WorldWideScience
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Mycotic Aneurysm Caused by Streptococcus constellatus subsp. constellatus  

OpenAIRE

An infected mycotic aneurysm due to Streptococcus constellatus subsp. constellatus has not previously been reported. We report on this condition in an 87-year-old woman who had aggravating abdominal pain and a large fusiform aneurysm over the thoracic-abdominal aorta with mural thrombus. Isolates from two sets of blood cultures and the debrided tissue were identified as S. constellatus subsp. constellatus by their biochemical reaction profiles, compatible 16S rRNA gene sequencing results, and...

Chiang, Wen-chu; Tsai, Jui-chang; Chen, Shey-ying; Hsu, Chiung-yuan; Wu, Chen-tu; Teng, Lee-jene; Hsueh, Po-ren

2004-01-01

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Mycotic Aneurysm Caused by Streptococcus constellatus subsp. constellatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

An infected mycotic aneurysm due to Streptococcus constellatus subsp. constellatus has not previously been reported. We report on this condition in an 87-year-old woman who had aggravating abdominal pain and a large fusiform aneurysm over the thoracic-abdominal aorta with mural thrombus. Isolates from two sets of blood cultures and the debrided tissue were identified as S. constellatus subsp. constellatus by their biochemical reaction profiles, compatible 16S rRNA gene sequencing results, and sequencing results for the partial groESL gene and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. PMID:15071061

Chiang, Wen-Chu; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Chen, Shey-Ying; Hsu, Chiung-Yuan; Wu, Chen-Tu; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

2004-04-01

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Streptococcus constellatus-associated pyoderma in a dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a case of chronic and deep pyodermitis in a 4-year-old male dog with a 3-month skin problems history that had been treated unsuccessfully with fluoroquinolone therapy, prescribed by a private medical veterinary practice, without an early diagnosis. Microbiological examination and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed in our laboratory (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine) and a diagnosis of Streptococcus constellatus-associated pyoderma in the dog was made. A new antimicrobial treatment, with tetracyclines, was designed after the definitive diagnosis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The dog remained free of clinical illness at completion of therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a canine pyoderma caused by S. constellatus, a commensal organism which may also cause pyogenic infections. Furthermore, this study confirms that a fluoroquinolone represents a poor empirical choice for initial therapy of canine pyoderma. PMID:22074849

De Martino, Luisa; Nizza, Sandra; de Martinis, Claudio; Foglia Manzillo, Valentina; Iovane, Valentina; Paciello, Orlando; Pagnini, Ugo

2012-03-01

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Meningitis aguda por Streptococcus Constellatus: a propósito de un caso fatal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 14 años, con el único antecedente de sinusitis resuelta hacía un año, que desarrolló de nuevo una pansinusitis y una meningitis aguda que lo llevó en diez días a la muerte. Durante su estancia hospitalaria no fue posible determinar el agente etiológico [...] , sin embargo los cultivos post mortem demostraron que el microorganismo presente era Streptococcus constellatus un comensal habitual de las mucosas del ser humano, del cual se han descrito muy pocos casos de meningitis en pacientes inmunocompetentes, lo cual hace de este caso un verdadero reto diagnóstico para los médicos tratantes y los anatomopatólogos. Abstract in english The present case is of a 14 year-old male with the only history of a sinusitis that solved one year before presentation.The patient developed a newly-onset pansinusitis followed by pyogenic meningitis that lead him to death ten days after. It was not possible to determine the etiologic agent during [...] his hospitalization but postmortem culture tests taken from the leptomeninges and the etmoidal cells showed Streptococcus constellatus, a usual commensal in human mucous membranes. Very few cases of acute meningitis caused by S. constellatus have been described in immunocompetent patients, which makes this case a real diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists.

Maikel, Vargas Sanabria; Rodolfo, Guzmán Cervantes.

2011-09-01

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Meningitis aguda por Streptococcus Constellatus: a propósito de un caso fatal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 14 años, con el único antecedente de sinusitis resuelta hacía un año, que desarrolló de nuevo una pansinusitis y una meningitis aguda que lo llevó en diez días a la muerte. Durante su estancia hospitalaria no fue posible determinar el agente etiológico, sin embargo los cultivos post mortem demostraron que el microorganismo presente era Streptococcus constellatus un comensal habitual de las mucosas del ser humano, del cual se han descrito muy pocos casos de meningitis en pacientes inmunocompetentes, lo cual hace de este caso un verdadero reto diagnóstico para los médicos tratantes y los anatomopatólogos.The present case is of a 14 year-old male with the only history of a sinusitis that solved one year before presentation.The patient developed a newly-onset pansinusitis followed by pyogenic meningitis that lead him to death ten days after. It was not possible to determine the etiologic agent during his hospitalization but postmortem culture tests taken from the leptomeninges and the etmoidal cells showed Streptococcus constellatus, a usual commensal in human mucous membranes. Very few cases of acute meningitis caused by S. constellatus have been described in immunocompetent patients, which makes this case a real diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists.

Maikel Vargas Sanabria

2011-09-01

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Resistance of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms to antimicrobial agents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacteria living in biofilms as dental plaque on tooth surfaces are generally more resistant to antimicrobial agents than bacteria in batch culture normally used for in vitro susceptibility testing. In order to compare the resistance of free-living and surface-grown oral bacteria, the MIC of Streptococcus sanguis 804 and ATCC 10556 to amoxicillin, doxycycline and chlorhexidine was determined by a broth dilution method. Subsequently, S. sanguis biofilms established in an in vitro flow model were perfused with the antimicrobial agents for 48 h at concentrations equal to and up to 500 times the MIC, and biofilm cell number was determined during this period. The antibiotics at the MIC did not affect the cell number of S. sanguis biofilms compared to the starting point, and only after 48 h at 500 times the MIC were the biofilm bacteria eliminated. At intermediate concentrations biofilm cell number gradually decreased. Chlorhexidine also gradually reduced biofilm cell number, but was inhibitory at concentrations closer to the MIC than was the case for the antibiotics. Thus S. sanguis in biofilms survived up to 500 times the MIC found in batch culture for up to 48 h.

Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E

1996-01-01

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Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

OpenAIRE

O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade), e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5), e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, a...

Marcos Noronha Frey; Ana Elisa Empinotti Ioppi; Renan Rangel Bonamigo; Guilherme Pinheiro Prado

2011-01-01

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Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível / Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade), e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5), e, rar [...] amente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis). Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age) and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile [...] (1-5) and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

Marcos Noronha, Frey; Ana Elisa Empinotti, Ioppi; Renan Rangel, Bonamigo; Guilherme Pinheiro, Prado.

1205-12-01

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Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade, e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5, e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5 and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

Marcos Noronha Frey

2011-12-01

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Empiema pleural por Streptococcus grupo anginosus en un preescolar y revisión de la literatura: Case report and review Streptococcus anginosus pleural emphyema in a child  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Presentamos el caso clínico de un preescolar con antecedente de malformación pulmonar que 43 días tras una neumonectomía izquierda, ingresó al Hospital Padre Hurtado con fiebre de una semana de evolución. En una TAC pulmonar se demostró una gran colección intrapleural izquierda de la que se aisló Streptococcus grupo anginosus y Prevotella spp. Se efectuó tratamiento antimicrobiano con penicilina más clindamicina. Existe gran confusión en la terminología y clasificación de Streptococcus grupo anginosus. En la actualidad no existe duda que es un grupo que posee tres especies, S. anginosus, S. constellatus y S. intermedius. Son parte de la flora normal de orofaringe, nasofaringe, tracto gastrointestinal y vagina. Este grupo ha sido reconocido como causa de infecciones supurativas en niños y adultos. La mayoría de las cepas se describen como susceptibles a penicilina; sin embargo, existen reportes que sugieren la emergencia de resistencia. Se discuten las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnóstico e informe microbiológicosLeft pneumonectomy in a child with congenital pulmonary malformation was performed two months prior to admission. Within one week he had high fever. Chest CT scan showed massive left pleural effusion. Both Streptococcus anginosus group and Prevotella spp. grew from the fluid obtained by pleural punction. Antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated with clindamycin and penicillin. Streptococus anginosus group is quite confusing in terms of classification and taxonomy. Now it is well recognized that three species belong to this genera: S. anginosus S. constellatus and S. intermedius. They all are considered normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract and vagina but also they have been identified as agents of suppurative infections in children and adults. Many reports show adequate response to penicillin, however there is some emerging resistance in strains isolated in other studies. In this article we also suggest some diagnostic and microbiologic recommendations

Paola Pidal M.

2004-01-01

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Empiema pleural por Streptococcus grupo anginosus en un preescolar y revisión de la literatura: Case report and review / Streptococcus anginosus pleural emphyema in a child  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos el caso clínico de un preescolar con antecedente de malformación pulmonar que 43 días tras una neumonectomía izquierda, ingresó al Hospital Padre Hurtado con fiebre de una semana de evolución. En una TAC pulmonar se demostró una gran colección intrapleural izquierda de la que se aisló St [...] reptococcus grupo anginosus y Prevotella spp. Se efectuó tratamiento antimicrobiano con penicilina más clindamicina. Existe gran confusión en la terminología y clasificación de Streptococcus grupo anginosus. En la actualidad no existe duda que es un grupo que posee tres especies, S. anginosus, S. constellatus y S. intermedius. Son parte de la flora normal de orofaringe, nasofaringe, tracto gastrointestinal y vagina. Este grupo ha sido reconocido como causa de infecciones supurativas en niños y adultos. La mayoría de las cepas se describen como susceptibles a penicilina; sin embargo, existen reportes que sugieren la emergencia de resistencia. Se discuten las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnóstico e informe microbiológicos Abstract in english Left pneumonectomy in a child with congenital pulmonary malformation was performed two months prior to admission. Within one week he had high fever. Chest CT scan showed massive left pleural effusion. Both Streptococcus anginosus group and Prevotella spp. grew from the fluid obtained by pleural punc [...] tion. Antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated with clindamycin and penicillin. Streptococus anginosus group is quite confusing in terms of classification and taxonomy. Now it is well recognized that three species belong to this genera: S. anginosus S. constellatus and S. intermedius. They all are considered normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract and vagina but also they have been identified as agents of suppurative infections in children and adults. Many reports show adequate response to penicillin, however there is some emerging resistance in strains isolated in other studies. In this article we also suggest some diagnostic and microbiologic recommendations

Paola, Pidal M.; Javiera, Basaure O.; Priscilla, Prado D.; Pedro, Alarcón L..

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Use of Penicillin MICs To Predict In Vitro Activity of Other ?-Lactam Antimicrobial Agents against Streptococcus pneumoniae  

OpenAIRE

Linear regression analysis was used to compare penicillin MICs determined with 3,129 recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to MICs obtained with nine other beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. A strong correlation between penicillin MICs and those obtained with other beta-lactams was demonstrated. It may be possible to test penicillin and use MICs obtained with penicillin to predict MICs of other beta-lactam antimicrobials for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Brueggemann, A. B.; Pfaller, M. A.; Doern, G. V.

2001-01-01

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Use of penicillin MICs to predict in vitro activity of other beta-lactam antimicrobial agents against Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

OpenAIRE

Linear regression analysis was used to compare penicillin MICs determined with 3,129 recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to MICs obtained with nine other beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. A strong correlation between penicillin MICs and those obtained with other beta-lactams was demonstrated. It may be possible to test penicillin and use MICs obtained with penicillin to predict MICs of other beta-lactam antimicrobials for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Brueggemann, AB; Pfaller, Ma; Doern, Gv

2001-01-01

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Identification of 43 Streptococcus Species by Pyrosequencing Analysis of the rnpB Gene  

OpenAIRE

Pyrosequencing technology was evaluated for identification of species within the Streptococcus genus. Two variable regions in the rnpB gene, which encodes the RNA subunit of endonuclease P, were sequenced in two reactions. Of 43 species, all could be identified to the species level except strains of the species pairs Streptococcus anginosus/S. constellatus and S. infantis/S. peroris. A total of 113 blood culture isolates were identified by pyrosequencing analysis of partial rnpB sequences. Al...

Innings, A?sa; Krabbe, Margareta; Ullberg, Ma?ns; Herrmann, Bjo?rn

2005-01-01

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Reproduction, distribution and abundance of Bothus constellatus (Pisces: Bothidae, in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 3 593 individuals of Bothus constellatus was captured during five oceanographic cruises carried out in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Its distribution, abundance, and reproduction patterns were stated by means of the analysis of the population parameters (i.e. density, biomass, weight and size average, visceral and gonadosomatic index, and maturity stages. B. constellatus is a typical demersal marine species, because it does not occur in estuaries, but occurs near to them on the continental shelf. It is distributed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec in depths lesser than 60 m, with high abundance around the 40 m isobath, and in front of Mar Muerto Lagoon. During January and May the biomass and density were high. The size at first maturity of females is 101 mm total length, and maturation occurs first in zones influenced by estuarine processes. Reproduction and recruitment were detected in all the collections.

M. Tapia-García

2000-03-01

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Halistanol sulfate A and rodriguesines A and B are antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present investigation we report the antibacterial activity of halistanol sulfate A isolated from the sponge Petromica ciocalyptoides, as well as of rodriguesines A and B isolated from the ascidian Didemnum sp., against the caries etiologic agent Streptococcus mutans. The transcription levels [...] of S. mutans virulence genes gtfB, gtfC and gbpB, as well as of housekeeping genes groEL and 16S, were evaluated by sqRT-PCR analysis of S. mutans planktonic cells. There were no alterations in the expression levels of groEL and 16S after antimicrobial treatment with halistanol sulfate A and with rodriguesines A and B, but the expression of the genes gtfB, gtfC and gbpB was down-regulated. Halistanol sulfate A displayed the most potent antimicrobial effect against S. mutans, with inhibition of biofilm formation and reduction of biofilm-associated gene expression in planktonic cells. Halistanol sulfate A also inhibited the initial oral bacteria colonizers, such as Streptococcus sanguinis, but at much higher concentrations. The results obtained indicate that halistanol sulfate A may be considered a potential scaffold for drug development in Streptococcus mutans antibiofilm therapy, the main etiologic agent of human dental caries.

Bruna de A., Lima; Simone P. de, Lira; Miriam H., Kossuga; Reginaldo B., Gonçalves; Roberto G.S., Berlinck; Regianne U., Kamiya.

2014-12-01

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Sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from skin infections in 1992 to antimicrobial agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) isolated from skin infections in 1992. For S. aureus, we measured the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the following 10 drugs: methicillin (DMPPC), cefaclor (CCL), gentamicin (GM), erythromycin (EM), clindamycin (CLDM), minocycline (MINO), vancomycin (VAN), fusidic acid (FA), ofloxacin (OFLX) and nadifloxacin (NDFX); for S. pyogenes, we determined the MICs of the following 9 drugs: ampicillin (ABPC), amoxicillin (AMPC), cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR), erythromycin (EM), clindamycin (CLDM), minocycline (MINO), norfloxacin (NFLX), of loxacin (OFLX) and nadifloxacin (NDFX). These drugs are frequently used to treat skin infections, either systemically or topically. NDFX is a new synthetic fluoroquinolone, recently developed for use as a topical acne medication in Japan. It is used NDFX for acne, but not for skin infections. There were no strains of S. aureus resistant to NDFX, VAN or FA. The resistance (> or = 12.5 micrograms/ml) of S. aureus was highest to GM and lowest to OFLX. Four strains of methicillin-resistant (> or = 12.5 micrograms/ml) S. aureus (MRSA) were found. In contrast, no resistant strains of S. pyogenes were found except to MINO. Only two strains of S. pyogenes were susceptible to MINO. The sensitivity of S. pyogenes to ABPC, AMPC, CPDX-PR, EM and CLDM was very good. All the strains were susceptible at a MIC below > or = 0.05 microgram/ml. However, the S. pyogenes strains were not very sensitive to the new quinolones, especially NFLX. We concluded that penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides are still effective against streptococcal infections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8056894

Nishijima, S; Namura, S; Kawai, S; Akamatsu, H; Asada, Y; Kawabata, S

1994-04-01

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Heterogeneity among 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers of species within the 'Streptococcus milleri group'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer has been suggested as a suitable region of the bacterial genome from which to derive useful taxonomic information, particularly with regard to identification at the species level. To investigate this approach as an aid to the identification of the three species comprising the 'Streptococcus milleri group' (SMG), the spacers of isolates of Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus constellatus were amplified by PCR and length polymorphisms determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Phenotypically atypical isolates which had been identified presumptively as belonging to these three species were also included. Spacers from two representatives of each spacer length found within the three SMG species were sequenced. 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer length polymorphisms allowed discrimination between S. anginosus (350 bp or 450 bp amplification product) and S. constellatus (380 bp amplification product), species that are difficult to differentiate phenotypically. S. intermedius (330 bp or 450 bp amplification product) and S. anginosus (350 bp or 450 bp amplification product) were not reliably distinguished by this method but are phenotypically distinct. Sequencing data demonstrated that the spacers had a central region of highly variable length flanked by conserved regions which included a single tRNA(Ala) gene. Polymorphism in the length of the 16S-23S spacer determined by PCR provides a rapid and useful adjunct to strain identification for S. anginosus and S. constellatus, which are not readily differentiated phenotypically. PMID:7545512

Whiley, R A; Duke, B; Hardie, J M; Hall, L M

1995-06-01

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Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licenced in veterinary medicine  

OpenAIRE

The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n = 384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, cefquinome, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Using breakpoints established by CLSI for veterinar...

Wisselink, H. J.; Veldman, K. T.; Salmon, S. A.; Mevius, D. J.

2006-01-01

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Development of Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of the Streptococcus milleri Group from Cystic Fibrosis Clinical Specimens by Targeting the cpn60 and 16S rRNA Genes? †  

OpenAIRE

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease, with the majority of mortalities resulting from pulmonary failure due to repeated pulmonary exacerbations. Recently, members of the Streptococcus anginosus group (S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius), herein referred to as the “Streptococcus milleri group” (SMG) have been implicated as important etiological pathogens contributing to pulmonary exacerbations in CF patients. This is partly due to better microbiological detection of ...

Olson, A. B.; Sibley, C. D.; Schmidt, L.; Wilcox, M. A.; Surette, M. G.; Corbett, C. R.

2010-01-01

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Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as etiological agents of conjunctivitis outbreaks in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the study of conjunctivitis outbreaks occurring from September 1994 to September 1996 in the region of Ribeirão Preto, conjunctival exudates of 92 patients were cultivated in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory I, Ribeirão Preto. Most cases occurred in the age range 2-7 years. The etiological agents which were most frequently isolated from the analyzed cases were: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in 40.22% and 21.74%, respectively. 51.35% of the S. pneumoniae isolated strains were not typable. The oxacillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains were submitted to the minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC and three of them presented intermediate resistance, whereas only one was highly resistant to penicillin.No estudo de surtos de conjuntivite ocorridos no período de setembro de 1994 a setembro de 1996, na região de Ribeirão Preto, foram semeadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratório I, Ribeirão Preto, exsudatos conjuntivais de 92 pacientes, sendo que a maioria dos casos estava na faixa etária de 2-7 anos. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente isolados dos casos analisados foram: Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae em 40,22% e 21,74% respectivamente. 51,35% das cepas de S. pneumoniae isoladas foram não tipáveis. As cepas de S. pneumoniae oxacilina resistente foram submetidas ao teste de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, sendo que três apresentaram resistência intermediária e apenas uma foi altamente resistente à penicilina.

Marta I. C. MEDEIROS

1998-01-01

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Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Ib as an Agent of Meningitis in Two Adult Nonpregnant Women?  

Science.gov (United States)

Two temporally and geographically clustered cases of meningitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae expressing the infrequent Ib serotype are reported. Characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing revealed that the isolates were identical and represented the widely distributed ST10/ST8 lineage associated with serotype Ib. PMID:17881554

Martins, E. R.; Florindo, C.; Martins, F.; Aldir, I.; Borrego, M. J.; Brum, L.; Ramirez, M.; Melo-Cristino, J.

2007-01-01

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Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia / Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares [...] de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, Colombia, entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1996. Se observó que 119 de todos los aislamientos (36,7%) presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida por lo menos a un antimicrobiano, que 39 (12%) presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina y que de estos últimos aislamientos, 29 presentaban resistencia intermedia y 10 resistencia alta. Nueve aislamientos (2,8%) presentaban resistencia a la ceftriaxona, 80 (24,7%) a la combinación de trimetoprima y sulfametoxazol (TMS), 49 (15,1%) al cloranfenicol y 31 (9,6%) a la eritromicina. Se observó resistencia a dos antimicrobianos en 31 aislamientos (9,6%) y multirresistencia en 22 (6,7%). Estos 22 aislamientos mostraron resistencia al TMS. Las asociaciones más frecuentes fueron penicilina, TMS y eritromicina en 5 casos; penicilina, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 4; penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol y TMS en 3; y penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 3 casos. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a la penicilina fueron: 23F (53,8%), 14 (25,6%), 6B (7,7%), 9V (5,1%), 19F (5,1%) y 34 (2,6%). Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a antimicrobianos distintos de la penicilina fueron: 5 (37,5%), 23F (7,5%), 14 (18,8%) y 6B (13,8%). Esta diferencia en la distribución de los serotipos fue estadísticamente significativa (P Abstract in english A study was done to determine the patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae that caused invasive disease diagnosed in children under the age of 5 in Colombia between 1994 and 1996, as well as to establish the distribution of the capsular types of the [...] resistant isolates. The analysis was done using 324 isolates obtained during the performance of the National Serotyping Protocol for S. pneumoniae carried out in Bogotá, Medellín, and Cali, Colombia, between July 1994 and March 1996. Of the 324 isolates, 119 (36.7%) showed diminished susceptibility to at least one antimicrobial agent, including 39 (12%) that showed diminished susceptibility to penicillin. Of these 39 resistant to penicillin, 29 showed intermediate resistance and 10 showed high resistance. Nine isolates (2.8%) showed resistance to ceftriaxone, 80 (24.7%) to the combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMS), 49 (15.1%) to chloramphenicol, and 31 (9.6%) to erythromycin. Resistance to two antimicrobial agents was observed in 31 isolates (9.6%); multiple resistance was found in 22 (6.7%). These 22 multiresistant isolates all showed resistance to TMS. The most frequent associations were penicillin, TMS, and erythromycin (5 cases); penicillin, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (4 cases); penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and TMS (3 cases); and penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (3 cases). The most frequent serotypes in the penicillin-resistant isolates were: 23F (53.8%), 14 (25.6%), 6B (7.7%), 9V (5.1%), 19F (5.1%), and 34 (2.6%). The most frequent serotypes in the isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents other than penicillin were: 5 (37.5%), 23F (7.5%), 14 (18.8%), and 6B (13.8%). This difference in the distribution of the serotypes was statistically significant (P

Aura Lucía, Leal; Castañeda, Elizabeth.

1999-03-01

24

Reproduction, distribution and abundance of Bothus constellatus (Pisces: Bothidae), in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 3 593 individuals of Bothus constellatus was captured during five oceanographic cruises carried out in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Its distribution, abundance, and reproduction patterns were stated by means of the analysis of the population parameters (i.e. density, biomass, weight a [...] nd size average, visceral and gonadosomatic index, and maturity stages). B. constellatus is a typical demersal marine species, because it does not occur in estuaries, but occurs near to them on the continental shelf. It is distributed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec in depths lesser than 60 m, with high abundance around the 40 m isobath, and in front of Mar Muerto Lagoon. During January and May the biomass and density were high. The size at first maturity of females is 101 mm total length, and maturation occurs first in zones influenced by estuarine processes. Reproduction and recruitment were detected in all the collections.

M., Tapia-García; M. C., García-Abad; G., Cerdenares Ladrón de Guevara.

2000-03-01

25

Agents of the "suis-ide diseases" of swine: Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis.  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis have emerged as important pathogens of swine, particularly in high health status herds. Their association with a wide range of serious clinical conditions and has given rise to the moniker "suis-ide diseases." These organisms are early colonizers and, for that reason, are difficult to control by management procedures such as segregated early weaning. Vaccination, serodiagnostic testing, and even serotyping are ...

Macinnes, J. I.; Desrosiers, R.

1999-01-01

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Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, Colombia, entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1996. Se observó que 119 de todos los aislamientos (36,7% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida por lo menos a un antimicrobiano, que 39 (12% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina y que de estos últimos aislamientos, 29 presentaban resistencia intermedia y 10 resistencia alta. Nueve aislamientos (2,8% presentaban resistencia a la ceftriaxona, 80 (24,7% a la combinación de trimetoprima y sulfametoxazol (TMS, 49 (15,1% al cloranfenicol y 31 (9,6% a la eritromicina. Se observó resistencia a dos antimicrobianos en 31 aislamientos (9,6% y multirresistencia en 22 (6,7%. Estos 22 aislamientos mostraron resistencia al TMS. Las asociaciones más frecuentes fueron penicilina, TMS y eritromicina en 5 casos; penicilina, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 4; penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol y TMS en 3; y penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 3 casos. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a la penicilina fueron: 23F (53,8%, 14 (25,6%, 6B (7,7%, 9V (5,1%, 19F (5,1% y 34 (2,6%. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a antimicrobianos distintos de la penicilina fueron: 5 (37,5%, 23F (7,5%, 14 (18,8% y 6B (13,8%. Esta diferencia en la distribución de los serotipos fue estadísticamente significativa (P A study was done to determine the patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae that caused invasive disease diagnosed in children under the age of 5 in Colombia between 1994 and 1996, as well as to establish the distribution of the capsular types of the resistant isolates. The analysis was done using 324 isolates obtained during the performance of the National Serotyping Protocol for S. pneumoniae carried out in Bogotá, Medellín, and Cali, Colombia, between July 1994 and March 1996. Of the 324 isolates, 119 (36.7% showed diminished susceptibility to at least one antimicrobial agent, including 39 (12% that showed diminished susceptibility to penicillin. Of these 39 resistant to penicillin, 29 showed intermediate resistance and 10 showed high resistance. Nine isolates (2.8% showed resistance to ceftriaxone, 80 (24.7% to the combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMS, 49 (15.1% to chloramphenicol, and 31 (9.6% to erythromycin. Resistance to two antimicrobial agents was observed in 31 isolates (9.6%; multiple resistance was found in 22 (6.7%. These 22 multiresistant isolates all showed resistance to TMS. The most frequent associations were penicillin, TMS, and erythromycin (5 cases; penicillin, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (4 cases; penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and TMS (3 cases; and penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (3 cases. The most frequent serotypes in the penicillin-resistant isolates were: 23F (53.8%, 14 (25.6%, 6B (7.7%, 9V (5.1%, 19F (5.1%, and 34 (2.6%. The most frequent serotypes in the isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents other than penicillin were: 5 (37.5%, 23F (7.5%, 14 (18.8%, and 6B (13.8%. This difference in the distribution of the serotypes was statistically significant (P < 0.0001. The study results indicate the need to maintain active surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns in order to avoid resistance in S. pneumoniae and to provide timely in formation to change practices regarding prescribing and consuming antimicrobial agents.

Aura Lucía Leal

1999-03-01

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In vitro activity of ceftobiprole and seven other antimicrobial agents against invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vitro activity of ceftobiprole was compared with that of seven antimicrobial agents against invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from adult patients (>15 years old). Characterization of erythromycin-resistant strains and serotype distribution of all pneumococci were also evaluated. Seventy invasive S. pneumoniae strains were isolated from December 2007 to January 2009. Serotyping was carried out by Quellung reaction. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by broth microdilution (CLSI guidelines). The comparator agents were penicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin, clindamycin, telithromycin, tetracycline and moxifloxacin. Phenotypic characterization of macrolide resistance was performed by the double disk method. Macrolide resistance genes [erm(B) and mef(A/E)] and the promoter of erm(B) were detected by PCR. Twenty-five different serotypes were detected of which 87% were non-PCV7 types. The percentages of resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were 20%, 8.6% and 16%, respectively. A penicillin MIC ?0.12 mg/L was observed in 14 of the 70 invasive pneumococci strains. The cefotaxime and ceftobiprole MIC(50)/MIC(90) of these 14 strains were 1/4 and 0.03/1 mg/L, respectively. Ceftobiprole showed higher in vitro activity than penicillin and cefotaxime with all isolates being inhibited by ?1 mg/L. Its high in vitro activity should make ceftobiprole a very promising drug for the treatment of pneumococcal infections. PMID:21786208

Ríos Dueñas, E; Rodríguez-Avial, I; Picazo, J J

2011-12-01

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Influences of naturally occurring agents in combination with fluoride on gene expression and structural organization of Streptococcus mutans in biofilms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of specific bioactive flavonoids and terpenoids with fluoride can modulate the development of cariogenic biofilms by simultaneously affecting the synthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS and acid production by Streptococcus mutans, which enhanced the cariostatic effectiveness of fluoride in vivo. In the present study, we further investigated whether the biological actions of combinations of myricetin (flavonoid, tt-farnesol (terpenoid and fluoride can influence the expression of specific genes of S. mutans within biofilms and their structural organization using real-time PCR and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Results Twice-daily treatment (one-minute exposure during biofilm formation affected the gene expression by S. mutans both at early (49-h and later (97-h stages of biofilm development. Biofilms treated with combination of agents displayed lower mRNA levels for gtfB and gtfD (associated with exopolysaccharides synthesis and aguD (associated with S. mutans acid tolerance than those treated with vehicle-control (p S. mutans biofilms by reducing the biovolume (biomass and proportions of both EPS and bacterial cells across the biofilm depth, especially in the middle and outer layers (vs. vehicle-control, p p Conclusion The data show that the combination of naturally-occurring agents with fluoride effectively disrupted the expression of specific virulence genes, structural organization and accumulation of S. mutans biofilms, which may explain the enhanced cariostatic effect of our chemotherapeutic approach.

Xiao Jin

2009-10-01

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Emergence in Vietnam of Streptococcus pneumoniae Resistant to Multiple Antimicrobial Agents as a Result of Dissemination of the Multiresistant Spain23F-1 Clone  

OpenAIRE

Surveillance for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin and other antimicrobial agents is necessary to define the optimal empirical antibiotic therapy for meningitis in resource-poor countries such as Vietnam. The clinical and microbiological features of 100 patients admitted to the Centre for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, between 1993 and 2002 with invasive pneumococcal disease were studied. A penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococcus (MIC, > or =0.1 micro g/ml) was ...

Parry, Cm; Duong, Nm; Zhou, J.; Mai, Nt; Diep, Ts; Thinh, Lq; Wain, J.; Vinh Chau, N.; Griffiths, D.; Day, Np; White, Nj; Hien, Tt; Spratt, BG; Farrar, Jj

2002-01-01

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Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes Meningite bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente aos antimicrobianos e seus sorotipos  

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Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial empirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Central Laboratory from April 2001 to august 2002 have been evaluated. One hundred S. pneumoniae have been isolated, of which 15% were resistant to penicillin, 1% to cephalosporin and 0% to vancomycin. The serotypes most found were 14 (19%, 3 and 23F (10% each. When only the resistant serotypes were analyzed, the most prevalent was the 14 with 44%. The risk factors found in relation to the S. pneumoniae resistance were: age under one year old (p=0.01 and previous use of antibiotic (p=0.046. The resistance rates found, which were moderate to penicillin, low to cephalosporin and neutral to vancomycin, suggest the isolated use of a 3rd generation cephalosporin as an initial empirical therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with a communitarian background.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as taxas de resistência de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolados de pacientes com meningite, à penicilina G, ceftriaxona e vancomicina; avaliar possíveis fatores de risco para resistência antimicrobiana; descrever os sorotipos encontrados e sugerir a terapêutica empírica inicial para meningite. Foram isoladas 100 amostras de S. pneumoniae, encontrando-se 15% de resistência à penicilina, 1% à cefalosporina e 0% à vancomicina. Os sorotipos mais encontrados foram 14 (19%, 3 e 23F (10% cada. Analisando-se os resistentes, o sorotipo 14 (44% também foi o mais freqüente. Os fatores de risco para resistência de S. pneumoniae encontrados foram: idade menor que um ano (p=0,01 e o uso prévio de antibiótico (p=0,046. As taxas de resistência encontradas, moderada a penicilina, baixa para cefalosporina e nula para vancomicina, sugerem como terapêutica empírica inicial para tratamento da meningite bacteriana aguda de origem comunitária, a cefalosporina de terceira geração isoladamente.

Andrea Maciel de Oliveira Rossoni

2008-09-01

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Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes / Meningite bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente aos antimicrobianos e seus sorotipos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as taxas de resistência de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolados de pacientes com meningite, à penicilina G, ceftriaxona e vancomicina; avaliar possíveis fatores de risco para resistência antimicrobiana; descrever os sorotipos encontrados e sugerir a terapêutica e [...] mpírica inicial para meningite. Foram isoladas 100 amostras de S. pneumoniae, encontrando-se 15% de resistência à penicilina, 1% à cefalosporina e 0% à vancomicina. Os sorotipos mais encontrados foram 14 (19%), 3 e 23F (10% cada). Analisando-se os resistentes, o sorotipo 14 (44%) também foi o mais freqüente. Os fatores de risco para resistência de S. pneumoniae encontrados foram: idade menor que um ano (p=0,01) e o uso prévio de antibiótico (p=0,046). As taxas de resistência encontradas, moderada a penicilina, baixa para cefalosporina e nula para vancomicina, sugerem como terapêutica empírica inicial para tratamento da meningite bacteriana aguda de origem comunitária, a cefalosporina de terceira geração isoladamente. Abstract in english The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial em [...] pirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Central Laboratory from April 2001 to august 2002 have been evaluated. One hundred S. pneumoniae have been isolated, of which 15% were resistant to penicillin, 1% to cephalosporin and 0% to vancomycin. The serotypes most found were 14 (19%), 3 and 23F (10% each). When only the resistant serotypes were analyzed, the most prevalent was the 14 with 44%. The risk factors found in relation to the S. pneumoniae resistance were: age under one year old (p=0.01) and previous use of antibiotic (p=0.046). The resistance rates found, which were moderate to penicillin, low to cephalosporin and neutral to vancomycin, suggest the isolated use of a 3rd generation cephalosporin as an initial empirical therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with a communitarian background.

Andrea Maciel de Oliveira, Rossoni; Libera Maria, Dalla Costa; Denize Bonato, Berto; Sônia Santos, Farah; Marilene, Gelain; Maria Cristina de Cunto, Brandileone; Vitor Hugo Mariano, Ramos; Sergio Monteiro de, Almeida.

2008-09-01

32

Activity of DX-619 Compared to Other Agents against Viridans Group Streptococci, Streptococcus bovis, and Cardiobacterium hominis?  

OpenAIRE

Against 198 viridans group streptococci, 25 Streptococcus bovis strains, and 5 Cardiobacterium hominis strains, MICs of DX-619, a des-F(6)-quinolone, were between 0.004 and 0.25 ?g/ml. These MICs were lower than those of other quinolones (?0.008 to >32 ?g/ml). ?-Lactam MICs were between ?0.008 and 16 ?g/ml. Azithromycin resistance was found in most species, while most were telithromycin susceptible. Glycopeptides and linezolid were active against viridans group strains but inactive ag...

Kosowska-shick, Klaudia; Smith, Kathy; Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Ednie, Lois M.; Jones, Ronald N.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

2006-01-01

33

Caracterización clínica y microbiológica de las infecciones causadas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus / Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Streptococcus grupo anginosus, y sus especies constellatus, anginosus e intermedius, causan infecciones supuradas. Su identificación microbiológica es compleja pues pueden ser beta-hemolíticos y comparten antígenos de Lancefield con otros estreptococos. Si bien morfológicamente son colonias pequeñas [...] y presentan un olor característicos, si sólo se realiza test de látex para aglutinación del carbohidrato C pueden ser clasificados erróneamente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar un algoritmo que utiliza 3 pruebas bioquímicas, conocer su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos y describir las características clínicas de infecciones producidas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus. Se estudiaron cepas de Streptococcus grupo C, G y F, determinando sus características morfológicas de colonia, para identificar cepas de colonia pequeña que se incluyeron en el algoritmo de bajo costo propuesto (b-glucuronidasa y el test Voges-Proskauer) comparándose al método API Rapid ID 32 Strept®, establecido como estándar de oro. Se estudiaron 219 cepas, de las cuales 101 presentaron las características morfológicas compatibles con grupo anginosus, identificándose S. constellatus en 58% (59/101), S. anginosus en 37% (37/101) y S. intermedius en 5% (5/101). Las cepas aisladas procedían principalmente de infecciones piogénicas (61%, 62/101), en especial de foco abdominal. Se observó 98% de susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima y resistencia a eritromicina y clindamicina en 6,8 y 5%, respectivamente. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 30 años (2-85), con distribución similar por sexo y predominio de pacientes hospitalizados. Los resultados expuestos demuestra la efectividad del algoritmo de bajo costo para la detección de S. grupo anginosus. En nuestra experiencia este grupo bacteriano conserva su susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima, siendo necesario vigilar clindamicina y eritromicina Abstract in english Streptococcus anginosus group and its species constellatus, anginosus and intermedius, produce suppurative infections. Its microbiological identification is complex because it can be beta-hemolytic and shares Lancefield antigens with other Streptococci. This group grows as small colonies and present [...] s a characteristic smell, but if only latex test for carbohydrate C agglutination is used it can be erroneously classified. The aims of this publication were to evaluate an algorithm that includes three biochemical tests, and to describe in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics and clinical characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group. Streptoccoccal strains belonging to groups C, G and F were evaluated, determining its colony characteristics in order to select small colony strains that were included into the proposed low cost algorithm (beta-glucurosidase and Voges Proskauer tests) comparing them with API Rapid ID 32 Strept® method, considered the gold standard. Two hundred nineteen strains were studied, 101 had a morphological profile compatible with the anginosus group, identifying S. constellatus in 58% (59/101), S. anginosus in 37% (37/101) and S. intermedius in 5% (5/101). Strains were isolated mainly from pyogenic infections (61%, 62/101), specially from abdominal origin. High grade of penicillin and cefotaxime susceptibility (98%) and low grade resistance to erithromycin and clindamycin (6,8 and 5% respectively) were observed. Mean patient age was 30 years old (2-85), a similar sex distribution with predominance of inpatients. These results document the usefulness of the proposed low cost algorithm for detection of S. anginosus group. In our experience this bacterial group maintains good susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime, and we recommend a continous surveillance of clindamycin and erythromycin susceptibility

Gustavo, Caro D.; Ingrid, Riedel K.; Patricia, García C..

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Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licensed in veterinary medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n=384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, cefquinome, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Using breakpoints established by CLSI for veterinary pathogens, all strains were susceptible to ceftiofur, florfenicol, enrofloxacin and penicillin. MIC-90 values of these antibiotics were < or = 0.03, 0.5, 2 and < or = 0.13 microg/mL, respectively. A low degree of resistance was observed for gentamicin (1.3%), spectinomycin (3.6%) and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (6.0%). MIC-90 values of these antibiotics were 8, 16 and 2 microg/mL, respectively. A high level of resistance was observed for tetracycline (75.1%). A MIC-90 value of 64 microg/mL was found for this antibiotic. Serotype-associated differences in MIC-90 values were observed for tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/suphamethoxazole. PMID:16387456

Wisselink, Henk J; Veldman, Kees T; Van den Eede, Chris; Salmon, Sarah A; Mevius, Dik J

2006-03-10

35

Identification, clinical aspects, susceptibility pattern, and molecular epidemiology of beta-haemolytic group G Streptococcus anginosus group isolates from central Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

No literature is available on the prevalence and clinical aspects of beta-haemolytic group G Streptococcus anginosus group in central Taiwan. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer sequencing (where necessary) as the gold standard for molecular identification. Twenty-seven S. anginosus group isolates were identified from 273 beta-haemolytic GGS isolates collected from patients in central Taiwan between February 2007 and August 2011. Of the 27 isolates, 22 were S. anginosus and 5 were Streptococcus constellatus. The 3 commercial methods, Rapid ID 32 Strep, API 20 Strep, and Vitek 2 GP card, identified 77.8%, 40.7%, and 37.0% of S. anginosus group isolates, respectively, with acceptable %ID or probability level. All the S. constellatus isolates possessed the lmb gene (encoding laminin-binding protein); however, none of the S. anginosus isolates possessed this gene. All the 27 isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Five S. anginosus group isolates (18.5%) were resistant to erythromycin. The resistance genes, ermB and mefA, were detected in 3 (2 S. anginosus and 1 S. constellatus) and 2 (2 S. anginosus) isolates, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that most S. anginosus group isolates were genetically diverse. This is the first study to evaluate 3 commercial methods for the identification of beta-haemolytic group G S. anginosus group species, and only the Rapid ID 32 Strep system showed considerable ability. The clinical aspects, susceptibility pattern, and molecular epidemiology of beta-haemolytic group G S. anginosus group isolates from central Taiwan were also first presented. PMID:23632249

Chang, Yi-Cheng; Lo, Hsueh-Hsia

2013-07-01

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Development of tag-free photoprobes for studies aimed at identifying the target of novel Group A Streptococcus antivirulence agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported the identification and development of novel inhibitors of streptokinase (SK) expression by Group A Streptococcus (GAS), originating from a high throughput cell-based phenotypic screen. Although phenotypic screening is well-suited to identifying compounds that exert desired biological effects in potentially novel ways, it requires follow-up experiments to determine the macromolecular target(s) of active compounds. We therefore designed and synthesized several classes of chemical probes for target identification studies, guided by previously established structure-activity relationships. The probes were designed to first irreversibly photolabel target proteins in the intact bacteria, followed by cell lysis and click ligation with fluorescent tags to allow for visualization on SDS-PAGE gels. This stepwise, 'tag-free' approach allows for a significant reduction in molecular weight and polar surface area compared to full-length fluorescent or biotinylated probes, potentially enhancing membrane permeability and the maintenance of activity. Of the seven probes produced, the three most biologically active were employed in preliminary target identification trials. Despite the potent activity of these probes, specific labeling events were not conclusively observed due to a considerable degree of nonspecific protein binding. Nevertheless, the successful synthesis of potent biologically active probe molecules will serve as a starting point for initiating more sensitive methods of probe-based target identification. PMID:24559768

Yestrepsky, Bryan D; Kretz, Colin A; Xu, Yuanxi; Holmes, Autumn; Sun, Hongmin; Ginsburg, David; Larsen, Scott D

2014-03-15

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Primer registro de Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889, Bothus constellatus Jordan & Goss, 1889, Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880 y Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868 (Pisces, Pleuronectiformes en Chile, con comentarios sobre la distribución de los lenguados chilenos First records of Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889, Bothus constellatus Jordan & Goss, 1889, Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880 and Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868 (Pisces: Pleuronectiformes in Chile, with comments on the distribution of the Chilean flounders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se comunican los primeros registros de los Pleuronectiformes Achirus klunzingeri (Soleidae, Etropus ectenes y Bothus constellatus (Bothidae y Symphurus elongatus (Cynoglossidae en aguas de chilenas. Las características morfológicas de los especímenes estudiados se confrontan con descripciones previas. Se discute su distribución en el Pacífico sur oriental y aquella del orden en aguas chilenas. The first records of the Pleuronectiformes Achirus klunzingeri (Soleidae, Etropus ectenes and Bothus constellatus (Bothidae, and Symphurus elongatus (Cynoglossidae in chilean waters are reported. The morphological characteristics of the studied specimens are compared with previous descriptions. Their distribution in the Southeastern Pacific and that of the order in Chilean waters are discussed

Walter Sielfeld

2003-01-01

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Primer registro de Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889, Bothus constellatus Jordan & Goss, 1889, Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880) y Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868) (Pisces, Pleuronectiformes) en Chile, con comentarios sobre la distribución de los lenguados chilenos / First records of Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889, Bothus constellatus Jordan & Goss, 1889, Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880) and Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868) (Pisces: Pleuronectiformes) in Chile, with comments on the distribution of the Chilean flounders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se comunican los primeros registros de los Pleuronectiformes Achirus klunzingeri (Soleidae), Etropus ectenes y Bothus constellatus (Bothidae) y Symphurus elongatus (Cynoglossidae) en aguas de chilenas. Las características morfológicas de los especímenes estudiados se confrontan con descripciones pre [...] vias. Se discute su distribución en el Pacífico sur oriental y aquella del orden en aguas chilenas Abstract in english . The first records of the Pleuronectiformes Achirus klunzingeri (Soleidae), Etropus ectenes and Bothus constellatus (Bothidae), and Symphurus elongatus (Cynoglossidae) in chilean waters are reported. The morphological characteristics of the studied specimens are compared with previous descriptions. [...] Their distribution in the Southeastern Pacific and that of the order in Chilean waters are discussed

Walter, Sielfeld; Mauricio, Vargas; Ismael, Kong.

39

Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis to 17 oral antimicrobial agents based on pharmacodynamic parameters: 1998-2001 U S Surveillance Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters were used to interpret susceptibility data for the oral agents tested in a clinically meaningful way. Among S pneumoniae isolates, >99% were susceptible to respiratory fluoroquinolones, 91.6% to amoxicillin, 92.1% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (95.2% at the extended-release formulation breakpoint), 90.6% to clindamycin, 80.4% to doxycycline, 71.0% to azithromycin, 72.3% to clarithromycin, 71.8% to cefprozil and cefdinir, 72.6% to cefuroxime axetil, 66.3% to cexime, 63.7% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and 19.7% to cefaclor. Among H influenzae isolates, 28.6% were b-lactamase positive, but virtually all were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (98.3%, with 99.8% at the extended-release formulation breakpoint), cexime (100%), and uoroquinolones (99.8%), whereas 93.5% were susceptible to cefdinir, 82.8% to cefuroxime axetil, 78.1% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 70.2% to amoxicillin, 25.1% to doxycycline, 23.2% to cefprozil, and 5% to cefaclor, azithromycin and clarithromycin. Most isolates of M catarrhalis were resistant to amoxicillin, cefaclor, cefprozil, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Thus significant b-lactam and macrolide/azalide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and b-lactamase production and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance in untypeable Haemophilus influenzae are still present. The results of this study should therefore be applied to clinical practice based on the clinical presentation of the patient, the probability of the patient's having a bacterial rather than a viral infection, the natural history of the disease, the potential of pathogens to be susceptible to various oral antimicrobial agents, the potential for cross-resistance between agents with S pneumoniae, and the potential for pathogens to develop further resistance. Antibiotics should be used judiciously to maintain remaining activity and chosen carefully based on activity determined by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based breakpoints to avoid these bacteria developing further resistance, particularly to fluoroquinolones. PMID:15177851

Jacobs, Michael R; Bajaksouzian, Saralee; Windau, Anne; Good, Caryn E; Lin, Gengrong; Pankuch, Glenn A; Appelbaum, Peter C

2004-06-01

40

[Investigation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric outpatients nationwide with a respiratory tract infection at the first consultation (2002-2003)--proportion of resistant strains and sensitivity to oral antibacterial agents].  

Science.gov (United States)

The propotions of resistant strains and sensitivity to oral antibacterial agents were determined for 468 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 557 strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric outpatients with a respiratory tract infection at the first consultation at 20 medical institutions nationwide in the predefined 4-week period during November 2002 and June 2003. PRSP of the S. pneumoniae strains, accounted for 27%, and BLNAR accounted for 35% of the H. influenzae strains. Against the S. pneumoniae strains, faropenem showed the best MIC90 value, 0.5 microg/mL, of the beta-lactam antibacterial agents, followed by cefditoren-pivoxil, and among the macrolide and ketolide antibacterial agents, telithromycin showed the best MIC90 value, 0.12 microg/mL. Against the H. influenzae strains, cefditoren-pivoxil showed the best MIC90 value, 0.25 microg/mL, among the beta-lactam antibacterial agents, and among the macrolide and ketolide antibacterial agents, azithromycin showed the best activity, followed by telithromycin. It seems necessary to take these results into consideration when choosing drugs for treatment. It will be necessary to survey the trends in resistant strains and the clinical efficacy of various oral antibacterial agents in the future. PMID:16366360

Sunakawa, Keisuke

2005-11-01

41

Identification of Lipoprotein Homologues of Pneumococcal PsaA in the Equine Pathogens Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus are major etiological agents of upper and lower airway disease in horses. Despite the considerable animal suffering and economic burden associated with these diseases, the factors that contribute to the virulence of these equine pathogens have not been extensively investigated. Here we demonstrate the presence of a homologue of the Streptococcus pneumoniae PsaA protein in both of these equine pathogens. Inhibition of signal peptide processing...

Harrington, Dean J.; Greated, Joanne S.; Chanter, Neil; Sutcliffe, Iain C.

