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Streptococcus constellatus: agente etiológico asociado en empiema pleural Streptococcus constellatusas a causative agent of empyema: Report of one case  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus constellatus is a commensal microorganism in man but may cause infections in different locations. We report a 59 years old male with severe sequelae of a previous cerebrovascular accident that consulted in the emergency room for fever of 15 days of evolution. A right empyema was diagnosed. The bacteriological culture of the effusion disclosed the presence of Streptococcus constellatus and two anaerobic strains (Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium urealyticus. The patient was treated with a pleural drainage and received ceftriaxone and clindamycin during six weeks. He was discharged in good conditions and is asymptomatic after eight months of follow up (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 1030-2

José Antonio Díaz Peromingo

2006-08-01

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Streptococcus constellatus: agente etiológico asociado en empiema pleural / Streptococcus constellatusas a causative agent of empyema: Report of one case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in english Streptococcus constellatus is a commensal microorganism in man but may cause infections in different locations. We report a 59 years old male with severe sequelae of a previous cerebrovascular accident that consulted in the emergency room for fever of 15 days of evolution. A right empyema was diagno [...] sed. The bacteriological culture of the effusion disclosed the presence of Streptococcus constellatus and two anaerobic strains (Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium urealyticus). The patient was treated with a pleural drainage and received ceftriaxone and clindamycin during six weeks. He was discharged in good conditions and is asymptomatic after eight months of follow up (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 1030-2)

Díaz Peromingo, José Antonio; Sánchez Leira, Joaquín; García Suárez, Florinda; Padín Paz, Emilio; Saborido Froján, Juan.

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A streptolysin S homologue is essential for ?-haemolytic Streptococcus constellatus subsp. constellatus cytotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus constellatus is a member of the Anginosus group streptococci (AGS) and primarily inhabits the human oral cavity. S. constellatus is composed of three subspecies: S. constellatus subsp. constellatus (SCC), S. constellatus subsp. pharyngis and the newly described subspecies S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis. Although previous studies have established that SCC contains ?-haemolytic strains, the factor(s) responsible for ?-haemolysis in ?-haemolytic SCC (?-SCC) has yet to be clarified. Recently, we discovered that a streptolysin S (SLS) homologue is the ?-haemolytic factor of ?-haemolytic Streptococcus anginosus subsp. anginosus (?-SAA), another member of the AGS. Furthermore, because previous studies have suggested that other AGS species, except for Streptococcus intermedius, do not possess a haemolysin(s) belonging to the family of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, we hypothesized that, as with ?-SAA, the SLS homologue is the ?-haemolytic factor of ?-SCC, and therefore aimed to investigate and characterize the haemolytic factor of ?-SCC in the present study. PCR amplification revealed that all of the tested ?-SCC strains were positive for the sagA homologue of SCC (sagA(SCC)). Further investigations using ?-SCC strain W277 were conducted to elucidate the relationship between sagA(SCC) and ?-haemolysis by constructing sagA(SCC) deletion mutants, which completely lost ?-haemolytic activity. This loss of ?-haemolytic activity was restored by trans-complementation of sagA(SCC). Furthermore, a co-cultivation assay established that the cytotoxicity of ?-SCC was clearly dependent on the presence of sagA(SCC). These results demonstrate that sagA(SCC) is the factor responsible for ?-SCC ?-haemolysis and cytotoxicity. PMID:24600025

Tabata, Atsushi; Sato, Yuji; Maya, Kentaro; Nakano, Kota; Kikuchi, Ken; Whiley, Robert A; Ohkura, Kazuto; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Nagamune, Hideaki

2014-05-01

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Streptococcus Constellatus Community Acquired Pneumonia with Subsequent Isolated Pulmonic Valve Endocarditis and Abscess Formation in a Structurally Normal Heart  

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Pulmonic valve infective endocarditis in isolation is a rare clinical entity. The formation of an abscess in the right ventricular outflow tract as a consequence of vegetations affecting the pulmonic valve in a structurally normal heart is extremely rare and has not been reported. We report a case of isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis complicated by a regional abscess formed within the right ventricular outflow tract caused by Streptococcus Constellatus (S. Constellatus), a member of the Streptococcus Milleri group in a young male whose risk factor was alcohol abuse and he was treated medically, a comprehensive literature review on the subject is also reported. Our case is the first reported in literature with infective endocarditis caused by S. Constellatus affecting the pulmonic valve, and the first with pulmonic valve endocarditis and perivalvular abscess formation in a structurally normal heart.

Hutchison, Stuart James

2014-01-01

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A case report of gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the small intestine presenting with liver abscesses caused by Streptococcus constellatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 49-year-old woman visited a local hospital in October 2007 with complaint of fever and melena. Abdominal ultrasonography and abdominal computed tomography revealed an irregular mass in the lower abdomen, together with multiple masses in the liver. She was admitted because of anemia, and the high fever was determined to be an inflammatory response. Blood tests revealed elevated biliary enzyme levels. Percutaneous biopsy of the liver mass was performed, which revealed liver abscesses caused by Streptococcus constellatus. On abdominal angiography, the mass was suspected to be a tumor of the small intestine. In late November 2007, laparoscopy-assisted partial small bowel resection was performed, and pathological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the small bowel. Because reports of small intestinal GIST with liver abscesses caused by Streptococcus constellatus are rare, this case description could provide valuable information. PMID:24998728

Miike, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Shojiro; Tahara, Yoshihiro; Hasuike, Satoru; Funagayama, Mayumi; Maehara, Naoki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Yutaka; Chijiiwa, Kazuo; Shimoda, Kazuya

2014-07-01

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Taxonomy of the Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus and description of Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus has been the subject of much taxonomic confusion, which has hampered the full appreciation of its clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to critically re-examine the taxonomy of the Anginosus group, with special attention to β-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains, using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of seven housekeeping genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished seven distinct and coherent clusters in the Anginosus group. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic characters supported the MLSA clustering and currently recognized taxa of the Anginosus group. Single gene analyses showed considerable allele sharing between species, thereby invalidating identification based on single-locus sequencing. Two novel clusters of β-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains within the Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus species and isolated from patients with sore throat showed sufficient phylogenetic distances from other clusters to warrant status as novel subspecies. The novel cluster within S. anginosus was identified as the previously recognized DNA homology cluster, DNA group 2. The names S. anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. (type strain CCUG 39159(T)â??=â??DSM 25818(T)â??=â??SK1267(T)) and S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov. (type strain SK1359(T)â??=â??CCUG 62387(T)â??=â??DSM 25819(T)) are proposed.

Jensen, Anders; Hoshino, Tomonori

2013-01-01

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Taxonomy of the Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus and description of Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus has been the subject of much taxonomic confusion, which has hampered the full appreciation of its clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to critically re-examine the taxonomy of the Anginosus group, with special attention to ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains, using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of seven housekeeping genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished seven distinct and coherent clusters in the Anginosus group. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic characters supported the MLSA clustering and currently recognized taxa of the Anginosus group. Single gene analyses showed considerable allele sharing between species, thereby invalidating identification based on single-locus sequencing. Two novel clusters of ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains within the Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus species and isolated from patients with sore throat showed sufficient phylogenetic distances from other clusters to warrant status as novel subspecies. The novel cluster within S. anginosus was identified as the previously recognized DNA homology cluster, DNA group 2. The names S. anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. (type strain CCUG 39159(T) = DSM 25818(T) = SK1267(T)) and S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov. (type strain SK1359(T) = CCUG 62387(T) = DSM 25819(T)) are proposed. PMID:23223817

Jensen, Anders; Hoshino, Tomonori; Kilian, Mogens

2013-07-01

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Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies Equisimilis; An Agent Rarely Encountered in the Etiology of Septic Arthritis  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is one of the pyogenic group C and G streptococcus, which may be found in the normal gastrointestinal and genitourinary flora of a healthy human. Many cases have been reported in literature; however, reports of septic arthritis due to this agent without predisposing factors are extremely rare. Diagnosis of this agent is possible in advanced laboratories. Appropriate treatment for septic arthritis caused this agent is made by parenteral antibiotherapy without debridement following accurate diagnosis.

Meryem Iraz

2013-08-01

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Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

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Full Text Available O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade, e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5, e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5 and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

Marcos Noronha Frey

2011-12-01

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Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível / Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade), e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5), e, rar [...] amente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulceradas genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis). Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age) and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile [...] (1-5) and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

Frey, Marcos Noronha; Ioppi, Ana Elisa Empinotti; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; Prado, Guilherme Pinheiro.

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In vitro susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and six other antimicrobial agents.  

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The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and to six commonly used, systemic antibacterial agents (amoxicillin, cefuroxime, penicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracycline, and erythromycin) was studied for 424 clinical isolates from 116 children and students. The MIC of chlorhexidine for all isolates was < or = 1 micrograms/ml. No resistance to the other antimicrobial agents was detected. Although widely exposed to various antimicrobial agents, S. mutans has remaine...

Ja?rvinen, H.; Tenovuo, J.; Huovinen, P.

1993-01-01

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Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of chemical agents on hydrophobicity and in vitro adherence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this investigation was to determine whether sublethal concentrations of chlorhexidine (Cx), hexetidine (Hx), cetylpyridinium chloride (Cc), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sanguinarine (Sg), sodium fluoride (NaF), and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) could affect hydrophobicity and adhesion of Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA). Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) showed that both species were susceptible to all agents tested. Growth in the presence of sub-MIC concentrations of Cx, SDS, Cc, NaF, or NH4F did not change significantly the hydrophobicity of S. sanguis cells when compared to the control which lacked any agent. However, growth in the presence of Hx or Sg resulted in a significant reduction in their hydrophobicity. Sub-MIC levels of SDS or Sg in the growth medium resulted in S. mutans cells with increased affinity for hexadecane compared with the control. The adherence of S. sanguis was changed significantly only by Hx or Sg, resulting in less cells adhering to S-HA. However, S. mutans cells previously incubated with NaF, NH4F, or Sg showed a higher adherence to S-HA than the control. The mechanisms of interference with adherence are at present not completely understood. Thus, antimicrobial agents at sub-MIC concentrations can interfere selectively with hydrophobicity and/or adhesion of oral streptococci. PMID:8001055

Cai, S; Simionato, M R; Mayer, M P; Novo, N F; Zelante, F

1994-01-01

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Empiema pleural por Streptococcus grupo anginosus en un preescolar y revisión de la literatura: Case report and review Streptococcus anginosus pleural emphyema in a child  

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Full Text Available Presentamos el caso clínico de un preescolar con antecedente de malformación pulmonar que 43 días tras una neumonectomía izquierda, ingresó al Hospital Padre Hurtado con fiebre de una semana de evolución. En una TAC pulmonar se demostró una gran colección intrapleural izquierda de la que se aisló Streptococcus grupo anginosus y Prevotella spp. Se efectuó tratamiento antimicrobiano con penicilina más clindamicina. Existe gran confusión en la terminología y clasificación de Streptococcus grupo anginosus. En la actualidad no existe duda que es un grupo que posee tres especies, S. anginosus, S. constellatus y S. intermedius. Son parte de la flora normal de orofaringe, nasofaringe, tracto gastrointestinal y vagina. Este grupo ha sido reconocido como causa de infecciones supurativas en niños y adultos. La mayoría de las cepas se describen como susceptibles a penicilina; sin embargo, existen reportes que sugieren la emergencia de resistencia. Se discuten las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnóstico e informe microbiológicosLeft pneumonectomy in a child with congenital pulmonary malformation was performed two months prior to admission. Within one week he had high fever. Chest CT scan showed massive left pleural effusion. Both Streptococcus anginosus group and Prevotella spp. grew from the fluid obtained by pleural punction. Antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated with clindamycin and penicillin. Streptococus anginosus group is quite confusing in terms of classification and taxonomy. Now it is well recognized that three species belong to this genera: S. anginosus S. constellatus and S. intermedius. They all are considered normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract and vagina but also they have been identified as agents of suppurative infections in children and adults. Many reports show adequate response to penicillin, however there is some emerging resistance in strains isolated in other studies. In this article we also suggest some diagnostic and microbiologic recommendations

Paola Pidal M.

2004-01-01

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Identification of "Streptococcus milleri" group isolates to the species level with a commercially available rapid test system.  

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Clinical isolates of the "Streptococcus milleri" species group were examined by conventional methods and a rapid, commercially available method for the identification of these strains to the species level. The levels of agreement between the identifications obtained with the commercially available system (Fluo-Card Milleri; KEY Scientific, Round Rock, Tex.) and conventional methods were 98% for 50 Streptococcus anginosus strains, 97% for 31 Streptococcus constellatus strains, and 88% ...

1995-01-01

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Susceptibility of faecal Streptococcus group to some surface-active agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tests for susceptibility of three repesentative surface-active agents, incorporated in solid and liquid medium, were carried through with 75 strains of the Streptococcus group. Hyamine 2389 was the most active compound against the tested strains, followed by Teepol 610. Nearly all the tested strains were highly resistant to Nonidit P 42 "nonionic", whether incorporated in solid or liquid medium. The strains may be arbitrarily divided into those sensitive to Hyamine at the level of 60 ppm in nutrient agar (Str. faecium, most of the atypical strains and the unclassified isolates) and those resistant to Hyamine (Str. faecalis, Str. faecalis var. liquefaciens, Str. faecalis var. zymogenes). In liquid medium, Hyamine at a level of 24 ppm showed detrimental effects on the majority of the test organisms (96%). The different species differed slightly in their susceptibility to Teepol, and 360 ppm was the critical concentration. PMID:7424216

El-Zanfaly, H T

1980-01-01

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Streptococcus sanguinis isolate displaying a phenotype with cross-resistance to several rRNA-targeting agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes a clinical case of a 71-year-old male with a history of ischemic cardiomyopathy after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and a rare linezolid-resistant Streptococcus sanguinis strain (MIC, 32 ?g/ml). The patient received courses of several antimicrobial agents, including linezolid for 79 days. The S. sanguinis strain had mutations in the 23S rRNA (T2211C, T2406C, G2576T, C2610T) and an amino acid substitution (N56D) in L22 and exhibited cross-resistance to ribosome-targeting agents. PMID:23698536

Mendes, Rodrigo E; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Kim, Jihye; Myers, Debra S; Ross, James E; Jones, Ronald N

2013-08-01

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Reproduction, distribution and abundance of Bothus constellatus (Pisces: Bothidae, in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico  

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Full Text Available A total of 3 593 individuals of Bothus constellatus was captured during five oceanographic cruises carried out in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Its distribution, abundance, and reproduction patterns were stated by means of the analysis of the population parameters (i.e. density, biomass, weight and size average, visceral and gonadosomatic index, and maturity stages. B. constellatus is a typical demersal marine species, because it does not occur in estuaries, but occurs near to them on the continental shelf. It is distributed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec in depths lesser than 60 m, with high abundance around the 40 m isobath, and in front of Mar Muerto Lagoon. During January and May the biomass and density were high. The size at first maturity of females is 101 mm total length, and maturation occurs first in zones influenced by estuarine processes. Reproduction and recruitment were detected in all the collections.

