIC, 4 micrograms/ml) Streptococcus pneumoniae strain with low-level resistance to CRO (MIC, 0.5 microgram/ml) in a leukopenic-mouse pneumonia model (P. Moine, E. Vallée, E. Azoulay-Dupuis, P. Bourget, J.-P. Bédos, J. Bauchet, and J.-J. Pocidalo, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:1953-1958, 1994). In the present study, we assessed the activity of CRO ver...

  2. Roles of Salivary Components in Streptococcus mutans Colonization in a New Animal Model Using NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Tatsuro; Maeda, Takahide; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans plays an important role in biofilm formation on the tooth surface and is the primary causative agent of dental caries. The binding of S. mutans to the salivary pellicle is of considerable etiologic significance and is important in biofilm development. Recently, we produced NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? mice that show hyposalivation, lower salivary antibody, and an extended life span compared to the parent strain: NOD.e2f1?/?. In this study we used NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? 4 or 6 m...

  3. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starchigosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

  4. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, F A; Bergey, E J; Reddy, M S; Levine, M J

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch. PMID:2788139

  5. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de las infecciones por Streptococcus pyogenes en el período neonatal Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in the neonatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Alvarez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la infección por Estreptococo del grupo A en los recién nacidos egresados de hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutivos, quienes tuvieron infecciones por estreptococos del grupo A y que estuvieron ingresados en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre 1992 y el 2005. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad. RESULTADOS. Se registraron 20 recién nacidos con infección por estreptococos del grupo A, lo cual representó una tasa promedio anual de 0,2 cada 100 ingresos. Esta infección muestra una incidencia con tendencia significativa a disminuir en los últimos años. Según la clasificación utilizada, todas las infecciones fueron de inicio tardío y, de acuerdo al origen, predominaron las adquiridas en la comunidad (95,0 %. La infección de tejidos blandos fue la forma clínica más frecuente (10 de 20; 50 % y cursó con bacteriemia. Los aislamientos de estreptococos del grupo A tuvieron un 100 % de sensibilidad ante los betalactámicos. Hubo un solo paciente fallecido, afecto de meningitis, lo cual significó una tasa de letalidad del 5,0 %. CONCLUSIONES. El estreptococo del grupo A es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, fundamentalmente en el ambiente comunitario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central, a pesar del patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los betalactámicos.INTRODUCTION. The objective of the present investigation was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infection caused by group A Streptococcus in the newborn infants discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that included consecutive newborn infants who had infections caused by group A Streptococcus and that were admitted in the neonatology service of "Juan M. Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital between 1992 and 2005 was carried out. Different clinical and epidemiological variables were processed and analyzed by calculating the incidence and lethality rates. RESULTS. 20 newborn infants with infection caused by group A Streptococcus were registered, accounting for an annual average rate of 0.2 per 100 admissions. This infection shows an incidence with a significant trend to decrease in the last years. According to the classification used, all the infections had a late onset, and regarding their origin those acquired in the community prevailed (95.0 %. The infection of the soft tissues was the most common clinical form (10 of 20; 50 % and evolved with bacteremia. The isolations of group A Streptococcus has 100 % of sensitivity to betalactamics. Only one patient affected with meningitis died, which represented a lethality rate of 5.0 %. CONCLUSIONS. The group A Streptococcus is an agent causing infections that affect the newborn infant, mainly in the community environment. These infections may be lethal in some patients with infection of the central nervous system, in spite of the pattern of elevated susceptibility to betalactamics.

  6. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de las infecciones por Streptococcus pyogenes en el período neonatal / Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in the neonatal period

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Díaz Alvarez; Bárbara, Acosta Batista; Daniel, Claver Isás; María Teresa, Fernández de la Paz; Alicia, Martínez Izquierdo.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la infección por Estreptococo del grupo A en los recién nacidos egresados de hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutiv [...] os, quienes tuvieron infecciones por estreptococos del grupo A y que estuvieron ingresados en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre 1992 y el 2005. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad. RESULTADOS. Se registraron 20 recién nacidos con infección por estreptococos del grupo A, lo cual representó una tasa promedio anual de 0,2 cada 100 ingresos. Esta infección muestra una incidencia con tendencia significativa a disminuir en los últimos años. Según la clasificación utilizada, todas las infecciones fueron de inicio tardío y, de acuerdo al origen, predominaron las adquiridas en la comunidad (95,0 %). La infección de tejidos blandos fue la forma clínica más frecuente (10 de 20; 50 %) y cursó con bacteriemia. Los aislamientos de estreptococos del grupo A tuvieron un 100 % de sensibilidad ante los betalactámicos. Hubo un solo paciente fallecido, afecto de meningitis, lo cual significó una tasa de letalidad del 5,0 %. CONCLUSIONES. El estreptococo del grupo A es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, fundamentalmente en el ambiente comunitario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central, a pesar del patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los betalactámicos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION. The objective of the present investigation was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infection caused by group A Streptococcus in the newborn infants discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that included consecutive newborn infants [...] who had infections caused by group A Streptococcus and that were admitted in the neonatology service of "Juan M. Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital between 1992 and 2005 was carried out. Different clinical and epidemiological variables were processed and analyzed by calculating the incidence and lethality rates. RESULTS. 20 newborn infants with infection caused by group A Streptococcus were registered, accounting for an annual average rate of 0.2 per 100 admissions. This infection shows an incidence with a significant trend to decrease in the last years. According to the classification used, all the infections had a late onset, and regarding their origin those acquired in the community prevailed (95.0 %). The infection of the soft tissues was the most common clinical form (10 of 20; 50 %) and evolved with bacteremia. The isolations of group A Streptococcus has 100 % of sensitivity to betalactamics. Only one patient affected with meningitis died, which represented a lethality rate of 5.0 %. CONCLUSIONS. The group A Streptococcus is an agent causing infections that affect the newborn infant, mainly in the community environment. These infections may be lethal in some patients with infection of the central nervous system, in spite of the pattern of elevated susceptibility to betalactamics.

  7. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A - Z Index FACT SHEET Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ... CR); and combinations of various agents. Where riot control agents are found and how they are used ...

  8. Impact of immunization against SpyCEP during invasive disease with two streptococcal species: Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus equi

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Claire E; Kurupati, Prathiba; Wiles, Siouxsie; Edwards, Robert J; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2009-01-01

    Currently there is no licensed vaccine against the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. The highly conserved IL-8 cleaving S. pyogenes cell envelope proteinase SpyCEP is surface expressed and is a potential vaccine candidate. A recombinant N-terminal part of SpyCEP (CEP) was expressed and purified. AntiCEP antibodies were found to neutralize the IL-8 cleaving activity of SpyCEP. CEP-immunized mice had reduced bacterial dissemination from focal S. pyogenes intramuscular infection and intrana...

  9. The thioredoxin system in the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans and the food-industry bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Salvatore; Rullo, Rosario; Albino, Antonella; Masullo, Mariorosario; De Vendittis, Emmanuele; Amato, Massimo

    2013-11-01

    The Streptococcus genus includes the pathogenic species Streptococcus mutans, the main responsible of dental caries, and the safe microorganism Streptococcus thermophilus, used for the manufacture of dairy products. These facultative anaerobes control the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and indeed, both S. mutans and S. thermophilus possess a cambialistic superoxide dismutase, the key enzyme for a preventive action against ROS. To evaluate the properties of a crucial mechanism for repairing ROS damages, the molecular and functional characterization of the thioredoxin system in these streptococci was investigated. The putative genes encoding its protein components in S. mutans and S. thermophilus were analysed and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified. A single thioredoxin reductase was obtained from either S. mutans (SmTrxB) or S. thermophilus (StTrxB1), whereas two thioredoxins were prepared from either S. mutans (SmTrxA and SmTrxH1) or S. thermophilus (StTrxA1 and StTrxA2). Both SmTrxB and StTrxB1 reduced the synthetic substrate DTNB in the presence of NADPH, whereas only SmTrxA and StTrxA1 accelerated the insulin reduction in the presence of DTT. To reconstitute an in vitro streptococcal thioredoxin system, the combined activity of the thioredoxin components was tested through the insulin precipitation in the absence of DTT. The assay functions with a combination of SmTrxB or StTrxB1 with either SmTrxA or StTrxA1. These results suggest that the streptococcal members of the thioredoxin system display a direct functional interaction between them and that these protein components are interchangeable within the Streptococcus genus. In conclusion, our data prove the existence of a functioning thioredoxin system even in these microaerophiles. PMID:23954859

  10. Meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente: reporte de un caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olga María, Rodríguez Fernández; Odalis, Ferrer Morell; Yuneixy, Pérez Morales; Alexis, Sanchén Casas.

    1028-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Streptococcus pneumoniae es una bacteria que reside en el aparato respiratorio superior de las personas saludables, pero resulta una infección cuando alcanza localizaciones normalmente estériles, tales como el aparato respiratorio inferior, sistema circulatorio, y sistema nervioso cent [...] ral. Esto ocurre en personas inmunodeprimidas, por diferentes causas. Objetivo: destacar la virulencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae drogo resistente. Caso clínico: niña que llega al hospital por presentar un proceso respiratorio, de varios días de evolución, con fiebre y rinorrea. Ingresó en la sala de Infecciones Respiratorias. Comenzó con deshidratación y somnolencia, por lo que se le realizó una segunda punción lumbar, que resultó con salida de líquido cefalorraquídeo, purulento y presencia de 202 células a predominio de polimorfonucleares, glucosa disminuida, aumento de las proteínas, y Pandy xxxx. La niña se agrava y presenta signos de intenso edema cerebral, con fontanela abombada. Se trató con antimicrobianos como la vancomicina y el ceftriaxone, por varios días. En el laboratorio de Microbiología se confirmó el crecimiento de Streptococccus pneumoniae sensible al meronem que pasa a reemplazar al ceftriaxone. La paciente salió paulatinamente de su gravedad hasta que fue dada de alta con seguimiento y rehabilitación, por presentar secuelas. Conclusiones: este patógeno tan peligroso con sus atributos de virulencia y su elevada resistencia a los antimicrobianos, constituye un fenómeno emergente. Abstract in english Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterium that resides in the upper respiratory system of healthy people, but turns into infection, when it reaches usually sterile locations such as the lower respiratory system, the circulatory, and the central nervous systems. This occurs in immunocompr [...] omised persons, for different reasons. Objective: to point out the Streptococcus pneumoniae's virulence resistant to drugs. Clinical case: it is presented a girl who arrived at the hospital with a respiratory process, of several days of evolution with fever and rhinorrhea, the girl was admitted in the respiratory ward. She started with dehydratation and sleepiness; a second lumbar puncture was made, a purulent cerebrospinal fluid and the presence of 202 cells, most of them polymorphonuclear, with decreased glucose and a protein augmentation, with Pandy xxxx, was observed. The girl gets worse and presented an intense cerebral edema, with enlarged fontanel, she was treated with antimicrobials such as vancomycin and ceftriaxone for several days. The microbiology laboratory confirmed the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae sensitive to meronem and replaces ceftriaxone. Result: the patient gradually left his gravity until that she was discharged from hospital with follow-up and rehabilitation, by sequels. Conclusions: this dangerous pathogen with their attributes of virulence and its high resistance to antimicrobials is an emerging phenomenon.

  11. IDENTIFICACIÓN DEL GEN syl EN AISLAMIENTOS CUBANOS Streptococcus suis PROCEDENTES DE CERDOS MEDIANTE LA REACCIÓN EN CADENA DE LA POLIMERASA (PCR) / IDENTIFICATION OF syl GENE IN CUBAN ISOLATES OF Streptococcus suis FROM SWINE USING THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivette, Espinosa; Patricia, Domínguez; Evelyn, Lobo; P, Alfonso; Siomara, Martínez.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis es un coco anaerobio facultativo, considerado un importante agente asociado a meningitis, artritis, endocarditis y neumonía en cerdos. En este trabajo se realizó el aislamiento de S.suis a partir de diferentes condiciones clínicas como neumonía, abscesos en articulaciones y tonsil [...] as de animales asintomáticos. Se identificaron 14 cepas de S. suis: 11 a partir de pulmones, 2 de abscesos y 1 de tonsila. Las cepas mostraron diferentes patrones de pruebas bioquímicas. El gen que codifica para la hemolisina denominados suilisina (syl) se detectó por PCR solamente en 5 cepas de las cuales 4 proceden de pulmón y una de tonsila. Sin embargo, en los aislamientos procedentes de abscesos y asociados a artritis no se detectó la presencia de este gen, lo cual muestra un comportamiento similar a las cepas presentes en Norte América syl -, asociadas a enfermedad invasiva. Abstract in english Streptococcus suis is a facultative anaerobic coccus considered an important agent associated to meningitis, arthritis, endocarditis and pneumonia. In this work, the isolation of S. suis from different clinical conditions such as pneumonia, joint and tonsil in asymptomatic animals was carried out. F [...] ourteen strains of S. suis were identified: 11 from lungs, 2 from abscess and 1 from tonsils. The strains showed different pattern of biochemistry test. The syl gene codifying for suylisin was detected by PCR only in 5 strains, four coming from lung and one from tonsil. However, in the isolations from abscess and associated to arthritis, the presence of this gene was not detected showing a similar behaviour to the strains from North America (syl -) associated to invasive disease.

  12. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  13. Meningitis bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus suis en criadores de cerdos: comunicación de los primeros dos casos en Chile / Streptococcus suis meningitis in pig farmers: report of first two cases in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erica, Koch; Gino, Fuentes; Rodrigo, Carvajal; Ricardo, Palma; Verónica, Aguirre; Carolina, Cruz; Ruby, Henríquez; Mario, Calvo.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La infección humana por Streptococcus suis es una zoonosis con riesgo ocupacional conocido, siendo la meningitis aguda su manifestación clínica más frecuente. Se presentan los dos primeros casos en Chile. Primer caso: Mujer de 54 años con un cuadro de cefalea y vómitos, confusión y signos meníngeos. [...] Evolucionó con un shock séptico. Segundo caso: Varón de 48 años, refirió cefalea y vómitos. Presentó signos meníngeos al examen físico. En ambos casos en la tinción de Gram de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) se observaron cocáceas grampositivas. Fueron tratados con ceftriaxona y dexametasona. El cultivo de LCR fue positivo en ambos casos para S. suis serotipo 2. En los dos pacientes la evolución clínica fue favorable, sin alteraciones neurológicas al alta. En ambos casos se obtuvo en forma retrospectiva el antecedente de realizar labores de crianza de ganado porcino. Se destaca la importancia de investigar los antecedentes epidemiológicos para sospechar este agente etiológico en meningitis aguda. Se debe considerar el riesgo ocupacional en una posible infección por este patógeno humano emergente y educar a la población en riesgo sobre medidas preventivas simples. Abstract in english Human infection by Streptococcus suis is a zoonosis with a known occupational risk. Meningitis is its most frequent clinical manifestation. We present the first two cases in Chile. First case: 54-year-old female patient, pig-farmer. She presented headache, vomiting, confusion and meningismus. She pr [...] esented septic shock. Second case: 48-year-old male patient, also pig farmer, presented headache, vomiting and meningismus. A Gram's staining of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed gram-positive cocci in both cases. Ceftriaxone and dexamethasone treatment was administered. The CSF cultures were positive for Streptococcus suis serotype 2. The patients experienced a good outcome, without neurological sequelae at the time of discharge. It is considerable to evaluate epidemiologic factors in order to suspect this etiological agent in cases of meningitis. These cases enhance the need of heighten awareness of potential for occupational exposure and infection by this emerging human pathogen. Educating population at risk about simple preventive measures must be considered.

  14. Non-infectivity of Cattle Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as a Lancefield’s group B Streptococcus (GBS). It is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis that is responsible for severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish, worldwide. Streptococcus agalactiae also causes bovine mastitis. Only limited comparativ...

  15. Significance of Gram's Stain in Rapid Intrapartum Screening for Maternal Carriership of Group B Streptococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaanse, Albert H.; Muytjens, Harry L.; Kolle?e, Louis A. A.; Nijhuis, Jan G.; Hoogkamp-korstanje, Jacomina A. A.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) is an important cause of neonatal sepsis. Prevention is possible by intrapartum screening for maternal GBS carriership and antimicrobial treatment of colonized women with risk factors during labor. The conflicting results of diagnostic performance are reported both for the newly developed rapid GBS antigen tests and Gram's stain.

  16. Identification of a pheA gene associated with Streptococcus mitis by using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Kuk; Dang, Hien Thanh; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Wonyong

    2012-04-01

    We performed suppression subtractive hybridization to identify genomic differences between Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on the pheA gene, a primer set specific to S. mitis detection was found in 18 out of 103 S. mitis-specific clones. Our findings would be useful for discrimination of S. mitis from other closely related cocci in the oral environment. PMID:22307284

  17. Identification of a pheA Gene Associated with Streptococcus mitis by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hee Kuk; Dang, Hien Thanh; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Wonyong

    2012-01-01

    We performed suppression subtractive hybridization to identify genomic differences between Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on the pheA gene, a primer set specific to S. mitis detection was found in 18 out of 103 S. mitis-specific clones. Our findings would be useful for discrimination of S. mitis from other closely related cocci in the oral environment.

  18. A comparative investigation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from fish and cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis and causes severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish and cattle, worldwide. In fish, infection can result in septicemia with hemorrhages on the body surface and in the external and internal organs. Streptococcus agalacti...

  19. Evaluation of genotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans using distinct arbitrary primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cínthia Pereira Machado Tabchoury

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR with arbitrary primers, several primers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11 presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Supplemented-Chewing Candy Against Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD ENDANG ZAINAL HASAN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is considered to play a major etiological role in development of human dental plaque believed to related to dental caries, the most prevalent disease of the human oral cavity. The objectives of the present study were to formulate and produce propolis supplemented-chewing candy and to investigate its antibacterial activity against S. mutans. Propolis is a natural resinous bee-hive product thought to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating activities. Propolis was extracted from hives of bees of Trigona spp. using ethanol. The extract was coated with maltodextrine and homogenized to generate propolis microparticles. The particles were introduced into chewing candy preparations for the production of propolis supplemented-chewing candy. The candy was then subjected to in vitro antibacterial assays to test its activity against S. mutans isolated from human dental plaque. Results showed that the ethanol extracted propolis of Trigona spp. bee-hives can be homogenized to form propolis microparticles. The propolis microparticles could be used as a supplement in the formulation of chewing candy preparations. The propolis supplemented-chewing candy showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans. The candy, therefore, has the potential to be used as an antiplaque agent for prevention of dental caries.

  1. BrpA is involved in regulation of cell envelope stress responses in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitoun, J P; Liao, S; Yao, X; Ahn, S-J; Isoda, R; Nguyen, A H; Brady, L J; Burne, R A; Abranches, J; Wen, Z T

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that BrpA plays a major role in acid and oxidative stress tolerance and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Mutant strains lacking BrpA also display increased autolysis and decreased viability, suggesting a role for BrpA in cell envelope integrity. In this study, we examined the impact of BrpA deficiency on cell envelope stresses induced by envelope-active antimicrobials. Compared to the wild-type strain UA159, the BrpA-deficient mutant (TW14D) was significantly more susceptible to antimicrobial agents, especially lipid II inhibitors. Several genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis were identified by DNA microarray analysis as downregulated in TW14D. Luciferase reporter gene fusion assays also revealed that expression of brpA is regulated in response to environmental conditions and stresses induced by exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of cell envelope antimicrobials. In a Galleria mellonella (wax worm) model, BrpA deficiency was shown to diminish the virulence of S. mutans OMZ175, which, unlike S. mutans UA159, efficiently kills the worms. Collectively, these results suggest that BrpA plays a role in the regulation of cell envelope integrity and that deficiency of BrpA adversely affects the fitness and diminishes the virulence of OMZ175, a highly invasive strain of S. mutans. PMID:22327589

  2. First report of Streptococcus iniae in red porgy (Pagrus pagrus, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aamri, F; Padilla, D; Acosta, F; Caballero, M J; Roo, J; Bravo, J; Vivas, J; Real, F

    2010-11-01

    This work describes the first isolation of Streptococcus iniae in red porgy, Pagrus pagrus (L.), and the first European isolation of this pathogen in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata (L.). In both farmed fish species, infection resulted in lethargy, anorexia, abnormal swimming, exophthalmia and sudden death, with mortality rates of over 25% in red porgy and 10% in gilthead seabream. Beta-haemolytic Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative and oxidase negative, were isolated in pure culture from internal organs. Conventional and rapid identification systems, and 16S rRNA gene partial sequencing were used to identify the causative agent of the natural disease. LD50 trials were carried out to show the virulence of this isolated strain in these species, with values of 1.7 × 104 CFU per fish in red porgy and 1.32 × 105 CFU per fish in gilthead seabream. The most prominent lesions were meningoencephalitis and multifocal infiltration of macrophage cells in the kidney and spleen. PMID:21504081

  3. Sulfonamide inhibition study of the ?-class carbonic anhydrase from the caries producing pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, Nurcan; DeLuca, Viviana; Isik, Semra; Yildirim, Hatice; Kockar, Feray; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans, the oral pathogenic bacterium provoking dental caries formation, encodes for a ?-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), SmuCA. This enzyme was cloned, characterized and investigated for its inhibition profile with the major class of CA inhibitors, the primary sulfonamides. SmuCA has a good catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction, with a kcat of 4.2×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/Km of 5.8×10(7)M(-1)×s(-1), and is efficiently inhibited by most sulfonamides (KIs of 246nM-13.5?M). The best SmuCA inhibitors were bromosulfanilamide, deacetylated acetazolamide, 4-hydroxymethylbenzenesulfonamide, a pyrimidine-substituted sulfanilamide derivative, aminobenzolamide and compounds structurally similar to it, as well as acetazolamide, methazolamide, indisulam and valdecoxib. These compounds showed inhibition constants ranging between 246 and 468nM. Identification of effective inhibitors of this enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the role of S. mutans CAs in dental caries formation, and eventually the development of pharmacological agents with a new mechanism of antibacterial action. PMID:25913199

  4. The Collagen Binding Protein Cnm Contributes to Oral Colonization and Cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans OMZ175.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James H; Avilés-Reyes, Alejandro; Scott-Anne, Kathy; Gregoire, Stacy; Watson, Gene E; Sampson, Edith; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Koo, Hyun; Bowen, William H; Lemos, José A; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2015-05-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the etiological agent of dental caries and one of the many bacterial species implicated in infective endocarditis. The expression of the collagen-binding protein Cnm by S. mutans has been associated with extraoral infections, but its relevance for dental caries has only been theorized to date. Due to the collagenous composition of dentinal and root tissues, we hypothesized that Cnm may facilitate the colonization of these surfaces, thereby enhancing the pathogenic potential of S. mutans in advancing carious lesions. As shown for extraoral endothelial cell lines, Cnm mediates the invasion of oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts by S. mutans. In this study, we show that in the Cnm(+) native strain, OMZ175, Cnm mediates stringent adhesion to dentinal and root tissues as well as collagen-coated surfaces and promotes both cariogenicity and carriage in vivo. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments revealed that while Cnm is not universally required for S. mutans cariogenicity, it contributes to (i) the invasion of the oral epithelium, (ii) enhanced binding on collagenous surfaces, (iii) implantation of oral biofilms, and (IV) the severity of caries due to a native Cnm(+) isolate. Taken together, our findings reveal that Cnm is a colonization factor that contributes to the pathogenicity of certain S. mutans strains in their native habitat, the oral cavity. PMID:25733523

  5. Evaluation of genotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans using distinct arbitrary primers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cínthia Pereira Machado, Tabchoury; Maria Clara K., Sousa; Rodrigo Alex, Arthur; Renata Oliveira, Mattos-Graner; Altair Antoninha, Del Bel Cury; Jaime Aparecido, Cury.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with arbitrary primers, several prim [...] ers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11) presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.

  6. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing noninvasive diseases in a Children's Hospital, Shanghai

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fen, Pan; Lizhong, Han; Jing, Kong; Chun, Wang; Huihong, Qin; Shuzhen, Xiao; Junying, Zhu; Hong, Zhang.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae, which cause noninvasive pneumococcal diseases, severely impair children's health. This study analyzed serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae from January 2012 to December 2012 in a Children's Hospital, Shanghai. Methods: A total of [...] 328 pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by multiplex sequential PCR and/or capsule-quellung reaction. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for 11 antimi- crobial agents were determined by broth microdilution method. Results: Among 328 strains, 19F (36.3%), 19A (13.4%), 6A (11.9%), 23F (11.0%), 14 (5.8%), 6B (5.2%), and 15B/C (4.3%) were the most common serotypes. The coverage rates of 7-, 10-, and 13-valent conjugate vaccines (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13) were 58.2%, 58.2%, and 84.1%, respectively. Out of the isolates, 26 (7.9%) strains were penicillin resistant. Most of the strains displayed high resistance rate to macrolides (98.5% to erythromycin, 97.9% to azithromycin, and 97.0% to clindamycin). Conclusions: The potential coverage of PCV13 is higher than PCV7 and PCV10 because of the emergence of 19A and there should be long-term and systematic surveillance for non-vaccine serotypes.

  7. Antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities of high molecular weight coffee components against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, Monica; Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Schito, Anna Maria; Gazzani, Gabriella; Pruzzo, Carla; Daglia, Maria

    2010-11-24

    In previous studies we demonstrated that green and roasted coffee contains low molecular weight (LMW) compounds capable of inhibiting the ability of Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of human dental caries, to adhere to hydroxyapatite (HA) beads. This study addressed the ability of the whole high molecular weight coffee fraction (cHMW) and of its melanoidin and non-melanoidin components (GFC1-5), applied at concentrations that occur in coffee beverages, to (i) inhibit S. mutans growth; (ii) affect S. mutans sucrose-dependent adhesion to and detachment from saliva-coated HA beads (sHA); and (iii) inhibit biofilm development on microtiter plates. The results indicated that only cHMW is endowed with antimicrobial activity. The cHMW fraction and each of the five GFC components inhibited S. mutans adhesion, the strongest effect being exerted by cHMW (91%) and GFC1 (88%). S. mutans detachment from sHA was four times greater (?20%) with cHMW and the GFC1 and GFC4 melanoidins than with controls. Finally, biofilm production by S. mutans was completely abolished by cHMW and was reduced by 20% by the melanoidin components GFC2 and GFC4 and by the non-melanoidin component GFC5 compared with controls. Altogether these findings show that coffee beverage contains both LMW compounds and HMW melanoidin and non-melanoidin components with a strong ability to interfere in vitro with the S. mutans traits relevant for cariogenesis. PMID:21038921

  8. Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana Castro Abreu, Pinto; Natália Silva, Costa; Ana Beatriz de Almeida, Corrêa; Ivi Cristina Menezes de, Oliveira; Marcos Correa de, Mattos; Alexandre Soares, Rosado; Leslie Claude, Benchetrit.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance g [...] enes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated the presence of Tet resistance genes (tetM and tetO) and CTns among Ery-resistant (Ery-R) and Ery-susceptible (Ery-S) GBS strains isolated from human and bovine sources; and analyzed the ability for transferring resistance determinants between strains from both origins. Tet resistance and int-Tn genes were more common among Ery-R when compared to Ery-S isolates. Conjugative transfer of all resistance genes detected among the GBS strains included in this study (ermA, ermB, mef, tetM and tetO), in frequencies between 1.10-7 and 9.10-7, was possible from bovine donor strains to human recipient strain, but not the other way around. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of in vitro conjugation of Ery and Tet resistance genes among GBS strains recovered from different hosts.

  9. Control of Streptococcus sanguinis oral biofilm by novel chlorhexidine-chitosan mouthwash: an in vitro study

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    Bangalore V. Karthikeyan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most common prevalent infectious oral diseases in humans are caries and periodontal diseases, which are usually associated with dental plaque. The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate and compare the impact of new mouthwash formulation consisting of chlorhexidine (0.1% and bioadhesive chitosan (0.5% on dental plaque bacterial reduction, to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. Methods: In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Streptococcus sanguinis from clinical plaque samples to four different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates to chlorhexidine (0.2%, chitosan (0.5%, chlorhexidine (0.1% plus chitosan (0.5% combination and saline were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Results: The zone of inhibition showed that chlorhexidine, chitosan and chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthwash exert an antimicrobial activity. A markedly higher and significant activity was obtained with chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthwash. On intergroup comparison there were statistically significant differences between all the tested solutions, except between chlorhexidine and chitosan mouthwash. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the present study, results showed that chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthrinse are superior in antimicrobial activity than chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 165-169

  10. Effect of Eugenol against Streptococcus agalactiae and Synergistic Interaction with Biologically Produced Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini Biasi-Garbin, Renata; Saori Otaguiri, Eliane; Fernandes da Silva, Mayara; Belotto Morguette, Ana Elisa; Armando Contreras Lancheros, César; Kian, Danielle; Perugini, Márcia Regina Eches; Durán, Nelson; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci (GBS)) is an important infections agent in newborns associated with maternal vaginal colonization. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in GBS-colonized pregnant women has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of early neonatal infection in various geographic regions. However, this strategy may lead to resistance selecting among GBS, indicating the need for new alternatives to prevent bacterial transmission and even to treat GBS infections. This study reported for the first time the effect of eugenol on GBS isolated from colonized women, alone and in combination with silver nanoparticles produced by Fusarium oxysporum (AgNPbio). Eugenol showed a bactericidal effect against planktonic cells of all GBS strains, and this effect appeared to be time-dependent as judged by the time-kill curves and viability analysis. Combination of eugenol with AgNPbio resulted in a strong synergistic activity, significantly reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration values of both compounds. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed fragmented cells and changes in bacterial morphology after incubation with eugenol. In addition, eugenol inhibited the viability of sessile cells during biofilm formation and in mature biofilms. These results indicate the potential of eugenol as an alternative for controlling GBS infections.

  11. Perfil fermentativo e valor nutritivo de silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis / Fermentation and nutritive value of elephant grass silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.J., Ferreira; A.M., Zanine; E.M., Santos; R.P., Lana; W.L., Silva; A.L., Souza; O.G., Pereira.

    1223-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da inoculação de estirpes de Streptococcus bovis (HC5 e JB1) sobre o pH, a produção de amônia e o valor nutricional em silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, c [...] om três tratamentos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - capimelefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis HC5 e T3 - capim-elefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis JB1, utilizando cinco repetições por tratamento. A menor concentração de amônia foi observada na silagem tratada com inoculante à base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5,90 p.100 N-total). A inoculação aumentou os teores de ácido láctico e diminuiu os teores de ácidos acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo que as silagens inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 e HC5 foram os que apresentaram os maiores valores de ácido láctico. Não houve diferença estatística para os teores de MS e PB. Para os valores das fibras, a silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 apresentou o menor valor de FDN (59,77 p.100) e HEM (26,71 p.100). O maior valor da DIVMS foi observado na silagem com Streptococcus bovis JB1, mostrando superioridade de quatro pontos percentuais (64,23 p.100) em relação ao tratamento sem inoculante bacteriano (60,35 p.100). O uso Streptococcus bovis JB1 melhora o processo fermentativo além de promover melhorarias na qualidade da fibra e na DIVMS da silagem estudada. Abstract in english The experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of strains of Streptococcus bovis (HC5 and JB1) on pH, ammonia production and nutritional value in elephant-grass silages (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). The experimental design was entirely randomized, with three treatments: T1 elephant- grass, T2 - [...] grass-elephant inoculated with Streptococcus bovis HC5, T3 - elephant grass inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, totaling five replicates per treatment. The smallest value of ammonia was observed in the silage treated with inoculante the base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5.90% N-total). Inoculation increased the levels of lactic acid and decreased levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids, and the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 were those with the highest values of lactic acid. There were not statistical differences for the tenors of dry matter (MS) and crude protein (PB). For the values of the fibers, the grass-elephant silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, it presented the smallest value of neutral detergent fiber (59.77 %) and Hemicellulose (26.71 %). The largest value of in vitro dry matter digestibility (DIVMS) was observed in the silage with Streptococcus bovis JB1, showing superiority of four percentile points (64.23 %) in relation to the treatment without bacterial inoculante (60.35 %). The use Streptococcus bovis JB1 was efficient in the process fermentativo besides promoting would get better in the quality of the fiber and DIVMS in the studied silage.