2000-01-01

42

Prevalencia de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae y otros gérmenes causantes de otitis media aguda en niños de Latinoamérica: Revisión sistemática de la bibliografía / Prevalence of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other agents that cause acute otitis media in children in Latin America: A systematic review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La otitis media aguda (OMA) es un diagnóstico frecuente en pediatría. Streptococcus pneumoniae continúa siendo el germen más prevalente a nivel mundial, seguido de Haemophilus influenzae. Sin embargo, la introducción de vacunas contra el neumococo ha venido cambiando la microbiología de la OMA. Obje [...] tivo. Establecer la prevalencia del neumococo, sus serotipos y la prevalencia de otros gérmenes comunes en niños latinoamericanos con OMA. Fuente de los datos. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de artículos originales en siete bases de datos, limitada a publicaciones entre 1999 y 2010, a menores de 18 años y a idiomas inglés y castellano. Se completó la búsqueda por estrategia de "bola de nieve". Métodos de revisión. Los criterios de elegibilidad incluyeron artículos originales de prevalencia de corte transversal, realizados en población pediátrica latinoamericana y con criterios de inclusión y exclusión homogéneos. Se extrajo la información pertinente de los artículos seleccionados. Resultados. Once artículos cumplieron los criterios de elegibilidad. En Latinoamérica, específcamente en Costa Rica, Chile, Brasil y Argentina, el germen más prevalente fue Streptococcus pneumoniae (43,5%), (el serotipo más frecuente es el 19F, excepto en Argentina, donde es el 14) seguido por Haemophilus influenzae (30%) y Moraxella catarrhalis (6,4%). Conclusiones. El germen más prevalente en OMA en niños latinoamericanos es Streptococcus pneumoniae, hallazgo concordante con lo registrado en Europa y Estados Unidos. Se requieren más estudios en los otros países de la región y su población pediátrica vacunada contra el neumococo, con el fin de establecer un perfil epidemiológico y microbiológico actualizado de Latinoamérica. Abstract in english Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common diagnosis in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most prevalent agent worldwide, followed by Haemophilus influenzae. However, the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has changed the microbiology of AOM. Objective. To establish the prevalence of pneum [...] ococcal serotypes and other common germs in Latin American children with AOM. Source of data. We carried out a systematic search for original articles in seven databases, limited to publications between 1999 and 2010, children under 18, and English and Spanish languages. Search was completed with "snowball" strategy. Review methods. Eligibility criteria included original prevalence cross-sectional articles, conducted in pediatric populations in Latin America, with homogeneous inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant information was extracted from the selected articles. Results. Eleven articles met the eligibility criteria. In Latin America, specifically Costa Rica, Chile, Brazil and Argentina, Streptococcus pneumoniae (43.5%) was the most frequent germ, (serotype 19F is the most frequent, except in Argentina where it is 14) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (30%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (6.4%). Conclusions. The more prevalent germ in Latin American children AOM is Streptococcus pneumoniae, a finding consistent with those from Europe and the U.S. Further studies are required in the other countries of the region and its pediatric pneumococcal vaccinated population, in order to establish an updated epidemiological and microbiological profile in Latin America.

Norma Carolina, Barajas Viracachá.

2011-06-01

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Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae PR06.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium that was first recognized as a causative agent of bovine mastitis. S. agalactiae has subsequently emerged as a significant cause of human diseases. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. agalactiae PR06, which was isolated from a septicemic patient in a local hospital in Malaysia. PMID:23766409

Mz, Irma Syakina; Teh, L K; Salleh, M Z

2013-01-01

44

Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae PR06  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium that was first recognized as a causative agent of bovine mastitis. S. agalactiae has subsequently emerged as a significant cause of human diseases. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. agalactiae PR06, which was isolated from a septicemic patient in a local hospital in Malaysia.

Mz, Irma Syakina; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.

2013-01-01

45

Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virule [...] nce factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing), classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis.

Regianne Umeko, Kamiya; Tiago, Taiete; Reginaldo Bruno, Gonçalves.

1248-12-01

46

Streptococcus agalactiae endogenous endophthalmitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (SA) is a Group B Streptococcus, which is a common pathogen implicated in neonatal and geriatric sepsis. Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE) is a condition that results from haematogenous seeding of the globe, during transient or persistent bacteremia. We document a case of a non-septic geriatric patient, who developed EBE after a transient bacteraemia with SA. PMID:23814194

Saffra, Norman; Rakhamimov, Aleksandr; Husney, Robert; Ghitan, Monica

2013-01-01

47

Streptococcus mutans y caries dental / Streptococcus mutans and dental caries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus mutans es uno de los microorganismos cariogénicos asociados a la caries dental. De acuerdo con la hipótesis de la placa ecológica, la caries dental es la consecuencia de cambios en el balance natural de la microflora de la placa dental causados por la alteración de las condiciones ambi [...] entales locales (homeostasis microbiana oral). El estudio de su participación en la colonización de tejidos dentales, implantación e interacción con otros microrganismos es de mucha importancia para la comprensión de la dinámica de las biopelículas dentales. Por medio de técnicas de biología molecular, se ha avanzado en la identificación de los diferentes tipos que habitan la cavidad oral, los productos que generan y que son críticos para su implantación, las interacciones con otras especies y el desarrollo de nuevos procedimientos que ayuden su identificación como uno de los agentes más importantes en la caries dental. Esta revisión examina los últimos avances en la biología de Streptococcus mutans, su papel en la génesis de la caries y las técnicas de identificación y estudio más usadas en los últimos años. Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans is one of cariogenic microorganisms associated with tooth decay. According with the hypothesis of the ecological plaque, dental caries is the consequence of changes in the natural balance in the dental plaque microflora (oral microbial homeostasis). Its role in the colonization [...] of dental tissues, implantation and interaction with other microorganisms is of paramount importance for the understanding of the dynamics of dental biofilms. By means of molecular biology techniques, there have been advances in the identification of the different types that live in the oral cavity, the products they produce which are critical for its implantation, the interaction with other species and the development of new procedures that help its identification as one of the most important agents in dental caries. This review examines the latest advances in the biology of Streptococcus mutans, its role in the genesis of the caries and the identification and study techniques most used in recent years.

Juan Carlos, Ojeda-Garcés; Eliana, Oviedo-García; Luis Andrés, Salas.

2013-01-01

48

Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? Group B streptococcus is one of the many types of bacteria that live in the body and ... QUESTIONS FAQ105 PREGNANCY f AQ • What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? • What does it mean to be ...

49

Streptococcus bovis Meningitis and Hemorrhoids ?  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of Streptococcus bovis (Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus) meningitis, a rare cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in an adult, and comment on the importance of investigation of the lower gastrointestinal tract to identify a portal of entry in cases of systemic Streptococcus bovis infection. PMID:20421434

Smith, Adam Hewitt; Sra, Harminder K.; Bawa, Sandeep; Stevens, Richard

2010-01-01

50

Streptococcus bovis Meningitis and Hemorrhoids ?  

OpenAIRE

We report a case of Streptococcus bovis (Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus) meningitis, a rare cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in an adult, and comment on the importance of investigation of the lower gastrointestinal tract to identify a portal of entry in cases of systemic Streptococcus bovis infection.

Smith, Adam Hewitt; Sra, Harminder K.; Bawa, Sandeep; Stevens, Richard

2010-01-01

51

Antibiotic Resistances of Yogurt Starter Cultures Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-nine strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 15 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for resistance to 35 antimicrobial agents by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Approximately 35% of the isolates had uncharacteristic resistance patterns. PMID:16345654

Sozzi, Tommaso; Smiley, Martin B.

1980-01-01

52

Antibiotic Resistances of Yogurt Starter Cultures Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-nine strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 15 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for resistance to 35 antimicrobial agents by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Approximately 35% of the isolates had uncharacteristic resistance patterns. PMID:16345654

Sozzi, T; Smiley, M B

1980-11-01

53

Laboratory Growth and Maintenance of Streptococcus pyogenes (The Group A Streptococcus, GAS)  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium that strictly infects humans. It is the causative agent of a broad spectrum of diseases accounting for millions of infections and at least 517, 000 deaths each year worldwide (Carapetis et al., 2005). It is a nutritionally fastidious organism that ferments sugars to produce lactic acid and has strict requirements for growth. To aid in the study of this organism, this unit describes the growth and maintenance of S. pyogenes.

Gera, Kanika; Mciver, Kevin S.

2013-01-01

54

Comparison of MICs of ceftiofur and other antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens of swine from the United States, Canada, and Denmark.  

OpenAIRE

The MICs of ceftiofur and other antimicrobial agents, tested for comparison, for 515 bacterial isolates of pigs from the United States, Canada, and Denmark with various diseases were compared. The organisms tested included Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In addi...

Salmon, S. A.; Watts, J. L.; Case, C. A.; Hoffman, L. J.; Wegener, H. C.; Yancey, R. J.

1995-01-01

55

Streptococcus tigurinus, a Novel Member of the Streptococcus mitis Group, Causes Invasive Infections  

OpenAIRE

We recently described the novel species Streptococcus tigurinus sp. nov. belonging to the Streptococcus mitis group. The type strain AZ_3aT of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. According to its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, S. tigurinus is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is fa...

Zbinden, Andrea; Mueller, Nicolas J.; Tarr, Philip E.; Eich, Gerhard; Schulthess, Bettina; Bahlmann, Anna S.; Keller, Peter M.; Bloemberg, Guido V.

2012-01-01

56

Sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B Group B Streptococcus neonatal sepsis: up-to-date  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Streptococcus grupo B (SGB es uno de los principales agentes causales de sepsis neonatal precoz, siendo un importante factor de morbimortalidad neonatal y de costos en salud pública. Se han implementado múltiples estrategias para evitar la transmisión vertical desde la madre colonizada a su recién nacido, de modo de prevenir la infección de éste último. La más usada en la actualidad es la profilaxis antibiótica administrada a la madre en el momento del parto dependiendo del resultado de un cultivo perineal realizado entre las semanas 35 y 37 de gestación. Mediante esta estrategia se ha logrado disminuir de manera importante la incidencia de la sepsis neonatal por este agente, pero existen aprehensiones acerca de la posible generación de resistencia antibiótica o reacciones adversas a fármacos por parte de la madre. Por esto último, nuevas técnicas de prevención se encuentran en estudio, como las vacunas contra el SGB. En los recién nacidos la infección por Streptococcus agalactiae puede manifestarse de diversas maneras, siendo la sepsis y la meningitis las más frecuentes y mortales. El porcentaje de secuelas entre los sobrevivientes es elevado, por lo que ante la sospecha precoz de infección debe iniciarse tratamiento antibiótico a la brevedad.Group B Streptococcus is one of the leading bacterias causing early onset neonatal sepsis. It constitutes an important factor of neonatal morbidity and mortality and high costs in health. Many strategies have been formulated to avoid vertical transmission from the colonized mother to the newborn, in an attempt to prevent infection of the infant. The most used nowadays is antibiotic prophylaxis given to the mother during labor, depending on the results of recto-vaginal culture taken during 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. This strategy has importantly diminished the prevalence of early onset neonatal sepsis by this agent, although there is still concern about the potential generation of antibiotic resistance and drug-induced adverse reactions in the mother. New techniques for prevention are being developed, such as vaccines against Streptococcus. In the newborn, infection caused by Streptococcus has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, like sepsis and meningitis which are the most frequent and lethal. Neurological sequelae are common among the survivors, so an early suspicion of disease must lead to a prompt antibiotic treatment.

MAGDALENA CRUZ O

2008-10-01

57

Appendicitis in a Child due to Streptococcus Pneumoniae: A Rare Case Report  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of bacterial species play a major role in appendicitis. Both aerobic and anaerobic gram positive and gram negative bacteria such as, Bacteroides fragilis, Streptococcus species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Citrobacter freundii cause appendicitis. Appendicitis is usually polymicrobial. The case assumes importance because of single aetiological agent i.e. unimicrobial and no predisposing factors are present to cause infection. We report a rare case of appendicitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae in child. This case emphasizes that Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause wide spectrum of disease like appendicitis. PMID:25737990

Kamble, Deepali Shivajirao; Nale, Swati Shivajirao; Bhore, Arvind Vamanrao

2015-01-01

58

Genetic Manipulation of Streptococcus pyogenes (The Group A Streptococcus, GAS)  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus, GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild superficial infections (pharyngitis, impetigo) to severe often life-threatening invasive diseases (necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome) in humans. This unit describes molecular techniques for the genetic manipulation of S. pyogenes with detailed protocols for transformation, gene disruption, allelic exchange, transposon mutage...

Le Breton, Yoann; Mciver, Kevin S.

2013-01-01

59

Identification of Clinically Relevant Viridans Streptococci by an Oligonucleotide Array  

OpenAIRE

Viridans streptococci (VS) are common etiologic agents of subacute infective endocarditis and are capable of causing a variety of pyogenic infections. Many species of VS are difficult to differentiate by phenotypic traits. An oligonucleotide array based on 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences was developed to identify 11 clinically relevant VS. These 11 species were Streptococcus anginosus, S. constellatus, S. gordonii, S. intermedius, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. parasan...

Chen, Chao Chien; Teng, Lee Jene; Kaiung, Seng; Chang, Tsung Chain

2005-01-01

60

[Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenic factors].  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathogenicity of ß-hemolytic group A streptococcus (GAS) is particularly diverse, ranging from mild infections, such as pharyngitis or impetigo, to potentially debilitating poststreptococcal diseases, and up to severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis or the dreaded streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. This variety of clinical expressions, often radically different in individuals infected with the same strain, results from a complex interaction between the bacterial virulence factors, the mode of infection and the immune system of the host. Advances in comparative genomics have led to a better understanding of how, following this confrontation, GAS adapts to the immune system's pressure, either peacefully by reducing the expression of certain virulence factors to achieve an asymptomatic carriage, or on the contrary, by overexpressing them disproportionately, resulting in the most severe forms of invasive infection. PMID:25456681

Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S

2014-11-01

61

Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients wit...

Salah Shanan; Gumaa, Samia A.; Gunnar Sandström; Hadi Abd

2011-01-01

62

Effects of Manganese on Streptococcus mutans Planktonic and Biofilm Growth  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus mutans, an agent of dental caries, was tested for growth in the presence or absence of manganese (Mn), since studies have linked Mn levels with cariogenic potential. Seven S. mutans serotype c strains were grown in chemically defined medium under different atmospheric conditions: 5% CO2, O2-enriched 5% CO2 (shaking) and anaerobic. There was significant strain variability with respect to Mn requirements under the various conditions tested. Both sucrose-dependent and sucrose-indep...

Arirachakaran, P.; Luengpailin, S.; Banas, J. A.; Mazurkiewicz, J. E.; Benjavongkulchai, E.

2007-01-01

63

Functional Analysis of Glucan Binding Protein B from Streptococcus mutans  

OpenAIRE

Mutans streptococci are major etiological agents of dental caries, and several of their secreted products contribute to bacterial accumulation on teeth. Of these, Streptococcus mutans glucan binding protein B (GbpB) is a novel, immunologically dominant protein. Its biological function is unclear, although GbpB shares homology with a putative peptidoglycan hydrolase from S. agalactiae and S. pneumoniae, indicative of a role in murein biosynthesis. To determine the cellular function of GbpB, we...

Mattos-graner, Renata O.; Porter, Kristen A.; Smith, Daniel J.; Hosogi, Yumiko; Duncan, Margaret J.

2006-01-01

64

Whole-Genome Sequences of Streptococcus tigurinus Type Strain AZ_3a and S. tigurinus 1366, a Strain Causing Prosthetic Joint Infection  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus tigurinus, a novel member of the Streptococcus mitis group, was recently identified as a causative agent of invasive infections. We report the complete genome sequences of the S. tigurinus type strain AZ_3a and S. tigurinus strain 1366. The genome sequences assist in the characterization of virulence determinants of S. tigurinus.

Gizard, Yann; Zbinden, Andrea; Schrenzel, Jacques; Francois, Patrice

2013-01-01

65

Streptococcus waius sp. nov., a thermophilic Streptococcus from a biofilm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophilic streptococci were isolated from biofilms on stainless steel samples exposed to pasteurized skimmed milk and from dairy products from a dairy manufacturing plant. The phenotypic characters of these isolates were distinct from those of other thermophilic streptococci of dairy origin (Streptococcus thermophilus and Streptococcus bovis). Genotypic data [restriction endonuclease analysis, ribotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles, DNA-DNA hybridization and G + C contents] support the classification of these isolates as a new species. The sequence of the 16S rRNA was compared with that of 29 species of streptococci and shown to be significantly different. The sequence of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region also differed from published sequences of closely related species. A fluorescent in situ hybridization probe prepared to a specific part of the 16S rRNA gene sequence was able to distinguish the unknown isolates from reference isolates of S. thermophilus and S. bovis. It is proposed that these thermophilic streptococcal isolates from a dairy environment be classified in the genus Streptococcus as a new species, Streptococcus waius (from waiu, the New Zealand Maori word for milk). The type strain is 3/1T (= NZRCC 20100T). PMID:10319500

Flint, S H; Ward, L J; Brooks, J D

1999-04-01

66

Membrane cofactor protein (CD46) is a keratinocyte receptor for the M protein of the group A streptococcus.  

OpenAIRE

The pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) is the causative agent of numerous suppurative diseases of human skin. The M protein of S. pyogenes mediates the adherence of the bacterium to keratinocytes, the most numerous cell type in the epidermis. In this study, we have constructed and analyzed a series of mutant M proteins and have shown that the C repeat domain of the M molecule is responsible for cell recognition. The binding of factor H, a serum r...

Okada, N.; Liszewski, M. K.; Atkinson, J. P.; Caparon, M.

1995-01-01

67

A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cultura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta. Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica.BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detects the genes responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin within approximately 8 hours. OBJECTIVE: To compare the PCR and MIC methods in determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin. METHOD: A total of 153 Streptococcus pneumoniae samples, isolated from various anatomical sites, were evaluated in order to detect mutations in the genes encoding pbp1a, pbp2a and pbp2x, which are responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance. A correlation was found between mutations and penicillin MIP, as determined by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Overal Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was 22.8% (16.3% intermediate resistance and 6.5% high resistance. In a statistically significant finding, we observed no mutations in the penicillin-sensitive samples and only one mutation, typically in the gene encoding pbp2x, among the samples with intermediate resistance, whereas mutations in all three genes studied were observed in the high-resistance samples. CONCLUSION: For determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin, PCR is a rapid method of detection that could well be used in clinical practice.

Eduardo Walker Zettler

2004-12-01

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A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae / Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cu [...] ltura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM). A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta). Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain re [...] action (PCR) detects the genes responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin within approximately 8 hours. OBJECTIVE: To compare the PCR and MIC methods in determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin. METHOD: A total of 153 Streptococcus pneumoniae samples, isolated from various anatomical sites, were evaluated in order to detect mutations in the genes encoding pbp1a, pbp2a and pbp2x, which are responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance. A correlation was found between mutations and penicillin MIP, as determined by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Overal Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was 22.8% (16.3% intermediate resistance and 6.5% high resistance). In a statistically significant finding, we observed no mutations in the penicillin-sensitive samples and only one mutation, typically in the gene encoding pbp2x, among the samples with intermediate resistance, whereas mutations in all three genes studied were observed in the high-resistance samples. CONCLUSION: For determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin, PCR is a rapid method of detection that could well be used in clinical practice.

Eduardo Walker, Zettler; Rosane M., Scheibe; Cícero A. G., Dias; Patrícia, Santafé; José da Silva, Moreira; Diógenes S., Santos; Carlos Cezar, Fritscher.

2004-12-01

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Susceptibilities of bovine summer mastitis bacteria to antimicrobial agents.  

OpenAIRE

The susceptibility to 9 antimicrobial agents of 32 aerobic bacterial isolates and to 10 antimicrobial agents of 37 anaerobic bacterial isolates from 23 cases of bovine summer mastitis (16 Actinomyces pyogenes isolates, 8 Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates, 3 S. uberis isolates, 3 S. acidominimus isolates, 2 Streptococcus spp., 15 Peptostreptococcus indolicus isolates, 10 Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates, and 12 isolates of anaerobic gram-negative rods) was determined by the agar dilution m...

Jousimies-somer, H.; Pyo?ra?la?, S.; Kanervo, A.

1996-01-01

70

Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis in children: report of two cases and literature review  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis (SPM) occurs sporadically, even with the increase of invasive streptococcal disease observed in the past years. We reported two cases of SPM in infants to alert pediatricians for the possibility of this agent as a cause of meningitis in previously healthy children.

Arnoni, Mariana V.; Berezin, Eitan N.; Sa?fadi, Marco A. P.; Almeida, Fla?via J.; Lopes, Cla?udia R. C.

2007-01-01

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Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus suis Serotype 14 Strain JS14?  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic agent leading to a variety of diseases in swine and can be transmitted to human beings upon close contact. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of S. suis serotype 14 strain JS14 which was isolated from a diseased pig in Jiangsu Province, China.

Hu, Pan; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Anding; Wu, Jiayan; Chen, Bo; Hua, Yafeng; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Jin, Meilin

2011-01-01

72

Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis in children: report of two cases and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis (SPM occurs sporadically, even with the increase of invasive streptococcal disease observed in the past years. We reported two cases of SPM in infants to alert pediatricians for the possibility of this agent as a cause of meningitis in previously healthy children.

Mariana V. Arnoni

2007-06-01

73

Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-3H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

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Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente / Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C), vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2) y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La iden [...] tificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias. Abstract in english A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles) were positive. The isolate was preliminary identi [...] fied by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

A., Nagel; V., Manias; N., Busquets; S., Sniadowsky; J., Anzardi; E. De Los A., Méndez.

2008-09-01

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Population structure of Streptococcus oralis.  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus oralis is a member of the normal human oral microbiota, capable of opportunistic pathogenicity; like related oral streptococci, it exhibits appreciable phenotypic and genetic variation. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for S. oralis was developed and the resultant data analysed to examine the population structure of the species. Analysis of 113 isolates, confirmed as belonging to the S. oralis/mitis group by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, characterized the population as hig...

Do, T.; Jolley, Ka; Maiden, Mc; Gilbert, Sc; Clark, D.; Wade, Wg; Beighton, D.

2009-01-01

76

Streptococcus mutans: Fructose Transport, Xylitol Resistance, and Virulence  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, possesses at least two fructose phosphotransferase systems (PTSs), encoded by fruI and fruCD. fruI is also responsible for xylitol transport. We hypothesized that fructose and xylitol transport systems do not affect virulence. Thus, colonization and cariogenicity of fruI? and fruCD? single and double mutants, their WT (UA159), and xylitol resistance (Xr) of S. mutans were studied in rats fed a high-sucrose diet. A...

Tanzer, J. M.; Thompson, A.; Wen, Z. T.; Burne, R. A.

2006-01-01

77

Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., two novel Streptococcus species isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on two unidentified Gram-stain positive, catalase and oxidase negative, non-hemolytic Streptococcus-like organisms recovered from raw camel milk in Morocco. Phenotypic characterization and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the two strains were highly different from each other and that they did not correspond to any recognized species of the genus Streptococcus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the unidentified organisms each formed a hitherto unknown sub-line within the genus Streptococcus, displaying a close affinity with Streptococcus moroccensis, Streptococcus minor and Streptococcus ovis. DNA G+C content determination, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and biochemical tests demonstrated the bacterial isolates represent two novel species. Based on the phenotypic distinctiveness of the new bacteria and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed to classify the two strains as Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov., with CCMM B832(T) (=LMG 27683(T)) as the type strain, and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., with CCMM B834(T) (=LMG 27685(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25491120

Kadri, Zaina; Vandamme, Peter; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; Elfahime, El Mostafa; Farricha, Omar El; Swings, Jean; Amar, Mohamed

2015-02-01

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Streptococcus pneumoniae e inmunidad innata / Streptococcus pneumoniae and innate immunity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El Streptococcus pneumoniae es un patógeno importante del ser humano que causa significativa morbilidad y mortalidad especialmente en las edades extremas de la vida. Posee diversos factores de virulencia que ponen a prueba la inmunidad del huésped. El sistema inmune innato es la primera línea de def [...] ensa para enfrentar a este patógeno, realizándose esta acción de manera precoz y no específica. De la indemnidad de este sistema depende que la infección potencial en una primera instancia sea controlada y que se activen correctamente los mecanismos de la inmunidad específica. En este artículo se revisarán y actualizarán los principales mecanismos defensivos mediados por la inmunidad innata contra este patógeno. Abstract in english Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen of humans that causes significant morbidity and mortality mainly in the extreme ages of life. It has several virulence factors that tested the immunity of the host. The innate immune system is the first line of defense to deal with this pathogen bein [...] g an early and non-specific response. The control of the disease will depend on the activation of the innate immunity in first instance and the development of a proper specific immunity against the pathogen. In this article we make an update of the innate immunity against this pathogen.

Guillermo, Zepeda E; Carolina, Gvirtzman K; Javiera, Kreft V; Erika, Inostroza V; Patricia, Díaz A.

2013-04-01

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Molecular detection of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed molecular diagnostic assays for the detection of Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE), two streptococcal pathogens known to cause both pharyngitis and more invasive forms of disease in humans. Two real-time PCR assays coupled with an internal control were designed to be performed in parallel. One assay utilizes a gene target specific to GAS, and the other utilizes a gene target common to the two species. Both assays showed 2-3 orders of magnitude improved analytical sensitivity when compared to a commercially available rapid antigen test. In addition, when compared to standard culture in an analysis of 96 throat swabs, the real-time PCR assays resulted in clinical sensitivity and specificity of 91.7 and 100%, respectively. As capital equipment costs for real-time PCR can be prohibitive in smaller laboratories, the real-time PCR assays were converted to a low-density microarray format designed to function with an inexpensive photopolymerization-based non-enzymatic signal amplification (NESA) method. S. pyogenes was successfully detected on the low-density microarray in less than 4 h from sample extraction through detection. PMID:19156548

Dawson, Erica D; Taylor, Amber W; Smagala, James A; Rowlen, Kathy L

2009-05-01

80

Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in blood cultures by PCR.  

OpenAIRE

We have developed a PCR assay, with primers derived from the autolysin (lyt) gene, for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in blood cultures. The predicted fragment of 247 bp was detected in all strains of pneumococci, embracing 12 different serotypes that were tested. Although DNA extracted from four viridans streptococci spp. Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus parasanguis) gave amplification products, these were quite different from...

Hassan-king, M.; Baldeh, I.; Secka, O.; Falade, A.; Greenwood, B.

1994-01-01

81

Prospective study of Streptococcus milleri hepatic abscess.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-seven cases of microbiologically demonstrated pyogenic hepatic abscess were observed in a prospective study over a seven-year period. Biliary disease was the most common source of liver abscess (42%). Streptococcus milleri was the most common cause of hepatic abscess, accounting for 51% of the cases. Hepatic abscess is due to Streptococcus milleri clinically distinct from other forms of pyogenic liver abscess due to its torpid nature and the longer duration of its symptoms [42 vs. 11 days]. Occult hepatic abscess should be suspected if the blood culture is positive for Streptococcus milleri, since 28% of bacteremia cases due to Streptococcus milleri stem from hepatic abscesses. It is important to distinguish Streptococcus milleri from other members of the viridans streptococci group, which are frequently isolated as contaminants, but only exceptionally cause hepatic abscess. Unlike other pyogenic hepatic abscesses, those caused by Streptococcus milleri are frequently monomicrobial (79%). In the present study, empirical therapy of pyogenic hepatic abscess always included a drug that is effective against Streptococcus milleri. PMID:9796653

Corredoira, J; Casariego, E; Moreno, C; Villanueva, L; López; Varela, J; Rodríguez, A; Alonso, P; Coira, A

1998-08-01

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ANTIBIOFILM ACTIVITY OF SALIX ALBA PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND STREPTOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM DENTAL PLAQUE SAMPLES  

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Full Text Available Most of the pathogens have the ability to form biofilms which makes them resistant to the antimicrobial agents. The emergence of new multi drug resistant strains is a big concern. Hence there is a growing need to find alternative antimicrobial agents. Plants have been used for ancient years to control many diseases. In the present study we evaluated antibiofilm activity of Salix alba bark extract against the Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus which are the main cause of dental plaque formation. This is the first study of its kind where bark extract of Slaix alba was used for antibiofilm activity. In the present study it was found that the Salix alba bark extract has a good effect on the microbial biofilm formation. Hence the use of Salix alba can be considered for controlling the biofilm formation. This is the primary study and more research is needed in this regard.

Mussrat Fayaz

2014-09-01

83

Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados de infecciones invasivas: serotipos y resistencia antimicrobiana / Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive infections: serotypes and antimicrobial resistance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas constituyen una enfermedad invasiva importante, quizás no tanto por su frecuencia, como por la gravedad de su cuadro. Los cambios en la epidemiología de los síndromes neurológicos infecciosos en Cuba a partir de la vacunación contra meningococo BC y Haemophilus inf [...] luenzae b han hecho que el Streptococcus pneumoniae constituya el agente causal más frecuente. Debido al incremento de la resistencia de este microorganismo a los antibióticos habituales, se realizaron modificaciones al régimen terapéutico convencional, fundamentalmente en las meningitis pediátricas. Es necesario lograr el aislamiento en cultivo de este agente para conocer los serotipos más frecuentes en el país, y lograr una vacuna neumocócica conjugada, así como para la vigilancia de las cepas frente a los antimicrobianos. Abstract in english The bacterial meningoencephalitis is an important invasive disease, not only because of its frequency, but also because of the severity of its picture. The changes in the epidemiology of the neurological infectious syndromes in Cuba starting from the vaccination against meningococcus BC and Haemophi [...] lus infuenzae b have made that Streptococcus pneumoniae be the most frequent causal agent. Due to the increase of the resistance of this microorganism to habitual antibiotics, modifications were made in the conventional therapeutic regimen, mainly in the pediatric meningitis. It is necessary to achieve the isolation in culture of this agent to know the most common serotypes in the country, to attain a conjugated pneumococcal vaccine, and to keep the surveillance of the strains against the antimicrobials.

Gladys Antonia, Cueto Montoya; María del Carmen, Pérez Cueto.

2007-03-01

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Structural analysis of the lipoteichoic acids isolated from bovine mastitis Streptococcus uberis 233, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 2023 and Streptococcus agalactiae 0250.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an amphiphilic polycondensate located in the cell envelope of Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, LTAs were isolated from the three bovine mastitis species Streptococcus uberis 233, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 2023, and Streptococcus agalactiae 0250. Structural investigations of these LTAs were performed applying 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments as well as chemical analyses and mass spectrometry. Compositional analysis revealed the presence of glycerol (Gro), Glc, alanine (Ala), and 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1. The LTAs of the three Streptococcus strains possessed the same structure, that is, a lipid anchor comprised of ?-Glcp-(1?2)-?-Glcp-(1?3)-1,2-diacyl-sn-Gro and the hydrophilic backbone consisting of poly(sn-Gro-1-phosphate) randomly substituted at O-2 of Gro by d-Ala. PMID:23036931

Czaba?ska, Anna; Neiwert, Olga; Lindner, Buko; Leigh, James; Holst, Otto; Duda, Katarzyna A

2012-11-01

85

Streptococcus mutans in denture stomatitis patients under antifungal therapy / Streptococcus mutans em pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar o número de Streptococcus mutans em saliva de pacientes com estomatite protética antes e após a terapia antifúngica. METODOLOGIA: Após exame clínico de 93 pacientes, 47 foram selecionados para exame micológico e desta amostra foram selecionados trinta pacientes: 15 com diagnóstic [...] o positivo e 15 com diagnóstico negativo de candidose foram avaliados para contagem de S. mutans, determinação de fluxo salivar e capacidade tampão. Higiene bucal e da prótese, tempo de confecção, tipo de lesão e dados salivares foram relacionados com características clínicas e laboratoriais de Candida. RESULTADOS: As lesões frequentes foram dos tipos I (43,5%) e II (53,5%). A quantidade de S. mutans foi seis vezes maior em pacientes com candidose e foi associada com baixo fluxo salivar e higiene oral deficiente. Após a terapia, a redução de S. mutans foi verificada particularmente em pacientes com fluxo salivar normal. Os valores variaram de 0,01 a 3,88 UFC/ml x 10(4). CONCLUSÃO: Os dados sugerem que os Streptococcus colaboram com Candida spp na etiopatogenia da estomatite protética. O uso de agentes antimicrobianos orais pode propiciar efeito benéfico para pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica e que apresentam higiene oral deficiente e parâmetros salivares desfavoráveis. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To assess the number of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of patients with denture stomatitis before and after antifungal therapy. METHODS: After examining 93 patients, 47 were selected for fungal test. Then, from this sample, thirty patients were selected: 15 with positive and 15 with negativ [...] e diagnosis for candidiasis that were evaluated for S. mutans counting, salivary flow and buffer capacity evaluation. Oral hygiene and prosthesis hygiene, period using prosthesis, lesion type and salivary data were related with clinical laboratorial characteristics of the patients with Candida. RESULTS: The most frequent lesions were type I (43.5%) and II (53.5%). The amount of S. mutans was six times higher in patients with candidiasis and it was associated with low salivary flow and poor oral hygiene. After therapy, a reduction of S. mutans was verified particularly in patients with normal salivary flow. The values ranged from 0.01 to 3.88 x 10(4) cfu/mL. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that Streptococcus spp collaborates with Candida spp in the etiology and pathogenesis of denture stomatitis. The use of oral antimicrobial agents may provide a beneficial effect for denture stomatitis patients that are under antifungal therapy and that have poor oral hygiene and unfavorable salivary parameters.

Laurylene César de S., Vasconcelos; Fábio Correia, Sampaio; Maria Carméli Correia, Sampaio; Maria do Socorro Vieira, Pereira; Maria Helena Pereira, Peixoto.

86

Preparation against Streptococcus Pneumoniae-Associated Diseases  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Design of Laboratory Sample of Complex Preparation Based on Specific Bacteriophages and their Lytic Enzymes for a Prophylaxis and Treatment of Human and Animals Streptococcus Pneumoniae-Assiciated Diseses

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Actividad antibacteriana de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér. sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis frente a clorhexidina / Antibacterial activity of Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her. against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) es ampliamente utilizado en medicina natural para el tratamiento de enfermedades bucales, pero se desconocen aún sus propiedades farmacológicas, actividad antibacteriana y la composición de sus fitoconstituyentes. Objetivo: realizar un e [...] studio comparativo de la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto acuoso obtenido de las hojas de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis, frente a la clorhexidina. Métodos: para el ensayo antibacteriano se empleó el método de difusión en agar. Se trabajó con 18 muestras de microorganismos de cada especie mencionada, aisladas de los pacientes de una clínica dental. Posteriormente, se prepararon 6 concentraciones diferentes del extracto acuoso, para comparar la actividad antibacteriana frente al colutorio de clorhexidina. El análisis fitoquímico preliminar se realizó mediante el ensayo a la gota. Los datos obtenidos se sometieron a análisis estadísticos como estimadores de media y dispersión, análisis de varianza unifactorial y prueba de Tukey. Resultados: la más alta actividad antibacteriana se obtuvo en la concentración de 400 mg/mL y la más baja en la de 25 mg/mL del extracto acuoso, sobre las tres especies de Streptococcus, en comparación con la clorhexidina; con efecto similar a la concentración de 200 mg/mL. El ensayo fitoquímico preliminar indicó la presencia de flavonoides, taninos, esteroides, antocianinas y saponinas. Conclusiones: el extracto acuoso de Pelargonium peltatum tiene actividad antibacteriana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus sanguis. Abstract in english Introduction: Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her (ivy geranium) is widely used in natural medicine for the treatment of oral disease, but its pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity and phytoconstituent composition are still unknown. Objective: carry out a comparative study of the in vitro a [...] ntibacterial activity of the aqueous extract obtained from leaves of Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her (ivy geranium) against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine. Methods: the agar diffusion method was used for the antibacterial assay. A study was conducted of 18 samples of microorganisms from the above-mentioned species, isolated from patients cared for at a dental clinic. Six different concentrations were prepared of the aqueous extract to compare antibacterial activity versus the chlorhexidine gargle. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was conducted by drop assay. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses such as mean and dispersion estimators, unifactorial analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: the highest antibacterial activity against the three species of Streptococcus was obtained with the 400 mg/ml concentration, and the lowest with the 25 mg/ml concentration of the aqueous extract, in comparison with chlorhexidine, with a similar effect to the 200 mg/ml concentration. The preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, anthocyanins and saponins. Conclusions: the aqueous extract of Pelargonium peltatum has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis.

Juana del Carmen, Guerrero Hurtado; Zoila Mercedes, Ortiz Rubio; Luis Fernando, Peralta Berrospi; Fredy Romel, Pérez Azahuanche.

2013-06-01

88

Actividad antibacteriana de Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Hér. sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis frente a clorhexidina Antibacterial activity of Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Her. against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Hér (geranio hiedra es ampliamente utilizado en medicina natural para el tratamiento de enfermedades bucales, pero se desconocen aún sus propiedades farmacológicas, actividad antibacteriana y la composición de sus fitoconstituyentes. Objetivo: realizar un estudio comparativo de la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto acuoso obtenido de las hojas de Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Hér (geranio hiedra sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis, frente a la clorhexidina. Métodos: para el ensayo antibacteriano se empleó el método de difusión en agar. Se trabajó con 18 muestras de microorganismos de cada especie mencionada, aisladas de los pacientes de una clínica dental. Posteriormente, se prepararon 6 concentraciones diferentes del extracto acuoso, para comparar la actividad antibacteriana frente al colutorio de clorhexidina. El análisis fitoquímico preliminar se realizó mediante el ensayo a la gota. Los datos obtenidos se sometieron a análisis estadísticos como estimadores de media y dispersión, análisis de varianza unifactorial y prueba de Tukey. Resultados: la más alta actividad antibacteriana se obtuvo en la concentración de 400 mg/mL y la más baja en la de 25 mg/mL del extracto acuoso, sobre las tres especies de Streptococcus, en comparación con la clorhexidina; con efecto similar a la concentración de 200 mg/mL. El ensayo fitoquímico preliminar indicó la presencia de flavonoides, taninos, esteroides, antocianinas y saponinas. Conclusiones: el extracto acuoso de Pelargonium peltatum tiene actividad antibacteriana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus sanguis.Introduction: Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Her (ivy geranium is widely used in natural medicine for the treatment of oral disease, but its pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity and phytoconstituent composition are still unknown. Objective: carry out a comparative study of the in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract obtained from leaves of Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Her (ivy geranium against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine. Methods: the agar diffusion method was used for the antibacterial assay. A study was conducted of 18 samples of microorganisms from the above-mentioned species, isolated from patients cared for at a dental clinic. Six different concentrations were prepared of the aqueous extract to compare antibacterial activity versus the chlorhexidine gargle. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was conducted by drop assay. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses such as mean and dispersion estimators, unifactorial analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: the highest antibacterial activity against the three species of Streptococcus was obtained with the 400 mg/ml concentration, and the lowest with the 25 mg/ml concentration of the aqueous extract, in comparison with chlorhexidine, with a similar effect to the 200 mg/ml concentration. The preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, anthocyanins and saponins. Conclusions: the aqueous extract of Pelargonium peltatum has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis.

Juana del Carmen Guerrero Hurtado

2013-06-01

89

Streptococcus-Zebrafish Model of Bacterial Pathogenesis  

OpenAIRE

Due to its small size, rapid generation time, powerful genetic systems, and genomic resources, the zebrafish has emerged as an important model of vertebrate development and human disease. Its well-developed adaptive and innate cellular immune systems make the zebrafish an ideal model for the study of infectious diseases. With a natural and important pathogen of fish, Streptococcus iniae, we have established a streptococcus- zebrafish model of bacterial pathogenesis. Following injection into t...

Neely, Melody N.; Pfeifer, John D.; Caparon, Michael

2002-01-01

90

Aortitis with bacteraemia by Streptococcus equi Zooepidemicus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Infections by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus occur in animals. In human beings these infections are generally accidental, and few cases have been reported. We present the case of a 56-year-old male, a butcher, who presented with abdominal pain. Aneurismatic dilatation of the aorta below the renal arteries was documented by CT-scanning. A purulent collection and arterial ulceration were found during surgery; Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus was isolated from the collection and from blood cultures

91

Comprehensive Study of Strains Previously Designated Streptococcus bovis Consecutively Isolated from Human Blood Cultures and Emended Description of Streptococcus gallolyticus and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli?  

OpenAIRE

Modern taxonomy has delineated Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius within the heterogenous group of previously designated clinical Streptococcus bovis bacteria. In the present study, 58 consecutive blood culture isolates initially designated S. bovis were further characterized by applying phenotypic and molecular genetic methods, and possible disease associations were ...

Beck, Marcella; Frodl, Reinhard; Funke, Guido

2008-01-01

92

Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion

Kilian, Mogens

2001-01-01

93

Nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A retrospective study of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia among adult patients in two large teaching hospitals in Spain identified 108 (10.6%) of 1,020 episodes as nosocomial pneumococcal bloodstream infections (NPBIs). Seventy-seven clinical records with sufficient data were available for analysis. The interval between admission and a positive blood culture was 3--135 days (median 17 days; interquartile range 8--27). The main underlying and predisposing conditions for NPBI were malignancy (31%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (28.6%), heart failure (16.9%), chronic renal failure (15.6%), liver cirrhosis (13%) and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (13%). Overall, 31.2% of patients developed severe sepsis, 11.7% septic shock, and 3.9% multi-organ failure. The main portals of entry were pneumonia (70.1%), meningitis (5.2%) and primary peritonitis (5.2%). Of the responsible serogroups, 78% were included in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. Thirty-five (45.5%) patients died, with death considered to be related to the NPBI in 21 (27.3%) cases. Following multivariate analysis, factors that independently predicted death after adjusting for age were: ultimately fatal underlying disease (OR, 8.9; 95% CI, 0.8--94.3; pheart failure (OR, 8.11; 95% CI, 1.1--60.8; pfailure (OR, 63.7; 95% CI, 4.9--820.7; p<0.001). Adequate empirical therapy was an independent protective factor (OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.04--0.58; p<0.005), but the use of more than one antimicrobial agent was not. PMID:16216109

Bouza, E; Pintado, V; Rivera, S; Blázquez, R; Muñoz, P; Cercenado, E; Loza, E; Rodríguez-Créixems, M; Moreno, S

2005-11-01

94

The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries. Materials and Methods: The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4°C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Results: Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms. Interpretation and Conclusion: A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.

Prashant G

2007-01-01

95

[The importance of Streptococcus bovis systemic infections].  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus bovis is relatively common cause of bacteremia and endocarditis, especially in older persons, or in patients that have some kind of chronic disease. These infections are frequently connected with malignant, potentially malignant, or benign colorectal neoplasia. Hematogenous dissemination of Streptococcus bovis could result with various clinical manifestations, namely purulent meningitis, brain abscess, osteomyelitis, spondylodiscitis, and many different kinds of infections in AIDS patients are reported. In this report, two patients hospitalized at the Departement of Infectious Diseases at the General Hospital "Dr. Josip Bencevi?" in Slavonski Brod are presented. The first patient was addmited to the hospital because of fever of unknown origin, and in his blood cultures, Streptococcus bovis was isolated. He was an older man, who had undergone prostatectomy due prostatic adenoma several years before. The other patient, previously completely healthy younger man, suffered purulent meningitis caused by the same microorganism. Colon endoscopy was performed in both patients and it revealed colon polyps. Histologically, in both cases, those were benign neoplasia. In Croatia, until this report, there have been no other reports about patients suffering systemic Streptococcus bovis infections. At the same time, this report describes Streptococcus bovis purulent meningitis in a previously healthy adult, which is also extremely rare in the medical literature. Since Streptococcus bovis infections are associated with colon carcinoma, it is imperative to perform colonoscopy in each patient suffering infection with this germ, and to consider him as a high risk patient for developing colon cancer. PMID:17087134

Pandak, Nenad; Tomi?-Paradzik, Maja; Krizanovi?, Branka; Fornet-Sapcevski, Josipa

2006-01-01

96

Mosaic Genes and Mosaic Chromosomes: Intra- and Interspecies Genomic Variation of Streptococcus pneumoniae  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major causative agent of serious human diseases. The worldwide increase of antibiotic resistant strains revealed the importance of horizontal gene transfer in this pathogen, a scenario that results in the modulation of the species-specific gene pool. We investigated genomic variation in 20 S. pneumoniae isolates representing major antibiotic-resistant clones and 10 different capsular serotypes. Variation was scored as decreased hybridization signals visualiz...

Hakenbeck, Regine; Balmelle, Nade?ge; Weber, Beate; Garde?s, Christophe; Keck, Wolfgang; Saizieu, Antoine

2001-01-01

97

Effects of Oxygen on Biofilm Formation and the AtlA Autolysin of Streptococcus mutans?  

OpenAIRE

The Streptococcus mutans atlA gene encodes an autolysin required for biofilm maturation and biogenesis of a normal cell surface. We found that the capacity to form biofilms by S. mutans, one of the principal causative agents of dental caries, was dramatically impaired by growth of the organism in an aerated environment and that cells exposed to oxygen displayed marked changes in surface protein profiles. Inactivation of the atlA gene alleviated repression of biofilm formation in the presence ...

Ahn, Sang-joon; Burne, Robert A.

2007-01-01

98

Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells  

OpenAIRE

Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range...

Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Grignon, Louis; Spolidorio, Denise Palomari; Grenier, Daniel

2014-01-01

99

Quantitative antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae by using the E-test.  

OpenAIRE

The E-test (PDM Epsilometer; AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) is an antimicrobial agent gradient-coated plastic test strip which allows MIC determinations on agar media. The test is performed in a manner similar to the agar disk diffusion procedure. A collection of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae strains possessing various resistance mechanisms was used to evaluate the E-test method. H. influenzae strains were tested with both Haemophilus test medium (HTM) and PDM ASM II chocola...

Jorgensen, J. H.; Howell, A. W.; Maher, L. A.

1991-01-01

100

The photodynamic therapy on Streptococcus mutans biofilms using erythrosine and dental halogen curing unit  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT), using erythrosine as a photosensitizing agent and a dental halogen curing unit as a light source, on Streptococcus mutans in a biofilm phase. The S. mutans biofilms were formed in a 24-well cell culture cluster. Test groups consisted of biofilms divided into four groups: group 1: no photosensitizer or light irradiation treatment (control group); group 2: photosensitizer treatment alone; group 3: light irradiati...

Lee, Young-ho; Park, Ho-won; Lee, Ju-hyun; Seo, Hyun-woo; Lee, Si-young

2012-01-01

101

Differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Conjunctivitis Outbreak Isolates by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry?  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus [Pnc]) is a causative agent of many infectious diseases, including pneumonia, septicemia, otitis media, and conjunctivitis. There have been documented conjunctivitis outbreaks in which nontypeable (NT), nonencapsulated Pnc has been identified as the etiological agent. The use of mass spectrometry to comparatively and differentially analyze protein and peptide profiles of whole-cell microorganisms remains somewhat uncharted. In this report, we discuss a c...

Williamson, Yulanda M.; Moura, Hercules; Woolfitt, Adrian R.; Pirkle, James L.; Barr, John R.; Carvalho, Maria Da Gloria; Ades, Edwin P.; Carlone, George M.; Sampson, Jacquelyn S.

2008-01-01

102

Isolation of Streptococcus tigurinus - a novel member of Streptococcus mitis group from a case of periodontitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Streptococcus viridians group and is closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated only by newer molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene analysis. During the course of study on bacteraemia and infective endocarditis with reference to periodontitis and viridians group of streptococci, a strain of S. tigurinus isolated from subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontitis identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis, which was originally identified as Streptococcus pluranimalium by Vitek 2. Confirmation by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed 99.39% similarity (1476/1485 bp) with S. tigurinus AZ_3a(T) (AORU01000002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of S. tigurinus from the oral cavity of a periodontitis patient. PMID:24974898

Dhotre, Shree V; Mehetre, Gajanan T; Dharne, Mahesh S; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Nagoba, Basavraj S

2014-08-01

103

Parotiditis por Streptococcus Pyogenes: Presentacion de un caso  

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Full Text Available La glándula parótida es generalmente afectada por procesos inflamatorios. Su etiología se debe a infecciones primarias de la glándula o como complicación de infecciones sistémicas. Se reporta el Stafilococcus aureus como el agente causal más frecuente de parotiditis aguda supurada, y se señalan además otras bacterias y virus. Se presenta un niño de 9 años de edad con un proceso supurativo agudo de la parótida izquierda de un mes de evolución, con salida de abundante pus por el conducto de Stenon. Se realizó cultivo de la secreción e identificación de Streptococcus B hemolítico grupo A, a pesar de haber recibido antibioticoterapia previa. Se utilizó ampicillina y se tuvo en cuenta la sensibilidad in vitro; no presentó mejoría clínica, por lo que se decidió el empleo de la sialografía como alternativa terapéutica en este caso. Se obtuvo la resolución del proceso supurativo infeccioso y además se evidenció en este estudio la pérdida del estroma parotídeo.