M. Tapia-García

2000-03-01

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??????: Streptococcus agalactiae  

Full Text Available Bacteria Streptococcaceae Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus agalactiae (species (AL)) DSMZ me) NCBI 1311 Streptococcus agalactiae Lehmann and Neumann 1896 (authority) NCBI 1311 Streptococcus agalactia

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??????: Streptococcus mutans  

Full Text Available Bacteria Streptococcaceae Streptococcus mutans Streptococcus mutans (species (AL)) DSMZ 781363 S taphylococcus mutans (misnomer) NCBI 1309 Streptococcus mutans (scientific name) NCBI 1309 Streptococcus mutans C

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Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licenced in veterinary medicine  

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The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n = 384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: ceftiofur, cefquinome, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Using breakpoints established by CLSI for veterinar...

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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??????: Streptococcus sobrinus  

Full Text Available Bacteria Streptococcaceae Streptococcus sobrinus Streptococcus sobrinus (sp. nov. (VP), nom. rev .) DSMZ 781387 Streptococcus mutans subsp. sobrinus Coykendall 1974 (synonym) NCBI 131 ykendall 1974) Coykendall 1977 (synonym) NCBI 1310 Streptococcus mutans subsp. sobrinus (synonym) NCBI 1310 Streptococcus

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Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia / Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares [...] de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, Colombia, entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1996. Se observó que 119 de todos los aislamientos (36,7%) presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida por lo menos a un antimicrobiano, que 39 (12%) presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina y que de estos últimos aislamientos, 29 presentaban resistencia intermedia y 10 resistencia alta. Nueve aislamientos (2,8%) presentaban resistencia a la ceftriaxona, 80 (24,7%) a la combinación de trimetoprima y sulfametoxazol (TMS), 49 (15,1%) al cloranfenicol y 31 (9,6%) a la eritromicina. Se observó resistencia a dos antimicrobianos en 31 aislamientos (9,6%) y multirresistencia en 22 (6,7%). Estos 22 aislamientos mostraron resistencia al TMS. Las asociaciones más frecuentes fueron penicilina, TMS y eritromicina en 5 casos; penicilina, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 4; penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol y TMS en 3; y penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 3 casos. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a la penicilina fueron: 23F (53,8%), 14 (25,6%), 6B (7,7%), 9V (5,1%), 19F (5,1%) y 34 (2,6%). Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a antimicrobianos distintos de la penicilina fueron: 5 (37,5%), 23F (7,5%), 14 (18,8%) y 6B (13,8%). Esta diferencia en la distribución de los serotipos fue estadísticamente significativa (P Abstract in english A study was done to determine the patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae that caused invasive disease diagnosed in children under the age of 5 in Colombia between 1994 and 1996, as well as to establish the distribution of the capsular types of the [...] resistant isolates. The analysis was done using 324 isolates obtained during the performance of the National Serotyping Protocol for S. pneumoniae carried out in Bogotá, Medellín, and Cali, Colombia, between July 1994 and March 1996. Of the 324 isolates, 119 (36.7%) showed diminished susceptibility to at least one antimicrobial agent, including 39 (12%) that showed diminished susceptibility to penicillin. Of these 39 resistant to penicillin, 29 showed intermediate resistance and 10 showed high resistance. Nine isolates (2.8%) showed resistance to ceftriaxone, 80 (24.7%) to the combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMS), 49 (15.1%) to chloramphenicol, and 31 (9.6%) to erythromycin. Resistance to two antimicrobial agents was observed in 31 isolates (9.6%); multiple resistance was found in 22 (6.7%). These 22 multiresistant isolates all showed resistance to TMS. The most frequent associations were penicillin, TMS, and erythromycin (5 cases); penicillin, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (4 cases); penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and TMS (3 cases); and penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (3 cases). The most frequent serotypes in the penicillin-resistant isolates were: 23F (53.8%), 14 (25.6%), 6B (7.7%), 9V (5.1%), 19F (5.1%), and 34 (2.6%). The most frequent serotypes in the isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents other than penicillin were: 5 (37.5%), 23F (7.5%), 14 (18.8%), and 6B (13.8%). This difference in the distribution of the serotypes was statistically significant (P

Aura Lucía, Leal; Castañeda, Elizabeth.

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Agents of the "suis-ide diseases" of swine: Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis.  

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In recent years, Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis have emerged as important pathogens of swine, particularly in high health status herds. Their association with a wide range of serious clinical conditions and has given rise to the moniker "suis-ide diseases." These organisms are early colonizers and, for that reason, are difficult to control by management procedures such as segregated early weaning. Vaccination, serodiagnostic testing, and even serotyp...

1999-01-01

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Reproduction, distribution and abundance of Bothus constellatus (Pisces: Bothidae), in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 3 593 individuals of Bothus constellatus was captured during five oceanographic cruises carried out in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Its distribution, abundance, and reproduction patterns were stated by means of the analysis of the population parameters (i.e. density, biomass, weight a [...] nd size average, visceral and gonadosomatic index, and maturity stages). B. constellatus is a typical demersal marine species, because it does not occur in estuaries, but occurs near to them on the continental shelf. It is distributed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec in depths lesser than 60 m, with high abundance around the 40 m isobath, and in front of Mar Muerto Lagoon. During January and May the biomass and density were high. The size at first maturity of females is 101 mm total length, and maturation occurs first in zones influenced by estuarine processes. Reproduction and recruitment were detected in all the collections.

Tapia-García, M.; García-Abad, M. C.; Cerdenares Ladrón de Guevara, G..

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In Vitro Activities of Retapamulin and 16 Other Antimicrobial Agents against Recently Obtained Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates?  

Science.gov (United States)

Retapamulin in vitro activity against 400 Streptococcus pyogenes clinical isolates obtained from skin, pharynx, ear fluid, and blood samples recovered from 2007 to 2009 was studied. The isolates belonged to 26 different emm types, including isolates nonsusceptible to erythromycin (n = 187), tetracycline (n = 99), ciprofloxacin (n = 59), and bacitracin (n = 43). Results were compared to the activities of 16 other antibiotics for topical and systemic use. Retapamulin MICs ranged from ?0.015 to 0.12 ?g/ml, showing the highest intrinsic activity among the topical antimicrobial drugs studied.

Perez-Trallero, Emilio; Tamayo, Esther; Montes, Milagrosa; Garcia-Arenzana, Jose M.; Iriarte, Victor

2011-01-01

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Mutagenesis in Streptococcus lactis exposed to UV irradiation and alkylating agents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lethal and mutagenic effects of various mutagens on three strains of Streptococcus lactis were investigated. Lethality studies demonstrated that S.lactis was relatively sensitive to UV irradiation, methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), and, to a lesser extent, to ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). A spontaneous derivative Lac-, which has lost a 37-Md plasmid, was slightly more resistant and much less mutable than the wild-type after UV irradiation. Although the three strains were strongly mutated by EMS for the genetic marker assayed (Rifsup(r)), an increase in the mutation frequency was also observed after MMS and MNNG treatments. (author)

1988-01-01

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?acteriology of pleural infection «Streptococcus milleri group» in the limelight  

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Full Text Available SUMMARY. Bacterial infection of the pleura is an old disease that continues to have a considerable mortality, of >15%. It is more common in males, and in the presence of diabetes mellitus, malignancy and alcoholism. The bacteriology of pleural infection has been changing during the past decades. Although pleural fluid culture is the «gold standard» for the identification of microorganisms in the pleural fluid, molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR have a notably higher sensitivity (75% versus 60%. Community-acquired pleural infection (CAPI and hospital-acquired pleural infection (HAPI have substantial differences in both their bacteriology and mortality, while the bacteriology of both differs markedly from that of pneumonia. The «Streptococcus milleri group» is the predominant isolate in CAPI, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae. In HAPI the most common isolates are Staphylococcus aureus, usually methicillin-resistant (MRSA, and Enterococcus spp. Given the higher incidence of CAPI compared to HAPI, «Streptococcus milleri» accounts for the greatest number of pleural infections. The «Streptococcus milleri group» consists of Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius. The unique characteristics of these bacteria favour the production of putrifying and necrotizing infections. The most common thoracic infection due to these organisms is empyema. Drainage of the infected pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics are essential components of the management of pleural infection. Knowledge of the pleural infection bacteriology is a useful adjunct in the selection of the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Pneumon 2009; 22(1:46–64.

Richard W. Light

2009-01-01

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Influences of naturally occurring agents in combination with fluoride on gene expression and structural organization of Streptococcus mutans in biofilms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of specific bioactive flavonoids and terpenoids with fluoride can modulate the development of cariogenic biofilms by simultaneously affecting the synthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS and acid production by Streptococcus mutans, which enhanced the cariostatic effectiveness of fluoride in vivo. In the present study, we further investigated whether the biological actions of combinations of myricetin (flavonoid, tt-farnesol (terpenoid and fluoride can influence the expression of specific genes of S. mutans within biofilms and their structural organization using real-time PCR and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Results Twice-daily treatment (one-minute exposure during biofilm formation affected the gene expression by S. mutans both at early (49-h and later (97-h stages of biofilm development. Biofilms treated with combination of agents displayed lower mRNA levels for gtfB and gtfD (associated with exopolysaccharides synthesis and aguD (associated with S. mutans acid tolerance than those treated with vehicle-control (p S. mutans biofilms by reducing the biovolume (biomass and proportions of both EPS and bacterial cells across the biofilm depth, especially in the middle and outer layers (vs. vehicle-control, p p Conclusion The data show that the combination of naturally-occurring agents with fluoride effectively disrupted the expression of specific virulence genes, structural organization and accumulation of S. mutans biofilms, which may explain the enhanced cariostatic effect of our chemotherapeutic approach.

Xiao Jin

2009-10-01

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Action of selected agents on the accumulation of /sup 18/F by Streptococcus mutans  

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The action of certain substances known to induce cellular alterations, or encountered in the oral cavity, on the accumulation of /sup 18/F by Streptococcus mutans GS-5 has been investigated. A 62-67% inhibition in the number of /sup 18/F atoms bound per mg dry weight of cells could be induced by a 15 min pretreatment with 2.7 x 10/sup -4/ M cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide, 1 x 10/sup -1/ M acetic anhydride, or 7 x 10/sup -2/ M HCl. Plate counts indicated that alteration of the cellular composition rather than viability was responsible for this diminution in /sup 18/F accumulation. Prior exposure for 15 min of this organism to 1 M HCHO or 0.1 M NaOH did not alter /sup 18/F accumulation. Of the common salts encountered in the oral cavity, CaCl/sub 2/ enhanced /sup 18/F binding. Pretreatment of the assay cells for 15-160 min with 0.1 mg/ml of trypsin, pronase, protease, ..cap alpha..-glucosidase, dextranase, or lactoferrin had no significant effect on the accumulation of /sup 18/. However, pre-exposure of cells for 60 min to 1-10 mg/ml of either amylase or lipase induced a 40-67% inhibition in the binding of /sup 18/F, while lysozyme enhanced the binding of /sup 18/F by the cells. It would appear then that the binding of /sup 18/F by S. mutans may be altered by certain substances encountered in the oral cavity. 17 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

Yotis, W.W.; Zeb, M.; Brennan, P.C.; Kirchner, F.R.; Glendenin, L.E.; Wu-Yuan, C.D.

1983-01-01

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Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes Meningite bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente aos antimicrobianos e seus sorotipos  

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The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial empirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Central Laboratory from Apr...

Andrea Maciel Oliveira Rossoni; Libera Maria Dalla Costa; Denize Bonato Berto; Sônia Santos Farah; Marilene Gelain; Maria Cristina de Cunto Brandileone; Vitor Hugo Mariano Ramos; Sergio Monteiro de Almeida

2008-01-01

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Estudio fitoquímico y actividad antibacterial de Psidium guineense Sw (choba) frente a Streptococcus mutans, agente causal de caries dentales / Phytochemical study and antibacterial activity of Psidium guíneense Sw (choba) against Streptococcus mutans, causal agent of dental caries  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se comprobaron las potencialidades antibacteriales del extracto etanólicoy de sus fracciones éter de petróleo, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y acuosa obtenidos de la cáscara y pulpa de Psidium guineense Sw (choba) frente a la bacteria Gram positiva Streptococcus mutans ATCC 31089 y a una cepa de l [...] a misma bacteria aislada de paciente. El S. mutans está reconocido como el principal agente causal de las caries dentales. Se comprobó, por técnicas de coloración y cromatografía en capa delgada, el contenido de metabolitos secundarios en los extractos etanólicos crudos y en sus respectivas fracciones. Los ensayos antibacteriales se realizaron por la técnica de perforación en gel empleando la escala de 0,5 de McFarland a 10(8) ufc/mL. Se utilizó agar base sangre y se aplicaron 50 mL de los extractos etanólicos de la cáscara y la pulpa de P. guineense diluidos en DMSO a concentraciones de 400 y 0,4 mg/mL. Según los mayores porcentajes de inhibición obtenidos de estos extractos, se tomaron las fracciones en concentraciones entre 25 y 100 mg/mL y para la cepa S. mutans aislada de paciente, concentraciones de 400 y 200 mg/mL. Los extractos etanólicos crudos mostraron actividad frente a estas bacterias; las fracciones de mayor actividad fueron las nombradas M1FA (fracción acetato de choba fruto cáscara verde seca) y M3FA (fracción acetato de choba fruto pulpa verde seca). La actividad antimicrobiana de la especie P. guineense pudiera ser atribuida a los metabolitos secundarios, taninos, flavonoides, terpenos y aldehídos, presentes en el fruto de esta especie. Abstract in english The antibacterial potentialities of the ethanol extract and its petroleum ether, dicloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions obtained from the peel and pulp of Psidium guineense Sw ( choba) against the Gram positive Streptococcus mutants ATCC 31089 and a strain of the same germ isolated fro [...] m a patient, were proved . S. Mutans is recognized as the causal agent of dental caries. The content of secondary metabolites in the crude ethanol extracts and in its respective fractions were proved by staining and thin layer chromatography. The antibacterial tests were made by means of the gel perforation technique and using McFarland's 0.5 scale at 108 ufc/mL. Blood base agar was utilized and 50 mL of the ethanol extracts from the peel and pulp of P. guineense diluted in DMSO at concentrations of 400 and 0.4 mg/mL were applied. According to the highest percentages of inhibition obtained from these extracts, the fractions were taken in concentrations between 25 and 100 mg/ mL and from 400 and 200 mg/mL for the S. mutans strain isolated from a patient. The crude ethanol extracts showed activity against these bacteria. The fractions with the greatest activity were the so-called M1FA (fraction of acetate of choba fruit's dry green peel) and M3FA (fraction of acetate of choba fruit's dry green pulp). The antimicrobial activity of the P. guineense species may be attributed to secondary metabolites, taninns, flavonoids, terpenes and aldehydes present in the fruit of this species.

Adriana María, Neira González; Martha Beatriz, Ramírez González; Nidia Lizbeth, Sánchez Pinto.

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??????: Streptococcus thermophilus  

Full Text Available Bacteria Streptococcaceae Streptococcus thermophilus Streptococcus salivarius thermophilus (comb Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (Orla-Jensen 1919) Farrow and Collins 1984 (synonym) NCBI 1308 c name) NCBI 1308 Streptococcus thermophilus (Orla-Jensen 1919) Schleifer et al. 1995 (synonym) NCBI 1308

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Activity of DX-619 Compared to Other Agents against Viridans Group Streptococci, Streptococcus bovis, and Cardiobacterium hominis?  