  12. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL TRICHODINA SP.PARASITISM ON EXPERIMENTAL STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE OR Streptococcus AGALACTIAE INFECTION AND SURVIVAL OF YOUNG CHANNEL CATFISH ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS (RAFINESQUE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

  13. SHILA SINDURA: AN ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT

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    Dasari Srilakshmi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kupipakwa rasayana is a unique and highly evolved pharmaceutical preparation of the four murchita parada yogas. Shila Sindura is sagandha (with sulphur, sagni (processing with heat, kantastha (near the neck of the bottle murchita parada yoga, which has mercury (parada, sulphur (gandhaka and arsenic di sulphide (manashila as ingredients. It is indicated in all types of skin disorders (sarva kushtahara, skin problems associated with itching (kandu, rakta dosha hara (vitiated raktadhatu and other diseases of infectious origin like fever (jwara, sannipataja jwara, abscess (vidradhi, gonorrhoea (upadamsha, medhya, rasayana and hridya at a dose of 125-250 mg (1-2 ratti. Antimicrobial activity of Shila Sindura was conducted against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungus to evaluate its efficacy as broad spectrum antibiotic. So an attempt had been made to put forth “Shila Sindura: An Antimicrobial Agent”. Shila Sindura has an effective antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans in both Gradient plate technique and Kirby bauer method.

  14. Chelating agents inhibit activity and prevent expression of streptococcal glucan-binding lectins.

    OpenAIRE

    Lü-Lü; Singh, J. S.; Galperin, M Y; Drake, D; Taylor, K. G.; Doyle, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Several of the cariogenic mutans streptococci produce cell wall-associated glucan-binding lectins (GBLs). The lectins bind alpha-1,6-linked glucans and have no affinity for other polysaccharides or anomeric linkages. When citrate or lactate was included in the growth medium, expression of the activities of the GBLs of Streptococcus cricetus and S. sobrinus was prevented. Furthermore, chelating agents, including citrate, lactate, EDTA, and acetylacetone, were able to reversibly inhibit glucan-...

  15. Serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae en Cuba y progresión de la resistencia a la penicilina Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in Cuba and progression of resistance to penicilina

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    Gilda T. Toraño Peraza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: en Cuba, a partir de 2006, ha sido difícil establecer la incidencia real de las meningitis bacterianas y otras enfermedades invasivas por Streptococcus pneumoniae, como consecuencia del bajo porcentaje de aislamiento e identificación de este agente en la red de laboratorios de microbiología del país. OBJETIVO: alertar sobre la necesidad de revitalizar la vigilancia activa de la enfermedad neumocócica invasiva, epidemiológica y microbiológica, fundamentalmente las meningitis y neumonías, en la etapa previa a la vacunación. MÉTODOS: se compararon la circulación de los serogrupos/serotipos capsulares y la susceptibilidad a penicilina de los aislamientos de S. pneumoniae responsables de infecciones invasivas, en dos períodos de la vigilancia: años 1994-2006 y 2007-2009. RESULTADOS: los serogrupos más frecuentes fueron: 3, 6, 7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20 y 23, pero se constató durante el segundo período de estudio, la circulación de otros no contenidos en las vacunas conjugadas disponibles comercialmente (serogrupo 15 y asociados a resistencia a antimicrobianos (serotipo 5. Por otra parte, se puso de manifiesto un incremento de la resistencia a la penicilina. CONCLUSIONES: para garantizar una alta efectividad con la inclusión en el calendario de vacunación infantil en Cuba, de alguna de las vacunas conjugadas contra S. pneumoniae, se impone el estudio de un número más representativo de aislamientos. Esto también permitirá hacer una correcta evaluación de la tendencia al incremento de la resistencia a la penicilina y adoptar guías de tratamiento adecuadas en el medio cubano.INTRODUCTION: since 2006 in Cuba, there has been difficult to determine the actual incidente of bacterial meningitis and other invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, as a result of the low percentage of isolation and identification of this agent in the domestic microbiology lab network. OBJECTIVE: to warn of the need of revitalizing the active surveillance of invasive, epidemiological and microbiological pneumoccocic diseases, mainly meningitis and pneumoniae in the phase prior to vaccination. METHODS: a comparison was made on the circulation of capsulary serogroups/serotypes and the invasive infection-causing S. pneumoniae isolates susceptibility to penicilline in two periods: 1994-2006 and 2007-2009. RESULTS: the most frequent serogroups were 3, 6, 7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 23; however, in the second period, it was observed that others not contained in the available conjugate vaccines (serogrup 15 and associated to antimicrobial resistance (serotype 5 were circulating. On the other hand, increased resistance to penicilline was evident. CONCLUSIONS: it is required to study a more representative number of isolates in order to assure high effectiveness with the incorporation of some S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccines in the Cuban infant vaccination schedule. This will also allow duly assessing increased resistance to penicilline and adopting therapeutical guidelines suited to the Cuban setting.

  16. Serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae en Cuba y progresión de la resistencia a la penicilina / Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in Cuba and progression of resistance to penicilina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilda T., Toraño Peraza; Rafael, Llanes Caballero; Lisania M., Pías Solis; Miriam, Abreu Capote; Marlén, Valcárcel Sánchez.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: en Cuba, a partir de 2006, ha sido difícil establecer la incidencia real de las meningitis bacterianas y otras enfermedades invasivas por Streptococcus pneumoniae, como consecuencia del bajo porcentaje de aislamiento e identificación de este agente en la red de laboratorios de microbio [...] logía del país. OBJETIVO: alertar sobre la necesidad de revitalizar la vigilancia activa de la enfermedad neumocócica invasiva, epidemiológica y microbiológica, fundamentalmente las meningitis y neumonías, en la etapa previa a la vacunación. MÉTODOS: se compararon la circulación de los serogrupos/serotipos capsulares y la susceptibilidad a penicilina de los aislamientos de S. pneumoniae responsables de infecciones invasivas, en dos períodos de la vigilancia: años 1994-2006 y 2007-2009. RESULTADOS: los serogrupos más frecuentes fueron: 3, 6, 7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20 y 23, pero se constató durante el segundo período de estudio, la circulación de otros no contenidos en las vacunas conjugadas disponibles comercialmente (serogrupo 15) y asociados a resistencia a antimicrobianos (serotipo 5). Por otra parte, se puso de manifiesto un incremento de la resistencia a la penicilina. CONCLUSIONES: para garantizar una alta efectividad con la inclusión en el calendario de vacunación infantil en Cuba, de alguna de las vacunas conjugadas contra S. pneumoniae, se impone el estudio de un número más representativo de aislamientos. Esto también permitirá hacer una correcta evaluación de la tendencia al incremento de la resistencia a la penicilina y adoptar guías de tratamiento adecuadas en el medio cubano. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: since 2006 in Cuba, there has been difficult to determine the actual incidente of bacterial meningitis and other invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, as a result of the low percentage of isolation and identification of this agent in the domestic microbiology lab networ [...] k. OBJECTIVE: to warn of the need of revitalizing the active surveillance of invasive, epidemiological and microbiological pneumoccocic diseases, mainly meningitis and pneumoniae in the phase prior to vaccination. METHODS: a comparison was made on the circulation of capsulary serogroups/serotypes and the invasive infection-causing S. pneumoniae isolates susceptibility to penicilline in two periods: 1994-2006 and 2007-2009. RESULTS: the most frequent serogroups were 3, 6, 7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 23; however, in the second period, it was observed that others not contained in the available conjugate vaccines (serogrup 15) and associated to antimicrobial resistance (serotype 5) were circulating. On the other hand, increased resistance to penicilline was evident. CONCLUSIONS: it is required to study a more representative number of isolates in order to assure high effectiveness with the incorporation of some S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccines in the Cuban infant vaccination schedule. This will also allow duly assessing increased resistance to penicilline and adopting therapeutical guidelines suited to the Cuban setting.

  17. Clonal characterization of Streptococcus mutans strains by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis Caracterização clonal de cepas de Streptococcus mutans por eletroforese de enzimas codificadas por multilocus

    OpenAIRE

    Rosimeire Takaki Rosa; Marcelo Henrique Napimoga; José Francisco Höfling; Reginaldo Bruno Gonçalves; Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro Rosa

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-one Streptococcus mutans strains were clustered by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE). Six isoenzymes showed strong infra-specific discriminatory power (M1P, MPI, PLP, NSP, GOT, and LAP). MLEE is a robust technique that may be used to explore clonal diversity of S. mutans isolates in epidemiological surveys.Vinte e uma cepas de Streptococcus mutans foram agrupadas pela eletroforese de enzimas codificadas por multilocus (MLEE). Seis isoenzimas apresentaram forte poder discriminat?...

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae and its bacteriophages: one long argument / Streptococcus pneumoniae e seus bacteriófagos: uma prolongada controvérsia / Streptococcus pneumoniae y sus bacteriófagos: una prolongada controversia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubens, López.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available As enfermidades infecciosas matam anualmente cêrca de 15 milhões de pessoas. A OMS estima que 1,6 milhões dessas mortes são decorrentes de infeccões pneumocócicas. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococo), uma bactéria com uma notável contribuição histórica para a biologia, é o melhor exemplo que ilust [...] ra o rápido desenvolvimento da resistência aos antibióticos, o que pode originar um grave problema sanitário. Esta revisão analisa as bases moleculares dos fatores principais de virulência no pneumococo, a cápsula e as hidrolases da parede celular e descreve novos enfoques para o desenvolvimento de ferramentas médicas inovadoras para prevenir as infecções pneumocócicas. Também foi analisado o atual conhecimento da possível contribuição dos fagos de pneumococo para a virulência desta bactéria e o uso como arma terapéutica das enzimas líticas codificadas por estes fagos. Abstract in spanish Las enfermedades infecciosas matan anualmente a unos 15 millones de personas y la OMS estima que 1,6 millones de esas muertes se deben a infecciones neumocócicas. Streptococcus pneumoniae (neumococo), una bacteria con una notable contribución histórica a la biología, es el mejor ejemplo que ilustra [...] el rápido desarrollo de la resistencia a los antibióticos, lo que puede originar un grave problema sanitario. Esta revisión analiza las bases moleculares de los dos factores principales de virulencia en el neumococo, la cápsula y las hidrolasas de la pared celular y describe nuevos enfoques para el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas médicas para prevenir las infecciones neumocócicas. También se analizan el conocimiento actual de la posible contribución de los fagos de neumococo a la virulencia de esta bacteria y el uso como arma terapéutica de las enzimas líticas codificadas por estos fagos. Abstract in english Infectious diseases currently kill more than 15 million people annually, and the WHO estimates that every year 1.6 million people die from pneumococcal diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), a bacterium with along biological pedigree, best illustrates the rapid evolution of antibiotic re [...] sistance,which has led to major public health concern. This article discusses the molecularbasis of the two main virulence factors of pneumococcus, the capsule and cell-wall hydrolases, as well as new approaches to developing medicinal weapons for preventing pneumococcal infections. In addition, current knowledge regarding pneumococcal phages as potential contributors to virulence and the use of lytic enzymes encoded by these phages as therapeutic tools is reviewed.

  19. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delannoy Christian MJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26, seals (n = 6, a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host-associated genome content of S. agalactiae strains.

  20. Genomics of Streptococcus salivarius, a major human commensal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Christine; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Renault, Pierre; Guédon, Eric

    2015-07-01

    The salivarius group of streptococci is of particular importance for humans. This group consists of three genetically similar species, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus vestibularis and Streptococcus thermophilus. S. salivarius and S. vestibularis are commensal organisms that may occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans, whereas S. thermophilus is a food bacterium widely used in dairy production. We developed Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and comparative genomic analysis to confirm the clear separation of these three species. These analyses also identified a subgroup of four strains, with a core genome diverging by about 10%, in terms of its nucleotide sequence, from that of S. salivarius sensu stricto. S. thermophilus species displays a low level of nucleotide variability, due to its recent emergence with the development of agriculture. By contrast, nucleotide variability is high in the other two species of the salivarius group, reflecting their long-standing association with humans. The species of the salivarius group have genome sizes ranging from the smallest (?1.7Mb for S. thermophilus) to the largest (?2.3Mb for S. salivarius) among streptococci, reflecting genome reduction linked to a narrow, nutritionally rich environment for S. thermophilus, and natural, more competitive niches for the other two species. Analyses of genomic content have indicated that the core genes of S. salivarius account for about two thirds of the genome, indicating considerable variability of gene content and differences in potential adaptive features. Furthermore, we showed that the genome of this species is exceptionally rich in genes encoding surface factors, glycosyltransferases and response regulators. Evidence of widespread genetic exchanges was obtained, probably involving a natural competence system and the presence of diverse mobile elements. However, although the S. salivarius strains studied were isolated from several human body-related sites (all levels of the digestive tract, skin, breast milk, and body fluids) and included clinical strains, no genetic or genomic niche-specific features could be identified to discriminate specific group. PMID:25311532

  1. Saliva-binding region of Streptococcus mutans surface protein antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, M.; Okahashi, N.; Ohta, H.; Koga, T.

    1993-01-01

    A 190-kDa surface protein antigen (PAc) of Streptococcus mutans binds to human salivary components. For detection of specific binding of the PAc protein to human salivary components, a simple sandwich assay was used. Microtiter plates precoated with recombinant PAc (rPAc), PAc fragments, or S. mutans whole cells were allowed to react with human whole saliva and then were incubated with biotinylated rPAc. The biotinylated rPAc bound to salivary components was detected by use of alkaline phosph...

  2. Pathways for lactose/galactose catabolism by Streptococcus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M; Betzenhauser, Matthew J; Snyder, Jennifer A; Burne, Robert A

    2002-03-19

    Galactokinase and beta-galactosidase-deficient strains of Streptococcus salivarius were constructed to define the pathways for lactose and galactose catabolism. It was found that S. salivarius does not possess a lactose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS), that intracellular lactose was hydrolyzed by beta-galactosidase, and that galactose is catabolized exclusively through the Leloir pathway. The lack of a high-affinity PTS for lactose may reflect the higher availability of the substrates to soft tissue organisms, such as S. salivarius, compared to dental plaque bacteria. PMID:12007657

  3. Sucrose metabolism contributes to in vivo fitness of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Ramkumar; Camilli, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    We characterized two sucrose-metabolizing systems – sus and scr – and describe their roles in the physiology and virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in murine models of carriage and pneumonia. The sus and scr systems are regulated by LacI family repressors SusR and ScrR respectively. SusR regulates an adjacent ABC transporter (susT1/susT2/susX) and sucrose-6-phosphate (S-6-P) hydrolase (susH). ScrR controls an adjacent PTS transporter (scrT), fructokinase (scrK) and second S-6-P hydrola...

  4. Sequence analysis of the Streptococcus mutans scrB gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Y.; Kuramitsu, H K

    1988-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the Streptococcus mutans GS-5 scrB gene coding for sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase activity was determined. A potential ribosome-binding site as well as promoter sequences were identified upstream from the gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme suggested a molecular weight of 51,750, which is similar to that estimated for the enzyme isolated from strain GS-5. The enzyme is slightly acidic, with a pI of 5.9, and is a relatively hydrophilic protein...

  5. Deletion of a Cation Transporter Promotes Lysis in Streptococcus pneumoniae ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Neef, Jolanda; Andisi, Vahid Farshchi; Kim, Kwang S.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Bijlsma, Jetta J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a significant human pathogen which causes respiratory and serious invasive diseases. Mg2+ is essential for life, and its concentration varies throughout the human body. Magnesium uptake plays an important role in the virulence of many bacterial pathogens. To study the Mg2+ uptake of S. pneumoniae strain D39, a mutant was generated in SPD1383, a P-type ATPase with homology to the Salmonella Mg2+ transporter MgtA, which has also been shown to be a Ca2+ exporter in st...

  6. Cellular response of the bovine mammary gland after Weissella confusa infusion to control Streptococcus agalactiae / Respuesta celular de la glándula mamaria bovina después de la infusión con Weissella confusa para el control de Streptococcus agalactiae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliana, Serna-Cock; Cruz E, Enríquez; Rómulo, Campos Gaona; Andrea, Vásquez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: previamente foi proposto o uso de bactérias ácido-lácticas (LAB), como agentes terapêuticos potenciais para o controle da mastite bovina. No entanto, pouca pesquisa tem sido feita sobre a resposta celular da glândula mamária de bovinos após aplicação de LAB em bovinos infectados com St [...] reptococcus agalactiae. Objetivo: avaliar, em vacas em período de lactação, a resposta celular da glândula mamária após a infecção com Streptococcus agalactiae e a infusão dentro da teta de Weissella confusa como tratamento. Métodos: tetas saudáveis de gado nativo Harton del Valle em lactação foram infectados com S. agalactiae (10(7)ufc/mL). Ventiquatro horas após a infusão do agente patogénico, a 50% dos quartos foi administrada W. confusa em concentração de 10(9) ufc/mL (quartos SW) e 50% dos quartos foram usados como unidades experimentais de controle (quartos S). Nos dias 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 11 e 14 após a infusão do agente patogénico, foram avaliados os sinais clínicos de mastite e o grau de resposta celular da glândula mamária através do Califórnia Mastite Teste, contagem de células somáticas, condutividade elétrica e diferencial de leucócitos do leite. Resultados: nos quartos SW observou-se evidência clínica de inflamação da glândula mamária associado ao aumento significativo na contagem de células somáticas, Califórnia mastite teste, condutividade eléctrica, e altas porcentagens de neutrófilos polimorfonucleares. Os resultados sugerem que a infusão de células de W. confusa gera maior resposta celular na glândula mamária bovina que o S. agalactiae. Conclusões: os resultados indicam que a infusão de células vivas de W. confusa como um tratamento para o controle de S. agalactiae não pode ser usado. Outros métodos de uso da LAB para o tratamento de mastite devem ser pesquisados. Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: previamente se propuso el uso de bacterias ácido lácticas (LAB) como agentes terapéuticos potenciales para el control de mastitis bovina. Sin embargo, poco se ha investigado sobre la respuesta celular de la glándula mamaria bovina ante la aplicación de LAB en bovinos infectados con Str [...] eptococcus agalactiae. Objetivo: evaluar, en vacas lactantes, la respuesta celular de la glándula mamaria después de la infección con Streptococcus agalactiae y la infusión intrapezón con Weissella confusa como tratamiento. Métodos: cuartos sanos de ganado criollo Hartón del Valle en estado de lactancia, se infectaron con S. agalactiae (10(7)ufc/ mL). Transcurridas 24 horas post-infusión del patógeno, al 50% de los cuartos se les aplicó W. confusa a concentración de 10(9) ufc/mL (cuartos SW) y el 50% de los cuartos restantes se tomaron como unidades experimentales control (cuartos S). En los días 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 11 y 14 pos-infusión del patógeno, se evaluaron signos clínicos de mastitis y el grado de respuesta celular de la glándula mamaria, a través de california mastitis test, recuento de células somáticas, conductividad eléctrica y diferencial de leucocitos en leche. Resultados: en los cuartos SW se observaron evidencias clínicas de inflamación de la glándula mamaria asociada con incremento significativo de recuento de células somáticas, California mastitis test, conductividad eléctrica, y altos porcentajes de neutrófilos polimorfonucleares. Los resultados sugieren que la infusión con células de W. confusa genera mayor respuesta celular en la glándula mamaria bovina que S. agalactiae. Conclusiones: los resultados indican que no puede utilizarse la infusión de células vivas de W. confusa como tratamiento para el control de S. agalactiae. Se debe investigar otro mecanismo de uso de la LAB para el tratamiento de mastitis bovina. Abstract in english Background: the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a potential therapeutic agent to control bovine mastitis was previously proposed. However, little is known about the cellular response of the bovine mammary gland in cattle infected with Streptococcus agalactiae and

  7. Aspectos clinicos y neuroinmunologicos de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae / Clinical and neuroimmunological aspects of meningoencephalitis by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raisa, Bu-Coifiu; Alberto J., Dorta; Elena, Noris; Bárbara, Padilla; Marlén, González.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Después de exitosas campañas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae hubo un aumento de casos de meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio y las complicaciones encontradas a un [...] grupo de pacientes que sufrieron de esta enfermedad entre 1993 y 2006, evaluar el estado de la barrera sangre-líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) y el patrón de respuesta de síntesis intratecal de inmunoglobulinas a través del reibergrama, se estudiaron 12 niños con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae que ingresaron en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana, en ese periodo. Se dosificaron albúmina, IgA, IgM e IgG y sus subclases por inmunodifusión radial en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. La edad más frecuente resultó la menor de un año. Las mayores complicaciones fueron: shock séptico y edema cerebral. Hubo tres pacientes fallecidos. Los patrones de las tres clases mayores de inmunoglobulinas aparecieron en el 33% del total. Los dos patrones de subclases de IgG más IgM tuvieron en común la disfunción de la barrera sangre-líquido cefalorraquídeo. La respuesta inmune intratecal en los pacientes con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae tiene características distintivas que lo diferencian de otras meningoencefalitis de origen bacteriano por lo que en su conjunto podrían ser elementos a ser tomados en cuenta para auxiliar al médico en su diagnóstico diferencial y en la táctica para una vacuna cubana Abstract in english After successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae, there was an increase of cases of meningoencephalitis by Streptococcus pneumoniae. With the aim to describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and complications found in a group of patien [...] ts suffering from this disease between 1993 and 2006, to evaluate the state of the barrier blood-cephalo rachideous liquid (LCR) and the response pattern of intratecal synthesis of immunogobulins through reibergram, 12 children with meningo-encephalitis by Streptococcus pneumoniae who were hospitalized in the Pediatric Hospital of San Miguel del Padrón, Havana City, were studied. Albumin, IgA, IgM and IgG and their subclasses were dossified by radial immuno-diffusion in serum and cephalo-rachideous liquid. The most frequent age was that lower than one year. The greater complications were: septic and brain edema. There were three deceased patients. Patterns of the three greater classes of immunoglobulins appeared in 33% from the total. The two patterns of subclasses of IgG more IgM had in common the dysfunction of the barrier blood-cephalorachideous liquid. The intratecal immune response in patients with meningo-encephalitis by Streptococcus pneumoniae has distinctive characteristics differentiating it from other meningoencephalitis of bacterial origin; so as a whole they could be elements to be taken into account to help the doctor in its differential diagnosing and in the tactic to develop a Cuban vaccine.

  8. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  9. Unique poly(glycerophosphate) lipoteichoic acid and the glycolipids of a Streptococcus sp. closely related to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roethlisberger, P; Iida-Tanaka, N; Hollemeyer, K; Heinzle, E; Ishizuka, I; Fischer, W

    2000-09-01

    The Streptococcus sp. studied here is closely related to Streptococcus pneumoniae with 98.6% 16S rRNA similarity and 65% DNA/DNA homology. We isolated the lipoteichoic acid and the membrane glycolipids whose structures were established using conventional procedures and NMR spectroscopy. The lipoteichoic acid contains a linear 1,3-linked poly(glycerophosphate) chain which is partly substituted with D-alanine ester and is phosphodiester-linked to O6 of beta-D-Galf(1-->3)acyl2Gro. This lipoteichoic acid is the first example in which a monohexosylglycerol serves as the glycolipid anchor; and with an average chain length of 10 glycerophosphate residues it is the shortest known to date. MS analysis, applied for the first time to a native acylated lipoteichoic acid, revealed a continuous increase in chain length from seven to 17 glycerophosphate residues with a maximum at 10, and allowed identification of the fatty acid combinations. Membrane glycolipids consisted of beta-D-Galf(1-->3)acyl2Gro (9%), alpha-D-Glcp(1-->3)acyl2Gro (22%), alpha-D-Galp(1-->2)-alpha-D-Glcp(1-->3)acyl2Gro (64%) and alpha-D-Galp(1-->2)-(6-O-acyl)-alpha-D-Glcp(1-->3)acyl2Gro (5%). It is noteworthy that in lipoteichoic acid biosynthesis, Galfacyl2Gro, a less abundant membrane glycolipid, is selected as the lipid anchor. Despite the genetic relatedness to Streptococcus pneumoniae, the lipoteichoic acid structure is quite different to the complex structure of pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid [T. Behr et al. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 207, 1063-1075], thus providing an example that minor differences in DNA sequence exert major changes in macromolecular structure. PMID:10951211

  10. Acción in vitro de diez plantas medicinales sobre diez cepas diferentes de Streptococcus pneumoniae / In vitro activity of ten medicinal plants on ten Streptococcus pneumoniae strains

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JM, Guevara Duncan; C, Fuertes Ruitón; E, Valencia Bazalar; JMM, Guevara Granados; R, Zerpa Larrauri; V, Béjar Castillo; L, Patiño Gabriel; JC, Celis Salinas.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El portador sano es el principal diseminador de las infecciones neumocócicas por la nasofaringe. Una alternativa para combatirlo son las plantas medicinales. Objetivos: Determinar la efectividad de diez plantas medicinales frente a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Diseño: Estudio experimental [...] in vitro. Material biológico: Plantas medicinales y cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intervenciones: Los extractos de 10 plantas medicinales fueron puestos en contacto in vitro con 10 cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Principales medidas de resultados: Actividad de las plantas medicinales sobre las cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Resultados: almendro y Bellaco caspi fueron las únicas plantas que dieron pequeño halo de inhibición con algunas cepas; con almendro se inhibió dos cepas y con Bellaco caspi, se inhibió siete cepas y tres resultaron resistentes. Estos resultados no tuvieron relación con el serotipo de neumococo ni con los antibióticos utilizados en los antibiogramas realizados previamente. Conclusiones: El Bellaco caspi podría ser una alternativa para atacar al neumococo en la nasofaringe. Pero, por haber presentado resistencia a tres cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, antes de usarlo sería conveniente desarrollar un antibiograma de los neumococos contra las plantas medicinales. Abstract in english Introduction: The healthy carrier is the main disseminator of pneumococcal infections through nasopharynx; an alternative for treatment is a medicinal plant. Objectives: To determine the effectivity of ten medicinal plants against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Design: In vitro experimental study. Biolog [...] ic materials: Medicinal plant extracts and Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Interventions: Ten medicinal plant extracts were put in contact in vitro with 10 different Streptococcus pneumonia strains. Main outcome measures: Medicinal plant extracts activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Results: Only almendro y Bellaco caspi showed small inhibition halos with some strains; with almendro two of 10 Pneumococcus strains were inhibited and with Bellaco caspi seven strains were inhibited and three were resistant. These results had no relation either with Pneumococcus serotype or with antibiotics used according to antibiograms. Conclusions: Bellaco caspi could be an alternative for treating nasopharynx Pneumococcus, but due to resistance to three Streptococcus pneumonia strains there is no total guarantee and an antibiogram for pneumococci against medicinal plants is needed.

  11. Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavities of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Saito, Masanori; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-11-01

    Two strains were isolated from oral cavity samples of healthy elephants. The isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organisms that were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of these organisms in the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus criceti ATCC 19642(T) and Streptococcus orisuis NUM 1001(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbours with 98.2 and 96.9% gene sequence similarity, respectively. When multi-locus sequence analysis using four housekeeping genes, groEL, rpoB, gyrB and sodA, was carried out, similarity of concatenated sequences of the four housekeeping genes from the new isolates and Streptococcus mutans was 89.7%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments suggested that the new isolates were distinct from S. criceti and other species of the genus Streptococcus. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic differences, it is proposed that the novel isolates are classified in the genus Streptococcus as representatives of Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov. The type strain of S. oriloxodontae is NUM 2101(T) (?=JCM 19285(T)?=DSM 27377(T)). PMID:25139416

  12. Poststreptococcal keratouveitis associated with group C streptococcus pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataneli N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nathaniel Nataneli1, Zenia P Aguilera1, Pearl S Rosenbaum1, Tamar Goldstein1,2, Martin Mayers11Department of Ophthalmology, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelPurpose: To report the first case of poststreptococcal syndrome uveitis (PSU in association with group C streptococcus (GCS.Patients and methods: Chart review of a 24-year-old man who presented with bilateral ocular redness, pain, and photophobia for 5 days and "white rings" around his eyes for a duration of 3 days. The patient further reported fever and sore throat in the preceding week. Slit-lamp examination showed bilateral keratouveitis. A thorough uveitis workup, antistreptolysin O (ASLO titer, and throat culture were obtained. The patient was treated with frequent topical steroids and systemic doxycycline. The uveitis and keratitis subsided over the next few weeks, leaving extensive peripheral keratolysis.Results: The results of laboratory diagnostic testing revealed an elevated ASLO, C-reactive protein, as well as HLA-B27 positivity. Throat cultures grew beta-hemolytic GCS; group A streptococcus was culture negative.Conclusion: GCS pharyngitis may be a causative organism of PSU.Keywords: pharyngitis, keratolysis, keratouveitis

  13. Phylogenomics and the dynamic genome evolution of the genus Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P; Palmer, Sara R; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M; Highlander, Sarah K; Town, Christopher D; Burne, Robert A; Stanhope, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

  14. Disease manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms of group a Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark J; Barnett, Timothy C; McArthur, Jason D; Cole, Jason N; Gillen, Christine M; Henningham, Anna; Sriprakash, K S; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L; Nizet, Victor

    2014-04-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), causes mild human infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo and serious infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Furthermore, repeated GAS infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, including acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, and rheumatic heart disease. Combined, these diseases account for over half a million deaths per year globally. Genomic and molecular analyses have now characterized a large number of GAS virulence determinants, many of which exhibit overlap and redundancy in the processes of adhesion and colonization, innate immune resistance, and the capacity to facilitate tissue barrier degradation and spread within the human host. This improved understanding of the contribution of individual virulence determinants to the disease process has led to the formulation of models of GAS disease progression, which may lead to better treatment and intervention strategies. While GAS remains sensitive to all penicillins and cephalosporins, rising resistance to other antibiotics used in disease treatment is an increasing worldwide concern. Several GAS vaccine formulations that elicit protective immunity in animal models have shown promise in nonhuman primate and early-stage human trials. The development of a safe and efficacious commercial human vaccine for the prophylaxis of GAS disease remains a high priority. PMID:24696436

  15. Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, P; Worm, Signe H.Westring

    2004-01-01

    Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited.Martens P, Worm SW, Lundgren B, Konradsen HB, Benfield T. Department of Infectious Diseases 144, Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. pernillemartens@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: Invasive infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis and a determinant of disease outcome. METHODS: Retrospective review of 464 cases of invasive disease among adults diagnosed between 1990 and 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for other markers of disease severity, we found that infection with serotype 3 was associated with an increased relative risk (RR) of death of 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-5.27), whereas infection with serotype 1 was associated with a decreased risk of death (RR 0.23 (95% CI, 0.06-0.97)). Additionally, older age, relative leucopenia and relative hypothermia were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that capsular serotypes independently influenced the outcome from invasive pneumococcal disease. The limitations of the current polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine warrant the development of alternative vaccines. We suggest that the virulence of pneumococcal serotypes should be considered in the design of novel vaccines.

  16. Meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mar\\u00EDa Rodr\\u00EDguez Fern\\u00E1ndez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Streptococcus pneumoniae es una bacteria que reside en el aparato respiratorio superior de las personas saludables, pero resulta una infección cuando alcanza localizaciones normalmente estériles, tales como el aparato respiratorio inferior, sistema circulatorio, y sistema nervioso central. Esto ocurre en personas inmunodeprimidas, por diferentes causas. Objetivo: destacar la virulencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae drogo resistente. Caso clínico: niña que llega al hospital por presentar un proceso respiratorio, de varios días de evolución, con fiebre y rinorrea. Ingresó en la sala de Infecciones Respiratorias. Comenzó con deshidratación y somnolencia, por lo que se le realizó una segunda punción lumbar, que resultó con salida de líquido cefalorraquídeo, purulento y presencia de 202 células a predominio de polimorfonucleares, glucosa disminuida, aumento de las proteínas, y Pandy xxxx. La niña se agrava y presenta signos de intenso edema cerebral, con fontanela abombada. Se trató con antimicrobianos como la vancomicina y el ceftriaxone, por varios días. En el laboratorio de Microbiología se confirmó el crecimiento de Streptococccus pneumoniae sensible al meronem que pasa a reemplazar al ceftriaxone. La paciente salió paulatinamente de su gravedad hasta que fue dada de alta con seguimiento y rehabilitación, por presentar secuelas. Conclusiones: este patógeno tan peligroso con sus atributos de virulencia y su elevada resistencia a los antimicrobianos, constituye un fenómeno emergente.