Zoila del S. López-Díaz

1995-08-01

104

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

105

Whole-Genome Sequence of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae Isolate IS7493  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae is a member of the viridans group streptococci (VGS) whose pathogenic significance is unclear. We announce the complete genome sequence of S. pseudopneumoniae IS7493. The genome sequence will assist in the characterization of this new organism and facilitate the development of accurate diagnostic assays to distinguish it from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis.

Shahinas, Dea; Tamber, Gurdeep Singh; Arya, Gitanjali; Wong, Andrew; Lau, Rachel; Jamieson, Frances; Ma, Jennifer H.; Alexander, David C.; Low, Donald E.; Pillai, Dylan R.

2011-01-01

106

[Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents --special references to bacteria isolated between April 2008 and March 2009].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria isolated from infections in abdominal surgery during the period from April 2008 to March 2009 were investigated in a multicenter study in Japan, and the following results were obtained. In this series, 712 strains including 18 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 173 (80.5%) of 215 patients with surgical infections. Three hundred and sixty-six strains were isolated from primary infections, and 346 strains were isolated from postoperative infections. From primary infections, anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were predominant, followed by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, while from postoperative infections aerobic Gram-positive bacteria were predominant, followed by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Among aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. in this order, from primary infections, while Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Staphylococcus spp. from postoperative infections. Among aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominantly isolated from primary infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in this order, and from postoperative infections, P aeruginosa was most predominantly isolated, followed by E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and K. pneumoniae. Among anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Eggerthella lenta was the highest from primary infections, followed by Parvimonas micra, Streptococcus constellatus and Gemella morbillorum, and from postoperative infections, E. lenta was most predominantly isolated. Among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, the isolation rate of Bacteroides fragilis was the highest from primary infections, followed by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides ovatus and Bilophila wadsworthia, and from postoperative infections, B. fragilis was most predominantly isolated, followed by B. thetaiotaomicron, B. wadsworthia and B. ovatus, in this order. In this series, we noticed no vancomycin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp., nor multidrug-resistant P aeruginosa. We should carefully follow up B. wadsworthia which was resistant to various antibiotics, and also Bacteroides spp. which was resistant to many beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:20919496

Shinagawa, Nagao; Hasegawa, Masamitsu; Hirata, Koichi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Mizukuchi, Tohru; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Yanai, Yoshiyuki; Hata, Fumitaka; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Someya, Tetsufumi; Harada, Keisuke; Oono, Keisuke; Tokita, Shoji; Nakamura, Masashi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Itaru; Kimura, Masami; Oshima, Hideki; Maeda, Hideki; Mukaiya, Mitsuhiro; Kihara, Chikasi; Kosho, Watabe; Hoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Yasuhide; Yae-Hoon, Yoo; Aikawa, Naoki; Abe, Shinya; Yura, Jiro; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Mizuno, Isamu; Fukui, Takuji; Mashita, Keiji; Ishikawa, Svu; Mizuno, Akira; Moori, Noriaki; Sumita, Naoki; Kubo, Shoji; Lee, Shigeruj; Oomura, Toru; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Takeshi; Yamaue, Hiroki; Kawai, Manabu; Takesue, Yoshio; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kimura, Hideyuki; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Sueda, Taijiro; Hiyama, Eiso; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ooge, Hiroki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Tsumura, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Tanakaya, Kouji; Yasunami, Yoichi; Ryu, Shinichiro

2010-04-01

107

[Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and its susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents--special references to bacteria isolated between April 2009 and March 2010].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria isolated from surgical infections during the period from April 2009 to March 2010 were investigated in a multicenter study in Japan, and the following results were obtained. In this series, 671 strains including 16 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 174 (79.1%) of 220 patients with surgical infections. Four hundred and eleven strains were isolated from primary infections, and 244 strains were isolated from surgical site infection. From primary infections, anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were predominant, followed by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, while from surgical site infection aerobic Gram-positive bacteria were predominant, followed by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Among aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. in this order, from primary infections, while Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Staphylococcus spp. from surgical site infection. Among aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominantly isolated from primary infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in this order, and from surgical site infection, E. coli was most predominantly isolated, followed by P. aeruginosa and E. cloacae. Among anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Eggerthella lenta was the highest from primary infections, followed by Parvimonas micra, Streptococcus constellatus and Finegoldia magna, and from surgical site infection, E. lenta was most predominantly isolated. Among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, the isolation rate of Bilophila wadsworthia was the highest from primary infections, followed by Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides ovatus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and from surgical site infection, B. fragilis was most predominantly isolated, followed by B. ovatus, B. wadsworthia and B. thetaiotaomicron, in this order. In this series, we noticed no vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive cocci, nor multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. We should carefully follow up B. wadsworthia which was resistant to various antibiotics, and also Bacteroides spp. which was resistant to many beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:21861307

Shinagawa, Nagao; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Koichi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Mizukuchi, Tohru; Yanai, Yoshiyuki; Hata, Fumitake; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Someya, Tetsufumi; Sasaki, Kazunori; Oono, Keisuke; Mizuno, Isamu; Shamoto, Tomoya; Fukui, Takuji; Tokita, Shoji; Nakamura, Masashi; Mashita, Keiji; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Moritsugu; Hasegawa, Itaru; Kimura, Masami; Oshima, Hideki; Maeda, Hideki; Ishikawa, Syu; Mukaiya, Mitsuhiro; Kihara, Chikasi; Mizuno, Akira; Watabe, Kosho; Iwai, Akihiko; Saito, Takaaki; Hoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Hitoshi; Moori, Noriaki; Sumita, Naoki; Jae-Hoon, Yoo; Kubo, Shoji; Lee, Shigeru; Aikawa, Naoki; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Abe, Shinya; Oomura, Toru; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Takeshi; Yamaue, Hiroki; Ozawa, Satoru; Takesue, Yoshio; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Tsumura, Hiroaki; Kimura, Hideyuki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Tanakaya, Kouji; Sueda, Taijiro; Hiyama, Eiso; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ohge, Hiroki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Yasunami, Yoichi; Sasaki, Takamitsu

2011-06-01

108

[Value of a rapid test for identification of beta-hemolytic streptococcus antigens in children with streptococcal pharyngitis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Beta-hemolytic group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) is the most common bacterial agent associated with the upper respiratory tract infections in humans. The most frequently group A streptococcus-associated disease is pharyngitis. Males and females are equally affected by group A streptococcus. There is seasonal increase in the prevalence of group A streptococcus-associated pharyngitis. Streptococcal pharyngitis is most prevalent in winter and early spring with higher incidence of disease observed in crowded population such as school children. Early diagnosis and treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis has been shown to reduce the severity of symptoms and further complications such as rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis. The conventional methods used for identification of group A streptococci depend on isolation and identification of the organism on blood agar plates. These methods usually require 18-24 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C. Such delay in identifying the group A streptococcus has often made physicians to administer therapy without first disclosing the etiological agent. Development of immunologic tests, capable of detecting the group A streptococcal antigen directly from the throat swabs, produced rapid test results employed for better treatment of patients. STREP A test is a rapid immunochromatographic test for the detection of group A streptococci from throat swabs or culture. The accuracy of the test does not depend on the organism viability. Instead, group A strep antigen is extracted directly from the swab and identified using antibodies specific for the group A carbohydrates. We compared rapid test with conventional throat swab in 40 children, who met Centor criteria for streptococcal pharyngitis (absence of cough, high fever, purulent pharyngitis, enlarged and painful cervica lymph nodes). Overall congruence of rapid test and culture was 94%. Test is easy to perform and it is recommended as the first diagnostic test for management of children with streptococcal pharyngitis. In children with negative test, but with characteristics highly suggestive of streptococcal infection, throat culture should be performed. PMID:15615463

Nestorovi?, Branimir; Laban-Nestorovi?, Suzana; Paripovi?, Veselinka; Milosevi?, Katarina

2004-10-01

109

Streptococcus hyovaginalis sp. nov. and Streptococcus thoraltensis sp. nov., from the genital tract of sows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two groups of strains isolated from sows were shown to belong to new sublines in the genus Streptococcus. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, we propose that these bacteria should be classified as two new species, Streptococcus hyovaginalis sp. nov. and Streptococcus thoraltensis sp. nov. These two species are found in the genital tract, but the capnophilic species S. thoraltensis may also occur in the intestinal tract of pigs. The type strain of S. hyovaginalis is SHV515 (= LMG 14710), and S69 (= LMG 13593) is the type strain of S. thoraltensis. PMID:9336908

Devriese, L A; Pot, B; Vandamme, P; Kersters, K; Collins, M D; Alvarez, N; Haesebrouck, F; Hommez, J

1997-10-01

110

Inhibitory activity by barley coffee components towards Streptococcus mutans biofilm.  

Science.gov (United States)

It was shown that barley coffee (BC) interferes with Streptococcus mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite. After BC component fractionation by dialysis and gel filtration chromatography (GFC), it was found that the low molecular mass ( 1,000 kDa) melanoidin fraction display strong anti-adhesive properties towards S. mutans. In this study, we have further examined the potential of BC, BC LMM fraction and BC HMM melanoidin fraction as caries controlling agents by evaluating their anti-biofilm activity.The effects of BC and BC fractions on biofilm formation by S. mutans ATCC 25175 and its detachment from pre-developed biofilms were evaluated by microtiter plate assay. It was found that BC and its fractions, at concentrations ranging from 60 to 15 mg ml(-1) that are devoid of antimicrobial activity, inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. An increase of S. mutans ATCC 25175 detachment from 24 h developed biofilm was observed at the highest tested concentrations. Interestingly, BC and BC fractions also showed anti-biofilm activity towards a variety of S. mutans clinical strains isolated from saliva, plaque and caries lesions of adult donors. In general, the HMM melanoidin fraction was more active than the LMM fraction. These findings, classifying BC LMM fraction and BC HMM melanoidin fractions as natural anti-biofilm agents, represent the basis for studying their possible use as anti-caries agents. PMID:20361189

Stauder, Monica; Papetti, Adele; Daglia, Maria; Vezzulli, Luigi; Gazzani, Gabriella; Varaldo, Pietro E; Pruzzo, Carla

2010-11-01

111

The novel species Streptococcus tigurinus and its association with oral infection  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus tigurinus is a novel species of viridans streptococci, shown to cause severe invasive infections such as infective endocarditis, spondylodiscitis and meningitis. S. tigurinus belongs to the Streptococcus mitis group and is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Streptococcus infantis. The presence of S. tigurinus in the human oral cavity has been documented, including in patients with period...

Zbinden, A.; Bostanci, N.; Belibasakis, G. N.

2014-01-01

112

Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30% of these cultures, 26 (44.8% corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%, to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%, to Enterococcus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 % to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%, to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7% to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germanyprovides a typical pattern ("good identification" for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

J.M. F. Egido

1995-06-01

113

Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30%) de los cuales 26 (44.8%) correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5%) a G [...] ardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6%) a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1%) a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4%) a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7%) a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania) dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción") para el Streptococcus morbillorum. Abstract in english We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30%) of these cultures, 26 (44.8%) corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%), to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%), to Enteroc [...] occus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 %) to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%), to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7%) to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germany)provides a typical pattern ("good identification") for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

J.M. F., Egido; J.R., Maestre; M.Y., Pena Izquierdo.

1995-06-01

114

Iron acquisition and regulation systems in Streptococcus species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gram-positive Streptococcus species are responsible for millions of cases of meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis. Iron is essential for the growth and survival of Streptococcus in the host environment. Streptococcus species have developed various mechanisms to uptake iron from an environment with limited available iron. Streptococcus can directly extract iron from host iron-containing proteins such as ferritin, transferrin, lactoferrin and hemoproteins, or indirectly by relying on the employment of specialized secreted hemophores (heme chelators) and small siderophore molecules (high affinity ferric chelators). This review presents the most recent discoveries in the iron acquisition system of Streptococcus species - the transporters as well as the regulators. PMID:24663493

Ge, Ruiguang; Sun, Xuesong

2014-05-01

115

Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina / In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. [...] e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis. Abstract in english The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-po [...] sitive Staphylococcus (94.4%) and Streptococcus sp. (85.2%) showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

Andrea Pinto, Loguercio; Ana Cláudia Mello, Groff; Andréia Folleto, Pedrozzo; Niura Mazzini, Witt; Mariana Sá e, Silva; Agueda Castagna de, Vargas.

2006-02-01

116

Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis.The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (94.4% and Streptococcus sp. (85.2% showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

Andrea Pinto Loguercio

2006-02-01

117

Pericarditis purulenta con taponamiento cardíaco por asociación de Streptococcus agalactiae y Salmonella enterica no typhi / Purulent pericarditis with pericardial tamponade caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Salmonellaenterica no typhi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La pericarditis purulenta (PP) es una condición infrecuente, pero con elevada mortalidad. Previo a la era antibiótica, los agentes etiológicos más comúnmente hallados eran Streptococcus pneumoniae y Staphylococcus aureus. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 75 años de edad con un [...] cuadro de shock, PP y taponamiento cardíaco, producto de una sepsis por Streptococcus agalactiae y Salmonella entérica no typhi. No se ha hallado ningún caso similar en la literatura. Se destaca el antecedente previo inmediato de la realización de una endoscopia digestiva alta con toma de biopsia de esófago como posible causa de bacteriemia e impacto pericárdico. El curso evolutivo fue malo y el paciente falleció a los 34 días. Esta inusual asociación bacteriana en un huésped debilitado e inmunodeprimido, debería ser incluida dentro de los diagnósticos etiológicos diferenciales de la pericarditis purulenta. Abstract in english Purulent pericarditis (PP) is an uncommon condition with high mortality. In the preantibiotic period, Staphyloccocus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the most common etiologic agents. We describe the case of a 75-year old man with septic shock, PP and cardiac tamponade caused by Streptococcu [...] s agalactiae and Salmonella enterica no-typhi. To our knowledge this association of pathogenic organisms has not been previously reported in the literature. The pathogenesis is here reviewed, and in our patient presumably, purulent pericarditis occurred via hematogeneus spread undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patient’s course was complicated and he died on 34 th hospital day. After this case report it is considered that differential etiologic diagnosis of PP should include these agents, especially in immunodepressed patients with predisposing factors.

Lourdes, Arruvito; Marcos G., Ber; Jose A., Martínez Martínez.

2004-08-01

118

Competition and Coexistence between Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in the Dental Biofilm  

OpenAIRE

The human mucosal surface is colonized by the indigenous microflora, which normally maintains an ecological balance among different species. Certain environmental or biological factors, however, may trigger disruption of this balance, leading to microbial diseases. In this study, we used two oral bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis (formerly S. sanguis), as a model to probe the possible mechanisms of competition/coexistence between different species which occup...

Kreth, Jens; Merritt, Justin; Shi, Wenyuan; Qi, Fengxia

2005-01-01

119

Upper limb compartment syndrome secondary to streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus) infection  

OpenAIRE

Compartment syndrome caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus) has rarely been described. We report a case of a healthy 44-year-old male who presented with compartment syndrome of the right forearm and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome. The patient received antibiotics and urgent surgical decompression, followed by delayed wound closure without the need for skin grafting. The patient recovered with no loss of power, sensation or range of movement. High index of sus...

Taylor, J.; Wojcik, A.

2011-01-01

120

Parallel Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis to Pathogenic and Mutualistic Lifestyles  

OpenAIRE

The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analysis shows that the species constitutes one evolutionary lineage in a cluster of the otherwise commensal Streptococcus mitis strains, with which humans live in harmony. In a comparative analysis of 35 genomes, including phylogenetic analyses of all predicted genes, we have shown that the pathogenic pneumococcus has evolved into a master of genomic flexibilit...

Kilian, Mogens; Riley, David R.; Jensen, Anders; Bru?ggemann, Holger; Tettelin, Herve?

2014-01-01

121

Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Actinomyces viscosus in the Presence of Human Saliva  

OpenAIRE

Glucose uptake was examined by using whole-cell suspensions of Streptococcus mutans (strains BHT, Ingbritt, and GS-5), Streptococcus mitis (strains 9811 and 72×41), and Actinomyces viscosus (strains T6 and WVU626) incubated for up to 90 min in 0 to 82% (vol/vol) human whole salivary supernatant. Glucose uptake by the S. mutans strains was completely inhibited at all saliva concentrations. Dithiothreitol (DTT), present during saliva incubation, prevented saliva inhibition. Glucose uptake was ...

Germaine, Greg; Tellefson, Lois M.

1982-01-01

122

Evaluation of PCR methods for rapid identification and differentiation of Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus parauberis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus parauberis reference strains and isolates obtained from routine diagnostics were investigated by PCR with oligonucleotide primers designed according to species-specific parts of the 16S rRNA gene, the 23S rRNA gene, and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of both species. All three primer pairs allowed an identification of 67 isolates as S. uberis and 4 isolates as S. parauberis. PMID:11283100

Hassan, A A; Khan, I U; Abdulmawjood, A; Lämmler, C

2001-04-01

123

Evaluation of PCR Methods for Rapid Identification and Differentiation of Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus parauberis  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus parauberis reference strains and isolates obtained from routine diagnostics were investigated by PCR with oligonucleotide primers designed according to species-specific parts of the 16S rRNA gene, the 23S rRNA gene, and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of both species. All three primer pairs allowed an identification of 67 isolates as S. uberis and 4 isolates as S. parauberis.

Hassan, A. A.; Khan, I. U.; Abdulmawjood, A.; La?mmler, C.

2001-01-01

124

Interbacterial adherence between Actinomyces viscosus and strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

OpenAIRE

Interbacterial adherence was sought between strains of Actinomyces viscosus indigenous to the human mouth and strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Six of nine strains of S. pyogenes, three of five strains of S. agalactiae, and two of four strains of P. aeruginosa were found to coaggregate with each of five strains of A. viscosus tested. Some coaggregation reactions were inhibited by 0.05 M lactose and were dependent upon heat- and protease-s...

Komiyama, K.; Gibbons, R. J.

1984-01-01

125

Population Diversity and Dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the Upper Respiratory Tracts of Adults, Determined by a Nonculture Strategy?  

OpenAIRE

We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat. A culture-independent method was used, based on cloning and sequencing of PCR amplicons of the housekeeping gene gdh, which shows remarkable, yet species-specific, genetic polymorphism. Samples we...

Bek-thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, Herve?; Hance, Ioana; Nelson, Karen E.; Kilian, Mogens

2008-01-01

126

Dual Functions of Streptococcus salivarius Urease  

OpenAIRE

A urease-deficient derivative of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I was constructed by allelic exchange at the ureC locus. The wild-type strain was protected against acid killing through hydrolysis of physiologically relevant concentrations of urea, whereas the mutant was not. Also, S. salivarius could use urea as a source of nitrogen for growth exclusively through a urease-dependent pathway.

Chen, Yi-ywan M.; Weaver, Cheryl A.; Burne, Robert A.

2000-01-01

127

Heteroresistance to penicillin in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

OpenAIRE

Heteroresistance to ?-lactam antibiotics has been mainly described for staphylococci, for which it complicates diagnostic procedures and therapeutic success. This study investigated whether heteroresistance to penicillin exists in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Population analysis profile (PAP) showed the presence of subpopulations with higher penicillin resistance in four of nine clinical pneumococcal strains obtained from a local surveillance program (representing the multiresistant clones ST17...

Morand, Brigitte; Mu?hlemann, Kathrin

2007-01-01

128

Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae as an Otopathogen  

OpenAIRE

Among 34 Spn sequential isolates from middle ear fluid we found a case of a nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae (NT-Spn) in a child with AOM. The strain was pneumolysin PCR positive and capsule gene PCR negative. Virulence of the NT-Spn was confirmed in a chinchilla model of AOM.

Xu, Qingfu; Kaur, Ravinder; Casey, Janet R.; Sabharwal, Vishakha; Pelton, Stephen; Pichichero, Michael E.

2011-01-01

129

Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing.

Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael

2008-01-01

130

Regulation of neuraminidase expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid; NeuNAc is one of the most important carbohydrates for Streptococcus pneumoniae due of its role as a carbon and energy source, receptor for adhesion and invasion and molecular signal for promotion of biofilm formation, nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion of the lung. Results In this work, NeuNAc and its metabolic derivative N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc were used to analyze regulatory mechanisms of the neuraminidase locus expression. Genomic and metabolic comparison to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis elucidates the metabolic association of the two amino sugars to different parts of the locus coding for the two main pneumococcal neuraminidases and confirms the substrate specificity of the respective ABC transporters. Quantitative gene expression analysis shows repression of the locus by glucose and induction of all predicted transcriptional units by ManNAc and NeuNAc, each inducing with higher efficiency the operon encoding for the transporter with higher specificity for the respective amino sugar. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated enhanced surface exposure of NanA on pneumococci grown in NeuNAc and ManNAc and an activity assay allowed to quantify approximately twelve times as much neuraminidase activity on induced cells as opposed to glucose grown cells. Conclusions The present data increase the understanding of metabolic regulation of the nanAB locus and indicate that experiments aimed at the elucidation of the relevance of neuraminidases in pneumococcal virulence should possibly not be carried out on bacteria grown in glucose containing media.

Gualdi Luciana

2012-09-01

131

Beta-haemolytic Streptococcus infection in burns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus has been one of the most serious infections in the burn patients resulting in severe cellulitis and sepsis. Penicillin has been used ever since its introduction as prophylaxis against these conditions. Penicillin prophylaxis was used in our burn unit as well without any serious evaluation until December 1992. This prospective study was therefore, undertaken to evaluate the incidence of beta haemolytic Streptococcus infection in burn patients, and its clinical outcome over a period of 5 years in the absence of prophylaxis with penicillin. 14 of the 1213 burn patients admitted to the Al-Babtain Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns from January 1993 to December 1997 had either colonization or infection with Streptococcus spp. Their mean age was 15 years (range 1 month to 52 years) and the mean burn surface area was 20% (range 5 to 90%). Streptococci were isolated from burn wounds in 10 patients, throat in 3 and blood culture in 1. Group A Streptococcus was found in 5, group C in 3 and group D in 6 patients. In all patients except one the organisms were isolated > or =72 h post burn. The infections were successfully controlled by antibiotic and no detrimental effect was observed either on wound healing or skin graft take. There was no mortality amongst these 14 patients. The study showed that only 1.1% of the burn patients in our unit acquired Streptococcus of which only one third comprised of group A. This study thus demonstrates that the practice of penicillin prophylaxis during the first five post burn days may not be of any value and therefore, deserves discontinuation in units where the incidence of this organism is minuscule. PMID:10323609

Bang, R L; Gang, R K; Sanyal, S C; Mokaddas, E M; Lari, A R

1999-05-01

132

Bactericidal activity of gemifloxacin and other quinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the bactericidal activity of gemifloxacin (SB-265805) and a panel of test quinolones against two ciprofloxacin-resistant pneumococcal strains (Streptococcus pneumoniae 502226 and 503244) and one ciprofloxacin-sensitive strain (S. pneumoniae C3LN4). Activities were compared by calculating the bactericidal index of these agents. Gemifloxacin was found to be the most bactericidal quinolone tested against these strains. This finding confirms previous data indicating the superior in vitro activity of gemifloxacin against pneumococci, including ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. Although both ciprofloxacin-resistant strains tested had similar quinolone MICs, they differed considerably in their susceptibility to the bactericidal action of these agents. S. pneumoniae 502226 was more readily killed by quinolones than S. pneumoniae 503244 but, as would be expected, both were less susceptible than the ciprofloxacin-sensitive strain. Of the quinolones tested, trovafloxacin showed disproportionally poor activity against the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains even though potent activity was present against the ciprofloxacin-sensitive strain. These data highlight the importance of assessing quinolone bactericidal activity in addition to the MIC when evaluating new members of this antimicrobial class. PMID:10824041

Morrissey, I; George, J T

2000-04-01

133

The antimicrobial sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius to colloidal solutions of different nanoparticles applied as mouthwashes  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Metal nanoparticles have been recently applied in dentistry because of their antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial effects of colloidal solutions containing zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius and compare the results with those of chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouthrinses. Materials and Methods: After adding nanoparticles to a water-based solution, six groups were prepared. Groups I to IV included colloidal solutions containing nanoZnO, nanoCuO, nanoTiO2 and nanoAg, respectively. Groups V and VI consisted of 2.0% sodium fluoride and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes, respectively as controls. We used serial dilution method to find minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and with subcultures obtained minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the solutions against S. mutans and S. sangius. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Duncan test and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The sodium fluoride mouthrinse did not show any antibacterial effect. The nanoTiO2-containing solution had the lowest MIC against both microorganisms and also displayed the lowest MBC against S. mutans (P < 0.05). The colloidal solutions containing nanoTiO2 and nanoZnO showed the lowest MBC against S. sangius (P < 0.05). On the other hand, chlorhexidine showed the highest MIC and MBC against both streptococci (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The nanoTiO2-containing mouthwash proved to be an effective antimicrobial agent and thus it can be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine or sodium fluoride mouthrinses in the oral cavity provided the lack of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on biologic tissues. PMID:25709674

Ahrari, Farzaneh; Eslami, Neda; Rajabi, Omid; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Barati, Sahar

2015-01-01

134

Infecciones por Streptococcus anginosusen otorrinolaringología: Revisión de 9 casos clínicos / Infections caused by Streptococcus anginosusin otolaryngology: Review of 9 clinical cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: El Streptococcus anginosus (SA) es un habitante común de la cavidad oral y tracto gastrointestinal, y puede ser un patógeno agresivo causante de abscesos en varios sitios del cuerpo. Aparentemente, su rol en infecciones de cabeza y cuello está adquiriendo cierta notoriedad y no está cl [...] aramente reportado en la literatura. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las implicancias clínicas de estas infecciones en otorrinolaringología. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo de todos los pacientes diagnosticados microbiológicamente con infecciones causadas por Streptococcus anginosus, tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau entre los años 2007 a 2012. Se describen las características clínicas, microbiológicas y el manejo de los pacientes. Resultados: La muestra estuvo constituida por 9 casos, 3 hombres y 6 mujeres, con una mediana de edad de 52 años (rango 6-70). Los sitios de infección fueron: absceso periamigdalino (2 casos), un absceso peritraqueostoma, un absceso submandibular, un absceso submentoniano, un absceso parafaríngeo con extensión retrofaríngea y mediastino, un caso de absceso cerebral frontal secundario a sinusitis frontal complicada, un caso de otitis media crónica activa, y un caso de sinusitis maxilar crónica. Discusión: El SA ha sido reportado como un agente causal de infecciones potencialmente graves en cabeza y cuello. Su identificación requiere de consideraciones especiales para el cultivo, y al ser un microorganismo común puede ser confundido e informado como S viridans o Streptococcus anaeróbico. Es importante reconocer al SA como un patógeno a considerar en infecciones de cabeza y cuello. Abstract in english Introduction: Streptococcus anginosus (SA) is a common inhabitant of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, and can be an aggressive pathogen causing abscesses in various body sites. Apparently, its role in head and neck infections is gaining some notoriety that it is not clearly reported in th [...] e literature. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical implications of this infections in otolaryngology. Material and method: A retrospective case series study of all patients diagnosed microbiologically with Streptococcus anginosus infections treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, HospitalBarros Luco-Trudeau from 2007 to 2012. We describe the clinical and microbiological features, and treatment of each patient. Results: The sample consisted of 9 patients, 3 men and 6 women, with a median age of 52 years (range 6-70). The sites of infection were: peritonsillar abscess (2 cases), peritracheostomy abscess, submandibular abscess, submental abscess, parapharyngeal abscess with retropharyngeal and mediastinal extension, a case of frontal brain abscess secondary to frontal sinusitis, a case of otitis chronic active half, and one case of chronic maxillary sinusitis. Discussion: SA has been reported as a causative agent ofpotentially serious infections in the head and neck region. Their identification requires special considerations for growing, and because of being a common microorganism may be confused and informed as Streptococcus viridans or anaerobic streptococcus. It is important to recognize SA as a relevant pathogen in head and neck infections.

Felipe, Cardemil M; Daniel, Muñoz S; Maritza, Rahal E; Jaime, Osorio M; René, Sepúlveda S; Rodrigo, Urzúa B.

2013-04-01

135

Antimicrobial resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolates in the United Arab Emirates: 2004-2006  

OpenAIRE

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae represent key aetiological agents in respiratory tract infections showing an increasing trend of antimicrobial resistance. We present the first report on the antimicrobial resistance in S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae isolated from patients in the United Arab Emirates.Methods: One hundred S. pneumoniae and 102 H. influenzae strains were isolated from patients with community acquired respiratory tract infections during the study period (Oc...

Abiola Senok, Mansour Al-zarouni

2007-01-01

136

Slaughterhouse Pigs Are a Major Reservoir of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Capable of Causing Human Infection in Southern Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietna...

Ngo, TH; Tran, Tb; Tran, Tt; Nguyen, Vd; Campbell, J.; Pham, Ha; Huynh, Ht; Nguyen, Vv; Bryant, Je; Tran, Th; Farrar, J.; Schultsz, C.

2011-01-01

137

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

Scannapieco, F. A.; Bergey, E. J.; Reddy, M. S.; Levine, M. J.

1989-01-01

138

Human streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish  

OpenAIRE

Background: In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission be...

Delannoy, C. M. J.; Crumlish, M.; Fontaine, M. C.; Pollock, J.; Foster, G.; Dagleish, M. P.; Turnbull, J. F.; Zadoks, R. N.

2013-01-01

139

Seeing Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Common Killer Bacteria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Look around you. The diversity and complexity of life on earth is overwhelming and data continues to grow. In our desire to understand and explain everything scientifically from molecular evolution to supernovas we depend on visual representations. This paper investigates visual representations of the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae by use of ink, watercolours and computer graphics. We propose a novel artistic visual rendering of Streptococcus pneumoniae and ask what the value of these kind of representations are compared to traditional scientific data. We ask if drawings and computer-assisted representations can add to our scientific knowledge about this dangerous bacteria. Is there still a role for the scientific illustrator in the scientific process and synthesis of scientific knowledge?

Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

2014-01-01

140

Streptococcus mutans, Caries and Simulation Models  

OpenAIRE

Dental caries and dental plaque are among the most common diseases worldwide, and are caused by a mixture of microorganisms and food debris. Specific types of acid-producing bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, colonize the dental surface and cause damage to the hard tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates e.g., sucrose and fructose. This paper reviews the link between S. mutans and caries, as well as different simulation models that are available for studying carie...

Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Marika Björklund; Forssten, Sofia D.

2010-01-01

141

Streptococcus pyogenes: life within the macrophage  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pyogenes is a versatile human pathogen causing a wide array of diseases ranging from uncomplicated throat and skin infections to invasive lifethreatening diseases with a mortality rate of up to 60%. It is ranked number nine on the list of worst infectious diseases world wide, causing 500 000 deaths yearly. The work presented in this thesis was initiated upon finding viable bacteria in tissue macrophages of patients with severe S. pyogenes infections. This int...

Hertze?n, Erika

2011-01-01

142

Animal Models of Streptococcus pneumoniae Disease  

OpenAIRE

Summary: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a colonizer of human nasopharynx, but it is also an important pathogen responsible for high morbidity, high mortality, numerous disabilities, and high health costs throughout the world. Major diseases caused by S. pneumoniae are otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Despite the availability of antibiotics and vaccines, pneumococcal infections still have high mortality rates, especially in risk groups. For this reason, there is an exceptionally e...

Chiavolini, Damiana; Pozzi, Gianni; Ricci, Susanna

2008-01-01

143

Genome of Streptococcus oralis Strain Uo5?  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus oralis, a commensal species of the human oral cavity, belongs to the Mitis group of streptococci, which includes one of the major human pathogens as well, S. pneumoniae. We report here the first complete genome sequence of this species. S. oralis Uo5, a high-level penicillin- and multiple-antibiotic-resistant isolate from Hungary, is competent for genetic transformation under laboratory conditions. Comparative and functional genomics of Uo5 will be important in understanding the...

Reichmann, Peter; Nuhn, Michael; Denapaite, Dalia; Bru?ckner, Reinhold; Henrich, Bernhard; Maurer, Patrick; Rieger, Martin; Klages, Sven; Reinhard, Richard; Hakenbeck, Regine

2011-01-01

144

Group B Streptococcus Induces Trophoblast Death  

OpenAIRE

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the leading causes of neonatal infection; however the molecular mechanisms involved are not clearly known. Here we used high and low hemolytic GBS isolates and mutant GBS that lacks ?-hemolysin expression and showed that GBS infection or exposure to GBS-hemolysin extract induces primary human trophoblast, placental fibroblast and JEG3 trophoblast cell line death, and that GBS-induced trophoblast death was ?-hemolysin dependent. The fibroblasts and troph...

Kaplan, Amber; Chung, Kathy; Kocak, Hande; Bertolotto, Cristina; Uh, Andy; Hobel, Calvin J.; Simmons, Charles F.; Doran, Kelly; Liu, George; Equils, Ozlem

2008-01-01

145

Aberrant Forms of Streptococcus cremoris HP  

OpenAIRE

The cheese starter strain, Streptococcus cremoris HP, produced variant colonies when streaked on the surface of solid media and incubated at 30 or 37°C or in the presence of penicillin. Serial plating and incubation at 37°C or in the presence of penicillin resulted in the production of variants. Subculture followed by incubation at 25°C or in the absence of penicillin resulted in the reversion or partial reversion to the parent form. Colony morphology and cell morphology exhibited the char...

Keogh, Barbara P.; Peterson, J. E.

1981-01-01

146

Molecular Characterization of Nontypeable Group B Streptococcus  

OpenAIRE

Traditionally, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigen has been used to distinguish between the nine known serotypes of group B streptococcus (GBS) by classical antibody-antigen reactions. In this study, we used PCR for all CPSs and selected protein antigens, multilocus sequencing typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to molecularly characterize 92 clinical isolates identified as nontypeable (NT) by CPS-specific antibody-antigen reactivity. The PCR and MLST were perform...

Ramaswamy, Srinivas V.; Ferrieri, Patricia; Flores, Aurea E.; Paoletti, Lawrence C.

2006-01-01

147

M-Like Proteins of Streptococcus dysgalactiae  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus dysgalactiae is one of the most important bacterial species isolated from bovine mastitis. To identify potential virulence factors of this species we prepared chromosomal DNA from strain 8215 and constructed a phage display library. By affinity selection of the library against fibrinogen (Fg), we isolated and characterized a gene, called demA, encoding a protein with the molecular mass of ?58 kDa, called DemA, displaying both plasma protein binding properties and sequence simi...

Vasi, Jo?zsef; Frykberg, Lars; Carlsson, Lena E.; Lindberg, Martin; Guss, Bengt

2000-01-01

148

Phenotypic Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Development  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most common pathogens associated with chronic otitis media with effusion, which has been hypothesized to be a biofilm disease. S. pneumoniae has been shown to form biofilms, however, little is known about the developmental process, the architecture, and the changes that occur upon biofilm development. In the current study we made use of a continuous-culture biofilm system to characterize biofilm development of 14 different S. pneumoniae strains representi...

Allegrucci, Magee; Hu, F. Z.; Shen, K.; Hayes, J.; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Post, J. Christopher; Sauer, Karin

2006-01-01

149

Primary psoas abscess due to Streptococcus milleri  

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Full Text Available Abstract Primary Psoas abscess (PPA is an infrequent clinical entity with obscure pathogenesis and vague clinical presentation. High index of clinical suspicion is required for the diagnosis of psoas abscess. We also emphasises the importance of bacteriological confirmation of microorganism involved, although Staphylococcus aureus remains the commonest pathogen. We report an extremely rare case of PPA caused by Streptococcus milleri. Only one case has been reported in literature so far.

Abeysekara Abeywardana MS

2008-02-01

150

DETERMINACION DE LA PORTACION DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B EN EMBARAZADAS DURANTE EL TERCER TRIMESTRE MEDIANTE INMUNOENSAYO  

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Full Text Available Dado que la sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B es una enfermedad de alta letalidad, y considerando además que la portación de este germen en nuestra población de embarazadas se acerca a 20%, es que, resulta muy importante disponer de algún test rápido y confiable para realizar screening. Este estudio evalúa el rendimiento de un inmunoensayo para pesquisa de Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas sin factores de riesgo y a fines del tercer trimestre. Los resultados muestran una baja sensibilidad y un bajo valor predictivo positivo para este método, lo que no lo hace recomendable para su implementación clínicaNeonatal sepsis of early onset by group B Streptococcus has a high mortality rate. Twenty percent of our pregnant population have vaginal colonization by this bacterial agent, so clinical practice require a fast and efficient screening test. This report checks a Group B Streptococcus immunoassay screening test in the last trimester for pregnant women without risk factors. The low sensitivity and low positive predictive value of the test make it not recomendable for clinical practice

Fernando Abarzúa

2002-01-01

151

Penicillin Therapy of Experimental Endocarditis Induced by Tolerant Streptococcus sanguis and Nontolerant Streptococcus mitis  

OpenAIRE

The response of tolerant Streptococcus sanguis and nontolerant Streptococcus mitis infections to penicillin therapy was compared in the rabbit model of endocarditis. The minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of penicillin were 0.1 and 0.1 ?g/ml, respectively, for S. mitis and 0.05 and 6.2 ?g/ml, respectively, for S. sanguis. Time-kill studies done in vitro with penicillin concentrations of 2 and 20 ?g/ml demonstrated minimal killing of the tolerant strain, with a 3 log differe...

Lowy, Franklin D.; Neuhaus, Ellen G.; Chang, Daniel S.; Steigbigel, Neal H.

1983-01-01

152

Evaluation of Group B Streptococcus Differential Agar for detection and isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

In total, 320 vaginal or rectal swabs were cultured on Granada medium (GM) or Group B Streptococcus Differential Agar (GBSDA), and were also inoculated into LIM broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), for detection of group B Streptococcus (GBS). Overall, GBS isolates were detected on 53 of the 320 swabs; 47 of these isolates grew on both GM and GBSDA, five only on GBSDA, and one only following subculture from LIM broth. GBSDA appears to be a valid alternative to GM for the growth of GBS isolates from pregnant women. PMID:16008623

Bou, G; Figueira, M; Canle, D; Cartelle, M; Eiros, J M; Villanueva, R

2005-08-01

153

[Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and its susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents--special references to bacteria isolated between April 2010 and March 2011].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria isolated from surgical infections during the period from April 2010 to March 2011 were investigated in a multicenter study in Japan, and the following results were obtained. In this series, 631 strains including 25 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 170 (81.7%) of 208 patients with surgical infections. Four hundred and twenty two strains were isolated from primary infections, and 184 strains were isolated from surgical site infection. From primary infections, anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were predominant, followed by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, while from surgical site infection aerobic Gram-positive bacteria were predominant, followed by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Among aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. such as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus avium was highest, followed by Streptococcus spp. such as Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus spp. such as Staphylococcus aureus, in this order, from primary infections, while Enterococcus spp. such as E. faecalis and E. faecium was highest, followed by Staphylococcus spp. such as S. aureus from surgical site infection. Among aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominantly isolated from primary infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in this order, and from surgical site infection, E. coli and R aeruginosa were most predominantly isolated, followed by E. cloacae and K. pneumoniae. Among anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rates of Parvimonas micra, Eggerthella lenta, Streptococcus constellatus, Gemella morbillorum, and Collinsella aerofaciens were the highest from primary infections, and the isolation rate from surgical site infection was generally low. Among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, the isolation rate of Bilophila wadsworthia was the highest from primary infections, followed by, Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides ovatus, and from surgical site infection, B. fragilis was most predominantly isolated, followed by Bacteroides thetaiotaomnicron, in this order. In this series, vancomycin-resistant MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. and multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa were not observed. PMID:25549405

Shinagawa, Nagao; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Hirata, Koichi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Fukuhara, Kenichiro; Mizugucwi, Tohru; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Yanai, Yoshiyuki; Hata, Fumitake; Kihara, Chikasi; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Oono, Keisuke; Nakamura, Masashi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Itaru; Kimura, Masami; Watabe, Kosho; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Yamaue, Hiroki; Hirono, Seiko; Takesue, Yoshio; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Shinoura, Susumu; Kimura, Hideyuki; Hoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Oshima, Hideki; Aikawa, Naoki; Sasaki, Junichi; Suzuki, Masaru; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Abe, Shinya; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Mashita, Keiji; Tanaka, Moritsugu; Mizuno, Akira; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Iwai, Akihiko; Saito, Takaaki; Muramoto, Masayuki; Kubo, Shoji; Lee, Shigeru; Fukuhara, Kenichiro; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Tokunaga, Naoyuki; Sueda, Taijliro; Hiyama, Elso; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ohge, Hiroki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Tsumura, Hiroaki; Kanehiro, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Tanakaya, Koujn; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro

2014-10-01

154

Sympathetic empyema arising from streptococcus anginosus splenic abscess  

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Full Text Available We report a 52 year old male with a history splenic infarction, abdominal pain and shortness of breath. CT scanning revealed a splenic abcess and empyema. Cultures from both sites grew Streptococcus anginosus. These resolved with drainage and antibiotics. Physicians should consider Streptococcus species when confronted with a patient with splenic infarction.

Wissa E

2012-03-01

155

Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

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Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

156

Streptococcus suis: an important zoonotic pathogen for human ? prevention aspects  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a major porcine pathogen, causing economical health worldwide problems in the global swine industry. It is also emerging as a zoonotic agent capable of causing severe invasive disease in humans exposed to pigs or pork products. The most important clinical sign in swine and human is meningitis, but other pathological conditions have also been described. Serotype 2 is the most commonly associated with diseases in pigs and humans, and also the most frequently reported serotype isolated from diseased animals worldwide. The majority of human infection occurs in pork handlers, particularly in slaughterhouse workers and by minor wounds or skin abrasions contaminated by raw pork or viscera of pigs. Veterinarians should also be aware that a low but real risk may be present when manipulating S. suis-diseased animals that are probably shedding high numbers of this pathogen. Up today, in Greece there is no published epidemiological data for S. suis serotypes in swine herds and the zoonotic risk of S. suis infection in human with daily contact with pigs and pork meat. However, in our experience clinical forms of S. suis infection are common in most greek swine farms. The aim of this review study is to perform recent information about S. suis infection in swine and human, focus on zoonotic risk of this emerging pathogen and prevention strategies. [Vet. World 2011; 4(5.000: 216-221

VG Papatsiros

2011-10-01

157

Antibacterial substances from Albizia myriophylla wood against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Albizia myriophylla has been used for long by Thai traditional healers as an important ingredient herb in Thai herbal formulas for caries. In this study, three flavonoids lupinifolin (6), 8-methoxy-7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (7), and 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (8), a triterpenoid lupeol (3) as well as four sterols ?-sitosterone (1), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-one (2), ?-sitosterol (4), and stigmasterol (5) were isolated from A. myriophylla wood. The antibacterial activity of these compounds against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 was performed using broth microdilution method. All compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against S. mutans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 1-256 and 2-256 ?g/ml, respectively. Among the isolated compounds, lupinifolin (6) was found to be the most potent with MIC and MBC of 1 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively. Lupinifolin (6) also showed a strong activity against ten clinical isolates of S. mutans with MIC and MBC ranging from 0.25-2 and 0.5-8 ?g/ml, respectively. These results reported the bioactive ingredients of A. myriophylla which support its ethnomedical claims as well. Lupinifolin (6) may have a potential to be a natural anticariogenic agent. PMID:23479194

Joycharat, Nantiya; Thammavong, Sonesay; Limsuwan, Surasak; Homlaead, Sirilux; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek; Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan

2013-06-01

158

Streptococcus phocae, an emerging pathogen for salmonid culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work describes the characterization of the causal agent of disease outbreaks that, from 1999, occurred repeatedly during the summer months (temperatures higher than 15 degrees C) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) cage-farmed in Chile affecting both smolts and adult fish cultured in estuary and marine waters, reaching in some occasions a cumulative mortality up to 25% of the affected population. Diseased fish showed exophthalmia with accumulation of purulent and haemorrhagic fluid around eyes, and ventral petechial haemorrhages. At necropsy, haemorrhage in the abdominal fat, pericarditis, and enlarged liver, spleen and kidney are common pathological changes. Gram-stained smears revealed the presence of Gram-positive cocci, beta-hemolytic, negative for oxidase and catalase tests. Although biochemical characterization of the isolates using the miniaturized system rapid ID 32 Strep suggested their assignation to genus Gemella, sequencing and RFLP analysis of the 16S rRNA revealed that bacteria associated with the mortalities belong to Streptococcus phocae. Serological studies demonstrated that all the salmon isolates are antigenically homogeneous, which can facilitate the development of preventive measures and, although sharing some antigenical determinants, they belong to a different Lancefield group than the type strain isolated from seals. On the basis of these facts, we conclude that the species S. phocae is an emerging pathogen for salmonid culture in Chile, and it should be included as a new member of the warm water streptococcosis. PMID:18280675

Romalde, Jesús L; Ravelo, Carmen; Valdés, Iván; Magariños, Beatriz; de la Fuente, Eduardo; Martín, Carolina San; Avendaño-Herrera, Rubén; Toranzo, Alicia E

2008-07-27

159

Novel Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius variants harboring lactose metabolism genes homologous to Streptococcus thermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) commonly associated with human and animal infections. We elucidated the lactose metabolism of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius predominant in African fermented milk products. S. infantarius subsp. infantarius isolates (n = 192) were identified in 88% of spontaneously fermented camel milk suusac samples (n = 24) from Kenya and Somalia at log?? 8.2-8.5 CFU mL?¹. African S. infantarius isolates excreted stoichiometric amounts of galactose when grown on lactose, exhibiting a metabolism similar to Streptococcus thermophilus and distinct from their type strain. African S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 harbors a regular gal operon with 99.7-100% sequence identity to S. infantarius subsp. infantarius ATCC BAA-102(T) and a gal-lac operon with 91.7-97.6% sequence identity to S. thermophilus, absent in all sequenced SBSEC strains analyzed. The expression and functionality of lacZ was demonstrated in a ?-galactosidase assay. The gal-lac operon was identified in 100% of investigated S. infantarius isolates (n = 46) from suusac samples and confirmed in Malian fermented cow milk isolates. The African S. infantarius variant potentially evolved through horizontal gene transfer of an S. thermophilus-homologous lactose pathway. Safety assessments are needed to identify any putative health risks of this novel S. infantarius variant. PMID:22475940

Jans, Christoph; Gerber, Andrea; Bugnard, Joséphine; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

2012-08-01

160

Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study  

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Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer?s chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU/ml and < 10 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

Jeevarathan J

2007-01-01

161

Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas: Prevalencia en el Hospital Nacional Alejandro Posadas / Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: Prevalence at the Posadas Hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (estreptococo grupo B de Lancefield) es el microorganismo más frecuentemente involucrado en infección neonatal por transmisión vertical madre-feto. También es responsable de infecciones en mujeres embarazadas y adultos con enfermedades de base. El objetivo de este trabajo fu [...] e conocer la prevalencia de portación de S. agalactiae en mujeres embarazadas que concurrieron al Hospital Posadas y determinar la sensibilidad a penicilina, eritromicina y clindamicina de los aislamientos. De las 1203 gestantes estudiadas, se aisló S. agalactiae en 113 muestras, con una prevalencia de 9,39%. Se realizaron las pruebas de sensibilidad a 87 de los 113 aislamientos. Todos ellos resultaron sensibles a penicilina y únicamente 2 cepas fueron resistentes a eritromicina y clindamicina (mecanismo MLS constitutivo). Resaltamos la importancia de conocer la resistencia a estos dos últimos agentes, en el caso de mujeres alérgicas a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos. Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus), is the most frequently microorganism involved in neonatal infections through the mother-fetus vertical transmission. It is also responsible for infections in pregnant women, and adults with underlying diseases. The objective of this work w [...] as to know the S. agalactiae carrier prevalence in pregnant women who attended to Posadas Hospital, and to study the susceptibility pattern of the isolates to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. From 1203 pregnant women studied, S. agalactiae was recovered in 113, which means a prevalence of 9.39%. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested to 87 isolates. All of them were susceptible to penicillin, and only 2 isolates were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (constitutive MLS mechanism). We emphasize the importance of knowing these last resistance, in the case of beta-lactam antibiotics allergic women.

S., Di Bartolomeo; M., Gentile; G., Priore; S., Valle; A., Di Bella.