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Against 198 viridans group streptococci, 25 Streptococcus bovis strains, and 5 Cardiobacterium hominis strains, MICs of DX-619, a des-F(6)-quinolone, were between 0.004 and 0.25 ?g/ml. These MICs were lower than those of other quinolones (?0.008 to >32 ?g/ml). ?-Lactam MICs were between ?0.008 and 16 ?g/ml. Azithromycin resistance was found in most species, while most were telithromycin susceptible. Glycopeptides and linezolid were active against viridans group strains but inactive ag...

2006-01-01

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Caracterización clínica y microbiológica de las infecciones causadas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus grupo anginosus, y sus especies constellatus, anginosus e intermedius, causan infecciones supuradas. Su identificación microbiológica es compleja pues pueden ser beta-hemolíticos y comparten antígenos de Lancefield con otros estreptococos. Si bien morfológicamente son colonias pequeñas y presentan un olor característicos, si sólo se realiza test de látex para aglutinación del carbohidrato C pueden ser clasificados erróneamente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar un algoritmo que utiliza 3 pruebas bioquímicas, conocer su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos y describir las características clínicas de infecciones producidas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus. Se estudiaron cepas de Streptococcus grupo C, G y F, determinando sus características morfológicas de colonia, para identificar cepas de colonia pequeña que se incluyeron en el algoritmo de bajo costo propuesto (b-glucuronidasa y el test Voges-Proskauer comparándose al método API Rapid ID 32 Strept®, establecido como estándar de oro. Se estudiaron 219 cepas, de las cuales 101 presentaron las características morfológicas compatibles con grupo anginosus, identificándose S. constellatus en 58% (59/101, S. anginosus en 37% (37/101 y S. intermedius en 5% (5/101. Las cepas aisladas procedían principalmente de infecciones piogénicas (61%, 62/101, en especial de foco abdominal. Se observó 98% de susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima y resistencia a eritromicina y clindamicina en 6,8 y 5%, respectivamente. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 30 años (2-85, con distribución similar por sexo y predominio de pacientes hospitalizados. Los resultados expuestos demuestra la efectividad del algoritmo de bajo costo para la detección de S. grupo anginosus. En nuestra experiencia este grupo bacteriano conserva su susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima, siendo necesario vigilar clindamicina y eritromicinaStreptococcus anginosus group and its species constellatus, anginosus and intermedius, produce suppurative infections. Its microbiological identification is complex because it can be beta-hemolytic and shares Lancefield antigens with other Streptococci. This group grows as small colonies and presents a characteristic smell, but if only latex test for carbohydrate C agglutination is used it can be erroneously classified. The aims of this publication were to evaluate an algorithm that includes three biochemical tests, and to describe in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics and clinical characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group. Streptoccoccal strains belonging to groups C, G and F were evaluated, determining its colony characteristics in order to select small colony strains that were included into the proposed low cost algorithm (beta-glucurosidase and Voges Proskauer tests comparing them with API Rapid ID 32 Strept® method, considered the gold standard. Two hundred nineteen strains were studied, 101 had a morphological profile compatible with the anginosus group, identifying S. constellatus in 58% (59/101, S. anginosus in 37% (37/101 and S. intermedius in 5% (5/101. Strains were isolated mainly from pyogenic infections (61%, 62/101, specially from abdominal origin. High grade of penicillin and cefotaxime susceptibility (98% and low grade resistance to erithromycin and clindamycin (6,8 and 5% respectively were observed. Mean patient age was 30 years old (2-85, a similar sex distribution with predominance of inpatients. These results document the usefulness of the proposed low cost algorithm for detection of S. anginosus group. In our experience this bacterial group maintains good susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime, and we recommend a continous surveillance of clindamycin and erythromycin susceptibility

Gustavo Caro D.

2004-01-01

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Caracterización clínica y microbiológica de las infecciones causadas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus / Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus grupo anginosus, y sus especies constellatus, anginosus e intermedius, causan infecciones supuradas. Su identificación microbiológica es compleja pues pueden ser beta-hemolíticos y comparten antígenos de Lancefield con otros estreptococos. Si bien morfológicamente son colonias pequeñas [...] y presentan un olor característicos, si sólo se realiza test de látex para aglutinación del carbohidrato C pueden ser clasificados erróneamente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar un algoritmo que utiliza 3 pruebas bioquímicas, conocer su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos y describir las características clínicas de infecciones producidas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus. Se estudiaron cepas de Streptococcus grupo C, G y F, determinando sus características morfológicas de colonia, para identificar cepas de colonia pequeña que se incluyeron en el algoritmo de bajo costo propuesto (b-glucuronidasa y el test Voges-Proskauer) comparándose al método API Rapid ID 32 Strept®, establecido como estándar de oro. Se estudiaron 219 cepas, de las cuales 101 presentaron las características morfológicas compatibles con grupo anginosus, identificándose S. constellatus en 58% (59/101), S. anginosus en 37% (37/101) y S. intermedius en 5% (5/101). Las cepas aisladas procedían principalmente de infecciones piogénicas (61%, 62/101), en especial de foco abdominal. Se observó 98% de susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima y resistencia a eritromicina y clindamicina en 6,8 y 5%, respectivamente. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 30 años (2-85), con distribución similar por sexo y predominio de pacientes hospitalizados. Los resultados expuestos demuestra la efectividad del algoritmo de bajo costo para la detección de S. grupo anginosus. En nuestra experiencia este grupo bacteriano conserva su susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima, siendo necesario vigilar clindamicina y eritromicina Abstract in english Streptococcus anginosus group and its species constellatus, anginosus and intermedius, produce suppurative infections. Its microbiological identification is complex because it can be beta-hemolytic and shares Lancefield antigens with other Streptococci. This group grows as small colonies and present [...] s a characteristic smell, but if only latex test for carbohydrate C agglutination is used it can be erroneously classified. The aims of this publication were to evaluate an algorithm that includes three biochemical tests, and to describe in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics and clinical characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group. Streptoccoccal strains belonging to groups C, G and F were evaluated, determining its colony characteristics in order to select small colony strains that were included into the proposed low cost algorithm (beta-glucurosidase and Voges Proskauer tests) comparing them with API Rapid ID 32 Strept® method, considered the gold standard. Two hundred nineteen strains were studied, 101 had a morphological profile compatible with the anginosus group, identifying S. constellatus in 58% (59/101), S. anginosus in 37% (37/101) and S. intermedius in 5% (5/101). Strains were isolated mainly from pyogenic infections (61%, 62/101), specially from abdominal origin. High grade of penicillin and cefotaxime susceptibility (98%) and low grade resistance to erithromycin and clindamycin (6,8 and 5% respectively) were observed. Mean patient age was 30 years old (2-85), a similar sex distribution with predominance of inpatients. These results document the usefulness of the proposed low cost algorithm for detection of S. anginosus group. In our experience this bacterial group maintains good susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime, and we recommend a continous surveillance of clindamycin and erythromycin susceptibility

Caro D., Gustavo; Riedel K., Ingrid; García C., Patricia.

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??????: Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis  

Full Text Available Bacteria Streptococcaceae Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Streptococcus equisimili iae subsp. equisimilis Vandamme et al. 1996 emend. Vieira et al. 1998 (synonym) NCBI 119602 Streptococcus eq

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??????: Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus  

Full Text Available Bacteria Streptococcaceae Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Streptococcus equi zooepidemic (authority) NCBI 40041 Streptococcus zooepidemicus Frost and Englebrecht 1936 (authority) NCBI 40041 Animal 40041 Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (ex Frost and Englebrecht 1936) Farrow and Collins 1985 (aut

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Ent-trachyloban-19-oic acid isolated from Iostephane heterophylla as a promising antibacterial agent against Streptococcus mutans biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

From the roots of Iostephane heterophylla, six known compounds, namely, ent-trachyloban-19-oic acid (1), the mixture of ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (2) and ent-beyer-15-en-19-oic acid (3), xanthorrhizol (4), 16?-hydroxy-ent-kaurane (5) and 16?-hydroxy-ent-kaur-11-en-19-oic acid (6) were isolated using a bioassay-guided fractionation method. The known compounds (1-6) were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with reported values in the literature. In an attempt to increase the resultant antimicrobial activity of 1 and 4, a series of reactions was performed on ent-trachyloban-19-oic acid (1) and xanthorrhizol (4), to obtain derivatives 1a, 1b, and 4a-4d. All the isolated compounds (1-6) and the derivatives 1a, 1b, and 4a-4d were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against two oral pathogens, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with caries and periodontal disease, respectively. Compounds 1, 1b, 2+3, 4 and 4d inhibited the growth of S. mutans with concentrations ranging from 4.1 ?g/mL to 70.5 ?g/mL. No significant activity was found on P. gingivalis except for 4 with an MIC of 6.8 ?g/mL. The ability of 1, 1b, 2+3, 4 and 4d to inhibit biofilm formation by S. mutans was evaluated. It was found that 1, 1b, 4 and 4d interfered with the establishment of S. mutans biofilms, inhibiting their development at 32.5, 125.0, 14.1 and 24.4 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:22245083

Hernández, Dulce M; Díaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Rivero-Cruz, Blanca E; Bye, Robert A; Aguilar, María Isabel; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto

2012-04-01

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Streptococcus suis, an important pig pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent--an update on the worldwide distribution based on serotyping and sequence typing  

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Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen causing economic problems in the pig industry. Moreover, it is a zoonotic agent causing severe infections to people in close contact with infected pigs or pork-derived products. Although considered sporadic in the past, human S. suis infections have been reported during the last 45 years, with two large outbreaks recorded in China. In fact, the number of reported human cases has significantly increased in recent years. In this review, we present the worldwide distribution of serotypes and sequence types (STs), as determined by multilocus sequence typing, for pigs (between 2002 and 2013) and humans (between 1968 and 2013). The methods employed for S. suis identification and typing, the current epidemiological knowledge regarding serotypes and STs and the zoonotic potential of S. suis are discussed. Increased awareness of S. suis in both human and veterinary diagnostic laboratories and further establishment of typing methods will contribute to our knowledge of this pathogen, especially in regions where complete and/or recent data is lacking. More research is required to understand differences in virulence that occur among S. suis strains and if these differences can be associated with specific serotypes or STs.

Goyette-Desjardins, Guillaume; Auger, Jean-Philippe; Xu, Jianguo; Segura, Mariela; Gottschalk, Marcelo

2014-01-01

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Prevalence of macrolide resistance and in vitro activities of six antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from a multi-center surveillance in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vitro activities of 6 antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) were investigated and the erythromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were correlated with the two major macrolide resistance determinants, mef(A) and erm(B). MICs of commonly used antibiotics as well as the presence of macrolide resistance determinant genes in all isolates were tested. Seventy one pneumococcal isolates collected at Institute for Medical Research (IMR) were included in this study. Phenotypic characterization, MIC determination using E-test strips and polymerase chain reactions for antibiotic resistance determination were included. Among the isolates, 25 (35.2%) isolates were erythromycin susceptible, 3 (4.2%) were intermediate and 42 (60.6%) were resistant. Fifty three isolates (74.7%) were found with mef(A) alone, 15 (21.1%) isolates with erm(B) + mef(A) combination and 3 (4.2%) isolates with none of the two genes. The in vitro activity of penicillin, amoxicillin clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime is superior to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. In conclusion, pneumococcal isolates in this study were highly susceptible to penicillin with very low MICs. However, a very high prevalence rate of erythromycin resistance was observed. Erythromycin resistant S. pneumoniae isolates with both mef(A) and erm(B) showed very high MICs ?256 ?g/mL. PMID:23629556

J, Jayakayatri; M T, Niazlin; M D, Mohd Nasir; M, Siti Norbaya; M Y, Rohani; J, Farida; S R, Sagineedu; K, Arunkumar

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Primer registro de Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889, Bothus constellatus Jordan & Goss, 1889, Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880 y Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868 (Pisces, Pleuronectiformes en Chile, con comentarios sobre la distribución de los lenguados chilenos First records of Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889, Bothus constellatus Jordan & Goss, 1889, Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880 and Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868 (Pisces: Pleuronectiformes in Chile, with comments on the distribution of the Chilean flounders  

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Full Text Available Se comunican los primeros registros de los Pleuronectiformes Achirus klunzingeri (Soleidae, Etropus ectenes y Bothus constellatus (Bothidae y Symphurus elongatus (Cynoglossidae en aguas de chilenas. Las características morfológicas de los especímenes estudiados se confrontan con descripciones previas. Se discute su distribución en el Pacífico sur oriental y aquella del orden en aguas chilenas. The first records of the Pleuronectiformes Achirus klunzingeri (Soleidae, Etropus ectenes and Bothus constellatus (Bothidae, and Symphurus elongatus (Cynoglossidae in chilean waters are reported. The morphological characteristics of the studied specimens are compared with previous descriptions. Their distribution in the Southeastern Pacific and that of the order in Chilean waters are discussed

Walter Sielfeld

2003-01-01

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??????: Streptococcus sp. group G  

Full Text Available Bacteria Streptococcaceae Streptococcus sp. group G Streptococcus group G (synonym) NCBI 1320 St reptococcus sp. group G (scientific name) NCBI 1320 Streptococcus sp. (g roup G) (synonym) NCBI 1320 Streptococcus sp. group G (synonym) NCBI 1320 group G streptococcus (synon

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Resistance to Mercury and Antimicrobial Agents in Streptococcus mutans Isolates from Human Subjects in Relation to Exposure to Dental Amalgam Fillings  

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Resistance to cefuroxime, penicillin, tetracycline, and mercury is reported for 839 Streptococcus mutans isolates from 209 human study subjects. The MICs of these drugs did not differ for isolates from one dental amalgam group and two nonamalgam subsets: a group with no known exposure to amalgam and a group whose members had their amalgam fillings removed.

Leistevuo, Jorma; Ja?rvinen, Helina?; O?sterblad, Monica; Leistevuo, Tiina; Huovinen, Pentti; Tenovuo, Jorma

2000-01-01

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Bacterial meningitis by streptococcus agalactiae  

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Full Text Available Introduction: bacterial meningitis is an infectious disease considered a medicalemergency. The timely management has an important impact on the evolution of thedisease. Streptococcus agalactiae, a major causative agent of severe infections innewborns can colonize different tissues, including the central nervous system.Case report: Male patient 47 years old from rural areas, with work activity as amilker of cattle, referred to tertiary care, with disorientation, neck stiffness, and grandmal seizure. CSF study indicates neuroinfection. ICU care with steroids, antibiotics andmechanical ventilation. Cerebrospinal fluid culture reports growth of Streptococcus agalactiae. In coexistencewith the central nervous system involvement appeared otomastoidea infection.Conclusion: Bacterial meningitis can be caused by Streptococcus agalactiae,germ infrequently involved in this pathology. Work activities in non-tech agribusiness,had to be considered risk.RESUMEN:Introducción: la meningitis bacteriana (MB es una enfermedad infecciosa consideradauna emergencia médica. El manejo oportuno tiene importante impacto en la evoluciónde la entidad. El Streptococcus agalactiae, significativo agente causal de infeccionesseveras en recién nacidos, puede colonizar diferentes tejidos, entre ellos el sistemanervioso central.Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 47 años de edad, procedente de zona rural,con actividad laboral ordeñador de reses bovinas, remitido a tercer nivel de atención,con desorientación, rigidez de nuca y convulsión tónico-clónica. Estudio de líquidocefalorraquídeo indica neuroinfección. Manejo en UCI con esteroides, antibióticosy ventilación mecánica. Cultivo de líquido cefalorraquídeo, informa crecimiento deStreptococcus agalactiae. En coexistencia con el compromiso del sistema nerviosocentral se presentaba infección otomastoidea.Conclusión: la MB puede ser causada por el Streptococcus agalactiae, germeninfrecuentemente involucrado en este tipo de patología. Actividades laborales en laagroindustria no tecnificada, debiesen ser consideradas situaciones de riesgo.