  17. Mechanisms of group A Streptococcus resistance to reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningham, Anna; Döhrmann, Simon; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an exclusively human Gram-positive bacterial pathogen ranked among the ‘top 10’ causes of infection-related deaths worldwide. GAS commonly causes benign and self-limiting epithelial infections (pharyngitis and impetigo), and less frequent severe invasive diseases (bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). Annually, GAS causes 700 million infections, including 1.8 million invasive infections with a mortality rate of 25%. In order to establish an infection, GAS must counteract the oxidative stress conditions generated by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the infection site by host immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. ROS are the highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2•?), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and singlet oxygen (O2*), which can damage bacterial nucleic acids, proteins and cell membranes. This review summarizes the enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms utilized by GAS to thwart ROS and survive under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:25670736

  18. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  19. Antibiogram Sensitivity Pattern of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Patients with Sore Throat and Pneumonia Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Malik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolated from clinical samples (125 throat swabs and 100 sputum from patients suffering from sore throat and pneumonia infections, were subjected to a series of culture sensitivity tests against known antibiotics to determine their antibiogram patterns. Of the S. pyogenes isolates, all were found to be sensitive to penicillin and cefrioxone, whereas some of the strains showed complete resistance against cotrimoxazole (88.9%, oxacillin (22.2%, cephradine (22.2% and erythromycin (11.1%. As for the S. pneumoniae strains, all the isolates in this study were sensitive to vancomycin and cephradine, whereas 80% showed complete resistance to kanamycin, 60% to gentamycin, 20% to cotrimoxazole, 20% to tetracycline and 10% to penicillin. Strains of S. pneumoniae (20% displayed intermediate resistance to erythromycin. Inadequate diagnostic procedures, un-supervised, improper use of antibiotics and easy access to prescription drugs may contribute to the rise of resistant strains. To combat such trends approved strategies must encompass legislative enforcement through strict enforcement of the laws related to sales of prescription drugs, involvement of clinicians, pharmacies and civil society pressure groups to ensure the rational and correct use of prescription drugs.

  20. Meningitis bacteriana por Streptococcus pyogenes: revisión de la literatura / Bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes: literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Ballesteros Moya; L., Herrera Castillo; L., Escosa García; M.P., Romero González; F., Lázaro Perona; M.I. de, José Gómez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) es una etiología poco habitual de meningitis bacteriana a pesar de ser un germen que frecuentemente produce infecciones en otras localizaciones en la edad pediátrica. Material y métodos: se revisaron los casos de bacteriemia por S. pyogenes y los [...] factores de riesgo asociados en la base de datos del Servicio de Microbiología del Hospital Universitario La Paz desde junio de 2002 a junio de 2012. Resultados: únicamente se encontró un caso de bacteremia por S. pyogenes asociado a meningitis, que se describe en este artículo. Conclusiones: a pesar de su baja incidencia, se debe tener en cuenta el S. pyogenes en el diagnóstico diferencial de meningitis bacterianas, especialmente en pacientes con factores de riesgo asociados Abstract in english Introduction: Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) is a rare cause of meningitis despite being a common source of pediatric infections in other sites. Material and methods: A search was performed of the pediatric patients with S. pyogenes bacteremia in the microbiology database of the Hospital Infan [...] til La Paz from June 2002 until June 2012. Results: A single case of S. pyogenes meningitis was found and is reported in this article. Conclusions: Despite its low incidence, S. pyogenes should be considered in the differential diagnosis of meningitis, particularly in patients with associated risk factors.

  1. Pericarditis purulenta y empiema pleural por Streptococcus pneumoniae / Purulent pericarditis and pleural empyema due to Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Suberviola Cañas; J. C., Rodríguez Borregan; A., González Castro; E., Miñambres; F. J., Burón Mediavilla.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de 59 años de edad sin historia clínica previa que ingresó en nuestra Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) al presentar un cuadro de insuficiencia respiratoria e inestabilidad hemodinámica. Se le diagnosticó una pericarditis purulenta causada por Streptococcus [...] pneumoniae complicada con un derrame pericárdico masivo y un empiema pleural. Se realizó una punción pericardica que no fue efectiva y el derrame pericárdico se evacuó finalmente mediante drenaje quirúrgico. El empiema pleural fue igualmente evacuado. Recibió tratamiento antibiótico y se recuperó, normalizandose la función cardiaca. Abstract in english We present the case of a 59 years old woman with no previous clinical history of disease who was admitted in our ICU due to respiratory failure and hemodynamic inestabillity. She was found to have purulent pericarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, complicated by masive pericardial effusion and p [...] leural empyema. A pericardial tap was performed unsuccessfully and finally pericardial effusion was evacuated by surgical drainage. Pleural empyema was also evacuated. She received antibiotical treatment and recovered with normalisation of heart function.

  2. Accuracy of phenotypic and genotypic testing for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae and description of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbique, Judy C; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Quesne, Gilles; Carvalho, Maria da Glória S; Steigerwalt, Arnold G; Morey, Roger E; Jackson, Delois; Davidson, Ross J; Facklam, Richard R

    2004-10-01

    We have identified an unusual group of viridans group streptococci that resemble Streptococcus pneumoniae. DNA-DNA homology studies suggested that a subset of these isolates represent a novel species that may be included in the S. oralis-S. mitis group of viridans group streptococci. We suggest that this novel species be termed Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae. A combination of phenotypic and genetic reactions allows its identification. S. pseudopneumoniae strains do not have pneumococcal capsules, are resistant to optochin (inhibition zones, less than 14 mm) when they are incubated under an atmosphere of increased CO2 but are susceptible to optochin (inhibition zones, >14 mm) when they are incubated in ambient atmospheres, are not soluble in bile, and are positive by the GenProbe AccuProbe Pneumococcus test. The bile solubility test is more specific than the optochin test for identification of S. pneumoniae. Genetic tests for pneumolysin (ply) and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (sodA) and identification tests with a commercial probe, AccuProbe Pneumococcus, do not discriminate between the new species and S. pneumoniae. PMID:15472328

  3. Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes: prevalência de colonização e avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: prevalence of colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Lermontov Borger

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a ocorrência de colonização por Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes e avaliar a suscetibilidade das amostras isoladas aos antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 167 grávidas entre a 32ª e a 41ª semana de gestação, independente da presença ou não de fatores de risco, atendidas no ambulatório de pré-natal entre fevereiro de 2003 e fevereiro de 2004. O material vaginal/anal, colhido com um único swab, foi inoculado em caldo Todd-Hewitt acrescido de ácido nalidíxico (15 µg/mL e gentamicina (8 µg/mL, com posterior subcultura no meio de ágar sangue. A identificação foi feita por meio da avaliação da morfologia e tipo de hemólise das colônias no meio de ágar sangue, teste da catalase, teste de cAMP e testes sorológicos. A avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos foi realizada pelos testes de difusão e de diluição em ágar. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do teste de chi2; valores de p0,05. Todas as 32 amostras isoladas foram sensíveis a penicilina, cefotaxima, ofloxacina, cloranfenicol, vancomicina e meropenem. A resistência a eritromicina e clindamicina foi detectada em 9,4 e 6,2% das amostras, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: a incidência relativamente elevada (19,2% de colonização por S. agalactiae entre as gestantes avaliadas e o isolamento de amostras resistentes, especialmente aos antimicrobianos recomendados nos casos de alergia à penicilina, enfatizam a importância de detectar esta colonização no final da gravidez, associada à avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos, para uma prevenção eficaz da infecção neonatal.PURPOSE: to verify the occurrence of colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women attended at the prenatal outpatient clinic of the Teaching Maternity Hospital of Rio de Janeiro University (UFRJ and to evaluate the susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobial agents. METHODS: a total of 167 pregnant women between the 32nd and 41st week of gestation, regardless of risk factors, attended at the antenatal clinic between February 2003 and February 2004, were evaluated. The vaginal/anal material, collected by the same swab, was inoculated in Todd-Hewitt broth to which nalidixic acid (15 µg/mL and gentamicin (8 µg/mL were added, with following subcultures onto sheep blood-agar. Identification was carried out observing colony morphology and beta-hemolysis type on blood-agar, catalase, cAMP, and serological tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing used agar diffusion and agar dilution methods. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi2 test with the level of significance set at p0.05. All 32 isolated strains were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin and meropenem. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was detected in 9.4 and 6.2% of the isolates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: the relatively high incidence (19.2% of colonization by S. agalactiae among the evaluated pregnant women and the recovery of antimicrobial resistant strains, especially those recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, emphasize the importance, for a correct prevention of neonatal infections, of detecting colonization at the end of pregnancy and evaluating antimicrobial susceptibility.

  4. Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes: prevalência de colonização e avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos / Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: prevalence of colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Irina Lermontov, Borger; Rachel Elise Cerqueira, d' Oliveira; Angela Christina Dias de, Castro; Silvia Susana Bona de, Mondino.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a ocorrência de colonização por Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes e avaliar a suscetibilidade das amostras isoladas aos antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 167 grávidas entre a 32ª e a 41ª semana de gestação, independente da presença ou não de fatores de risco, atendid [...] as no ambulatório de pré-natal entre fevereiro de 2003 e fevereiro de 2004. O material vaginal/anal, colhido com um único swab, foi inoculado em caldo Todd-Hewitt acrescido de ácido nalidíxico (15 µg/mL) e gentamicina (8 µg/mL), com posterior subcultura no meio de ágar sangue. A identificação foi feita por meio da avaliação da morfologia e tipo de hemólise das colônias no meio de ágar sangue, teste da catalase, teste de cAMP e testes sorológicos. A avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos foi realizada pelos testes de difusão e de diluição em ágar. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do teste de chi2; valores de p0,05). Todas as 32 amostras isoladas foram sensíveis a penicilina, cefotaxima, ofloxacina, cloranfenicol, vancomicina e meropenem. A resistência a eritromicina e clindamicina foi detectada em 9,4 e 6,2% das amostras, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: a incidência relativamente elevada (19,2%) de colonização por S. agalactiae entre as gestantes avaliadas e o isolamento de amostras resistentes, especialmente aos antimicrobianos recomendados nos casos de alergia à penicilina, enfatizam a importância de detectar esta colonização no final da gravidez, associada à avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos, para uma prevenção eficaz da infecção neonatal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to verify the occurrence of colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women attended at the prenatal outpatient clinic of the Teaching Maternity Hospital of Rio de Janeiro University (UFRJ) and to evaluate the susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobial agents. METHODS: a tot [...] al of 167 pregnant women between the 32nd and 41st week of gestation, regardless of risk factors, attended at the antenatal clinic between February 2003 and February 2004, were evaluated. The vaginal/anal material, collected by the same swab, was inoculated in Todd-Hewitt broth to which nalidixic acid (15 µg/mL) and gentamicin (8 µg/mL) were added, with following subcultures onto sheep blood-agar. Identification was carried out observing colony morphology and beta-hemolysis type on blood-agar, catalase, cAMP, and serological tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing used agar diffusion and agar dilution methods. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi2 test with the level of significance set at p0.05). All 32 isolated strains were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin and meropenem. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was detected in 9.4 and 6.2% of the isolates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: the relatively high incidence (19.2%) of colonization by S. agalactiae among the evaluated pregnant women and the recovery of antimicrobial resistant strains, especially those recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, emphasize the importance, for a correct prevention of neonatal infections, of detecting colonization at the end of pregnancy and evaluating antimicrobial susceptibility.

  5. Infecciones tisulares por Streptococcus ß-hemolítico grupo A en Hospital Regional de Talca / Tissue infections caused by group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus in a Regional Chilean Hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Hasbún A; Héctor, Arias P; Roberto, Tapia R.

    1215-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: A resurgence of group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus infections such as fasciitis, cellulitis and Strptococcal Toxic Syndrome has been observed recently. Aim: To study the clinical features of patients with group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus infections in a regional hospital. Patients and me [...] thods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients notified as having a group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus tissue infection, between 1994 and 1999. Results: twenty four patients were notified in the period as having a group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus infection and 18 (13 male, mean age 39 tears old) had tissue involvement. Eleven patients had a fasciitis (61%), six had a cellulitis (33%) and 14 patients (77%), a Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome. Eight patients died during hospital stay. The infection portal of entry was identify in 13 patients (the skin in 10 and intramuscular injections in three). Deceased patients had a longer lapse of disease before admission than patients discharged alive (5(range 3h-7 days) and 2.1 (range 6h-5 days) respectively). In seven patients a quick serological test, designed for pharyngeal infections was performed and it was positive in five. Blood cultures were positive in seven patients and in 11, the germ was isolated from the lesions. Conclusions: As the early diagnosis of group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus tissue infections has a prognostic value, the population should be instructed to recognize early signs and symptoms of these infections (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 1215-19)

  6. Infecciones tisulares por Streptococcus ß-hemolítico grupo A en Hospital Regional de Talca Tissue infections caused by group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus in a Regional Chilean Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hasbún A

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A resurgence of group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus infections such as fasciitis, cellulitis and Strptococcal Toxic Syndrome has been observed recently. Aim: To study the clinical features of patients with group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus infections in a regional hospital. Patients and methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients notified as having a group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus tissue infection, between 1994 and 1999. Results: twenty four patients were notified in the period as having a group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus infection and 18 (13 male, mean age 39 tears old had tissue involvement. Eleven patients had a fasciitis (61%, six had a cellulitis (33% and 14 patients (77%, a Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome. Eight patients died during hospital stay. The infection portal of entry was identify in 13 patients (the skin in 10 and intramuscular injections in three. Deceased patients had a longer lapse of disease before admission than patients discharged alive (5(range 3h-7 days and 2.1 (range 6h-5 days respectively. In seven patients a quick serological test, designed for pharyngeal infections was performed and it was positive in five. Blood cultures were positive in seven patients and in 11, the germ was isolated from the lesions. Conclusions: As the early diagnosis of group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus tissue infections has a prognostic value, the population should be instructed to recognize early signs and symptoms of these infections (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 1215-19

  7. Withania somnifera attenuates acid production, acid tolerance and extra-cellular polysaccharide formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Santosh; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is a plant of the Solanaceae family. It has been widely used as a remedy for a variety of ailments in India and Nepal. The plant has also been used as a controlling agent for dental diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of the methanol extract of W. somnifera against the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms and to identify the components of the extract. To determine the activity of the extract, assays for sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence, glycolytic acid production, acid tolerance, and extracellular polysaccharide formation were performed using Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The viability change of S. mutans biofilms cells was also determined. A phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed using TLC and LC/MS/MS. The extract showed inhibitory effects on sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence (? 100 ?g/ml), glycolytic acid production (? 300 ?g/ml), acid tolerance (? 300 ?g/ml), and extracellular polysaccharide formation (? 300 ?g/ml) of S. mutans biofilms. However, the extract did not alter the viability of S. mutans biofilms cells in all concentrations tested. Based on the phytochemical analysis, the activity of the extract may be related to the presence of alkaloids, anthrones, coumarines, anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, and steroid lactones (withanolide A, withaferin A, withanolide B, withanoside IV, and 12-deoxy withastramonolide). These data indicate that W. somnifera may be a potential agent for restraining the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms. PMID:24467542

  8. Epidemic Assessment of Bacterial Agents in Osteomyelitis and Their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mirnejad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the causative agents of osteomyelitis and specifying their antibiotic resistance pattern in patients referred to pediatrics ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital. This study has been performed in Tehran during January to December 2006. In this study, synovial fluid was taken from 90 patients who referred to pediatrics ward of Imam Khomeini. Samples were examined by direct test, culture and biochemical tests. In next step, antibiogram by disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer Test was established on each positive sample and finally, the results were analyzed. Of 90 examined samples, 27 bacterial cases were isolated; Staphylococcus aureus with 55.9% was the most epidemic agent and Klebsiella sp., coagulase negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterobacter sp. were the next common agents, respectively. However, it was revealed that more than 40% Staphylococcus aureus are sensitivity to Vancomycin, Gentamicin, Sulfamethoxazole and Erythromycin and most of gram negative Rods isolated of were sensitivity to Amikacin, Ampicillin and Cephalothin (50-100%. The most of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterobacter sp. were sensitive to Vancomycin, gentamicin and Cephalothin. Similar to previous results, it was proved either in our study that Staphylococcus aureus is the main agent of osteomyelitis and gram negative bacteria with coagulase negative Staphylococci and Streptococci are other agents. Also, it was observed that the most isolated bacteria had high antibiotic resistance to common drugs.

  9. Impacto de la enfermedad por Streptococcus pneumoniae en población adulta mayor en Bogotá, Colombia, 2008 / The impact of pneumococcal disease on adults living in Bogota, Colombia, 2008

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Castañeda-Orjuela; Nelson, Alvis-Guzmán; Fernando, de la Hoz-Restrepo.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar el impacto de la enfermedad por Streptococcus pneumoniae en la población mayor de 60 años en Bogotá D.C. Colombia. Métodos Se realizó un estudio de impacto de enfermedad por neumococo combinando una búsqueda sistemática de literatura con el análisis de fuentes de datos rutinarios de [...] mortalidad, consultas y hospitalizaciones debidas neumonías y meningitis en adultos mayores de 60 años. Resultados Se estimó para 2008 en la población bogotana mayor de 60 años la ocurrencia de 6 585 neumonías por todos los agentes, 689 debidas a Streptococcus pneumoniae, y 73 meningitis, 12 producidas por neumococo. El total de muertes por neumonías se estimó en 1 910, 82 atribuibles al neumococo, y de las 40 muertes por meningitis, 7 habrían ocurrido en casos de meningitis neumocócicas. Conclusiones El impacto de la enfermedad debida a neumococo en población mayor de 60 años en Bogotá justifica la consideración de estrategias específicas de prevención tales como la vacunación. Abstract in english Objective Estimating the impact of pneumococcal disease amongst adults living in Bogota, Colombia Methods The impact of pneumococcal disease was studied by combining a systematic literature search with analysing routine sources regarding mortality, consultation and hospitalisation dates due to pneum [...] onia and meningitis. Results The occurrence of 6,585 cases of pneumonia by all germs was estimated for 2008 in the adult population aged over 60, 689 cases being due to Streptococcus pneumonia, and 73 cases of meningitis, plus 12 cases caused by pneumococcus. The total of deaths from pneumonia was estimated to be 1,910 cases (82 due to pneumonia) and 40 deaths occurred from meningitis (7 of these cases being due to pneumococcal meningitis). Conclusiones The impact of pneumococcal disease in adults aged over 60 in Bogota (only taking into account cases of meningitis and pneumonia with blood and CSF isolates) justifies considering specific prevention strategies such as vaccination.

  10. Impacto de la enfermedad por Streptococcus pneumoniae en población adulta mayor en Bogotá, Colombia, 2008 The impact of pneumococcal disease on adults living in Bogota, Colombia, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castañeda-Orjuela

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar el impacto de la enfermedad por Streptococcus pneumoniae en la población mayor de 60 años en Bogotá D.C. Colombia. Métodos Se realizó un estudio de impacto de enfermedad por neumococo combinando una búsqueda sistemática de literatura con el análisis de fuentes de datos rutinarios de mortalidad, consultas y hospitalizaciones debidas neumonías y meningitis en adultos mayores de 60 años. Resultados Se estimó para 2008 en la población bogotana mayor de 60 años la ocurrencia de 6 585 neumonías por todos los agentes, 689 debidas a Streptococcus pneumoniae, y 73 meningitis, 12 producidas por neumococo. El total de muertes por neumonías se estimó en 1 910, 82 atribuibles al neumococo, y de las 40 muertes por meningitis, 7 habrían ocurrido en casos de meningitis neumocócicas. Conclusiones El impacto de la enfermedad debida a neumococo en población mayor de 60 años en Bogotá justifica la consideración de estrategias específicas de prevención tales como la vacunación.Objective Estimating the impact of pneumococcal disease amongst adults living in Bogota, Colombia Methods The impact of pneumococcal disease was studied by combining a systematic literature search with analysing routine sources regarding mortality, consultation and hospitalisation dates due to pneumonia and meningitis. Results The occurrence of 6,585 cases of pneumonia by all germs was estimated for 2008 in the adult population aged over 60, 689 cases being due to Streptococcus pneumonia, and 73 cases of meningitis, plus 12 cases caused by pneumococcus. The total of deaths from pneumonia was estimated to be 1,910 cases (82 due to pneumonia and 40 deaths occurred from meningitis (7 of these cases being due to pneumococcal meningitis. Conclusiones The impact of pneumococcal disease in adults aged over 60 in Bogota (only taking into account cases of meningitis and pneumonia with blood and CSF isolates justifies considering specific prevention strategies such as vaccination.

  11. Bath immersion, booster vaccination strategy holds potential for protecting juvenile tilapia against Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is a significant bacterial pathogen that causes hemorrhagic septicemia and meningoencephalitis in tilapia, hybrid striped bass, rainbow trout, olive flounder, yellowtail, barramundi and other species of cultured and wild fish worldwide. In tilapia production, vaccination of fry ...

  12. Effects of Salts and Metal Oxides on Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Nagame, Seigo; Kambara, Masaki; Yoshino, Katsumi

    1994-10-01

    The effects of calcium salts and metal oxide powders on electrochemical, optical and biological properties of Streptococcus mutans have been studied as a novel method to determine the strain. Electrochemical signals of Streptococcus mutans show remarkable decrease in the presence of saturated calcium salts such as CaHPO4, Ca3(PO4)2, and Ca5(PO4)3OH depending on the strains of Streptococcus mutans: Ingbritt, NCTC-10449, or GS-5. The number of viable cells also decreases upon addition of these powders. The effects of metal oxides such as ZnO and BaTiO3 on the electrochemical characteristics and photoluminescence of Streptococcus mutans have also been studied.

  13. PROTECTIVE ANTIBODY RESPONSES FOLLOWING VACCINATION WITH STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE IN NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments using Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were conducted to further characterize a highly efficacious Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine containing extracellular products [ECP] and formalin-killed whole cells. One study assessed the efficacy of stored reconstituted S. agalactiae vaccine,...

  14. CONCURRENT EXPERIMENTAL Streptococcus SPP. INFECTIONS AND NATURAL PARASITISM IN CHANNEL CATFISH Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

  15. Neonatal Mortality in Puppies Due to Bacteremia by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Vela, Ana I.; Falsen, Enevold; Simarro, Isabel; Rollan, Eduardo; Collins, Matthew D.; Domi?nguez, Lucas; Fernandez-garayzabal, Jose F.

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of bacteremia in puppies caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. Identification was achieved by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. This is the first report of the recovery of S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae from dogs.

  16. Neonatal mortality in puppies due to bacteremia by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Ana I; Falsen, Enevold; Simarro, Isabel; Rollan, Eduardo; Collins, Matthew D; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernandez-Garayzabal, Jose F

    2006-02-01

    We report a case of bacteremia in puppies caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. Identification was achieved by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. This is the first report of the recovery of S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae from dogs. PMID:16455943

  17. Udvikling af bakteriaemi og meningitis med Streptococcus pneumoniae under pågående behandling med azithromycin.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Jan Gorm; Brasholt, Marie

    2002-01-01

    After absorption, azithromycin is concentrated intracellularly, with a correspondingly low serum concentration. A case of bacteriemia and meningitis caused by macrolide-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae during treatment with azithromycin is presented and discussed.

  18. Expression of the Streptococcus mutans fructosyltransferase gene within a mammalian host.

    OpenAIRE

    Grey, W T; Curtiss, R; Hudson, M C

    1997-01-01

    In vivo expression of the virulence-associated fructosyltransferase gene (ftf) of Streptococcus mutans has been examined. S. mutans ftf expression is affected by both the specific carbohydrate consumed and the age of the host animal.

  19. IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Pramila Yadav

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressive drugs play an important role in preventing the rejection of organ or tissue grafts and in the treatment of certain diseases that arise from dysregulation of the immune response. In recent years, many new immunosuppressive drugs have been discovered and developed for clinical use. The wide array of new drugs offers the opportunity to use combinations that block different pathways of immune activation. In transplantation, the major classes of immunosuppressive drugs used are: Glucocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative/antimetabolic agents, and biologics (antibodies. Newer drugs like Mizoribine, RS61443, Brequinar sodium are inhibitors of DNA synthesis and inhibitors of cell activation/maturation like (Deoxyspergualin, CP 17193 have also showed promising results. Tacrolimus (FK 506 and Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF have already replaced immunosuppressive maintenance protocols. The other two drugs, Leflunomide and Sirolimus (SRL, are still under investigation for use in solid organ transplantation. Anti-interleukin-2 (IL-2 receptor antibodies, anti-CD25 [interleukin (IL-2 receptor] antibodies (basiliximab, daclizumab target growth factor pathways, have shown promising results in phase III trials. These drugs have met with a high degree of clinical success in treating conditions such as acute immune rejection of organ transplants and severe autoimmune diseases. This article reviews the pharmacodynamics, adverse effects and uses of the major classes of immunosuppressive drugs.

  20. Localization of Surface Immunogenic Protein on Group B Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Stéphane; Martin, Denis; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Dumont, Julie; Hamel, Josée; Brodeur, Bernard R.

    2001-01-01

    The localization and accessibility of the group B streptococcus (GBS) surface immunogenic protein (Sip) at the surface of intact GBS cells were studied by flow cytometric assay and immunogold electron microscopy. Antibodies present in pooled sera collected from mice after immunization with purified recombinant Sip efficiently recognized native Sip at the surfaces of the different GBS strains tested, which included representatives of all nine serotypes. Examination of GBS cells by immunogold electron microscopy revealed that the Sip-specific antibodies attached preferentially to polar sites and the septal region. This result confirmed that Sip is exposed at the intact-cell surface, but it also suggests that its distribution is restricted to certain regions of the cell. PMID:11447199

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on transmembrane potential of Streptococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of Streptococcus faecalis with ionizing radiation at doses of 5 to 100 krad is shown to reduce the energy-dependent accumulation of dibenzyldimethylammonium (DDA+) by the cell. Since transmembrane potential is the moving force of DDA+ transport across the membrane, the decrease in DDA+ accumulation is suggested to be due to potential reduction. This radiation effect was not due to inactivation of the potential-generating mechanism; thus, the ATPase activity and glycolytic activity of the irradiated cells were higher than in the control. At the same time, the membranes exhibited an increased permeability for K+ and protons, which is probably due to structural rearrangements in the membranes after irradiation. It is suggested that the potential reduction results from the increase in proton permeability of membranes

  2. BlpC-regulated bacteriocin production in Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renye, John A; Somkuti, George A

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus B59671 produces a bacteriocin with anti-pediococcal activity, but genes required for its production are not characterized. Genome sequencing of S. thermophilus has identified a genetic locus encoding a quorum sensing (QS) system that regulates production of class II bacteriocins. However, in strains possessing this gene cluster, production of bacteriocin like peptides (Blp) was only observed when excess pheromone was provided. PCR analysis revealed this strain possessed blpC, which encodes the 30-mer QS pheromone. To investigate if BlpC regulates bacteriocin production in S. thermophilus B59671, an integrative vector was used to replace blpC with a gene encoding for kanamycin resistance and the resulting mutant did not inhibit the growth of Pediococcus acidilactici. Constitutive expression of blpC from a shuttle vector restored the bacteriocin production, confirming the blp gene cluster is essential for bacteriocin activity in S. thermophilus B59671. PMID:23183916

  3. Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O2 does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals

  4. Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Huang, Jun; Liu, Xiaodi; Peng, Lei; Guo, Lihong; Lv, Guohua; Chen, Wei; Feng, Kecheng; Yang, Si-ze

    2009-03-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O2 does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals.

  5. Streptococcus pyogenes degrades extracellular matrix in chondrocytes via MMP-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of human diseases, including bacterial arthritis. The pathogenesis of arthritis is characterized by synovial proliferation and the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We report here that GAS strain JRS4 invaded a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 and induced the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas an isogenic mutant of JRS4 lacking a fibronectin-binding protein, SAM1, failed to invade the chondrocytes or degrade the ECM. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was strongly elevated during the infection with GAS. A reporter assay revealed that the activation of the AP-1 transcription factor and the phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinase participated in MMP-13 expression. These results suggest that MMP-13 plays an important role in the destruction of infected joints during the development of septic arthritis

  6. Disproportionation reactions catalyzed by Leuconostoc and Streptococcus glucansucrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, T P; Côté, G L; Robyt, J F

    1983-12-23

    Glucansucrases from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512F and Streptococcus mutans 6715 were found to utilize a number of D-gluco-oligosaccharides as D-glucosyl donors and as acceptors. These donors included isomaltotriose and its homologs, panose, maltotriose, and dextran. In each case, D-glucosyl groups were transferred from the donor to an acceptor sugar. When the donor sugar also acted as an acceptor, disproportionation reactions occurred. Isomaltotriose, for example, gave rise to isomaltose and isomaltotetraose initially, and to a series of isomalto-oligosaccharides eventually. In addition to forming alpha-D-(1----6) linkages in the reactions, dextransucrase from S. mutans 6715 was capable of forming alpha-D-(1----3)-linked products. PMID:6671200

  7. Interferon-? inhibits group B Streptococcus survival within human endothelial cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane de Oliveira Freitas, Lione; Michelle Hanthequeste Bittencourt dos, Santos; Jessica Silva Santos de, Oliveira; Ana Luiza, Mattos-Guaraldi; Prescilla Emy, Nagao.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is a major component of the pathophysiology of septicaemic group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections. Although cytokines have been shown to activate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the capacity of interferon (IFN)-? to enhance the microbicidal activity of HUVECs [...] against GBS has not been studied. We report that the viability of intracellular bacteria was reduced in HUVECs activated by IFN-?. Enhanced fusion of lysosomes with bacteria-containing vacuoles was observed by acid phosphatase and the colocalisation of Rab-5, Rab-7 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 with GBS in IFN-?-activated HUVECs. IFN-? resulted in an enhancement of the phagosome maturation process in HUVECs, improving the capacity to control the intracellular survival of GBS.

  8. Characterization of a Galactokinase-Positive Recombinant Strain of Streptococcus thermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Vaillancourt, Katy; Lemay, Jean-dominique; Lamoureux, Maryse; Frenette, Michel; Moineau, Sylvain; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus is widely used by the dairy industry for its ability to transform lactose, the primary sugar found in milk, into lactic acid. Unlike the phylogenetically related species Streptococcus salivarius, S. thermophilus is unable to metabolize and grow on galactose and thus releases substantial amounts of this hexose into the external medium during growth on lactose. This metabolic property may result from the inability of S. thermophilus to synthe...

  9. Search for coherent gene modules that predict streptococcus pneumoniae strain invasiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Catarino, Rui Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    O Streptococcus pneumoniae, também chamado pneumococcus, é uma bactéria grampositiva do subgrupo alfa-hemolítico do género Streptococcus. É um colonizador frequente do trato respiratório superior humano e embora possa ser encontrado em qualquer pessoa, tem maior prevalência em crianças e idosos. A colonização decorre tipicamente sem causar sintomas, mas pode por vezes culminar na invasão de outros tecidos e provocar doenças como pneumonia, meningite ou otite do ouvido médio. ...

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Bursa Propolis on Dental Caries Formation in Rats Inoculated with Streptococcus sobrinus

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Gamze Bozcuk

    2004-01-01

    The effect of propolis on the growth of Lactobacillus casei RSKK 591, Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 and Streptococcus sobrinus DSN sobrinus 20742 was investigated in vitro. Bursa propolis had the most inhibitory effect on S. sobrinus. The effect of Bursa propolis on rats inoculated with S. sobrinus was also studied. In rats inoculated with the bacteria and given propolis, the severity of sulcal enamel and superficial dentine lesions was significantly less than that in the control group, but...