2005-09-01

162

Endocarditis infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis asociada a instrumentación gastrointestinal / Infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endocarditis por Streptococcus bovis representa el 10% de los casos de endocarditis bacteriana, siendo frecuente su asociación con enfermedades intestinales y hepáticas. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 36 años con antecedentes de fiebre reumática en la niñez, quien hace un año comenzó con sin [...] tomatología digestiva, para la cual fue sometida a estudios clínicos invasivos como endoscopia y colonoscopia, desarrollando posteriormente una endocarditis con aislamiento microbiológico de Streptococcus bovis. Se detalla la fisiopatología, clínica, diagnóstico y los aspectos terapéuticos de esta entidad. Además se discuten las posibles relaciones de las enfermedades intestinales, las instrumentaciones del tubo digestivo y las hepatopatías con la bacteriemia por Streptococcus bovis biotipo I. Esta asociación sugiere un posible mecanismo de adherencia biotipo-específica que aún no ha sido fehacientemente demostrado. Por último se resalta la conveniencia de someter a exploración digestiva y ecocardiografía a todo paciente con hemocultivos positivos a este tipo de germen. (MÉD.UIS. 2012;25(3):251-8). Abstract in english Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis represents 10% of the cases of bacterial endocarditis and is frequently associated with intestinal and liver diseases. We present the case of a 36-year old female patient with a history of rheumatic fever in childhood. The gastrointestinal symptomatology be [...] gan one year before the bacterial endocarditis. Several invasive clinical investigations as endoscopy and colonoscopy, were performed and subsequently she developed endocarditis. Streptococcus bovis was isolated in microbiological studies. Pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment are detailed. The association between bacteremia from Streptococcus bovis biotype I and intestinal diseases, instrumentation of the digestive tract, and hepatopathy is reviewed. This association suggests a possible mechanism of bacteremia and endocarditis associated with biotype I but this has not been definitely confirmed. We have highlighted the importance of performing echocardiography in all patients with blood cultures positive for Streptococcus bovis who have had invasive studies of the gastrointestinal tract.(MÉD.UIS. 2012;25(3)251-8).

Rafael, Pila Pérez; Victor Adolfo, Holguín Prieto; Ever, Cetina Lozada; Rafael, Pila Peláez; Leandro, Segura Pujal.

2012-12-01

163

Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes  

OpenAIRE

The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosyntheti...

Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

2012-01-01

164

Genome of the Opportunistic Pathogen Streptococcus sanguinis? †  

OpenAIRE

The genome of Streptococcus sanguinis is a circular DNA molecule consisting of 2,388,435 bp and is 177 to 590 kb larger than the other 21 streptococcal genomes that have been sequenced. The G+C content of the S. sanguinis genome is 43.4%, which is considerably higher than the G+C contents of other streptococci. The genome encodes 2,274 predicted proteins, 61 tRNAs, and four rRNA operons. A 70-kb region encoding pathways for vitamin B12 biosynthesis and degradation of ethanolamine and propaned...

Xu, Ping; Alves, Joao M.; Kitten, Todd; Brown, Arunsri; Chen, Zhenming; Ozaki, Luiz S.; Manque, Patricio; Ge, Xiuchun; Serrano, Myrna G.; Puiu, Daniela; Hendricks, Stephanie; Wang, Yingping; Chaplin, Michael D.; Akan, Doruk; Paik, Sehmi

2007-01-01

165

Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus  

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Full Text Available The first case of the confirmed necrotizing fasciitis caused by Group A Streptococcus in Yugoslavia was presented. Male patient, aged 28, in good health, suddenly developed symptoms and signs of severe infective syndrome and intensive pain in the axillary region. Parenteral antibiotic, substitution and supportive therapy was conducted along with the radical surgical excision of the necrotizing tissue. The patient did not develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome thanks to the early established diagnosis and timely applied aggressive treatment. He was released from the hospital as completely cured two months after the admission.

Miki? Dragan

2002-01-01

166

Recombinant production of Streptococcus equisimilis streptokinase by Streptomyces lividans  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptokinase (SK is a potent plasminogen activator with widespread clinical use as a thrombolytic agent. It is naturally secreted by several strains of beta-haemolytic streptococci. The low yields obtained in SK production, lack of developed gene transfer methodology and the pathogenesis of its natural host have been the principal reasons to search for a recombinant source for this important therapeutic protein. We report here the expression and secretion of SK by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces lividans. The structural gene encoding SK was fused to the Streptomyces venezuelae CBS762.70 subtilisin inhibitor (vsi signal sequence or to the Streptomyces lividans xylanase C (xlnC signal sequence. The native Vsi protein is translocated via the Sec pathway while the native XlnC protein uses the twin-arginine translocation (Tat pathway. Results SK yield in the spent culture medium of S. lividans was higher when the Sec-dependent signal peptide mediates the SK translocation. Using a 1.5 L fermentor, the secretory production of the Vsi-SK fusion protein reached up to 15 mg SK/l. SK was partially purified from the culture supernatant by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. A 44-kDa degradation product co-eluted with the 47-kDa mature SK. The first amino acid residues of the S. lividans-produced SK were identical with those of the expected N-terminal sequence. The Vsi signal peptide was thus correctly cleaved off and the N-terminus of mature Vsi-SK fusion protein released by S. lividans remained intact. This result also implicates that the processing of the recombinant SK secreted by Streptomyces probably occurred at its C-terminal end, as in its native host Streptococcus equisimilis. The specific activity of the partially purified Streptomyces-derived SK was determined at 2661 IU/mg protein. Conclusion Heterologous expression of Streptococcus equisimilis ATCC9542 skc-2 in Streptomyces lividans was successfully achieved. SK can be translocated via both the Sec and the Tat pathway in S. lividans, but yield was about 30 times higher when the SK was fused to the Sec-dependent Vsi signal peptide compared to the fusion with the Tat-dependent signal peptide of S. lividans xylanase C. Small-scale fermentation led to a fourfold improvement of secretory SK yield in S. lividans compared to lab-scale conditions. The partially purified SK showed biological activity. Streptomyces lividans was shown to be a valuable host for the production of a world-wide important, biopharmaceutical product in a bio-active form.

Vallín Carlos

2007-07-01

167

Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avaliou a atividade inibitória do óleo de copaíba (Copaifera officinalis contra o microrganismo cariogênico, Streptococcus mutans. Para isso, foi realizado um teste de concentração mínima inibitória do óleo de copaíba contra S. mutans, utilizando a técnica de diluição seriada em caldo, c [...] om um controle negativo, um controle positivo (clorexidina a 0,12%) e uma solução de óleo de copaíba 10% como teste. Também foi conduzido um teste de concentração mínima bactericida com os tubos que apresentaram inibição microbiana. No teste de concentração inibitória mínima, o óleo de copaíba mostrou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em todas as concentrações testadas até 0,78 µL/mL da solução a 10% do óleo de copaíba no caldo. Além disso, o controle negativo não teve nenhuma inibição, e a solução de clorexidina 0,12% foi eficaz até 6,25 µL/mL no caldo. O óleo de copaíba mostrou uma atividade bacteriostática contra S. mutans em baixas concentrações, apresentando-se assim como uma opção de fitoterápico a ser utilizado contra bactérias cariogênicas na prevenção de cáries. Abstract in english This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis against the cariogenic microorganism, Streptococcus mutans. For such purpose, a minimum inhibition concentration test of copaiba oil against S. mutans was performed, using the serial dilution in broth technique, with [...] a negative control, a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine) and a 10% copaíba oil solution as a test. A minimum bactericidal concentration test with tubes presenting microbial inhibition was also conduced. In the minimum inhibitory concentration test, copaiba oil showed inhibition of bacterial growth at all concentrations tested up to 0.78 µL/mL of the 10% copaiba oil solution in the broth. In addition, the negative control had no inhibition, and the 0.12% chlorhexidine solution was effective up to 6.25 µL/mL in the broth. Copaiba oil showed a bacteriostatic activity against S. mutans at low concentrations, and could be a an option of phytotherapic agent to be used against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention of caries disease.

Fábio Alessandro, Pieri; Maria Carolina Martins, Mussi; João Evangelista, Fiorini; Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo, Moreira; José Mauricio, Schneedorf.

168

Erythromycine resistance in streptococcus pyogenes group a throat isolates in sukkur city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine and evaluate the predominant and common etiologic agent(s) of pharyngitis in Sukkur city and to determine their current antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends. Out of 257 throat samples, 149 positive for Streptococcus pyogenes Group A between November 2001 and May 2003 from adult population of Sukkur city were tested for their susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin and clairithromycin. The throat samples (swabs) were examined by Gram-stain, API system, and for presence of a hemolysis. Samples were further cultured on Muller Hinton agar for determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The sensitivity was performed on only those samples which were positive for S. pyogenes. Of all throat isolates, 95% were predominantly resistant to erythromycin. Their sensitivity towards clindamycin was 30%, azithromycin 44% and clairithromycin 76% respectively. The current pharyngeal isolates of S. pyogenes exhibited frequent and alarmingly high erythromycin resistance which may be due to both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms. (author)

169

Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica y Streptococcus suis EN EL COMPLEJO RESPIRATORIO PORCINO / Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica AND Streptococcus suis IN THE PORCINE RESPIRATORY COMPLEX  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El complejo respiratorio porcino (CRP) es un proceso dinámico que involucra una variedad de factores e incluye las condiciones ambientales, el hospedero y las diferentes interacciones microbianas que se establecen entre los microorganismos primarios como Mycoplasma hyoneumoniae o el virus del síndro [...] me respiratorio-reproductivo porcino y bacterias secundarias como Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica o Streptococcus suis. La mayoría de estas entidades corresponden a géneros y especies que pueden formar parte de la microbiota normal del tracto respiratorio, pero la capacidad patógena de las cepas reside fundamentalmente en la presencia y expresión de genes asociados a la virulencia, que en muchos casos se adquieren por transferencia horizontal, por lo que existen diferentes genotipos y es necesario el monitoreo mediante pruebas sensibles. El propósito de esta revisión es ampliar el conocimiento sobre los atributos de virulencia de las bacterias que actúan como agentes secundarios en el CRP. Al considerar la complejidad del mismo el mejor método de control radica en la prevención, en este sentido los programas vacunales priorizan a los agentes primarios, pero es necesario disponer de ensayos de monitoreo que permitan vigilar la presencia y potencialidades patógenas de las bacterias que incrementan la severidad de los procesos respiratorios actuando como agentes secundarios. Abstract in english The porcine respiratory complex is the denomination for multiple changes and lesions that result in a decreased respiratory capacity of affected pigs. It is a dynamic process which involves different factors such as environment, host and different microbial interactions between primary agents like M [...] ycoplasma hypneumoniae or the porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus with Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica or Streptococcus suis which act as secondary pathogens and increase the severity of the disease. These entities correspond to genera and species being part of the normal flora and the pathogenic capacity lies on different genes which are acquired by horizontal transfer, thus there are different genotypes associated or not to the pathogen. The aim of this article is to make an analysis about bacteria virulence attributes which act as secondary pathogens in the respiratory disease in pigs. It is important to consider the management and control of the farm based on biosecurity and it is necessary to have different diagnostic methods for testing bacteria virulence attributes that act as secondary agents, because nowadays vaccination program are directed to primary agents.

Ivette, Espinosa; Siomara, Martínez.

2008-12-01

170

Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro del aceite de girasol ozonizado sobre Streptococcus mutans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans es considerado como el principal agente etiológico de las caries bucales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto letal que ejerce el aceite de girasol ozonizado (OLEOZON® sobre este microorganismo. Se evaluó la influencia que presentan diferentes factores, como el pH, la concentración del agente antimicrobiano OLEOZON® y el tiempo de contacto. Se determinaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias, las que presentaron un comportamiento similar entre especies del mismo género, no así con bacterias de otro género. Se demostró que la actividad del OLEOZON®, no variaba significativamente con las variaciones de pH estudiadas, aunque se obtuvo una ligera disminución en el número de microorganismos a pH ligeramente ácido, la cual fue mayor de un 99,9% del número inicial de microorganismo. El estudio de las distintas concentraciones reveló un efecto significativo sobre la letalidad del microorganismo, siendo la equivalente a 285 mg/mL, la de mayor efectividad. Con un tiempo de contacto de diez minutos entre el microorganismo y el agente, se logró una letalidad del 99,9 %, no así con el de tres minutos, con el cual se logró una reducción de hasta un 95 %, de la concentración inicial del microorganismo. Se obtuvo una ecuación, la cual relaciona los tres parámetros en estudio y que permitió examinar la influencia que ejercía el pH, la concentraci ón del agente antimicrobiano y el tiempo en la muerte del microorganismo. Estos resultados demuestran que el OLEOZON® es un producto eficaz para el tratamiento de las infecciones provocadas por Streptococcus mutans.

Ir\\u00E1n Fern\\u00E1ndez Torres

2006-01-01

171

Diverse Virulent Pneumophages Infect Streptococcus mitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mitis has emerged as one of the leading causes of bacterial endocarditis and is related to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance has also increased among strains of S. mitis and S. pneumoniae. Phages are being reinvestigated as alternatives to antibiotics for managing infections. In this study, the two virulent phages Cp-1 (Podoviridae) and Dp-1 (Siphoviridae), previously isolated from S. pneumoniae, were found to also infect S. mitis. Microbiological assays showed that both pneumophages could not only replicate in S. mitis but also produced more visible plaques on this host. However, the burst size and phage adsorption data were lower in S. mitis as compared to S. pneumoniae. A comparison of the genomes of each phage grown on both hosts produced identical nucleotide sequences, confirming that the same phages infect both bacterial species. We also discovered that the genomic sequence of podophage Cp-1 of the Félix d'Hérelle collection is different than the previously reported sequence and thus renamed SOCP. PMID:25692983

Ouennane, Siham; Leprohon, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain

2015-01-01

172

Prospective study of Streptococcus milleri bacteremia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a prospective study of bacteremia caused by organisms of the Streptococcus milleri group a total of 32 adult patients were observed over a seven-year period. These patients accounted for 1.6% of all patients diagnosed as having significant bacteremia and 17% of all cases of streptococcal (nonpneumococcal) bacteremia diagnosed during the study period. Only five patients had polymicrobic bacteremia. In 31 cases, a presumed origin of infection was identified, generally oral or gastrointestinal disease. There were only six cases of nosocomial acquisition. The most common presenting symptom was prolonged fever. The following forms of presentation were documented: bacteremia with local suppurative infection (56%), bacteremia without local suppurative infection (25%), and endocarditis (19%). An associated focus of infection was found in the abdominal cavity in 20 cases (62%). The mortality rate was 12.5%. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Caution is necessary in interpreting a blood culture positive for Streptococcus milleri group organisms, since, unlike other viridans streptococci, they are rarely contaminants. For this reason patients with suppurative processes and/or digestive tract disease must be carefully investigated. PMID:8740852

Casariego, E; Rodriguez, A; Corredoira, J C; Alonso, P; Coira, A; Bal, M; López, M J; Varela, J

1996-03-01

173

Pathogenicity of Streptococcus ictaluri to channel catfish.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathogenicity of a Streptococcus ictaluri isolate in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus at the fry (0.5 g), fingerling (15 g), and juvenile (55 g) stages was determined by experimental bath immersion and injection experiments. Channel catfish were exposed in 1-L immersion baths containing 10(8), 10(9), 10(10), 10(11) or 10(12) colony-forming units (cfu) of S. ictaluri. Fish were also injected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of bacterial solution for final doses of 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) cfu of S. ictaluri per fish. Streptococcus ictaluri caused mortality in fry, fingerling, and juvenile channel catfish within 21 d postinfection. When mortalities were calculated based on size and challenge route, the cumulative percent mortalities were 11% for fry and 0% for fingerlings by the bath immersion route and 14% for fingerlings and 6% for juveniles by the injection route. Isolation of S. ictaluri from moribund and dead catfish was confirmed by the newly established BIOLOG profile (MicroLog3 system). The results indicate that channel catfish were only susceptible to high concentrations of S. ictaluri and that juvenile channel catfish were less susceptible, possibly explaining why little mortality has been attributed to S. ictaluri infection in catfish aquaculture. PMID:20043405

Pasnik, David J; Evans, Joyce J; Klesius, Phillip H; Shoemaker, Craig A; Yeh, Hung-Yueh

2009-09-01

174

Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis admitted to the pediatric hospital of San Miguel del Padron, City of Havana in this period were assessed. RESULTS: Children under one year are the most frequently affected. Septic shock and brain edema were the most severe complications. Three patients died, implying that this disease has a serious course. Early treatment of brain edema is very important to reduce mortality. The elective drugs for treatment of these cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were vancomycin combined with cephalosporin, cefotaxime or ceftriaxone type. CONCLUSION: Patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis show clinical characteristics, complications, and sequels that are different to other bacterial meningoencephalitis, meaning that they could be helpful for physicians considering the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis.OBJETIVO: Existe un incremento de la meningoencefalitis producida por Streptococcus pneumoniae, después de las campa?as exitosas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las caracteristicas clinicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio, las complicaciones y el manejo terapéutico de los pacientes que sufrieron esta enfermedad desde 1993 a 2006. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron doce niños con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana en este periodo. RESULTADOS: Los ni?os menores de un año son los más frecuentemente afectados. El shock séptico y el edema cerebral las mayores complicaciones. Tres pacientes fallecieron. Esta enfermedad ha tenido un curso serio. El tratamiento temprano del edema cerebral es muy importante para reducir la mortalidad. Los medicamentos de elección para tratar la meningoencefalitis por Strepcococcus pneumoniae en los casos estudiados fueron la vancomicina combinada con cefalosporina del tipo de la cefatoxima o la ceftriaxona. CONCLUSION: Los pacientes con meningoencefalitis por Streptoccocus pneumoniae exhibieron características clínica, complicaciones y secuelas las cuales se diferencian de otras meningoencefalitis bacterianas. Por eso estos elementos pueden ayudar a los médicos en el diagnóstico diferencial

Raisa Bu-Coifiu Fanego

2009-12-01

175

Genetic Relationships between Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus mitis: Characterization of “Atypical” Pneumococci and Organisms Allied to S. mitis Harboring S. pneumoniae Virulence Factor-Encoding Genes  

OpenAIRE

The oral streptococcal group (mitis phylogenetic group) currently consists of nine recognized species, although the group has been traditionally difficult to classify, with frequent changes in nomenclature over the years. The pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae), an important human pathogen, is traditionally distinguished from the most closely related oral streptococcal species Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis on the basis of three differentiating characteristics: optochin susc...

Whatmore, Adrian M.; Efstratiou, Androulla; Pickerill, A. Paul; Broughton, Karen; Woodard, Geoffrey; Sturgeon, Daniel; George, Robert; Dowson, Christopher G.

2000-01-01

176

Liver abscess associated with an oral flora bacterium Streptococcus anginosus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Viridans group Streptococcus, a bacterium of the oral flora has a low-virulence and rarely causes liver abscess. A 40-yearoldmale patient was admitted to the hospital complaining of high fever and malaise. A physical examination revealedpoor oral hygiene; there were caries on many teeth, and he had hepatomegaly. A hepatic abscess was identified inhis abdominal tomography. Streptococcus anginosus was isolated from the drainage material, and the bile ducts werenormal in his MRI cholangiography. An immunocompetent case of liver abscess caused by Streptococcus anginosusoriginated most probably from oral flora is presented here. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(1:33-35

Hava Y?lmaz

2012-03-01

177

Galactose fermentation by Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris: pathways, products, and regulation.  

OpenAIRE

All of the lactic streptococci examined except Streptococcus lactis ML8 fermented galactose to lactate, formate, acetate, and ethanol. The levels of pyruvate-formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated and reduced, respectively, in galactose-grown cells compared with glucose- or lactose-grown cells. Reduced intracellular levels of both the lactate dehydrogenase activator (fructose, 1,6-diphosphate) and pyruvate-formate lyase inhibitors (triose phosphates) appeared to be the main fac...

Thomas, T. D.; Turner, K. W.; Crow, V. L.

1980-01-01

178

Reappraisal of the taxonomy of Streptococcus suis serotypes 20, 22 and 26: Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to clarify the taxonomic position of serotypes 20, 22 and 26 of Streptococcus suis, biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on isolates (SUT-7, SUT-286(T), SUT-319, SUT-328 and SUT-380) reacted with specific antisera of serotypes 20, 22 or 26 from the saliva of healthy pigs as well as reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26. Comparative recN gene sequencing showed high genetic relatedness among our isolates, but marked differences from the type strain S. suis NCTC 10234(T), i.e. 74.8-75.7?% sequence similarity. The genomic relatedness between the isolates and other strains of species of the genus Streptococcus, including S. suis, was calculated using the average nucleotide identity values of whole genome sequences, which indicated that serotypes 20, 22 and 26 should be removed taxonomically from S. suis and treated as a novel genomic species. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 99.0-100?% sequence similarities for the 16S rRNA genes between the reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26, and our isolates. Isolate STU-286(T) had relatively high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with S. suis NCTC 10234(T) (98.8?%). SUT-286(T) could be distinguished from S. suis and other closely related species of the genus Streptococcus using biochemical tests. Due to its phylogenetic and phenotypic similarities to S. suis we propose naming the novel species Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov., with SUT-286(T) (?=?JCM 30273(T)?=?DSM 29126(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25385995

Nomoto, R; Maruyama, F; Ishida, S; Tohya, M; Sekizaki, T; Osawa, Ro

2015-02-01

179

Isolation and Characterization of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Auxotrophs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans?  

OpenAIRE

Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis is essential for the maintenance of membrane structure and function in many groups of anaerobic bacteria. Like Escherichia coli, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae produces straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids. In E. coli UFA synthesis requires the action of two gene products, the essential isomerase/dehydratase encoded by fabA and an elongation condensing enzyme encoded by fabB. S. pneumoniae lacks both ...

Altabe, Silvia; Lo?pez, Paloma; Mendoza, Diego

2007-01-01

180

Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered specific for S. pneumoniae hamper the exact identification of S. pneumoniae. Based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes of a collection of 634 streptococcal strains, identified by multilocus sequence analysis, we detected a cytosine at position 203 present in all 440 strains of S. pneumoniae but replaced by an adenosine residue in all strains representing other species of mitis group streptococci. The S. pneumoniae-specific sequence signature could be demonstrated by sequence analysis or indirectly by restriction endonuclease digestion of a PCR amplicon covering the site. The S. pneumoniae-specific signature offers an inexpensive means for validation of the identity of clinical isolates and should be used as an integrated marker in the annotation procedure employed in 16S rRNA-based molecular studies of complex human microbiotas. This may avoid frequent misidentifications such as those we demonstrate to have occurred in previous reports and in reference sequence databases.

Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

2011-01-01

181

Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal injection using 101 -108 CFU/ fish showed 20-90% mortality within 10 days and the LD50 was 3.60x101 - 1.72x107 CFU. Haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and blood cell values of infected and moribund fish were significantly decreased. Histopathological findings included the occurrence of inflammation, cells necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and the formation of granulomas in the infected organs.

Suanyuk, N.

2005-02-01

182

Responses of innate immune cells to group A Streptococcus  

OpenAIRE

Group A Streptococcus (GAS), also called Streptococcus pyogenes, is a Gram-positive beta-hemolytic human pathogen which causes a wide range of mostly self-limiting but also several life-threatening diseases. Innate immune responses are fundamental for defense against GAS, yet their activation by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and GAS-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is incompletely understood. In recent years, the use of animal models together with the powerful too...

Fieber, Christina; Kovarik, Pavel

2014-01-01

183

Horizontal gene transfer and recombination in Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a human pathogen that colonizes the skin or throat, and causes a range of diseases from relatively benign pharyngitis to potentially fatal invasive diseases. While not as virulent as the close relative Streptococcus pyogenes the two share a number of virulence factors and are known to coexist in a human host. Both pre- and post-genomic studies have revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination occurs between these two or...

Mcneilly, Celia L.; Mcmillan, David J.

2014-01-01

184

Colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae during pregnancy: maternal and perinatal prognosis  

OpenAIRE

We reviewed colonization by group B Streptococcus beta-haemolyticus of Lancefield (SGB), or Streptococcus agalactiae, in pregnant women, and the consequences of infection for the mother and newborn infant, including factors that influence the risk for anogenital colonization by SGB. We also examined the methods for diagnosis and prophylaxis of SGB to prevent early-onset invasive neonatal bacterial disease. At present, it is justifiable to adopt anal and vaginal SGB culture as part of differen...

Patrícia El Beitune; Geraldo Duarte; Cláudia Maria Leite Maffei

2005-01-01

185

Chromosomally mediated high-level gentamicin resistance in Streptococcus mitis.  

OpenAIRE

Four blood culture isolates of Streptococcus mitis were found to be resistant to penicillin (MIC, 16 to 32 micrograms/ml) and gentamicin (MIC, 128 or 1,000 micrograms/ml), and the two antibiotics demonstrated a lack of in vitro synergy. As shown by polymerase chain reaction assays, the structural gene known to encode high-level gentamicin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Streptococcus agalactiae was also present in all four S. mitis strains. Attempts to isolate p...

Kaufhold, A.; Potgieter, E.

1993-01-01

186

Contribution of Glutathione Peroxidase to the Virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes  

OpenAIRE

Glutathione peroxidases are widespread among eukaryotic organisms and function as a major defense against hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides. However, glutathione peroxidases are not well studied among prokaryotic organisms and have not previously been shown to promote bacterial virulence. Recently, a gene with homology to glutathione peroxidase was shown to contribute to the antioxidant defenses of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus). Since this bacterium causes numerous supp...

Brenot, Audrey; King, Katherine Y.; Janowiak, Blythe; Griffith, Owen; Caparon, Michael G.

2004-01-01

187

Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo1, Donaji Velasco-Arias2, David Diaz2, Katiushka Arevalo-Niño1, Marianela Garza-Enriquez1, Myriam A De la Garza-Ramos1, Claudio Cabral-Romero11Instituto de Biotecnologia, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, CIDICS, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 2Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, MexicoBackground and methods: Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities.Results: Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM.Conclusion: These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation.Keywords: zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles, antimicrobial agent, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans

Hernandez-Delgadillo R

2012-04-01

188

Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge. PMID:24481032

Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

2014-01-01

189

Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias siendo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño. Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente.The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children’s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pneumoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution in Costa Rica, the predicted vaccine protection is calculated in 74%.

Hernán Sierra- Fernandez

2006-06-01

190

Agent engineering  

CERN Document Server

Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P

2001-01-01

191

Isolation, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of the Streptococcus mutans mannitol-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and the mannitol-specific factor III gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system.  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus mutans, the causative agent of dental caries, utilizes carbohydrates by means of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). The PTS facilitates vectorial translocation of metabolizable carbohydrates to form the corresponding sugar-phosphates, which are subsequently converted to glycolytic intermediates. The PTS consists of both sugar-specific and sugar-independent components. Complementation of an Escherichia coli mtlD mutation with a streptococcal recomb...

Honeyman, A. L.; Curtiss, R.

1992-01-01

192

Novel Extracellular x-Prolyl Dipeptidyl-Peptidase (DPP) from Streptococcus gordonii FSS2: an Emerging Subfamily of Viridans Streptococcal x-Prolyl DPPs  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus gordonii is generally considered a benign inhabitant of the oral microflora, and yet it is a primary etiological agent in the development of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE), an inflammatory state that propagates thrombus formation and tissue damage on the surface of heart valves. Strain FSS2 produced several extracellular aminopeptidase and fibrinogen-degrading activities during growth in culture. In this report we describe the purification, characterization, and cloning o...

Goldstein, J. M.; Banbula, A.; Kordula, T.; Mayo, J. A.; Travis, J.

2001-01-01

193

Distribution of serotypes and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated in Brazil between 1980 and 2006  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus agalactiae is a common agent of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis and an important cause of human infections, mainly among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases. The present study describes the genetic and phenotypic diversity among 392 S. agalactiae human and bovine strains isolated between 1980 and 2006 in Brazil. The most prevalent serotypes were Ia, II, III and V and all the strains were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levo...

Tatiana de Castro Abreu Pinto; Natália Silva Costa; Aline Rosa Vianna Souza; Ligia Guedes da Silva; Ana Beatriz de Almeida Corrêa; Flavio Gimenis Fernandes; Ivi Cristina Menezes Oliveira; Marcos Corrêa de Mattos; Alexandre Soares Rosado; Leslie Claude Benchetrit

2013-01-01

194

Longitudinal Analysis of Pneumococcal Antibodies during Community-Acquired Pneumonia Reveals a Much Higher Involvement of Streptococcus pneumoniae than Estimated by Conventional Methods Alone ?  

OpenAIRE

In up to half of all cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), no pathogen can be identified with conventional diagnostic methods. The most common identified causative agent is Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, pneumococcal antibody responses during CAP were analyzed to estimate the contribution of the pneumococcus to all cases of CAP for epidemiological purposes. Pneumococcal antibodies against 14 different serotypes were measured in serum of hospitalized CAP patients. Patients par...

Mens, Suzan P.; Meijvis, Sabine C. A.; Endeman, Henrik; Velzen-blad, Heleen; Biesma, Douwe H.; Grutters, Jan C.; Vlaminckx, Bart J. M.; Rijkers, Ger T.

2011-01-01

195

Cloning of the Streptococcus mutans Gene Encoding Glucan Binding Protein B and Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Protein Production in Clinical Isolates  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of dental caries, produces several activities that promote its accumulation within the dental biofilm. These include glucosyltransferases, their glucan products, and proteins that bind glucan. At least three glucan binding proteins have been identified, and GbpB, the protein characterized in this study, appears to be novel. The gbpB gene was cloned and the predicted protein sequence contained several unusual features and shared extensive hom...

Mattos-graner, Renata O.; Jin, Song; King, William F.; Chen, Tsute; Smith, Daniel J.; Duncan, Margaret J.

2001-01-01

196

Accuracy of Phenotypic and Genotypic Testing for Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Description of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae sp. nov.  

OpenAIRE

We have identified an unusual group of viridans group streptococci that resemble Streptococcus pneumoniae. DNA-DNA homology studies suggested that a subset of these isolates represent a novel species that may be included in the S. oralis-S. mitis group of viridans group streptococci. We suggest that this novel species be termed Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae. A combination of phenotypic and genetic reactions allows its identification. S. pseudopneumoniae strains do not have pneumococcal capsu...

Arbique, Judy C.; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-cuot, Patrick; Quesne, Gilles; Carvalho, Maria Da Glo?ria S.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Morey, Roger E.; Jackson, Delois; Davidson, Ross J.; Facklam, Richard R.

2004-01-01

197

Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus  

OpenAIRE

Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from t...

Barrientos, Leticia; Herrera, Christian L.; Montenegro, Gloria; Ortega, Ximena; Veloz, Jorge; Alvear, Marysol; Cuevas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Nicola?s; Salazar, Luis A.

2013-01-01

198

Comparison of a 3-Set Genotyping System with Multilocus Sequence Typing for Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus)  

OpenAIRE

Group B streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) is the most common cause of neonatal and obstetric sepsis and is an increasingly important cause of septicemia in elderly individuals and immunocompromised patients. Epidemiological studies of GBS infections require comprehensive typing systems that provide information about variable characteristics, such as antigenic type, virulence, or antibiotic resistance, as well as the “backbone” structure or the genetic lineage of isolates. We h...

Sun, Ying; Kong, Fanrong; Zhao, Zuotao; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.

2005-01-01

199

Eritrodermia con bacteriemia por Streptococcus dysgalactiae subespecie equisimilis en un paciente pediátrico: reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura / Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis bacteremic erythroderma in a pediatric patient: a case report and review of literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Las infecciones por estreptococos piógenos, comunes en la edad pediátrica, muestran en los últimos años un aumento en la identificación de grupos no A o B. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años, con historia de fiebre de cinco días de evolución asociado a una lesión eritrodérmica con hemocultivo [...] s positivos a Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (confirmado por biología molecular-genotipificación). Recibió terapia antimicrobiana por 14 días con ß-lactámicos con una evolución favorable. Este estreptococo ß-hemolítico, presenta antígenos del grupo A, C y G de Lancefield y una gran similitud con Streptococcus pyogenes en relación a los factores de virulencia. Más frecuentemente aislado en adultos mayores, existen pocos casos descritos en población pediátrica. El tratamiento de primera línea es con ß-lactámicos, para los cuales no hay reportes de resistencia antimicrobiana. Abstract in english Infections caused by pyogenic streptococci are commons in pediatric ages. However, in the last decades there has been an increase in the isolation of no A or B Streptococci. We report a case of a 6 years old girl, who presents fever for 5 days and erythroderma. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies [...] equisimilis was isolated from blood cultures. She receives antibiotics for 14 days with ß-lactams with a good clinic evolution with normalization of the inflammatory parameters. This agent ß-hemolítico presents antigens of Lancefield groups A, C and G, and a great similitude regarding virulence factors, with Streptococcus pyogenes. Frequently in old patients, few reported cases in pediatric population. First line treatment remains ß-lactam antibiotics for which there are no reports of increasing resistance.

Miguel A, Pantoja; Luis, Delpiano; Gia, Haquin.

2014-10-01

200

In vitro biofilm forming potential of Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine in China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of bio?lms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by confoca [...] l laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.

Guo, Dawei; Wang, Liping; Lu, Chengping.

2012-09-01

201

[Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents--special reference to bacteria isolated between April 2007 and March 2008].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria isolated from infections in abdominal surgery during the period from April 2007 to March 2008 were investigated in a multicenter study in Japan, and the following results were obtained. In this series, 707 strains including 24 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 181 (79.0%) of 229 patients with surgical infections. Three hundred and ninety-five strains were isolated from primary infections, and 288 strains were isolated from postoperative infections. From primary infections, anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were predominant, followed by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, while from postoperative infections aerobic Gram-positive bacteria were predominant, followed by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Among aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. in this order, from primary infections, while Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Staphylococcus spp. from postoperative infections. Among aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominantly isolated from primary infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae, in this order, and from postoperative infections, P. aeruginosa was most predominantly isolated, followed by E. cloacae, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Among anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Parvimonas micra was the highest from primary infections, followed by Streptococcus constellatus and Gemella morbillorum, and from postoperative infections, Anaerococcus prevotii was most predominantly isolated. Among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, the isolation rate of both Bacteroides fragilis and Bilophila wadsworthia were the highest from primary infections, followed by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Campylobacter gracilis, and from postoperative infections, B. thetaiotaomicron was most predominately isolated, followed by B. fragilis, Bacteroides caccae and B. wadsworthia in this order. In this series, we noticed no vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive cocci, nor multidrug-resistant P aeruginosa. There were nine strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococci which show higher MIC against teicoplanin more than 4 gg/mL, but all of them had good susceptibilities against various anti-MRSA antibiotics. We should carefully follow up B. wadsworthia which was resistant to various antibiotics, and also Bacteroides spp. which was resistant to many beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:19860320

Shinagawa, Nagao; Hasegawa, Masamitsu; Hirata, Koichi; Katsuramaki, Tadashi; Mizukuchi, Tohru; Ushijima, Yasuhide; Ushida, Tomohiro; Aikawa, Naoki; Yo, Kikuo; Yura, Jiro; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Mizuno, Isamu; Mashita, Keiji; Ishikawa, Sw; Mizuno, Akira; Tsumura, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Moori, Noriaki; Sumita, Naoki; Kubo, Shoji; Lee, Shigeru; Oomura, Toru; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Takeshi; Yamaue, Hiroki; Kawai, Manabu; Takesue, Yoshio; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kimura, Hideyuki; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Sueda, Taijiro; Hiyama, Eiso; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ooge, Hiroki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Yasui, Yoshimasa; Yasunami, Yoichi; Ryu, Shinichiro

2009-08-01

202

A Transcriptional Regulator and ABC Transporters Link Stress Tolerance, (p)ppGpp, and Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans? †  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus mutans, a primary agent of dental caries, has three (p)ppGpp synthases: RelA, which is required for a mupirocin-induced stringent response; RelP, which produces (p)ppGpp during exponential growth and is regulated by the RelRS two-component system; and RelQ. Transcription of relPRS and a gene cluster (SMu0835 to SMu0837) located immediately upstream was activated in cells grown with aeration and during a stringent response, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that SMu0...

Seaton, Kinda; Ahn, Sang-joon; Sagstetter, Ann M.; Burne, Robert A.

2010-01-01

203

Group B Streptococcus Engages an Inhibitory Siglec through Sialic Acid Mimicry to Blunt Innate Immune and Inflammatory Responses In Vivo  

OpenAIRE

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a common agent of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in newborns. The GBS surface capsule contains sialic acids (Sia) that engage Sia-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) on leukocytes. Here we use mice lacking Siglec-E, an inhibitory Siglec of myelomonocytic cells, to study the significance of GBS Siglec engagement during in vivo infection. We found GBS bound to Siglec-E in a Sia-specific fashion to blunt NF-?B and MAPK activation. As a consequence, Sigl...

Chang, Yung-chi; Olson, Joshua; Beasley, Federico C.; Tung, Christine; Zhang, Jiquan; Crocker, Paul R.; Varki, Ajit; Nizet, Victor

2014-01-01

204

Coaggregation of Streptococcus sanguis and other streptococci with Candida albicans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirteen strains of viridans group streptococci and two strains of other streptococci were tested for coaggregation with Candida albicans. Streptococcus sanguis strains generally exhibited low levels of adherence to 28 degrees C-grown exponential-phase yeast cells, but starvation of yeast cells for glucose at 37 degrees C (or at 28 degrees C) increased their coaggregating activity with these streptococci by at least tenfold. This was a property common to four C. albicans strains tested, two of which were able to form mycelia (6406 and MEN) and two of which were not (MM2002 and CA2). The expression of the coaggregation adhesin during yeast cell starvation was inhibited by addition of trichodermin or amphotericin B. The strains of S. sanguis, Streptococcus gordonii, and Streptococcus oralis tested for coaggregating activity encompassed a diverse range of physiological and morphological types, yet all exhibited saturable coaggregation with starved C. albicans cells. There was no correlation of cell surface hydrophobicity, of either yeast or streptococcal cells, with their abilities to coaggregate. Strains of Streptococcus anginosus also coaggregated with starved yeast cells; Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus pyogenes coaggregated to a lesser degree with C. albicans, and the coaggregation with S. pyogenes was not promoted by yeast cell starvation; Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis did not coaggregate with yeast. The coaggregation reactions of S. sanguis and S. gordonii with C. albicans were inhibited by EDTA and by heat or protease treatment of the yeast cells and were not reversible by the addition of lactose or other simple sugars. These observations extend the range of intergeneric coaggregations that are known to occur between oral microbes and suggest that coaggregations of C. albicans with viridans group streptococci may be important for colonization of oral surfaces by the yeast. PMID:2182544

Jenkinson, H F; Lala, H C; Shepherd, M G

1990-05-01

205

Parallel evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis to pathogenic and mutualistic lifestyles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analysis shows that the species constitutes one evolutionary lineage in a cluster of the otherwise commensal Streptococcus mitis strains, with which humans live in harmony. In a comparative analysis of 35 genomes, including phylogenetic analyses of all predicted genes, we have shown that the pathogenic pneumococcus has evolved into a master of genomic flexibility while lineages that evolved into the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious coexistence with their host by stabilizing an approximately 15%-reduced genome devoid of many virulence genes. Our data further provide evidence that interspecies gene transfer between S. pneumoniae and S. mitis occurs in a unidirectional manner, i.e., from S. mitis to S. pneumoniae. Import of genes from S. mitis and other mitis, anginosus, and salivarius group streptococci ensured allelic replacements and antigenic diversification and has been driving the evolution of the remarkable structural diversity of capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae. Our study explains how the unique structural diversity of the pneumococcal capsule emerged and conceivably will continue to increase and reveals a striking example of the fragile border between the commensal and pathogenic lifestyles. While genomic plasticity enabling quick adaptation to environmental stress is a necessity for the pathogenic streptococci, the commensal lifestyle benefits from stability. Importance: One of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the commensal Streptococcus mitis are closely related obligate symbionts associated with hominids. Faced with a shortage of accessible hosts, the two opposing lifestyles evolved in parallel. We have shown that the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious coexistence with its host by stabilizing a reduced genome devoid of many virulence genes. Meanwhile, the pathogenic pneumococcus evolved into a master of genomic flexibility and imports genes from S. mitis and other related streptococci. This process ensured antigenic diversification and has been driving the evolution of the remarkable structural diversity of capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae, which conceivably will continue to increase and present a challenge to disease prevention. PMID:25053789

Kilian, Mogens; Riley, David R; Jensen, Anders; Brüggemann, Holger; Tettelin, Hervé

2014-01-01

206

Sensibilidad antibiótica y recomendaciones de tratamiento para Streptococcus pneumoniae / Antibiotic sensitivity and treatment recommendations for Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la sensibilidad antibiótica de Streptococcus pneumoniae a los antimicrobianos usados con más frecuencia en la práctica clínica y revisar las recomendaciones actuales de tratamiento de la enfermedad neumocócica. Durante el periodo octubre 2000 a septiembre [...] 2002 se recogieron los datos demográficos, el diagnóstico clínico del paciente, el origen de la muestra y la sensibilidad antibiótica de todos los Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados en los laboratorios de microbiología del Servicio Navarro de Salud, que atienden a una población de 555.829 habitantes. Se obtuvieron 465 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae (166 de origen invasor). Los aislamientos procedentes de exudado ótico fueron los más resistentes y los de hemocultivo los más sensibles. El porcentaje de resistencia a penicilina fue del 43%, 6,1% para amoxicilina y 6,6% para cefotaxima. El 36,3% de los aislamientos fueron resistentes a eritromicina, de ellos un 85,45% exhibía un fenotipo MLS B y un 14,55% un fenotipo M. Se detectó multirresistencia en un 32,3% de los aislamientos. La resistencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae a betalactámicos, especialmente penicilina, amoxicilina y cefotaxima/ceftriaxona no impide su uso clínico en la mayoría de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae de nuestra área, exceptuando los casos de meningitis neumocócica. Abstract in english The aims of present paper were to determine the susceptibility of the strains to the most usual antibiotics in clinical practice and to review the current recomendations to guide the most appropiate treatment. During the period october 2000 to september 2002, the patient’s data (age and sex), source [...] of the sample, diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility were collected on Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from microbiology laboratories in the Navarra region (555.829 inhabitans). Four hundred and sixty five isolates were identified (166 from invasive infections). Generally, isolates from ear swabs were the most resistant to the antimicrobials tested, while those from blood culture were the most susceptible. Of the Streptococcus pneumoniae tested, 43% were resistant to penicillin, 6.1% to amoxicillin and 6.6% to cefotaxime. Of the 36.3% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that were resistant to erythromycin, 85.45% exhibited the MLS B phenotype while the remaining 14.55% presented with the M phenotype. Multiple-resistance was detected in 32.3% of the strains. The antibiotic resistance rates to beta-lactams (specially penicillin, amoxicillin and cefotaxime/ceftrixone) in Streptococcus pneumoniae don’t prevent its clinical use for the most of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in our area, except for pneumococcal meningitis.

A., Gil-Setas; A., Mazón; L., Torroba; A., Barricarte; J.J., García-Irure; A., Petit; M.E., Polo.

2004-04-01

207

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Streptococcus bovis: case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication that occurs in patient with cirrhosis and ascites. It occurs in 10% to 30% of patients admitted to hospital. The organisms that cause SBP are predominantly enteric. Escherichia coli is the most frequent recovered pathogen, [...] and Gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp., are being considered an emerging causative agent of SBP. Streptococcus bovis that may be found as part of the commensal bowel flora in about 10% of healthy adults constitute an uncommon cause of peritonitis that was first reported in 1994. We describe the first case of SBP at the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM) caused by S. bovis, resistant to the antibiotics erythromycin and clindamycin (inducible clindamycin resistance detected by disk diffusion test using the D-zone test).

Rosmari, Hörner; Adenilde, Salla; Loiva Otonelli de, Oliveira; Nara Lucia Frasson Dal, Forno; Roselene Alves, Righi; Vanessa Oliveira, Domingues; Fabiane, Rigatti; Letícia Eichstaedt, Mayer.

2010-06-01

208

Streptococcus mutans sortase A inhibitory metabolites from the flowers of Sophora japonica.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new maltol derivative (2) along with three known maltol derivative (1) and flavonol glycosides (3 and 4) were isolated from the dried flowers of Sophora japonica. Based upon the results of combined spectroscopic methods, the structure of new compound (2) was determined to be maltol-3-O-(4'-O-cis-p-coumaroyl-6'-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl))-?-glucopyranoside, an isomer of 1. These compounds strongly inhibited the action of sortase A (SrtA) from Streptococcus mutans, a primary etiologic agent of human dental caries. The onset and magnitude of inhibition of the saliva-induced aggregation in S. mutans treated with compound 2 (4×IC50) were comparable to the behavior of untreated srtA-deletion mutant. PMID:25746812

Yang, Woo-Young; Won, Tae Hyung; Ahn, Chan-Hong; Lee, So-Hyoung; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Ki-Bong

2015-04-01

209

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from clinically healthy swine in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. This study is the first to report on the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis isolated from clinically healthy pigs in Brazil; the fourth major pork producer in the world. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 260 strains was determined by disc diffusion method. Strains were commonly susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, and florfenicol, with more than 80% of the strains being susceptible to these antimicrobials. A high frequency of resistance to some of the antimicrobial agents was demonstrated, with resistance being most common to sulfa-trimethoprim (100%), tetracycline (97.69%), clindamycin (84.61%), norfloxacin (76.92%), and ciprofloxacin (61.15%). A high percentage of multidrug resistant strains (99.61%) were also found. The results of this study indicate that ceftiofur, cephalexin, and florfenicol are the antimicrobials of choice for empirical control of the infections caused by S. suis. PMID:24688177

Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Megid, Jane; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Gottschalk, Marcelo

2014-04-01

210

Discrimination of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Viridans Group Streptococci by Genomic Subtractive Hybridization  

OpenAIRE

Two oligonucleotide primer sets for the discrimination of Streptococcus pneumoniae from “pneumococcus-like” oral streptococcal isolates by PCR were developed. Genomic subtractive hybridization was performed to search for differences between Streptococcus pneumoniae strain WU2 and the most closely related oral streptococcus, Streptococcus mitis strain 903. We identified 19 clones that contained S. pneumoniae-specific nucleotide fragments that were absent from the chromosomal DNA of typical...

Suzuki, Nao; Seki, Mitsuko; Nakano, Yoshio; Kiyoura, Yusuke; Maeno, Masao; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2005-01-01

211

recA-Based PCR Assay for Accurate Differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Other Viridans Streptococci?  

OpenAIRE

Proper identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae by conventional methods remains problematic. The discriminatory power of the 16S rRNA gene, which can be considered the “gold standard” for molecular identification, is too low to differentiate S. pneumoniae from closely related species such as Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus oralis in the routine clinical laboratory. A 313-bp part of recA was selected on the basis of variability within the S. mitis g...

Zbinden, A.; Ko?hler, N.; Bloemberg, G. V.

2011-01-01

212

Pericarditis purulenta primaria por Streptococcus pneumoniae, a propósito de un caso clínico / Primary purulent pericarditis by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Case-report and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Hoy en día la pericarditis purulenta (PP) es una patología poco frecuente, pero de pronóstico grave. Comunicamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 3 meses, sano previamente. Consultó por palidez, rechazo alimentario y dificultad respiratoria de pocas horas de evolución. La radiografía de tórax demos [...] tró cardiomegalia. Evolucionó hacia shock cardiogénico por taponamiento cardíaco. Recibió inicialmente expansores de volumen y drogas vasoactivas. Antibioterapia con vancomicina y ceftriaxona. Ecocar-diograma objetivó derrame pericárdico extenso, complementado con TAC que descartó foco infeccioso endotoráxico. Se realizó pericardiocentesis y luego ventana pericárdica. Se aisló en hemocultivo Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensible a penicilina. Luego de drenaje quirúrgico y control de infección presentó evolución favorable. No se encontró sitio infeccioso extrapericárdico. Completó tres semanas de tratamiento antibiótico. Estudio inmunológico fue normal. La PP es observada raramente en individuos sanos. La presentación en este caso fue de horas, por un agente inhabitual y de extrema gravedad. Un diagnóstico precoz, en conjunto con un tratamiento médico-quirúrgico es fundamental, como la mejor forma de evitar secuelas. Abstract in english Background: Purulent pericarditis has become a rare clinical entity since the onset of antimicrobial therapy and has a poor outcome in the majority of cases. Case-report: A healthy 3 month-old patient admitted with dyspnea, pallor and anorexia, developing cardiogenic shock due to cardiac tamponade. [...] Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly. He required mechanical ventilation, volume resuscitation and vasoactive drugs. Echocardiogram showed a large pericardial effusion, CT sean ruled out lung and mediastinal infection. Pericardial drainage was performed and Vancomycin plus Ceftriaxone were initiated, with a positive blood culture for Penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. The evolution was favourable after surgical drainage and controlling the infection. No extraperdicardial infection was found. He received 3 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Immunological studies were normal. Conclusión: Primary purulent pericarditis is uncommon, so early detection and treatment of this life-threatening condition may lead to a good outcome.

ALEJANDRO, DONOSO F; FRANCO, DÍAZ R; KATALINA, BERTRÁN S; PABLO, CRUCES R.