Villarreal-Velásquez Tatiana Paola

2012-06-01

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Identification of ?-haemolysin-encoding genes in Streptococcus anginosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus anginosus is an emerging pathogen, but little is known about its virulence factors. To detect the genes responsible for ?-haemolysis we performed genomic mutagenesis of the ?-haemolytic S. anginosus type strain ATCC 12395 using the vector pGhost9:ISS1. Integration site analysis of 15 non-haemolytic mutants identified a gene cluster with high homology to the genes of the streptolysin S (SLS) encoding sag gene cluster of S. pyogenes. The gene cluster harbours 10 open reading frames displaying significant similarities to the S. pyogenes genes sagA-sagI, with the identities on protein level ranging from 38 to 87%. Complementation assays of S. anginosus sagB and sagD integration mutants with the respective genes confirmed their importance for ?-haemolysin production and suggest the presence of post-translational modifications in S. anginosus SLS similar to SLS of S. pyogenes. Characterization of the S. anginosus haemolysin in comparison to the S. pyogenes SLS showed that the haemolysin is surface bound, but in contrast to S. pyogenes neither fetal calf serum nor RNA was able to stabilize the haemolysin of S. anginosus in culture supernatants. Inhibition of ?-haemolysis by polyethylene glycol of different sizes was carried out, giving no evidence of a pore-forming haemolytic mechanism. Analysis of a whole genome shotgun sequence of Streptococcus constellatus, a closely related streptococcal species that belongs to the S. anginosus group, revealed a similar sag gene cluster. Employing a genomic mutagenesis strategy we were able to determine an SLS encoding gene cluster in S. anginosus and demonstrate its importance for ?-haemolysin production in S. anginosus. PMID:23594064

Asam, D; Mauerer, S; Walheim, E; Spellerberg, B

2013-08-01

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Prevalencia de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae y otros gérmenes causantes de otitis media aguda en niños de Latinoamérica: Revisión sistemática de la bibliografía / Prevalence of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other agents that cause acute otitis media in children in Latin America: A systematic review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La otitis media aguda (OMA) es un diagnóstico frecuente en pediatría. Streptococcus pneumoniae continúa siendo el germen más prevalente a nivel mundial, seguido de Haemophilus influenzae. Sin embargo, la introducción de vacunas contra el neumococo ha venido cambiando la microbiología de la OMA. Obje [...] tivo. Establecer la prevalencia del neumococo, sus serotipos y la prevalencia de otros gérmenes comunes en niños latinoamericanos con OMA. Fuente de los datos. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de artículos originales en siete bases de datos, limitada a publicaciones entre 1999 y 2010, a menores de 18 años y a idiomas inglés y castellano. Se completó la búsqueda por estrategia de "bola de nieve". Métodos de revisión. Los criterios de elegibilidad incluyeron artículos originales de prevalencia de corte transversal, realizados en población pediátrica latinoamericana y con criterios de inclusión y exclusión homogéneos. Se extrajo la información pertinente de los artículos seleccionados. Resultados. Once artículos cumplieron los criterios de elegibilidad. En Latinoamérica, específcamente en Costa Rica, Chile, Brasil y Argentina, el germen más prevalente fue Streptococcus pneumoniae (43,5%), (el serotipo más frecuente es el 19F, excepto en Argentina, donde es el 14) seguido por Haemophilus influenzae (30%) y Moraxella catarrhalis (6,4%). Conclusiones. El germen más prevalente en OMA en niños latinoamericanos es Streptococcus pneumoniae, hallazgo concordante con lo registrado en Europa y Estados Unidos. Se requieren más estudios en los otros países de la región y su población pediátrica vacunada contra el neumococo, con el fin de establecer un perfil epidemiológico y microbiológico actualizado de Latinoamérica. Abstract in english Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common diagnosis in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most prevalent agent worldwide, followed by Haemophilus influenzae. However, the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has changed the microbiology of AOM. Objective. To establish the prevalence of pneum [...] ococcal serotypes and other common germs in Latin American children with AOM. Source of data. We carried out a systematic search for original articles in seven databases, limited to publications between 1999 and 2010, children under 18, and English and Spanish languages. Search was completed with "snowball" strategy. Review methods. Eligibility criteria included original prevalence cross-sectional articles, conducted in pediatric populations in Latin America, with homogeneous inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant information was extracted from the selected articles. Results. Eleven articles met the eligibility criteria. In Latin America, specifically Costa Rica, Chile, Brazil and Argentina, Streptococcus pneumoniae (43.5%) was the most frequent germ, (serotype 19F is the most frequent, except in Argentina where it is 14) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (30%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (6.4%). Conclusions. The more prevalent germ in Latin American children AOM is Streptococcus pneumoniae, a finding consistent with those from Europe and the U.S. Further studies are required in the other countries of the region and its pediatric pneumococcal vaccinated population, in order to establish an updated epidemiological and microbiological profile in Latin America.

Norma Carolina, Barajas Viracachá.

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Primer registro de Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889, Bothus constellatus Jordan & Goss, 1889, Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880) y Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868) (Pisces, Pleuronectiformes) en Chile, con comentarios sobre la distribución de los lenguados chilenos / First records of Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889, Bothus constellatus Jordan & Goss, 1889, Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1880) and Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868) (Pisces: Pleuronectiformes) in Chile, with comments on the distribution of the Chilean flounders  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se comunican los primeros registros de los Pleuronectiformes Achirus klunzingeri (Soleidae), Etropus ectenes y Bothus constellatus (Bothidae) y Symphurus elongatus (Cynoglossidae) en aguas de chilenas. Las características morfológicas de los especímenes estudiados se confrontan con descripciones pre [...] vias. Se discute su distribución en el Pacífico sur oriental y aquella del orden en aguas chilenas Abstract in english . The first records of the Pleuronectiformes Achirus klunzingeri (Soleidae), Etropus ectenes and Bothus constellatus (Bothidae), and Symphurus elongatus (Cynoglossidae) in chilean waters are reported. The morphological characteristics of the studied specimens are compared with previous descriptions. [...] Their distribution in the Southeastern Pacific and that of the order in Chilean waters are discussed

Sielfeld, Walter; Vargas, Mauricio; Kong, Ismael.

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???-????????: C00026176 - Streptococcus macedonicus  

Full Text Available C00026176 C13H19NO3 9-Angeloylretronecine;9-Angelylretronecine;9-O-Angelylretronecine Streptococcus us macedonicus Liddell,Nat.Prod.Rep.,16,(1999),499 Streptococcus Streptococcaceae Bacteria

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Molecular Identification of Streptococcus equi subsp. Equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Nasal Swabs Samples from Horses Suffering Respiratory Infections in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the existence of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus as probable agents associated with naturally occurring infection of the equine upper respiratory disease in Mashhad area. Nasal swabs samples from thirty horses with upper respiratory tract infections were collected. The bacteria isolated and identified were Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (1 isolate), Streptococ...

Jannatabadi, A. A.; Mohammadi, G. R.; Rad, M.; Maleki, M.

2008-01-01

50

Porphyromonas gingivalis Genes Involved in Community Development with Streptococcus gordonii?  

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Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the causative agents of adult periodontitis, develops biofilm microcolonies on substrata of Streptococcus gordonii but not on Streptococcus mutans. P. gingivalis genome microarrays were used to identify genes differentially regulated during accretion of P. gingivalis in heterotypic biofilms with S. gordonii. Thirty-three genes showed up- or downregulation by array analysis, and differential expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Th...

2006-01-01

51

Recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus faecalis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ultraviolet radiation-sensitive derivative of Streptococcus faecalis strain JH2-2 was isolated and found to be deficient in recombination, using a plasmid-plasmid recombination system. The strain was sensitive to chemical agents which interact with deoxyribonucleic acid and also underwent deoxyribonucleic acid degradation after ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, the mutant has properties similar to those of recA strains of Escherichia coli.

Yagi, Y.; Clewell, D.B.

1980-08-01

52

Novel Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides against Streptococcus mutans?  

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Streptococcus mutans, a common oral pathogen and the causative agent of dental caries, has persisted and even thrived on the tooth surface despite constant removal and eradication efforts. In this study, we generated a number of synthetic antimicrobial peptides against this bacterium via construction and screening of several structurally diverse peptide libraries where the hydrophobicity and charge within each library was varied incrementally in order to generate a collection of peptides with...

He, Jian; Eckert, Randal; Pharm, Thanh; Simanian, Maurice D.; Hu, Chuhong; Yarbrough, Daniel K.; Qi, Fengxia; Anderson, Maxwell H.; Shi, Wenyuan

2007-01-01

53

Recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus faecalis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ultraviolet radiation-sensitive derivative of Streptococcus faecalis strain JH2-2 was isolated and found to be deficient in recombination, using a plasmid-plasmid recombination system. The strain was sensitive to chemical agents which interact with deoxyribonucleic acid and also underwent deoxyribonucleic acid degradation after ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, the mutant has properties similar to those of recA strains of Escherichia coli

1980-01-01

54

Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? Group B streptococcus is one of the many types of bacteria that live in the body and usually do ... and Gynecologists f AQ • What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? • What does it mean to be colonized ...

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Antibiotic Resistances of Yogurt Starter Cultures Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

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Twenty-nine strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 15 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for resistance to 35 antimicrobial agents by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Approximately 35% of the isolates had uncharacteristic resistance patterns.

Sozzi, Tommaso; Smiley, Martin B.

1980-01-01

56

Comparison of MICs of ceftiofur and other antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens of swine from the United States, Canada, and Denmark.  

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The MICs of ceftiofur and other antimicrobial agents, tested for comparison, for 515 bacterial isolates of pigs from the United States, Canada, and Denmark with various diseases were compared. The organisms tested included Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In addi...

1995-01-01

57

An unusual Streptococcus from human urine, Streptococcus urinalis sp. nov.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochemical, molecular chemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on an unknown Gram-positive, catalase-negative, chain-forming coccus isolated from the urine of a patient suffering from cystitis. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the organism is a member of the 'pyogenic subgroup' of the genus Streptococcus and has a close affinity with Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus canis. The unknown coccus was, however, readily distinguished from these species and other streptococci by biochemical tests and electrophoretic analysis of whole-cell proteins. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as a new species of the genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus urinalis sp. nov. The type strain of Streptococcus urinalis is CCUG 41590T. PMID:10843060

Collins, M D; Hutson, R A; Falsen, E; Nikolaitchouk, N; LaClaire, L; Facklam, R R

2000-05-01

58

Epidemiological and functional characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae pili  

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Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important life threatening human pathogen causing agent of invasive diseases such as otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis, but is also a common inhabitant of the respiratory tract of children and healthy adults. Likewise most streptococci, S. pneumoniae decorates its surface with adhesive pili, composed of covalently linked subunits and involved in the attachment to epithelial cells and virulence.

Moschioni, Monica

2011-01-01

59

Streptococcus tigurinus, a Novel Member of the Streptococcus mitis Group, Causes Invasive Infections  

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We recently described the novel species Streptococcus tigurinus sp. nov. belonging to the Streptococcus mitis group. The type strain AZ_3aT of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. According to its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, S. tigurinus is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is fa...

2012-01-01

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???? (?????): Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus  

Full Text Available Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus ???????JP? ?????B2? ?2677553? ??9??1 N 1/20
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31/725 ABE
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31/725 ABE
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???? (?????): Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus  

Full Text Available Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus ???????JP? ?????B2? ???3081544??P3081 ????????

 A61K 31/715 ABE 
ABL
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 A61K 31/715 ABE 
ABL
7/00 J
C08B 37/08 Z
C12N 1/20

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Sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B / Group B Streptococcus neonatal sepsis: up-to-date  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus grupo B (SGB) es uno de los principales agentes causales de sepsis neonatal precoz, siendo un importante factor de morbimortalidad neonatal y de costos en salud pública. Se han implementado múltiples estrategias para evitar la transmisión vertical desde la madre colonizada a su reci [...] én nacido, de modo de prevenir la infección de éste último. La más usada en la actualidad es la profilaxis antibiótica administrada a la madre en el momento del parto dependiendo del resultado de un cultivo perineal realizado entre las semanas 35 y 37 de gestación. Mediante esta estrategia se ha logrado disminuir de manera importante la incidencia de la sepsis neonatal por este agente, pero existen aprehensiones acerca de la posible generación de resistencia antibiótica o reacciones adversas a fármacos por parte de la madre. Por esto último, nuevas técnicas de prevención se encuentran en estudio, como las vacunas contra el SGB. En los recién nacidos la infección por Streptococcus agalactiae puede manifestarse de diversas maneras, siendo la sepsis y la meningitis las más frecuentes y mortales. El porcentaje de secuelas entre los sobrevivientes es elevado, por lo que ante la sospecha precoz de infección debe iniciarse tratamiento antibiótico a la brevedad. Abstract in english Group B Streptococcus is one of the leading bacterias causing early onset neonatal sepsis. It constitutes an important factor of neonatal morbidity and mortality and high costs in health. Many strategies have been formulated to avoid vertical transmission from the colonized mother to the newborn, in [...] an attempt to prevent infection of the infant. The most used nowadays is antibiotic prophylaxis given to the mother during labor, depending on the results of recto-vaginal culture taken during 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. This strategy has importantly diminished the prevalence of early onset neonatal sepsis by this agent, although there is still concern about the potential generation of antibiotic resistance and drug-induced adverse reactions in the mother. New techniques for prevention are being developed, such as vaccines against Streptococcus. In the newborn, infection caused by Streptococcus has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, like sepsis and meningitis which are the most frequent and lethal. Neurological sequelae are common among the survivors, so an early suspicion of disease must lead to a prompt antibiotic treatment.

MAGDALENA, CRUZ O; ADRIANA, DOREN V; JOSÉ LUIS, TAPIA I; FERNANDO, ABARZÚA C.

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Sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B Group B Streptococcus neonatal sepsis: up-to-date  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Streptococcus grupo B (SGB es uno de los principales agentes causales de sepsis neonatal precoz, siendo un importante factor de morbimortalidad neonatal y de costos en salud pública. Se han implementado múltiples estrategias para evitar la transmisión vertical desde la madre colonizada a su recién nacido, de modo de prevenir la infección de éste último. La más usada en la actualidad es la profilaxis antibiótica administrada a la madre en el momento del parto dependiendo del resultado de un cultivo perineal realizado entre las semanas 35 y 37 de gestación. Mediante esta estrategia se ha logrado disminuir de manera importante la incidencia de la sepsis neonatal por este agente, pero existen aprehensiones acerca de la posible generación de resistencia antibiótica o reacciones adversas a fármacos por parte de la madre. Por esto último, nuevas técnicas de prevención se encuentran en estudio, como las vacunas contra el SGB. En los recién nacidos la infección por Streptococcus agalactiae puede manifestarse de diversas maneras, siendo la sepsis y la meningitis las más frecuentes y mortales. El porcentaje de secuelas entre los sobrevivientes es elevado, por lo que ante la sospecha precoz de infección debe iniciarse tratamiento antibiótico a la brevedad.Group B Streptococcus is one of the leading bacterias causing early onset neonatal sepsis. It constitutes an important factor of neonatal morbidity and mortality and high costs in health. Many strategies have been formulated to avoid vertical transmission from the colonized mother to the newborn, in an attempt to prevent infection of the infant. The most used nowadays is antibiotic prophylaxis given to the mother during labor, depending on the results of recto-vaginal culture taken during 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. This strategy has importantly diminished the prevalence of early onset neonatal sepsis by this agent, although there is still concern about the potential generation of antibiotic resistance and drug-induced adverse reactions in the mother. New techniques for prevention are being developed, such as vaccines against Streptococcus. In the newborn, infection caused by Streptococcus has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, like sepsis and meningitis which are the most frequent and lethal. Neurological sequelae are common among the survivors, so an early suspicion of disease must lead to a prompt antibiotic treatment.