  11. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of streptococcus pseudopneumoniae with viridans group streptococci

    OpenAIRE

    Park Hee; Myung Soon; Kim Wonyong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, is a novel member of the genus Streptococcus, falling close to related members like S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, and S. oralis. Its recent appearance has shed light on streptococcal infections, which has been unclear till recently. In this study, the transcriptome of S. pseudopneumoniae CCUG 49455T was analyzed using the S. pneumoniae R6 microarray platform and compared with those of S. pneumoniae KCTC 5080T, S. mitis KCTC 3556T, and S. oralis K...

  12. Counteractive Balancing of Transcriptome Expression Involving CodY and CovRS in Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kreth, Jens; Chen, Zhiyun; Ferretti, Joseph; Malke, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) responds to environmental changes in a manner that results in an adaptive regulation of the transcriptome. The objective of the present study was to understand how two global transcriptional regulators, CodY and CovRS, coordinate the transcriptional network in S. pyogenes. Results from expression microarray data and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that the global regulator CodY controls the expression of about 250 ge...

  13. Comparison of experimental models for Streptococcus suis infection of conventional pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Pallare?s, Francisco J.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Schmitt, Cameron S.; Roth, James A.; Opriessnig, Tanja; Thomas, Peter J.; Kinyon, Joann M.; Murphy, Dee; Frank, Dagmar E.; Hoffman, Lorraine J.

    2003-01-01

    Four different experimental models for Streptococcus suis-induced disease were compared to find a model that closely mimics naturally occurring disease in conventional pigs. Fourteen, 2-week old pigs free of S. suis type 2 were used in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, 3 pigs were inoculated intravenously (IV) and 3 pigs intranasally (IN) with S. suis. Two out of 3 of the IV-inoculated pigs exhibited signs of severe central nervous system disease (CNS) and were euthanized. Streptococcus suis ty...

  14. Streptococcus intermedius Bacteremia and Liver Abscess following a Routine Dental Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Livingston, Lachara V.; Elimarys Perez-Colon

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group of bacteria. This group is part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts; however, they have been known to cause a variety of purulent infections including meningitis, endocarditis, and abscesses, even in immunocompetent hosts. In particular, S. intermedius has been associated with the development of liver and brain abscesses. There have been several case reports of S. intermedi...

  15. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY OF VARIETY PLANTS AGAINST THE RESISTANT STREPTOCOCCUS WHICH CAUSE CLINICAL MASTITIS IN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    SHAZA ANWAR AL LAHAM; FRDOOS MOHAMMAD AL FADEL

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus is considered to be one of the most dangerous causes of Clinical mastitis in cows. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of extracts prepared from different parts of the flowing plants: Oleaeuropea Linn(Oleaceae), Myrtuscommunis Linn (Liliaceae) ,thymus vulgaris Linn (Laminaceae), Rosemery Linn(Laminaceae), Ficuscarica Linn (Moraceae), and Achilleafalcata Linn(Asteraceae) against resistant Streptococcus in 1371 Samples of milk. This work was achieved in four...

  16. Clinical and Microbiologic Characteristics of Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes Infections in North and South India

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Axana; Nerlich, Andreas; Kumar, Rajesh; Abraham, Vinod J.; Brahmadathan, Kootallur N.; Ray, Pallab; Dhanda, Vanita; Joshua, John Melbin Jose; Mehra, Narinder; Bergmann, Rene; Chhatwal, G. Singh; Norrby-teglund, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The lack of epidemiologic data on invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in many developing countries is concerning, as S. pyogenes infections are commonly endemic in these areas. Here we present the results of the first prospective surveillance study of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in India. Fifty-four patients with invasive S. pyogenes infections were prospectively enrolled at two study sites, one in the north and one in the south of India. Sterile-site isolates were colle...

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia induce distinct host responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Clark, Andrew T.; Dunne, W. Michael; Dixon, David J.; Turnbull, Isaiah R.; DiPasco, Peter J.; Osberghaus, William F.; Sherman, Benjamin; Martin, James R.; Walter, Michael J.; Cobb, J. Perren; Buchman, Timothy G.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Pathogens that cause pneumonia may be treated in a targeted fashion by antibiotics, but if this therapy fails, treatment involves only non-specific supportive measures, independent of the inciting infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether host response is similar following disparate infections with similar mortalities. Design Prospective, randomized controlled study. Setting Animal laboratory in a university medical center. Interventions Pneumonia was induced in FVB/N mice by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or two different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from septic animals was assayed by a microarray immunoassay measuring 18 inflammatory mediators at multiple timepoints. Measurements and Main Results The host response was dependent upon the causative organism as well as kinetics of mortality, but the pro- and anti- inflammatory response was independent of inoculum concentration or degree of bacteremia. Pneumonia caused by different concentrations of the same bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also yielded distinct inflammatory responses; however, inflammatory mediator expression did not directly track the severity of infection. For all infections, the host response was compartmentalized, with markedly different concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the systemic circulation and the lungs. Hierarchical clustering analysis resulted in the identification of 5 distinct clusters of the host response to bacterial infection. Principal components analysis correlated pulmonary MIP-2 and IL-10 with progression of infection while elevated plasma TNFsr2 and MCP-1 were indicative of fulminant disease with >90% mortality within 48 hours. Conclusions Septic mice have distinct local and systemic responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Targeting specific host inflammatory responses induced by distinct bacterial infections could represent a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of sepsis. PMID:19770740

  18. Production of Exopolysaccharides by Strains of Streptococcus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMI PURWANDARI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of Streptococcus thermophilus producing capsular and capsular-ropy exopolysaccharides (EPS were examined for their growth and EPS production in M17 medium supplemented with glucose, galactose or lactose and incubated at 30, 37 or 42 ° C for 24 hours. Growth parameters (viable cells, OD, lactate production, pH and EPS production were determined. Flow behavior of the EPS dispersions was assessed as a function of concentration and temperature. Culture growth during incubation was affected by types of sugar, temperature and time. Growth was enhanced by glucose, lactose and higher incubation temperature. EPS concentration in the medium was greater in the presence of glucose and galactose. Despite the restricted growth conditions, the capsular strain produced comparable levels of EPS to the capsular-ropy strain even under sub-optimal incubation temperature.Two strains of Streptococcus thermophilus producing capsular and capsular-ropy exopolysaccharides (EPS were examined for their growth and EPS production in M17 medium supplemented with glucose, galactose or lactose and incubated at 30, 37 or 42 ° C for 24 hours. Growth parameters (viable cells, OD, lactate production, pH and EPS production were determined. Flow behavior of the EPS dispersions was assessed as a function of concentration and temperature. Culture growth during incubation was affected by types of sugar, temperature and time. Growth was enhanced by glucose, lactose and higher incubation temperature. EPS concentration in the medium was greater in the presence of glucose and galactose. Despite the restricted growth conditions, the capsular strain produced comparable levels of EPS to the capsular-ropy strain even under sub-optimal incubation temperature.

  19. Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus en líquido cefalorraquídeo de un paciente pediátrico / Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus isolated from cerebrospinal fluid in a pediatric patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liz M, Vélez Balestro; María R., Baroni; Maria C., Ochoteco; María L., Zurbriggen; Stella M., Virgolini.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hasta la fecha se han descrito casos de meningitis por Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus en adultos, y de los pocos casos pediátricos, el mayor número se presentó en neonatos. En este trabajo presentamos un caso de meningitis y bacteriemia por este estreptococo en un paciente de 9 meses [...] , con reiteradas hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias; este constituye el primer aislamiento documentado del citado microorganismo en Santa Fe. Abstract in english Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus is known to cause bacterial meningitis in adults, and most of the few pediatric cases observed occurred in neonates. We report the case of a 9-month old boy with a history of repeated hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases, who presented meningiti [...] s and bacteremia by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasterianus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in Santa Fe to this date.

  20. Translation quality control is maintained by the penicillin resistance factor MurM in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Jennifer; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a causative agent of nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis and septicaemia. Penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae depends in part upon MurM, an aminoacyl-tRNA-ligase that attaches L-serine or L-alanine to the stem peptide lysine of Lipid II in cell wall peptidoglycan. To investigate the exact substrates the translation machinery provides MurM, quality control by alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) was investigated. AlaRS mischarged serine and glycine to tRNAAla, as observed in other bacteria, and also transferred alanine, serine and glycine to tRNAPhe. S. pneumoniae tRNAPhe has an unusual U4:C69 mismatch in its acceptor stem that prevents editing by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS), leading to the accumulation of misaminoacylated tRNAs that could serve as substrates for translation or for MurM. Whilst the peptidoglycan layer of S. pneumoniae tolerates a combination of both branched and linear muropeptides, deletion of MurM results in a reversion to penicillin sensitivity in strains that were previously resistant. However, since MurM is not required for cell viability, the reason for its functional conservation across all strains of S. pneumoniae has remained elusive. We now show that MurM is directly involved in translation quality control by acting as a broad specificity trans editing factor that specifically deacylates tRNA misaminoacylated with either serine or alanine. This activity of MurM does not require the presence of its second substrate, Lipid II, and can functionally substitute for the activity of widely conserved editing domain homologues of AlaRS, termed AlaXPs proteins, which are themselves absent from S. pneumoniae.

  1. Genotypic characterization of initial acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in American Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lynch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and is prevalent in lower socio-economic populations. American Indian children suffer from the highest levels of S-ECC in the United States. Members of the mutans streptococci, Streptococcus mutans, in particular, are key etiologic agents in the development of caries. Children typically acquire S. mutans from their mothers and early acquisition is often associated with higher levels of tooth decay. Methods: We have conducted a 5-year birth cohort study with a Northern Plains Tribe to determine the temporality and fidelity of S. mutans transmission from mother to child in addition to the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in this community. Plaque samples were collected from 239 mother/child dyads at regular intervals from birth to 36 months and S. mutans were isolated and genotyped by arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR. Results: Here we present preliminary findings from a subset of the cohort. The focus for this paper is on initial acquisition events in the children. We identified 17 unique genotypes in 711 S. mutans isolates in our subset of 40 children, 40 mothers and 14 primary caregivers. Twelve of these genotypes were identified in more than one individual. S. mutans colonization occurred by 16 months in 57.5% of the children and early colonization was associated with higher decayed, missing and filled surface (DMFS scores (p=0.0007. Children colonized by S. mutans shared a common genotype with their mothers 47.8% of the time. While multiple genotypes were common in adults, only 10% of children harbored multiple genotypes. Conclusion: These children acquire S. mutans at an earlier age than the originally described ‘window of infectivity’ and often, but not exclusively, from their mothers. Early acquisition is associated with both the caries status of the children and the mothers.

  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae Enhances Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D. Tien; Louwen, Rogier; Elberse, Karin; van Amerongen, Geert; Yüksel, Selma; Luijendijk, Ad; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Duprex, W. Paul; de Swart, Rik L.

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are important causative agents of respiratory tract infections. Both pathogens are associated with seasonal disease outbreaks in the pediatric population, and can often be detected simultaneously in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis or pneumonia. It has been described that respiratory virus infections may predispose for bacterial superinfections, resulting in severe disease. However, studies on the influence of bacterial colonization of the upper respiratory tract on the pathogenesis of subsequent respiratory virus infections are scarce. Here, we have investigated whether pneumococcal colonization enhances subsequent HRSV infection. We used a newly generated recombinant subgroup B HRSV strain that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein and pneumococcal isolates obtained from healthy children in disease-relevant in vitro and in vivo model systems. Three pneumococcal strains specifically enhanced in vitro HRSV infection of primary well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells grown at air-liquid interface, whereas two other strains did not. Since previous studies reported that bacterial neuraminidase enhanced HRSV infection in vitro, we measured pneumococcal neuraminidase activity in these cultures but found no correlation with the observed infection enhancement in our model. Subsequently, a selection of pneumococcal strains was used to induce nasal colonization of cotton rats, the best available small animal model for HRSV. Intranasal HRSV infection three days later resulted in strain-specific enhancement of HRSV replication in vivo. One S. pneumoniae strain enhanced HRSV both in vitro and in vivo, and was also associated with enhanced syncytium formation in vivo. However, neither pneumococci nor HRSV were found to spread from the upper to the lower respiratory tract, and neither pathogen was transmitted to naive cage mates by direct contact. These results demonstrate that pneumococcal colonization can enhance subsequent HRSV infection, and provide tools for additional mechanistic and intervention studies. PMID:25970287

  3. Role of VltAB, an ABC transporter complex, in viologen tolerance in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saswati; Biswas, Indranil

    2011-04-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive organism, is the primary causative agent in the formation of dental caries in humans. To persist in the oral cavity, S. mutans must be able to tolerate rapid environmental fluctuations and exposure to various toxic chemicals. However, the mechanisms underlying the ability of this cariogenic pathogen to survive and proliferate under harsh environmental conditions remain largely unknown. Here, we wanted to understand the mechanisms by which S. mutans withstands exposure to methyl viologen (MV), a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) that generates superoxide radicals in the cell. To elucidate the essential genes for MV tolerance, screening of ?3,500 mutants generated by ISS1 mutagenesis, revealed 15 MV-sensitive mutants. Among them, five and four independent insertions had occurred in SMU.905 and SMU.906 genes, respectively. These two genes are appeared to be organized in an operon and encode a putative ABC transporter complex; we designated the genes as vltA and vltB, for viologen transporter. To verify our results, vltA was deleted by using an antibiotic resistance marker; the mutant was just as sensitive to MV as the ISS1 insertion mutants. Furthermore, vltA and vltB mutants were also sensitive to other viologen compounds such as benzyl and ethyl viologens. Complementation assays were also carried out to confirm the role of VltA and VltB in viologen tolerance. Sensitivity to various drugs, including a wide range of QACs, was evaluated. It appears that a functional VltA is also required for full resistance toward acriflavin, ethidium bromide, and safranin; all are well-known QACs. These results indicate that VltA/B constitute a heterodimeric multidrug efflux pump of the ABC family. BLAST-P analysis suggests that homologs of VltA/B are widely present in streptococci, enterococci, and other important Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:21282456

  4. Complete genome and comparative analysis of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreier Jens

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infectious endocarditis, while the pathogenicity of this species is widely unclear. To gain insight into the pathomechanisms and the underlying genetic elements for lateral gene transfer, we sequenced the entire genome of this pathogen. Results We sequenced the whole genome of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain ATCC BAA-2069, consisting of a 2,356,444 bp circular DNA molecule with a G+C-content of 37.65% and a novel 20,765 bp plasmid designated as pSGG1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 2,309 ORFs and the presence of 80 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs in the chromosome. Furthermore, 21 ORFs were detected on the plasmid pSGG1, including tetracycline resistance genes telL and tet(O/W/32/O. Screening of 41 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates revealed one plasmid (pSGG2 homologous to pSGG1. We further predicted 21 surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPxTG, which were shown to play a functional role in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. In addition, we performed a whole genome comparison to the recently sequenced S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain UCN34, revealing significant differences. Conclusions The analysis of the whole genome sequence of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes understanding of genetic factors concerning the pathogenesis and adhesion to ECM of this pathogen. For the first time we detected the presence of the mobilizable pSGG1 plasmid, which may play a functional role in lateral gene transfer and promote a selective advantage due to a tetracycline resistance.

  5. Mechanism of killing of streptococcus mutans by light-activated drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Tracy; Wilson, Michael; Pearson, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cariogenic bacteria can be killed when exposed to low power laser light in the presence of a photosensitizing agent. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans can be killed by toluidine blue O and helium neon laser light. To determine whether membrane damage occurred, suspensions of sensitized S. mutans were exposed to a 7.3 mW HeNe laser for 30 mins and samples removed every 5 mins. Survivors were enumerated by viable counting on tryptone soya agar plates and cell free filtrates were assayed for phosphate and (beta) -galactosidase. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by assaying for malondialdehyde, a by- product of lipid peroxidation. The role of oxygen and reactive oxygen species was studied by exposing sensitized bacteria to laser light (1) under different atmospheric conditions, (2) in the presence of deuterium oxide, and (3) in the presence of inhibitors of reactive oxygen species. Following exposure of sensitizede S. mutans to 13.2 J of HeNe laser light, 2.6 nmoles of phosphate and 228 nmoles of (beta) -galactosidase were detected in the cell free filtrates. Ten micrometers oles of malondialdehyde were also detected. When the sensitized bacteria were exposed to laser light under anaerobic conditions there was no significant decrease in the viable count compared to a 60% kill in the presence of oxygen. In the presence of D2O there was a 15-fold increase in the numbers of bacteria killed. O.1 M methionine and 0.5 M sodium azide each afforded 98% protection from lethal photosensitization. These results imply that lethal photosensitization results from membrane damage due to lipid peroxidation and that reactive oxygen species are mediators of this process.

  6. Genotypic characterization of initial acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in American Indian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David J.; Villhauer, Alissa L.; Warren, John J.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Phipps, Kathy R.; Starr, Delores E.; Drake, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and is prevalent in lower socio-economic populations. American Indian children suffer from the highest levels of S-ECC in the United States. Members of the mutans streptococci, Streptococcus mutans, in particular, are key etiologic agents in the development of caries. Children typically acquire S. mutans from their mothers and early acquisition is often associated with higher levels of tooth decay. Methods We have conducted a 5-year birth cohort study with a Northern Plains Tribe to determine the temporality and fidelity of S. mutans transmission from mother to child in addition to the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in this community. Plaque samples were collected from 239 mother/child dyads at regular intervals from birth to 36 months and S. mutans were isolated and genotyped by arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Results Here we present preliminary findings from a subset of the cohort. The focus for this paper is on initial acquisition events in the children. We identified 17 unique genotypes in 711 S. mutans isolates in our subset of 40 children, 40 mothers and 14 primary caregivers. Twelve of these genotypes were identified in more than one individual. S. mutans colonization occurred by 16 months in 57.5% of the children and early colonization was associated with higher decayed, missing and filled surface (DMFS) scores (p=0.0007). Children colonized by S. mutans shared a common genotype with their mothers 47.8% of the time. While multiple genotypes were common in adults, only 10% of children harbored multiple genotypes. Conclusion These children acquire S. mutans at an earlier age than the originally described ‘window of infectivity’ and often, but not exclusively, from their mothers. Early acquisition is associated with both the caries status of the children and the mothers. PMID:25840611

  7. Pericardite em suínos ao abate no Rio Grande Sul: avaliação de agentes bacterianos e lesões associadas / Bacterial agents and lesions associated with pericarditis in slaughter pigs in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolini F., Coelho; Priscila, Zlotowski; Caroline P. de, Andrade; Sandra M., Borowski; Thaís S., Gaggini; Laura L. de, Almeida; David, Driemeier; David E.S.N. de, Barcellos.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a frequência de lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas e dos agentes bacterianos envolvidos em pericardites em suínos no abate no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram coletadas em frigoríficos de suínos com Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF) entre [...] fevereiro a outubro de 2010 e a condenação por pericardite dos animais acompanhados foi de 3,9% (299/7.571). No total foram investigados 91 casos de pericardites, 89% deles foram classificados como crônicos por histopatologia e pleurite crônica foi observada em 47% dos pulmões correspondentes, todavia não houve associação significativa entre as duas lesões. Os agentes bacterianos isolados a partir dos corações foram Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis e Streptococcus suis. DNA bacterianos mais detectados pela PCR foram de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae e Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Houve associação significativa entre isolamento de P. multocida e Streptococcus sp. nos corações e pulmões correspondentes. Esses resultados sugerem que a infecção no pulmão possa ter servido de porta de entrada para a colonização do pericárdio adjacente. Apesar de M. hyopneumoniae ter sido o agente detectado com maior frequência pela PCR em corações e pulmões correspondentes, não houve associação significativa da detecção dos agentes nos órgãos. Isto sugere que as infecções foram eventos independentes. Os demais agentes investigados não apresentaram associação significativa entre isolamento ou detecção de DNA em coração e pulmão correspondente. Outro achado importante foi a presença de coinfecções bacterianas em 2% dos corações e por PCR foi detectado DNA bacteriano de dois ou mais agentes em 16,5% dos corações. Esses resultados sugerem que as coinfecções em pericardites precisam ser melhor estudadas. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to identify the frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lesions and bacterial agents involved with pericarditis in slaughter pigs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The samples were collected in slaughterhouses with Federal Inspection Service (SIF) between Feb [...] ruary and October, 2010. Condemnation due to pericarditis in the examined animals was 3.9% (299/7,571). Ninety one cases of pericarditis were examined and by histopathology 89% were chronic and 47% of the corresponding lungs showed chronic pleuritis, but there was no significant association between both lesions. The bacterial agents isolated from the hearts were Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis and Streptococcus suis. Bacterial DNA from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were the most frequently detected by PCR. There was significant association between isolation of P. multocida and Streptococcus spp. in the hearts and corresponding lungs. The results suggest that lung infection could act as a port of entry to the colonization of the adjacent pericardium. In spite of the fact that M. hyopneumoniae was the agent more frequently identified by PCR in the heart and corresponding lung, there was no significant association of the agent in the organs. This suggests that the infections were independent events. The other agents investigated did not show significant association between isolation or DNA detection in heart and corresponding lungs. Another important finding was the presence of coinfection between bacterial agents in 2% of the hearts and by PCR were identified bacterial DNA of two or more agents in 16.5% of the hearts. These results suggest that coinfections in cases of pericarditis need further investigation.

  8. Bacteriemia por Streptococcus pyogenes: Presentación de un caso clínico con aparición tardía de neumonía Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes: Report of one case

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    CAROLINA RAMÍREZ

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a 58-year-old female presenting with fever and vomiting. The initial laboratory examination disclosed two blood cultures that were positive for Streptococcus Pyogenes. An abdominal CAT scan showed a right basal pneumonia. The patient was treated with antimicrobials and discharged with oral cefadroxil for 21 days. One month after discharge she was asymptomatic and with a normal C reactive protein. Pneumonia is an important differential diagnosis in unknown origin bacteremia caused by Streptococcus Pyogenes. It may have a fulminant evolution and may complicate with abscess and empyema.

  9. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction and their relation to dental caries in 12 and 15 year-old schoolchildren in Valencia (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Sa?nchez-acedo, Mateo; Montiel-company, Jose? M.; Dasi?-ferna?ndez, Francisco; Almerich-silla, Jose? M.

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus and the association of the two in a random sample (n=614) of the child population of the region of Valencia (Spain). Saliva samples were analyzed by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to study the relation of these bacteria to caries prevalence and the DMFT index. The prevalence of S. mutans was 35.4% at age 12 and 22.9% at age 15, that of S. sobrinus ...

  10. Production of monoclonal antibodies against Streptococcus mutans antigens Produção de anticorpos monoclonais contra antígenos de Streptococcus mutans

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    Antonio Carlos Victor Canettieri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted in the last decades aiming to obtain an anti-caries vaccine, however some studies have demonstrated cross reactivity between Streptococcus mutans surface antigens and the human cardiac tissue. In this work, the reactivity of five anti-Streptococcus mutans monoclonal antibodies (MoAb (24A, 56G, C8, E8 and F6 was tested against oral streptococci, cardiac antigens and skeletal and cardiac myosins, aiming to evaluate the specificity of these MoAb. The hybrid producers of immunoglobulins of the IgG2b class were cloned by limit dilution and expanded in vivo. MoAb were tested by ELISA. The hybrid 24A reacted with S. mutans CCT 1910, S. salivarius CCT 0365 and S. pyogenes T23. No reactivity difference was observed among the tested species. Cross reactivity with heart and cardiac myosin was not confirmed and only reaction with myosin of skeletal muscle was observed (p = 0.0381. The hybrid 56G reacted with all the tested microorganisms and there was statistically significant difference between S. mutans and S. pyogenes T23 (p Diversos estudos foram realizados nas últimas décadas com o intuito de se obter uma vacina anticárie dentária, mas alguns trabalhos têm demonstrado reatividade cruzada entre antígenos de superfície de Streptococcus mutans e tecido cardíaco humano. Neste trabalho, foi testada a reatividade de cinco anticorpos monoclonais (AcMo anti-Streptococcus mutans (24A, 56G, C8, E8 e F6 contra estreptococos orais, antígenos cardíacos e miosinas esquelética e cardíaca, no intuito de avaliar a especificidade desses AcMo. Os híbridos produtores de imunoglobulinas da classe IgG2b foram clonados por diluição limite e expandidos in vivo. Os AcMo foram testados por ELISA. O híbrido 24A reagiu com S. mutans CCT 1910, S. salivarius CCT 0365 e S. pyogenes T23. Nenhuma diferença de reatividade foi detectada entre as espécies analisadas. Reatividade cruzada com coração e miosina cardíaca não foi confirmada, existindo somente reação com miosina de músculo esquelético (p = 0,0381. O híbrido 56G reagiu com todos os microrganismos testados e houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre S. mutans e S. pyogenes T23 (p < 0,001. Este híbrido também reagiu com miosina de músculo esquelético (p = 0,0095. C8, E8 e F6 apresentaram baixa reatividade contra cepas de estreptococos orais e nenhuma reatividade com antígenos cardíacos. Os dados deste trabalho demonstraram que os AcMo 24A e 56G anti-S. mutans reagiram com S. pyogenes e S. salivarius, confirmando a existência de antígenos comuns entre essas espécies. Esses AcMo avaliados apresentaram baixa reatividade cruzada com miosina de músculo esquelético, porém a atividade anticoração não foi confirmada.

  11. Multiple liver abscesses with isolation of streptococcus intermedius related to a pyogenic dental infection in an immuno-competent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Neumayr A; Kubitz R; Jg, Bode; Bilk P; Häussinger D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Streptococcus intermedius - a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group - is part of the normal microbial flora of the oral cavity. Despite being regarded as a harmless apathogenic commensal, Streptococcus intermedius has been described to cause abscesses in various locations of the body. Case Presentation We report the clinical case and course of treatment of a 18-year-old male patient presenting with multiple hepatic abscesses associated with an untreated pyogenic de...

  12. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leticia, Barrientos; Christian L., Herrera; Gloria, Montenegro; Ximena, Ortega; Jorge, Veloz; Marysol, Alvear; Alejandro, Cuevas; Nicolás, Saavedra; Luis A., Salazar.

    Full Text Available Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anticancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis sampl [...] es and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 µgmL-1). Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them.

  13. Influence of time, toothpaste and saliva in the retention of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julia Caroline, SCHMIDT; Miriam, BUX; Elisabeth, FILIPUZZI-JENNY; Eva Maria, KULIK; Tuomas, WALTIMO; Roland, WEIGER; Clemens, WALTER.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The intraoral transmission of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species seems to be facilitated by contaminated toothbrushes and other oral hygiene devices. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the in vitro retention and survival rate of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus [...] sanguinis on different toothbrushes. The impacts of human saliva and antimicrobial toothpaste on these parameters were further evaluated. Material and Methods: Part I: Four toothbrushes (Colgate 360°, Curaprox CS5460 ultra soft, elmex InterX, Trisa Flexible Head3) were contaminated by S. mutans DSM 20523 or S. sanguinis DSM 20068 suspensions for three minutes. Bacteria were removed from the toothbrushes after either three minutes (T0) or 24 hours (T24) of dry storage and grown on Columbia blood agar plates for the quantification of colony-forming units (CFUs). Part II: The effects of saliva from a caries-active or a caries-inactive person and of toothpaste containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate were also tested. Results: Part I: After three minutes of dry storage, approximately one percent of the bacteria were still detectable on the toothbrushes. After 24 hours, S. sanguinis exhibited a more pronounced decrease in viable cell numbers compared with S. mutans but the differences were not significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p>0.05). Part II: The addition of human saliva from a caries-active or caries-inactive person slightly increased the retention of both streptococcal species at T0. The use of toothpaste had no influence on the amount of viable streptococci at T0, but it reduced the microbial load after 24 hours of storage. There were only slight nonsignificant differences (p>0.05) between the four toothbrushes. Conclusions: In vitro bacterial retention and survival of S. sanguinis and S. mutans on different toothbrushes occurred. Within the limitations of this study, the use of human saliva or an antimicrobial toothpaste did not lead to significant differences in the microbial load on toothbrushes.

  14. Antibacterial activity of clove, gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirpour, Mirsasan; Gholizadeh Siahmazgi, Zohreh; Sharifi Kiasaraie, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial compounds from herbal sources have good therapeutic potential. In this study, the antibacterial effects of clove and gall nut, methanolic and ethanolic extractions, were evaluated for their effect on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448, as both the two cause oral diseases. Method The clove and gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts were prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated for S. mutans and S. salivarius in the base of inhibition zone diameter using agar diffusion method. In this part minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed. Results These extracts showed effective antibacterial activity on bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of clove was more than that of ethanolic extract, and ethanolic extracts of gall nut had antibacterial activity more than that of methanolic extracts. MIC and MBC results for clove methanolic extract were 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml for S. mutans and 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for clove ethanolic extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. MIC and MBC results for gall nut methanolic extract were 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. mutans and 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for gall nut ethanolic extracts were 3.1 mg/ml and 6.2 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. Discussion The results showed effective antibacterial activity using clove and gall nut methanolic extracts. If other properties such as tolerance of tissue can also be studied, these extracts can be used as a mouthwash. PMID:25853041

  15. Infective endocarditis with left to right intracardiac fistula due to Streptococcus anginosus - a rare complication caused by an even rarer bacterium

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    Robert Forster

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although infective endocarditis (IE has been described in reports dating from the Renaissance, the diagnosis still challenges and the outcome often surprises. In the course of time, diagnostic criteria have been updated and validated to reduce misdiagnosis. Some risk factors and epidemiology have shown dynamic changes since degenerative valvular disease became more predominant in developed countries, and the mean age of the affected population increased. Despite streptococci have been being well known as etiologic agents, some groups, although rare, have been increasingly reported (e.g., Streptococcus milleri. Intracardiac complications of IE are common and have a worse prognosis, frequently requiring surgical treatment. We report a case of a middle-aged diabetic man who presented with prolonged fever, weight loss, and ultimately severe dyspnea. IE was diagnosed based on a new valvular regurgitation murmur, a positive blood culture for Streptococcus anginosus, an echocardiographic finding of an aortic valve vegetation, fever, and pulmonary thromboembolism. Despite an appropriate antibiotic regimen, the patient died. Autopsy findings showed vegetation attached to a bicuspid aortic valve with an associated septal abscess and left ventricle and aortic root fistula connecting with the pulmonary artery. A large thrombus was adherent to the pulmonary artery trunk and a pulmonary septic thromboemboli were also identified.