2008-12-01

213

Identification and analysis of potential targets in Streptococcus sanguinis using computer aided protein data analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Streptococcus sanguinis is a Gram-positive, facultative aerobic bacterium that is a member of the viridans streptococcus group. It is found in human mouths in dental plaque, which accounts for both dental cavities and bacterial endocarditis, and which entails a mortality rate of 25%. Although a range of remedial mediators have been found to control this organism, the effectiveness of agents such as penicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin, was observed. The emphasis of this investigation was on finding substitute and efficient remedial approaches for the total destruction of this bacterium. Materials and methods In this computational study, various databases and online software were used to ascertain some specific targets of S. sanguinis. Particularly, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases were applied to determine human nonhomologous proteins, as well as the metabolic pathways involved with those proteins. Different software such as Phyre2, CastP, DoGSiteScorer, the Protein Function Predictor server, and STRING were utilized to evaluate the probable active drug binding site with its known function and protein–protein interaction. Results In this study, among 218 essential proteins of this pathogenic bacterium, 81 nonhomologous proteins were accrued, and 15 proteins that are unique in several metabolic pathways of S. sanguinis were isolated through metabolic pathway analysis. Furthermore, four essentially membrane-bound unique proteins that are involved in distinct metabolic pathways were revealed by this research. Active sites and druggable pockets of these selected proteins were investigated with bioinformatic techniques. In addition, this study also mentions the activity of those proteins, as well as their interactions with the other proteins. Conclusion Our findings helped to identify the type of protein to be considered as an efficient drug target. This study will pave the way for researchers to develop and discover more effective and specific therapeutic agents against S. sanguinis. PMID:25473301

Chowdhury, Md Rabiul Hossain; Bhuiyan, Md IqbalKaiser; Saha, Ayan; Mosleh, Ivan MHAI; Mondol, Sobuj; Ahmed, C M Sabbir

2014-01-01

214

In-vitro antibacterial study of zinc oxide nanostructures on Streptococcus sobrinus  

Science.gov (United States)

Zinc oxide nanostructures were prepared using a pilot plant of zinc oxide boiling furnace. Generally, it produced two types of nanostructures different in morphology; one is rod-like shaped (ZnO-1) and a plate-like shape (ZnO-2). The properties of ZnO were studied by structural, optical and morphological using XRD, PL and FESEM respectively. The XRD patterns confirmed the wurtzite structures of ZnO with the calculated crystallite size of 41 nm (ZnO-1) and 42 nm (ZnO-2) using Scherrer formula. The NBE peaks were determined by photoluminescence spectra which reveal peak at 3.25 eV and 3.23 eV for ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 respectively. Prior to that, the morphologies for both ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 were demonstrated from FESEM micrographs. Subsequently the antibacterial study was conducted using in-vitro broth dilution technique towards a gram positive bacterium Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 33478) to investigate the level of antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanostructures as antibacterial agent. Gradual increment of ZnO concentrations from 10-20 mM affected the inhibition level after twenty four hours of incubation. In conjunction with concentration increment of ZnO, the percentage inhibition towards Streptococcus sobrinus was also increased accordingly. The highest inhibition occurred at 20 mM of ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 for 98% and 77% respectively. It showed that ZnO has good properties as antibacterial agent and relevancy with data presented by XRD, PL and FESEM were determined.

Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Rahman, Rosliza Abd

2014-10-01

215

Is Streptococcus bovis a urinary pathogen?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Streptococcus bovis group (SBG) comprises several microorganisms associated with human infections. They have been associated with bacteremia, endocarditis, biliary tract infection, meningitis, and colorectal cancer, but their role as urinary pathogens is not well known. The objective of this investigation was to discover the incidence and clinical significance of the bacteriuria associated with this complex. A retrospective analysis of all adult patients with bacteriuria caused by SBG during the period 1995-2012 was carried out. During the study period, SBG was isolated in 153 adult patients, who had a mean age of 67 years, most of them being women (80 %). Most of our patients (65 %) had some underlying disease, with urologic disease being the most common (37 %), followed by diabetes mellitus (27 %) and neurologic disease (25 %). Among the 88 patients in whom we were able to correctly assess symptoms, 45 % had asymptomatic bacteriuria, 35 % had lower urinary tract infection, and 20 % had upper urinary tract infection. In 14 cases (9 %), SBG was also isolated in blood cultures. Most of the isolates of SBG (72 %) were S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, 98 % to nitrofurantoin, and 77 % to fosfomycin. Although SBG bacteriuria is uncommon, it should not always be taken as a contaminant, mainly when S. pasteurianus is isolated, because it may cause urinary tract infections and, occasionally, sepsis, whereas when S. gallolyticus is isolated from urine, it may be a marker of underlying endocarditis and colorectal cancer. PMID:25416160

Matesanz, M; Rubal, D; Iñiguez, I; Rabuñal, R; García-Garrote, F; Coira, A; García-País, M J; Pita, J; Rodriguez-Macias, A; López-Álvarez, M J; Alonso, M P; Corredoira, J

2015-04-01

216

Caracterización molecular en aislados chilenos de Streptococcus agalactiae / Molecular characterization of Chilean isolates of streptococcus agalactiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae is the main causing organism of invasive infections such as sepsis and meningitis in the newborn. Aim: To perform a genotype characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae strains coming form invasive infections of newborns and colonized pregnant women. Material and methods: A [...] group of 58 strains not related epidemiologically isolated from colonized pregnant women and invasive infections in newborns, were studied. Pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE) and polymerase chain reaction amplification of hylB and IS 1548 genes, as possible virulence markers, were performed. Results: Among the studied strains, 37 genetic subtypes were observed. There were nine groups of identical PFGE patterns. Three corresponded to serotype la and six to serotype III. An erythromycin and clindamycin resistant clone was identified in three colonized women and a newborn with sepsis, which were not epidemiologically related. The hylB gene was equally present in cases of neonatal meningitis or colonized pregnant women. Conclusions: There was a great degree of polymorphism among the studied strains. The ample presence of hylB gene and the absence of the insertion element IS1548 in the hylB gene in invasive and colonizing strains, indicates that both groups of strains are potentially pathogenic

Patricia, Rojo; Pamela, Araya; M Angélica, Martínez T; Juan Carlos, Hormazábal; Aurora, Maldonado; Jorge, Fernández.

2008-05-01

217

Swine infection by Streptococcus suis: a retrospective study Infecção em suínos por Streptococcus suis: estudo retrospectivo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The epidemic aspects of swine infections caused by Streptococcus suis were studied, focusing mainly on the occurrence of several serotypes. A total of 323 samples of S. suis were isolated from clinically ill animals, serotyped according to the co-agglutination procedure, and analyzed. The serotyping revealed that S. suis was present in several Brazilian states. The largest number was isolated from the states of Minas Gerais (62.5%, São Paulo (10.8%, and Paraná (9.3%. Serotype 2 was the most frequent (61.0%, followed by the serotypes 1, 3, 4, 7, and 8. The largest number of isolations was obtained from the brain (60.1%, followed by the lungs (10.4%. About 9.4% of the cases were due to septicemia.Estudaram-se os aspectos epidêmicos das infecções de suínos causadas por Streptococcus suis, enfocando, principalmente, a ocorrência de diferentes sorotipos. Foram analisadas 323 amostras isoladas de animais clinicamente doentes, as quais foram sorotipadas de acordo com o procedimento de co-aglutinação. Foi verificado que S. suis está presente em vários estados brasileiros e o maior número de isolados originou-se dos estados de Minas Gerais (62,5%, São Paulo (10,8% e Paraná (9,3%. O sorotipo 2 foi o mais freqüente (61.0%, seguido pelos sorotipos 1, 3, 4, 7 e 8. Os isolamentos foram obtidos principalmente de cérebro (60,1% e pulmões (10,4%. Os casos de septicemia representaram 9,4%.

A.E. Del'Arco

2008-08-01

218

Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina / Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 [...] e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratório e de amostras de sangue não relacionadas a infecções meníngeas e foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretações categóricas de CIM foram baseadas em padrões atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetíveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treate [...] d, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC

Flávia, Rossi; Maria Renata Gomes, Franco; Heleni Mota de Pina, Rodrigues; Denise, Andreazzi.

2012-02-01

219

Urticaria recurrente asociada a infección por Streptococcus pyogenes / Recurrent urticaria associated with group Streptococcus pyogenes infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La mayoría de las urticarias crónicas o agudas recidivantes son idiopáticas. Presentamos un caso de urticaria aguda recidivante en una niña de tres años, en la que, tras el estudio realizado, solo se objetivó un valor elevado de anticuerpos antiestreptolisina O (ASLO). La desaparición de la urticari [...] a tras el tratamiento con penicilina G-benzatina intramuscular, junto con la normalización de los ASLO, sugiere que la etiología de esta podría ser las infecciones recurrentes por el Streptococcus pyogenes. Destacar la importancia de incluir en el protocolo diagnóstico de la urticaria la determinación de los ASLO, lo cual permite el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoces de las infecciones por S. pyogenes. Abstract in english We present a case of relapsing acute urticaria in a three years old girl who after the study only showed a high value of ASLO (antistreptolysin O titer). The disappearance of urticaria after intramuscular penicillin G benzathine treatment, together with the ASLO normalization, suggested that the eti [...] ology of this could be recurrent Streptococcal infections. We conclude the importance of including ASLO determination in the diagnostic protocol of urticaria, allowing early diagnosis and treatment of Group A Streptococcus infections.

M. P., López Sáez; P., Carrillo Fernández-Paredes; A. J., Huertas Amorós; J. A., Pagán Alemán.

2013-09-01

220

Gene cloning and characterization of MdeA, a novel multidrug efflux pump in Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multidrug resistance, especially multidrug efflux mechanisms that extrude structurally unrelated cytotoxic compounds from the cell by multidrug transporters, is a serious problem and one of the main reasons for the failure of therapeutic treatment of infections by pathogenic microorganisms as well as of cancer cells. Streptococcus mutans is considered one of the primary causative agents of dental caries and periodontal disease, which comprise the most common oral diseases. A fragment of chromosomal DNA from S. mutans KCTC3065 was cloned using Escherichia coli KAM32 as host cells lacking major multidrug efflux pumps. Although E. coli KAM32 cells were very sensitive to many antimicrobial agents, the transformed cells harboring a recombinant plasmid became resistant to several structurally unrelated antimicrobial agents such as tetracycline, kanamycin, rhodamin 6G, ampicillin, acriflavine, ethidium bromide, and tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. This suggested that the cloned DNA fragment carries a gene encoding a multidrug efflux pump. Among 49 of the multidrug-resistant transformants, we report the functional gene cloning and characterization of the function of one multidrug efflux pump, namely MdeA from S. mutans, which was expressed in E. coli KAM32. Judging from the structural and biochemical properties, we concluded that MdeA is the first cloned and characterized multidrug efflux pump using the proton motive force as the energy for efflux drugs. PMID:23462018

Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Cho, Eun Ji; Joo, Seoung-Je; Chung, Jung-Min; Son, Byoung Yil; Yum, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young-Man; Kwon, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Byung-Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Eun-Woo

2013-03-01

221

Immunoasssay chromatographic antigen test for rapid diagnosis of Group A beta hemolytic Streptococcus pharyngitis in children: A cross/ sectional study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Objective Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) is an important pharyngotonsillitis etiologic agent in children. The objective of this study was diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis based on rapid antigen detection test and conventional pharyngeal culture. Materials and Methods The rapid GABHS antigen detection test was compared to culture on blood agar, the gold standard for the diagnosis of this etiologic agent. Results Streptococcal antigen was detected in pharyngeal specimens of 34.5% of cases by rapid strip test. We detected group A Streptococcus in 17.2% of pharyngeal culture. There was no agreement between two methods ( PV < 0.1). The negative pharyngeal culture results are probably due to antibiotic usage in 43.2% of patients. Positive rapid test results in pharyngeal swab was age dependent ( P < 0.05). There was good correlation between observing the “petechia in pharynx of patients” and positive rapid test in pharyngeal swab (P < 0.004). Throat culture results were relatated to previous antibiotic usage ( P < 0.03). Conclusion The rapid test in pharyngeal swab is helpful for rapid diagnosis and treatment of GABHS pharyngitis. Diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis based on soley clinical findings is misleading in the majority of cases. Petechia observed in pharynx of the cases was highly predictive of streptococcal pharyngitis. PMID:22347590

Noorbakhsh, S; Tabatabaei, A; Farhadi, M; Ebrahimi, Taj F

2011-01-01

222

Immunoasssay Chromatographic Antigen Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Pharyngitis in Children: A Cross/ Sectional Study  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS is an important pharyngotonsillitis etiologic agent in children. The objective of this study was diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis based on rapid antigen detection test and conventional pharyngeal culture.Materials and Methods: The rapid GABHS antigen detection test was compared to culture on blood agar, the gold standard for the diagnosis of this etiologic agent.Results: Streptococcal antigen was detected in pharyngeal specimens of 34.5% of cases by rapid strip test. We detected group A Streptococcus in 17.2% of pharyngeal culture. There was no agreement between two methods ( PV < 0.1. The negative pharyngeal culture results are probably due to antibiotic usage in 43.2 % of patients. Positive rapid test results in pharyngeal swab was age dependent ( P < 0.05. There was good correlation between observing the "petechia in pharynx of patients" and positive rapid test in pharyngeal swab (P < 0.004. Throat culture results were relatated to previous antibiotic usage ( P < 0.03.Conclusion: The rapid test in pharyngeal swab is helpful for rapid diagnosis and treatment of GABHS pharyngitis. Diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis based on soley clinical findings is misleading in the majority of cases. Petechia observed in pharynx of the cases was highly predictive of streptococcal pharyngitis.

S Noorbakhsh

2011-06-01

223

Detection of Chlamydophila caviae and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in horses with signs of rhinitis and conjunctivitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

At a stud farm of Trakehner horses, all 33 foals of a birth cohort developed conjunctivitis and serous to muco-purulent rhinitis, and 7 older horses showed recurrent signs of conjunctivitis. Examination of nasal and conjunctival swabs by bacterial and cell culture, as well as real-time PCR, ArrayTube microarray analysis and DNA sequencing led to the identification of Chlamydophila (C.) caviae (first description in horses) and Streptococcus (S.) equi subsp. zooepidemicus. We presume a synergistic effect associated with these two agents by hypothesising that primary lesions were set by C. caviae and subsequently aggravated by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Indications supporting this assumption include (i) the conjunctivitis caused by mono-infection with C. caviae, (ii) recurrent clinical symptoms in the affected animals, and (iii) the absence of a sustained clinical effect of antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim-sulfonamide, enrofloxacin and amoxicillin. The detection of C. caviae in horses raises questions about the significance and natural host range of this agent. PMID:19913370

Gaede, Wolfgang; Reckling, Karl-Friedrich; Schliephake, Anette; Missal, Dirk; Hotzel, Helmut; Sachse, Konrad

2010-05-19

224

Trovafloxacin Treatment of Viridans Group Streptococcus Experimental Endocarditis  

OpenAIRE

The activity of trovafloxacin was compared with those of vancomycin and penicillin in a model of Streptococcus sanguis species group (trovafloxacin MIC, 0.125 ?g/ml) and Streptococcus mitis species group (trovafloxacin MIC, 0.125 ?g/ml) experimental endocarditis. Rabbits with catheter-induced aortic valve vegetations were given no treatment, trovafloxacin at 15 mg/kg of body weight three times a day (t.i.d.), vancomycin at 15 mg/kg twice a day, or penicillin at 1.2 × 106 IU t.i.d. After 3 ...

Piper, Kerryl E.; Rouse, Mark S.; Ronningen, Karen L.; Steckelberg, James M.; Wilson, Walter R.; Patel, Robin

2000-01-01

225

Effect of Plasmid Incompatibility on DNA Transfer to Streptococcus cremoris  

OpenAIRE

Several Streptococcus cremoris strains were used in protoplast transformation and interspecific protoplast fusion experiments with Streptococcus lactis and Bacillus subtilis, with pGKV110, pGKV21, and ?pAM?1 as the marker plasmids. ?pAM?1 is a 15.9-kilobase nonconjugative, deletion derivative of pAM?1, which is considerably larger than the pGKV plasmids (approximately 4.5 kilobases). In general, ?pAM?1 was transferred more efficiently than the pGKV plasmids. Using electroporation, we w...

Lelie, Daniel; Vossen, Jos M. B. M.; Venema, Gerard

1988-01-01

226

Multiple glucan-binding proteins of Streptococcus sobrinus.  

OpenAIRE

Several proteins from culture supernatants of Streptococcus sobrinus were able to bind avidly to Sephadex G-75. The proteins could be partially eluted from the Sephadex by low-molecular-weight alpha-1,6 glucan or fully eluted by 4 M guanidine hydrochloride. Elution profiles were complex, yielding proteins of 16, 45, 58 to 60, 90, 135, and 145 kDa, showing that the wild-type strain possessed multiple glucan-binding proteins. Two mutants of Streptococcus sobrinus incapable of aggregation by hig...

Ma, Y.; Lassiter, M. O.; Banas, J. A.; Galperi?n, M. Y.; Taylor, K. G.; Doyle, R. J.

1996-01-01

227

Heteroresistance to penicillin in Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heteroresistance to beta-lactam antibiotics has been mainly described for staphylococci, for which it complicates diagnostic procedures and therapeutic success. This study investigated whether heteroresistance to penicillin exists in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Population analysis profile (PAP) showed the presence of subpopulations with higher penicillin resistance in four of nine clinical pneumococcal strains obtained from a local surveillance program (representing the multiresistant clones ST179, ST276, and ST344) and in seven of 16 reference strains (representing the international clones Spain(23F)-1, Spain(9V)-3, Spain(14)-5, Hungary(19A)-6, South Africa(19A)-13, Taiwan(23F)-15, and Finland(6B)-12). Heteroresistant strains had penicillin minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (for the majority of cells) in the intermediate- to high-level range (0.19-2.0 mug/ml). PAP curves suggested the presence of subpopulations also for the highly penicillin-resistant strains Taiwan(19F)-14, Poland(23F)-16, CSR(19A)-11, and CSR(14)-10. PAP of bacterial subpopulations with higher penicillin resistance showed a shift toward higher penicillin-resistance levels, which reverted upon multiple passages on antibiotic-free media. Convergence to a homotypic resistance phenotype did not occur. Comparison of two strains of clone ST179 showed a correlation between the heteroresistant phenotype and a higher-penicillin MIC and a greater number of altered penicillin-binding proteins (PBP1a, -2b, and -2x), respectively. Therefore, heteroresistance to penicillin occurs in international multiresistant clones of S. pneumoniae. Pneumococci may use heteroresistance to penicillin as a tool during their evolution to high penicillin resistance, because it gives the bacteria an opportunity to explore growth in the presence of antibiotics before acquisition of resistance genes. PMID:17704255

Morand, Brigitte; Mühlemann, Kathrin

2007-08-28

228

Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects tresults suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium

229

Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias si [...] endo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño). Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente. Abstract in english The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than [...] 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children’s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pneumoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution in Costa Rica, the predicted vaccine protection is calculated in 74%.

Hernán, Sierra- Fernandez; Malka, Schultz- Faingezicht; Carolina, Soley-Gutiérrez; Silvia, Guevara- Jiménez; Adriano, Arguedas- Mohs.

2006-06-01

230

Isolamento de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite e teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos Isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigamos a ocorrência de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite que espontaneamente procuraram atendimento em farmácias e unidades de saúde. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Com auxílio de "swab" e abaixador de língua foram coletadas amostras da orofaringe de 58 indivíduos, as quais foram semeadas por técnica de esgotamento em placas contendo ágar sangue. No momento da coleta, nenhum dos indivíduos estava sob tratamento com antibióticos. A identificação do S. pyogenes foi feita presuntivamente pelo teste de sensibilidade a bacitracina e confirmada pela grupagem sorológica através da extração do antígeno grupo-específico. RESULTADOS: Das 58 amostras de orofaringe analisadas, 32 (55,2% foram provenientes de indivíduos atendidos em farmácias e 26 (44,8% foram obtidas daqueles que procuraram as unidades de saúde. Um total de 15 (25,9% amostras apresentou cultura positiva para S. pyogenes, sendo a maioria dos isolamentos (9/15, 60% proveniente de indivíduos atendidos em farmácia. Streptococcus pyogenes foi isolado em 33,3% (11/33 dos indivíduos com idade entre zero e 15 anos e em 16% (4/25 daqueles com idade acima de 15 anos. As 15 cepas isoladas foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos testados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do presente estudo enfatizam a importância do diagnóstico bacteriológico no tratamento adequado da faringoamigdalite estreptocócica que permite a prevenção das complicações supurativas ou não supurativas e a erradicação do microrganismo da orofaringe.AIM: We investigate the occurrence of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis that spontaneously sought attendance in drugstores or in health units. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohorte. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Samples from oropharynx of 58 individuals were collected with swab and tongue depressor and inoculated on sheep blood agar plates. At the moment the samples were collected, none of the individuals was under treatment with antibiotics. The presumptive identification of S. pyogenes was made by the susceptibility test to bacitracin and confirmed by the serological grouping through the extraction of the group-specific carbohydrate "C" antigen. RESULTS: From the 58 samples of oropharynx analyzed, 32 (55.2% were from individuals assisted in drugstores and 26 (44.8% were obtained from those that sought health units. A total of 15 (25.9% samples presented positive culture for S. pyogenes, being most of the strains (9/15, 60% coming from individuals assisted in drugstores. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in 33.3% (11/33 of the individuals from zero to 15 years of age and in 16% (4/25 of those over 15. The strains were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study emphasize the importance of the bacteriological diagnosis in the proper treatment for the streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis that determine the prevention of the supurative or non supurative complications and the eradication of the microorganism of the oropharynx.

Rozana Scalabrin

2003-12-01

231

Isolamento de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite e teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos / Isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigamos a ocorrência de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite que espontaneamente procuraram atendimento em farmácias e unidades de saúde. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Com auxílio de "swab" e abaixador de língua foram coletadas amostra [...] s da orofaringe de 58 indivíduos, as quais foram semeadas por técnica de esgotamento em placas contendo ágar sangue. No momento da coleta, nenhum dos indivíduos estava sob tratamento com antibióticos. A identificação do S. pyogenes foi feita presuntivamente pelo teste de sensibilidade a bacitracina e confirmada pela grupagem sorológica através da extração do antígeno grupo-específico. RESULTADOS: Das 58 amostras de orofaringe analisadas, 32 (55,2%) foram provenientes de indivíduos atendidos em farmácias e 26 (44,8%) foram obtidas daqueles que procuraram as unidades de saúde. Um total de 15 (25,9%) amostras apresentou cultura positiva para S. pyogenes, sendo a maioria dos isolamentos (9/15, 60%) proveniente de indivíduos atendidos em farmácia. Streptococcus pyogenes foi isolado em 33,3% (11/33) dos indivíduos com idade entre zero e 15 anos e em 16% (4/25) daqueles com idade acima de 15 anos. As 15 cepas isoladas foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos testados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do presente estudo enfatizam a importância do diagnóstico bacteriológico no tratamento adequado da faringoamigdalite estreptocócica que permite a prevenção das complicações supurativas ou não supurativas e a erradicação do microrganismo da orofaringe. Abstract in english AIM: We investigate the occurrence of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis that spontaneously sought attendance in drugstores or in health units. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohorte. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Samples from oropharynx of 58 individuals were collected with swab and [...] tongue depressor and inoculated on sheep blood agar plates. At the moment the samples were collected, none of the individuals was under treatment with antibiotics. The presumptive identification of S. pyogenes was made by the susceptibility test to bacitracin and confirmed by the serological grouping through the extraction of the group-specific carbohydrate "C" antigen. RESULTS: From the 58 samples of oropharynx analyzed, 32 (55.2%) were from individuals assisted in drugstores and 26 (44.8%) were obtained from those that sought health units. A total of 15 (25.9%) samples presented positive culture for S. pyogenes, being most of the strains (9/15, 60%) coming from individuals assisted in drugstores. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in 33.3% (11/33) of the individuals from zero to 15 years of age and in 16% (4/25) of those over 15. The strains were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study emphasize the importance of the bacteriological diagnosis in the proper treatment for the streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis that determine the prevention of the supurative or non supurative complications and the eradication of the microorganism of the oropharynx.

Rozana, Scalabrin; Gisele D., Buss; Kelly Cristina S., Iamaguchi; Celso Luiz, Cardoso; Lourdes B., Garcia.

2003-12-01

232

Production of monoclonal antibodies against Streptococcus mutans antigens Produção de anticorpos monoclonais contra antígenos de Streptococcus mutans  

OpenAIRE

Several studies have been conducted in the last decades aiming to obtain an anti-caries vaccine, however some studies have demonstrated cross reactivity between Streptococcus mutans surface antigens and the human cardiac tissue. In this work, the reactivity of five anti-Streptococcus mutans monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) (24A, 56G, C8, E8 and F6) was tested against oral streptococci, cardiac antigens and skeletal and cardiac myosins, aiming to evaluate the specificity of these MoAb. The hybrid ...

Antonio Carlos Victor Canettieri; Fujiko Yamasiro Kretchetoff; Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito; Daniella Moreira; Fabio José Condino Fujarra; Carmelinda Schmidt Unterkircher

2006-01-01

233

Serotipos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus agalactiae / Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background : Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus, GBS, is the leading cause of neonatal and maternal infections and an opportunistic pathogen in adults with underlying disease. In the last decade, a dramatic increase in the resistance of this microorganism to erythromycin and clindamyc [...] in has been observed. Aim: To determine the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of S agalactiae collected from infections and colonization and to assess the genetic mechanisms of macrolide and clindamycin resistance. Material and methods: A total of 100 GBS isolates were collected between 1998 and 2002, in Santiago, Chile. They were isolated from the amniotic fluid from patients with premature rupture of membranes (7 isolates), blood from neonatal sepsis (10 isolates), neonate colonizations (2 strains), skin and soft tissue infections (7 isolates), urinary tract infections (5 isolates), genital infections (3 isolates), articular fluid (one isolate), and 65 strains were recovered from vaginal colonization55. Results: Serotypes Ia, II and III were the predominant serotypes identified in our study, accounting for 90 (90%) of the strains. Five isolates belonged to serotypes Ib (5%) and two (2%) to serotype V respectively; no strains belonging to serotype IV were found. All strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and four isolates (4%) were resistant to both erythromycin (MIC >64 µg/ml) and clindamycin (MIC >64 µg/ml). The strains had a constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (cMLSB) resistance phenotype and the erm(A) gene was present in the four isolates. Conclusions: Serotypes Ia, II and III were the predominant serotypes in this study. All strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and four (4%) strains were resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin. The cMLSB resistance phenotype, and the erm(A) gene was detected in resistant strains (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 549-55).

María Angélica, Martínez T; Alfredo, Ovalle S; Claudia, Durán T; Iván, Reid S; Gabriela, Urriola J; Beatriz, Garay G; Marcela, Cifuentes D.

2004-05-01

234

Infecciones invasoras por Streptococcus b hemolítico Grupo A / Grupo Invasive infections by group a streptococcus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde los años ochenta ha habido un resurgimiento de infecciones severas por Streptococcus b hemolítico Grupo A (SBHGA). Objetivo: Evaluar en nuestro medio el comportamiento clínico y los factores predisponentes en infecciones invasoras por SBHGA. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron antecedentes clíni [...] cos de 37 fichas de niños con cultivo positivo al SBHGA hospitalizados en el Servicio de Pediatría y Cirugía Infantil del Hospital Dr. Félix Bulnes Cerda entre marzo de 1995 y enero de 2005. Resultados: 81% fueron pacientes eutróficos sin patología asociada. Destacan como factores condicionantes: quemadura (30%), varicela (19%) y traumatismo (16%). La sintomatología más frecuente fue fiebre (84%) y signos inflamatorios locales (40%). Los cuadros clínicos fueron: infección de tejido blando (32%), bacteremia sin focalización (30%), osteoartritis (10,8%), pleuroneumonía (10,8%), shock tóxico (8,1%) y fasceitis necrotizante (5,4%). Tres pacientes fallecieron. Conclusión: Las infecciones invasoras por SBHGA afectan mayoritariamente a niños sanos cuyo principal factor predisponente es una puerta cutánea, y puede ser fatal Abstract in english Since 1980 there has been a resurgence of severe infections by Group A Streptococcus (GAS). Objective: To evaluate in our hospital the clinical behaviour and predisposing factors for GAS infections. Methods: Clinical information from 37 charts of children with GAS positive cultures hospitalized in F [...] élix Bulnes Cerda Hospital were analyzed between March 1995 and January 2005. Results: 81% healthy children with predisposing factors: burns (30%), varicella (19%) and trauma (16%). The main symptoms were fever (84%) and local inflammatory signs (40%). The clinical manifestations include soft tissue infections (32%), bacteremia (30%), osteoarthritis (10,8%), empyema (10,8%), toxic shock (8,1%) and necrotizing fasciitis (5,4%). Three patients died. Conclusion: Invasive GAS mainly affects healthy children with skin port of entry and may cause death

Claudia, Alarcón O; Mary Carmen, Ordenes P; Marisol, Denegri M; Jorge, Zúñiga.

2006-10-01

235

Infecciones invasoras por Streptococcus b hemolítico Grupo A Grupo Invasive infections by group a streptococcus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desde los años ochenta ha habido un resurgimiento de infecciones severas por Streptococcus b hemolítico Grupo A (SBHGA. Objetivo: Evaluar en nuestro medio el comportamiento clínico y los factores predisponentes en infecciones invasoras por SBHGA. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron antecedentes clínicos de 37 fichas de niños con cultivo positivo al SBHGA hospitalizados en el Servicio de Pediatría y Cirugía Infantil del Hospital Dr. Félix Bulnes Cerda entre marzo de 1995 y enero de 2005. Resultados: 81% fueron pacientes eutróficos sin patología asociada. Destacan como factores condicionantes: quemadura (30%, varicela (19% y traumatismo (16%. La sintomatología más frecuente fue fiebre (84% y signos inflamatorios locales (40%. Los cuadros clínicos fueron: infección de tejido blando (32%, bacteremia sin focalización (30%, osteoartritis (10,8%, pleuroneumonía (10,8%, shock tóxico (8,1% y fasceitis necrotizante (5,4%. Tres pacientes fallecieron. Conclusión: Las infecciones invasoras por SBHGA afectan mayoritariamente a niños sanos cuyo principal factor predisponente es una puerta cutánea, y puede ser fatalSince 1980 there has been a resurgence of severe infections by Group A Streptococcus (GAS. Objective: To evaluate in our hospital the clinical behaviour and predisposing factors for GAS infections. Methods: Clinical information from 37 charts of children with GAS positive cultures hospitalized in Félix Bulnes Cerda Hospital were analyzed between March 1995 and January 2005. Results: 81% healthy children with predisposing factors: burns (30%, varicella (19% and trauma (16%. The main symptoms were fever (84% and local inflammatory signs (40%. The clinical manifestations include soft tissue infections (32%, bacteremia (30%, osteoarthritis (10,8%, empyema (10,8%, toxic shock (8,1% and necrotizing fasciitis (5,4%. Three patients died. Conclusion: Invasive GAS mainly affects healthy children with skin port of entry and may cause death

Claudia Alarcón O

2006-10-01

236

Streptococcus Gallolyticus Bacteraemia associated with colonic adenomatous polyps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus is frequently associated with colorectal carcinoma, making evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract by colonoscopy obligatory in such cases. Bacterial endocarditis and purulent arthritis are also common in patients with these bacteraemias. Intestinal bacteria could behave as promoters of aberrant hyperproliferative behaviour in preneoplastic colorectal lesions, apparently due to chronic inflammatory processes and production of carcinogenic metabolites. The authors treated a patient with several tubular adenomatous polyps of the right colon, two of which showed areas of high-grade dysplasia adjacent to areas of infectious bacterial colitis associated with Streptococcus gallolyticus bacteraemia and unilateral ankle arthritis.A bacteriémia por Streptococcus gallolyticus associa-se frequentemente ao carcinoma colorrectal, tornando obrigatória a colonoscopia nestas situações. A endocardite bacteriana e a artrite séptica são também comuns neste tipo de bacteriémias. Tem sido levantada a hipótese das bactérias intestinais poderem ter um papel promotor de hiperproliferação celular aberrante em lesões cólicas pré-neoplásicas, aparentemente devido a processos inflamatórios crónicos e produção de metabolitos carcinogénicos. Os autores apresentam o caso dum doente com vários pólipos adenomatosos tubulares do cólon direito, em dois dos quais se demonstrou uma área de displasia de alto grau adjacente a zona de colite infecciosa bacteriana, associados a quadro clínico de infecção sistémica por Streptococcus gallolyticus e artrite do tornozelo.

A. Murinello

2006-05-01

237

Total synthesis of lipoteichoic acid of streptococcus pneumoniae  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common Grampositive pathogens. Upon colonizing the upper respiratory tract it causes severe infections and it causes life-threatening diseases like pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis when it reaches the lower respiratory tract or the bloodstream, thereby resulting in a high mortality rate.

Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Figueroa-perez, Ignacio; Lindner, Buko; Ulmer, Artur J.; Za?hringer, Ulrich; Schmidt, Richard R.

2010-01-01

238

Transfer of Plasmids between Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus lactis  

OpenAIRE

The shuttle plasmid pGK12, as well as several Staphylococcus aureus plasmids, was introduced into Streptococcus lactis by intergeneric protoplast fusion with Bacillus subtilis. The S. aureus plasmids were stably inherited in S. lactis, and so they may possibly be used as cloning vectors in lactic streptococci.

Baigori?, Mario; Sesma, Fernando; Ruiz Holgado, Ai?da P.; Mendoza, Diego

1988-01-01

239

Plasmid mediated enhancement of uv resistance in Streptococcus faecalis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 38.5-Mdal plasmid of Streptococcus faecalis subdp. zymogenes has been shown to enhance survival following uv irradiation. In addition, the presence of this plasmid increases the mutation frequencies following uv irradiation and enhanced W-reactivation. The data presented indicate that S. faecalis has an inducible error-prone repair system and that the plasmid enhances these repair functions

240

Streptococcus bovis as a Silage Inoculant, a Second Chance  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research indicated that Streptococcus bovis, a lactate producing ruminal bacterium, was similar or better than commercial silage inoculants. This study assessed the potential of two S. bovis strains, JB1 (a bacteriocin negative strain) and HC5 (a bacteriocin producing strain). Four treatmen...

241

Screening Protocols for Group B Streptococcus: Are Transport Media Appropriate?  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To evaluate group B streptococcus (GBS) detection in an in vitro setting, using a low and controlled inoculum from swabs directly inoculated into a selective medium, as compared to delayed inoculation following a period in a commercial Amies transport medium with charcoal (Venturi Transystem™ Copan, Italy).

Nicolette Teese; Daneeta Henessey; Christopher Pearce; Nigel Kelly; Suzanne Garland

2003-01-01

242

Streptococcus troglodytae sp. nov., from the chimpanzee oral cavity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six strains, TKU 25, TKU 28, TKU 30, TKU 31(T), TKU 33 and TKU 34, were isolated from the oral cavity of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Colonies of strains grown on Mitis-Salivarius agar were similar in morphology to that of Streptococcus mutans. The novel strains were Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci that lacked catalase activity. Analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates showed that the most closely related strain was the type strain of S. mutans (96.4?%). The next closely related strains to the isolates were the type strains of Streptococcus devriesei (94.5?%) and Streptococcus downei (93.9?%). These isolates could be distinguished from S. mutans by inulin fermentation and alkaline phosphatase activity (API ZYM system). The peptidoglycan type of the novel isolates was Glu-Lys-Ala(3). Strains were not susceptible to bacitracin. On the basis of phenotypic characterization, partial 16S rRNA gene and two housekeeping gene (groEL and sodA) sequence data, we propose a novel taxon, Streptococcus troglodytae sp. nov.; the type strain is TKU 31(T) (?=?JCM 18038(T)?=?DSM 25324(T)). PMID:22447699

Okamoto, Masaaki; Imai, Susumu; Miyanohara, Mayu; Saito, Wataru; Momoi, Yasuko; Abo, Tomoko; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Ikawa, Tomoko; Ogawa, Takumi; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Kaneko, Akihisa; Watanabe, Akino; Watanabe, Shohei; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

2013-02-01

243

Streptococcus pyogenes aortic aneurysm infection: forgotten but not gone  

OpenAIRE

Historically, Streptococcus pyogenes was a common cause of endocarditis and infected aortic aneurysm. Today, endovascular infections due to this organism have become exceedingly rare. We report the first case of aortic aneurysm infection due to S. pyogenes treated with initial endoluminal repair, review previous reports and discuss current treatment options.

Korman, Tony M.; Timothy Buckenham; Ming Yii; Gardiner, Bradley J.; Joy Wong

2013-01-01

244

Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection with group B Streptococcus  

OpenAIRE

A case of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection is described. This occurred 10 years after splenectomy in an otherwise normal male adult. The infecting organism, ?-haemolytic Streptococcus Group B, is usually of low pathogenicity, but in this case caused profound hypotension, jaundice and the shock lung syndrome. Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection with this organism has not previously been reported.

Finnegan, O. C.; Hawkey, P. M.

1981-01-01

245

Linkage of sucrose-metabolizing genes in Streptococcus mutans.  

OpenAIRE

Antibiotic resistance markers inserted adjacent to different cloned genes from Streptococcus mutans were used to determine the relative positions of these genes on the chromosome. The results showed that these genes, fru-1 and gbp, are closely linked to the gtfA-ftf-scrB cluster. However, gtfD was linked neither to this cluster nor to gtfB-gtfC.

Perry, D.; Kuramitsu, H. K.

1990-01-01

246

Introduction of a Streptococcus cremoris plasmid in Bacillus subtilis.  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus cremoris Wg2 plasmid pWV01 was introduced in Bacillus subtilis by protoplast transformation. The yield of pWV01 isolated from B. subtilis was low. pWV01 contains a unique site for the restriction endonuclease MboI.

Vosman, B.; Venema, G.

1983-01-01

247

Bullous impetigo caused by Streptococcus salivarius: a case report.  

OpenAIRE

A 19-month-old child presented with bullous impetigo around the perineal region, penis, and left foot. Streptococcus salivarius was the only isolate recovered from the lesions. The child was treated with parenteral penicillin, debridement of the bulli, and local application of silver sulphadiazine cream. This case of bullous impetigo illustrates another aspect of the pathogenicity of Strep. salivarius.

Brook, I.

1980-01-01

248

Population diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the upper respiratory tracts of adults, determined by a nonculture strategy.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat. A culture-independent method was used, based on cloning and sequencing of PCR amplicons of the housekeeping gene gdh, which shows remarkable, yet species-specific, genetic polymorphism. Samples were collected from all potential ecological niches in the oral cavity and pharynx of two adults on two occasions separated by 2 years. Based on analysis of close to 10,000 sequences, significant diversity was observed in populations of all three species. Fluctuations in the relative proportions of individual clones and species were observed over time. While a few clones dominated, the proportions of most clones were very small. The results show that the frequent turnover of S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. infantis clones observed by cultivation can be explained by fluctuations in the relative proportions of clones, most of which are below the level of detection by the traditional culture technique, possibly combined with loss and acquisition from contacts. These findings provide a platform for understanding the mechanisms that govern the balance within the complex microbiota at mucosal sites and between the microbiota and the mucosal immune system of the host.

Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, H

2008-01-01

249

Severe acute otitis media caused by mucoid Streptococcus pyogenes in a previously healthy adult.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus (S.) pyogenes is well recognized as the most common pathogen causing pharyngotonsillitis in school-age children. In Japan, mucoid Streptococcus pneumoniae is well known as a causative agent of severe acute otitis media (AOM); however, mucoid S. pyogenes has rarely been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an AOM patient caused by mucoid S. pyogenes in Japan. A 36-year-old previously healthy female was referred to our hospital with suspicion of cerebrospinal otorrhea due to increasing otalgia accompanied by headache following myringotomy. Bacterial cultures of middle ear secretions were performed, and mucoid-form colonies surrounded by zones of complete ?-hemolysis were produced on sheep's blood agar. Antigen-agglutination test results were positive for S. pyogenes, and thus the patient received treatment with panipenem-betamipron 2.0 g/day for 10 days, which resolved nearly all symptoms. The bacteriological features of this strain were then investigated. The M-protein genotype encoded by the emm gene, the major virulence factor of S. pyogenes, was determined to be emm75. Generally, S. pyogenes forms colonies having non-mucoid matt appearances based on ?-hemolysis of sheep's blood agar. The mucoid phenotype results from abundant production of hyaluronic acid capsular polysaccharide, a key virulence determinant. emm75 is common in noninvasive, but less common in invasive disease. In conclusion, mucoid S. pyogenes can cause severe infection even in previously healthy persons. Emergence of mucoid S. pyogenes and drug resistance trends should be monitored in the future. PMID:24727832

Kakuta, Risako; Yano, Hisakazu; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Hiromitsu; Irimada, Mihoko; Oda, Kiyoshi; Arai, Kazuaki; Ozawa, Daiki; Takahashi, Takashi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Katori, Yukio

2014-01-01

250

Celulitis por Streptococcus equi: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura / Streptococcus equi Cellulitis: Case Report and Literature Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus equi es un coco gram positivo, perteneciente al grupo C de Lancefield, causa una enfermedad de gran relevancia en caballos, la gurma o adenitis equina (1-2); en humanos, estas infecciones son poco frecuentes, siendo más frecuentes las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos, faringiti [...] s, neumonía, síndrome tóxico similar al shock y endocarditis. Cuando la infección está asociada a bacteriemia, la mortalidad reportada es del 25%.(3) Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 44 años que ingresa al servicio de urgencias de la Clínica universidad de la Sabana con un cuadro clínico de celulitis en mano derecha por Streptococcus equi . Abstract in english Streptococcus equi is a gram-positive cocci, from group C of Lance 􀃀 eld. It causes an important disease in horses, strangles or equine adenitis (1-2). In humans, these infections are rare, and skin and soft tissue infections, pharyngitis, pneumonia, toxic shock-like syndrome and endocardit [...] is are more frequently observed. When the infection is associated with bacteremia, the reported mortality is near 25% (3). We report the case of a 44-year old man who was admitted to the emergency department of the University of Sabana Clinic with cellulitis due to Streptococcus equi in his right hand.

Julio César, García Casallas; Francisco, Cuervo Millán; Luis Felipe, Kling; M. Angelica, Palencia Boada.

2013-09-01

251

Streptococcus ictaluri sp. nov., isolated from Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus broodstock.  

Science.gov (United States)

A streptococcal-like organism was associated with diseased Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus broodstock on four commercial aquaculture operations in the Mississippi Delta. Conventional biochemical testing, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization distinguished the isolates from these fish from previously published Streptococcus species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies revealed that the isolates were phylogenetically most similar to Streptococcus iniae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus parauberis with divergence ranging from 2.0 to 2.3 %. Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus urinalis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and Streptococcus canis were included in the analysis and showed even greater differences (2.5-3.2 % divergence). DNA relatedness was 22 % or less to the most phylogenetically related species at the optimal temperature. These data suggest that the isolates represent a novel species of Streptococcus for which the name Streptococcus ictaluri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 707-05(T) (=SO2-1108(T)=ATCC BAA-1300(T)=CCUG 52536(T)). PMID:17625202

Shewmaker, P Lynn; Camus, Alvin C; Bailiff, Tim; Steigerwalt, Arnold G; Morey, Roger E; Carvalho, Maria da Glória S

2007-07-01

252

Genetic polymorphism of Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members Polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans em membros de famílias brasileiras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether random amplified polymorphic DNA (AP-PCR analysis is able to differentiate genetically different clones of mutans streptococci, in 22 Brazilian family members. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from fathers, mothers and infants. For 5-18 months babies with erupting primary dentition, plaque samples were collected using sterile tooth pick tips. From these samples, mutans streptococci were isolated on SB-20 agar plates. After growth, representative colonies were identified by biochemical methods on the basis of carbohydrate fermentation. Streptococcus mutans isolates were obtained from all family members and AP-PCR typed separately with a random primer (OPA-13. Bacterial cell lysates were used as template in PCR reactions and the amplified DNA fragments obtained were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results demonstrated that the father shared the baby's genotype in three families and the mother shared the baby's genotype in 12 families seven babies harbored Streptococcus mutans strains similar to those of their siblings. The technique was able to demonstrate the genetic Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar, através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR a capacidade de diferenciar clones geneticamente distintos de Streptococcus mutans e estabelecer o grau de similaridade intrafamilial para os isolados. Para o presente estudo, foram selecionadas 22 famílias brasileiras. Amostras de saliva foram coletadas de todos os membros das famílias. Das crianças com idade entre 5-18 meses obteve-se amostras de placa dental. Após o isolamento das colônias com características morfológicas, realizou-se a identificação bioquímica com base na fermentação de carboidratos. O polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans foi pesquisado através da técnica de AP-PCR utilizando-se o primer OPA-13. Os fragmentos de DNA obtidos foram amplificados e comparados através de eletroforese em gel de agarose. Dentre as espécies identificadas nas 22 famílias analisadas, o pai apresentou cepas com similaridade genética aos dos bebês em três das famílias analisadas; em 12 famílias a mãe apresentou cepas com similaridade com as cepas de Streptococcus mutans do bebê e 7 bebês apresentaram cepas de S. mutans com similaridade genética das cepas do irmão mais velho. A técnica de AP-PCR foi eficaz em demonstrar a heterogeneidade genética de Streptococcus mutans entre os membros das famílias brasileiras analisadas.

Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio

2003-07-01

253

Genetic polymorphism of Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members / Polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans em membros de famílias brasileiras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar, através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR) a capacidade de diferenciar clones geneticamente distintos de Streptococcus mutans e estabelecer o grau de similaridade intrafamilial para os isolados. Para o presente estudo [...] , foram selecionadas 22 famílias brasileiras. Amostras de saliva foram coletadas de todos os membros das famílias. Das crianças com idade entre 5-18 meses obteve-se amostras de placa dental. Após o isolamento das colônias com características morfológicas, realizou-se a identificação bioquímica com base na fermentação de carboidratos. O polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans foi pesquisado através da técnica de AP-PCR utilizando-se o primer OPA-13. Os fragmentos de DNA obtidos foram amplificados e comparados através de eletroforese em gel de agarose. Dentre as espécies identificadas nas 22 famílias analisadas, o pai apresentou cepas com similaridade genética aos dos bebês em três das famílias analisadas; em 12 famílias a mãe apresentou cepas com similaridade com as cepas de Streptococcus mutans do bebê e 7 bebês apresentaram cepas de S. mutans com similaridade genética das cepas do irmão mais velho. A técnica de AP-PCR foi eficaz em demonstrar a heterogeneidade genética de Streptococcus mutans entre os membros das famílias brasileiras analisadas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine whether random amplified polymorphic DNA (AP-PCR) analysis is able to differentiate genetically different clones of mutans streptococci, in 22 Brazilian family members. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from fathers, mothers and infants. For 5-18 months [...] babies with erupting primary dentition, plaque samples were collected using sterile tooth pick tips. From these samples, mutans streptococci were isolated on SB-20 agar plates. After growth, representative colonies were identified by biochemical methods on the basis of carbohydrate fermentation. Streptococcus mutans isolates were obtained from all family members and AP-PCR typed separately with a random primer (OPA-13). Bacterial cell lysates were used as template in PCR reactions and the amplified DNA fragments obtained were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results demonstrated that the father shared the baby's genotype in three families and the mother shared the baby's genotype in 12 families seven babies harbored Streptococcus mutans strains similar to those of their siblings. The technique was able to demonstrate the genetic Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members.

Denise Madalena Palomari, Spolidorio; José Francisco, Höfling; Antônio Carlos, Pizzolitto; Edvaldo Antonio, Rosa; Thaís de Cássia, Negrini; Luís Carlos, Spolidorio.

2003-07-01

254

Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05. In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

Suping Wang

2014-07-01

255

Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP. Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratório e de amostras de sangue não relacionadas a infecções meníngeas e foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretações categóricas de CIM foram baseadas em padrões atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetíveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treated, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC < 2 µg/mL, and, consequently, they were also susceptible to amoxicillin, ampicillin, third/fourth generation cephalosporins, and ertapenem. Of the S. pneumoniae strains, 99% were also susceptible to moxifloxacin, and only one strain showed an MIC = 1.5 µg/mL (intermediate. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed high susceptibility rates to parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin among S. pneumoniae isolates unrelated to meningitis, which differs from international reports. Reports on penicillin resistance should be based on updated breakpoints for non-meningitis isolates in order to guide the selection of an antimicrobial therapy and to improve the prediction of the clinical outcomes.