MAGDALENA CRUZ O

2008-10-01

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Streptococcus pneumoniae, le transformiste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen. Natural genetic transformation, which was discovered in this species, involves internalization of exogenous single-stranded DNA and its incorporation into the chromosome. It allows acquisition of pathogenicity islands and antibiotic resistance and promotes vaccine escape via capsule switching. This opinion article discusses how recent advances regarding several facets of pneumococcal transformation support the view that the process has evolved to maximize plasticity potential in this species, making the pneumococcus le transformiste of the bacterial kingdom and providing an advantage in the constant struggle between this pathogen and its host. PMID:24508048

Johnston, Calum; Campo, Nathalie; Bergé, Matthieu J; Polard, Patrice; Claverys, Jean-Pierre

2014-03-01

65

Expression of Streptococcus mutans gtf genes in Streptococcus milleri.  

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The Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferase (GTF) genes gtfB and gtfC were ligated into Escherichia coli-streptococcus shuttle plasmids and introduced into Streptococcus milleri. gtfB transformant KSB8 formed an S. mutans-like rough colony on mitis salivarius agar and expressed an extracellular GTF-I, of 158 kDa, and two cell-bound GTF-Is, of 158 and 135 kDa. gtfC transformant KSC43 formed a semirough colony on mitis salivarius agar and expressed primarily an extracellular GTF-SI, of 146 kDa...

1992-01-01

66

Meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fundamento: el Streptococcus pneumoniae ocupa el primer lugar entre las bacterias causales de meningoencefalitis bacteriana desde el año 2000, la cual afecta a niños y adultos con alta letalidad. Objetivo: caracterizar algunos aspectos epidemiológicos y microbiológicos de la meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y observacional acerca de la meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae en el laboratorio de microbiología del Centro Provincial de Higiene Epidemiología y Microbiología en el desde el 2000 al 2009. El universo fue de 209 pacientes con meningoencefalitis bacteriana y la muestra de 50 enfermos positivos a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Resultados: el 24,4 % de los pacientes tuvieron Streptococcus pneumoniae. Todas las edades fueron afectadas, especialmente los ancianos con letalidad del 80 %. Hubo 40 % de fallecimientos en niños y 60 % en adultos. El estudio bacteriológico del líquido cefaloraquidio resultó ser la prueba más importante para establecer el diagnóstico de meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Se detectó el 84 % de cepas resistentes a la penicilina. Conclusiones: los resultados demuestran que se debe extremar la vigilancia de las meningoencefalitis a este germen en población vulnerable ante la elevada letalidad observada en los enfermos positivos a Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Ingrid Estu00E9vez Sierra

2011-01-01

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The Tea Catechin Epigallocatechin Gallate Suppresses Cariogenic Virulence Factors of Streptococcus mutans?  

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Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, possesses a series of virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity. Alternatives to traditional antimicrobial treatment, agents selectively inhibiting the virulence factors without necessarily suppressing the resident oral species, are promising. The anticariogenic properties of tea have been suggested in experimental animals and humans. Tea polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), have been shown to in...

2011-01-01

68

Intracellular ?-Amylase of Streptococcus mutans  

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Sequencing upstream of the Streptococcus mutans gene for a CcpA gene homolog, regM, revealed an open reading frame, named amy, with homology to genes encoding ?-amylases. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a strong similarity (60% amino acid identity) to the intracellular ?-amylase of Streptococcus bovis and, in common with this enzyme, lacked a signal sequence. Amylase activity was found only in S. mutans cell extracts, with no activity detected in culture supernatants. Inactivation of...

1998-01-01

69

Streptococcus suis: an important zoonotic pathogen for human ? prevention aspects  

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Streptococcus suis is a major porcine pathogen, causing economical health worldwide problems in the global swine industry. It is also emerging as a zoonotic agent capable of causing severe invasive disease in humans exposed to pigs or pork products. The most important clinical sign in swine and human is meningitis, but other pathological conditions have also been described. Serotype 2 is the most commonly associated with diseases in pigs and humans, and also the most frequently reported serot...

2011-01-01

70

Whole-Genome Sequences of Streptococcus tigurinus Type Strain AZ_3a and S. tigurinus 1366, a Strain Causing Prosthetic Joint Infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus tigurinus, a novel member of the Streptococcus mitis group, was recently identified as a causative agent of invasive infections. We report the complete genome sequences of the S. tigurinus type strain AZ_3a and S. tigurinus strain 1366. The genome sequences assist in the characterization of virulence determinants of S. tigurinus. PMID:23640198

Gizard, Yann; Zbinden, Andrea; Schrenzel, Jacques; François, Patrice

2013-01-01

71

Penicillin-induced lysis of Streptococcus mutans.  

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Treatment of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 cells with concentrations of penicillin G within a relatively narrow range resulted in substantial lysis. This penicillin-induced lysis was dependent upon cell density and pH of the lysis medium. Other oral streptococci (Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus rattus, and Streptococcus cricetus) also demonstrated substantial levels of penicillin-induced lysis under appropriate conditions. Lesser degrees of lysis were seen in a related organism, Streptococc...

Kral, T. A.; Callaway, M. D.

1984-01-01

72

Excision-repair capacity in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although deficient in photoreactivation and some SOS-like functions, Streptococcus pneumoniae has the capacity to carry out excision repair when exposed to UV light. The repair ability and sensitivity to UV irradiation or treatment with chemical agents in the wild type and a UV-sensitive mutant strain indicate that UV-induced pyrimidine dimers might be repaired in pneumococcus by a system similar to the uvr-dependent system in Escherichia coli. A gene complementing the mutation conferring UV sensitivityj of the mutant strain has been cloned. The coding region directs the synthesis of a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 78 kDa. The relationship with uvr-like protein in R. coli is discussed. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs

1990-01-01

73

Resultados de la aplicación del protocolo basado en screening para la búsqueda de Streptococcus agalactiae en el tercer trimestre del embarazo: Posible impacto sobre la sepsis neonatal precoz por este agente PERFORMANCE OF A Streptococcus agalactiae UNIVERSAL SCREENING PROTOCOL DURING THE THIRD THRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY: IMPLICATIONS IN REDUCING NEONATAL GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL SEPSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB es la principal causa de sepsis neonatal precoz (SNP. Recientemente el CDC ha planteado tratar sólo pacientes con factores de riesgo o detectar a las portadoras realizando cultivo vaginal-perianal en el 3º trimestre del embarazo (screening universal. En nuestro hospital hasta el año 1999 sólo se trataba a las pacientes con factores de riesgo, presentando en el bienio 1997/1998 una tasa de SNP por SGB de 1,84/1.000 nacidos vivos. Entre octubre 1999 y noviembre 2000 se aplicó screening universal encontrándose 20% de portadoras. En el período de estudio hubo dos casos de SNP por SGB: un prematuro y un R.N. de término sin factor de riesgo a cuya madre no se le tomó cultivo. La incidencia del período fue de 0,73/1.000 R.N. vivos, lo que indica una disminución de 61% con respecto al período previo.Group B streptococcal infection is the most important cause of neonatal sepsis. The CDC has proposed two alternative strategies for its control: antibiotic treatment only of pregnant women with risk factors or antibiotic treatment of identified group B streptococcal carriers after culturing all pregnant women. At our institution until 1999 we only treated women with risk factors. The incidence of group B streptococcal sepsis in 1997/1998 was 1.84/1.000 per 1.000 live births. Between October 1999 and November 2000 we established universal screening. Maternal GBS carriage rate was 20%. Two newborn infants acquired group B streptococcal sepsis: one premature newborn and one on term newborn infant of a mother without screening. The successful implementation and manteinance of a screening protocol reduced neonatal group B streptococcal sepsis in a 61% rate with an incidence of 0.73/1.000 live births.

ANA M. GUZMÁN D.

2001-01-01

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Clinical resistance and decreased susceptibility in Streptococcus suis isolates from clinically healthy fattening pigs  

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Streptococcus suis (S. suis) has often been reported as an important swine pathogen and is considered as a new emerging zoonotic agent. Consequently, it is important to be informed on its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. In the current study, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) population distribution of nine antimicrobial agents has been determined for nasal S. suis strains, isolated from healthy pigs at the end of the fattening period from 50 closed or semiclosed pig herds. Th...

Callens, Benedicte; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek; Butaye, Patrick; Dewulf, Jeroen; Boyen, Filip

2013-01-01

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Detección y caracterización de Streptococcus agalactiae en muestras para urocultivo Detection and characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae in urinary samples for culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La frecuencia de los aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae en el laboratorio clínico es cada vez mayor. Dada su importancia como patógeno, fundamentalmente relacionado a infecciones del tracto urinario, sepsis neonatal y puerperal, se hace necesario mejorar los métodos de detección. El presente trabajo pretende estudiar la frecuencia de los aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae en muestras para urocultivo con especial atención en las pacientes embarazadas. Se evaluaron 17.160 aislamientos durante un período de dos años, tanto de pacientes ambulatorios como de internados, aislándose Streptococcus agalactiae en 170 muestras (1%. Con agar sangre de carnero como medio de aislamiento se logró aumentar la sensibilidad en la detección de este microorganismo al considerar la presencia de colonias beta hemolíticas en las muestras de pacientes embarazadas aún en bajas concentraciones. Sobre un total de 4.868 muestras provenientes de embarazadas se obtuvieron 107 aislamientos de Streptococcus agalactiae que corresponden al 2,2%. De esta forma, pudo detectarse un gran número de pacientes portadoras y prevenir efectivamente los riesgos potenciales. Sobre 88 aislamientos se ensayó la sensibilidad a diferentes agentes antimicrobianos, y pudo observarse una sensibilidad conservada a los agentes beta-lactámicos y una buena respuesta a los tratamientos instaurados.The frequency of Streptococcus agalactiae is growing in the clinical laboratory. Improved detection methods are needed due to its importance as urinary tract, neonatal and puerperal pathogen. The aim of the present work was to study the frequency of Streptococcus agalactiae isolations in urinary culture samples focused on pregnant women. 170 isolates (1% Streptococcus agalactiae were obtained from 17,160 samples of ambulatory and hospitalized patients in a two year period. It was possible to increase the sensitivity of the detection of this microorganism by considering the presence of beta hemolytic colonies in low concentrations in samples of pregnant patients on sheep blood agar plates. Out of 4,868 samples of pregnant women, 107 isolates (2.2% of Streptococcus agalactiae were obtained. By this means it was possible to detect a great number of carriers and to effectively prevent potential risks. The susceptibility of 88 isolates to different antimicrobial agents was tested. A preserved susceptibility to beta-lactam agents and also a positive response to the established treatments were observed.

José Viegas Caetano

2004-12-01

76

Recombination-deficient Streptococcus sanguis.  

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A UV-sensitive derivative was obtained from Streptococcus sanguis Challis. The organism could be transformed with a number of small streptococcal plasmids at frequencies equal to, or 1 logarithm below, the transformation frequencies for the parent organism. However, transformation with chromosomal DNA was greatly impaired in the UV-sensitive derivative.

1985-01-01

77

A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae / Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cu [...] ltura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM). A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta). Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain re [...] action (PCR) detects the genes responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin within approximately 8 hours. OBJECTIVE: To compare the PCR and MIC methods in determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin. METHOD: A total of 153 Streptococcus pneumoniae samples, isolated from various anatomical sites, were evaluated in order to detect mutations in the genes encoding pbp1a, pbp2a and pbp2x, which are responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance. A correlation was found between mutations and penicillin MIP, as determined by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Overal Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was 22.8% (16.3% intermediate resistance and 6.5% high resistance). In a statistically significant finding, we observed no mutations in the penicillin-sensitive samples and only one mutation, typically in the gene encoding pbp2x, among the samples with intermediate resistance, whereas mutations in all three genes studied were observed in the high-resistance samples. CONCLUSION: For determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin, PCR is a rapid method of detection that could well be used in clinical practice.

Eduardo Walker, Zettler; Rosane M., Scheibe; Cícero A. G., Dias; Patrícia, Santafé; José da Silva, Moreira; Diógenes S., Santos; Carlos Cezar, Fritscher.

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A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cultura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta. Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica.BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detects the genes responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin within approximately 8 hours. OBJECTIVE: To compare the PCR and MIC methods in determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin. METHOD: A total of 153 Streptococcus pneumoniae samples, isolated from various anatomical sites, were evaluated in order to detect mutations in the genes encoding pbp1a, pbp2a and pbp2x, which are responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance. A correlation was found between mutations and penicillin MIP, as determined by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Overal Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was 22.8% (16.3% intermediate resistance and 6.5% high resistance. In a statistically significant finding, we observed no mutations in the penicillin-sensitive samples and only one mutation, typically in the gene encoding pbp2x, among the samples with intermediate resistance, whereas mutations in all three genes studied were observed in the high-resistance samples. CONCLUSION: For determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin, PCR is a rapid method of detection that could well be used in clinical practice.

Eduardo Walker Zettler

2004-12-01

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Infecciones por Streptococcus agalactiae en un servicio de neonatología abierto Infections due to Streptococcus agalactiae at an open neonatology service  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de las infecciones por estreptococo del grupo B en recién nacidos egresados de los hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutivos con infecciones por Streptococcus agalactiae, ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre febrero de 1992 y diciembre del 2007. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas, con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad, así como relación entre variables categóricas. RESULTADOS. Hubo 76 recién nacidos con infección por Streptococcus agalactiae, lo cual constituyó una tasa promedio anual de 1,9 x 100 ingresos. Predominaron las infecciones de inicio tardío y las adquiridas en la comunidad (89,5 % y 93,4 %, respectivamente. La meningitis fue la forma clínica más frecuente, seguida de la bacteriemia aislada. Hubo 56 de 76 recién nacidos con bacteriemia (73,7 %. El Streptococcus agalactiae tuvo elevada sensibilidad ante la penicilina, la eritromicina, la vancomicina, la cefotaxima y el cloranfenicol. Hubo 7 fallecidos (9,2 % y todos fueron pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central. CONCLUSIONES. Streptococcus agalactiae es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, tanto en la comunidad como en el medio hospitalario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central con bacteriemia o sin ella, aún manteniendo un patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los antibióticos betalactámicos.INTRODUCCIÓN. The objective of the present study was to know the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infections caused by group B Streptococcus in newborns discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that included consecutive infants with infections due to Streptococcus agalactiae admitted in the Neonatology Service of «Juan M. Márquez» University Pediatric Hospital from February 1992 to December 2007 was conducted. Different clinical and epidemiological variables were processed and analyzed, with calculation of incidence and lethality rates and relation among the categoric variables. RESULTS. There were 76 newborns with infection due to Streptococcus agalactiae for an average annual rate of 1.9 x 100 admissions. It was observed a predominance of late onset infections and of those acquired in the community (89.5 % y 93.4 %, respectively. Meningitis was the most common clinical form followed by isolated bacteriemia. 56 of the 76 newborn infants had bacteriemia (73.7 %. Streptococcus agalactiae showed a high sensitivity to penicillin, erythromycine, vancomycin, cefotaxime and cloranphenicol. There were 7 deaths (9.2 %. All of them had infection of the CNS. CONCLUSIONS. Streptococcus agalactiae is an agent that causes infections affecting the newborn infant, both in the community and in the hospital. These infections may be lethal in some patients with infection of the CNS with o without bacteriemia, even when they maintain a pattern of elevated susceptibility to betalactamic antibiotics.