  16. Identificación de otros agentes infecciosos en casos sospechosos de síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavirus / Identification of infectious agents in cases suspicious of Hantavirus infection but with negative serology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María, Hinojosa P; Eliecer, Villagra C; Judith, Mora R; Liliana, Maier.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: The diagnosis of acute respiratory illness caused by Hantavirus is based in the rapid and progressive clinical course, epidemiological background and the serological confirmation of the virus. When the presence of the virus is not confirmed a differential diagnosis must be made with othe [...] r infections. Between 1999 and 2001, the Chilean Public Health Institute received 1063 blood samples from patients with a suspicious clinical picture, to study the presence of Andes strain of Hantavirus. In 134 of these samples, the presence of the virus was confirmed. Aim: To study the presence of other infections in sera from patients with suspected Hantavirus acute respiratory illness but serologically negative for Hantavirus. Material and methods: A retrospective study of 98 serum samples, received at the National Public Health Institute, of patients with negative serology for Hantavirus. The presence of antibodies against influenza virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Leptospira and Streptococcus pneumoniae was determined using Latex techniques. Results: Leptospira was detected in 23 patients, influenza virus in 13, Streptococcus pneumoniae in six and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in one case. Leptospira infections were confirmed in four cases by ELISA determination of IgM antibodies. Influenza virus infection was confirmed in three cases by Hemmaglutation Inhibition Assay. Conclusions: In suspected cases of Hantavirus acute respiratory infection, but with negative serology, other infectious agents such as Leptospira, influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, must be sought

  17. Identificación de otros agentes infecciosos en casos sospechosos de síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavirus Identification of infectious agents in cases suspicious of Hantavirus infection but with negative serology

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    María Hinojosa P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of acute respiratory illness caused by Hantavirus is based in the rapid and progressive clinical course, epidemiological background and the serological confirmation of the virus. When the presence of the virus is not confirmed a differential diagnosis must be made with other infections. Between 1999 and 2001, the Chilean Public Health Institute received 1063 blood samples from patients with a suspicious clinical picture, to study the presence of Andes strain of Hantavirus. In 134 of these samples, the presence of the virus was confirmed. Aim: To study the presence of other infections in sera from patients with suspected Hantavirus acute respiratory illness but serologically negative for Hantavirus. Material and methods: A retrospective study of 98 serum samples, received at the National Public Health Institute, of patients with negative serology for Hantavirus. The presence of antibodies against influenza virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Leptospira and Streptococcus pneumoniae was determined using Latex techniques. Results: Leptospira was detected in 23 patients, influenza virus in 13, Streptococcus pneumoniae in six and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in one case. Leptospira infections were confirmed in four cases by ELISA determination of IgM antibodies. Influenza virus infection was confirmed in three cases by Hemmaglutation Inhibition Assay. Conclusions: In suspected cases of Hantavirus acute respiratory infection, but with negative serology, other infectious agents such as Leptospira, influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, must be sought

  18. Meningite neonatal por Streptococcus pyogenes e trombose de seio sagital: relato de caso Neonatal Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis and sagittal sinus thrombosis: case report

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    VERA LÚCIA JORNADA KREBS

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso de meningite por Streptococcus pyogenes em menina de 18 dias de vida, com evolução complicada por trombose de seio sagital. São discutidos alguns aspectos da patogênese, tratamento e seguimento da doença. Frente ao aumento mundial das infecções estreptocócicas graves nos últimos 10 anos, é provável que a meningite neonatal por Streptococcus pyogenes se torne mais frequente no futuro, sendo importante estar alerta para o diagnóstico precoce e as possíveis complicações dessa infecção potencialmente letal.We report a case of Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis in a 18 days year-old-girl with clinical course complicated by sagittal sinus thrombosis. Some aspects of the pathogenesis, treatment and follow-up of the disease are discussed. The world increase of serious streptococcal infections in the last 10 years, probably will become neonatal Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis more frequent in the future and it is important to be alert for the precocious diagnosis and the possible complications of that potentially lethal infection.

  19. Investigation of Probiotic Chocolate Effect on Streptococcus mutans Growth Inhibition

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    Anita Khanafari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important factors in inducing the logarithmic growth of Streptococcus mutans, is a diet containing fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose. Objectives: The aim of the current research was to compare the ability of ordinary and probiotic chocolate to induce or inhibit the growth of S. mutans..Materials and Methods: Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum and L. acidophilus as probiotic strains, were cultivated on MRS agar for 24 hours at 35° C in 5% CO2. S. mutans which is a dominant factor in causing dental plaque, was isolated from 20 samples of dental plaque and caries lesions in adults on Streptococcus selective agar medium, and diagnosed by routine biochemical tests. The antimicrobial effect of three probiotic strains on S. mutans was evaluated by the deferred cross-streak method and susceptibility through the disk diffusion test. The antimicrobial effect of the probiotic supernatant powder was determined by a dilution method. Probiotic strains were added to dark chocolate with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL and their antimicrobial effect on S. mutans was evaluated by the disk diffusion susceptibility method. Survival of the probiotic strains in chocolate and pH shifts were studied in different environmental storage conditions..Results: The results showed that S. mutans was the dominant strain in all of the 20 dental plaque samples. L. plantarum showed the most antimicrobial effect on S. mutans with the maximum diameter of growth inhibitory zone, 35 mm and 78 × 78 mm in the disk diffusion method and deferred cross-streak method, respectively. Probiotic supernatant powder inhibited S. mutans strains in concentrations of 500-700 and 100-300 mg/ml at t = 0 and t = 24, respectively. Comparing the results in terms of maintenance and storage of probiotic chocolate, it showed that the best condition to keep this chocolate is at 4? C (refrigerated with a probiotic survival of 25 to 30 days. The pH level during this period decreased from a pH of 5 to 4. Probiotic chocolate containing L. rhamnosus was shown to have the greatest antimicrobial effect on S. mutans with a maximum diameter of growth inhibitory zone of 75 mm during 59 days storage at an ambient temperature and 4° C..Conclusions: These results suggest that probiotic chocolate is able to inhibit the growth of S. mutans rather than ordinary chocolate.

  20. Incremento de la resistencia a eritromicina de Streptococcus pneumoniae, Colombia, 1994-2008 / Increase in erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia, 1994-2008

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marylin, Hidalgo; Claudia, Santos; Carolina, Duarte; Elizabeth, Castañeda; Clara Inés, Agudelo.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Streptococcus pneumoniae es un agente comúnmente implicado en enfermedad invasora. Los macrólidos constituyen un tratamiento alternativo para las infecciones por S. pneumoniae resistente a los b-lactámicos. Sin embargo, la resistencia a macrólidos se ha incrementado a nivel mundial. Ob [...] jetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de la resistencia a la eritromicina de S. pneumoniae en 15 años de vigilancia y caracterizar fenotípica y genotípicamente los aislamientos resistentes. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron los datos demográficos de los pacientes, la sensibilidad antimicrobiana y los serotipos de los aislamientos resistentes a la eritromicina, recuperados entre 1994 y 2008. Se determinaron los fenotipos por la técnica del doble disco, y los genotipos, por PCR y PFGE. Todos los aislamientos se recuperaron de enfermedad invasiva y fueron proporcionados por los laboratorios nacionales de salud pública. Resultados. Se recuperaron 3.241 aislamientos invasores; 136 (4,2 %) presentaron resistencia a la eritromicina. La resistencia a la eritromicina se incrementó entre 1994-1996 y 2006-2008, de 2,4 % a 6,9 % en menores de 6 años y, de 3,3 % a 5,7 %, en adultos. Los serotipos más frecuentes fueron 6B (36,8 %), 14 (16,9 %) y 6A (17,6 %). El fenotipo constitutivo cMLSB se determinó en 87 aislamientos; 82 tenían el gen ermB. Elfenotipo M se determinó en 46; 45 tenían el gen mefA, tres aislamientos expresaron fenotipo inducible (iMLSB) y un aislamiento presentaba el gen ermB. Por PFGE, se determinó que 50 aislamientos estaban relacionados con clones internacionales, de los cuales, 58 % eran España6B ST90, 26 % eran España9V ST156, 8 % eran Colombia23F-ST338 y 8 % eran España23F-ST81. Conclusiones. Se observó incremento en la resistencia a la eritromicina, relacionada principalmente con el mecanismo de metilación ribosómica y con el clon España6B-ST90 que ha circulado en Colombia desde 1994. Abstract in english Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commonly implicated agent in invasive disease. For infections of S. pneumoniae resistant to b-lactam, macrolides are an alternative treatment. However, resistance to macrolides has increased worldwide as well. Objective. The frequency of resistance to eryt [...] hromycin was determined for S. pneumoniae over a 15-year surveillance period, and the resistant isolates were characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Materials and methods. Demographic data of the patients, antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes were analyzed for 3,241 S. pneumoniae isolates recovered between 1994 and 2008. The phenotypes were determined by the double-disc technique and genotypes by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis). Isolates were recovered from invasive diseases and were provided by national public health laboratories. Results. Of the 3,241 isolates, 136 were resistant to erythromycin. In the 12-year period between 1994-1996 and 2006-2008, resistance in each 2-year sampling had increased from 2.4% to 6.9% in children under 6 years and from 3.3% to 5.7% in adults. The most common serotypes were 6B (36.8%), 14 (16.9%) and 6A (17.6%). Constitutive phenotype cMLSB was determined in 87 isolates; 82 of these expressed the ermB gene. Phenotype M was determined in 46 isolates; 45 had the mefA gene. An additional three isolates expressed the inducible phenotype (iMLSB), and one expressed the ermB gene. By PFGE, 50 of the isolates were found to be related to international clones--58% were Spain6B-ST90, 26% Spain9V-ST156, 8% Colombia23F-ST338 and 8% Spain23F-ST81. Conclusion. The increase in erythromycin resistance was primarily related to the mechanism of ribosomal methylation. More than half the cases were congeneric with the clone Spain6B-ST90 that has been circulating in Colombia since 1994.

  1. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

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    Azizollah Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2% S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3% of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6% isolates were ? hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases.

  2. Group B streptococcal neonatal infections in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Miura, Ernani; Martin, Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus is the most common pathogen found in neonatal sepsis in North America. OBJECTIVES: We describe 15 cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public and teaching hospital. METHODS: We conducted a study at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from January 1st, 1996 to June 30, 1999. Diagnosis of neonatal infection was established according to the findings of Group B Streptococcus in blood cultur...

  3. In Vitro Effect of photodynamic therapy on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiano Dalla Lana, Mattiello; Alan Augusto Kalife, Coelho; Odair Pimentel, Martins; Rodrigo Dalla Lana, Mattiello; José Peixoto, Ferrão Júnior.

    Full Text Available Novos tratamentos são propostos para evitar a progressão da periodontite, sendo a terapia fotodinâmica (PDT) uma notória promessa. Sua aplicação associa o Azul de orto-toluidina a 0,01% (TBO) e uma fonte luminosa a laser de diodo (TwinFlex, Mmoptics), liberando assim, toxinas às bactérias. O objetiv [...] o do estudo é avaliar in vitro a eficiência da PDT sobre Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.) e Streptococcus sanguinis (S.s.). Preparou-se suspensões distintas de 2 mL contendo A.a. e S.s. na concentração de 1,5x108 UFC/mL, e divisão de cada suspensão em 3 grupos: Controle (sem tratamento); Corante (suspensão e TBO por 5min) e Corante/Laser (suspensão, TBO por 5 min e laser por 3 min). Promoveu-se a diluição, a semeadura em 20 mL de TSA (A.a.) e de Ágar Brucella (S.s.), em placas de Petri (Método Pourplate), e a incubação da A.a. em microaerofilia e da S.s. em aerobiose, por 48 h a 35oC, para posterior contagem visual das UFC. Os grupos Controle mostraram ótimo crescimento bacteriano (1,5 x 108 UFC/mL). Os grupos Corante não apresentaram redução significativa para ambas bactérias. Os grupos Laser apresentaram redução em relação ao controle, 61,53% para A.a. e 84,32% para S.s. A análise estatística (ANOVA, p Abstract in english New periodontal disease treatments are needed to prevent infection progression. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the greatest pledges for this purpose. It involves the use of light of specific wavelength to activate a nontoxic photosensitizing agent in the presence of oxygen for eradication of t [...] arget cells, and can be used for photokilling of microorganisms. This study evaluated in vitro the photodynamic effect of 0.01% toluidine blue-O (TBO) in combination with an AlGaInP diode laser light source on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.) and Streptococcus sanguinis (S.s.). Suspensions (2 mL) containing A.a. and S.s. at 1.5 x 108 CFU/mL concentration were prepared and divided into 3 groups: Control group (no treatment), Dye group (inoculum and TBO for 5 min) and Dye/Laser group (inoculum, TBO for 5 min and laser for 3 min). Next, a dilution for subsequent subculture in 20 mL of Trypic Soy Agar (A.a) and Brucella Agar (S.s.) in Petri dishes (Pourplate Method) was done. Incubation of A.a. in microaerophilia and S.s. in aerobiosis at 35oC for 48 h was performed for subsequent visual counting of CFU/mL. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test at 5% significance level. For both strains, the control group showed a significantly higher (p0.05) in the CFU counts. The Dye/Laser group presented a significant decrease in the CFU counts (p

  4. Efeito antimicrobiano in vitro do extrato de jabuticaba [Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.)O.Berg.] sobre Streptococcus da cavidade oral / In vitro antimicrobial effect of jabuticaba [Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.)O.Berg] extract on Streptococcus from the oral cavity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.M., Carvalho; M.R., Macedo-Costa; M.S.V., Pereira; J.S., Higino; L.F.P.C., Carvalho; L.J., Costa.

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a ação do extrato etanólico das folhas de Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.)O.Berg. sobre três culturas de Streptococcus formadoras do biofilme dental. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de difusão em meio sólido. Os dados obtidos foram satisfatórios para todas as e [...] spécies ensaiadas (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27609 e Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10557) gerando halos de inibição quando utilizado o extrato puro e diluições 1:2 e 1:4. Os resultados incentivam a realização de novas pesquisas que viabilizem a produção de compostos com finalidade terapêutica que possam ser utilizados clinicamente na odontologia. Abstract in english This study evaluated the action of ethanolic extract of Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.)O.Berg leaves on three Streptococcus cultures from dental plaque. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by agar-well diffusion method. The obtained data were satisfactory for all assayed species (Streptococcus mutans A [...] TCC 25175, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 27609 and Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10557) yielding inhibition halos when the pure extract and 1:2 and 1:4 dilutions were used. These results encourage new studies for the production of therapeutic compounds to be used in clinical dentistry.

  5. UJI ANTIBAKTERI SIWAK (Salvadora persica Linn. TERHADAP Streptococcus mutans (ATC31987 DAN Bacteroides melaninogenicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Logawa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial Activity of Siwak (Salvadora persica Linn. against Streptococcus mutans (ATC31987 and Bacteroides melaninogenicus. Dental diseases with high prevalences in Indonesia and also in some other countries are periodontitis and caries. Both diseases are until now still a health problem. Bacteria causing dental diseases are forexamples Streptococcus mutans and Bacteroides melaninogenicus, which both can spread to other organs and cause fatal diseases. Salvadora persica (arak, siwak has been used for a long time ago as a tool for teeth cleanser in the Middle East, Africa and several Asian countries. In this study, we have done antibacterial tests of the extract and crystal of siwak against Streptococcus mutans and Bacteroides melaninogenicus. In determining the Minimal InhibitoryConcentration (MIC, the macro and micro dilution methods were used. The result showed that MIC of siwaks’ extract against Streptococcus mutans was 6.25%, and against Bacteroides melaninogenicus 1.56%. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of siwaks’ crystal against Streptococcus mutans and Bacteroides melaninogenicus was 12.5%, and3.12% respectively. This study showed that the antibacterial activity of siwak’ crystal and extract were more potent against B. Melaninogenicus; it may be either that B. melaninogenicus was more susceptible than S. mutans or S. mutans was more virulent than B. melaninogenicus

  6. Methodological variations in the isolation of genomic DNA from Streptococcus bacteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mônica, Moreira; Juliana, Noschang; Ivana Froede, Neiva; Yanê, Carvalho; llma Hiroko, Higuti; Vânia Aparecida, Vicente.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Streptococcus encontra-se amplamente distribuído na natureza e algumas espécies constituem a microbiota humana da cavidade bucal, como Streptococcus pyogenes, que pode estar associado a importantes doenças humanas, Streptococcus mutans e Streptococcus sobrinus, relacionados à cárie dental. [...] O DNA genômico destas três espécies foi isolado utilizando-se dois métodos, o primeiro utilizando o detergente brometo de cetiltrimetilamônio (CTAB) à 65ºC e outro associando ultra-som a uma mistura de sílica e celite em CTAB. O método que possibilitou a extração do DNA genômico das bactérias Gram positivas, com qualidade, boa reprodutibilidade fácil execução foi aquele que utilizou ultra-som associado à sílica e celite em CTAB. Abstract in english In this work, genomic DNA of Streptococcus pyogenes, S. mutans and S. sobrinus was isolated using two methods: either using the detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 65ºC; or by applying ultrasound to a mixture of silica and celite in CTAB. The composite method that used ultrasound was [...] the more efficient, allowing the straightforward extraction of genomic DNA from Gram-positive bacteria with good quality and reproducibility.

  7. Methodological variations in the isolation of genomic DNA from Streptococcus bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Moreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, genomic DNA of Streptococcus pyogenes, S. mutans and S. sobrinus was isolated using two methods: either using the detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB at 65ºC; or by applying ultrasound to a mixture of silica and celite in CTAB. The composite method that used ultrasound was the more efficient, allowing the straightforward extraction of genomic DNA from Gram-positive bacteria with good quality and reproducibility.O gênero Streptococcus encontra-se amplamente distribuído na natureza e algumas espécies constituem a microbiota humana da cavidade bucal, como Streptococcus pyogenes, que pode estar associado a importantes doenças humanas, Streptococcus mutans e Streptococcus sobrinus, relacionados à cárie dental. O DNA genômico destas três espécies foi isolado utilizando-se dois métodos, o primeiro utilizando o detergente brometo de cetiltrimetilamônio (CTAB à 65ºC e outro associando ultra-som a uma mistura de sílica e celite em CTAB. O método que possibilitou a extração do DNA genômico das bactérias Gram positivas, com qualidade, boa reprodutibilidade fácil execução foi aquele que utilizou ultra-som associado à sílica e celite em CTAB.

  8. Antibacterial activity of Iranian medicinal plants against Streptococcus iniae isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

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    Pirbalouti Ghasemi Abdollah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems. Ten Iranian medicinal plants were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus iniae isolates obtained from diseased Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmonidae; Walbaum, 1972 collected from fish farms in Iran. The antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum, Quercus branti, Glycyrrhiza glabra and essential oils of Heracleum lasiopetalum, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis, Myrtus communis, Echinophora platyloba, Kelussia odoratissima and Stachys lavandulifolia against Steptococcus iniae was evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts and essential oils showed a relatively high antibacterial activity against Streptococcus iniae. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of Satureja bachtiarica, Echinophora platyloba, Thymus daenensis and the ethanol extract of Quercus branti. Some of the extracts were active against Streptococcus iniae. Two essential oils showed lower MIC values; Heracleum lasiopetalum (78 ?g/ml and Satureja bachtiarica (39 ?g/ml. The essential oil of Satureja bachtiarica could be an important source of antibacterial compounds against the Streptococcus iniae isolated from rainbow trout.

  9. Prediction of an Essential Gene with Potential Drug Target Property in Streptococcus suis using comparative genomics

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    Aubhishek Zaman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genes that are indispensible for survival are referred to as essential gene. Due to the momentous significance of these genes for cellular activity they can be selected potentially as drug targets. Here in this study, an essential gene for Streptococcus suis was predicted using coherent statistical analysis and powerful genome comparison computational method. At first the whole genome protein scatter plot was generated and subsequently, on the basis of statistical significance, a reference genome was chosen. The parameters set forth for selecting the reference genome was- the genome of the query (Streptococcus suis and subject must fall in the same genus and yet they must vary to a good degree. Streptococcus pneumoniae was found to be suitable as the reference genome. A whole genome comparison was performed for the reference (Streptococcus pneumoniae and the query genome (Streptococcus suis and 14 conserved proteins from them were subjected to a screen for potential essential gene property. Among those 14 only one essential gene was found to be with impressive similarity score between reference and query. The essential gene encodes for a type of ‘Clp protease’. Clp proteases play major roles in degrading misfolded proteins. Results found here should help formulating a drug against Strptococcus suis which is responsible for mild to severe clinical conditions in human. However, like many other computational studies, the study has to be validated furthermore through in vitro assays for concrete proof.

  10. Software Agents, Agent Systems and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Essaaidi, M; Paprzycki, M

    2012-01-01

    Seen by many as the next revolution in software development for large, complex, distributed systems, agent systems represent one of the more exciting research areas in computer science. With the development of powerful personal devices, the vision of a personal agent now seems increasingly appealing too. It can even be claimed that intelligent software agents will eventually become an essential part of Web 4.0. Software agents are finding their way into areas such as environmental security, climate change, seismic safety, epidemic prevention, detection and response, computer emergency response

  11. Catechin-incorporated dental copolymers inhibit growth of Streptococcus mutans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandra, Mankovskaia; Celine M., Levesque; Anuradha, Prakki.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the inhibitory growth activity of green tea catechin incorporated into dental resins compared to resins containing the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans in vitro. Material and Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) [...] of epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) and chlorhexidine (CHX) were determined according to the microdilution method. Resin discs (5 mm × 3 mm) were prepared from Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (R1) and Bis-GMA/CH3Bis-GMA (R2) comonomers (n=9) containing: a) no drug, b) EGCg, c) CHX. Two concentrations of each drug (0.5× MIC and 1× MIC) were incorporated into the resin discs. Samples were individually immersed in a bacterial culture and incubated for 24 h at 37°C under constant agitation. Cell viability was assessed by counting the number of colonies on replica agar plates. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Student t-tests (?=0.05). Results: Both resins containing EGCg and CHX showed a significant inhibition of bacterial growth at both concentrations tested (p

  12. Streptococcus mutans attachment on a cast titanium surface

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    Sicknan Soares da Rocha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and the corrosion of cast commercially pure titanium, used in dental dentures. The sample discs were cast in commercially pure titanium using the vacuum-pressure machine (Rematitan System. The surfaces of each metal were ground and polished with sandpaper (#300-4000 and alumina paste (0.3 µm. The roughness of the surface (Ra was measured using the Surfcorder rugosimeter SE 1700. Four coupons were inserted separately into Falcon tubes contained Mueller Hinton broth inoculated with S. mutans ATCC 25175 (10(9 cuf and incubated at 37 °C. The culture medium was changed every three days during a 365-day period, after which the falcons were prepared for observations by SEM. The mean Ra value of CP Ti was 0.1527 µm. After S. mutans biofilm removal, pits of corrosion were observed. Despite the low roughness, S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation was observed, which induced a surface corrosion of the cast pure titanium.

  13. Streptococcus mutans attachment on a cast titanium surface

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sicknan Soares da, Rocha; Adilson César Abreu, Bernardi; Antônio Carlos, Pizzolitto; Gelson Luis, Adabo; Elisabeth Loshchagin, Pizzolitto.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and the corrosion of cast commercially pure titanium, used in dental dentures. The sample discs were cast in commercially pure titanium using the vacuum-pressure machine (Rematitan System). The [...] surfaces of each metal were ground and polished with sandpaper (#300-4000) and alumina paste (0.3 µm). The roughness of the surface (Ra) was measured using the Surfcorder rugosimeter SE 1700. Four coupons were inserted separately into Falcon tubes contained Mueller Hinton broth inoculated with S. mutans ATCC 25175 (10(9) cuf) and incubated at 37 °C. The culture medium was changed every three days during a 365-day period, after which the falcons were prepared for observations by SEM. The mean Ra value of CP Ti was 0.1527 µm. After S. mutans biofilm removal, pits of corrosion were observed. Despite the low roughness, S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation was observed, which induced a surface corrosion of the cast pure titanium.

  14. Group B Streptococcus pili mediate adherence to salivary glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittan, Jane L; Nobbs, Angela H

    2015-05-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis, and is responsible for a rising number of severe invasive infections in adults. For all disease manifestations, colonisation is a critical first step. GBS has frequently been isolated from the oropharynx of neonates and adults. However, little is understood about the mechanisms of GBS colonisation at this site. In this study it is shown that three GBS strains (COH1, NEM316, 515) have capacity to adhere to human salivary pellicle. Heterologous expression of GBS pilus island (PI) genes in Lactococcus lactis to form surface-expressed pili demonstrated that GBS PI-2a and PI-1 pili bound glycoprotein-340 (gp340), a component of salivary pellicle. By contrast, PI-2b pili did not interact with gp340. The variation was attributable to differences in capacities for backbone and ancillary protein subunits of each pilus to bind gp340. Furthermore, while GBS strains were aggregated by fluid-phase gp340, this mechanism was not mediated by pili, which displayed specificity for immobilised gp340. Thus pili may enable GBS to colonise the soft and hard tissues of the oropharynx, while evading an innate mucosal defence, with implications for risk of progression to severe diseases such as meningitis and sepsis. PMID:25576026

  15. Antibacterial characteristics of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract on Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Hee-Eun; Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Baek-Il

    2008-04-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial effects of a natural Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract (Xan) on a Streptococcus mutans biofilm by examining the bactericidal activity, inhibition of acidogenesis and morphological alteration. Xan was obtained from the roots of a medicinal plant in Indonesia, which has shown selective antibacterial effects on planktonic S. mutans. S. mutans biofilms were formed on slide glass over a 72 h period and treated with the following compounds for 5, 30, and 60 min: saline, 1% DMSO, 2 mg/ml chlorhexidine (CHX), and 0.1 mg/ml Xan. The Xan group exposed for 5 and 30 min showed significantly fewer colony forming units (CFU, 57.6 and 97.3%, respectively) than those exposed to 1% DMSO, the negative control group (Pbiofilms treated with Xan and CHX maintained a neutral pH for 4 h, which indicates that Xan and CHX inhibit acid production. Scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes in the cell wall and membrane of the Xan-treated biofilms; an uneven surface and a deformation in contour. Overall, natural Xan has strong bactericidal activity, inhibitory effects on acidogenesis, and alters the microstructure of S. mutans biofilm. In conclusion, Xan has potential in anti-S. mutans therapy for the prevention of dental caries. PMID:18545974

  16. Streptococcus bovis endocarditis: analysis of cases between 2005 and 2014

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato, Mello; Marisa da Silva, Santos; Wilma, Golebiosvki; Clara, Weksler; Cristiane, Lamas.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus bovis is a classical etiology of endocarditis and is associated with colonic lesions. No series of cases from Brazil has been described. Objectives: To describe aspects of S. bovis endocarditis. Methods: This is a case series of patients admitted to a cardiac surgery refer [...] ral center, during the years 2005-2014. Clinical, laboratory, echochardiographic, colonoscopic, treatment, surgical and outcome variables were studied. Results: Nine patients with S. bovis endocarditis were included; all cases ful?lled the modi?ed Duke criteria. Incidence was 8/220 (4%) in years 2006-2014. There were seven male and two female patients; mean age was 56.7 years, standard deviation 13.4. All patients had native aortic valve involvement. Presentation was subacute in 7/9 (71%). Fever was present in 7/9 (77.7%), embolic lesions to solid organs occurred in three, and perivalvular abscess in two patients. All echocardiograms showed moderate to severe valvular regurgitation and vegetations. Microcytic anemia was seen in 7/7 patients. Colonoscopy showed abnormal ?ndings in 7/9 (77.7%). Surgery was indicated for 6/9 patients due to acute aortic regurgitation and left ventricular failure. All patients were discharged home. Conclusions: S. bovis most frequently affected the aortic valve of male patients. Colon disease was frequent. Surgery was indicated frequently due to hemodynamic compromise.

  17. X-ray structure of prephenate dehydratase from Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Hyung; Ku, Hyung-Keun; Song, Jin Sue; Choi, Saehae; Son, Se Young; Yang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hee-Dai; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Park, Il Yeong; Lee, Soo Jae

    2014-06-01

    Prephenate dehydratase is a key enzyme of the biosynthesis of L-phenylalanine in the organisms that utilize shikimate pathway. Since this enzymatic pathway does not exist in mammals, prephenate dehydratase can provide a new drug targets for antibiotics or herbicide. Prephenate dehydratase is an allosteric enzyme regulated by its end product. The enzyme composed of two domains, catalytic PDT domain located near the N-terminal and regulatory ACT domain located near the C-terminal. The allosteric enzyme is suggested to have two different conformations. When the regulatory molecule, phenylalanine, is not bound to its ACT domain, the catalytic site of PDT domain maintain open (active) state conformation as Sa-PDT structure. And the open state of its catalytic site become closed (allosterically inhibited) state if the regulatory molecule is bound to its ACT domain as Ct-PDT structure. However, the X-ray structure of prephenate dehydratase from Streptococcus mutans (Sm-PDT) shows that the catalytic site of Sm-PDT has closed state conformation without phenylalanine molecule bound to its regulatory site. The structure suggests a possibility that the binding of phenylalanine in its regulatory site may not be the only prerequisite for the closed state conformation of Sm-PDT. PMID:24610334

  18. Purification and preliminary crystallization of alanine racemase from Streptococcus pneumoniae

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    Im Hookang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past fifteen years, antibiotic resistance in the Gram-positive opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae has significantly increased. Clinical isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia or otitis media often display resistance to two or more antibiotics. Given the need for new therapeutics, we intend to investigate enzymes of cell wall biosynthesis as novel drug targets. Alanine racemase, a ubiquitous enzyme among bacteria and absent in humans, provides the essential cell wall precursor, D-alanine, which forms part of the tetrapeptide crosslinking the peptidoglycan layer. Results The alanine racemases gene from S. pneumoniae (alrSP was amplified by PCR and cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The 367 amino acid, 39854 Da dimeric enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and preliminary crystals were obtained. Racemic activity was demonstrated through complementation of an alr auxotroph of E. coli growing on L-alanine. In an alanine racemases photometric assay, specific activities of 87.0 and 84.8 U mg-1 were determined for the conversion of D- to L-alanine and L- to D-alanine, respectively. Conclusion We have isolated and characterized the alanine racemase gene from the opportunistic human pathogen S. pneumoniae. The enzyme shows sufficient homology with other alanine racemases to allow its integration into our ongoing structure-based drug design project.

  19. Capsular Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae by latex agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Barbara D; Ortika, Belinda D; Satzke, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Latex agglutination reagents are widely used in microbial diagnosis, identification and serotyping. Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Current vaccines target the pneumococcal capsule, and there are over 90 capsular serotypes. Serotyping pneumococcal isolates is therefore important for assessing the impact of vaccination programs and for epidemiological purposes. The World Health Organization has recommended latex agglutination as an alternative method to the 'gold standard' Quellung test for serotyping pneumococci. Latex agglutination is a relatively simple, quick and inexpensive method; and is therefore suitable for resource-poor settings as well as laboratories with high-volume workloads. Latex agglutination reagents can be prepared in-house utilizing commercially-sourced antibodies that are passively attached to latex particles. This manuscript describes a method of production and quality control of latex agglutination reagents, and details a sequential testing approach which is time- and cost-effective. This method of production and quality control may also be suitable for other testing purposes. PMID:25285991

  20. Antibiotic Susceptibilities and Serotyping of Clinical Streptococcus Agalactiae Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Atalay

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci, GBS are frequently responsible for sepsis and meningitis seen in the early weeks of life. GBS may cause perinatal infection and premature birth in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to serotype GBS strains isolated from clinical samples and evaluate their serotype distribution according to their susceptibilities to antibiotics and isolation sites. Material and Methods: One hundred thirty one S. agalactiae strains isolated from the clinical samples were included in the study. Of the strains, 99 were isolated from urine, 20 from soft tissue, 10 from blood and 2 from vaginal swab. Penicillin G and ceftriaxone susceptibilities of GBS were determined by the agar dilution method. Susceptibilities to erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin and tetracycline were determined by the Kirby-Bauer method according to CLSI criteria. Serotyping was performed using the latex aglutination method using specific antisera (Ia, Ib, II-VIII. Results: While in 131 GBS strains, serotypes VII and VIII were not detected, the most frequently isolated serotypes were types Ia (36%, III (30.5% and II (13% respectively. Serotype Ia was the most frequently seen serotype in all samples. All GBS isolates were susceptible to penicilin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Among the strains, tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin resistance rates were determined as 90%, 14.5%, and 13% respectively. Conclusion: Penicillin is still the first choice of treatment for the infections with all serotypes of S. agalactiae in Turkey.