Flávia Rossi

2012-02-01

256

Antibacterial activity of dentinal bonding agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility of five bacterial species to seven dentinal bonding agents was examined in vitro. Agar diffusion tests using filterpaper disks containing 10 microL each of conditioner, primer, or resin were performed on blood agar and mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) was used as a positive control. After incubation, zones of inhibited bacterial growth were measured. Of all the compounds tested, Gluma cleanser and Gluma etchant showed the strongest growth inhibition for all bacterial strains. No antibacterial effect was noted for Prisma Universal Bond 2 and Superlux Universal Bond 2 systems. The primers of Gluma, Denthesive, and Scotchbond 2 displayed antibacterial activity that, in some cases, was comparable to that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. Zones of inhibition were seen for the resin materials of Scotchbond 2 and Tripton with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus. No inhibition was seen after these resins were cured, whereas the antibacterial effect of XR-Bond on S sanguis and A viscosus was not affected by light curing. PMID:8210322

Emilson, C G; Bergenholtz, G

1993-07-01

257

Agent Exoplanet  

Science.gov (United States)

Astronomers at Las Cumbres Observatory are investigating exoplanets - planets which orbit stars other than our Sun - and you can too. Joining Agent Exoplanet you will study known exoplanets using images taken by LCOGT’s telescopes. You'll measure the brightness of a star while a planet moves between it and our viewpoint. You can examine as many images, from as many exoplanet transit events, as you like and contribute to understanding the properties of each exoplanet.

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network

258

Effect of Human Saliva on Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans and Other Oral Microorganisms  

OpenAIRE

We examined the effects of human whole salivary supernatant and parotid fluid on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Actinomyces viscosus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The following three effects of saliva were observed: (i) inhibition of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), (ii) promotion of a transient, rapid (0 to 30 s) burst of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), and (iii) enhancement of glucose uptake (S. mitis, A. vi...

Germaine, Greg R.; Tellefson, Lois M.

1981-01-01

259

The Streptococcus sanguinis Competence Regulon Is Not Required for Infective Endocarditis Virulence in a Rabbit Model  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus sanguinis is an important component of dental plaque and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Genetic competence in S. sanguinis requires a quorum sensing system encoded by the early comCDE genes, as well as late genes controlled by the alternative sigma factor, ComX. Previous studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have identified functions for the >100-gene com regulon in addition to DNA uptake, including virulence. We investigated this possibility i...

Callahan, Jill E.; Munro, Cindy L.; Kitten, Todd

2011-01-01

260

Antibacterial Activity of Iranian Green and Black Tea on Streptococcus Mutans : An In Vitro Study  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Dental caries is a common infectious disease.Streptococcus mutans is the prevalent decay microorganism. The anti Streptococcus mutans activity of non fermented and semi-fermented tea has been shown. The aim of this study was to determine the anti Streptococcus mutans activity of Iranian green and black tea (non fermented and fermented type).Materials and Methods: The study was experimental. The aerial parts of wild-growing Camellia sinensis were collected from Lahijan province. The...

Kharazi Fard, M. J.; Niakan, M.; Jalayer Naderi, N.; Zardi, S.

2011-01-01

261

Group B Streptococcus detection: comparison of PCR assay and culture as a screening method for pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most important causal agents of serious neonatal infections. Numerous assays have been evaluated for GBS screening in order to validate a fast and efficient method. The aim of this study was to compare the culture technique (estab [...] lished as the gold standard) with the molecular method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers (atr gene). Two hundred and sixty-three samples were analyzed. Vaginal samples were collected, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations, from women over 35 weeks of pregnancy at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA). Two different extraction methods were tested in all samples collected. PCR technique yielded 71 (26.99%) positive results. Sensitivity and specificity for PCR were 100% and 86.88%, respectively. PCR demonstrated a shorter turnaround time than the culture. The molecular methodology proved to be a useful screening for GBS, allowing effective treatment to be initiated in shorter time to prevent newborn infection.

Fernanda, de-Paris; Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro, Machado; Tailise Conte, Gheno; Bruna Maria, Ascoli; Kátia Ruschel Pilger de, Oliveira; Afonso Luis, Barth.

2011-08-01

262

Anti-biofilm activity of Salvadora persica on cariogenic isolates of Streptococcus mutans: in vitro and molecular docking studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salvadora persica sticks are used for chewing and oral-hygiene measures worldwide. The growth inhibition and anti-biofilm effects of various extracts on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans isolates were evaluated. Biofilm inhibition, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses for phytochemicals and their possible mode of interaction with biofilm response regulators were revealed using LigandFit docking protocols. All S. persica extracts showed considerable inhibitory activity and the cariogenic S. mutans showed varied susceptibility when compared with controls. The percentage reduction in biofilm inhibition obtained for methanol, ethanol, chloroform, acetone, and aqueous extracts were 87.92%, 85.75%, 72.44%, 61.66% and 58.68%, respectively. GC-MS analyses revealed >28 compounds, of which benzyl (6Z,9Z,12Z)-6,9,12-octadecatrienoate, 3-benzyloxy-1-nitro-butan-2-ol and 1,3-cyclohexane dicarbohydrazide interacted efficiently with the bacterial communication quorum-sensing (QS) regulators Streptococcus OmpP and Staphylococcus Lux proteins. The bioactive, dual-function, anti-biofilm agents in S. persica not only inhibit growth, but also control the colonization and accumulation of caries-causing S. mutans. PMID:22235758

Al-Sohaibani, Saleh; Murugan, Kasi

2012-01-01

263

Streptococcus agalactiae infection in domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. In August 2011, a severe infectious disease affecting rabbits, which caused 42% mortality, occurred in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. The main clinical signs included acute respiratory distress syndrome, fever, paddling and convulsions. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from the primary organs and tissues of diseased rabbits and then identified as S. agalactiae by morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequences analysis. All isolates of S. agalactiae showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to florfenicol, ampicillin,gentamicin and norfloxacin, as well as being resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. agalactiae natural infection in domestic rabbits. PMID:23465082

Ren, S Y; Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, X X; He, M; Peng, X; Wu, C Y; Lai, W M

2014-12-01

264

Colonización faucial por Streptococcus pyogenes en pacientes con impétigo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se determinó la portación faucial de Streptococcus pyogenes en pacientes con impétigo, como factor de riesgo para la presentación de complicaciones no supurativas (glomerulonefritis aguda. Los cultivos de fauces de estos pacientes revelaron una colonización con S. pyogenes de 65 %, todos los aislamientos fueron sensibles a la penicilina. Se concluyó que este alto porcentaje de colonización faucial justificaba un tratamiento antibiótico sistémico.The faucial carrying of Streptococcus pyogenes in patients presenting impetigo was determined as a risk factor for non-suppurative complications (acute glomerulonephritis. The fauces cultures of these patients revealed a S. pyogenes colonization of 65 % and all the isolates were penicilline-sensitive. It was concluded that the high percent of faucial colonization made a systemic antimicrobial treatment necessary.

María Cristina Ronconi

1999-01-01

265

Colonización faucial por Streptococcus pyogenes en pacientes con impétigo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinó la portación faucial de Streptococcus pyogenes en pacientes con impétigo, como factor de riesgo para la presentación de complicaciones no supurativas (glomerulonefritis aguda). Los cultivos de fauces de estos pacientes revelaron una colonización con S. pyogenes de 65 %, todos los aislam [...] ientos fueron sensibles a la penicilina. Se concluyó que este alto porcentaje de colonización faucial justificaba un tratamiento antibiótico sistémico. Abstract in english The faucial carrying of Streptococcus pyogenes in patients presenting impetigo was determined as a risk factor for non-suppurative complications (acute glomerulonephritis). The fauces cultures of these patients revealed a S. pyogenes colonization of 65 % and all the isolates were penicilline-sensiti [...] ve. It was concluded that the high percent of faucial colonization made a systemic antimicrobial treatment necessary.

María Cristina, Ronconi; Luis Antonio, Merino; Olga, Miranda.

1999-12-01

266

Evaluación de la colonización del tracto digestivo de cerdos por cepas de Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus, componentes de un producto probiótico / Gastrointestinal tract colonization evaluation in pigs by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophile strains, components of a probiotic product  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de evaluar la posible utilización como probiótico, de un producto compuesto por Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus, se estudió la colonización del tracto intestinal de cerdos recién nacidos, por los agentes componentes de este producto. Como probiótico se utilizó u [...] na mezcla de miel de caña, levadura torula y agua hasta completar 1000 ml y 25 ml del cultivo de Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus. Se conformaron cuatro grupos experimentales de la siguiente manera: Grupo 1: 18 crías (camada de dos cerdas) a las cuales se les aplicó 5 ml del producto por vía oral al nacimiento; Grupo 2: 17 crías (camada de dos cerdas) a las cuales se les aplicó 5 ml del producto por vía oral al nacimiento y 24 horas después del primer tratamiento; Grupo 3: 10 crías (camada de una cerda) a las que se les aplicó 5 ml del placebo por vía oral al nacimiento; Grupo 4: 12 crías (camada de una cerda) a las cuales se les aplicó 5 ml del placebo por vía oral al nacimiento y 24 horas después del primer tratamiento. A todos los animales se les realizó un hizopaje rectal a los 7, 14 y 21 días de finalizado el tratamiento. Se comprobó la colonización del tracto gastrointestinal por Lactobacillus acidophilus y Streptococcus termophilus en los cerdos tratados con el producto probiótico hasta los 14 días postratamiento y que esta no se encuentra influida por la frecuencia de aplicación del probiótico. Abstract in english With the aim of evaluating the possible use as a probiotic product composed by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus, the intestinal tract colonization of newborn pigs was studied by the components of this product. As a probiotic, a mixture of 150 ml of molasses and 100 mg torula [...] yeast was used and water was added completing 1000 ml and 25 ml of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus culture was added. Four experimental groups were formed as follows: Group 1: 18 piglets (a litter of two sows) which was applied 5 ml of the probiotic product orally at birth; Group 2: 17 piglets (a litter of two sows) which were applied 5 ml of the probiotic product orally at birth and at 24 hours after the first treatment; Group 3: 10 piglets (a litter of one sow) which were applied 5 ml of placebo orally at birth and Group 4: 12 piglets (a litter of one sow) which were applied 5 ml of placebo orally at birth and at 24 hours after the first treatment. A microbiological sampling by rectal swabs at 7, 14 and 21 days postreatment was applied to all animals. The gastrointestinal tract colonization by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was observed in pigs treated with the probiotic product until 14 days postreatment not being and this is not influenced by the frequency of probiotic application.

Miguel, Pérez Ruano; Mabelin, Armenteros Amaya; Ernesto, Vega Cañizares.

2014-12-01

267

Studies on emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major contributors to mortality and morbidity around the world. It causes a wide variety of diseases ranging from uncomplicated respiratory infections to life-threatening invasive infections such as meningitis and septicemia. In recent years, the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy has been hampered by the increasing rates of resistant pneumococci. As antibiotic resistance increases, there is a growing need for interventions that minimi...

Karlsson, Diana

2010-01-01

268

Group B Streptococcus: global incidence and vaccine development  

OpenAIRE

An ongoing public health challenge is to develop vaccines that are effective against infectious diseases that have global relevance. Vaccines against serotypes of group B Streptococcus (GBS) that are prevalent in the United States and Europe are not optimally efficacious against serotypes common to other parts of the world. New technologies and innovative approaches are being used to identify GBS antigens that overcome serotype-specificity and that could form the basis of a globally effective...

Johri, Atul Kumar; Paoletti, Lawrence C.; Glaser, Philippe; Dua, Meenakshi; Sharma, Puja Kumari; Grandi, Guido; Rappuoli, Rino

2006-01-01

269

Comparison of Streptokinase Activity from Streptococcus mutans using Different Substrates  

OpenAIRE

Streptokinase is a novel bacterial fibrinolytic enzyme that binds and activates plasminogen and is produced by several species of Streptococci. Streptococcus mutans was selected for optimum production of streptokinase using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass in liquid state fermentation. Substrates were applied in different concentrations ranging from 0.1-0.8%. Maximum fibrinolytic activity was observed by 0.3% corn steep liquor, 0.5% molasses and rice polishing ...

Muhammad Anjum Zia, Rana Faisal

2013-01-01

270

Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Its Close Commensal Relatives  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a member of the Mitis group of streptococci which, according to 16S rRNA-sequence based phylogenetic reconstruction, includes 12 species. While other species of this group are considered prototypes of commensal bacteria, S. pneumoniae is among the most frequent microbial killers worldwide. Population genetic analysis of 118 strains, supported by demonstration of a distinct cell wall carbohydrate structure and competence pheromone sequence signature, shows that S. p...

Kilian, Mogens; Poulsen, Knud; Blomqvist, Trinelise; Ha?varstein, Leiv S.; Bek-thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, Herve?; Sørensen, Uffe B. S.

2008-01-01

271

Population Dynamics of Streptococcus mitis in Its Natural Habitat  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic structure of the typical commensal Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 in its natural habitat in the human oral cavity and pharynx and to investigate the role that selected microbial properties and host, spatial, and temporal factors play in determining the structure of the bacterial population. Consecutive samples were collected from buccal and pharyngeal mucosal surfaces of two infants, their four parents, and two elderly individuals over a peri...

Hohwy, Jesper; Reinholdt, Jesper; Kilian, Mogens

2001-01-01

272

Molecular Characterization of Multidrug Resistance in Streptococcus mitis  

OpenAIRE

Antimicrobial resistance was characterized for 14 strains of Streptococcus mitis. HinfI restriction fragment length mapping of gyrA PCR amplicons from three ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates correlated with mutations associated with such resistance in other organisms. By using PCR, seven erythromycin-resistant strains were found to possess either the mef or ermB gene. Hybridization revealed tet(M) in seven tetracycline-resistant isolates.

Poutanen, Susan M.; Azavedo, Joyce; Willey, Barbara M.; Low, Donald E.; Macdonald, Kelly S.

1999-01-01

273

Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis caused by Streptococcus mitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Septic arthritis of the pubic symphisis is distinguished from osteitis pubis by positive cultures. The symptoms, physical examination and laboratory findings of these two conditions are comparable. We present a case of 57-year-old woman with septic arthritis of pubic symphisis caused by Streptococcus mitis, a commensal oral flora that belongs to viridans group streptococci, which normally reside in the oral cavity, the gastrointestinal and the urogenital tract. PMID:25109348

Yusuf, E; Hofer, M; Steinrücken, J; Trampuz, A; Borens, O

2014-12-01

274

Streptococcus mitis Strains Causing Severe Clinical Disease in Cancer Patients  

OpenAIRE

The genetically diverse viridans group streptococci (VGS) are increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of human diseases. We used a recently developed multilocus sequence analysis scheme to define the species of 118 unique VGS strains causing bacteremia in patients with cancer; Streptococcus mitis (68 patients) and S. oralis (22 patients) were the most frequently identified strains. Compared with patients infected with non–S. mitis strains, patients infected with S. ...

Shelburne, Samuel A.; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldana, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Horstmann, Nicola; Thompson, Erika; Flores, Anthony R.

2014-01-01

275

Global Transcriptional Analysis of Streptococcus mutans Sugar Transporters Using Microarrays? †  

OpenAIRE

The transport of carbohydrates by Streptococcus mutans is accomplished by the phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system (PTS) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. To undertake a global transcriptional analysis of all S. mutans sugar transporters simultaneously, we used a whole-genome expression microarray. Global transcription profiles of S. mutans UA159 were determined for several monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose, and mannose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltos...

Ajdic?, Dragana; Pham, Vi T. T.

2007-01-01

276

Selection and application of Streptococcus bovis as a silage inoculant.  

OpenAIRE

Three strains of Streptococcus bovis, a homolactic bacterium capable of utilizing starch, were evaluated for growth kinetics and ability to decrease the pH of alfalfa silage. A selected strain was evaluated for its competitiveness as an inoculant with Enterococcus faecium, an organism used in inoculants, and for its ability to enhance the effect of a commercial inoculant. Testing was completed over three studies using wilted alfalfa (28 to 34% dry matter) ensiled into laboratory silos. Treatm...

Jones, B. A.; Muck, R. E.; Ricke, S. C.

1991-01-01

277

CRISPR Inhibition of Prophage Acquisition in Streptococcus pyogenes  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the major human pathogens, is a unique species since it has acquired diverse strain-specific virulence properties mainly through the acquisition of streptococcal prophages. In addition, S. pyogenes possesses clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas systems that can restrict horizontal gene transfer (HGT) including phage insertion. Therefore, it was of interest to examine the relationship between CRISPR and acquisition of prophages i...

Nozawa, Takashi; Furukawa, Nayuta; Aikawa, Chihiro; Watanabe, Takayasu; Haobam, Bijaya; Kurokawa, Ken; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro

2011-01-01

278

Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus cremoris Wg2-specific promoters.  

OpenAIRE

By cloning MboI fragments in the promoter selection vector pGKV210, which replicates in Streptococcus lactis, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli and carries a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, we obtained a number of fragments endowed with promoter activity, partly by direct selection for chloramphenicol resistance in S. lactis IL1403 and partly by selection in B. subtilis. Five fragments were sequenced, and the promoters were mapped with S1 nuclease. The promoters agr...

Vossen, J. M.; Lelie, D.; Venema, G.

1987-01-01

279

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils...

Julien Sfeir; Corinne Lefrançois; Dominique Baudoux; Amp Xe Verine Derbr Amp Xe, S.; Patricia Licznar

2013-01-01

280

ATP-driven sodium pump in Streptococcus faecalis.  

OpenAIRE

Sodium extrusion by bacteria is generally attributed to secondary antiport of Na+ for H+ energized by the proton circulation. Streptococcus faecalis is an exception, in that sodium expulsion from intact cells requires the generation of ATP but does not depend on the protonmotive force. Unfortunately, studies with everted membrane vesicles failed to reveal the expected sodium pump; instead, the vesicles contained a conventional secondary Na+/H+ antiporter. We report here that everted membrane ...

Heefner, D. L.; Harold, F. M.

1982-01-01

281

Interspecies Recombination Contributes Minimally to Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

OpenAIRE

Analysis of 71 ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC ? 4 ?g/ml) Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates revealed only 1 for which the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the parC, parE, and gyrB genes were genetically related to those of viridans group streptococci. Our findings support the occurrence of interspecies recombination of type II topoisomerase genes; however, its contribution to the emergence of quinolone resistance among pneumococci appears to have been minimal.

Bast, Darrin J.; Azavedo, Joyce C. S.; Tam, Tiffany Y.; Kilburn, Laurie; Duncan, Carla; Mandell, Lionel A.; Davidson, Ross J.; Low, Donald E.

2001-01-01

282

Management of Infections Due to Antibiotic-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae  

OpenAIRE

Antibiotic-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae are becoming more prevalent throughout the world; this has resulted in modifications of treatment approaches. Management of bacterial meningitis has the greatest consensus. Strategies for treating other systemic infections such as pneumonia, bacteremia, and musculoskeletal infections are evolving, in part related to the availability of new antibiotics which are active in vitro against isolates resistant to penicillin and the extended-sp...

Kaplan, Sheldon L.; Mason, Edward O.

1998-01-01

283

Specific detection by PCR of Streptococcus agalactiae in milk.  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to develop a simple and specific method for direct detection of Streptococcus agalactiae from cow's milk. The method was based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific and universal primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene. The amplification product was verified by restriction endonuclease digest and sequencing. Specific identification was proven on a collection of 147 S. agalactiae isolates of bovine and human origin. In addition, 17 strains belonging...

Martinez, G.; Harel, J.; Gottschalk, M.

2001-01-01

284

Macrolide Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in Hong Kong  

OpenAIRE

Erythromycin resistance rates among penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae were 38 and 92% among penicillin-intermediate and -resistant S. pneumoniae isolates from Hong Kong, respectively, and 27% (43 of 158) of the isolates showed the MLSB phenotype, and the majority carried the ermB gene; 73% (115 of 158) displayed the M phenotype, and all possessed the mef gene. The MLSB phenotype was predominant in penicillin-susceptible, macrolide-resistant isolates and in penicillin-nonsuscepti...

Ip, Margaret; Lyon, Donald J.; Yung, Raymond W. H.; Chan, Colin; Cheng, Augustine F. B.

2001-01-01

285

Diversity, Activity, and Evolution of CRISPR Loci in Streptococcus thermophilus? †  

OpenAIRE

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are hypervariable loci widely distributed in prokaryotes that provide acquired immunity against foreign genetic elements. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus thermophilus locus, CRISPR3, and experimentally demonstrate its ability to integrate novel spacers in response to bacteriophage. Also, we analyze CRISPR diversity and activity across three distinct CRISPR loci in several S. thermophilus strains. We show that both ...

Horvath, Philippe; Romero, Dennis A.; Cou?te?-monvoisin, Anne-claire; Richards, Melissa; Deveau, He?le?ne; Moineau, Sylvain; Boyaval, Patrick; Fremaux, Christophe; Barrangou, Rodolphe

2007-01-01

286

Assessment of Genes Associated with Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Morphology  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus mutans, the major pathogen responsible for dental caries in humans, is a biofilm-forming bacterium. In the present study, 17 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of genomic DNA were identified in S. mutans organisms isolated clinically from whole saliva. The S. mutans isolates showed different abilities to form biofilms on polystyrene surfaces in semidefined minimal medium cultures. Following cultivation in a flow cell system in tryptic soy broth with 0.25% sucros...

Motegi, Mizuho; Takagi, Yuzo; Yonezawa, Hideo; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Terajima, Jun; Watanabe, Haruo; Senpuku, Hidenobu

2006-01-01

287

Coaggregation of Streptococcus sanguis and other streptococci with Candida albicans.  

OpenAIRE

Thirteen strains of viridans group streptococci and two strains of other streptococci were tested for coaggregation with Candida albicans. Streptococcus sanguis strains generally exhibited low levels of adherence to 28 degrees C-grown exponential-phase yeast cells, but starvation of yeast cells for glucose at 37 degrees C (or at 28 degrees C) increased their coaggregating activity with these streptococci by at least tenfold. This was a property common to four C. albicans strains tested, two o...

Jenkinson, H. F.; Lala, H. C.; Shepherd, M. G.

1990-01-01

288

Natural Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans Growing in Biofilms  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus mutans is a bacterium that has evolved to be dependent upon a biofilm “lifestyle” for survival and persistence in its natural ecosystem, dental plaque. We initiated this study to identify the genes involved in the development of genetic competence in S. mutans and to assay the natural genetic transformability of biofilm-grown cells. Using genomic analyses, we identified a quorum-sensing peptide pheromone signaling system similar to those previously found in other streptococc...

Li, Yung-hua; Lau, Peter C. Y.; Lee, Janet H.; Ellen, Richard P.; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.

2001-01-01

289

Ecology of Streptococcus faecium bacteriophage in chicken gut.  

OpenAIRE

The interaction in the chick gut between Streptococcus faecium and its phage was examined. In conventional chicks, large numbers of S. faecium and phage were found in the cecum and smaller numbers were found in the anterior gut. In gnotobiotic chicks associated with S. faecium SY1 and its phage, there was no marked effect on bacterial numbers, but resistance to the phage rapidly developed. Depression of chick growth caused by S. faecium strain SY1 was partially reversed by its phage.

Houghton, S. B.; Fuller, R.

1980-01-01

290

Physiological and molecular characterization of genetic competence in Streptococcus sanguinis  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus sanguinis is a major component of the oral flora and an important cause of infective endocarditis. Although S. sanguinis is naturally competent, genome sequencing has suggested significant differences in the S. sanguinis competence system relative to those of other streptococci. An S. sanguinis mutant possessing an in-frame deletion in the comC gene, which encodes competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), was created. Addition of synthetic CSP induced competence in this strain. Gene...

Rodriguez, Alejandro Miguel; Callahan, Jill E.; Fawcett, Paul; Ge, Xiuchun; Xu, Ping; Kitten, Todd

2011-01-01

291

Genome-wide essential gene identification in Streptococcus sanguinis  

OpenAIRE

A clear perception of gene essentiality in bacterial pathogens is pivotal for identifying drug targets to combat emergence of new pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, for synthetic biology, and for understanding the origins of life. We have constructed a comprehensive set of deletion mutants and systematically identified a clearly defined set of essential genes for Streptococcus sanguinis. Our results were confirmed by growing S. sanguinis in minimal medium and by double-knockout of p...

Xu, Ping; Ge, Xiuchun; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaojing; Dou, Yuetan; Xu, Jerry Z.; Patel, Jenishkumar R.; Stone, Victoria; Trinh, My; Evans, Karra; Kitten, Todd; Bonchev, Danail; Buck, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

292

cadDX Operon of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I?  

OpenAIRE

A CadDX system that confers resistance to Cd2+ and Zn2+ was identified in Streptococcus salivarius 57.I. Unlike with other CadDX systems, the expression of the cad promoter was negatively regulated by CadX, and the repression was inducible by Cd2+ and Zn2+, similar to what was found for CadCA systems. The lower G+C content of the S. salivarius cadDX genes suggests acquisition by horizontal gene transfer.

Chen, Yi-ywan M.; Feng, C. W.; Chiu, C. F.; Burne, Robert A.

2007-01-01

293

The alpha-hemolysin of Streptococcus gordonii is hydrogen peroxide.  

OpenAIRE

The alpha-hemolysin of viridans group streptococci, which causes greening of intact erythrocytes, is a potential virulence factor as well as an important criterion for the laboratory identification of these bacteria; however, it has never been purified and characterized. The alpha-hemolysin of Streptococcus gordonii CH1 caused characteristic shifts in the A403, A430, A578, and A630 of sheep hemoglobin. A spectrophotometric assay was developed and used to monitor purification of alpha-hemolysi...

Barnard, J. P.; Stinson, M. W.

1996-01-01

294

Fatal Necrotizing Fasciitis Due to Streptococcus pneumoniae: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Necrotizing fasciitis is known to be a highly lethal infection of deep-seated subcutaneous tissue and superficial fascia. Reports of necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae are exceedingly rare. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis in a 62-yr-old man with liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. He presented with painful swelling of left leg and right hand. On the day of admission, compartment syndrome was aggravated and the patient underwent surgical exploration. Intra-opera...

Park, So-youn; Park, So Young; Moon, Soo-youn; Son, Jun Seong; Lee, Mi Suk

2010-01-01

295

Growth of Streptococcus mutans protoplasts is not inhibited by penicillin.  

OpenAIRE

A method is described in which cells of Streptococcus mutans BHT can be converted to spherical, osmotically fragile protoplasts. Exponential-phase cells were suspended in a solution containing 0.5 M melezitose, and their cell walls were hydrolyzed with mutanolysin (M-1 enzyme). When the resultant protoplasts were incubated in a chemically defined growth medium containing 0.5 M NH4Cl, the protoplast suspensions increased in turbidity, protein, ribonucleic acid, and deoxyribonucleic acid in a b...

Parks, L. C.; Shockman, G. D.; Higgins, M. L.

1980-01-01

296

Novel Clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Invasive Disease in Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood disease in South East Asia, little has previously been reported regarding the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and very few studies have explored pneumococcal epidemiology using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we describe serotype, multilocus sequence type (ST), and penicillin susceptibility of thirty pneumococcal invasive disease isolates received by the University of Malaya Medical Centre betw...

Jefferies, Johanna M.; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Devi Sekaran, Shamala; Clarke, Stuart C.

2014-01-01

297

Differentiation of cultured keratinocytes promotes the adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes.  

OpenAIRE

Based on a consideration of the histopathology of nonbullous impetigo that shows localization of Streptococcus pyogenes to highly differentiated, subcorneal keratinocytes, we hypothesized that adherence of an impetigo strain of S. pyogenes would be promoted by terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. An assay was developed in which S. pyogenes adhered via pilus-like projections from the cell wall to the surface of cultured human keratinocytes in a time- and inoculum-dependent manner suggest...

Darmstadt, G. L.; Fleckman, P.; Jonas, M.; Chi, E.; Rubens, C. E.

1998-01-01

298

The Streptococcus thermophilus Autolytic Phenotype Results from a Leaky Prophage  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus thermophilus autolytic strains are characterized by a typical bell-shaped growth curve when grown under appropriate conditions. The cellular mechanisms involved in the triggering of lysis and the bacteriolytic activities of these strains were investigated in this study. Lactose depletion and organic solvents (ethanol, methanol, and chloroform) were shown to trigger a premature and immediate lysis of M17 exponentially growing cells. These factors and compounds are suspected to ac...

Husson-kao, Clara; Mengaud, Je?ro?me; Cesselin, Be?ne?dicte; Sinderen, Douwe; Benbadis, Laurent; Chapot-chartier, Marie-pierre

2000-01-01

299

Rgg Coordinates Virulence Factor Synthesis and Metabolism in Streptococcus pyogenes  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pyogenes is a human-specific pathogen that relies on its host for metabolic substrates. Rgg-like proteins constitute a family of transcriptional regulators present in several gram-positive bacteria. In S. pyogenes, Rgg influences the expression of several virulence-associated proteins localized to the cell wall and extracellular environment. Secreted enzymes may degrade host macromolecules, thereby liberating metabolic substrates. To determine if Rgg regulation of exoprotein exp...

Chaussee, Michael S.; Somerville, Greg A.; Reitzer, Larry; Musser, James M.

2003-01-01

300

Investigation of Probiotic Chocolate Effect on Streptococcus mutans Growth Inhibition  

OpenAIRE

Background: One of the most important factors in inducing the logarithmic growth of Streptococcus mutans, is a diet containing fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose. Objectives: The aim of the current research was to compare the ability of ordinary and probiotic chocolate to induce or inhibit the growth of S. mutans..Materials and Methods: Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum and L. acidophilus as probiotic strains, were cultivated on MRS agar for 24 hours at 35° C in 5% CO2. S. mutans ...

Anita Khanafari; Sepideh Hosseini Porgham

2012-01-01

301

Quantifying Diffusion in a Biofilm of Streptococcus mutans?  

OpenAIRE

In biofilms, diffusion may limit the chemical activity of nutrients, toxic compounds, and medicines. This study provides direct, noninvasive insight into the factors that will most effectively limit the transport of antibiotics and biocides in biofilms. Self-diffusion coefficients have been determined for a number of fluorescent probes in biofilms of Streptococcus mutans using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The effects of probe size and charge and the roles of biofilm pH, ionic streng...

Zhang, Zeshi; Nadezhina, Elena; Wilkinson, Kevin J.

2010-01-01

302

Characterization of Pit, a Streptococcus pneumoniae Iron Uptake ABC Transporter  

OpenAIRE

Bacteria frequently have multiple mechanisms for acquiring iron, an essential micronutrient, from the environment. We have identified a four-gene Streptococcus pneumoniae operon, named pit, encoding proteins with similarity to components of a putative Brachyspira hyodysenteriae iron uptake ABC transporter, Bit. An S. pneumoniae strain containing a defined mutation in pit has impaired growth in medium containing the iron chelator ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, reduced sensitivi...

Brown, Jeremy S.; Gilliland, Sarah M.; Ruiz-albert, Javier; Holden, David W.

2004-01-01

303

Isolation and properties of levanase from Streptococcus salivarius KTA-19.  

OpenAIRE

Fructan-hydrolyzing enzyme from Streptococcus salivarius KTA-19 isolated from human dental plaque was investigated. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, acetone fractionation, and column chromatography on Bio-Gel and DEAE-cellulose. The purified enzyme showed a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Its molecular weight was 100,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The e...

Takahashi, N.; Mizuno, F.; Takamori, K.

1983-01-01

304

Phage Response to CRISPR-Encoded Resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus?  

OpenAIRE

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated genes are linked to a mechanism of acquired resistance against bacteriophages. Bacteria can integrate short stretches of phage-derived sequences (spacers) within CRISPR loci to become phage resistant. In this study, we further characterized the efficiency of CRISPR1 as a phage resistance mechanism in Streptococcus thermophilus. First, we show that CRISPR1 is distinct from previously known phage defense sys...

Deveau, He?le?ne; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Garneau, Josiane E.; Labonte?, Jessica; Fremaux, Christophe; Boyaval, Patrick; Romero, Dennis A.; Horvath, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain

2007-01-01

305

[Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from nasopharynx in children].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study are to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from children and clarify the risk factors for the carriage of the resistant strains. We examined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents against 949 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and 791 strains of Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) isolated at our department between September, 2001 and May, 2003. Of those, 226 S. pneumoniae strains and 115 H. influenzae strains were analysed for the resistance genes. Also we retrospectively reviewed the profiles of 1,359 patients with either S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, or both in nasopharynx. From the view point of MICs, PSSP strains were 185 (19%), PISP strains were 443 (47%), and PRSP strains were 321 (34%) in 949 S. pneumoniae strains, and BLNAS strains were 545 (69%), low-BLNAR strains were 104 (13%), BLNAR strains were 81 (11%), and BLPAR strains were 61 (8%) in 791 H. influenzae strains. The results of gene analysis showed that all resistant strains by MICs such as PISP, PRSP, BLNAR, and BLPAR had resistant genes and that 55% of and 21% of susceptible strains of S. pneumoniae (PSSP) and H. influenzae (BLNAS), respectively, had resistant genes. From the investigation for profiles of 1,359 patients, age less than 3 years old, day nursery, and use of antimicrobial agents in last 3 month, seemed to be the risk factors for carriage of resistant strains. To prevent the resistant bacteria from disseminating we should re-consider how to use the antimicobial agents and nurse the young children. PMID:15287475

Matsumoto, Ayumi; Hosoya, Mitsuoki; Katayose, Masahiko; Murai, Hiromichi; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Sato, Kei; Kato, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hitoshi

2004-06-01

306

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

1989-09-01

307

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starchigosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

308

Trading Agents  

CERN Document Server

Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

Wellman, Michael

2011-01-01

309

Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de las infecciones por Streptococcus pyogenes en el período neonatal Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in the neonatal period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la infección por Estreptococo del grupo A en los recién nacidos egresados de hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutivos, quienes tuvieron infecciones por estreptococos del grupo A y que estuvieron ingresados en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre 1992 y el 2005. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad. RESULTADOS. Se registraron 20 recién nacidos con infección por estreptococos del grupo A, lo cual representó una tasa promedio anual de 0,2 cada 100 ingresos. Esta infección muestra una incidencia con tendencia significativa a disminuir en los últimos años. Según la clasificación utilizada, todas las infecciones fueron de inicio tardío y, de acuerdo al origen, predominaron las adquiridas en la comunidad (95,0 %. La infección de tejidos blandos fue la forma clínica más frecuente (10 de 20; 50 % y cursó con bacteriemia. Los aislamientos de estreptococos del grupo A tuvieron un 100 % de sensibilidad ante los betalactámicos. Hubo un solo paciente fallecido, afecto de meningitis, lo cual significó una tasa de letalidad del 5,0 %. CONCLUSIONES. El estreptococo del grupo A es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, fundamentalmente en el ambiente comunitario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central, a pesar del patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los betalactámicos.INTRODUCTION. The objective of the present investigation was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infection caused by group A Streptococcus in the newborn infants discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that included consecutive newborn infants who had infections caused by group A Streptococcus and that were admitted in the neonatology service of "Juan M. Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital between 1992 and 2005 was carried out. Different clinical and epidemiological variables were processed and analyzed by calculating the incidence and lethality rates. RESULTS. 20 newborn infants with infection caused by group A Streptococcus were registered, accounting for an annual average rate of 0.2 per 100 admissions. This infection shows an incidence with a significant trend to decrease in the last years. According to the classification used, all the infections had a late onset, and regarding their origin those acquired in the community prevailed (95.0 %. The infection of the soft tissues was the most common clinical form (10 of 20; 50 % and evolved with bacteremia. The isolations of group A Streptococcus has 100 % of sensitivity to betalactamics. Only one patient affected with meningitis died, which represented a lethality rate of 5.0 %. CONCLUSIONS. The group A Streptococcus is an agent causing infections that affect the newborn infant, mainly in the community environment. These infections may be lethal in some patients with infection of the central nervous system, in spite of the pattern of elevated susceptibility to betalactamics.

Manuel Díaz Alvarez

2008-03-01

310

Autolisis de Streptococcus pneumoniae en hemocultivos / Autolysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El proceso de autolisis de Streptococcus pneumoniae en medios líquidos puede ocasionar problemas en muestras de hemocultivos impidiendo su recuperación y, por lo tanto, el diagnóstico microbiológico, así como el estudio de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar l [...] a frecuencia de este fenómeno en muestras clínicas y determinar las mejores condiciones de detección para este germen en los sistemas automatizados. Fueron incluidos todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de neumonía y hemocultivos positivos por S. pneumoniae y pacientes con diagnóstico de neumonía, botellas positivas y subcultivos negativos. Se evaluó el tipo de botella empleada, tiempo de detección, tiempo de demora en subcultivar las botellas y recuperación del germen. El procesamiento de las botellas, identificación del microorganismo y el estudio de sensibilidad a los antibióticos se realizaron según el protocolo habitual del laboratorio. Se evaluaron 110 botellas distribuidas de la siguiente manera: 104 FAN aerobias y 6 FAN anaerobias pertenecientes a 51 pacientes. Se obtuvo señal de positividad en 96 FAN aerobias (92,3%) y en 2 FAN anaerobias (33,3%). Todas las botellas positivas fueron detectadas en las primeras 26 h de incubación con una media de 11 h. En 38 de 51 pacientes (74,5%) se recuperó S. pneumoniae en los subcultivos, mientras que en 13 (25,5%) no se obtuvo desarrollo. La pérdida de viabilidad en estos casos se correlacionó con la demora en subcultivar las botellas positivas. La recuperación del germen fue del 100, 78,9 y 25% cuando la demora en subcultivar fue 14 h respectivamente. Se concluye que la utilización de botellas FAN aerobias permitió una adecuada recuperación de S. pneumoniae. Aquellos laboratorios que no poseen un servicio de guardia de Bacteriología podrían perder un porcentaje significativo de aislamientos de S. pneumoniae debido a fenómenos de autolisis. A fin de evitar este problema se recomienda implementar un sistema de vigilancia cada 7 h con descarga y subcultivo de botellas positivas. Abstract in english Spontaneous autolysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures causes a serious problem. Clinically relevant microorganisms are not detected and antimicrobial susceptibility testing cannot be performed. The aim of this study was to review the frequency of spontaneous autolysis in blood cultures [...] and to analyze the detection and isolation of S. pneumoniae from blood cultures. Patients with clinically diagnosed pneumonia and positive blood cultures were included. Another group of patients with pneumonia, positive blood culture but negative subcultures was also included. Type of bottle, time of detection and recovery of S. pneumoniae in subcultures were recorded. All bottles were processed according to the manufacturer´s instructions. A total of 110 bottles from 51 patients were evaluated. Out of 104 FAN aerobic bottles, 96 (92.3%) were positive. Out of 6 FAN anaerobic bottles only 2 (33.3%) were positive. Mean time detection was 11 hours and all positive bottles were detected after 26 hours of incubation. S. pneumoniae was recovered in subcultures in 38 of 51 patients (74.5%). Loss of viability associated to autolysis was detected in 13 patients (25.5%). Loss of viability was related to delay in removal of positive bottles from incubator. The recovery of microorganisms was 100, 78.9 and 25% when the time of delay was 14 h respectively. Detection of S. pneumoniae was more frequent in FAN aerobic bottles. Isolates clinically significative of S. pneumoniae cannot be recovered if positive bottles remain inside incubator more than 7 hs. Microbiology laboratories should have personnel to remove positive bottles during the night and at weekends.

Hugo Edgardo, Villar; Liliana María, Longo; Gustavo Jorge, Laurino; Adriana, Vicente; Marisa Estela, Gutiérrez; Marta, Hoffman.

2005-06-01

311

Perfil epidemiológico de las infecciones invasivas por Streptococcus pneumoniae: epidemiological profile / Invasive streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) causa enfermedades invasivas de alta morbimortalidad, registrándose en la última década un aumento de la resistencia antibiótica. Material y métodos. Con el objetivo de estudiar la epidemiología del Sp, su susceptibilidad antibiótica y los factores de ries [...] go de resistencia a penicilina (RP), se evaluaron en forma prospectiva 274 pacientes con infecciones invasivas por Sp internados en el HNRG entre 1993 y 1999, inclusive. La mediana de edad fue de 21,5 meses (rango 1-180), la relación varón/mujer fue de 1,7:1; 11,8% eran desnutridos de II-III grado; 52,6% tenía enfermedad de base (respiratoria crónica o recidivante, 38,9%). A partir del aislamiento bacteriológico de Sp se realizó el seguimiento clínico-epidemiológico del paciente. Resultados. De 293 presentaciones clínicas, la más frecuente fue neumonía (64,2%), siguiendo meningitis (11,6%), sepsis/bacteriemia (10,9%), peritonitis (7,8%) y 16 pacientes presentaron formas asociadas. El Sp se recuperó de 325 materiales de cultivo: sangre, 55,1 %; líquido pleural, 27,1%; LCR, 9,2%; líquido peritoneal, 5,5% y otros, 3,1%. La RP global fue: 31,8% (87/274), con 17,9% resistencia (R) alta, observándose diferencias en la distribución anual. El 65,5% (57/87) de las cepas RP también lo eran a cefalosporinas de tercera generación (C3aG). Los factores de riesgo de infección por SpRP fueron: infección intrahospitalaria (RR 2,72; 2,00-3,69), tratamiento previo con ß lactámicos (RR 2,61; 1,91-3,55), neumonía (RR 2,06; 1,32-3,22), edad Abstract in english Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) is a main cause of morbidity and mortality in children, and the increasing rates of drug resistant strains have been reported. The objectives of this study were to determine the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal infections and the risk factors of Sp pe [...] nicillin resistance (PR). Material & methods. Two hundred seventy four children with invasive pneumococcal infections hospitalized in a children hospital, in the 1993-1999 period; the median age was 21.5 montlis (1 month-18 years), the male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Fifty two percent of cases reported an underlying disease. Results. The most frequent diseases were: pneumonia 64.2%, meningitis 11.6%, sepsislbacteriemia 10.9%, peritonitis 7.8%. Sp was recovered in 325 samples: blood in 55.1 %, pleural fluid 27.1 %, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 9.2%, peritoneal fluid 5.5% and other fluids obtained by puncture 3.1%. PR rate was 31.8% (87/274), 17.9% were highly resistant. Différences in the annual distribution was observed. 65.5% from PR strains were resistant to third generation cephalosporms too. PR was associated with: previous beta-lactam antibiotics therapy (RR 2.61; 1.91-3.55); nosocomial infection (RR 2.72; 2.00-3.69), pneumonia (RR 2.06; 1.32-3.22), and age under two years (RR 1.72; 1.182.49). Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis of binary predictors ofPR were: previous beta-Iactam antibiotics therapy (p=0,0003), nosocomial infection (p=0.0019) and pneumonia (p=0.0445). Mortality was 6.2% (17/274) without correlation with PR. Conclusion. These findings suggest the need for a continuous surveillance, control of drug resistant pneumococci and vaccination with an effective vaccine among high-risk patients.

Julia, Bakir; Angela S., de Gentile; Gabriela, López Holtmann; Adriana, Procopio; Miryam, Vázquez.

2003-01-01

312

Discrimination between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis based on sorting of their MALDI mass spectra.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate species-level identification of alpha-hemolytic (viridans) streptococci (VGS) is very important for understanding their pathogenicity and virulence. However, an extremely high level of similarity between VGS within the mitis group (S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, S. oralis and S. pseudopneumoniae) often results in misidentification of these organisms. Earlier, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been suggested as a tool for the rapid identification of S. pneumoniae. However, by using Biotyper 3.0 (Bruker) or Vitek MS (bioMérieux) databases, Streptococcus mitis/oralis species can be erroneously identified as S. pneumoniae. ClinProTools 2.1 software was used for the discrimination of MALDI-TOF mass spectra of 25 S. pneumoniae isolates, 34 S. mitis and three S. oralis. Phenotypical tests and multilocus gene typing schemes for the S. pneumoniae (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/) and viridans streptococci (http://viridans.emlsa.net/) were used for the identification of isolates included in the study. The classifying model was generated based on different algorithms (Genetic Algorithm, Supervised Neural Network and QuickClassifier). In all cases, values of sensitivity and specificity were found to be equal or close to 100%, allowing discrimination of mass spectra of different species. Three peaks (6949, 9876 and 9975 m/z) were determined conferring the maximal statistical weight onto each model built. We find this approach to be promising for viridans streptococci discrimination. PMID:23331578

Ikryannikova, L N; Filimonova, A V; Malakhova, M V; Savinova, T; Filimonova, O; Ilina, E N; Dubovickaya, V A; Sidorenko, S V; Govorun, V M

2013-11-01

313

[Enolase of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is involved in the antiphagocytosis of Streptococcus suis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To prepare the recombinant enolase of Streptococcus suis (SsEno), analyze the effect of SsEno on the antiphagocytosis by antibody-blocking assay in the human blood bactericidal model, and identify the human fibrinogen (hFg)-binding activity of SsEno protein. Methods SsEno gene was amplified using the primers designed according to 05ZYH33 genome sequences and cloned into the expression vector pET28a to construct recombinant plasmids. The plasmids were transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3) and induced to express by IPTG. The expression level was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The recombinant proteins were purified by nickel affinity chromatography and identified by Western blotting. High-titer specific antiserum against SsEno was prepared by immunizing rabbits with the purified recombinant proteins. The impact of SsEno on antiphagocytosis was analyzed by antibody-blocking assay in the human blood bactericidal model. In addition, the specific binding activity with hFg was identified by Far-Western blotting and ELISA. Results The prokaryotic expression vector of hisSsEno (SsEno with His tag) was constructed and high-purity recombinant expressed protein was purified. In specific antibody blocking assay, antiserum against the SsEno significantly decreased the percent of survival bacteria as observed in high virulent strain 05ZYH33. Additionally, hisSsEno was proved to have the specific binding activity with hFg. Conclusion SsEno was found to be a potential antiphagocytic factor of S. suis with a specific binding to hFg, suggesting that SsEno play an important role in antiphagocytosis of S. suis. PMID:25374077

Huo, Chunyue; Ji, Ying; Ren, Lili; Zhang, Jing; Kong, Junling

2014-11-01

314

Development and use of species-specific oligonucleotide probes for differentiation of Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus parauberis.  

OpenAIRE

Oligonucleotide probes specific for 16S rRNA and capable of differentiating Streptococcus uberis and S. parauberis from each other and other esculin-hydrolyzing streptococci were developed. Use of a mini-RNA extraction technique for gram-positive cocci associated with bovine mastitis has allowed the probes to be used for identification of esculin-hydrolyzing streptococci from two dairy herds at the Institute for Animal Health, Compton, United Kingdom. One hundred seventy-nine of 206 isolates ...

Bentley, R. W.; Leigh, J. A.; Collins, M. D.

1993-01-01

315

Meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente: reporte de un caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: Streptococcus pneumoniae es una bacteria que reside en el aparato respiratorio superior de las personas saludables, pero resulta una infección cuando alcanza localizaciones normalmente estériles, tales como el aparato respiratorio inferior, sistema circulatorio, y sistema nervioso cent [...] ral. Esto ocurre en personas inmunodeprimidas, por diferentes causas. Objetivo: destacar la virulencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae drogo resistente. Caso clínico: niña que llega al hospital por presentar un proceso respiratorio, de varios días de evolución, con fiebre y rinorrea. Ingresó en la sala de Infecciones Respiratorias. Comenzó con deshidratación y somnolencia, por lo que se le realizó una segunda punción lumbar, que resultó con salida de líquido cefalorraquídeo, purulento y presencia de 202 células a predominio de polimorfonucleares, glucosa disminuida, aumento de las proteínas, y Pandy xxxx. La niña se agrava y presenta signos de intenso edema cerebral, con fontanela abombada. Se trató con antimicrobianos como la vancomicina y el ceftriaxone, por varios días. En el laboratorio de Microbiología se confirmó el crecimiento de Streptococccus pneumoniae sensible al meronem que pasa a reemplazar al ceftriaxone. La paciente salió paulatinamente de su gravedad hasta que fue dada de alta con seguimiento y rehabilitación, por presentar secuelas. Conclusiones: este patógeno tan peligroso con sus atributos de virulencia y su elevada resistencia a los antimicrobianos, constituye un fenómeno emergente. Abstract in english Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterium that resides in the upper respiratory system of healthy people, but turns into infection, when it reaches usually sterile locations such as the lower respiratory system, the circulatory, and the central nervous systems. This occurs in immunocompr [...] omised persons, for different reasons. Objective: to point out the Streptococcus pneumoniae's virulence resistant to drugs. Clinical case: it is presented a girl who arrived at the hospital with a respiratory process, of several days of evolution with fever and rhinorrhea, the girl was admitted in the respiratory ward. She started with dehydratation and sleepiness; a second lumbar puncture was made, a purulent cerebrospinal fluid and the presence of 202 cells, most of them polymorphonuclear, with decreased glucose and a protein augmentation, with Pandy xxxx, was observed. The girl gets worse and presented an intense cerebral edema, with enlarged fontanel, she was treated with antimicrobials such as vancomycin and ceftriaxone for several days. The microbiology laboratory confirmed the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae sensitive to meronem and replaces ceftriaxone. Result: the patient gradually left his gravity until that she was discharged from hospital with follow-up and rehabilitation, by sequels. Conclusions: this dangerous pathogen with their attributes of virulence and its high resistance to antimicrobials is an emerging phenomenon.