Manuel Díaz Álvarez

2008-12-01

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Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis in children: report of two cases and literature review  

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Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis (SPM) occurs sporadically, even with the increase of invasive streptococcal disease observed in the past years. We reported two cases of SPM in infants to alert pediatricians for the possibility of this agent as a cause of meningitis in previously healthy children.

Arnoni, Mariana V.; Berezin, Eitan N.; Sa?fadi, Marco A. P.; Almeida, Fla?via J.; Lopes, Cla?udia R. C.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

groESL Sequence Determination, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Species Differentiation for Viridans Group Streptococci  

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The full-length sequences of the groESL genes (also known as cpn10/60) of Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus gordonii, and Streptococcus sanguis and the near full-length sequence of the groESL genes of Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus salivarius were determined. The lengths of the groES genes from the 10 species listed above ranged from 282 to 288 bp, and the full-...

Teng, Lee-jene; Hsueh, Po-ren; Tsai, Jui-chang; Chen, Pin-wun; Hsu, Jia-chuan; Lai, Hsin-chih; Lee, Chun-nan; Ho, Shen-wu

2002-01-01

82

Susceptibility of fecal streptococci of poultry origin to nine growth-promoting agents.  

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The minimal inhibitory concentrations of nine growth-promoting agents were determined by an agar-dilution method against 66 bile-tolerant streptococcal (8 Streptococcus faecalis, 23 Streptococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens, 15 Streptococcus faecium, and 20 carboxyphilic streptococci) strains isolated from the ceca of 52 chickens on 19 farms. Avoparcin was equally active on all groups. The natural susceptibilities against the other substances differed among the groups studied. Bacitracin and...

Dutta, G. N.; Devriese, L. A.

1982-01-01

83

21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological...

2010-04-01

84

Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces.

Branting, C.; Linder, L.E.; Sund, M.-L.; Oden, A.; Wiatr-Adamczak, E.

1988-01-01

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Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-3H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

1988-01-01

86

Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente / Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C), vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2) y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La iden [...] tificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias. Abstract in english A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles) were positive. The isolate was preliminary identi [...] fied by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

Nagel, A.; Manias, V.; Busquets, N.; Sniadowsky, S.; Anzardi, J.; Méndez, E. De Los A..

87

Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C, vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2 y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La identificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias.A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles were positive. The isolate was preliminary identified by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

A. Nagel

2008-09-01

88

Group A Streptococcus and its antibiotic resistance  

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Acute pharyngo-tonsillitis caused by beta-haemolytic group A Streptococcus is a common disease in childhood. Epithelial cells are the initial sites of the host invasion by group A Streptococcus. Although group A Streptococcus has been considered an extracellular pathogen, recent studies have demonstrated that strains of this bacterium can internalize into epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. As adherence to and internalization into host cells significantly contributes to the pathogenes...

Passa?li, D.; Lauriello, M.; Passa?li, Gc; Passa?li, Fm; Bellussi, L.

2007-01-01

89

Cell Death Induction By Streptococcus Pyogenes in Four Types of Malignant Cell Llines  

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Background:The interest in using bacteria as anti- cancer therapeutic agents dates back to the end of the19th century. Some bacteria like Salmonella and Listeria replicate effectively inside malignant cell lines and suppress their growth. The bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes has become medically famous as a flesh-eating pathogen since mid-1980s. It is the causative agent of a life threatening clinical condition called necrotizing fasciitis. S. pyogenes usually produces a range of lytic enzyme...

Zahra Eslami-Nejad; Noureddi Nematollahi-Mahanin; Fereshteh Saffari; Hamid Mollaii; Ali Mohammad Arabzadeh, S.

2010-01-01

90

Development of a DNA probe for Streptococcus bovis by using a cloned amylase gene.  

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Streptococcus bovis is a normal inhabitant of the rumen but has been implicated as a causative agent for ruminal lactic acidosis and related problems. While rarely isolated from humans, S. bovis has been identified as a causative agent for endocarditis, meningitis, and septicemia. Recent reports have also suggested a correlation between human colonic carcinoma and increased levels of S. bovis. Identification of S. bovis strains of human origin has been problematic because of variations in res...

1993-01-01

91

Acute meningitis by Streptococcus suis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a coccus Gram positive, anaerobic optional. Human infection by this microorganism is a zoonoticdisease that usually presents as purulent meningitis. Mortality is low but is common sequelae. A case of meningitis byS. suis secondary to contact with pigs is presented here. A 35-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital complainingof high fever, malaise, vomiting and headache. A physical examination revealed decreased level of consciousness,with adequate response to painful stimulus and his eyes with deconjugated gaze. S. suis was isolated in bloodculture. He was treated with cefotaxime, vancomycin and acyclovir in the intensive care unit. He experienced progressiveimprovement. He was discharged with severe deafness and a minimally unstable gait as sequellae. J Microbiol Infect Dis2012; 2(4: 160-162Key words: Streptococcus suis, meningitis, deafness.

Maria-Jesus Corrales-Arroyo

2012-12-01

92

Population structure of Streptococcus oralis  

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Streptococcus oralis is a member of the normal human oral microbiota, capable of opportunistic pathogenicity; like related oral streptococci, it exhibits appreciable phenotypic and genetic variation. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for S. oralis was developed and the resultant data analysed to examine the population structure of the species. Analysis of 113 isolates, confirmed as belonging to the S. oralis/mitis group by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, characterized the population as hig...

2009-01-01

93

Synergistic antibacterial effects of copper and hexetidine against Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine whether a combination of copper and hexetidine had a synergistic antibacterial effect against Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ 176 and S. sanguis 10556. Concentration ranges of the test agents alone and in combination were prepared by serial dilutions in microtiter trays with brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth as the bacterial growth medium. After incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), corresponding to the lowest concentration showing no visible growth, was determined. Evaluated by the fractional inhibitory concentration index, a strong synergistic effect ranging from 0.39 to 0.40 was observed. A similar effect was also demonstrated by growth curves, which were constructed on the basis of growth in BHI broth with addition of MIC/4 of each agent alone or MIC/8 of each agent in combination. A probable explanation for these findings is that the surface-active hexetidine molecule alters the bacterial cell surfaces and thereby enables an increased amount of copper to be transported into the cell. PMID:3165588

Grytten, J; Scheie, A A; Giertsen, E

1988-06-01

94

Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. Material and methods This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. Results All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awareness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairemnt, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characeteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatment with II and III generation cephalosporins and one with one aminoglycosides. All patients were cured, but 4 of them developed sequelae like permanent sensorineural deafness and mild ataxia. Conclusions Streptococcus suis infection is present as a zoonosis in pigs, while humans are contracted occasionally, most frequently related to occupational risk. In cases with bacterial meningitis with sepsis and hearing loss, Streptococcus suis infections must be suspected. Effective prevention requires collaboration between epidemiologists, veterinarians and human medicine physicians. .

Dragojlovi? Julijana

2005-01-01

95

Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen

2014-07-01

96

Streptococcus pneumoniae e inmunidad innata / Streptococcus pneumoniae and innate immunity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus pneumoniae es un patógeno importante del ser humano que causa significativa morbilidad y mortalidad especialmente en las edades extremas de la vida. Posee diversos factores de virulencia que ponen a prueba la inmunidad del huésped. El sistema inmune innato es la primera línea de def [...] ensa para enfrentar a este patógeno, realizándose esta acción de manera precoz y no específica. De la indemnidad de este sistema depende que la infección potencial en una primera instancia sea controlada y que se activen correctamente los mecanismos de la inmunidad específica. En este artículo se revisarán y actualizarán los principales mecanismos defensivos mediados por la inmunidad innata contra este patógeno. Abstract in english Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen of humans that causes significant morbidity and mortality mainly in the extreme ages of life. It has several virulence factors that tested the immunity of the host. The innate immune system is the first line of defense to deal with this pathogen bein [...] g an early and non-specific response. The control of the disease will depend on the activation of the innate immunity in first instance and the development of a proper specific immunity against the pathogen. In this article we make an update of the innate immunity against this pathogen.

Guillermo, Zepeda E; Carolina, Gvirtzman K; Javiera, Kreft V; Erika, Inostroza V; Patricia, Díaz A.

97

Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in blood cultures by PCR.  

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We have developed a PCR assay, with primers derived from the autolysin (lyt) gene, for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in blood cultures. The predicted fragment of 247 bp was detected in all strains of pneumococci, embracing 12 different serotypes that were tested. Although DNA extracted from four viridans streptococci spp. Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus parasanguis) gave amplification products, these were quite different from...

1994-01-01

98

Anticariogenic activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) against Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of dental caries is mainly associated with oral pathogens, especially cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. Preliminary antibacterial screening revealed that the extract of Myristica fragrans, widely cultivated for the spice and flavor of foods, possessed strong inhibitory activity against S. mutans. The anticariogenic compound was successfully isolated from the methanol extract of M. fragrans by repeated silica gel chromatography, and its structure was identified as macelignan by instrumental analysis using 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and EI-MS. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of macelignan against S. mutans was 3.9 microg/ml, which was much lower than those of other natural anticariogenic agents such as 15.6 microg/ml of sanguinarine, 250 microg/ml of eucalyptol, 500 microg/ml of menthol and thymol, and 1000 microg/ml of methyl salicylate. Macelignan also possessed preferential activity against other oral microorganisms such as Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in the MIC range of 2-31.3 microg/ml. In particular, the bactericidal test showed that macelignan, at a concentration of 20 microg/ml, completely inactivated S. mutans in 1 min. The specific activity and fast-effectiveness of macelignan against oral bacteria strongly suggest that it could be employed as a natural antibacterial agent in functional foods or oral care products. PMID:16492529

Chung, J Y; Choo, J H; Lee, M H; Hwang, J K

2006-03-01

99

Iron starvation causes release from the group A streptococcus of the ADP-ribosylating protein called plasmin receptor or surface glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In many pathogenic bacteria, iron starvation serves as an environmental signal that triggers the expression of virulence factors, many of which are found on the cell surface or secreted into the culture supernatant. Using the chelating agent nitrilotriacetic acid, we have established conditions for iron starvation of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus) and determined that iron limitation results in the specific appearance of several new proteins in ...

1996-01-01

100

Streptococcus mutans in denture stomatitis patients under antifungal therapy / Streptococcus mutans em pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar o número de Streptococcus mutans em saliva de pacientes com estomatite protética antes e após a terapia antifúngica. METODOLOGIA: Após exame clínico de 93 pacientes, 47 foram selecionados para exame micológico e desta amostra foram selecionados trinta pacientes: 15 com diagnóstic [...] o positivo e 15 com diagnóstico negativo de candidose foram avaliados para contagem de S. mutans, determinação de fluxo salivar e capacidade tampão. Higiene bucal e da prótese, tempo de confecção, tipo de lesão e dados salivares foram relacionados com características clínicas e laboratoriais de Candida. RESULTADOS: As lesões frequentes foram dos tipos I (43,5%) e II (53,5%). A quantidade de S. mutans foi seis vezes maior em pacientes com candidose e foi associada com baixo fluxo salivar e higiene oral deficiente. Após a terapia, a redução de S. mutans foi verificada particularmente em pacientes com fluxo salivar normal. Os valores variaram de 0,01 a 3,88 UFC/ml x 10(4). CONCLUSÃO: Os dados sugerem que os Streptococcus colaboram com Candida spp na etiopatogenia da estomatite protética. O uso de agentes antimicrobianos orais pode propiciar efeito benéfico para pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica e que apresentam higiene oral deficiente e parâmetros salivares desfavoráveis. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To assess the number of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of patients with denture stomatitis before and after antifungal therapy. METHODS: After examining 93 patients, 47 were selected for fungal test. Then, from this sample, thirty patients were selected: 15 with positive and 15 with negativ [...] e diagnosis for candidiasis that were evaluated for S. mutans counting, salivary flow and buffer capacity evaluation. Oral hygiene and prosthesis hygiene, period using prosthesis, lesion type and salivary data were related with clinical laboratorial characteristics of the patients with Candida. RESULTS: The most frequent lesions were type I (43.5%) and II (53.5%). The amount of S. mutans was six times higher in patients with candidiasis and it was associated with low salivary flow and poor oral hygiene. After therapy, a reduction of S. mutans was verified particularly in patients with normal salivary flow. The values ranged from 0.01 to 3.88 x 10(4) cfu/mL. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that Streptococcus spp collaborates with Candida spp in the etiology and pathogenesis of denture stomatitis. The use of oral antimicrobial agents may provide a beneficial effect for denture stomatitis patients that are under antifungal therapy and that have poor oral hygiene and unfavorable salivary parameters.

Laurylene César de S., Vasconcelos; Fábio Correia, Sampaio; Maria Carméli Correia, Sampaio; Maria do Socorro Vieira, Pereira; Maria Helena Pereira, Peixoto.

 
 
 
 
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Pericarditis purulenta con taponamiento cardíaco por asociación de Streptococcus agalactiae y Salmonella enterica no typhi Purulent pericarditis with pericardial tamponade caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Salmonellaenterica no typhi  

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Full Text Available La pericarditis purulenta (PP es una condición infrecuente, pero con elevada mortalidad. Previo a la era antibiótica, los agentes etiológicos más comúnmente hallados eran Streptococcus pneumoniae y Staphylococcus aureus. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 75 años de edad con un cuadro de shock, PP y taponamiento cardíaco, producto de una sepsis por Streptococcus agalactiae y Salmonella entérica no typhi. No se ha hallado ningún caso similar en la literatura. Se destaca el antecedente previo inmediato de la realización de una endoscopia digestiva alta con toma de biopsia de esófago como posible causa de bacteriemia e impacto pericárdico. El curso evolutivo fue malo y el paciente falleció a los 34 días. Esta inusual asociación bacteriana en un huésped debilitado e inmunodeprimido, debería ser incluida dentro de los diagnósticos etiológicos diferenciales de la pericarditis purulenta.Purulent pericarditis (PP is an uncommon condition with high mortality. In the preantibiotic period, Staphyloccocus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the most common etiologic agents. We describe the case of a 75-year old man with septic shock, PP and cardiac tamponade caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Salmonella enterica no-typhi. To our knowledge this association of pathogenic organisms has not been previously reported in the literature. The pathogenesis is here reviewed, and in our patient presumably, purulent pericarditis occurred via hematogeneus spread undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patient’s course was complicated and he died on 34 th hospital day. After this case report it is considered that differential etiologic diagnosis of PP should include these agents, especially in immunodepressed patients with predisposing factors.