  1. The anti-biofouling effect of polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendamangalam, Varunraj; Choi, One Kyun; Kim, Dongshik; Seo, Youngwoo

    2011-01-01

    Biofouling is a process of surface colonization by microorganisms through cell adhesion and production of extracellular polymers (polysaccharides and proteins). It often causes serious problems in the chemical, medical and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, it was demonstrated that some natural phenolic compounds found in plants and vegetables have an antibiofouling effect, reducing formation of biofilm by Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive bacterium was investigated for the antibiofouling effect of polyphenols. It was hypothesized that the two enzymes, glucosyltransferase and fructosyltransferase, produced by S. mutans, would be inhibited by the natural phenolic compounds. When these two enzymes were inhibited, less (or no) biofilms were formed. Enzymes were separated from a S. mutans culture medium, and their activities were measured with five different polyphenols using microtiter-plates and high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used to determine the enzyme inhibition effect of polyphenols on biofilm formation without killing the cells. Most of the polyphenols used showed considerable reduction of biofilm formation. Gallic acid and tannic acid showed significant enzyme inhibition effects below their MICs. PMID:21104475

  2. Bacteriophage content of M49 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, Alexander N; Polyakova, Ekaterina M; McShan, W Michael; Ferretti, Joseph J

    2009-05-01

    Bacteriophages are common autonomous migrating mobile genetic elements in group A Streptococcus (GAS) and are often associated with the carriage of various virulence genes, including toxins, mitogens and enzymes. Two collections of GAS type M49 strains isolated from invasive (22 strains) and noninvasive (16 strains) clinical cases have been studied for the presence of phage and phage-associated virulence genes. All the GAS strains carried from at least two to six phage genomes as determined by the number of known phage integrase genes found. A sampling of the invasive M49 strains showed that they belonged to the same multilocus sequence typing type, carried two specific integrase genes (int5 and int7), and contained the toxin genes speA, speH and speI. Other invasive strains lacking this gene profile carried the prophage integrating in mutL-mutS region and inducing the 'mutator' phenotype. We suggest that this specific phage-related virulence gene constellation might be an important factor increasing M49 GAS pathogenicity. PMID:19493003

  3. Predominant presence of Streptococcus anginosus in the saliva of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, E; Narikiyo, M; Yokoyama, A; Yano, A; Kamoi, K; Yoshikawa, E; Yamaguchi, T; Igaki, H; Tachimori, Y; Kato, H; Saito, D; Hanada, N; Sasaki, H

    2005-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is known to be a major risk factor for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. The incidence of esophageal cancer (4.4%) in alcoholics is reported to be much higher than that in the Japanese population as a whole (0.0001%). This suggests the presence of specific factors in chronic alcohol consumption-related carcinogenesis. Recently, data showing a significant correlation between Streptococcus anginosus and carcinogenesis in the upper aerodigestive tract have been reported. In this study, the ratio of S. anginosus to oral bacteria in the saliva of 38 alcoholic patients was investigated to determine if there is an association between alcoholic patients and S. anginosus infection. The level of S. anginosus in the saliva from 22 healthy people, 41 esophageal cancer patients, 32 gastritis patients, and 24 periodontitis patients was also investigated and compared to the level in alcoholic patients. In the saliva from esophageal cancer patients, the level of S. anginosus was not significantly different from that of healthy people. The levels of S. anginosus in periodontitis and gastritis patients were also similar. In alcoholics, however, there was an extremely high level of S. anginosus, suggesting that they, rather than healthy people and general esophageal cancer patients, have a high risk for S. anginosus infection. PMID:16238596

  4. High-resolution CT findings in Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To assess pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with acute Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection. Materials and methods: Sixty consecutive patients with acute S. milleri pneumonia who had undergone high-resolution CT chest examinations between January 2004 and March 2010 were retrospectively identified. Twenty-seven patients with concurrent infections were excluded. The final study group comprised 33 patients (25 men, 8 women; aged 20–88 years, mean 63.1 years) with S. milleri infection. The patients' clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes, and pleural effusion were evaluated on high-resolution CT. Results: Underlying conditions included malignancy (n = 15), a smoking habit (n = 11), and diabetes mellitus (n = 8). CT images of all patients showed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (n = 24), bronchial wall thickening (n = 23), consolidation (n = 17), and cavities (n = 7). Pleural effusion was found in 18 patients, and complex pleural effusions were found in seven patients. Conclusion: Pulmonary infection caused by S. milleri was observed mostly in male patients with underlying conditions such as malignancy or a smoking habit. The CT findings in patients with S. milleri consisted mainly of ground-glass opacity, bronchial wall thickening, pleural effusions, and cavities

  5. Probiotic lactobacilli interfere with Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderling, Eva M; Marttinen, Aino M; Haukioja, Anna L

    2011-02-01

    In clinical studies, probiotic bacteria have decreased the counts of salivary mutans streptococci (MS). We compared the effects of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on the biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. The bacterial strains used included four S. mutans strains (reference strains NCTC 10449 and Ingbritt and clinical isolates 2366 and 195) and probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. plantarum 299v, and L. reuteri strains PTA 5289 and SD2112. The ability of MS to adhere and grow on a glass surface, reflecting biofilm formation, was studied in the presence of the lactobacilli (LB). The effect of LB culture supernatants on the viability of the MS was studied as well. All of the LB inhibited the biofilm formation of the clinical isolates of MS (P plantarum and L. reuteri PTA 5289 showed a weaker inhibition when compared to L. reuteri SD2112 and L. rhamnosus GG. Viable S. mutans cells could be detected in the biofilms and culture media only when the experiments were performed with the L. reuteri strains. The L. reuteri strains were less efficient in killing the MS also in the tests performed with the culture supernatants. The pHs of the supernatants of L. reuteri were higher compared to those of L. rhamnosus GG and L. plantarum; P < 0.001. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that four commonly used probiotics interfered with S. mutans biofilm formation in vitro, and that the antimicrobial activity against S. mutans was pH-dependent. PMID:20835828

  6. Analysis of an outbreak of Streptococcus uberis mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoks, R N; Allore, H G; Barkema, H W; Sampimon, O C; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H

    2001-03-01

    An outbreak of Streptococcus uberis mastitis was described to gain insight into the dynamics of Strep. uberis infections at a herd level. Data were obtained from a longitudinal observational study on a commercial Dutch dairy farm with good udder health management. Quarter milk samples for bacteriological culture were routinely collected at 3-wk intervals from all lactating animals (n = 95 +/- 5). Additional samples were collected at calving, clinical mastitis, dry-off, and culling. During the 78-wk observation period, 54 Strep. uberis infections were observed. The majority of infections occurred during a 21-wk period that constituted the disease outbreak. The incidence rate was higher in quarters that had recovered from prior Strep. uberis infection than in quarters that had not experienced Strep. uberis infection before. The incidence rate of Strep. uberis infection did not differ between quarters that were infected with other pathogens compared with quarters that were not infected with other pathogens. The expected number of new Strep. uberis infections per 3-wk interval was described by means of a Poisson logistic regression model. Significant predictor variables in the model were the number of existing Strep. uberis infections in the preceding time interval (shedders), phase of the study (early phase vs. postoutbreak phase), and prior infection status of quarters with respect to Strep. uberis, but not infection status with respect to other pathogens. Results suggest that contagious transmission may have played a role in this outbreak of Strep. uberis mastitis. PMID:11286411

  7. Meningoencefalitis bacteriana por Streptococcus agalactiae. Reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mar\\u00EDa Rodr\\u00EDguez Fern\\u00E1ndez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un recién nacido de 13 días de edad, ingresado en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial Docente ¿Dr. Eduardo Agramonte Pina¿ de Camagüey por presentar fiebre, irritabilidad y cianosis distal, además de antecedentes patológicos de conjuntivitis purulenta en ambos ojos al nacer. El estudio citoquímico del líquido cefalorraquídeo fue sugestivo de meningoencefalitis bacteriana. Se trasladó a la sala de Terapia Intensiva donde presentó cinco crisis convulsivas en las primeras 48h. A las 72h de recluido se aisló del cultivo del líquido cefalorraquídeo, Streptococcus agalactiae sensible a Ceftriaxona, Amikacina y Ampicillín, con este último antimicrobiano se logró una evolución satisfactoria con negativización de los examenes citoquímico y bacteriológico del líquido cefalorraquídeo. A los 17 días de ingresado aparecieron secuelas como afectación del tercer par craneal, pulgares corticales bilaterales e hipertonía muscular de pierna derecha. Fue dado de alta a los 22 días, con seguimiento en su área de salud y diagnóstico al egreso de meningoencefalitis bacteriana por S. agalactiae debido a una sepsis ocular adquirida al paso del feto por el canal del parto materno. Se sugiere la adopción de estrategias preventivas por el personal de salud contra esta bacteria por desconocerse su impacto en nuestro medio.

  8. Infección y colonización faríngea asintomática de niños por Streptococcus pyogenes / Streptococcus pyogenes infection and asymptomatic throat carriage in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mary Alejandra, Restrepo Lozada; María Isabel, Múnera Jaramillo; Blanca Susana, Ramírez Puerta; Clara Patricia, Acuña Ramos.

    Full Text Available Objetivo: establecer la frecuencia de estreptococo beta hemolítico del grupo A (Streptococcus pyogenes) en niños, mediante una prueba rápida de inmunoensayo cromatográfico. Métodos: estudio piloto de tipo transversal en una muestra no probabilística de 144 niños entre 3 y 13 años, asistentes a centr [...] os infantiles de Medellín y su área metropolitana y a una institución educativa de Bogotá. Se tomaron muestras de garganta por frotis para la prueba rápida de S. pyogenes y se recolectó información demográfica y de antecedentes personales mediante una encuesta. Se calcularon los promedios con sus desviaciones estándar y los porcentajes de acuerdo con la naturaleza de las variables de interés. Resultados: la edad promedio del grupo fue 5,5 ± 2,8 años con distribución similar por sexo. Veintiún niños (14,6%) fueron positivos para S. pyogenes, diez de ellos fueron posibles infecciones y 11, portadores asintomáticos. De los 144 niños, 45 (31,3%) tenían síntomas faríngeos, de los cuales 10 (22,2%) tenían S. pyogenes. Un total de 99 (68,8%) niños fueron asintomáticos y 11 de estos (11,1%) presentaron prueba positiva para S. pyogenes. Discusión: la alta frecuencia de S. pyogenes en este grupo es un llamado de atención sobre la necesidad de implementar protocolos de manejo con pruebas rápidas para la detección del microorganismo. Abstract in english Objective: To establish the frecuency of Streptococcus pyogenes infection or asymptomatic carriage in a group of children, by means of a rapid antigendetection test. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a non-probabilistic sample of 144 children aged between 3 and 13 years, in two edu [...] cational institutions in Bogotá and Medellin. A single throat specimen was obtained from each child to carry out the rapid test; demographic data and information on pertinent symptoms and signs were obtained by means of a survey. Mean and standard deviation and percentages were calculated according to the nature of the variables. Results: Average age was 5.5 ± 2.8 years, with even distribution by gender. Twenty one children (14,6%) were positive for S. pyogenes; out of them, 10 had possible infection and 11 were asymptomatic throat carriers. Forty five children (31.3%) reported pharyngeal symptoms and 10 (22.2%) out of them were positive in the rapid test. Ninety nine children (68.7%) were asymptomatic and of them 11 (11.1%) were also positive. Discussion: Management protocols for S. pyogenes infection would benefit from the detection based on rapid tests.

  9. Meningoencefalitis bacteriana por Streptococcus agalactiae. Reporte de un caso / Bacterial meningoencephalitis by Streptococcus agalactiae. A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olga María, Rodríguez Fernández; Alexis, Sanchén Casas; Magaly, Cordero Rodríguez; Jorge, Deus Cabrera.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un recién nacido de 13 días de edad, ingresado en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial Docente «Dr. Eduardo Agramonte Pina» de Camagüey por presentar fiebre, irritabilidad y cianosis distal, además de antecedentes patológicos de conjuntivitis purulenta en ambos ojos al nacer. El e [...] studio citoquímico del líquido cefalorraquídeo fue sugestivo de meningoencefalitis bacteriana. Se trasladó a la sala de Terapia Intensiva donde presentó cinco crisis convulsivas en las primeras 48h. A las 72h de recluido se aisló del cultivo del líquido cefalorraquídeo, Streptococcus agalactiae sensible a Ceftriaxona, Amikacina y Ampicillín, con este último antimicrobiano se logró una evolución satisfactoria con negativización de los examenes citoquímico y bacteriológico del líquido cefalorraquídeo. A los 17 días de ingresado aparecieron secuelas como afectación del tercer par craneal, pulgares corticales bilaterales e hipertonía muscular de pierna derecha. Fue dado de alta a los 22 días, con seguimiento en su área de salud y diagnóstico al egreso de meningoencefalitis bacteriana por S. agalactiae debido a una sepsis ocular adquirida al paso del feto por el canal del parto materno. Se sugiere la adopción de estrategias preventivas por el personal de salud contra esta bacteria por desconocerse su impacto en nuestro medio Abstract in english A case of a newborn of 13 days of age is reported, admitted at «Dr. Eduardo Agramonte Piña» Educational Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Camagüey by presenting fever, irritability and distal cyanosis, besides pathological antecedents of purulent conjunctivitis in both eyes at born. The cytochemistry [...] study of the cerebrospinal fluid suggested bacterial meningoencephalitis. He was transferred to the Intensive Therapy room where he presented five convulsive crisis in the first 48h. To the 72h of been confined from the culture of the cerebrospinal fluid a Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated, sensitive to Ceftriaxone, Amikacin and Ampicillin, with the last antimicrobial a satisfactory evolution was achieved with negative cytochemistry and bacteriological exams of the cerebrospinal fluid. To the 17 days of been admitted after-effects appeared as affectation of the third cranial pair, bilateral cortical thumbs and muscular hypertonia of the right leg. He was hospital discharged at the 22 days, with follow-up in his health area and diagnosis at discharge of bacterial meningoencephalitis by S. agalactiae due to an ocular sepsis acquired passing the fetus through the maternal birth canal. The adoption of preventive strategies by the health staff against this bacteria is suggested by unknown its impact in our medium

  10. Etiologic agents of otitis media in Benin city, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Otitis Media continues to be a major presentation in the ear, nose and throat clinic. Aim: This study aimed to isolate, characterize and identify the bacteriological and mycological etiologic agents of otitis media in Benin city. Patients and Methods: Ear discharge from 569 (299 males and 270 females patients diagnosed clinically of otitis media between August 2009 and August 2010 were processed to recover the bacterial and fungal etiologic agents. Susceptibility test was performed on all bacterial isolate. Result: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.3% was the predominant bacteria isolate causing otitis media followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.0%, Klebsiella sp (8.9%, Proteus sp (8.2%, Alkaligenes spp (4.3%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (3.9%, Escherichia coli (3.0% and Citrobacter freundi (1.7%. Fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger (9.2%, Candida albicans (5.4%, Candida tropicalis (3.0%, Aspergillus flavus (2.1% and Candida parasilopsis (1.5%. 413 had a single organism isolated from the middle ear culture while twenty (3.51% patients had mixed organisms isolated. Infection was highest among 0 - 5 years, and lowest among aged 18 - 23. All bacterial isolates were poorly susceptible to the antibacterial agents. Conclusion: The study uncovers a high frequency of bacteria associated otitis media with the finding of fungi too as a significant etiologic agent.

  11. Serological characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolates from diagnostic samples in Denmark during 1995 and 1996.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank MØller; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    1998-01-01

    At the Danish Veterinary Laboratory Streptococcus suis infections in pigs were diagnosed in 114 cases in 1995 and in 151 cases in 1996. Isolates were serotyped using specific antisera against type 1 through 28 and a total of 67 cases from 1995 and 113 cases in 1996 were tested for resistance to 11 antimicrobial agents. The majority of cases were lung diseases (57%), followed by septicaemia (16%), meningitis (15%) and endocarditis (8%). Almost 96% of the isolates could be typed using the 28 antisera. The most common serotype was serotype 2 (29%), followed by serotype 7 (17%), and serotypes 3, 4 and 8 (9-10%). The remaining serotypes were observed in frequencies of less than 5%. Serotype 7 was more commonly isolated from septicaemia than the other serotypes. Serotype 2 was more commonly isolated from pies older than 1 weeks compared to the other serotypes, Most isolates were susceptible to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tiamulin and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. A high frequency (> 30%) of resistance to tetracydine was observed. Among isolates of serotype 2, 9.7% were resistant to lincomycin and 12.9% to spiramycin. Among other serotypes 56.5% were resistant to lincomycin and spiramycin. The differences in susceptibility between isolates of serotype 2 and the other serotypes were statistically significant. Compared to a previous Danish study the distribution of serotypes of S. suis causing infections among pigs in Denmark has changed during the last 15 years.

  12. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae causes otitis media during single-species infection and during polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, Kyle A; Pang, Bing; Richardson, Stephen; Perez, Antonia; Reimche, Jennifer; King, Lauren; Wren, John; Swords, W Edward

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae strains lacking capsular polysaccharide have been increasingly reported in carriage and disease contexts. Since most cases of otitis media involve more than one bacterial species, we aimed to determine the capacity of a nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae clinical isolate to induce disease in the context of a single-species infection and as a polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media, we found that nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx following intranasal inoculation, but does not readily ascend into the middle ear. However, when we inoculated nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae directly into the middle ear, the bacteria persisted for two weeks post-inoculation and induced symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media. During coinfection with nontypeable H. influenzae, both species persisted for one week and induced polymicrobial otitis media. We also observed that nontypeable H. influenzae conferred passive protection from killing by amoxicillin upon S. pneumoniae from within polymicrobial biofilms in vitro. Therefore, based on these results, we conclude that nonencapsulated pneumococci are a potential causative agent of chronic/recurrent otitis media, and can also cause mutualistic infection with other opportunists, which could complicate treatment outcomes. PMID:26014114

  13. Bioinformatics and structural characterization of a hypothetical protein from Streptococcus mutans : Implication of antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nan, Jie; Brostromer, Erik

    2009-01-01

    As an oral bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus mutans has been known as the aetiologic agent of human dental caries. Among a total of 1960 identified proteins within the genome of this organism, there are about 500 without any known functions. One of these proteins, SMU.440, has very few homologs in the current protein databases and it does not fall into any protein functional families. Phylogenetic studies showed that SMU.440 is related to a particular ecological niche and conserved specifically in some oral pathogens, due to lateral gene transfer. The co-occurrence of a MarR protein within the same operon among these oral pathogens suggests that SMU.440 may be associated with antibiotic resistance. The structure determination of SMU.440 revealed that it shares the same fold and a similar pocket as polyketide cyclases, which indicated that it is very likely to bind some polyketide-like molecules. From the interlinking structural and bioinformatics studies, we have concluded that SMU.440 could be involved in polyketide-like antibiotic resistance, providing a better understanding of this hypothetical protein. Besides, the combination of multiple methods in this study can be used as a general approach for functional studies of a protein with unknown function.

  14. Cloning, characterization and anion inhibition study of a ?-class carbonic anhydrase from the caries producing pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, Nurcan; De Luca, Viviana; Isik, Semra; Yildirim, Hatice; Kockar, Feray; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-07-01

    The oral pathogenic bacterium involved in human dental caries formation Streptococcus mutans, encodes for two carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) one belonging to the ?- and the other one to the ?-class. This last enzyme (SmuCA) has been cloned, characterized and investigated for its inhibition profile with a major class of CA inhibitors, the inorganic anions. Here we show that SmuCA has a good catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction, with kcat 4.2×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/Km of 5.8×10(7)M(-1)×s(-1), being inhibited by cyanate, carbonate, stannate, divannadate and diethyldithiocarbamate in the submillimolar range (KIs of 0.30-0.64mM) and more efficiently by sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid (KIs of 15-46?M). The anion inhibition profile of the S. mutans enzyme is very different from other ?- and ?-CAs investigated earlier. Identification of effective inhibitors of this new enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the role of S. mutans CAs in dental caries formation, and eventually the development of pharmacological agents with a new mechanism of antibacterial action. PMID:26014482

  15. A STUDY ON IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FICUS BENGALENSIS LINN. ON DENTAL CARIES PATHOGENS STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND ACTINOMYCES VISCOSUS

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    F. M. B. Prashanth, I. Kannan*, C. Sambandam, M. Jayalakshmi, R.K. Premavathy and S. Shantha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aerial roots of Ficus bengalensis Linn. were collected in and around Chennai, Tamilnadu, India They were washed, shade dried and were ground into powder. The powder was extracted with chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol and hexane. The antibacterial screening of the extracts was carried out by determining the zone of inhibition using disc diffusion method. The strains were grown to logarithmic phase in BHI broth and the inoculum was prepared by adjusting the turbidity of bacterial suspension to 0.5 McFarland’s tube. The dried extracts was dissolved in 10% Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO in required concentration. The sterile discs were impregnated with 20 ?l of extract. The extract discs were placed on BHI agar plates, which were previously inoculated with test strains and incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. Ampicillin disc (10?g and 10% DMSO impregnated discs were used as positive and negative controls respectively and the zones of inhibition were recorded. The Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by agar dilution method. The results of the present study showed that the methanol and chloroform extracts of Ficus bengalensis Linn. have activity against both Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus. From the present study it is concluded that Ficus bengalensis Linn. extracts can be used as an effective antibacterial agent against dental caries.

  16. Antimicrobial capacity of Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice against Streptococcus mutans strains in toothbrushes: an in vitro study

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    Patrícia Fernanda Roesler Bertolini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated in vitro the efficiency of Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice on reducing the contamination of toothbrush bristles by a standard strain of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175; SM, after toothbrushing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen sterile toothbrushes were randomly divided into 5 toothbrushing groups: I (negative control: without dentifrice; II: with fluoridated dentifrice; III: with triclosan and gantrez dentifrice; IV (positive control: without dentifrice and irrigation with 10 mL of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate; V: with Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice. In each group, 1 sterile bovine tooth was brushed for 1 min, where the toothbrush bristles were contaminated with 25 µL of SM. After toothbrushing, the bristles were stored in individual test tubes with 3 mL of BHI under anaerobiosis of 37°C for 48 h. Then, they were seeded with sterile swab in triplicate in the Mitis salivarius - Bacitracin culture medium. The samples were kept under anaerobiosis of 37°C for 48 h. Scores were used to count the number of colony forming units (cfu. The results were submitted to the Mann-Whitney statistical test at 5% significance level. RESULTS: There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05 for the reduction of bristle contamination comparing groups II, III, IV and V to group I. CONCLUSIONS: It may be stated that after toothbrushing, the Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice reduced the contamination of toothbrush bristles by SM, without differentiation from the other chemical agents used.

  17. Atomic force microscopy study of the structure function relationships of the biofilm-forming bacterium Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah E.; Kreth, Jens; Zhu, Lin; Qi, Fengxia; Pelling, Andrew E.; Shi, Wenyuan; Gimzewski, James K.

    2006-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has garnered much interest in recent years for its ability to probe the structure, function and cellular nanomechanics inherent to specific biological cells. In particular, we have used AFM to probe the important structure-function relationships of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans is the primary aetiological agent in human dental caries (tooth decay), and is of medical importance due to the virulence properties of these cells in biofilm initiation and formation, leading to increased tolerance to antibiotics. We have used AFM to characterize the unique surface structures of distinct mutants of S. mutans. These mutations are located in specific genes that encode surface proteins, thus using AFM we have resolved characteristic surface features for mutant strains compared to the wild type. Ultimately, our characterization of surface morphology has shown distinct differences in the local properties displayed by various S. mutans strains on the nanoscale, which is imperative for understanding the collective properties of these cells in biofilm formation.

  18. Molecular and bacteriological investigation of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in domestic bovids from Ismailia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohey; Selim, Abdelfattah

    2015-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in smallholder dairy farms in Ismailia, Egypt. A total of 340 milking cows and buffaloes were sampled from 60 farms, and 50 nasal swabs were collected from consenting farm workers. Milk samples were subjected to California mastitis test (CMT) and the positive samples were examined by bacterial culture and PCR to identify etiological agents. Based on CMT, the prevalence of SCM was 71.6 % in cattle and 43.5 % in buffaloes while the prevalence was 25.2 % at cow-quarter level and 21.7 % at buffaloes-quarter level. Bacteriological analysis showed that the most frequently identified bacteria were Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (38.3 %) and Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae (20 %). The diagnostic sensitivity of PCR compared to bacterial culture was superior with S. aureus and Str. agalactiae detection being 41 and 22.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains occurred in 52.2 and 45 % of isolates of animals and workers, respectively. Subclinical mastitis due to S. aureus and Str. agalactiae is endemic in smallholder dairy herds in Ismailia. The occurrence of MRSA in animals and workers highlights a need for wide epidemiological studies of MRSA and adopting control strategies. PMID:25374070

  19. Infección y colonización faríngea asintomática de niños por Streptococcus pyogenes = Streptococcus pyogenes infection and asymptomatic throat carriage in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acuña Ramos, Clara Patricia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: establecer la frecuencia de estreptococo beta hemolítico del grupo A (Streptococcus pyogenes en niños, mediante una prueba rápida de inmunoensayo cromatográfico.Métodos: estudio piloto de tipo transversal en una muestra no probabilística de 144 niños entre 3 y 13 años, asistentes a centros infantiles de Medellín y su área metropolitana y a una institución educativa de Bogotá. Se tomaron muestras de garganta por frotis para la prueba rápida de S. pyogenes y se recolectó información demográfica y de antecedentes personales mediante una encuesta. Se calcularon los promedios con sus desviaciones estándar y los porcentajes de acuerdo con la naturaleza de las variables de interés.Resultados: la edad promedio del grupo fue 5,5 ± 2,8 años con distribución similar por sexo. Veintiún niños (14,6% fueron positivos para S. pyogenes, diez de ellos fueron posibles infecciones y 11, portadores asintomáticos. De los 144 niños, 45 (31,3% tenían síntomas faríngeos, de los cuales 10 (22,2% tenían S. pyogenes. Un total de 99 (68,8% niños fueron asintomáticos y 11 de estos (11,1% presentaron prueba positiva para S. pyogenes.Discusión: la alta frecuencia de S. pyogenes en este grupo es un llamado de atención sobre la necesidad de implementar protocolos de manejo con pruebas rápidas para la detección del microorganismo.

  20. In Vitro Destruction of Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilms with Bacterial and Phage Peptidoglycan Hydrolases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, Mirian; García, Ernesto; Moscoso, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Host- and phage-coded cell wall hydrolases have been used to fight Streptococcus pneumoniae growing as planktonic cells in vitro as well as in animal models. Until now, however, the usefulness of these enzymes in biofilm-grown pneumococci has gone untested. The antipneumococcal activity of different cell wall hydrolases produced by S. pneumoniae and a number of its phages was examined in an in vitro biofilm model. The major pneumococcal autolysin LytA, an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase, showed the greatest efficiency in disintegrating S. pneumoniae biofilms. The phage-encoded lysozymes Cpl-1 and Cpl-7 were also very efficient. Biofilms formed by the close pneumococcal relatives Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Streptococcus oralis were also destroyed by the phage endolysins but not by the S. pneumoniae autolysin LytA. A cooperative effect of LytA and Cpl-1 in the disintegration of S. pneumoniae biofilms was recorded. PMID:21746941

  1. Streptococcus bovis endocarditis as a sign of colon cancer: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcus bovis is labeled in the literature as a cause of bacteremia and endocarditis, which are often associated with gastrointestinal malignancy. Case Outline. In our paper we present a patient with endocarditis induced by Streptococcus bovis who was also, after completed cardiologic examination and treatment, diagnosed colon cancer in situ by targeted endoscopy. Owing to the timely diagnosis, and after successful cardiologic surgery with implantation of an artificial aortic valve, patient underwent surgery of the colon, and is now asymptomatic and in good health. Conclusion. Complete and detailed endoscopic examination of the colon must be done in patients with endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis, even if the patient is asymptomatic. By following these recommendations, it is possible to detect precancerosis or cancer at an early stage and save the patient’s life.

  2. Identificación de Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae y Neisseria meningitidis por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa / Identification of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis by polymerase chain reaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliana, Parra; Elizabeth, Castañeda; Jaime, Moreno.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae y Neisseria meningitidis son los principales patógenos humanos causantes de meningitis. Objetivo. Se evaluaron los iniciadores omp2, lytA y crgA en el desarrollo de una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple, para la identificación [...] simultánea de los tres principales microorganismos responsables de la meningitis bacteriana. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron en un formato de PCR múltiple los iniciadores para la proteína de membrana externa (omp2, 1.000 pb) de H. influenzae, la autolisina A (LytA, 395 pb) de S. pneumoniae y el gen regulador de contacto A (cgrA, 230 pb) de N. meningitidis y se determinó la sensibilidad y la especificidad de la técnica. Resultados. Se obtuvieron resultados reproducibles con una concentración de 50 nM de cada uno de los tres iniciadores y una temperatura de anillamiento de 57°C obteniendo una sensibilidad de 12,5 fg para H. influenzae y S. pnemoniae y de 3,12 fg para N. meningitidis. No se presentaron reacciones cruzadas con otros microorganismos causantes de meningitis o relacionados con los géneros. Conclusión. Los resultados de sensibilidad y especificidad sugieren que los iniciadores evaluados pueden ser utilizados para el desarrollo de una PCR en formato múltiple que permita la identificación de los tres principales patógenos causantes de meningitis. Abstract in english Introduction: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the main human pathogens that cause meningitis. Objective: Primers omp2, lytA and crgA were evaluated with H. influenzae, S. pnumoniae and N. meningitidis DNA in a multiplex PCR, determining the sensitivity [...] and the specificity of the technique. Materials and methods: Primers for H. influenzae outer membrane protein (omp2, 1000 pb), S. pneumoniae autolysin (lytA, 395 pb) and N. meningitidis, contact regulated gene (crgA, 230 pb) were evaluated in a multiplex PCR, determining the sensitivity and the specificity of the technique. Results: Reproducible results were obtained with 50 nM of each of the three primers and annealing temperature of 57°C in the multiplex PCR, obtaining a sensitivity of 12.5 fg for H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and 3.12 fg for N. meningitidis. No cross reactions with other microorganisms agents of meningitis or related with the genera, appeared. Conclusions: The results for sensitivity and specificity suggest that the evaluated primers can be used for the development of a PCR in a multiplex format to the identification of the three main pathogens that cause meningitis.

  3. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana y caracterización de cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes aisladas de un brote de escarlatina / Antimicrobial sensitivity and typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated during a scarlet fever outbreak

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto González, Pedraza-Avilés; Catalina, Ortiz-Zaragoza; Ricardo, Mota-Vázquez; Ma Eloísa, Dickinson-Bannack; Rocío, Dávila-Mendoza; Miguel Angel, Fernández-Ortega.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad in vitro de 13 antibióticos contra 47 Streptococcus pyogenes grupo A (SGA). Determinar la presencia de genes que codifican para exotoxina pirogénica estreptocóccica A (SpeA) y serotipos con base en proteína M. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal hecho en el Centro [...] de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana sobre un brote de escarlatina en el Colegio Espíritu de América, entre diciembre de 1999 y enero de 2000. El número de niños estudiados fue 137. Se extrajeron porcentajes de sensibilidad. La concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) se obtuvo por microdilución semiautomatizada. Se utilizó un secuenciador automatizado de DNA para el análisis de variación de secuencias en los genes que codifican para proteína M y SpeA. Resultados. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a beta-lactámicos y clindamicina; 12.7% fueron resistentes a eritromicina. El serotipo M2 fue el más frecuente, 27 del total. Prácticamente todas las bacterias (96%) con el gen SpeA tienen el gen que codifica para el serotipo M2. Conclusiones. Debido a la reciente reaparición de infecciones por SGA se sugiere realizar estudios tanto de sensibilidad a macrólidos y beta-lactámicos, como de epidemiología molecular. Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate the in vitro activities of 13 antimicrobial agents against 47 group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) strains, and to determine the presence of genes encoding streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA) and the M--protein serotypes. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study wa [...] s conducted at Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana, during a scarlet fever outbreak occurring between December 1999 and January 2000, among 137 children at Colegio Espíritu de América. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were obtained by the semiautomated microdilution method. Automated DNA sequencing was used for analysis of sequence variation in genes encoding the M protein, and SpeA. Results. All strains were sensitive to betalactams and clindamycin. Six (12.7%) were resistant to erythromycin. The M2 type was the most frequently isolated GAS (27); almost all (96%) bacteria with the SpeA gene had the gene encoding the M2 protein. Conclusions. The recent resurgence of GAS infections calls for molecular epidemiology research and studies on the sensitivity to macrolides and beta-lactams.