Olga María, Rodríguez Fernández; Odalis, Ferrer Morell; Yuneixy, Pérez Morales; Alexis, Sanchén Casas.

1028-10-01

316

Antimicrobial agents for community-acquired respiratory tract infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemotherapy of community-acquired respiratory tract infections was reviewed from a microbiological perspective. The current worldwide spread of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and of ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae has required a reassessment of the antimicrobial agents being used for empiric therapy. In vitro data with different orally administered antibiotics were reviewed in order to identify any deficiencies in their spectra of activity against four common respiratory tract pathogens. Cefixime, cefuroxime axetil, cefprozil, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were active against all four species other than penicillin-resistant pneumococci. PMID:8537133

Barry, A L

1995-01-01

317

Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain SA20-06, a fish pathogen associated to meningoencephalitis outbreaks  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is the causative agent of meningoencephalitis in fish, mastitis in cows, and neonatal sepsis in humans. Meningoencephalitis is a major health problem for tilapia farming and is responsible for high economic losses worldwide. Despite its importance, the genomic characteristics and the main molecular mechanisms involved in virulence of S. agalactiae isolated from fish are still poorly understood. Here, we present the genomic features of the 1,820,886 bp long complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SA20-06 isolated from a meningoencephalitis outbreak in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil, and its annotation, consisting of 1,710 protein-coding genes (excluding pseudogenes), 7 rRNA operons, 79 tRNA genes and 62 pseudogenes. PMID:23991251

Pereira, Ulisses de Pádua; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Guimarães, Luís Carlos; Silva de Almeida, Sintia; Diniz, Carlos Augusto Almeida; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Gomes de Sá, Pablo; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda Marriam; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Araújo, Flávio Marcos Gomes; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Oliveira, Guilherme; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco; Figueiredo, Henrique César Pereira

2013-01-01

318

Meningitis bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus suis en criadores de cerdos: comunicación de los primeros dos casos en Chile / Streptococcus suis meningitis in pig farmers: report of first two cases in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La infección humana por Streptococcus suis es una zoonosis con riesgo ocupacional conocido, siendo la meningitis aguda su manifestación clínica más frecuente. Se presentan los dos primeros casos en Chile. Primer caso: Mujer de 54 años con un cuadro de cefalea y vómitos, confusión y signos meníngeos. [...] Evolucionó con un shock séptico. Segundo caso: Varón de 48 años, refirió cefalea y vómitos. Presentó signos meníngeos al examen físico. En ambos casos en la tinción de Gram de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) se observaron cocáceas grampositivas. Fueron tratados con ceftriaxona y dexametasona. El cultivo de LCR fue positivo en ambos casos para S. suis serotipo 2. En los dos pacientes la evolución clínica fue favorable, sin alteraciones neurológicas al alta. En ambos casos se obtuvo en forma retrospectiva el antecedente de realizar labores de crianza de ganado porcino. Se destaca la importancia de investigar los antecedentes epidemiológicos para sospechar este agente etiológico en meningitis aguda. Se debe considerar el riesgo ocupacional en una posible infección por este patógeno humano emergente y educar a la población en riesgo sobre medidas preventivas simples. Abstract in english Human infection by Streptococcus suis is a zoonosis with a known occupational risk. Meningitis is its most frequent clinical manifestation. We present the first two cases in Chile. First case: 54-year-old female patient, pig-farmer. She presented headache, vomiting, confusion and meningismus. She pr [...] esented septic shock. Second case: 48-year-old male patient, also pig farmer, presented headache, vomiting and meningismus. A Gram's staining of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed gram-positive cocci in both cases. Ceftriaxone and dexamethasone treatment was administered. The CSF cultures were positive for Streptococcus suis serotype 2. The patients experienced a good outcome, without neurological sequelae at the time of discharge. It is considerable to evaluate epidemiologic factors in order to suspect this etiological agent in cases of meningitis. These cases enhance the need of heighten awareness of potential for occupational exposure and infection by this emerging human pathogen. Educating population at risk about simple preventive measures must be considered.

Erica, Koch; Gino, Fuentes; Rodrigo, Carvajal; Ricardo, Palma; Verónica, Aguirre; Carolina, Cruz; Ruby, Henríquez; Mario, Calvo.

2013-10-01

319

Chelating agents inhibit activity and prevent expression of streptococcal glucan-binding lectins.  

OpenAIRE

Several of the cariogenic mutans streptococci produce cell wall-associated glucan-binding lectins (GBLs). The lectins bind alpha-1,6-linked glucans and have no affinity for other polysaccharides or anomeric linkages. When citrate or lactate was included in the growth medium, expression of the activities of the GBLs of Streptococcus cricetus and S. sobrinus was prevented. Furthermore, chelating agents, including citrate, lactate, EDTA, and acetylacetone, were able to reversibly inhibit glucan-...

Lü-Lü; Singh, J. S.; Galperin, M. Y.; Drake, D.; Taylor, K. G.; Doyle, R. J.

1992-01-01

320

Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem  

OpenAIRE

The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core geno...

Bogert, B.; Boekhorst, J.; Herrmann, R.; Smid, E. J.; Zoetendal, E. G.; Kleerebezem, M.

2013-01-01

321

UMBC AgentWeb: Intelligent Software Agents  

Science.gov (United States)

This site, sponsored and maintained by the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) Laboratory for Advanced Information Technology (LAIT), focuses on intelligent agents, known alternatively as software agents, knowbots, infobots or intentional agents. The site is divided into several parts, some of which are annotated and some of which contain only links to resources. Annotated resources include a bibliography titled Introduction to Agents (under Introductory Material), a list of research projects involving agent technology, and abstracts of and links to articles on a variety of topics such as Agents and Security and Agents in Manufacturing.

322

Radioprotective Agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

Ilker Kelle

2008-01-01

323

Streptococcus bovis endocarditis as a presenting manifestation of idiopathic ulcerative colitis.  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus bovis bacteraemia and endocarditis have been associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, mainly malignant or potentially malignant tumours, and less commonly non-malignant gastrointestinal disorders. We describe a 73 year old man in whom Streptococcus bovis endocarditis developed, and was the presenting manifestation of undiagnosed quiescent ulcerative colitis. Such an association has not been described previously.

Moshkowitz, M.; Arber, N.; Wajsman, R.; Baratz, M.; Gilat, T.

1992-01-01

324

Identification of a pheA Gene Associated with Streptococcus mitis by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization  

OpenAIRE

We performed suppression subtractive hybridization to identify genomic differences between Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on the pheA gene, a primer set specific to S. mitis detection was found in 18 out of 103 S. mitis-specific clones. Our findings would be useful for discrimination of S. mitis from other closely related cocci in the oral environment.

Park, Hee Kuk; Dang, Hien Thanh; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Wonyong

2012-01-01

325

Antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities of high molecular weight coffee components against Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

In previous studies we demonstrated that green and roasted coffee contains low molecular weight (LMW) compounds capable of inhibiting the ability of Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of human dental caries, to adhere to hydroxyapatite (HA) beads. This study addressed the ability of the whole high molecular weight coffee fraction (cHMW) and of its melanoidin and non-melanoidin components (GFC1-5), applied at concentrations that occur in coffee beverages, to (i) inhibit S. mutans growth; (ii) affect S. mutans sucrose-dependent adhesion to and detachment from saliva-coated HA beads (sHA); and (iii) inhibit biofilm development on microtiter plates. The results indicated that only cHMW is endowed with antimicrobial activity. The cHMW fraction and each of the five GFC components inhibited S. mutans adhesion, the strongest effect being exerted by cHMW (91%) and GFC1 (88%). S. mutans detachment from sHA was four times greater (?20%) with cHMW and the GFC1 and GFC4 melanoidins than with controls. Finally, biofilm production by S. mutans was completely abolished by cHMW and was reduced by 20% by the melanoidin components GFC2 and GFC4 and by the non-melanoidin component GFC5 compared with controls. Altogether these findings show that coffee beverage contains both LMW compounds and HMW melanoidin and non-melanoidin components with a strong ability to interfere in vitro with the S. mutans traits relevant for cariogenesis. PMID:21038921

Stauder, Monica; Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Schito, Anna Maria; Gazzani, Gabriella; Pruzzo, Carla; Daglia, Maria

2010-11-24

326

Gene content differences across strains of Streptococcus uberis identified using oligonucleotide microarray comparative genomic hybridization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus uberis is one of the principal causative agents of bovine mastitis. The organism is typically considered an environmental pathogen. In this study, two multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes and whole genome DNA microarrays were used to evaluate the degree and nature of genome flexibility between S. uberis strains. The 21 isolates examined in this study arise from a collection of 232 international isolates for which previous epidemiological and preliminary genotyping data existed. The microarray analysis resulted in an estimate of the core genome for S. uberis, consisting of 1530 ORFs, among 1855 tested, representing 82.5% of the S. uberis 0140J genome. The remaining ORFs were variable in gene content across the 21 tested strains. A total of 26 regions of difference (RDs), consisting of three or more contiguous ORFs, were identified among the variable genes. Core genes mainly encoded housekeeping functions, while the variable genes primarily fell within categories such as protection responses, degradation of small molecules, laterally acquired elements, and two component systems. Recombination detection procedures involving the MLST loci suggested S. uberis is a highly recombinant species, precluding accurate phylogenetic reconstructions involving these data. On the other hand, the microarray data did provide limited support for an association of gene content with strains found in multiple cows and/or multiple herds, suggesting the possibility of genes related to bovine transmissibility or host-adaptation. PMID:19056519

Lang, Ping; Lefébure, Tristan; Wang, Wei; Zadoks, Ruth N; Schukken, Ynte; Stanhope, Michael J

2009-03-01

327

Evaluation of genotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans using distinct arbitrary primers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with arbitrary primers, several prim [...] ers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11) presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.

Cínthia Pereira Machado, Tabchoury; Maria Clara K., Sousa; Rodrigo Alex, Arthur; Renata Oliveira, Mattos-Graner; Altair Antoninha, Del Bel Cury; Jaime Aparecido, Cury.

2008-12-01

328

Evaluation of genotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans using distinct arbitrary primers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR with arbitrary primers, several primers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11 presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.

Cínthia Pereira Machado Tabchoury

2008-12-01

329

Inhibition of Growth and Gene Expression by PNA-peptide Conjugates in Streptococcus pyogenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

While Streptococcus pyogenes is consistently susceptible toward penicillin, therapeutic failure of penicillin treatment has been reported repeatedly and a considerable number of patients exhibit allergic reactions to this substance. At the same time, streptococcal resistance to alternative antibiotics, e.g., macrolides, has increased. Taken together, these facts demand the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, S. pyogenes growth was inhibited by application of peptide-conjugated antisense-peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) specific for the essential gyrase A gene (gyrA). Thereby, HIV-1 Tat peptide-coupled PNAs were more efficient inhibitors of streptococcal growth as compared with (KFF)3K-coupled PNAs. Peptide-anti-gyrA PNAs decreased the abundance of gyrA transcripts in S. pyogenes. Growth inhibition by antisense interference was enhanced by combination of peptide-coupled PNAs with protein-level inhibitors. Antimicrobial synergy could be detected with levofloxacin and novobiocin, targeting the gyrase enzyme, and with spectinomycin, impeding ribosomal function. The prospective application of carrier peptide-coupled antisense PNAs in S. pyogenes covers the use as an antimicrobial agent and the employment as a knock-down strategy for the investigation of virulence factor function.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e132; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.62; published online 5 November 2013. PMID:24193033

Patenge, Nadja; Pappesch, Roberto; Krawack, Franziska; Walda, Claudia; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Jacob, Anette; Hain, Torsten; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

2013-01-01

330

Control of Streptococcus sanguinis oral biofilm by novel chlorhexidine-chitosan mouthwash: an in vitro study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The most common prevalent infectious oral diseases in humans are caries and periodontal diseases, which are usually associated with dental plaque. The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate and compare the impact of new mouthwash formulation consisting of chlorhexidine (0.1% and bioadhesive chitosan (0.5% on dental plaque bacterial reduction, to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. Methods: In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Streptococcus sanguinis from clinical plaque samples to four different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates to chlorhexidine (0.2%, chitosan (0.5%, chlorhexidine (0.1% plus chitosan (0.5% combination and saline were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Results: The zone of inhibition showed that chlorhexidine, chitosan and chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthwash exert an antimicrobial activity. A markedly higher and significant activity was obtained with chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthwash. On intergroup comparison there were statistically significant differences between all the tested solutions, except between chlorhexidine and chitosan mouthwash. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the present study, results showed that chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthrinse are superior in antimicrobial activity than chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 165-169

Bangalore V. Karthikeyan

2013-04-01

331

Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Supplemented-Chewing Candy Against Streptococcus mutans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is considered to play a major etiological role in development of human dental plaque believed to related to dental caries, the most prevalent disease of the human oral cavity. The objectives of the present study were to formulate and produce propolis supplemented-chewing candy and to investigate its antibacterial activity against S. mutans. Propolis is a natural resinous bee-hive product thought to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating activities. Propolis was extracted from hives of bees of Trigona spp. using ethanol. The extract was coated with maltodextrine and homogenized to generate propolis microparticles. The particles were introduced into chewing candy preparations for the production of propolis supplemented-chewing candy. The candy was then subjected to in vitro antibacterial assays to test its activity against S. mutans isolated from human dental plaque. Results showed that the ethanol extracted propolis of Trigona spp. bee-hives can be homogenized to form propolis microparticles. The propolis microparticles could be used as a supplement in the formulation of chewing candy preparations. The propolis supplemented-chewing candy showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans. The candy, therefore, has the potential to be used as an antiplaque agent for prevention of dental caries.

AHMAD ENDANG ZAINAL HASAN

2011-09-01

332

Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance g [...] enes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated the presence of Tet resistance genes (tetM and tetO) and CTns among Ery-resistant (Ery-R) and Ery-susceptible (Ery-S) GBS strains isolated from human and bovine sources; and analyzed the ability for transferring resistance determinants between strains from both origins. Tet resistance and int-Tn genes were more common among Ery-R when compared to Ery-S isolates. Conjugative transfer of all resistance genes detected among the GBS strains included in this study (ermA, ermB, mef, tetM and tetO), in frequencies between 1.10-7 and 9.10-7, was possible from bovine donor strains to human recipient strain, but not the other way around. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of in vitro conjugation of Ery and Tet resistance genes among GBS strains recovered from different hosts.

Tatiana Castro Abreu, Pinto; Natália Silva, Costa; Ana Beatriz de Almeida, Corrêa; Ivi Cristina Menezes de, Oliveira; Marcos Correa de, Mattos; Alexandre Soares, Rosado; Leslie Claude, Benchetrit.

2014-09-01

333

Persistence of Streptococcus mutans in Stationary-Phase Batch Cultures and Biofilms†  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans is a member of oral plaque biofilms and is considered the major etiological agent of dental caries. We have characterized the survival of S. mutans strain UA159 in both batch cultures and biofilms. Bacteria grown in batch cultures in a chemically defined medium, FMC, containing an excess of glucose or sucrose caused the pH to decrease to 4.0 at the entry into stationary phase, and they survived for about 3 days. Survival was extended up to 11 days when the medium contained a limiting concentration of glucose or sucrose that was depleted by the time the bacteria reached stationary phase. Sugar-limited cultures maintained a pH of 7.0 throughout stationary phase. Their survival was shortened to 3 days by the addition of exogenous lactic acid at the entry into stationary phase. Sugar starvation did not lead to comparable survival in biofilms. Although the pH remained at 7.0, bacteria could no longer be cultured from biofilms 4 days after the imposition of glucose or sucrose starvation; BacLight staining results did not agree with survival results based on culturability. In both batch cultures and biofilms, survival could be extended by the addition of 0.5% mucin to the medium. Batch survival increased to an average of 26 (±8) days, and an average of 2.7 × 105 CFU per chamber were still present in biofilms that were starved of sucrose for 12 days. PMID:15466565

Renye, John A.; Piggot, Patrick J.; Daneo-Moore, Lolita; Buttaro, Bettina A.

2004-01-01

334

Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance genes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated the presence of Tet resistance genes (tetM and tetO) and CTns among Ery-resistant (Ery-R) and Ery-susceptible (Ery-S) GBS strains isolated from human and bovine sources; and analyzed the ability for transferring resistance determinants between strains from both origins. Tet resistance and int-Tn genes were more common among Ery-R when compared to Ery-S isolates. Conjugative transfer of all resistance genes detected among the GBS strains included in this study (ermA, ermB, mef, tetM and tetO), in frequencies between 1.10?7 and 9.10?7, was possible from bovine donor strains to human recipient strain, but not the other way around. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of in vitro conjugation of Ery and Tet resistance genes among GBS strains recovered from different hosts. PMID:25477908

Pinto, Tatiana Castro Abreu; Costa, Natália Silva; Corrêa, Ana Beatriz de Almeida; de Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Menezes; de Mattos, Marcos Correa; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Benchetrit, Leslie Claude

2014-01-01

335

The rationale and potential for the reduction of oral malodour using Streptococcus salivarius probiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary treatment for oral malodour is the reduction of bacterial populations, especially those present on the tongue, by use of a variety of antimicrobial agents or mechanical devices. However, shortly after treatment the problematic bacteria quickly repopulate the tongue and the malodour returns. In our studies, we have used a broadly-active antimicrobial (chlorhexidine) to effect temporary depletion of the oral microbiota and then have attempted to repopulate the tongue surface with Streptococcus salivarius K12, a benign commensal probiotic. The objective of this is to prevent re-establishment of non-desirable bacterial populations and thus help limit the re-occurrence of oral malodour over a prolonged period. In this paper, we discuss why contemporary probiotics are inadequate for treatment of oral malodour and examine the rationale for selection of particular bacterial species for future use in the treatment of this condition. In our preliminary trials of the use of a chlorhexidine rinse followed by strain K12 lozenges, the majority (8/13) of subjects with confirmed halitosis maintained reduced breath levels of volatile sulphur compounds for at least 2 weeks. We conclude that probiotic bacterial strains originally sourced from the indigenous oral microbiotas of healthy humans may have potential application as adjuncts for the prevention and treatment of halitosis. PMID:15752094

Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Tagg, J R

2005-01-01

336

Response of swine spleen to Streptococcus suis infection revealed by transcription analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Astract Background Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2, a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent, has greatly challenged global public health. Systematical information about host immune response to the infection is important for understanding the molecular mechanism of diseases. Results 104 and 129 unique genes were significantly up-regulated and down-regulated in the spleens of pigs infected with SS2 (WT. The up-regulated genes were principally related to immune response, such as genes involved in inflammatory response; acute-phase/immune response; cell adhesion and response to stress. The down-regulated genes were mainly involved in transcription, transport, material and energy metabolism which were representative of the reduced vital activity of SS2-influenced cells. Only a few genes showed significantly differential expression when comparing avirulent isogenic strain (?HP0197 with mock-infected samples. Conclusions Our findings indicated that highly pathogenic SS2 could persistently induce cytokines mainly by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 pathway, and the phagocytosis-resistant bacteria could induce high level of cytokines and secrete toxins to destroy deep tissues, and cause meningitis, septicaemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, and arthritis.

Wang Ya

2010-10-01

337

Performance of the Vitek MS v2.0 System in Distinguishing Streptococcus pneumoniae from Nonpneumococcal Species of the Streptococcus mitis Group  

OpenAIRE

The Vitek MS v2.0 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry system accurately distinguished Streptococcus pneumoniae from nonpneumococcal S. mitis group species. Only 1 of 116 nonpneumococcal isolates (

Branda, John A.; Markham, Rachelle P.; Garner, Cherilyn D.; Rychert, Jenna A.; Ferraro, Mary Jane

2013-01-01

338

INFLUENCE OF NATURAL TRICHODINA SP.PARASITISM ON EXPERIMENTAL STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE OR Streptococcus AGALACTIAE INFECTION AND SURVIVAL OF YOUNG CHANNEL CATFISH ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS (RAFINESQUE)  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are usually not considered pathogens of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, though concurrent infections may decrease catfish survival when infected with streptococcal organisms. Non-parasitized or naturally-parasitized channel catfish fry were challenged wit...

339

Perfil fermentativo e valor nutritivo de silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis / Fermentation and nutritive value of elephant grass silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi desenvolvido objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da inoculação de estirpes de Streptococcus bovis (HC5 e JB1) sobre o pH, a produção de amônia e o valor nutricional em silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, c [...] om três tratamentos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - capimelefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis HC5 e T3 - capim-elefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis JB1, utilizando cinco repetições por tratamento. A menor concentração de amônia foi observada na silagem tratada com inoculante à base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5,90 p.100 N-total). A inoculação aumentou os teores de ácido láctico e diminuiu os teores de ácidos acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo que as silagens inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 e HC5 foram os que apresentaram os maiores valores de ácido láctico. Não houve diferença estatística para os teores de MS e PB. Para os valores das fibras, a silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 apresentou o menor valor de FDN (59,77 p.100) e HEM (26,71 p.100). O maior valor da DIVMS foi observado na silagem com Streptococcus bovis JB1, mostrando superioridade de quatro pontos percentuais (64,23 p.100) em relação ao tratamento sem inoculante bacteriano (60,35 p.100). O uso Streptococcus bovis JB1 melhora o processo fermentativo além de promover melhorarias na qualidade da fibra e na DIVMS da silagem estudada. Abstract in english The experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of strains of Streptococcus bovis (HC5 and JB1) on pH, ammonia production and nutritional value in elephant-grass silages (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). The experimental design was entirely randomized, with three treatments: T1 elephant- grass, T2 - [...] grass-elephant inoculated with Streptococcus bovis HC5, T3 - elephant grass inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, totaling five replicates per treatment. The smallest value of ammonia was observed in the silage treated with inoculante the base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5.90% N-total). Inoculation increased the levels of lactic acid and decreased levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids, and the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 were those with the highest values of lactic acid. There were not statistical differences for the tenors of dry matter (MS) and crude protein (PB). For the values of the fibers, the grass-elephant silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, it presented the smallest value of neutral detergent fiber (59.77 %) and Hemicellulose (26.71 %). The largest value of in vitro dry matter digestibility (DIVMS) was observed in the silage with Streptococcus bovis JB1, showing superiority of four percentile points (64.23 %) in relation to the treatment without bacterial inoculante (60.35 %). The use Streptococcus bovis JB1 was efficient in the process fermentativo besides promoting would get better in the quality of the fiber and DIVMS in the studied silage.

D.J., Ferreira; A.M., Zanine; E.M., Santos; R.P., Lana; W.L., Silva; A.L., Souza; O.G., Pereira.

1223-12-01

340

Co-infection by Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: three case reports  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bacterial infections may appear as sequelae of remote tuberculous infections, especially thoracic infections. The simultaneous appearance of tuberculosis and bacterial infection is not common, and, to our knowledge, the association of infection by Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has not been reported previously in the literature. Case presentation We report three cases of dual infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that were first diagnosed as pyogenic abscesses because of an isolation of Streptococcus anginosus. Despite a course of antibiotics and drainage, the outcome of this initial treatment was unfavourable. A re-evaluation yielded a diagnosis of mixed infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusion In a geographical area with a high prevalence of tuberculous disease, the rare possibility of dual infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be considered.

Rabuñal Ramón

2009-01-01

341

Deep neck infection complicating lymphadenitis caused by Streptococcus intermedius in an immunocompetent child  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus intermedius belongs to the Streptococcus anginosus group. It is part of the normal flora of the human mouth, but it can be etiologically associated with deep-site infections. Case presentation We present a case of deep neck infection complicating Streptococcus intermedius lymphadenitis, which developed in an immunocompetent 14-year-old boy with a history of recent dental work. The infection was ultimately eradicated by a combined medical and surgical approach. Conclusion Our report suggests that combined medical and surgical therapy is essential for the complete resolution of deep infections caused by Streptococcus intermedius. Molecular biological techniques can be useful in guiding the diagnostic investigation and providing insight into the possibility of occult abscesses, which are particularly common with Streptococcus intermedius infections.

D'Inzeo Tiziana

2006-03-01

342

Serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae en Cuba y progresión de la resistencia a la penicilina / Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in Cuba and progression of resistance to penicilina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: en Cuba, a partir de 2006, ha sido difícil establecer la incidencia real de las meningitis bacterianas y otras enfermedades invasivas por Streptococcus pneumoniae, como consecuencia del bajo porcentaje de aislamiento e identificación de este agente en la red de laboratorios de microbio [...] logía del país. OBJETIVO: alertar sobre la necesidad de revitalizar la vigilancia activa de la enfermedad neumocócica invasiva, epidemiológica y microbiológica, fundamentalmente las meningitis y neumonías, en la etapa previa a la vacunación. MÉTODOS: se compararon la circulación de los serogrupos/serotipos capsulares y la susceptibilidad a penicilina de los aislamientos de S. pneumoniae responsables de infecciones invasivas, en dos períodos de la vigilancia: años 1994-2006 y 2007-2009. RESULTADOS: los serogrupos más frecuentes fueron: 3, 6, 7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20 y 23, pero se constató durante el segundo período de estudio, la circulación de otros no contenidos en las vacunas conjugadas disponibles comercialmente (serogrupo 15) y asociados a resistencia a antimicrobianos (serotipo 5). Por otra parte, se puso de manifiesto un incremento de la resistencia a la penicilina. CONCLUSIONES: para garantizar una alta efectividad con la inclusión en el calendario de vacunación infantil en Cuba, de alguna de las vacunas conjugadas contra S. pneumoniae, se impone el estudio de un número más representativo de aislamientos. Esto también permitirá hacer una correcta evaluación de la tendencia al incremento de la resistencia a la penicilina y adoptar guías de tratamiento adecuadas en el medio cubano. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: since 2006 in Cuba, there has been difficult to determine the actual incidente of bacterial meningitis and other invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, as a result of the low percentage of isolation and identification of this agent in the domestic microbiology lab networ [...] k. OBJECTIVE: to warn of the need of revitalizing the active surveillance of invasive, epidemiological and microbiological pneumoccocic diseases, mainly meningitis and pneumoniae in the phase prior to vaccination. METHODS: a comparison was made on the circulation of capsulary serogroups/serotypes and the invasive infection-causing S. pneumoniae isolates susceptibility to penicilline in two periods: 1994-2006 and 2007-2009. RESULTS: the most frequent serogroups were 3, 6, 7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 23; however, in the second period, it was observed that others not contained in the available conjugate vaccines (serogrup 15) and associated to antimicrobial resistance (serotype 5) were circulating. On the other hand, increased resistance to penicilline was evident. CONCLUSIONS: it is required to study a more representative number of isolates in order to assure high effectiveness with the incorporation of some S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccines in the Cuban infant vaccination schedule. This will also allow duly assessing increased resistance to penicilline and adopting therapeutical guidelines suited to the Cuban setting.

Gilda T., Toraño Peraza; Rafael, Llanes Caballero; Lisania M., Pías Solis; Miriam, Abreu Capote; Marlén, Valcárcel Sánchez.

2010-08-01

343

Streptococcus pneumoniae and its bacteriophages: one long argument / Streptococcus pneumoniae e seus bacteriófagos: uma prolongada controvérsia / Streptococcus pneumoniae y sus bacteriófagos: una prolongada controversia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As enfermidades infecciosas matam anualmente cêrca de 15 milhões de pessoas. A OMS estima que 1,6 milhões dessas mortes são decorrentes de infeccões pneumocócicas. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococo), uma bactéria com uma notável contribuição histórica para a biologia, é o melhor exemplo que ilust [...] ra o rápido desenvolvimento da resistência aos antibióticos, o que pode originar um grave problema sanitário. Esta revisão analisa as bases moleculares dos fatores principais de virulência no pneumococo, a cápsula e as hidrolases da parede celular e descreve novos enfoques para o desenvolvimento de ferramentas médicas inovadoras para prevenir as infecções pneumocócicas. Também foi analisado o atual conhecimento da possível contribuição dos fagos de pneumococo para a virulência desta bactéria e o uso como arma terapéutica das enzimas líticas codificadas por estes fagos. Abstract in spanish Las enfermedades infecciosas matan anualmente a unos 15 millones de personas y la OMS estima que 1,6 millones de esas muertes se deben a infecciones neumocócicas. Streptococcus pneumoniae (neumococo), una bacteria con una notable contribución histórica a la biología, es el mejor ejemplo que ilustra [...] el rápido desarrollo de la resistencia a los antibióticos, lo que puede originar un grave problema sanitario. Esta revisión analiza las bases moleculares de los dos factores principales de virulencia en el neumococo, la cápsula y las hidrolasas de la pared celular y describe nuevos enfoques para el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas médicas para prevenir las infecciones neumocócicas. También se analizan el conocimiento actual de la posible contribución de los fagos de neumococo a la virulencia de esta bacteria y el uso como arma terapéutica de las enzimas líticas codificadas por estos fagos. Abstract in english Infectious diseases currently kill more than 15 million people annually, and the WHO estimates that every year 1.6 million people die from pneumococcal diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), a bacterium with along biological pedigree, best illustrates the rapid evolution of antibiotic re [...] sistance,which has led to major public health concern. This article discusses the molecularbasis of the two main virulence factors of pneumococcus, the capsule and cell-wall hydrolases, as well as new approaches to developing medicinal weapons for preventing pneumococcal infections. In addition, current knowledge regarding pneumococcal phages as potential contributors to virulence and the use of lytic enzymes encoded by these phages as therapeutic tools is reviewed.

Rubens, López.

2004-09-01

344

Evaluation of Several Biochemical and Molecular Techniques for Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Their Detection in Respiratory Samples  

OpenAIRE

The identification and detection of mitis group streptococci, which contain Streptococcus pneumoniae, have been hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific assays. In this study, we evaluated several biochemical and molecular assays for the identification of S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and their distinction from other mitis group streptococci using a collection of 54 isolates obtained by the routine culturing of 53 respiratory specimens from patients with community-acq...

Wessels, Els; Schelfaut, Jacqueline J. G.; Bernards, Alexandra T.; Claas, Eric C. J.

2012-01-01

345

M-Ficolin Binds Selectively to the Capsular Polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes 19B and 19C and of a Streptococcus mitis Strain  

OpenAIRE

The three human ficolins (H-, L-, and M-ficolins) and mannan-binding lectin are pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system mediating activation of the lectin pathway of the complement system. These four human proteins bind to some microorganisms and may be involved in the resolution of infections. We investigated binding selectivity by examining the binding of M-ficolin to a panel of more than 100 different streptococcal strains (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis...

Kjaer, Troels R.; Hansen, Annette G.; Sørensen, Uffe B. S.; Holm, Anne T.; Sørensen, Grith L.; Jensenius, Jens C.; Thiel, Steffen

2013-01-01

346

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes resistant to macrolides but sensitive to clindamycin: a common resistance pattern mediated by an efflux system.  

OpenAIRE

Macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from Finland, Australia, and the United Kingdom and, more recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pyogenes strains from the United States were shown to have an unusual resistance pattern to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B antibiotics. This pattern, referred to as M resistance, consists of susceptibility to clindamycin and streptogramin B antibiotics but resistance to 14- and 15-membered macrolides. An evaluation of the macrol...

Sutcliffe, J.; Tait-kamradt, A.; Wondrack, L.

1996-01-01

347

General Game Management Agent  

OpenAIRE

The task of managing general game playing in a multi-agent system is the problem addressed in this paper. It is considered to be done by an agent. There are many reasons for constructing such an agent, called general game management agent. This agent manages strategic interactions between other agents - players, natural or also artificial. The agent records the interaction for further benchmarking and analysis. He can also be used for a kind of restricted communications. His...

Tagiew, Rustam

2009-01-01

348

Antimicrobial activity of nisin against the swine pathogen Streptococcus suis and its synergistic interaction with antibiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections in pigs, including meningitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Furthermore, this bacterium is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Recently, increased antibiotic resistance in S. suis has been reported worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of nisin, a bacteriocin of the lantibiotic class, as an antibacterial agent against the pathogen S. suis serotype 2. In addition, the synergistic activity of nisin in combination with conventional antibiotics was assessed. Using a plate assay, the nisin-producing strain Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454 proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of S. suis (n=18) belonging to either sequence type (ST)1, ST25, or ST28. In a microdilution broth assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of purified nisin ranged between 1.25 and 5 ?g/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 5 and 10 ?g/mL toward S. suis. The use of a capsule-deficient mutant of S. suis indicated that the presence of this polysaccharidic structure has no marked impact on susceptibility to nisin. Following treatment of S. suis with nisin, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed lysis of bacteria resulting from breakdown of the cell membrane. A time-killing curve showed a rapid bactericidal activity of nisin. Lastly, synergistic effects of nisin were observed in combination with several antibiotics, including penicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and ceftiofur. This study brought clear evidence supporting the potential of nisin for the prevention and treatment of S. suis infections in pigs. PMID:24096107

Lebel, Geneviève; Piché, Fanny; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

2013-12-01

349

Genomics of Streptococcus salivarius, a major human commensal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The salivarius group of streptococci is of particular importance for humans. This group consists of three genetically similar species, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus vestibularis and Streptococcus thermophilus. S. salivarius and S. vestibularis are commensal organisms that may occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans, whereas S. thermophilus is a food bacterium widely used in dairy production. We developed Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and comparative genomic analysis to confirm the clear separation of these three species. These analyses also identified a subgroup of four strains, with a core genome diverging by about 10%, in terms of its nucleotide sequence, from that of S. salivarius sensu stricto. S. thermophilus species displays a low level of nucleotide variability, due to its recent emergence with the development of agriculture. By contrast, nucleotide variability is high in the other two species of the salivarius group, reflecting their long-standing association with humans. The species of the salivarius group have genome sizes ranging from the smallest (?1.7Mb for S. thermophilus) to the largest (?2.3Mb for S. salivarius) among streptococci, reflecting genome reduction linked to a narrow, nutritionally rich environment for S. thermophilus, and natural, more competitive niches for the other two species. Analyses of genomic content have indicated that the core genes of S. salivarius account for about two thirds of the genome, indicating considerable variability of gene content and differences in potential adaptive features. Furthermore, we showed that the genome of this species is exceptionally rich in genes encoding surface factors, glycosyltransferases and response regulators. Evidence of widespread genetic exchanges was obtained, probably involving a natural competence system and the presence of diverse mobile elements. However, although the S. salivarius strains studied were isolated from several human body-related sites (all levels of the digestive tract, skin, breast milk, and body fluids) and included clinical strains, no genetic or genomic niche-specific features could be identified to discriminate specific group. PMID:25311532

Delorme, Christine; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Renault, Pierre; Guédon, Eric

2014-10-13

350

IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS  

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Full Text Available Immunosuppressive drugs play an important role in preventing the rejection of organ or tissue grafts and in the treatment of certain diseases that arise from dysregulation of the immune response. In recent years, many new immunosuppressive drugs have been discovered and developed for clinical use. The wide array of new drugs offers the opportunity to use combinations that block different pathways of immune activation. In transplantation, the major classes of immunosuppressive drugs used are: Glucocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative/antimetabolic agents, and biologics (antibodies. Newer drugs like Mizoribine, RS61443, Brequinar sodium are inhibitors of DNA synthesis and inhibitors of cell activation/maturation like (Deoxyspergualin, CP 17193 have also showed promising results. Tacrolimus (FK 506 and Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF have already replaced immunosuppressive maintenance protocols. The other two drugs, Leflunomide and Sirolimus (SRL, are still under investigation for use in solid organ transplantation. Anti-interleukin-2 (IL-2 receptor antibodies, anti-CD25 [interleukin (IL-2 receptor] antibodies (basiliximab, daclizumab target growth factor pathways, have shown promising results in phase III trials. These drugs have met with a high degree of clinical success in treating conditions such as acute immune rejection of organ transplants and severe autoimmune diseases. This article reviews the pharmacodynamics, adverse effects and uses of the major classes of immunosuppressive drugs.

Dr Pramila Yadav

2010-05-01

351

Specificity of the glucan-binding lectin of Streptococcus cricetus.  

OpenAIRE

The specificity of the glucan-binding lectin (GBL) of Streptococcus cricetus AHT was determined. Examination of the kinetics of aggregation of cell suspensions with glucans containing various percentages of alpha-1,6, alpha-1,4, alpha-1,3, and alpha-1,2 anomeric linkages revealed that only glucans with at least 80% alpha-1,6 linkages promoted strong aggregation. Moreover, only linear glucans with molecular weights greater than 5 X 10(5) were capable of causing rapid aggregation of the bacteri...

Drake, D.; Taylor, K. G.; Bleiweis, A. S.; Doyle, R. J.

1988-01-01

352

Improving the sensitivity of blood culture for Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae is jeopardized by low sensitivity of blood culture, autolysis and contamination with fast-growing organism(s). We performed an immunochromatographic (ICT) test for S. pneumoniae on chocolatized blood culture bottles and also sub-cultured contaminated bottles on a selective medium, thus identifying an additional eight and three cases, respectively, and improving the detection of pneumococcus by 23% (48% vs. 59%). Prescreening of culture bottles in a blinded fashion could rationalize the use of ICT with ~99% accuracy. These two approaches can aid microbiology laboratories in resource-poor countries to substantially improve rates of detection of S. pneumoniae. PMID:20736384

Saha, Samir; Darmstadt, Gary; Naheed, Aliya; Arifeen, Shams; Islam, Maksuda; Fatima, Kaniz; Breiman, Robert; Sack, David; Hamer, Davidson

2011-06-01

353

Vitamin B6 requirements of nutritionally variant Streptococcus mitior.  

OpenAIRE

The growth rate of three vitamin B6-dependent Streptococcus mitior (B6DS) and two non-B6DS strains in Todd-Hewitt broth, with and without vitamin B6 supplementation, was examined. Even in optimally supplemented culture media, the growth rate of the three B6DS strains was much slower than that of comparable non-B6DS strains. Uptake studies with [3H] pyridoxine suggest that these B6DS strains cannot assimilate pyridoxine. Although not transported intracellularly, pyridoxine inhibited the growth...

Schiller, N. L.; Roberts, R. B.

1982-01-01

354

Changes in the pattern of infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes.  

OpenAIRE

The distribution of T- and M-protein antigens was determined in 12,469 cultures of Streptococcus pyogenes sent to a reference laboratory. Of these 7232 (58%) were isolates from hospital patients, 249 (2%) from hospital staff and 4988 (40%) from the community. The survey extended from January 1980 to June 1987. During this time the numbers of isolates of M-types 6, 49 and 81 rose then fell, being replaced by types 1, 3 and 28. The proportion of isolates of M-types 4 and 12 remained constant. F...

Gaworzewska, E.; Colman, G.

1988-01-01

355

Lipoprotein signal peptidase of Streptococcus suis serotype 2  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports the complete coding sequence for a proliprotein signal peptidase (SP-ase) of Streptococcus suis, Lsp. This is believed to be the first SP-ase described for S. suis. SP-ase II is involved in the removal of the signal peptide from glyceride-modified prolipoproteins. By using in vitro transcription/translation systems, it was shown that the lsp gene was transcribed in vitro. Functionality of Lsp in Escherichia coli was demonstrated by using an in vitro globomycin resistance as...

Greeff, A.; Buijs, H.; Alphen, L.; Smith, H. E.

2003-01-01

356

Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by the lactoperoxidase antimicrobial system.  

OpenAIRE

Inhibition of bacterial metabolism by the lactoperoxidase (LP)-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-thiocyanate system was studied with representatives of serotypes a through g of Streptococcus mutans. The aims were to determine whether the amount of H2O2 released from these catalase-negative bacteria is sufficient to activate the LP system and whether these oral bacteria are resistant to inhibition by the LP system, which is active in human saliva. When the washed, stationary-phase cells were incubated ...

Thomas, E. L.; Pera, K. A.; Smith, K. W.; Chwang, A. K.

1983-01-01

357

Purification of NADH: hypothiocyanite oxidoreductase in Streptococcus sanguis.  

Science.gov (United States)

NADH: hypothiocyanite oxidoreductase (NHOR) activity, found in some oral Streptococci, is postulated to protect these microorganisms against salivary peroxidase-produced hypothiocyanite. NHOR, however, has not been purified so far. The purification of NHOR from crude extracts of Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 7863 strain (by ultrafiltration and anion-exchange chromatography) revealed one fraction of 125 +/- kDa. However, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis provided a single protein of 21.1 +/- 1.2 kDa. This last discovery suggests that NHOR enzyme is a hexameric complex having six subunits. PMID:8733891

Courtois, P H; Pourtois, M

1996-04-01

358

Adsorption of Bacteriophage eb7 on Streptococcus cremoris EB7  

OpenAIRE

When M17 broth was used as growth medium before preparation of cell walls, adsorption of phage eb7 on Streptococcus cremoris EB7 at pH 4.0 was stimulated. When preparation included treatment with trypsin, absorption of phage was 65%. Without trypsin treatment, absorption was 81%. Only 10 to 20% of the adsorption was irreversible. Treatment with pepsin or commercial rennet but not pure chymosin prevented adsorption on non-trypsin-treated cell walls. d-Galactosamine treatment of phage eb7 had a...

Keogh, Barbara P.; Pettingill, G.

1983-01-01

359

Antigenic Determinants of Alpha-Like Proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae  

OpenAIRE

The majority of group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates express one or more of a family of surface-anchored proteins that vary by strain and that form ladder-like patterns on Western blotting due to large repeat units. These proteins, which are important as GBS serotype markers and as inducers of protective antibodies, include the alpha C (C?) and R4 proteins and the recently described alpha-like protein 2 (Alp2), encoded by alp2, and Alp3, encoded by alp3. In this study, we examined antigenic ...

Maeland, Johan A.; Bevanger, Lars; Lyng, Randi Valsoe

2004-01-01

360

The cell envelope subtilisin-like proteinase is a virulence determinant for Streptococcus suis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen and zoonotic agent that mainly causes septicemia, meningitis, and endocarditis. It has recently been suggested that proteinases produced by S. suis (serotype 2 are potential virulence determinants. In the present study, we screened a S. suis mutant library created by the insertion of Tn917 transposon in order to isolate a mutant deficient in a cell surface proteinase. We characterized the gene and assessed the proteinase for its potential as a virulence factor. Results Two mutants (G6G and M3G possessing a single Tn917 insertion were isolated. The affected gene coded for a protein (SSU0757 that shared a high degree of identity with Streptococccus thermophilus PrtS (95.9% and, to a lesser extent, with Streptococcus agalactiae CspA (49.5%, which are cell surface serine proteinases. The SSU0757 protein had a calculated molecular mass of 169.6 kDa and contained the catalytic triad characteristic of subtilisin family proteinases: motif I (Asp200, motif II (His239, and motif III (Ser568. SSU0757 also had the Gram-positive cell wall anchoring motif (Leu-Pro-X-Thr-Gly at the carboxy-terminus, which was followed by a hydrophobic domain. All the S. suis isolates tested, which belonged to different serotypes, possessed the gene encoding the SSU0757 protein. The two mutants devoid of subtilisin-like proteinase activity had longer generation times and were more susceptible to killing by whole blood than the wild-type parent strain P1/7. The virulence of the G6G and M3G mutants was compared to the wild-type strain in the CD1 mouse model. Significant differences in mortality rates were noted between the P1/7 group and the M3G and G6G groups (p Conclusion In summary, we identified a gene coding for a cell surface subtilisin-like serine proteinase that is widely distributed in S. suis. Evidences were brought for the involvement of this proteinase in S. suis virulence.

Gottschalk Marcelo

2010-02-01

361

[Two cases of Bartholin's gland abscesses caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae].  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of Bartholin's gland abscesses have been thought to be caused by microorganisms found in opportunistic infections. However, we have encountered two very interesting cases of Bartholin's gland abscesses caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, two major pathogens of respiratory tract infections. In the first case, since abscess formation was not observed due to disintegration, cefdinir (CFDN), 300 mg/day, t.i.d. for 5 days was administered. The treatment improved clinical symptoms, but relapse occurred 3 days after the administration was discontinued. Microbiological examination of pus revealed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Finegoldia magna, and it also showed that the isolated S. pneumoniae was penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP). After an incision and drainage of abscess, cefteram pivoxil (CFTM-PI), 300 mg/day t.i.d. for 7 days, was administered, and the cure was confirmed. In the second case, after an incision and drainage of Bartholin's gland abscess, amoxicillin (AMPC), 750 mg/day, t.i.d. for 5 days, was administered. The treatment improved clinical symptoms temporarily. However, the symptoms deteriorated 7 days after the operation, and the patient was diagnosed with relapse. Microbiological examination of pus revealed the presence of Haemophilus influenzae and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and it also showed that the isolated H. influenzae was beta-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae (BLNAR). After performing additional incision and drainage of abscess again, CFTM-PI, 300 mg/day, t.i.d. for 7 days, was administered, and the cure was confirmed. In addition, the analysis of these two cases using PK/PD theory revealed that the time above MIC reached 100% with administration of CFTM-PI 300mg, t.i.d. suggesting that the dosage is sufficient for treating these infections. There are other cases of external genitalia infections caused by microorganisms usually associated with respiratory tract infections like cases that we are reporting here. Therefore, it is necessary to consider a possible infection by drug-resistant bacteria even for a case of external genitalia infection. In addition, it was thought that adjusting dosage and method for administration of antibacterial agents based on PK/PD theory would help to rovide efficient treatment. PMID:16276738

Mikamo, Hiroshige; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Kaori; Watanabe, Kunitomo

2005-08-01

362

Production of monoclonal antibodies against Streptococcus mutans antigens / Produção de anticorpos monoclonais contra antígenos de Streptococcus mutans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Diversos estudos foram realizados nas últimas décadas com o intuito de se obter uma vacina anticárie dentária, mas alguns trabalhos têm demonstrado reatividade cruzada entre antígenos de superfície de Streptococcus mutans e tecido cardíaco humano. Neste trabalho, foi testada a reatividade de cinco a [...] nticorpos monoclonais (AcMo) anti-Streptococcus mutans (24A, 56G, C8, E8 e F6) contra estreptococos orais, antígenos cardíacos e miosinas esquelética e cardíaca, no intuito de avaliar a especificidade desses AcMo. Os híbridos produtores de imunoglobulinas da classe IgG2b foram clonados por diluição limite e expandidos in vivo. Os AcMo foram testados por ELISA. O híbrido 24A reagiu com S. mutans CCT 1910, S. salivarius CCT 0365 e S. pyogenes T23. Nenhuma diferença de reatividade foi detectada entre as espécies analisadas. Reatividade cruzada com coração e miosina cardíaca não foi confirmada, existindo somente reação com miosina de músculo esquelético (p = 0,0381). O híbrido 56G reagiu com todos os microrganismos testados e houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre S. mutans e S. pyogenes T23 (p Abstract in english Several studies have been conducted in the last decades aiming to obtain an anti-caries vaccine, however some studies have demonstrated cross reactivity between Streptococcus mutans surface antigens and the human cardiac tissue. In this work, the reactivity of five anti-Streptococcus mutans monoclon [...] al antibodies (MoAb) (24A, 56G, C8, E8 and F6) was tested against oral streptococci, cardiac antigens and skeletal and cardiac myosins, aiming to evaluate the specificity of these MoAb. The hybrid producers of immunoglobulins of the IgG2b class were cloned by limit dilution and expanded in vivo. MoAb were tested by ELISA. The hybrid 24A reacted with S. mutans CCT 1910, S. salivarius CCT 0365 and S. pyogenes T23. No reactivity difference was observed among the tested species. Cross reactivity with heart and cardiac myosin was not confirmed and only reaction with myosin of skeletal muscle was observed (p = 0.0381). The hybrid 56G reacted with all the tested microorganisms and there was statistically significant difference between S. mutans and S. pyogenes T23 (p

Antonio Carlos Victor, Canettieri; Fujiko Yamasiro, Kretchetoff; Cristiane Yumi, Koga-Ito; Daniella, Moreira; Fabio José Condino, Fujarra; Carmelinda Schmidt, Unterkircher.

2006-12-01

363

Helper plasmid cloning in Streptococcus sanguis: cloning of a tetracycline resistance determinant from the Streptococcus mutans chromosome.  

OpenAIRE

A model system for testing the helper plasmid cloning system of Gryczan et al. (Mol. Gen. Genet. 177:459-467, 1980) was devised for the Streptococcus sanguis (Challis) host-vector system. In this system, linearized pVA736 plasmid efficiently transformed an S. sanguis (Challis) host containing a homologous plasmid, pVA380-1, but did not transform a plasmidless host or a host containing a nonhomologous plasmid, pVA380. In addition, whereas monomeric circular pVA736 transformed a plasmidless hos...