Lourdes Arruvito

2004-08-01

102

PREVALENCIA DE COLONIZACIÓN POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B DURANTE EL EMBARAZO PESQUISADO EN MEDIO DE CULTIVO SELECTIVO  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente bacteriano responsable de la sepsis neonatal. Para evitar la infección perinatal se recomienda su pesquisa en la región vagino-anal durante el tercer trimestre, y tratamiento antibiótico durante el trabajo de parto en las gestantes colonizadas. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia de colonización del Streptococcus agalactie en la población de embarazadas controladas en la maternidad del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile, en el período comprendido entre el 1 de marzo y el 31 de mayo de 2003. Se tomó cultivo selectivo de Todd Hewitt, entre las 35 y 37 semanas de gestación a 185 embarazadas. Se determinó una prevalencia de colonización vagino-anal de 14,0%Streptococcus agalactiae is the main bacterial agent in neonatal sepsis. To avoid the perinatal infection, a vaginal and anal culture in the third trimester is recommended and then treated with antibiotics during labour. The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant patients in University of Chile Hospital in Santiago. The study period was from March 1 to May 31 of 2003. Vaginal and anal samples were taken at 35-37 weeks using selective medium (Todd Hewitt broth. A total of 185 patients were studied and the prevalence of streptococcus was 14,0%

Enrique Valdés R

2004-01-01

103

PREVALENCIA DE COLONIZACIÓN POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B) DURANTE EL EMBARAZO PESQUISADO EN MEDIO DE CULTIVO SELECTIVO  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente bacteriano responsable de la sepsis neonatal. Para evitar la infección perinatal se recomienda su pesquisa en la región vagino-anal durante el tercer trimestre, y tratamiento antibiótico durante el trabajo de parto en las gestantes colonizadas. El obje [...] tivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia de colonización del Streptococcus agalactie en la población de embarazadas controladas en la maternidad del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile, en el período comprendido entre el 1 de marzo y el 31 de mayo de 2003. Se tomó cultivo selectivo de Todd Hewitt, entre las 35 y 37 semanas de gestación a 185 embarazadas. Se determinó una prevalencia de colonización vagino-anal de 14,0% Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae is the main bacterial agent in neonatal sepsis. To avoid the perinatal infection, a vaginal and anal culture in the third trimester is recommended and then treated with antibiotics during labour. The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae in [...] pregnant patients in University of Chile Hospital in Santiago. The study period was from March 1 to May 31 of 2003. Vaginal and anal samples were taken at 35-37 weeks using selective medium (Todd Hewitt broth). A total of 185 patients were studied and the prevalence of streptococcus was 14,0%

Valdés R, Enrique; Pastene S, Carolina; Morales P, Alejandro; Gutiérrez R, Bárbara; Canales P, Ana; Martínez O, Pabla; Juarez D, Guido; Caballero T, Rafael.

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Comprehensive Study of Strains Previously Designated Streptococcus bovis Consecutively Isolated from Human Blood Cultures and Emended Description of Streptococcus gallolyticus and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli?  

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Modern taxonomy has delineated Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius within the heterogenous group of previously designated clinical Streptococcus bovis bacteria. In the present study, 58 consecutive blood culture isolates initially designated S. bovis were further characterized by applying phenotypic and molecular genetic methods, and possible disease associations were ...

Beck, Marcella; Frodl, Reinhard; Funke, Guido

2008-01-01

105

Aortitis with bacteraemia by Streptococcus equi Zooepidemicus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Infections by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus occur in animals. In human beings these infections are generally accidental, and few cases have been reported. We present the case of a 56-year-old male, a butcher, who presented with abdominal pain. Aneurismatic dilatation of the aorta below the renal arteries was documented by CT-scanning. A purulent collection and arterial ulceration were found during surgery; Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus was isolated from the collection and from blood cultures

2005-01-01

106

Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum  

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De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30%) de los cuales 26 (44.8%) correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5%) a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6%) a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1%) a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4%) a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus c...

1995-01-01

107

DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Are Dual Targets of Clinafloxacin Action in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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We examined the response of Streptococcus pneumoniae 7785 to clinafloxacin, a novel C-8-substituted fluoroquinolone which is being developed as an antipneumococcal agent. Clinafloxacin was highly active against S. pneumoniae 7785 (MIC, 0.125 ?g/ml), and neither gyrA nor parC quinolone resistance mutations alone had much effect on this activity. A combination of both mutations was needed to register resistance, suggesting that both gyrase and topoisomerase IV are clinafloxacin targets in vivo...

1998-01-01

108

Analysis of RogB-Controlled Virulence Mechanisms and Gene Expression in Streptococcus agalactiae  

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Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in neonates and also the causative agent of different serious infections in immunocompromised adults. The wide range of diseases that are caused by S. agalactiae suggests regulatory mechanisms that control the formation of specific virulence factors in these bacteria. The present study describes a gene from S. agalactiae, designated rogB, encoding a protein with significant similarity to members of the RofA-like ...

Gutekunst, Heike; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Reinscheid, Dieter J.

2003-01-01

109

Effects of Oxygen on Biofilm Formation and the AtlA Autolysin of Streptococcus mutans?  

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The Streptococcus mutans atlA gene encodes an autolysin required for biofilm maturation and biogenesis of a normal cell surface. We found that the capacity to form biofilms by S. mutans, one of the principal causative agents of dental caries, was dramatically impaired by growth of the organism in an aerated environment and that cells exposed to oxygen displayed marked changes in surface protein profiles. Inactivation of the atlA gene alleviated repression of biofilm formation in the presence ...

Ahn, Sang-joon; Burne, Robert A.

2007-01-01

110

Short Fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Their Role in Coadhesion with Streptococcus gordonii  

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Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the causative agents of adult periodontitis, attaches and forms biofilms on substrata of Streptococcus gordonii. Coadhesion and biofilm development between these organisms requires the interaction of the short fimbriae of P. gingivalis with the SspB streptococcal surface polypeptide. In this study we investigated the structure and binding activities of the short fimbriae of P. gingivalis. Electron microscopy showed that isolated short fimbriae have an average ...

Park, Yoonsuk; Simionato, M. Regina; Sekiya, Kachiko; Murakami, Yukitaka; James, Deanna; Chen, Weibin; Hackett, Murray; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Demuth, Donald R.; Lamont, Richard J.

2005-01-01

111

Distribution of Putative Virulence Genes in Streptococcus mutans Strains Does Not Correlate with Caries Experience?†?  

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Streptococcus mutans, a member of the human oral flora, is a widely recognized etiological agent of dental caries. The cariogenic potential of S. mutans is related to its ability to metabolize a wide variety of sugars, form a robust biofilm, produce copious amounts of lactic acid, and thrive in the acid environment that it generates. The remarkable genetic variability present within the species is reflected at the phenotypic level, notably in the differences in the cariogenic potential betwee...

Argimo?n, Silvia; Caufield, Page W.

2011-01-01

112

Differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Conjunctivitis Outbreak Isolates by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry?  

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Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus [Pnc]) is a causative agent of many infectious diseases, including pneumonia, septicemia, otitis media, and conjunctivitis. There have been documented conjunctivitis outbreaks in which nontypeable (NT), nonencapsulated Pnc has been identified as the etiological agent. The use of mass spectrometry to comparatively and differentially analyze protein and peptide profiles of whole-cell microorganisms remains somewhat uncharted. In this report, we discuss a c...

Williamson, Yulanda M.; Moura, Hercules; Woolfitt, Adrian R.; Pirkle, James L.; Barr, John R.; Carvalho, Maria Da Gloria; Ades, Edwin P.; Carlone, George M.; Sampson, Jacquelyn S.

2008-01-01

113

In Vitro Development of Resistance to Six Quinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus  

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Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were exposed to subinhibitory MICs of ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, clinafloxacin, and gemifloxacin during a 10-day period. Subculturing led to resistance development, regardless of the initial potencies of the quinolones. None of the quinolones was associated with a significantly slower rate of resistance development.

2001-01-01

114

Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephali...

2009-01-01

115

Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae: a South African perspective.  

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Resistance to penicillin among South African strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae increased from 4.9% in 1979 to 14.4% in 1990. Except for resistance to co-trimoxazole (44%), resistance to other antimicrobial agents remained relatively low. Multiply resistant strains belonged mainly to serovars 6B, 19A, 14, and, more recently, 23F. Use of chloramphenicol to treat meningitis caused by strains relatively resistant to penicillin proved to be unsatisfactory, probably because of the inadequate bactericidal activity of chloramphenicol against these strains. Spread of penicillin-resistant nasopharyngeal strains in pediatric wards was most common among children who received antimicrobial therapy. Penicillin-binding protein (PBP) patterns were shown to vary in resistant clinical strains. Interspecies transfer of penicillin resistance between Streptococcus mitis and S. pneumoniae was demonstrated and antigenic homology was found in PBPs 1A and 2B of strains belonging to these species. Restriction enzyme mapping following DNA amplification of the PBP 2B gene revealed six arrangements among South African strains within serogroup 19. Despite extensive studies in South Africa and several other countries, many questions with regard to the global problem of antimicrobial resistance among S. pneumoniae strains remain unanswered, especially those that relate to prevalence in developing regions of the world. PMID:1617077

Koornhof, H J; Wasas, A; Klugman, K

1992-07-01

116

Porphyromonas gingivalis Genes Involved in Community Development with Streptococcus gordonii?  

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Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the causative agents of adult periodontitis, develops biofilm microcolonies on substrata of Streptococcus gordonii but not on Streptococcus mutans. P. gingivalis genome microarrays were used to identify genes differentially regulated during accretion of P. gingivalis in heterotypic biofilms with S. gordonii. Thirty-three genes showed up- or downregulation by array analysis, and differential expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The functions of the regulated genes were predominantly related to metabolism and energy production. In addition, many of the genes have no current known function. The roles of two upregulated genes, ftsH (PG0047) encoding an ATP-dependent zinc metallopeptidase and ptpA (PG1641) encoding a putative tyrosine phosphatase, were investigated further by mutational analysis. Strains with mutations in these genes developed more abundant biofilms with S. gordonii than the parental strain developed. ftsH and ptpA may thus participate in a regulatory network that constrains P. gingivalis accumulation in heterotypic biofilms. This study provided a global analysis of P. gingivalis transcriptional responses in an oral microbial community and also provided insight into the regulation of heterotypic biofilm development.

Simionato, M. Regina; Tucker, Chelsea M.; Kuboniwa, Masae; Lamont, Gwyneth; Demuth, Donald R.; Tribble, Gena D.; Lamont, Richard J.

2006-01-01

117

Porphyromonas gingivalis genes involved in community development with Streptococcus gordonii.  

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Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the causative agents of adult periodontitis, develops biofilm microcolonies on substrata of Streptococcus gordonii but not on Streptococcus mutans. P. gingivalis genome microarrays were used to identify genes differentially regulated during accretion of P. gingivalis in heterotypic biofilms with S. gordonii. Thirty-three genes showed up- or downregulation by array analysis, and differential expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The functions of the regulated genes were predominantly related to metabolism and energy production. In addition, many of the genes have no current known function. The roles of two upregulated genes, ftsH (PG0047) encoding an ATP-dependent zinc metallopeptidase and ptpA (PG1641) encoding a putative tyrosine phosphatase, were investigated further by mutational analysis. Strains with mutations in these genes developed more abundant biofilms with S. gordonii than the parental strain developed. ftsH and ptpA may thus participate in a regulatory network that constrains P. gingivalis accumulation in heterotypic biofilms. This study provided a global analysis of P. gingivalis transcriptional responses in an oral microbial community and also provided insight into the regulation of heterotypic biofilm development. PMID:16923784

Simionato, M Regina; Tucker, Chelsea M; Kuboniwa, Masae; Lamont, Gwyneth; Demuth, Donald R; Tribble, Gena D; Lamont, Richard J

2006-11-01

118

Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections with Involvement of Multiple Organs in Lambs  

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Full Text Available Respiratory diseases particularly lamb pneumonia is a multifactorial disease involving the interaction between host, etiological agent and environment. The present study was carried out to determine the causative agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in a sheep flock and to establish its pathogenicity and public health importance. The incidence occurred in sheep unit at Madhurikund farm of University (DUVASU, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India. At the time of incidence, the population of sheep at the farm was 90. Affected animals were clinically examined and nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from live animals, while morbid materials were collected from dead animals after postmortem examination. The etiological agent was isolated and characterized with conventional microbiological and biochemical methods. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the bacteria isolated from blood, different organs and cerebrospinal fluid. The antibiotic sensitivity revealed resistant to multiple drugs viz., penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Pathological examination revealed multiple involvements of organs with different degrees of inflammation and haemorrhages of the lower respiratory tract, lungs, liver, heart and kidney. Further, its pathogenicity was established by histopathological examination. In conclusion, presence of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in weaning lambs with the involvement of multiple organs appears to be an emerging zoonotic threat to human particularly in shepherds. This seems to be the first report of isolation of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from outbreak in lambs with multiple organ involvement in India.

Arvind Kumar Sharma

2013-01-01

119

Isolation and antibiotic sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections with involvement of multiple organs in lambs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Respiratory diseases particularly lamb pneumonia is a multifactorial disease involving the interaction between host, etiological agent and environment. The present study was carried out to determine the causative agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in a sheep flock and to establish its pathogenicity and public health importance. The incidence occurred in sheep unit at Madhurikund farm of University (DUVASU), Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India. At the time of incidence, the population of sheep at the farm was 90. Affected animals were clinically examined and nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from live animals, while morbid materials were collected from dead animals after postmortem examination. The etiological agent was isolated and characterized with conventional microbiological and biochemical methods. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the bacteria isolated from blood, different organs and cerebrospinal fluid. The antibiotic sensitivity revealed resistant to multiple drugs viz., penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Pathological examination revealed multiple involvements of organs with different degrees of inflammation and haemorrhages of the lower respiratory tract, lungs, liver, heart and kidney. Further, its pathogenicity was established by histopathological examination. In conclusion, presence of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in weaning lambs with the involvement of multiple organs appears to be an emerging zoonotic threat to human particularly in shepherds. This seems to be the first report of isolation of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from outbreak in lambs with multiple organ involvement in India. PMID:24517022

Kumar, Amit; Verma, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Arvind Kumar; Rahal, Anu

2013-12-15

120

Meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae / Bacterial meningoencephalitis to Streptococcus pneumoniae: a health problem to solve  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: el Streptococcus pneumoniae ocupa el primer lugar entre las bacterias causales de meningoencefalitis bacteriana desde el año 2000, la cual afecta a niños y adultos con alta letalidad. Objetivo: caracterizar algunos aspectos epidemiológicos y microbiológicos de la meningoencefalitis bacte [...] riana a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y observacional acerca de la meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae en el laboratorio de microbiología del Centro Provincial de Higiene Epidemiología y Microbiología en el desde el 2000 al 2009. El universo fue de 209 pacientes con meningoencefalitis bacteriana y la muestra de 50 enfermos positivos a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Resultados: el 24,4 % de los pacientes tuvieron Streptococcus pneumoniae. Todas las edades fueron afectadas, especialmente los ancianos con letalidad del 80 %. Hubo 40 % de fallecimientos en niños y 60 % en adultos. El estudio bacteriológico del líquido cefaloraquidio resultó ser la prueba más importante para establecer el diagnóstico de meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Se detectó el 84 % de cepas resistentes a la penicilina. Conclusiones: los resultados demuestran que se debe extremar la vigilancia de las meningoencefalitis a este germen en población vulnerable ante la elevada letalidad observada en los enfermos positivos a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Abstract in english Background: the Streptococcus pneumoniae occupies the first place among the causal bacteria of bacterial meningoencephalitis since the year 2000, which affects children and adults with great lethality. Objective: to characterize some epidemiological and microbiological aspects from the bacterial men [...] ingoencephalitis to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Method: a descriptive and observational study on bacterial meningoencephalitis to Streptococcus pneumoniae was performedin the microbiology lab at the Provincial Center of Hygiene Epidemiology and Microbiology from 2000 to 2009. The universe was constituted by 209 patients with bacterial meningoencephalitis and the sample was formed of 50 positive patients to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Results: the 24,4 % of patients had Streptococcus pneumoniae. All the ages were affected, especially the old men with lethality of 80 %. There was 40% of deaths in children and 60 % in adults. The bacteriological study of the cerebrospinal fluid turned out to be the most important test to establish the bacterial meningoencephalitis diagnostic to Streptococcus pneumoniae. The 84% of strains was detected to be resistant to penicillin. Conclusions: results demonstrate that an extreme surveillance should be carried to the meningoencephalitis to this germ in vulnerable population in the face of the great lethality observed in the positive patients to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Estévez Sierra, Ingrid; Sanchén Casas, Alexis; Rodríguez Heredia, Odalys; García González, Gloria.