  4. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana y caracterización de cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes aisladas de un brote de escarlatina Antimicrobial sensitivity and typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated during a scarlet fever outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González Pedraza-Avilés

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad in vitro de 13 antibióticos contra 47 Streptococcus pyogenes grupo A (SGA. Determinar la presencia de genes que codifican para exotoxina pirogénica estreptocóccica A (SpeA y serotipos con base en proteína M. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal hecho en el Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana sobre un brote de escarlatina en el Colegio Espíritu de América, entre diciembre de 1999 y enero de 2000. El número de niños estudiados fue 137. Se extrajeron porcentajes de sensibilidad. La concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM se obtuvo por microdilución semiautomatizada. Se utilizó un secuenciador automatizado de DNA para el análisis de variación de secuencias en los genes que codifican para proteína M y SpeA. Resultados. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a beta-lactámicos y clindamicina; 12.7% fueron resistentes a eritromicina. El serotipo M2 fue el más frecuente, 27 del total. Prácticamente todas las bacterias (96% con el gen SpeA tienen el gen que codifica para el serotipo M2. Conclusiones. Debido a la reciente reaparición de infecciones por SGA se sugiere realizar estudios tanto de sensibilidad a macrólidos y beta-lactámicos, como de epidemiología molecular.Objective. To evaluate the in vitro activities of 13 antimicrobial agents against 47 group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS strains, and to determine the presence of genes encoding streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA and the M--protein serotypes. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana, during a scarlet fever outbreak occurring between December 1999 and January 2000, among 137 children at Colegio Espíritu de América. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs were obtained by the semiautomated microdilution method. Automated DNA sequencing was used for analysis of sequence variation in genes encoding the M protein, and SpeA. Results. All strains were sensitive to betalactams and clindamycin. Six (12.7% were resistant to erythromycin. The M2 type was the most frequently isolated GAS (27; almost all (96% bacteria with the SpeA gene had the gene encoding the M2 protein. Conclusions. The recent resurgence of GAS infections calls for molecular epidemiology research and studies on the sensitivity to macrolides and beta-lactams.

  5. Chromosomal islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: molecular switches for survival and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Scott V; McShan, William M

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5' end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithmic growth, SpyCI excise from the bacterial chromosome and replicate as episomes, relieving the mutator phenotype. As growth slows and the cells enter stationary phase, SpyCI reintegrate into the chromosome, again silencing the MMR operon. This system creates a unique growth-dependent and reversible mutator phenotype. Additional CI using the identical attachment site in mutL have been identified in related species, including Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus canis. These CI have small genomes, which range from 13 to 20 kB, conserved integrase and DNA replication genes, and no identifiable genes encoding capsid proteins. SpyCI may employ a helper phage for packaging and dissemination in a fashion similar to the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). Outside of the core replication and integration genes, SpyCI and related CI show considerable diversity with the presence of many indels that may contribute to the host cell phenotype or fitness. SpyCI are a subset of a larger family of streptococcal CI who potentially regulate the expression of other host genes. The biological and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcal chromosomal islands provides important clues as to how these chromosomal islands help S. pyogenes and other streptococcal species persist in human populations in spite of antibiotic therapy and immune challenges. PMID:25161960

  6. Reidentification of Streptococcus bovis Isolates Causing Bacteremia According to the New Taxonomy Criteria: Still an Issue? ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Beatriz; Morosini, María-Isabel; Loza, Elena; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Navas, Enrique; Cantón, Rafael; del Campo, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    All Streptococcus bovis blood culture isolates recovered from January 2003 to January 2010 (n = 52) at the Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal were reidentified on the basis of their genetic traits using new taxonomic criteria. Initial identification was performed by the semiautomatic Wider system (Fco. Soria-Melguizo, Spain) and the API 20 Strep system (bioMérieux, France). All isolates were reidentified by PCR amplification and sequencing of both the 16S rRNA and sodA genes and by mass spectrometry using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS; Bruker, Germany). Results of 16S rRNA/sodA gene sequencing were as follows: Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, 14/14 (number of isolates identified by 16S rRNA/number of isolates identified by sodA gene sequencing); Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, 24/24; Streptococcus spp., 7/0; Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius, 0/2; Streptococcus lutetiensis, 0/5; Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 4/0; and Lactococcus lactis, 3/3. MALDI-TOF MS identified 27 S. gallolyticus isolates but not at the subspecies level, 4 L. mesenteroides isolates, 3 L. lactis isolates, and 6 S. lutetiensis isolates, whereas 12 isolates rendered a nonreliable identification result. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis grouped all S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates into 3 major clusters clearly different from those of the S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus isolates, which, in turn, exhibited no clonal relationship. The percentages of resistance to the tested antimicrobials were 38% for erythromycin, 23% for fosfomycin, 10% for levofloxacin, 6% for tetracycline, and 4% for co-trimoxazole. The most frequent underlying diseases were hepatobiliary disorders (53%), endocarditis (17%), and malignancies (12%). We conclude that sequencing of the sodA gene was the most discriminatory method and that S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus appears to have a higher genetic diversity than S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. PMID:21752968

  7. Endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis em paciente com carcinoma colônico Endocarditis infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis en paciente con carcinoma colónico Infectious endocarditis due to Streptococcus bovis in a patient with colon carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Maulaz Barcelos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 66 anos de idade, com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis e adenocarcinoma colônico, que desenvolveu insuficiência aórtica grave aguda. Foi submetida à cirurgia de troca valvar aórtica e posteriormente à ressecção tumoral (hemicolectomia direita. É importante ressaltar a necessidade de complementação do estudo do cólon, mesmo em indivíduos assintomáticos, quando diagnosticamos endocardite infecciosa por S. bovis.Describimos el caso de una paciente de 66 años de edad, con endocarditis infecciosa por streptococcus bovis y adenocarcinoma colónico, que desarrolló insuficiencia aórtica grave aguda. Fue sometida a cirugía de reemplazo valvular aórtico y posteriormente a resección tumoral (hemicolectomía derecha. Es importante destacar la necesidad de complementación del estudio del colon, aun en individuos asintomáticos, cuando diagnosticamos endocarditis infecciosa por S. bovis.We report the case of a 66 year-old female patient with infectious endocarditis due to Streptococcus bovis and adenocarcinoma of the colon that developed acute aortic insufficiency. She was submitted to aortic valve replacement surgery and later to tumor resection (right hemicolectomy. It is important to emphasize the need for complementing the study of the colon, even in asymptomatic individuals, when infectious endocarditis due to S. bovis is diagnosed.

  8. Endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis em paciente com carcinoma colônico / Infectious endocarditis due to Streptococcus bovis in a patient with colon carcinoma / Endocarditis infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis en paciente con carcinoma colónico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Maulaz, Barcelos; Marco Antônio, Teixeira; Lidianny Silva, Alves; Marcelo Antunes, Vieira; Marcus Lima, Bedim; Noely A., Ribeiro.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 66 anos de idade, com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis e adenocarcinoma colônico, que desenvolveu insuficiência aórtica grave aguda. Foi submetida à cirurgia de troca valvar aórtica e posteriormente à ressecção tumoral (hemicolectomia direita). É i [...] mportante ressaltar a necessidade de complementação do estudo do cólon, mesmo em indivíduos assintomáticos, quando diagnosticamos endocardite infecciosa por S. bovis. Abstract in spanish Describimos el caso de una paciente de 66 años de edad, con endocarditis infecciosa por streptococcus bovis y adenocarcinoma colónico, que desarrolló insuficiencia aórtica grave aguda. Fue sometida a cirugía de reemplazo valvular aórtico y posteriormente a resección tumoral (hemicolectomía derecha). [...] Es importante destacar la necesidad de complementación del estudio del colon, aun en individuos asintomáticos, cuando diagnosticamos endocarditis infecciosa por S. bovis. Abstract in english We report the case of a 66 year-old female patient with infectious endocarditis due to Streptococcus bovis and adenocarcinoma of the colon that developed acute aortic insufficiency. She was submitted to aortic valve replacement surgery and later to tumor resection (right hemicolectomy). It is import [...] ant to emphasize the need for complementing the study of the colon, even in asymptomatic individuals, when infectious endocarditis due to S. bovis is diagnosed.

  9. CcpA-Dependent Carbohydrate Catabolite Repression Regulates Galactose Metabolism in Streptococcus oligofermentans

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jun; Tong, Huichun; Qi, Fengxia; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus oligofermentans is an oral commensal that inhibits the growth of the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans by producing copious amounts of H2O2 and that grows faster than S. mutans on galactose. In this study, we identified a novel eight-gene galactose (gal) operon in S. oligofermentans that was comprised of lacABCD, lacX, and three genes encoding a galactose-specific transporter. Disruption of lacA caused more growth reduction on galactose than mutation of galK, a gene in the Le...

  10. A case of culture-negative endocarditis due to Streptococcus tigurinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Hajime; Kakuta, Risako; Yano, Hisakazu; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Gu, Yoshiaki; Oe, Chihiro; Inomata, Shinya; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hatta, Masumitsu; Endo, Shiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Weber, David J; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2015-02-01

    Culture-negative endocarditis remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge despite recent medical advances. Streptococcus tigurinus, a novel member of the Streptococcus mitis group, was first identified in Zurich. S. tigurinus possesses virulence determinants and causes invasive infections. We report a case of culture-negative endocarditis with serious complications due to S. tigurinus, which was identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis of excised valve tissue specimens. This technique is useful for identification of the causative microorganism in patients with culture-negative endocarditis and may facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial treatment. PMID:25240269

  11. Multiple Roles of RNase Y in Streptococcus pyogenes mRNA Processing and Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhiyun; Itzek, Andreas; Malke, Horst; Ferretti, Joseph J.; Kreth, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Control over mRNA stability is an essential part of gene regulation that involves both endo- and exoribonucleases. RNase Y is a recently identified endoribonuclease in Gram-positive bacteria, and an RNase Y ortholog has been identified in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]). In this study, we used microarray and Northern blot analyses to determine the S. pyogenes mRNA half-life of the transcriptome and to understand the role of RNase Y in global mRNA degradation and processin...

  12. Comparison of Gen-Probe Group A streptococcus Direct Test with culture for diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorski, S. J.; Vetter, E. A.; Wollan, P. C.; Cockerill, F. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Group A Streptococcus Direct Test (GP-ST test; Gen-Probe, Inc., San Diego, Calif.) was compared with culture for the detection of Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swabs of 767 patients with pharyngitis. Swabs were tested by the GP-ST test after inoculating a 5% sheep blood agar (SBA) plate. SBA plates were incubated at 35 degrees C in room air for 72 h. SBA plates with no evidence of beta-hemolytic colonies after 18 to 24 h of incubation were subcultured by taking a swipe across the pri...

  13. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule

    OpenAIRE

    TIMONEY, John F.; SUTHER, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; ARTIUSHIN, Sergey C.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocy...

  14. Conjugal Transfer of Bacteriophage Resistance Determinants on pTR2030 into Streptococcus cremoris Strains †

    OpenAIRE

    Sing, Wesley D.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    1986-01-01

    Agar surface conjugal matings were used to introduce heat-sensitive phage resistance (Hsp+) determinants carried on the conjugal plasmid pTR2030 into Streptococcus cremoris KH, HP, 924, and TDM1. Lactose-fermenting (Lac+) transconjugants were selected from matings of Lac? variants of S. cremoris KH, HP, 924, and TDM1 with Streptococcus lactis ME2 or a high-frequency donor, S. lactis T-EK1 (pTR1040, Lac+; pTR2030, Hsp+). For all of the S. cremoris strains examined, select Lac+ transconjugants ...

  15. Catechin-incorporated dental copolymers inhibit growth of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mankovskaia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the inhibitory growth activity of green tea catechin incorporated into dental resins compared to resins containing the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans in vitro. Material and Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg and chlorhexidine (CHX were determined according to the microdilution method. Resin discs (5 mm × 3 mm were prepared from Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (R1 and Bis-GMA/CH3Bis-GMA (R2 comonomers (n=9 containing: a no drug, b EGCg, c CHX. Two concentrations of each drug (0.5× MIC and 1× MIC were incorporated into the resin discs. Samples were individually immersed in a bacterial culture and incubated for 24 h at 37°C under constant agitation. Cell viability was assessed by counting the number of colonies on replica agar plates. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Student t-tests (?=0.05. Results: Both resins containing EGCg and CHX showed a significant inhibition of bacterial growth at both concentrations tested (p<0.05. A significantly higher inhibition was observed in response to resins containing CHX at 0.5× MIC and 1× MIC, and EGCg at 1× MIC when compared to EGCg at 0.5× MIC. Also, EGCg at 0.5× MIC in R1 had a significantly higher growth inhibition than in R2. Conclusions: Both EGCg and CHX retained their antibacterial activity when incorporated into the resin matrix. EGCg at 1× MIC in R1 and R2 resins significantly reduced S. mutans survival at a level similar to CHX. The data generated from this study will provide advances in the field of bioactive dental materials with the potential of improving the lifespan of resin-based restorations.

  16. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michele, BARNABÉ; Cíntia Helena Coury, SARACENI; Maristela, DUTRA-CORREA; Ivana Barbosa, SUFFREDINI.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective: Our goal was to verify whether p [...] lant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods: Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results: Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry.

  17. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARNABÉ, Michele; SARACENI, Cíntia Helena Coury; DUTRA-CORREA, Maristela; SUFFREDINI, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry. PMID:25466471

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae early response genes to human lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiuk Lorne A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae infection starts from colonization of the host respiratory tract where interaction with host respiratory tract epithelial cells occurs. To investigate pneumococcal genes that are involved in the early stage of interaction with host epithelial cells, transcriptional responses of an encapsulated pathogenic pneumococcal strain TIGR4 upon exposure to human lung epithelial cells A549 for 0.5 h and 1 h time periods were investigated by using TIGR (JCVI microarray technology. Gene expression changes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis. Findings We observed different transcriptional profiles at two incubation time periods in which most gene expressions were down-regulated at 0.5 h but up-regulated at 1 h. Many genes associated with ribonucleotide biosynthesis were down-regulated at both time points, whereas the genes associated with cell envelope, energy metabolism, transport and protein synthesis were mostly up-regulated at 1 h. Furthermore, these profiles were compared to the transcriptomes of a TIGR4-derived strain in response to human macrophages for the same time periods. We found one set of genes that exhibited similar expression changes upon exposure to both types of host cells, including cell envelope-associated bgaA (SP0648 and nanA (SP1693, and uncharacterized gene clusters such as SP1677–SP1680 and SP1688–SP1690. Conclusion These data indicate that at the early stage of interaction with host epithelial cells, a complex gene regulation and expression change occur in bacteria. Some of them might play an essential role during pathogen-host interactions and for the establishment of infection.

  19. Different bacteriocin activities of Streptococcus mutans reflect distinct phylogenetic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, M; Simmonds, RS

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by mutans streptococci are known as mutacins. In this study 16 broadly active mutacin-producing Streptococcus mutans strains from New Zealand, North America and Europe were classified into four groups (A-D) on the basis of differences in their activity in deferred antagonism tests against either the homologous producer strain (to test for presence of self-immunity) or indicator strains Staphylococcus aureus 46 and Enterococcus faecium TE1. Two of the strains included in the study (UA140 and UA96) were representatives of the group I and II mutacin producer strains previously described by Caufield and co-workers. One of the New Zealand isolates of group A (S. mutans strain N) appeared to produce inhibitory activity similar to that of the group I prototype strain UA140. Four other New Zealand isolates of group B (S. mutans strains M19, M34, B34 and D14) had mutacin II-like activity. The group B mutacin producers differed from the group A mutacin producers in their additional activity against Staph. aureus 46. Seven S. mutans strains (M46, B46, B57, M12, M28, B28 and 13M) were distinguished from the group A and group B mutacin producers in that they inhibited E. faecium TE1. These were called group C mutacin producers. Strains H7 and H23 resembled the group C strains in their action on both indicator strains TE1 and 46. However, these two strains failed to exhibit immunity to their own inhibitory products in the deferred antagonism test and were separately classified as group D mutacin producers. Phylogenetic analysis of the strains by several genotypic and phenotypic characteristics revealed that the mutacin groups were associated with distinct evolutionary lineages of S. mutans.

  20. Modified MLVA for Genotyping Queensland Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Rachael E.; Savill, John; Hafner, Louise M.; Huygens, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, over 800 000 children under five die each year from infectious diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. To understand genetic relatedness between isolates, study transmission routes, assess the impact of human interventions e.g. vaccines, and determine infection sources, genotyping methods are required. The ‘gold standard’ genotyping method, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), is useful for long-term and global studies. Another genotyping method, Multi-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA), has emerged as a more discriminatory, inexpensive and faster technique; however there is no universally accepted method and it is currently suitable for short-term and localised epidemiology studies. Currently Australia has no national MLST database, nor has it adopted any MLVA method for short-term or localised studies. This study aims to improve S. pneumoniae genotyping methods by modifying the existing MLVA techniques to be more discriminatory, faster, cheaper and technically less demanding than previously published MLVA methods and MLST. Methods Four different MLVA protocols, including a modified method, were applied to 317 isolates of serotyped invasive S. pneumoniae isolated from sterile body sites of Queensland children under 15 years from 2007–2012. MLST was applied to 202 isolates for comparison. Results The modified MLVA4 is significantly more discriminatory than the ‘gold standard’ MLST method. MLVA4 has similar discrimination compared to other MLVA techniques in this study). The failure to amplify particular loci in previous MLVA methods were minimised in MLVA4. Failure to amplify BOX-13 and Spneu19 were found to be serotype specific. Conclusion We have modified a highly discriminatory MLVA technique for genotyping Queensland invasive S. pneumoniae. MLVA4 has the ability to enhance our understanding of the pneumococcal epidemiology and the changing genetics of the pneumococcus in localised and short-term studies. PMID:25923909

  1. Streptococcus gordonii glucosyltransferase promotes biofilm interactions with Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Ricker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans co-aggregates with Streptococcus gordonii to form biofilms and their interactions in mucosal biofilms may lead to pathogenic synergy. Although the functions of glucosyltransferases (Gtf of Mutans streptococci have been well characterized, the biological roles of these enzymes in commensal oral streptococci, such as S. gordonii, in oral biofilm communities are less clear. Objective: The objective of this work was to explore the role of GtfG, the single Gtf enzyme of S. gordonii, in biofilm interactions with C. albicans. Design: Biofilms were grown under salivary flow in flow cells in vitro, or under static conditions in 96 well plates. A panel of isogenic S. gordonii CH1 gtfG mutants and complemented strains were co-inoculated with C. albicans strain SC5314 to form mixed biofilms. Biofilm accretion and binding interactions between the two organisms were tested. Biofilms were quantified using confocal microscopy or the crystal violet assay. Results: The presence of GtfG enhanced dual biofilm accretion, and sucrose supplementation further augmented dual biofilm formation, pointing to a role of newly synthesized glucans. GtfG also promoted binding to C. albicans preformed biofilms. Soluble ?-1,6-glucans played a role in these interactions since: 1 a strain producing only soluble glucans (CH107 formed robust dual biofilms under conditions of salivary flow; and 2 the dual biofilm was susceptible to enzymatic breakdown by dextranase which specifically degrades soluble ?-1,6-glucans. Conclusion: Our work identified a novel molecular mechanism for C. albicans and S. gordonii biofilm interactions, mediated by GtfG. This protein promotes early biofilm binding of S. gordonii to C. albicans which leads to increased accretion of streptococcal cells in mixed biofilms. We also showed that soluble glucans, with ?-1,6-linkages, promoted inter-generic adhesive interactions.

  2. Glucose-PTS Involvement in Maltose Metabolism by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yutaka; Okamoto-Shibayama, Kazuko; Azuma, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans grows with starch-derived maltose in the presence of saliva. Maltose transported into the cells is mediated by the MalQ protein (4-alpha-glucanotransferase) to produce glucose and maltooligosaccharides. Glucose can be phosphorylated to glucose 6-phosphate, which can enter the glycolysis pathway. The MalQ enzyme is essential in the catabolism of maltose when it is the sole carbon source, suggesting the presence of a downstream glucokinase of the MalQ enzyme reaction. However, a glucokinase gene-inactivated mutant (glk mutant) grew with maltose as the sole carbon source, with no residual glucokinase activity. This left a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) as the only candidate pathway for the phosphorylation of glucose in its transport as a substrate. Our hypothesis was that intracellular glucose derived from maltose mediated by the MalQ protein was released into the extracellular environment, and that such glucose was transported back into the cells by a PTS. The mannose PTS encoded by the manL, manM, and manN genes transports glucose into cells as a high affinity system with concomitant phosphorylation. The purpose of this study was to investigate extracellular glucose by using an enzyme-linked photometrical method, monitoring absorbance changes at 340 nm in supernatant of S. mutans cells. A significant amount of glucose was detected in the extracellular fluid of a glk, manLM double mutant. These results suggest that the glk and manLMN genes participate in maltose catabolism in this organism. The significance of multiple metabolic pathways for important energy sources, including maltose, in the oral environment is discussed. PMID:26084997

  3. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C-C; Lin, C-T; Wu, C-Y; Peng, W-S; Lee, M-J; Tsai, Y-C

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries arises from an imbalance of metabolic activities in dental biofilms developed primarily by Streptococcus mutans. This study was conducted to isolate potential oral probiotics with antagonistic activities against S. mutans biofilm formation from Lactobacillus salivarius, frequently found in human saliva. We analysed 64 L. salivarius strains and found that two, K35 and K43, significantly inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation with inhibitory activities more pronounced than those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a prototypical probiotic that shows anti-caries activity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that co-culture of S. mutans with K35 or K43 resulted in significantly reduced amounts of attached bacteria and network-like structures, typically comprising exopolysaccharides. Spot assay for S. mutans indicated that K35 and K43 strains possessed a stronger bactericidal activity against S. mutans than LGG. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of genes encoding glucosyltransferases, gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD was reduced when S. mutans were co-cultured with K35 or K43. However, LGG activated the expression of gtfB and gtfC, but did not influence the expression of gtfD in the co-culture. A transwell-based biofilm assay indicated that these lactobacilli inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation in a contact-independent manner. In conclusion, we identified two L. salivarius strains with inhibitory activities on the growth and expression of S. mutans virulence genes to reduce its biofilm formation. This is not a general characteristic of the species, so presents a potential strategy for in vivo alteration of plaque biofilm and caries. PMID:24961744

  4. Effect of acid shock on protein expression by biofilm cells of Streptococcus mutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welin, J; Wilkins, J C

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a component of the dental plaque biofilm and a major causal agent of dental caries. Log-phase cells of the organism are known to induce an acid tolerance response (ATR) at sub-lethal pH values ( approximately 5.5) that enhances survival at lower pH values such as those encountered in caries lesions. In this study, we have employed a rod biofilm chemostat system to demonstrate that, while planktonic cells induced a strong ATR at pH 5.5, biofilm cells were inherently more acid resistant than such cells in spite of a negligible induction of an ATR. Since these results suggested that surface growth itself triggered an ATR in biofilm cells, we were interested in comparing the effects of a pH change from 7.5 to 5.5 on protein synthesis by the two cell types. For this, cells were pulse labeled with [(14)C]-amino acids following the pH change to pH 5.5, the proteins extracted and separated by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis followed by autoradiography and computer-assisted image analysis.A comparison between the cells incubated at pH 5.5 and the control biofilm cells revealed 23 novel proteins that were absent in the control cells, and 126 proteins with an altered relative rate of synthesis. While the number of changes in protein expression in the biofilm cells was within the same range as for planktonic cells, the magnitude of their change was significantly less in biofilm cells, supporting the observation that acidification of biofilm cells induced a negligible ATR. Mass spectrometry and computer-assisted protein sequence analysis revealed that ATR induction of the planktonic cells resulted in the downregulation of glycolytic enzymes presumably to limit cellular damage by the acidification of the external environment. On the other hand, the glycolytic enzymes in control biofilm cells were significantly less downregulated and key enzymes, such as lactate dehydrogenase were upregulated during pH 5.5 incubation, suggesting that the enhanced acid resistance of biofilm cells is associated with the maintenance of pH homeostasis by H+ extrusion via membrane ATPase and increased lactate efflux.

  5. Agent-based models

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, N.

    2007-01-01

    Description: Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a technique increasingly used in a broad range of social sciences. It involves building a computational model consisting of “agents,” each of which represents an actor in the social world, and an "environment" in which the agents act. Agents are able to interact with each other and are programmed to be pro-active, autonomous and able to perceive their virtual world. The techniques of ABM are derived from artificial intelligence and compute...

  6. Mobile Agents Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  7. Neumonía grave por Streptococcus pyogenes: Reporte de un caso Community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes: Report of one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Saldías P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades there has been a resurgence ofinvasive group A streptococcal (GAS infection, specially pneumonia and bacteremia. We report a 35 year-old female previously subjected to a thyroidectomy for a thyroid cáncer, that five days after operation, presented with a severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (Lancefield Group A Streptococcus that was complicated by acute respiratory failure and septic shock. She was treated with a combination of 3 g/day of cefotaxime and 1.8 g/day of clindamycin with a good clinical response and discharged from the hospital in good conditions. Although this microorganism is an uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia, previously healthy individuals may be infected and the clinical course may be fulminant. Patients with invasive GAS infection admitted to ICU have a high mortality rate. Treatment of choice of Group A streptococcal infection is penicillin. However, clindamycin should be added in severe infections .

  8. Alta prevalência de crianças portadoras de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes à penicilina em creches públicas High prevalence of children colonized with penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in public day-care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia A. G. Velasquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Investigar a prevalência de Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococos na nasofaringe de crianças sadias atendidas em creches municipais da cidade de Umuarama (PR. Avaliar a susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos pneumococos isolados. MÉTODOS: Secreção da nasofaringe de 212 crianças foi coletada no período de abril a outubro de 2008. Após semeadura dos espécimes em ágar sangue e incubação a 37 °C por 24-48 horas, as colônias suspeitas de pertencerem a S. pneumoniae foram identificadas pela ?-hemólise, sensibilidade à optoquina e bile solubilidade. A susceptibilidade à penicilina foi investigada pelos testes de disco-difusão e de diluição. A susceptibilidade aos demais antimicrobianos indicados no tratamento das infecções pneumocócicas foi realizada por disco-difusão RESULTADOS: A prevalência de pneumococos na nasofaringe foi de 43,4% (92/212, sendo maior em crianças com idade entre 2 e 5 anos (p = 0,0005. Não houve diferença significativa entre os sexos. Resistência intermediária e resistência plena à penicilina foram encontradas respectivamente em 34,8 (32/92 e 22,8% (21/92 dos isolados. Sessenta e sete amostras (72,8% foram resistentes ao sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, oito (8,7% à eritromicina e seis (6,5% à tetraciclina. Uma amostra apresentou resistência à clindamicina (1,1%, e outra ao cloranfenicol (1,1%. Todas as amostras foram sensíveis a levofloxacina, ofloxacina, rifampicina, telitromicina, linezolide e vancomicina. Nove amostras foram consideradas multirresistentes, por apresentarem resistência a três ou mais classes de antimicrobianos. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo registrou uma alta prevalência de crianças portadoras sadias de amostras de S. pneumoniae resistentes à penicilina que podem constituir importantes reservatórios desse patógeno na comunidade.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci in the nasopharynx of healthy children enrolled in public day-care centers of the municipality of Umuarama, state of Paraná, Brazil. The susceptibility of the pneumococcal strains to antimicrobial agents was also studied. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal specimens from 212 children were collected from April to October 2008. After the specimens were seeded in blood agar and incubated at 37 °C for 24-48 hours, the colonies suspected of belonging to S. pneumoniae were identified using ?-hemolysis, optochin sensitivity, and bile solubility test. Penicillin susceptibility was investigated using the disk diffusion and dilution tests. Susceptibility to the other antimicrobial agents indicated for the treatment of pneumococcal infections was investigated using the disk diffusion test. RESULTS: The prevalence of nasopharyngeal pneumococci was 43.4% (92/212, with higher rates in children between 2 and 5 years old (p = 0.0005. There was no significant difference between sexes. Intermediate and full resistance to penicillin were found in 34.8 (32/92 and 22.8% (21/92 isolates, respectively. Sixty-seven strains (72.8% were resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, eight (8.7% were resistant to erythromycin, and six (6.5% to tetracycline. One strain was resistant to clindamycin (1.1% and another was resistant to chloramphenicol (1.1%. All strains were sensitive to levofloxacin, ofloxacin, rifampicin, telithromycin, linezolid, and vancomycin. Nine strains were considered multiresistant because they were resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents. CONCLUSIONS: The present study detected a high prevalence of healthy children colonized with penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains who may be important reservoirs of this pathogen in the community.

  9. Molecular typing of Streptococcus suis from pigs in Cuba / Tipificación molecular de Streptococcus suis aislado de cerdos en Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivette, Espinosa; Michel, Báez; Belkis, Corona; Daine, Chong; Evelyn, Lobo; Siomara, Martínez.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis es una bacteria común en el tracto respiratorio de los cerdos; sin embargo las infecciones causadas por cepas virulentas se consideran un problema en la industria porcina. Estas cepas se pueden identificar por la diferenciación de los serotipos capsulares con antisueros específico [...] s o por sus correspondientes tipos cps, mediante ensayos genotípicos. También se pueden reconocer mediante la detección de factores asociados con la virulencia, como el factor extracelular, la proteína liberada por muramidasa y la hemolisina suilisina. Antes de esta investigación no había datos sobre la identificación serológica o molecular de los tipos capsulares de S. suis procedentes de cerdos en Cuba. El objetivo de esta investigación fue la detección de los tipos capsulares cps2, cps7 y cps9, y de los tres genes asociados con la virulencia, mediante ensayos de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. De 31 aislamientos, 21 se clasificaron con el genotipo capsular cps2, y 4 con el cps9. El genotipo capsular cps7 no se detectó y 6 aislados no se correspondieron con ninguno de los serotipos analizados. Considerando la presencia de los genes sly, epf y mrp, se identificaron seis genotipos en los aislados cps2 y cps9, y 3 en los aislados cuyo genotipo cps no se identificó. Los aislados cps2 se extrajeron de cerdos de 6 a 12 con neumonía y de 14 a 17 semanas con infección sistémica; mientras que los cps9 estaban asociados exclusivamente con neumonía. Abstract in english Streptococcus suis is a bacterium commonly carried by pigs in the respiratory tract; thus the infections caused by virulent strains are considered a problem in the swine industry. A successful approach for the identification of virulent strains is the differentiation of capsular serotypes using spec [...] ific antisera or the corresponding cps types by genotypic assessment, with the subsequent detection of virulence associated factors, namely the extracellular factor, the muramidase-released protein and the hemolysin suilysin. Data regarding serological and molecular identification of S. suis from pigs in Cuba are not available. This study was aimed at identifying the capsular types cps2, 7 and 9, as well as three genes related to virulence using PCR assays. According to the results, 31 isolates were evaluated and classified as cps2 (n = 21) or cps9 (n = 4), while six isolates not were typable. Considering the presence in these isolates of the genes mrp, epf and sly, six different genotypes were differentiated among the cps2 or cps9 strains and there were three non-typable isolates for the genes used in this study. The cps2 isolates were recovered from pigs between 6-12 and 14-17 weeks with pneumonia and systemic infection respectively, whereas the cps9 isolates were exclusively associated with pneumonia.