Tobian, J. A.; Macrina, F. L.

1982-01-01

364

Acción in vitro de diez plantas medicinales sobre diez cepas diferentes de Streptococcus pneumoniae / In vitro activity of ten medicinal plants on ten Streptococcus pneumoniae strains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El portador sano es el principal diseminador de las infecciones neumocócicas por la nasofaringe. Una alternativa para combatirlo son las plantas medicinales. Objetivos: Determinar la efectividad de diez plantas medicinales frente a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Diseño: Estudio experimental [...] in vitro. Material biológico: Plantas medicinales y cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intervenciones: Los extractos de 10 plantas medicinales fueron puestos en contacto in vitro con 10 cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Principales medidas de resultados: Actividad de las plantas medicinales sobre las cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Resultados: almendro y Bellaco caspi fueron las únicas plantas que dieron pequeño halo de inhibición con algunas cepas; con almendro se inhibió dos cepas y con Bellaco caspi, se inhibió siete cepas y tres resultaron resistentes. Estos resultados no tuvieron relación con el serotipo de neumococo ni con los antibióticos utilizados en los antibiogramas realizados previamente. Conclusiones: El Bellaco caspi podría ser una alternativa para atacar al neumococo en la nasofaringe. Pero, por haber presentado resistencia a tres cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, antes de usarlo sería conveniente desarrollar un antibiograma de los neumococos contra las plantas medicinales. Abstract in english Introduction: The healthy carrier is the main disseminator of pneumococcal infections through nasopharynx; an alternative for treatment is a medicinal plant. Objectives: To determine the effectivity of ten medicinal plants against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Design: In vitro experimental study. Biolog [...] ic materials: Medicinal plant extracts and Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Interventions: Ten medicinal plant extracts were put in contact in vitro with 10 different Streptococcus pneumonia strains. Main outcome measures: Medicinal plant extracts activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Results: Only almendro y Bellaco caspi showed small inhibition halos with some strains; with almendro two of 10 Pneumococcus strains were inhibited and with Bellaco caspi seven strains were inhibited and three were resistant. These results had no relation either with Pneumococcus serotype or with antibiotics used according to antibiograms. Conclusions: Bellaco caspi could be an alternative for treating nasopharynx Pneumococcus, but due to resistance to three Streptococcus pneumonia strains there is no total guarantee and an antibiogram for pneumococci against medicinal plants is needed.

JM, Guevara Duncan; C, Fuertes Ruitón; E, Valencia Bazalar; JMM, Guevara Granados; R, Zerpa Larrauri; V, Béjar Castillo; L, Patiño Gabriel; JC, Celis Salinas.

2012-10-01

365

Pheromone-induced expression of recombinant proteins in Streptococcus thermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A locus encoding proteins with high homology to the pneumococcal BlpABCHR quorum-sensing system was identified in Streptococcus thermophilus LMG 18311. The BlpABCHR system regulates bacteriocin production in Streptococcus pneumoniae by monitoring the extracellular concentration of a peptide-pheromone encoded by blpC. The homologous system in S. thermophilus, termed StbABCHR, contains a corresponding gene (stbC) encoding a possible peptide-pheromone (STP) that presumably controls bacteriocin production in S. thermophilus. We synthesized this peptide and found that it activates transcription of a gusA reporter gene placed behind the promoter of the bacteriocin-like gene stbD. Furthermore, deletion mapping and mutational analysis of the stbD promoter region were used to identify a degenerated direct repeat motif required for STP induced GusA expression. Our findings provide strong evidence that STP regulates bacteriocin production in S. thermophilus LMG 18311, and show that the StbABCHR quorum-sensing system can be exploited for inducible expression of recombinant proteins in this bacterial species. PMID:16932907

Blomqvist, Trinelise; Steinmoen, Hilde; Håvarstein, Leiv Sigve

2006-12-01

366

Comparative transcriptomic analysis of streptococcus pseudopneumoniae with viridans group streptococci  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, is a novel member of the genus Streptococcus, falling close to related members like S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, and S. oralis. Its recent appearance has shed light on streptococcal infections, which has been unclear till recently. In this study, the transcriptome of S. pseudopneumoniae CCUG 49455T was analyzed using the S. pneumoniae R6 microarray platform and compared with those of S. pneumoniae KCTC 5080T, S. mitis KCTC 3556T, and S. oralis KCTC 13048T strains. Results Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed the extent of genetic relatedness among the species, and implies that S. pseudopneumoniae is the most closely related to S. pneumoniae. A total of 489, 444 and 470 genes were upregulated while 347, 484 and 443 were downregulated relative to S. pneumoniae in S. pseudopneumoniae, S. oralis and S. mitis respectively. Important findings were the up-regulation of TCS (two component systems and transposase which were found to be specific to S. pseudopneumoniae. Conclusions This study provides insight to the current understanding of the genomic content of S. pseudopneumoniae. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed hierarchical clustering of expression data of S. pseudopneumoniae with S. pneumoniae and S. mitis with S. oralis. This proves that transcriptional profiling can facilitate in elucidating the genetic distance between closely related strains.

Park Hee

2012-07-01

367

Phylogenomics and the dynamic genome evolution of the genus Streptococcus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

Richards, Vincent P; Palmer, Sara R; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M; Highlander, Sarah K; Town, Christopher D; Burne, Robert A; Stanhope, Michael J

2014-04-01

368

Poststreptococcal keratouveitis associated with group C streptococcus pharyngitis  

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Full Text Available Nathaniel Nataneli1, Zenia P Aguilera1, Pearl S Rosenbaum1, Tamar Goldstein1,2, Martin Mayers11Department of Ophthalmology, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelPurpose: To report the first case of poststreptococcal syndrome uveitis (PSU in association with group C streptococcus (GCS.Patients and methods: Chart review of a 24-year-old man who presented with bilateral ocular redness, pain, and photophobia for 5 days and "white rings" around his eyes for a duration of 3 days. The patient further reported fever and sore throat in the preceding week. Slit-lamp examination showed bilateral keratouveitis. A thorough uveitis workup, antistreptolysin O (ASLO titer, and throat culture were obtained. The patient was treated with frequent topical steroids and systemic doxycycline. The uveitis and keratitis subsided over the next few weeks, leaving extensive peripheral keratolysis.Results: The results of laboratory diagnostic testing revealed an elevated ASLO, C-reactive protein, as well as HLA-B27 positivity. Throat cultures grew beta-hemolytic GCS; group A streptococcus was culture negative.Conclusion: GCS pharyngitis may be a causative organism of PSU.Keywords: pharyngitis, keratolysis, keratouveitis

Nataneli N

2011-09-01

369

Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited.Martens P, Worm SW, Lundgren B, Konradsen HB, Benfield T. Department of Infectious Diseases 144, Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. pernillemartens@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: Invasive infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis and a determinant of disease outcome. METHODS: Retrospective review of 464 cases of invasive disease among adults diagnosed between 1990 and 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for other markers of disease severity, we found that infection with serotype 3 was associated with an increased relative risk (RR) of death of 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-5.27), whereas infection with serotype 1 was associated with a decreased risk of death (RR 0.23 (95% CI, 0.06-0.97)). Additionally, older age, relative leucopenia and relative hypothermia were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that capsular serotypes independently influenced the outcome from invasive pneumococcal disease. The limitations of the current polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine warrant the development of alternative vaccines. We suggest that the virulence of pneumococcal serotypes should be considered in the design of novel vaccines.

Martens, Pernille; Worm, Signe Westring

2004-01-01

370

Disease manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms of group a Streptococcus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), causes mild human infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo and serious infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Furthermore, repeated GAS infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, including acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, and rheumatic heart disease. Combined, these diseases account for over half a million deaths per year globally. Genomic and molecular analyses have now characterized a large number of GAS virulence determinants, many of which exhibit overlap and redundancy in the processes of adhesion and colonization, innate immune resistance, and the capacity to facilitate tissue barrier degradation and spread within the human host. This improved understanding of the contribution of individual virulence determinants to the disease process has led to the formulation of models of GAS disease progression, which may lead to better treatment and intervention strategies. While GAS remains sensitive to all penicillins and cephalosporins, rising resistance to other antibiotics used in disease treatment is an increasing worldwide concern. Several GAS vaccine formulations that elicit protective immunity in animal models have shown promise in nonhuman primate and early-stage human trials. The development of a safe and efficacious commercial human vaccine for the prophylaxis of GAS disease remains a high priority. PMID:24696436

Walker, Mark J; Barnett, Timothy C; McArthur, Jason D; Cole, Jason N; Gillen, Christine M; Henningham, Anna; Sriprakash, K S; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L; Nizet, Victor

2014-04-01

371

Characterisation of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild boars (Sus scrofa).  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild boar are widely distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula and can carry potentially virulent strains of Streptococcus suis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. suis in wild boars from two large geographical regions of Spain. Serotypes 1, 2, 7 and 9 identified were further genetically characterised by virulence-associated genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the population structure of S. suis carried by these animals. Streptococcus suis was isolated from 39.1% of the wild boars examined: serotype 9 was the most frequently isolated (12.5%), followed by serotype 1 (2.5%). Serotype 2 was rarely isolated (0.3%). Eighteen additional serotypes were identified indicating wide diversity of this pathogen within the wild boar population. This heterogeneity was confirmed by PFGE and MLST analyses and the majority of isolates exhibited the virulence-associated genotype mrp-/epf-/sly-. The results of this study highlight that the carriage of S. suis by wild boars is commonplace. However, MLST data indicate that these isolates are not related to prevalent clonal complexes ST1, ST16, ST61 and ST87 typically associated with infection of pigs or humans in Europe. PMID:24726078

Sánchez del Rey, Verónica; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Briones, Víctor; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Vela, Ana Isabel

2014-06-01

372

Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

2013-02-01

373

Streptococcus agalactiae toxic shock-like syndrome: two case reports and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present 2 patients with Streptococcus agalactiae toxic shock-like syndrome and review another 11 well-reported cases from the literature. Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome is a devastating illness with a high mortality rate, therefore we stress the importance of early supportive management, antimicrobial therapy, and surgical intervention. Toxic shock-like syndrome is likely to be underestimated in patients with invasive Streptococcus agalactiae infection who present with shock. Early diagnosis requires high suspicion of the illness, along with a thorough mucocutaneous examination. Streptococcus agalactiae produces uncharacterized pyrogenic toxins, which explains the ability of the organism to cause toxic shock-like syndrome. PMID:23263717

Al Akhrass, Fadi; Abdallah, Lina; Berger, Steven; Hanna, Rami; Reynolds, Nina; Thompson, Shellie; Hallit, Rabih; Schlievert, Patrick M

2013-01-01

374

Pericarditis purulenta y empiema pleural por Streptococcus pneumoniae / Purulent pericarditis and pleural empyema due to Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de 59 años de edad sin historia clínica previa que ingresó en nuestra Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) al presentar un cuadro de insuficiencia respiratoria e inestabilidad hemodinámica. Se le diagnosticó una pericarditis purulenta causada por Streptococcus [...] pneumoniae complicada con un derrame pericárdico masivo y un empiema pleural. Se realizó una punción pericardica que no fue efectiva y el derrame pericárdico se evacuó finalmente mediante drenaje quirúrgico. El empiema pleural fue igualmente evacuado. Recibió tratamiento antibiótico y se recuperó, normalizandose la función cardiaca. Abstract in english We present the case of a 59 years old woman with no previous clinical history of disease who was admitted in our ICU due to respiratory failure and hemodynamic inestabillity. She was found to have purulent pericarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, complicated by masive pericardial effusion and p [...] leural empyema. A pericardial tap was performed unsuccessfully and finally pericardial effusion was evacuated by surgical drainage. Pleural empyema was also evacuated. She received antibiotical treatment and recovered with normalisation of heart function.

B., Suberviola Cañas; J. C., Rodríguez Borregan; A., González Castro; E., Miñambres; F. J., Burón Mediavilla.

2007-01-01

375

Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes: prevalência de colonização e avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos / Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: prevalence of colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: verificar a ocorrência de colonização por Streptococcus agalactiae em gestantes e avaliar a suscetibilidade das amostras isoladas aos antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 167 grávidas entre a 32ª e a 41ª semana de gestação, independente da presença ou não de fatores de risco, atendid [...] as no ambulatório de pré-natal entre fevereiro de 2003 e fevereiro de 2004. O material vaginal/anal, colhido com um único swab, foi inoculado em caldo Todd-Hewitt acrescido de ácido nalidíxico (15 µg/mL) e gentamicina (8 µg/mL), com posterior subcultura no meio de ágar sangue. A identificação foi feita por meio da avaliação da morfologia e tipo de hemólise das colônias no meio de ágar sangue, teste da catalase, teste de cAMP e testes sorológicos. A avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos foi realizada pelos testes de difusão e de diluição em ágar. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do teste de chi2; valores de p0,05). Todas as 32 amostras isoladas foram sensíveis a penicilina, cefotaxima, ofloxacina, cloranfenicol, vancomicina e meropenem. A resistência a eritromicina e clindamicina foi detectada em 9,4 e 6,2% das amostras, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: a incidência relativamente elevada (19,2%) de colonização por S. agalactiae entre as gestantes avaliadas e o isolamento de amostras resistentes, especialmente aos antimicrobianos recomendados nos casos de alergia à penicilina, enfatizam a importância de detectar esta colonização no final da gravidez, associada à avaliação da suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos, para uma prevenção eficaz da infecção neonatal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to verify the occurrence of colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women attended at the prenatal outpatient clinic of the Teaching Maternity Hospital of Rio de Janeiro University (UFRJ) and to evaluate the susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobial agents. METHODS: a tot [...] al of 167 pregnant women between the 32nd and 41st week of gestation, regardless of risk factors, attended at the antenatal clinic between February 2003 and February 2004, were evaluated. The vaginal/anal material, collected by the same swab, was inoculated in Todd-Hewitt broth to which nalidixic acid (15 µg/mL) and gentamicin (8 µg/mL) were added, with following subcultures onto sheep blood-agar. Identification was carried out observing colony morphology and beta-hemolysis type on blood-agar, catalase, cAMP, and serological tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing used agar diffusion and agar dilution methods. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi2 test with the level of significance set at p0.05). All 32 isolated strains were susceptible to penicillin, cefotaxime, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin and meropenem. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was detected in 9.4 and 6.2% of the isolates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: the relatively high incidence (19.2%) of colonization by S. agalactiae among the evaluated pregnant women and the recovery of antimicrobial resistant strains, especially those recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, emphasize the importance, for a correct prevention of neonatal infections, of detecting colonization at the end of pregnancy and evaluating antimicrobial susceptibility.

Irina Lermontov, Borger; Rachel Elise Cerqueira, d' Oliveira; Angela Christina Dias de, Castro; Silvia Susana Bona de, Mondino.

2005-10-01

376

Adherence of Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis to Streptococcus sanguis in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intergeneric bacterial adherence is responsible for the complexity of the microbiota in human dental plaque and is believed to enable some extraneous bacteria to initially colonize the human oral cavity. Some current evidence indicates that Streptococcus sanguis, an early colonizer of teeth, enhances subsequent colonization by Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis, a bacterium associated with advanced adult periodontitis. In this study, selected strains of P. gingivalis and S. sanguis were tested for their adherence activities in vitro. A differential filtration assay was devised in which one member of the test pair was radiolabeled. Heterogeneous aggregates that formed in mixed suspensions were collected on polycarbonate filters (8-microns pore size) and were washed free of individual bacteria and small homologous clumps. P. gingivalis 381, W50, JKG7, and 33277 adhered to S. sanguis G9B, M5, Challis 6, and 38. P. gingivalis A7A1-28 did not adhere well to S. sanguis under these conditions. More precise measurements of intergeneric adherence were obtained with an alternative assay with radiolabeled P. gingivalis and an artificial dental plaque composed of S. sanguis coupled to cyanogen bromide-activated agarose beads. CNBr-agarose was selected as the supporting matrix for the plaque because it was uniformly and permanently coated with S. sanguis and because P. gingivalis had negligible adherence activity for streptococcus-free beads. P. gingivalis W50 grown to the early stationary phase adhered to S. sanguis-coated beads in higher numbers than either midlogarithmic- or late-stationary-phase cells. Intergeneric adherence was not inhibited or reversed by the presence of lactose or other monosaccharides or disaccharides. Pretreatment of either bacterium with trypsin or proteinase K reduced subsequent adherence by 86 to 100%. Neuraminidase treatment of P. gingivalis caused 98% reduction of adherence, whereas similar treatment of S. sanguis caused only a 2% loss. Preincubation of P. gingivalis at 60 degrees C for 30 min decreased subsequent adherence to S. sanguis-coated beads by 94%. Adherence was reduced by 96% when bacteria were assayed while suspended in human whole saliva or when pretreated with saliva and subsequently assayed in buffer. The concentration of whole human saliva required to inhibit 50% adherence in this assay was 23 micrograms per ml (1:200 dilution). Suspension of the bacteria in normal rabbit serum resulted in 94% inhibition of adherence. These data indicate that saliva and serum may be important host defense factors for controlling Porphyromonas-Streptococcus adherence. PMID:1987021

Stinson, M W; Safulko, K; Levine, M J

1991-01-01

377

Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes Neonatal Sepsis by Streptococcus pyogenes  

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Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respiratorio que amerita ventilación mecánica asistida por varios días en diferentes ocasiones, derrame pleural exudativo, convulsiones de origen hipóxico isquémico. Con reporte de hemocultivos positivos por Estreptococos pyogenes. El Estreptococos pyogenes o estreptococo ?-hemol?tico del grupo A, fue un problema en los comienzos del siglo pasado, siendo frecuente en las infecciones puerperales y del reci?n nacido. En la actualidad es un germen sumamente raro en los procesos de sepsis neonatal.2 La gravedad de la enfermedad causada por este microorganismo en el periodo neonatal var?a desde una onfalitis crónica de bajo grado a una septicemia, una meningitis fulminante y la muerte.1 El presente artículo pretende hacer un resumen del paciente, con su evolución clínica, radiológica y además ejemplificar todas las complicaciones que tuvimos con este germen tan poco frecuente en la actualidad en sepsis neonatal.We present herein the case of a newborn patient of appropriate gestational age weight ( 3700 grams, born by vaginal delivery, from a mother that had had 2 previous pregnancies (2 normal deliveries. During the immediate puerperium she had fever. The parents consulted at the age of 2 days, stating that they had noticed difficult breathing since his birth, hipoactivity and poor appetite. He was admitted to the hospital and underwent several studies searching for the origin and germ causing the sepsis. He developed respiratory failure and needed mechanical ventilation for several days on different occasions. He had exudative pleural effusion and hypoxic ischemic seizures. Later on, his blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus ?- hemolytic group A infection, used to be a common entity in the beginning of the past century, it was commonly associated with puerperal infections and newborn infections, but its incidence declined and nowadays, is uncommon during the neonatal period. Its clinical manifestations could vary from chronic omphalitis up to a low grade septicemia or fulminant meningitis. Since its incidence has declined, at the present time; is an unusual infection of the neonatal period. Ampicillin and gentamicin are currently recommended as first-line antimicrobials, ampicillin replacing the previously recommended penicillin.

Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera

2009-09-01

378

Withania somnifera attenuates acid production, acid tolerance and extra-cellular polysaccharide formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is a plant of the Solanaceae family. It has been widely used as a remedy for a variety of ailments in India and Nepal. The plant has also been used as a controlling agent for dental diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of the methanol extract of W. somnifera against the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms and to identify the components of the extract. To determine the activity of the extract, assays for sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence, glycolytic acid production, acid tolerance, and extracellular polysaccharide formation were performed using Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The viability change of S. mutans biofilms cells was also determined. A phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed using TLC and LC/MS/MS. The extract showed inhibitory effects on sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence (? 100 ?g/ml), glycolytic acid production (? 300 ?g/ml), acid tolerance (? 300 ?g/ml), and extracellular polysaccharide formation (? 300 ?g/ml) of S. mutans biofilms. However, the extract did not alter the viability of S. mutans biofilms cells in all concentrations tested. Based on the phytochemical analysis, the activity of the extract may be related to the presence of alkaloids, anthrones, coumarines, anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, and steroid lactones (withanolide A, withaferin A, withanolide B, withanoside IV, and 12-deoxy withastramonolide). These data indicate that W. somnifera may be a potential agent for restraining the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms. PMID:24467542

Pandit, Santosh; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

2014-01-01

379

Yanshu spraying agent, a traditional Chinese medicine, relieves chronic pharyngitis in animals by anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects  

OpenAIRE

Chronic pharyngitis is chronic inflammation that is often caused by repeated occurrences of acute pharyngitis or upper respiratory tract infections, including Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Yanshu spraying agent (Yanshu) in relieving chronic pharyngitis, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. The results revealed that Yanshu inhibited chronic inflammation in ammonia-induced chronic pharyngitis in rabbits and cotton pellet-induce...

Lu, Chengwen; Song, Yanqin; Zhang, Jianqiao; Du, Yuan; Wang, Tian; Xue, Yunli; Fu, Fenghua; Zhang, Leiming

2014-01-01

380

Pericardite em suínos ao abate no Rio Grande Sul: avaliação de agentes bacterianos e lesões associadas / Bacterial agents and lesions associated with pericarditis in slaughter pigs in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a frequência de lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas e dos agentes bacterianos envolvidos em pericardites em suínos no abate no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram coletadas em frigoríficos de suínos com Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF) entre [...] fevereiro a outubro de 2010 e a condenação por pericardite dos animais acompanhados foi de 3,9% (299/7.571). No total foram investigados 91 casos de pericardites, 89% deles foram classificados como crônicos por histopatologia e pleurite crônica foi observada em 47% dos pulmões correspondentes, todavia não houve associação significativa entre as duas lesões. Os agentes bacterianos isolados a partir dos corações foram Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis e Streptococcus suis. DNA bacterianos mais detectados pela PCR foram de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae e Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Houve associação significativa entre isolamento de P. multocida e Streptococcus sp. nos corações e pulmões correspondentes. Esses resultados sugerem que a infecção no pulmão possa ter servido de porta de entrada para a colonização do pericárdio adjacente. Apesar de M. hyopneumoniae ter sido o agente detectado com maior frequência pela PCR em corações e pulmões correspondentes, não houve associação significativa da detecção dos agentes nos órgãos. Isto sugere que as infecções foram eventos independentes. Os demais agentes investigados não apresentaram associação significativa entre isolamento ou detecção de DNA em coração e pulmão correspondente. Outro achado importante foi a presença de coinfecções bacterianas em 2% dos corações e por PCR foi detectado DNA bacteriano de dois ou mais agentes em 16,5% dos corações. Esses resultados sugerem que as coinfecções em pericardites precisam ser melhor estudadas. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to identify the frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lesions and bacterial agents involved with pericarditis in slaughter pigs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The samples were collected in slaughterhouses with Federal Inspection Service (SIF) between Feb [...] ruary and October, 2010. Condemnation due to pericarditis in the examined animals was 3.9% (299/7,571). Ninety one cases of pericarditis were examined and by histopathology 89% were chronic and 47% of the corresponding lungs showed chronic pleuritis, but there was no significant association between both lesions. The bacterial agents isolated from the hearts were Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis and Streptococcus suis. Bacterial DNA from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were the most frequently detected by PCR. There was significant association between isolation of P. multocida and Streptococcus spp. in the hearts and corresponding lungs. The results suggest that lung infection could act as a port of entry to the colonization of the adjacent pericardium. In spite of the fact that M. hyopneumoniae was the agent more frequently identified by PCR in the heart and corresponding lung, there was no significant association of the agent in the organs. This suggests that the infections were independent events. The other agents investigated did not show significant association between isolation or DNA detection in heart and corresponding lungs. Another important finding was the presence of coinfection between bacterial agents in 2% of the hearts and by PCR were identified bacterial DNA of two or more agents in 16.5% of the hearts. These results suggest that coinfections in cases of pericarditis need further investigation.

Carolini F., Coelho; Priscila, Zlotowski; Caroline P. de, Andrade; Sandra M., Borowski; Thaís S., Gaggini; Laura L. de, Almeida; David, Driemeier; David E.S.N. de, Barcellos.

2014-07-01

381

Impacto de la enfermedad por Streptococcus pneumoniae en población adulta mayor en Bogotá, Colombia, 2008 The impact of pneumococcal disease on adults living in Bogota, Colombia, 2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar el impacto de la enfermedad por Streptococcus pneumoniae en la población mayor de 60 años en Bogotá D.C. Colombia. Métodos Se realizó un estudio de impacto de enfermedad por neumococo combinando una búsqueda sistemática de literatura con el análisis de fuentes de datos rutinarios de mortalidad, consultas y hospitalizaciones debidas neumonías y meningitis en adultos mayores de 60 años. Resultados Se estimó para 2008 en la población bogotana mayor de 60 años la ocurrencia de 6 585 neumonías por todos los agentes, 689 debidas a Streptococcus pneumoniae, y 73 meningitis, 12 producidas por neumococo. El total de muertes por neumonías se estimó en 1 910, 82 atribuibles al neumococo, y de las 40 muertes por meningitis, 7 habrían ocurrido en casos de meningitis neumocócicas. Conclusiones El impacto de la enfermedad debida a neumococo en población mayor de 60 años en Bogotá justifica la consideración de estrategias específicas de prevención tales como la vacunación.Objective Estimating the impact of pneumococcal disease amongst adults living in Bogota, Colombia Methods The impact of pneumococcal disease was studied by combining a systematic literature search with analysing routine sources regarding mortality, consultation and hospitalisation dates due to pneumonia and meningitis. Results The occurrence of 6,585 cases of pneumonia by all germs was estimated for 2008 in the adult population aged over 60, 689 cases being due to Streptococcus pneumonia, and 73 cases of meningitis, plus 12 cases caused by pneumococcus. The total of deaths from pneumonia was estimated to be 1,910 cases (82 due to pneumonia and 40 deaths occurred from meningitis (7 of these cases being due to pneumococcal meningitis. Conclusiones The impact of pneumococcal disease in adults aged over 60 in Bogota (only taking into account cases of meningitis and pneumonia with blood and CSF isolates justifies considering specific prevention strategies such as vaccination.

Carlos Castañeda-Orjuela

2010-02-01

382

Impacto de la enfermedad por Streptococcus pneumoniae en población adulta mayor en Bogotá, Colombia, 2008 / The impact of pneumococcal disease on adults living in Bogota, Colombia, 2008  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar el impacto de la enfermedad por Streptococcus pneumoniae en la población mayor de 60 años en Bogotá D.C. Colombia. Métodos Se realizó un estudio de impacto de enfermedad por neumococo combinando una búsqueda sistemática de literatura con el análisis de fuentes de datos rutinarios de [...] mortalidad, consultas y hospitalizaciones debidas neumonías y meningitis en adultos mayores de 60 años. Resultados Se estimó para 2008 en la población bogotana mayor de 60 años la ocurrencia de 6 585 neumonías por todos los agentes, 689 debidas a Streptococcus pneumoniae, y 73 meningitis, 12 producidas por neumococo. El total de muertes por neumonías se estimó en 1 910, 82 atribuibles al neumococo, y de las 40 muertes por meningitis, 7 habrían ocurrido en casos de meningitis neumocócicas. Conclusiones El impacto de la enfermedad debida a neumococo en población mayor de 60 años en Bogotá justifica la consideración de estrategias específicas de prevención tales como la vacunación. Abstract in english Objective Estimating the impact of pneumococcal disease amongst adults living in Bogota, Colombia Methods The impact of pneumococcal disease was studied by combining a systematic literature search with analysing routine sources regarding mortality, consultation and hospitalisation dates due to pneum [...] onia and meningitis. Results The occurrence of 6,585 cases of pneumonia by all germs was estimated for 2008 in the adult population aged over 60, 689 cases being due to Streptococcus pneumonia, and 73 cases of meningitis, plus 12 cases caused by pneumococcus. The total of deaths from pneumonia was estimated to be 1,910 cases (82 due to pneumonia) and 40 deaths occurred from meningitis (7 of these cases being due to pneumococcal meningitis). Conclusiones The impact of pneumococcal disease in adults aged over 60 in Bogota (only taking into account cases of meningitis and pneumonia with blood and CSF isolates) justifies considering specific prevention strategies such as vaccination.

Carlos, Castañeda-Orjuela; Nelson, Alvis-Guzmán; Fernando, de la Hoz-Restrepo.

2010-02-01

383

[Comparison of culture and real-time PCR methods in the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in acute otitis media effusion specimens].  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are the major etiologic agents of acute otitis media. This study was aimed to compare the detection rate of S.pneumoniae and H.influenzae by culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) in the middle ear effusions of patients diagnosed as acute otitis media. A total of 60 middle ear effusion samples collected from children with acute otitis media were included in the study. The samples were inoculated and incubated in BACTEC Ped Plus blood culture bottles and BACTEC 9120 system (BD Diagnostic Systems, MD), respectively, and the isolates were identified by conventional methods. For the molecular diagnosis of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae, ply pneumolysin gene and HIB capsule region, respectively were amplified by Rt-PCR (LightCycler, Roche Diagnostics, Germany). H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were isolated from 5 (8.3%) and 3 (5%) of the patient samples with conventional culture methods, respectively. In addition in 11.6% of the samples other microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans) were also isolated. On the other hand H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were detected in 38 (63.3%) and 24 (40%) of the samples with Rt-PCR, respectively. There was about eight fold increase in the detection frequency of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae with Rt-PCR compared to culture methods. When culture was accepted as the gold standard method, the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of Rt-PCR in the detection of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were estimated as 80%, 51% and 98.2%, respectively. As a result, Rt-PCR was shown to be a sensitive method and could be preferred for the rapid diagnosis of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae in the etiological diagnosis of acute otitis media, especially in culture negative cases. PMID:23188581

Eser, Ozgen Köseo?lu; Alp, Sehnaz; Ergin, Alper; Ipçi, Kaan; Alp, Alpaslan; Gür, Deniz; Hasçelik, Gül?en

2012-10-01

384

High-frequency conjugation associated with Streptococcus lactis donor cell aggregation.  

OpenAIRE

Conjugal transfer of the Streptococcus lactis 712 lactose plasmid was found to occur at a low frequency. Variants of this plasmid were selected which had much greater donor abilities and which also exhibited an unusual cell aggregation phenotype.

Gasson, M. J.; Davies, F. L.

1980-01-01

385

77 FR 26014 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae  

Science.gov (United States)

...Use of P4 as either a carrier and/or immunoenhancer in a polysaccharide vaccine conjugate for prevention of Streptococcus pneumonia infection in humans'') to practice the inventions embodied in the patent application referred to below to Viper...

2012-05-02

386

PROTECTIVE ANTIBODY RESPONSES FOLLOWING VACCINATION WITH STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE IN NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments using Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were conducted to further characterize a highly efficacious Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine containing extracellular products [ECP] and formalin-killed whole cells. One study assessed the efficacy of stored reconstituted S. agalactiae vaccine,...

387

Labeled OK-432, immunomodulator of streptococcus preparation, in cancer patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the pharmacokinetics of OK-432, an immunomodulator of streptococcus preparation which, is used in cancer patients for active nonspecific immunotherapy. First, OK-432 was labeled with sup(99m)Technetium in vitro. Four patients with malignancy were studied. By the method of scintigraphy using gamma camera, OK-432 administered intravenously was found to be distributed in the liver, lung and spleen, by the decreasing grade. When OK-432 was administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly in the buttocks, most of the radioactivity of sup(99m)Technetium remained locally at the injected site. These results suggested that OK-432 given intravenously was effectively phagocytized by cells of reticuloendothelial system (RES). Compared with other routes of administration, the intravenous route of OK-432 administration is thus considered more effective in order to stimulate RES, which is responsible for the first step of immune reaction. (author)

388

Atypical presentation of thoracic spondylodiscitis caused by Streptococcus mitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spondylodiscitis, which is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, is an uncommon infection in adults. The diagnosis of spondylodiscitis is often delayed by its vague and non-specific presentations. As part of the normal flora in human mouth and sinuses, Streptococcus mitis is a very rare cause of spondylodiscitis. We report a case of thoracic spondylodiscitis caused by S. mitis in a patient with chronic sinusitis. The patient atypically presented with a sharp chest pain that radiated to the back and the imaging studies were initially negative. He failed outpatient pain management and the diagnosis of spondylodiscitis was confirmed by bone biopsy 6?weeks later. Treatment with antibiotics completely alleviated the pain. Increased awareness and a high index of suspicion are essential for early diagnosis of spondylodiscitis with an atypical presentation. PMID:24842345

Cariati, Vincent P; Deng, Wu

2014-01-01

389

Streptococcus mitis strains causing severe clinical disease in cancer patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetically diverse viridans group streptococci (VGS) are increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of human diseases. We used a recently developed multilocus sequence analysis scheme to define the species of 118 unique VGS strains causing bacteremia in patients with cancer; Streptococcus mitis (68 patients) and S. oralis (22 patients) were the most frequently identified strains. Compared with patients infected with non-S. mitis strains, patients infected with S. mitis strains were more likely to have moderate or severe clinical disease (e.g., VGS shock syndrome). Combined with the sequence data, whole-genome analyses showed that S. mitis strains may more precisely be considered as >2 species. Furthermore, we found that multiple S. mitis strains induced disease in neutropenic mice in a dose-dependent fashion. Our data define the prominent clinical effect of the group of organisms currently classified as S. mitis and lay the groundwork for increased understanding of this understudied pathogen. PMID:24750901

Shelburne, Samuel A; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldana, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Horstmann, Nicola; Thompson, Erika; Flores, Anthony R

2014-05-01

390

Studies on Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mastitis in Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

All 83 bacterial strains isolated from seven farms in three areas of the island of Java in Indonesia investigated in the present study could be identified as Streptococcus agalactiae. Identification was performed by cultural, biochemical and serological properties and by polymerase chain reaction amplification of species-specific parts of the gene encoding the 16S rRNA, the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and the CAMP factor (cfb) gene. All isolates were unpigmented. almost all of the isolates had the serotype pattern II/X. Despite these similarities a macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA of the bacteria revealed no significant homologies of the DNA-fingerprints of the S. agalactiae from the various areas. This last finding might possibly indicate that a single ancestral unpigmented serotype II/X S. agalactiae clone was responsible for the mastitis situation on Java and had evolved separately in the various farms and regions. PMID:12069271

Estuningsih, S; Soedarmanto, I; Fink, K; Lämmler, C; Wibawan, I W T

2002-05-01

391

Development of PCR assays for detection of Streptococcus canis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus canis isolates, also including S. canis of artificially contaminated milk, could be identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using oligonucleotide primers designed according to species-specific parts of the 16S rRNA gene and, after sequencing, according to S. canis-specific parts of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and with oligonucleotide primers detecting an internal fragment of the group G streptococcal CAMP factor gene cfg. The 16S rRNA gene- and CAMP factor gene cfg-specific oligonucleotide primers could be used together in a multiplex PCR. No cross-reactivities could be observed with other group G streptococcal isolates or with any of the other control strains of various streptococcal species and serogroups. The PCR methods presented in this study allowed a rapid and reliable identification of S. canis and might help to improve the diagnosis of this bacterial species in animal and human infections. PMID:12620622

Hassan, A A; Khan, I U; Abdulmawjood, A; Lämmler, C

2003-02-28

392

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia: an emerging infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The importance of group C and G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis) as a significant pathogen has recently been better recognized. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis disease can range in severity from milder skin and soft-tissue conditions such as wound infection, erysipelas, and cellulitis, to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, thus sharing the clinical picture with S. pyogenes. The most common clinical manifestation of bacteremia is cellulitis. An increase in the incidence of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia has been recognized. Invasive forms of this infection are most commonly found in elderly patients with underlying comorbidities and skin breakdown. The case fatality in bacteremia has been reported to be 15-18%. In this review, the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and emm types of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia are summarized. PMID:24682845

Rantala, S

2014-08-01

393

Streptococcus pyogenes degrades extracellular matrix in chondrocytes via MMP-13  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of human diseases, including bacterial arthritis. The pathogenesis of arthritis is characterized by synovial proliferation and the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We report here that GAS strain JRS4 invaded a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 and induced the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas an isogenic mutant of JRS4 lacking a fibronectin-binding protein, SAM1, failed to invade the chondrocytes or degrade the ECM. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was strongly elevated during the infection with GAS. A reporter assay revealed that the activation of the AP-1 transcription factor and the phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinase participated in MMP-13 expression. These results suggest that MMP-13 plays an important role in the destruction of infected joints during the development of septic arthritis

394

Characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus thermophilus 81.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new bacteriocin, produced by Streptococcus thermophilus 81 has been isolated, purified and characterized. By its heat sensitivity and broad inhibitory spectrum it does not resemble any other S. thermophilus bacteriocin. The mode of action is bacteriostatic. This peptide of 32 amino acids is efficient against several Bacillus species, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica. This bacteriocin is heat labile but its activity was not altered by pH variation from 3 to 10. Six months of storage at 40 degrees C did not influence the activity. The inactivation by detergents and the inability to resolve the protein in SDS-PAGE supposes a more complex structure or a possible stabilizing effect of other molecules. The low sensitivity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to the isolated bacteriocin suggests that S. thermophilus 81 may be used in yoghurt starters. PMID:9728685

Ivanova, I; Miteva, V; Stefanova, Ts; Pantev, A; Budakov, I; Danova, S; Moncheva, P; Nikolova, I; Dousset, X; Boyaval, P

1998-07-21

395

Genetic diversity of geographically distinct Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates from fish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish. Clinically, infection is characterized by the development of necrotic lesions at the caudal peduncle of infected fishes. The pathogen has been recently isolated from different fish species in many countries. Twenty S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia were molecularly characterized by biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE using SmaI enzyme, and tuf gene sequencing analysis. DNA sequencing of ten S. dysgalactiae revealed no genetic variation in the tuf amplicons, except for three strains. The restriction patterns of chromosomal DNA measured by BSFGE were differentiated into six distinct types and one subtype among collected strains. To our knowledge, this report gives the first snapshot of S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from different countries that are localized geographically and differed on a multinational level. This genetic unrelatedness among different isolates might suggest a high recombination rate and low genetic stability.

M. Abdelsalam

2015-03-01

396

The effect of xylitol on Streptococcus mutans in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was performed on 91 second-grade students from the Los Angeles Unified School District to test the effects of xylitol chewing gum on Streptococcus mutans in the saliva. Saliva was collected from students and tested for the first time using the new University of California, Los Angeles, monoclonal antibody testing method. Students found to have moderate or high levels of salivary S. mutans were administered four tablets/day of xylitol gum for three weeks. The levels of S. mutans in the saliva of children in the high caries index subgroup decreased by 61.7 percent. Xylitol can be dispensed in a public school setting by school nurses and can be a very safe, efficient and inexpensive preventative measure for children at high risk for dental caries. PMID:16895079

Massoth, Dominique; Massoth, Gabrielle; Massoth, I Richard; Laflamme, Lise; Shi, Wenyuan; Hu, Chuhong; Gu, Fang

2006-03-01

397

[Controversies on antibiotics for common group A streptococcus infections].  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of common group A streptococcus (GAS) infections remains controversial. French recommendations advocate systematic treatment of streptococcal tonsillitis after confirmation by rapid diagnostic test. Oral amoxicillin twice daily for 6 days is the first-line treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis is restricted to at-risk patients after contact with invasive GAS case. These recommendations take into consideration the prevention of complications, even if they are rare, the reduction of infectiousness and the reduction of the duration of symptoms. Different recommendations have been issued in other countries, particularly in Europe and are based on different considerations. These differences do not originate in the absence of demonstrative scientific studies but rather in societal considerations, themselves guided by the history of each different health system (and also judicial system). This is probably necessary to obtain physicians and public support. The French attitude reflects these considerations. However, its lack of enforcement needs to question about its origins. PMID:25456679

Grimprel, E; Cohen, R

2014-11-01

398

Mixed continuous cultures of Streptococcus mutans with Streptococcus sanguis or with Streptococcus oralis as a model to study the ecological effects of the lactoperoxidase system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mixed continuous cultures of Streptococcus species were obtained, using complex carbohydrate (mucin) as a source of nutrients, to study the ecological effects of oxygen and the lactoperoxidase system. S. mutans NCTC 10449 was unable to grow as a pure culture on mucin, but attained a significant population size in the presence of S. oralis and S. sanguis strains. The cell densities of the anaerobic mixed cultures decreased when oxygen was supplied, and S. mutans was more suppressed by oxygen than were S. sanguis and S. oralis. However, the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (30 mumol/l in the mixed culture of S. mutans with S. sanguis and 640 mumol/l in the culture with S. oralis) indicated a certain resistance of the organisms to hydrogen peroxide. Addition of lactoperoxidase and thiocyanate to the oxygen-supplied cultures had a differential effect on the streptococcal populations. While S. mutans was inhibited, and even disappeared in the culture with S. oralis, the growth of S. sanguis and S. oralis was unaffected. This latter observation was in accordance with the OSCN- reductase activities of these organisms. When hydrogen peroxide was also added together with lactoperoxidase and thiocyanate, a further inhibition of S. mutans in the culture with S. sanguis was observed. Under these conditions, S. oralis was also inhibited, perhaps by the strong accumulation of OSCN-, exceeding the capacity of the OSCN- reductase. The effects of lactoperoxidase on mixed cultures may reflect the situation in the mouth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8448770

van der Hoeven, J S; Camp, P J

1993-01-01

399

Production of Exopolysaccharides by Strains of Streptococcus thermophilus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two strains of Streptococcus thermophilus producing capsular and capsular-ropy exopolysaccharides (EPS were examined for their growth and EPS production in M17 medium supplemented with glucose, galactose or lactose and incubated at 30, 37 or 42 ° C for 24 hours. Growth parameters (viable cells, OD, lactate production, pH and EPS production were determined. Flow behavior of the EPS dispersions was assessed as a function of concentration and temperature. Culture growth during incubation was affected by types of sugar, temperature and time. Growth was enhanced by glucose, lactose and higher incubation temperature. EPS concentration in the medium was greater in the presence of glucose and galactose. Despite the restricted growth conditions, the capsular strain produced comparable levels of EPS to the capsular-ropy strain even under sub-optimal incubation temperature.Two strains of Streptococcus thermophilus producing capsular and capsular-ropy exopolysaccharides (EPS were examined for their growth and EPS production in M17 medium supplemented with glucose, galactose or lactose and incubated at 30, 37 or 42 ° C for 24 hours. Growth parameters (viable cells, OD, lactate production, pH and EPS production were determined. Flow behavior of the EPS dispersions was assessed as a function of concentration and temperature. Culture growth during incubation was affected by types of sugar, temperature and time. Growth was enhanced by glucose, lactose and higher incubation temperature. EPS concentration in the medium was greater in the presence of glucose and galactose. Despite the restricted growth conditions, the capsular strain produced comparable levels of EPS to the capsular-ropy strain even under sub-optimal incubation temperature.

UMI PURWANDARI

2010-04-01

400

Dynamics of speB mRNA Transcripts in Streptococcus pyogenes  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) is a human-specific pathogen that causes a variety of diseases ranging from superficial infections to life-threatening diseases. SpeB, a potent extracellular cysteine proteinase, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GAS infections. Previous studies show that SpeB expression and activity are controlled at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels, though it had been unclear whether speB was also regulated at the posttranscri...

Chen, Zhiyun; Itzek, Andreas; Malke, Horst; Ferretti, Joseph J.; Kreth, Jens

2012-01-01

401

Detection and transmission of extracellular fac-tor producing Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains in pigs  

OpenAIRE

DETECTION AND TRANSMISSION OF EXTRACELLULAR FACTOR PRODUCING STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS SEROTYPE 2 STRAINS IN PIGS INTRODUCTION Streptococcus suis (S.suis) has been implicated in the etiology of many diseases among which meningitis in pigs. The virulent extracellular factor-positive strains of S.suis serotype 2 (S.suis2EF+) have frequently been isolated from diseased. Sows carrying S.suis strains in their tonsils are considered the most important source of infection for their susceptible offspring. D...

Swildens, B.

2009-01-01

402

The Genome of Streptococcus mitis B6 - What Is a Commensal?  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus mitis is the closest relative of the major human pathogen S. pneumoniae. The 2,15 Mb sequence of the Streptococcus mitis B6 chromosome, an unusually high-level beta-lactam resistant and multiple antibiotic resistant strain, has now been determined to encode 2100 genes. The accessory genome is estimated to represent over 40%, including 75 mostly novel transposases and IS, the prophage ?B6 and another seven phage related regions. Tetracycline resistance mediated by Tn5801, and an...

Denapaite, Dalia; Bru?ckner, Reinhold; Nuhn, Michael; Reichmann, Peter; Henrich, Bernhard; Maurer, Patrick; Scha?hle, Yvonne; Selbmann, Peter; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Wambutt, Rolf; Hakenbeck, Regine

2010-01-01

403

Effect of Xylitol on Growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Presence of Fructose and Sorbitol  

OpenAIRE

Xylitol is effective in preventing acute otitis media by inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae. To clarify this inhibition we used fructose, which is known to block similar growth inhibition observed in Streptococcus mutans. In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of sorbitol in inhibiting the growth of pneumococci, as sorbitol is widely used for indications similar to those for which xylitol is used. The addition of 5% xylitol to the growth medium resulted in marked growth inhibit...

Tapiainen, Terhi; Kontiokari, Tero; Sammalkivi, Laura; Ika?heimo, Irma; Koskela, Markku; Uhari, Matti

2001-01-01

404

Identification of a novel streptococcal gene cassette mediating SOS mutagenesis in Streptococcus uberis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococci have been considered to lack the classical SOS response, defined by increased mutation after UV exposure and regulation by LexA. Here we report the identification of a potential self-regulated SOS mutagenesis gene cassette in the Streptococcaceae family. Exposure to UV light was found to increase mutations to antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus uberis cultures. The mutational spectra revealed mainly G:C-->A:T transitions, and Northern analyses demonstrated increased expression of a Y-family DNA polymerase resembling UmuC under DNA-damaging conditions. In the absence of the Y-family polymerase, S. uberis cells were sensitive to UV light and to mitomycin C. Furthermore, the UV-induced mutagenesis was almost completely abolished in cells deficient in the Y-family polymerase. The gene encoding the Y-family polymerase was localized in a four-gene operon including two hypothetical genes and a gene encoding a HdiR homolog. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that S. uberis HdiR binds specifically to an inverted repeat sequence in the promoter region of the four-gene operon. Database searches revealed conservation of the gene cassette in several Streptococcus species, including at least one genome each of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. In addition, the umuC operon was localized in several mobile DNA elements of Streptococcus and Lactococcus species. We conclude that the hdiR-umuC-ORF3-ORF4 operon represents a novel gene cassette capable of mediating SOS mutagenesis among members of the Streptococcaceae. PMID:17513475

Varhimo, Emilia; Savijoki, Kirsi; Jalava, Jari; Kuipers, Oscar P; Varmanen, Pekka

2007-07-01

405

Molecular and mathematical epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis mastitis in dairy herds  

OpenAIRE

Mastitis is the most common and costly production disease affecting dairy cows. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis are two major mastitis-causing pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus is traditionally classified as contagious pathogen, while Streptococcus uberis is classified as environmental pathogen. Infected udders form the main reservoir of contagious pathogens. Exposure to contagious pathogens is largely limited to the milking process. Environmental pathogens are present in the en...

Zadoks, Ruth Nicolet

2002-01-01

406

Lipids and lipoteichoic acid of autolysis-defective Streptococcus faecium strains.  

OpenAIRE

Two of four previously isolated autolysis-defective mutants of Streptococcus faecium (Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 9790) incorporated substantially more [14C]glycerol into lipids and lipoteichoic acid than did the parent strain. Consistent with increased accumulation of lipids and lipoteichoic acid, significantly higher levels of phosphorus were found in the corresponding fractions of the two mutant strains than in the wild type. Although the autolysis-defective mutant strains contained the sa...

Shungu, D. L.; Cornett, J. B.; Shockman, G. D.

1980-01-01

407

Streptococcus Dysgalactiae Subspecies Dysgalactiae Infection after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDSD), Lancefield group C streptococcus, is an animal pathogen which often causes pyogenic infection in domestic animals. Human infection by SDSD has been reported as a cellulitis on the upper arm, but a prosthetic joint infection caused by SDSD after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has not yet been reported in the literature demonstrating that its clinical manifestation and management have not been well established. In this case report, we ai...

Park, Man Jun; Eun, Il-soo; Jung, Chul-young; Ko, Young-chul; Kim, Young-june; Kim, Chang-kyu; Kang, Eun-jin