  10. Impacto de Streptococcus pneumoniae en las neumonías del niño latinoamericano / Impact of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pneumonias of Latin American children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María, Hortal; Raúl, Ruvinsky; Alicia, Rossi; Clara I., Agudelo; Elizabeth, Castañeda; Cristina, Brandileone; Teresa, Camou; Rosario, Palacio; Gabriela, Echaniz; José L., Di Fabio.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad es una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en la infancia. Estudios realizados en países en desarrollo indican que los cuadros de neumonía más graves se asocian a causas bacterianas, con predominio de Streptococcus pneumoniae, seguido por Haemop [...] hilus influenzae tipo b. El manejo de esas infecciones en los menores de 2 años se ve dificultado por la carencia de vacunas apropiadas y por la disminución de la susceptibilidad de S. pneumoniae a la penicilina y a otros antibióticos. En 1993, por iniciativa del Sistema Regional de Vacunas (SIREVA) de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y con la financiación de la Agencia Canadiense para el Desarrollo Internacional (Canadian International Development Agency: CIDA), se diseñó un estudio para identificar los tipos capsulares de S. pneumoniae que causan enfermedad invasora en los niños latinoamericanos menores de 5 años, con el propósito de determinar tanto la composición ideal de una vacuna conjugada que pudiera emplearse en la Región como la susceptibilidad a la penicilina de los aislados de S. pneumoniae. La iniciativa fue aceptada por Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Chile, México y Uruguay. En este informe se analiza la información sobre la neumonía por S. pneumoniae generada en los países participantes. Se captaron 3 393 niños con infecciones sistémicas por S. pneumoniae, de las cuales 1 578 correspondían a neumonías. El análisis se concentró en los 1 409 casos de neumonía de Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, México y Uruguay. La distribución por edades evidenció un franco predominio de los menores de 2 años (63,8%). Se identificaron 12 tipos capsulares prevalentes, de los cuales los serotipos 14, 5 y 1 ocuparon los tres primeros lugares en la mayoría de los países. En el período 1993-1998, la resistencia a la penicilina aumentó en los cinco países; al comienzo del estudio, los mayores porcentajes correspondieron a México (47,0%) y los menores a Colombia (12,1%). La resistencia a la penicilina se asoció con un reducido número de serotipos capsulares, fundamentalmente el 14 y el 23F, el primero resistente a la penicilina y a la trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol, y el segundo multirresistente. La frecuencia de la resistencia a la trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol fue elevada en todos los países y el valor máximo correspondió a Argentina (58,0%). La disminución de la susceptibilidad al cloranfenicol tuvo baja frecuencia, salvo en Colombia (23,4%). La resistencia a la eritromicina fue baja en todos los países y todos los aislados fueron sensibles a la vancomicina. Abstract in english Community-acquired pneumonia is one of the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Studies conducted in developing countries indicate that the most serious symptoms of pneumonia are associated with bacterial causes, mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenzae type b [...] . Managing those infections in children under two years of age is hindered by the lack of appropriate vaccines and by the decreased susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to penicillin and other antibiotics. In 1993, at the initiative of the Regional System for Vaccines of the Pan American Health Organization, and with funding from the Canadian International Development Agency, a study was designed to identify the S. pneumoniae capsular types that cause invasive disease in Latin American children under 5 years of age. The objective of the study was to determine the ideal composition of a conjugate vaccine that could be used in Latin America, and the penicillin susceptibility of the S. pneumoniae isolates. The initiative was undertaken in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Uruguay. This report analyzes the information that the participating countries generated on pneumococcal pneumonia. A total of 3 393 children were found with systemic S. pneumoniae infections, of which 1 578 corresponded to pneumonias. The analysis focused on 1 409 cases of pneumonia in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mex

  11. Poliartritis y tenosinovitis grave por Streptococcus agalactiae en un paciente con hipoesplenia funcional / Severe polyarthritis and tenosynovitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a patient with functional hyposplenia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Domingo C., Balderramo; Ana M., Bertoli; Miguel A., PaganiniI; Abel, Zárate; Juan C., Zlocowski; Alejandro, Alvarellos; Francisco, Caeiro; Juan P., Caeiro.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La artritis por Streptococcus agalactiae es infrecuente. No conocemos publicaciones de casos sobre la afección tendinosa por este microorganismo. Se presenta una mujer de 46 años que consultó por fiebre, poliartralgias, mialgias, diarrea y vómitos. Como antecedentes presentaba carcinoma papilar de t [...] iroides e hipoesplenia funcional. Al examen se encontraba hemodinámicamente inestable, febril, con artritis de mano izquierda, muñecas, codos, hombro derecho y tobillo izquierdo. Presentaba tenosinovitis en ambos pies y en la mano izquierda. Los hemocultivos y el cultivo de la bursa olecraniana derecha fueron positivos para S. agalactiae. La ecografía mostró signos de tenosinovitis del tibial anterior izquierdo. Completó 20 días de tratamiento endovenoso con cefazolina y 12 días de cefuroxima oral. El cuadro articular revirtió completamente en 60 días. El Streptococcus agalactiae puede causar, en forma infrecuente, un síndrome de poliartritis, tenosinovitis y fiebre similar al producido por la infección gonocócica. Abstract in english Cases of arthritis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae are infrequent and in our knowledge there are no case reports of tenosynovitis caused by S. agalactiae. A 46-year-old woman presented with fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, diarrhea and vomiting. She had a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma and [...] functional hyposplenia. She was febrile, with arthritis in hands, wrists, elbows, right shoulder and left ankle joints, and presented tenosynovitis in both feet and left hand. Blood and right olecranon bursa sample cultures were positive for S. agalactiae. An ultrasound scan made at the musculus tibialis anterior of left foot revealed signs of tenosynovitis. She was treated with intravenous cefazolin for 20 days and oral cefuroxime for 12 days. The joint involvement completely subsided in 60 days. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause, infrequently, a polyarthritis and tenosynovitis syndrome similar to disseminated gonococcal infection.

  12. Poliartritis y tenosinovitis grave por Streptococcus agalactiae en un paciente con hipoesplenia funcional Severe polyarthritis and tenosynovitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a patient with functional hyposplenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo C. Balderramo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La artritis por Streptococcus agalactiae es infrecuente. No conocemos publicaciones de casos sobre la afección tendinosa por este microorganismo. Se presenta una mujer de 46 años que consultó por fiebre, poliartralgias, mialgias, diarrea y vómitos. Como antecedentes presentaba carcinoma papilar de tiroides e hipoesplenia funcional. Al examen se encontraba hemodinámicamente inestable, febril, con artritis de mano izquierda, muñecas, codos, hombro derecho y tobillo izquierdo. Presentaba tenosinovitis en ambos pies y en la mano izquierda. Los hemocultivos y el cultivo de la bursa olecraniana derecha fueron positivos para S. agalactiae. La ecografía mostró signos de tenosinovitis del tibial anterior izquierdo. Completó 20 días de tratamiento endovenoso con cefazolina y 12 días de cefuroxima oral. El cuadro articular revirtió completamente en 60 días. El Streptococcus agalactiae puede causar, en forma infrecuente, un síndrome de poliartritis, tenosinovitis y fiebre similar al producido por la infección gonocócica.Cases of arthritis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae are infrequent and in our knowledge there are no case reports of tenosynovitis caused by S. agalactiae. A 46-year-old woman presented with fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, diarrhea and vomiting. She had a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma and functional hyposplenia. She was febrile, with arthritis in hands, wrists, elbows, right shoulder and left ankle joints, and presented tenosynovitis in both feet and left hand. Blood and right olecranon bursa sample cultures were positive for S. agalactiae. An ultrasound scan made at the musculus tibialis anterior of left foot revealed signs of tenosynovitis. She was treated with intravenous cefazolin for 20 days and oral cefuroxime for 12 days. The joint involvement completely subsided in 60 days. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause, infrequently, a polyarthritis and tenosynovitis syndrome similar to disseminated gonococcal infection.

  13. Response of Streptococcus pyogenes to therapy with amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in a mouse model of mixed infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, R. J.; Beale, A. S.

    1987-01-01

    The response of Streptococcus pyogenes to amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Augmentin; Beecham Group) therapy of a mixed streptococcal-staphylococcal infection was studied in a surgical wound in mice. A superficial wound was produced on the backs of anesthetized mice, and a suture infected with S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, or a mixed inoculum of both organisms was inserted. Oral therapy was started 4 h after infection and continued for 3 days. Both amoxicillin and amoxicillin...

  14. Cerebral ischemia caused by Streptococcus bovis aortic endocarditis: case report Isquemia cerebral causada por endocardite aórtica pelo Streptococcus bovis: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Leopoldo Santos-Neto; Camila Gangoni; Viviane Pereira; Rodrigo Corrêa-Lima

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral ischemic processes associated with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis are rare; only 2 cases having been reported. Here we report a case of a 50-year-old man with S. bovis endocarditis who presented signs of frontal, parietal and occipital lobe cerebral ischemia. This is the first case reported in which the presence of hemianopsia preceded the endocarditis diagnosis. Initially, the clinical manifestations suggested a systemic vasculitis. Later, vegetating lesions we...

  15. Phylogenomic and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T reveals a distinct phylogenetic clade in the genus Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jade L L; Huang, Yi; Tse, Herman; Chen, Jonathan H K; Tang, Ying; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus sinensis is a recently discovered human pathogen isolated from blood cultures of patients with infective endocarditis. Its phylogenetic position, as well as those of its closely related species, remains inconclusive when single genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. For example, S. sinensis branched out from members of the anginosus, mitis, and sanguinis groups in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene phylogenetic tree, but it was clustered with members of the anginosus and sanguinis groups when groEL gene sequences used for analysis. In this study, we sequenced the draft genome of S. sinensis and used a polyphasic approach, including concatenated genes, whole genomes, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze the phylogeny of S. sinensis. The size of the S. sinensis draft genome is 2.06 Mb, with GC content of 42.2%. Phylogenetic analysis using 50 concatenated genes or whole genomes revealed that S. sinensis formed a distinct cluster with Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus cristatus, and these three streptococci were clustered with the "sanguinis group." As for phylogenetic analysis using hierarchical cluster analysis of the mass spectra of streptococci, S. sinensis also formed a distinct cluster with S. oligofermentans and S. cristatus, but these three streptococci were clustered with the "mitis group." On the basis of the findings, we propose a novel group, named "sinensis group," to include S. sinensis, S. oligofermentans, and S. cristatus, in the Streptococcus genus. Our study also illustrates the power of phylogenomic analyses for resolving ambiguities in bacterial taxonomy. PMID:25331233

  16. Detección del gen rib en cepas invasivas y colonizantes de Streptococcus agalactiae en Misiones / Detection of the rib gen in invasive and colonizing Streptococcus agalactiae strains in Misiones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angela, Keil; Margarita, Laczeski; Patricia, Oviedo; Eduardo, Pegels; Marina, Quiroga; María I, Fonseca; Marta, Vergara.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la distribución de un gen asociado a la virulencia de Streptococcus agalactiae (Streptococcus Grupo B, SGB) en aislamientos colonizantes recuperados de mujeres embarazadas y aislamientos invasivos recuperados de neonatos, y de contribuir con datos útiles para [...] estudios epidemiológicos y para la formulación de una vacuna regional. Un total de 34 aislamientos colonizantes y 7 aislamientos invasivos fueron analizados para detectar el gen rib por PCR específica. Se detectó la presencia del gen rib en el 87,8 % de los aislamientos, sin diferencias significativas (p>0,05) entre colonizantes e invasivos. Concluimos que en la población estudiada, el gen rib en cepas de SGB se distribuye comparablemente en aislamientos colonizantes recuperados de mujeres embarazadas y en aislamientos invasivos recuperados de neonatos con enfermedad severa. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the distribution of a gene associated with Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) virulence in colonizing isolates from pregnant women and invasive isolates from newborn infants. We also aimed to contribute with useful data for epidemiological studies [...] and formulation of a regional vaccine. A total of 34 colonizing isolates and 7 invasive isolates was analyzed for detection of rib gene by specific PCR. The rib gene was present in 87.8 % of the isolates, without significant differences (p>0.05) between colonizing and invasive ones. It was concluded that in the population studied, the rib gene in GBS strains was distributed comparably in colonizing isolates from pregnant women and invasive isolates from newborn infants with severe disease.

  17. Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex fecal carriage, colorectal carcinoma, and infective endocarditis: a new appraisal of a complex connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, C; Patry, I; Duval, X; Baty, V; Tattevin, P; Aparicio, T; Pagenault, M; Carbonnel, F; Couetdic, G; Hoen, B

    2013-09-01

    The proportion of group D streptococcal infective endocarditis (IE) (predominantly due to Streptococcus gallolyticus) and the incidence of colorectal cancer are higher in France than in most European countries. We assumed that this could be explained by a high group D streptococci (GDS) fecal carriage rate. The aims of this study were to re-assess the GDS fecal carriage rate in France and its relationship with colorectal cancer. Consecutive adult subjects who were to undergo a complete colonoscopy were invited to participate. GDS were searched in subjects' stools before their colonoscopy using biomolecular techniques. Colonoscopic findings were sorted into four subgroups: normal colonoscopy, non-tumoral lesions, benign tumors, and premalignant/malignant tumors. GDS fecal carriages were calculated overall and in each subgroup and compared. The data from 259 subjects were analyzed. GDS were identified in the feces of 12 subjects, with the following distribution: S. lutetiensis (n?=?9), S. pasteurianus (n?=?2), and S. gallolyticus (n?=?1). This accounted for an overall GDS fecal carriage rate of 4.6 %. The GDS fecal carriage rate was 6 % in case of normal colonoscopy, 1.3 % in case of non-tumoral lesions, 3.2 % in case of benign tumors, and 11 % in case of premalignant/malignant tumors. These four percentages were not statistically different. The GDS fecal carriage rate was lower than expected, which did not confirm our working hypothesis. Most strains belonged to S. bovis biotype II, while S. gallolyticus was found only once. These findings suggest that different GDS play different roles in the etiopathogenesis of IE and colorectal cancer. PMID:23558362

  18. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  19. Prevalencia de Streptococcus beta hemolítico en pacientes con faringoamigdalitis aguda, en un hospital de la ciudad de Chachapoyas, Amazonas / Prevalence of beta hemolytic Streptococcus in patients with acute pharyngoamigdalitis in a Chachapoyas, Amazonas hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José María, Guevara D; José, Aguirre; Esther, Valencia; José María, Guevara G; Fernando, Williams; Elizabeth, Cuéllar; Mirtha, Barboza; Wini, Agurto.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En Chachapoyas hay numerosos pacientes con faringoamigdalitis aguda y cuadros clínicos con las complicaciones no supurativas que causa el Streptococcus pyogenes. Diseño: Estudio transversal. Lugar: Hospital I Higos Urco, EsSalud, Chachapoyas, Amazonas, e Instituto de Medicina Tropical [...] Daniel A. Carrión, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participantes: Pacientes con faringoamigdalitis aguda. Intervenciones: A 148 pacientes, seleccionados aleatoriamente, que acudieron al consultorio externo de otorrinolaringología por presentar cuadros clínicos compatibles con faringoamigdalitis aguda, se les tomó muestras de secreción faringoamigdaliana con hisopos y, usando el medio de transporte Amies con carbón (Difco), fueron enviados al Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrión, en donde fueron procesados. Principales medidas de resultados: Presencia de Streptococcus beta hemolítico y otras bacterias cultivables. Resultados: Las enterobacterias fueron las más aisladas (49,1%) de los cultivos positivos. Solo 5 Streptococcus beta hemolíticos fueron aislados: un Streptococcus pyogenes, tres Streptococcus agalactiae y un Streptococcus del grupo G, los cuales fueron sensibles a los betalactámicos, macrólidos y lincosamidas. Conclusiones: Se sugiere realizar estudios complementarios con el dosaje de antiestreptolisina O. Abstract in english Introduction: There are numerous Chachapoyas patients with acute pharyngoamigdalitis and clinical non suppurative complications caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Design: Transversal study. Setting: Hospital I Higos Urco, EsSalud, Chachapoyas, Amazonas, and Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Ca [...] rrion, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participants: Patients with acute pharyngoamigdalitis. Interventions: One hundred and forty-eight randomized outpatient subjects attending an ear, nose and throat office for clinical symptoms compatible with acute pharyngoamigdalitis had a sample of pharynx and tonsils taken with a cotton swab and sent in Amies with carbon medium (Difco) to the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrion to be processed. Main outcome measures: Presence of beta hemolytic Streptococcus and other bacteriae. Results: Positive cultures revealed mainly Enterobacteriae (49,1%). Only 5 beta hemolytic Streptococcus were isolated: one Streptococcus pyogenes, three Streptococcus agalactiae and one group G Streptococcus, all sensitive to betalactamics, macrolides and lincosamides. Conclusions: We suggest to do complementary studies with antiestreptolysin O determination.

  20. Mobile agent security using proxy-agents and trusted domains

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Nikola; Arronategui Arribalzaga, Unai

    2009-01-01

    Commercial or wide-network deployment of Mobile Agent Systems is not possible without satisfying security architecture. In this paper we propose architecture for secure Mobile Agent Systems, using Trusted Domains and Proxy agents. Existing approaches are based on security services at the level of an agent system, library or specific objects. Our concept uses proxy agents to enable transparent security services both to security-aware mobile agents and legacy agents. Per-agent and domain-level...

  1. Pulsatile Delivery of Clarithromycin Alone or in Combination with Amoxicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Leuthner, Kimberly D.; Cheung, Chrissy M.; Rybak, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated pulsatile dosing of clarithromycin and amoxicillin alone or combined against Streptococcus pneumoniae with various susceptibilities. When combined, pulsatile amoxicillin with clarithromycin was superior to either 8- or 12-h dosing against the intermediate strain and was identical for the susceptible strain. Pulse dosing of antimicrobials warrants further investigation.

  2. In Vivo Efficacy of Telithromycin (HMR3647) against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Hiroki; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; YAMAGUCHI, KEIZO

    2001-01-01

    The in vivo activity of telithromycin against erythromycin A- and penicillin G-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae was superior to that of azithromycin, clarithromycin, cefdinir, and levofloxacin. In respiratory tract infections caused by erythromycin A-susceptible S. pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae in mice, telithromycin was more effective than clarithromycin and comparable to azithromycin.

  3. Spread of Virulent Group A Streptococcus Type emm59 from Montana to Wyoming, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Christopher C.; Olsen, Randall J.; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Morman, Monica L.; Fort, Peter L.; Neuwirth, Robert; Majeed, Mohammed; Woodward, William B.; Musser, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Full-genome sequencing showed that a recently emerged and hypervirulent clone of group A Streptococcus type emm59 active in Canada and parts of the United States has now caused severe invasive infections in rural northeastern Wyoming. Phylogenetic analysis of genome data indicated that the strain was likely introduced from Montana.

  4. Bartholinitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae : Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Bartholin?s gland abscesses have been thought to be caused by colonizing micro-organisms of the perineal region. We encountered an interesting case of acute Bartholins abscess caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a primigravida. The abscess was incised and drained. The patient was treated with Cefuroxime. This case is presented for its rarity.

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 6C: an Intra- and Interclonal Complex Comparison?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, J. C.; Kong, Y.; Sabharwal, V.; Pelton, S. I.; Pettigrew, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the annotated draft genome sequences of four serotype 6C Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates of differing genetic backgrounds. Serotype 6C isolates are increasing in prevalence and becoming progressively more resistant to antibiotics. As a result, these strains are likely to become more important in the near future.

  6. 77 FR 26014 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ...Technology This technology consists of a P4 peptide which contains functional epitopes of the PsaA protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae...antibody that can bind to the epitopes of the defined peptides. The technology is a complete kit that...

  7. Typing of Streptococcus mutans strains isolated from caries free and susceptible subjects by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arezoo, Tahmourespour; Abdolreza, Nabinejad; Hannaneh, Shirian; Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro, Rosa; Sanaz, Tahmourespour.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was evaluated the clonal diversity of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active subjects using MLEE. Strains from caries-free subjects were grouped in a single taxon. Unrooted dendrogram showed that different strains clustered in four different clades, also showed that more th [...] an one clonal type can be found in a same individual.

  8. Genome Sequence of the Bacteriocin-Producing Oral Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius Strain M18

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Nicholas C. K.; Haji-Ishak, Nurul S.; Kalyan, Alaina; Wong, Andrew Y. C.; Lovri?, Marija; Bridson, Joanna M.; Artamonova, Julia; Stanton, Jo-Ann L.; Philip A. Wescombe; Burton, Jeremy P; Cullinan, Mary P.; Tagg, John R

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a Gram-positive bacterial commensal and pioneer colonizer of the human oral cavity. Many strains produce ribosomally synthesized proteinaceous antibiotics (bacteriocins), and some strains have been developed for use as oral probiotics. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the bacteriocin-producing oral probiotic S. salivarius strain M18.

  9. Surface Analyses and Immune Reactivities of Major Cell Wall-Associated Proteins of Group A Streptococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Jason N.; Ramirez, Ruben D.; Currie, Bart J.; Cordwell, Stuart J.; Djordjevic, Steven P.; Walker, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    A proteomic analysis was undertaken to identify cell wall-associated proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes. Seventy-four distinct cell wall-associated proteins were identified, 66 of which were novel. Thirty-three proteins were immunoreactive with pooled S. pyogenes-reactive human antisera. Biotinylation of the GAS cell surface identified 23 cell wall-associated proteins that are surface exposed.

  10. Clustered Genes for Galactose Metabolism from Streptococcus mutans Cloned in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Smorawinska, Maryla; Hsu, J. Charles; Hansen, Jeffrey B.; Jagusztyn-krynicka, E. Katarzyna; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Curtiss, Roy

    1983-01-01

    DNA cloned into Escherichia coli from a serotype c strain of Streptococcus mutans allowed a galKTE mutant to utilize galactose for growth. However, the DNA does not appear to encode enzymes of the Leloir pathway used by E. coli, but rather appears to encode enzymes of the tagatose phosphate pathway.

  11. Resistance Phenotypes and Genotypes of Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Beijing and Shenyang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemei, Zhao; Xiangqun, Fang; Youning, Liu

    2004-01-01

    Of a total of 192 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 149 (77.6%) were not susceptible to erythromycin. Of these 149 isolates, 117 (79.1%) contained the erm(B) gene, 16 (10.8%) contained the mef(A) gene, and 15 (10.1%) harbored both the erm(B) and mef(A) genes.

  12. Resistance of Group B Streptococcus to Selected Antibiotics, Including Erythromycin and Clindamycin

    OpenAIRE

    Heelan, Judith S.; Hasenbein, Meredith E.; McAdam, Alexander J.

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of group B streptococcus (GBS) to antibiotics, particularly erythromycin and clindamycin, was studied. Erythromycin resistance was present in 22% of GBS isolates, and these isolates were constitutively resistant, inducibly resistant, or sensitive to clindamycin. Erythromycin and clindamycin MICs were related to the presence of ermA, ermB, or mefA genes.

  13. Emergence of a Unique Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Serogroup 35 Strain ?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanek, Ronald J.; Maher, Mary B.; Norton, Nancy B.; Mufson, Maurice A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed seven Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup 35 isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the genome and pbp2b gene nucleotide sequences. Three penicillin-susceptible strains and one penicillin-intermediate-resistant strain exhibited 100% identity to prototype R6. Two resistant strains and one other intermediate strain differed from them and contained a unique sequence.

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Five Multilocus Sequence Types of Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lance E; Thomas, Jonathan C; Luo, Xiao; Nahm, Moon H; McDaniel, Larry S; Robinson, D Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae can colonize the human nasopharynx and cause conjunctivitis and otitis media. Different deletions in the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus and different multilocus sequence types have been described for nonencapsulated strains. Draft genome sequences were generated to provide insight into the genomic diversity of these strains. PMID:23887920

  15. The licC Gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae Encodes a CTP:Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Rock, Charles O.; Heath, Richard J.; Park, Hee-won; Jackowski, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    The licC gene product of Streptococcus pneumoniae was expressed and characterized. LicC is a nucleoside triphosphate transferase family member and possesses CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase activity. Phosphoethanolamine is a poor substrate. The LicC protein plays a role in the biosynthesis of the phosphocholine-derivatized cell wall constituents that are critical for cell separation and pathogenesis.

  16. Production of monoclonal antibody against a glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans 6715.

    OpenAIRE

    Furuta, T.; Nisizawa, T.; Chiba, J.; Hamada, S.

    1983-01-01

    A mouse hybrid cell line secreted monoclonal antibody which reacted specifically with Streptococcus mutans 6715 (serotype g) glucosyltransferase (GTase)-synthesizing water-insoluble glucan and inhibited with enzyme reaction. The antibody was cross-reactive with GTase of serotype d but not with GTase of other serotypes of S. mutans when an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used.

  17. The Effect of Carbon Source and Fluoride Concentrations in the "Streptococcus Mutans" Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Tony P.; Andrade, Ricardo O.; Bruschi-Thedei, Giuliana C. M.; Thedei, Geraldo, Jr.; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this class experiment is to show the influence of carbon source and of different fluoride concentrations on the biofilm formation by the bacterium "Streptococcus mutans." The observation of different biofilm morphology as a function of carbon source and fluoride concentration allows an interesting discussion regarding the…

  18. Familial clustering of the Streptococcus mutans cryptic plasmid strain in a dental clinic population.

    OpenAIRE

    Caufield, P. W.; Wannemuehler, Y. M.; Hansen, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    Of Streptococcus mutans strains from 100 pedodontic patients, 13% contained the common cryptic plasmid. Family members of four plasmid-positive patients harbored plasmid-positive S. mutans at a significantly greater frequency compared with the pedodontic population, but there was not a one-to-one correlation of strains between mothers and children.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of the Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Strain JIM8777 ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gue?don, Eric; Delorme, Christine; Pons, Nicolas; Cruaud, Corinne; Loux, Valentin; Couloux, Arnaud; Gautier, Ce?line; Sanchez, Nicolas; Layec, Se?verine; Galleron, Nathalie; Almeida, Mathieu; Guchte, Maarten; Kennedy, Sean P.; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Gibrat, Jean-franc?ois

    2011-01-01

    The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is a prevalent species of the human oropharyngeal tract with an important role in oral ecology. Here, we report the complete 2.2-Mb genome sequence and annotation of strain JIM8777, which was recently isolated from the oral cavity of a healthy, dentate infant.

  20. Inhibition of the NF-?B Pathway in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Commensal Streptococcus salivarius ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Kaci, Ghalia; Lakhdari, Omar; Dore?, Joe?l; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Renault, Pierre; Blottie?re, Herve? M.; Delorme, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and monocytes. Strains were screened using a reporter clone, HT-29/kB-luc-E, induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). Supernatant from each strain downregulated NF-?B activation. The two most efficient strains produced an active metabolite (

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of the Pigmented Streptococcus thermophilus Strain JIM8232

    OpenAIRE

    Delorme, Christine; Bartholini, Claire; Luraschi, Me?lanie; Pons, Nicolas; Loux, Valentin; Almeida, Mathieu; Gue?don, Eric; Gibrat, Jean-franc?ois; Renault, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is a dairy species commonly used in the manufacture of cheese and yogurt. Here, we report the complete sequence of S. thermophilus strain JIM8232, isolated from milk and which produces a yellow pigment, an atypical trait for this bacterium.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of the Clinical Streptococcus salivarius Strain CCHSS3 ?

    OpenAIRE

    Delorme, Christine; Gue?don, Eric; Pons, Nicolas; Cruaud, Corinne; Couloux, Arnaud; Loux, Valentin; Chiapello, He?le?ne; Poyart, Claire; Gautier, Ce?line; Sanchez, Nicolas; Almeida, Mathieu; Kennedy, Sean P.; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Gibrat, Jean-franc?ois; Wincker, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a commensal species commonly found in the human oral cavity and digestive tract, although it is also associated with human infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, and bacteremia. Here, we report the complete sequence of S. salivarius strain CCHSS3, isolated from human blood.

  3. Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated in Algiers, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Rahal, Kheira

    2003-01-01

    There are few data on antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Algeria. Among 309 strains, 34.6% were penicillin G-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae strains (25.2% were intermediate and 9.4% were resistant). Serotypes 1, 5, 14, and 6 were the most frequent in invasive child infections. A multicenter study to standardize the national guidelines is needed.

  4. Usefulness of Pneumotest-latex for direct serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuch, Alicja; Go??biewska, Agnieszka; Wa?ko, Izabela; Ronkiewicz, Patrycja; Markowska, Marlena; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Skoczy?ska, Anna

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of the Pneumotest-Latex assay for serotyping Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates directly in clinical samples. With an agreement of 88.1% with a PCR-based reference method, this test can be a useful tool for this study purpose, especially in clinical laboratories that do not have access to nucleic acid amplification technologies. PMID:24759721

  5. Usefulness of Pneumotest-Latex for Direct Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Kuch, Alicja; Go?e?biewska, Agnieszka; Was?ko, Izabela; Ronkiewicz, Patrycja; Markowska, Marlena; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Skoczyn?ska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of the Pneumotest-Latex assay for serotyping Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates directly in clinical samples. With an agreement of 88.1% with a PCR-based reference method, this test can be a useful tool for this study purpose, especially in clinical laboratories that do not have access to nucleic acid amplification technologies.

  6. A commercial rapid optical immunoassay detects Streptococcus agalactiae from aquatic cultures and clinical specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BioStar STREPT B Optical ImmunoAssay (OIA) (BioStar® OIA® Strep B Assay Kit; Biostar Incorporation; Louisville, CO, USA) was used to identify 32 known group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates of fish, dolphin, bovine, and human origin. Thirteen non-GBS isolates from fish and other animals were test...

  7. Fecal strings Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were experimentally-infected with Streptococcus agalactiae for several infectivity and vaccine studies. Some of the S. agalactiae-infected tilapia produced considerably longer (up to 20 cm in length) fecal waste strings than historically observed from tilapia at...

  8. Liamocin oil from Aureobasidium pullulans has antibacterial activity with specificity for species of Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamocin oil from Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 50380 was tested for antibacterial activity. Liamocins inhibited growth of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. uberis, S. mitis, S. infantarius, and S. mutans, with minimum inhibitory concentrations from 20 'g/ml to 78 'g/ml. Enterococcus faecalis was less sus...

  9. Complete genome sequence of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P isolated from disease Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P is 1838701 bp in size, containing 1831 genes. The genome has 1593 coding sequences, 152 pseudo genes, 16 rRNAs, 69 tRNAs, and 1 non-coding RNA. The annotation of the genome is added by the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipel...

  10. Complete genome sequence of an attenuated Sparfloxacin resistant Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through selection of resistance to sparfloxacin, an attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar was obtained from its virulent parent strain S. agalactiae 138P. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138spar is 1,838,126 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identi...

  11. Influence of Tricaine Methanesulfonate on Streptococcus agalactiae vaccination of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to study the influence of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on blood glucose levels and percent cumulative survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae 30 days post-vaccination with S. agalactiae vaccine or sham-vaccination wit...

  12. Complete genome sequence of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P isolated from diseased Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P was isolated from the kidney of diseased Nile tilapia in Idaho during a 2007 streptococcal disease outbreak. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138P is 1,838,716 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identify genes for antigen disco...

  13. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN TRICHODINA SPP. PARASITISM AND STREPTOCOCCUS SPP. INFECTIONS IN CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are generally not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, but concurrent parasitism may increase catfish susceptibility to these streptococcal organisms. Young channel catfish with mild-to-moderate Trichodina spp. parasitism on the gills a...

  14. Complete genome sequence of an attenuated Sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome of a sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine strain 138spar is 1,838,126 bp in size. The genome has 1892 coding sequences and 82 RNAs. The annotation of the genome is added by the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline. The publishing of this genome will allo...

  15. PULSED FIELD FINGERPRINTING OF VAGINAL GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS IN PREGNANCY: CORRELATION OF RESTRICTION PROFILES WITH SEROTYPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management protocols for vaginal group B beta-hemolytic streptococci (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) infection during pregnancy focus on treatment after an infection is identified. However, there is more to be learned about the epidemiology of GBS infections during pregnancy. In this study, we compa...

  16. Development of live attenuated sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae polyvalent vaccines to protect Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  17. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae as potential vaccines by selecting for resistance to sparfloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  18. Competence-Dependent Bacteriocin Production by Streptococcus gordonii DL1 (Challis)?

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Nicholas C. K.; Tagg, John R.; Tompkins, Geoffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    The production of streptocins STH1 and STH2 by Streptococcus gordonii DL1 (Challis) is directly controlled by the competence regulon, which requires intact comR and comAB loci. The streptocin (sth) locus comprises two functional genes, sthA and sthB. Whereas STH1 activity requires sthA alone, STH2 activity depends on both genes.