 
 
 
 
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Increased activity of 16-membered lactone ring macrolides against erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae: characterization of South African isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility of 40 erythromycin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and 40 multiply-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to six macrolide antibiotics, representing 14-, 15- and 16-membered lactone ring structures, was tested. The genetic basis for macrolide resistance in the strains was also determined. Both erm and mef determinants were encountered in the 36 S. pneumoniae isolates tested, but only mef in the five S. pyogenes isolates tested. All isolates showed cross-resistance among the 14-membered macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin and the 15-membered macrolide, azithromycin. However, the erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes isolates retained full susceptibility to spiramycin and josamycin (16-membered agents). These latter two antibiotics were also more active than the other macrolides against erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates, especially josamycin which was 8-64 times more active than erythromycin; spiramycin was only two to eight times more active than erythromycin. PMID:10052895

Klugman, K P; Capper, T; Widdowson, C A; Koornhof, H J; Moser, W

1998-12-01

122

Prevalência de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico em crianças portadoras de necessidades especiais Prevalence of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus in children with special health care needs  

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Full Text Available Faringotonsilite causada por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico afeta principalmente crianças e imunocomprometidos, sendo Streptococcus pyogenes (Grupo A o agente mais comum em faringotonsilites bacterianas. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou a busca por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico do Grupo A (SBHGA e Não A (SBHGNA na orofaringe de indivíduos com necessidades especiais da APAE (Maceió-AL. MÉTODO:Estudo prospectivo com amostras da orofaringe de pacientes com síndrome de Down e outras desordens mentais (teste e estudantes de escola privada (controle de 5-15 anos. Culturas em ágar sangue (5% foram identificadas através dos testes de Gram/catalase e o método de disco difusão com bacitracina/sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, aplicando-se o teste Chi-quadrado em análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Um total de 222 colônias bacterianas foram isoladas em 74 indivíduos da APAE e 65 no grupo controle. No grupo teste, episódios prévios de faringotonsilites foram relatados por 36,49% (27/74 e 9,46% (7/74 foram diagnosticados com sintomas e/ou sinais sugestivos de infecção orofaríngea. Nenhuma amostra de S. pyogenes foi confirmada na APAE, sendo todas identificadas como SBHGNA, com cinco SBHGA no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO:A identificação precoce de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico é importante para o tratamento rápido de faringotonsilites e a ausência de S. pyogenes evita futuras sequelas supurativas ou não supurativas no grupo da APAE.Pharyngotonsillitis by ?-hemolytic Streptococcus mostly affects children and imunocompromissed, being Streptococcuspyogenes (Group A the most common agent in bacterial pharyngotonsillitis. AIM:This work targeted the research of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus Group-A (SBHGA and No-A (SBHGNA in the oropharynx of individuals with special health needs from the APAE (Maceió-AL. METHOD: A prospective study with oropharynx samples from patients with Down syndrome and other mental disorders (test and students from a private school (control aged 5-15 years. Cultures in blood agar (5% were identified through Gram/catalase tests and bacitracin/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole disk diffusion method, applying the chi-squared statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 222 bacterial colonies were isolated in 74 individuals from APAE and 65 in the control group. In the test group, previous episodes of pharyngotonsillitis were reported by 36.49% (27/74 and 9.46% (7/74 were diagnosed with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of oropharynx infection. No positive sample of S. pyogenes was confirmed at APAE, being all samples classified as SBHGNA, with 5 SBHGA in the control group. CONCLUSION: The early identification of ?-hemolytic Steptococcus is important for the fast treatment of pharyngotonsillitis and the absence of S. pyogenes avoid future suppurative or not-suppurative sequels in the group from APAE.

Viviane Martha Santos de Morais

2012-10-01

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[Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and its susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents--special references to bacteria isolated between April 2009 and March 2010].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria isolated from surgical infections during the period from April 2009 to March 2010 were investigated in a multicenter study in Japan, and the following results were obtained. In this series, 671 strains including 16 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 174 (79.1%) of 220 patients with surgical infections. Four hundred and eleven strains were isolated from primary infections, and 244 strains were isolated from surgical site infection. From primary infections, anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were predominant, followed by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, while from surgical site infection aerobic Gram-positive bacteria were predominant, followed by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Among aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. in this order, from primary infections, while Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Staphylococcus spp. from surgical site infection. Among aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominantly isolated from primary infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in this order, and from surgical site infection, E. coli was most predominantly isolated, followed by P. aeruginosa and E. cloacae. Among anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Eggerthella lenta was the highest from primary infections, followed by Parvimonas micra, Streptococcus constellatus and Finegoldia magna, and from surgical site infection, E. lenta was most predominantly isolated. Among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, the isolation rate of Bilophila wadsworthia was the highest from primary infections, followed by Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides ovatus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and from surgical site infection, B. fragilis was most predominantly isolated, followed by B. ovatus, B. wadsworthia and B. thetaiotaomicron, in this order. In this series, we noticed no vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive cocci, nor multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. We should carefully follow up B. wadsworthia which was resistant to various antibiotics, and also Bacteroides spp. which was resistant to many beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:21861307

Shinagawa, Nagao; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Koichi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Mizukuchi, Tohru; Yanai, Yoshiyuki; Hata, Fumitake; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Someya, Tetsufumi; Sasaki, Kazunori; Oono, Keisuke; Mizuno, Isamu; Shamoto, Tomoya; Fukui, Takuji; Tokita, Shoji; Nakamura, Masashi; Mashita, Keiji; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Moritsugu; Hasegawa, Itaru; Kimura, Masami; Oshima, Hideki; Maeda, Hideki; Ishikawa, Syu; Mukaiya, Mitsuhiro; Kihara, Chikasi; Mizuno, Akira; Watabe, Kosho; Iwai, Akihiko; Saito, Takaaki; Hoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Hitoshi; Moori, Noriaki; Sumita, Naoki; Jae-Hoon, Yoo; Kubo, Shoji; Lee, Shigeru; Aikawa, Naoki; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Abe, Shinya; Oomura, Toru; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Takeshi; Yamaue, Hiroki; Ozawa, Satoru; Takesue, Yoshio; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Tsumura, Hiroaki; Kimura, Hideyuki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Tanakaya, Kouji; Sueda, Taijiro; Hiyama, Eiso; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ohge, Hiroki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Yasunami, Yoichi; Sasaki, Takamitsu

2011-06-01

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[Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents --special references to bacteria isolated between April 2008 and March 2009].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria isolated from infections in abdominal surgery during the period from April 2008 to March 2009 were investigated in a multicenter study in Japan, and the following results were obtained. In this series, 712 strains including 18 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 173 (80.5%) of 215 patients with surgical infections. Three hundred and sixty-six strains were isolated from primary infections, and 346 strains were isolated from postoperative infections. From primary infections, anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were predominant, followed by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, while from postoperative infections aerobic Gram-positive bacteria were predominant, followed by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Among aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. in this order, from primary infections, while Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Staphylococcus spp. from postoperative infections. Among aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominantly isolated from primary infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in this order, and from postoperative infections, P aeruginosa was most predominantly isolated, followed by E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and K. pneumoniae. Among anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Eggerthella lenta was the highest from primary infections, followed by Parvimonas micra, Streptococcus constellatus and Gemella morbillorum, and from postoperative infections, E. lenta was most predominantly isolated. Among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, the isolation rate of Bacteroides fragilis was the highest from primary infections, followed by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides ovatus and Bilophila wadsworthia, and from postoperative infections, B. fragilis was most predominantly isolated, followed by B. thetaiotaomicron, B. wadsworthia and B. ovatus, in this order. In this series, we noticed no vancomycin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp., nor multidrug-resistant P aeruginosa. We should carefully follow up B. wadsworthia which was resistant to various antibiotics, and also Bacteroides spp. which was resistant to many beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:20919496

Shinagawa, Nagao; Hasegawa, Masamitsu; Hirata, Koichi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Mizukuchi, Tohru; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Yanai, Yoshiyuki; Hata, Fumitaka; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Someya, Tetsufumi; Harada, Keisuke; Oono, Keisuke; Tokita, Shoji; Nakamura, Masashi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Itaru; Kimura, Masami; Oshima, Hideki; Maeda, Hideki; Mukaiya, Mitsuhiro; Kihara, Chikasi; Kosho, Watabe; Hoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Yasuhide; Yae-Hoon, Yoo; Aikawa, Naoki; Abe, Shinya; Yura, Jiro; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Mizuno, Isamu; Fukui, Takuji; Mashita, Keiji; Ishikawa, Svu; Mizuno, Akira; Moori, Noriaki; Sumita, Naoki; Kubo, Shoji; Lee, Shigeruj; Oomura, Toru; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Takeshi; Yamaue, Hiroki; Kawai, Manabu; Takesue, Yoshio; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kimura, Hideyuki; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Sueda, Taijiro; Hiyama, Eiso; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ooge, Hiroki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Tsumura, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Takashi; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Tanakaya, Kouji; Yasunami, Yoichi; Ryu, Shinichiro

2010-04-01

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In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.  

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Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

126

Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina / In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. [...] e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis. Abstract in english The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-po [...] sitive Staphylococcus (94.4%) and Streptococcus sp. (85.2%) showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

Loguercio, Andrea Pinto; Groff, Ana Cláudia Mello; Pedrozzo, Andréia Folleto; Witt, Niura Mazzini; Silva, Mariana Sá e; Vargas, Agueda Castagna de.

127

Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis.The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (94.4% and Streptococcus sp. (85.2% showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

Andrea Pinto Loguercio

2006-02-01

128

Whole-Genome Sequence of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae Isolate IS7493  

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Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae is a member of the viridans group streptococci (VGS) whose pathogenic significance is unclear. We announce the complete genome sequence of S. pseudopneumoniae IS7493. The genome sequence will assist in the characterization of this new organism and facilitate the development of accurate diagnostic assays to distinguish it from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis.

2011-01-01

129

Distribution of Streptococcus troglodytae and Streptococcus dentirousetti in chimpanzee oral cavities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and phenotypic properties of the indigenous streptococci in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) oral cavities. Eleven chimpanzees (aged from 9 to 44 years, mean?±?SD, 26.9?±?12.6 years) in the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University were enrolled in this research and brushing bacterial samples collected from them. Streptococci were isolated from the oral cavities of all chimpanzees. The isolates (n?=?46) were identified as thirteen species by 16S rRNA genes analysis. The predominant species was Streptococcus sanguinis of mitis streptococci from five chimpanzees (45%). Mutans streptococci were isolated from six chimpanzees (55%). The predominant species in the mutans streptococci were Streptococcus troglodytae from four chimpanzees (36%), this species having been proposed as a novel species by us, and Streptococcus dentirousetti from three chimpanzees (27%). Streptococcus mutans was isolated from one chimpanzee (9%). However, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus macacae and Streptococcus downei, which are indigenous to human and monkey (Macaca fasciclaris) oral habitats, were not isolated. Of the mutans streptococci, S. troglodytae, S. dentirousetti, and S. mutans possessed strong adherence activity to glass surface. PMID:23668608

Miyanohara, Mayu; Imai, Susumu; Okamoto, Masaaki; Saito, Wataru; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Momoi, Yasuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

2013-05-01

130

Galactokinase activity in Streptococcus thermophilus  

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ATP-dependent phosphorylation of (/sup 14/C)galactose by 11 strains of streptococcus thermophilus indicated that these organisms possessed the Leloir enzyme, galactokinase (galK). Activities were 10 times higher in fully induced, galactose-fermenting (Gal/sup +/) strains than in galactose-nonfermenting (Gal/sup -/) strains. Lactose-grown, Gal/sup -/ cells released free galactose into the medium and were unable to utilize residual galactose or to induce galK above basal levels. Gal/sup +/ S. thermophilus 19258 also released galactose into the medium, but when lactose was depleted, growth on galactose commenced, and galK increased from 0.025 to 0.22 ..mu..mol of galactose phosphorylated per min per mg of protein. When lactose was added to galactose-grown cells of S. thermophilus 19258, galK activity rapidly decreased. These results suggest that galK in Gal/sup +/ S. thermophilus is subject to an induction-repression mechanism, but that galK cannot be induced in Gal/sup -/ strains.

Hutkins, R.; Morris, H.A.; McKay, L.L.

1985-10-01

131

Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum  

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Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30% of these cultures, 26 (44.8% corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%, to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%, to Enterococcus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 % to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%, to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7% to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germanyprovides a typical pattern ("good identification" for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

J.M. F. Egido

1995-06-01

132

Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30%) de los cuales 26 (44.8%) correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5%) a G [...] ardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6%) a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1%) a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4%) a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7%) a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania) dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción") para el Streptococcus morbillorum. Abstract in english We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30%) of these cultures, 26 (44.8%) corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%), to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%), to Enteroc [...] occus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 %) to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%), to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7%) to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germany)provides a typical pattern ("good identification") for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

J.M. F., Egido; J.R., Maestre; M.Y., Pena Izquierdo.

133

Iron acquisition and regulation systems in Streptococcus species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gram-positive Streptococcus species are responsible for millions of cases of meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis. Iron is essential for the growth and survival of Streptococcus in the host environment. Streptococcus species have developed various mechanisms to uptake iron from an environment with limited available iron. Streptococcus can directly extract iron from host iron-containing proteins such as ferritin, transferrin, lactoferrin and hemoproteins, or indirectly by relying on the employment of specialized secreted hemophores (heme chelators) and small siderophore molecules (high affinity ferric chelators). This review presents the most recent discoveries in the iron acquisition system of Streptococcus species - the transporters as well as the regulators. PMID:24663493

Ge, Ruiguang; Sun, Xuesong

2014-05-01

134

Pericarditis purulenta con taponamiento cardíaco por asociación de Streptococcus agalactiae y Salmonella enterica no typhi / Purulent pericarditis with pericardial tamponade caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Salmonellaenterica no typhi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La pericarditis purulenta (PP) es una condición infrecuente, pero con elevada mortalidad. Previo a la era antibiótica, los agentes etiológicos más comúnmente hallados eran Streptococcus pneumoniae y Staphylococcus aureus. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 75 años de edad con un [...] cuadro de shock, PP y taponamiento cardíaco, producto de una sepsis por Streptococcus agalactiae y Salmonella entérica no typhi. No se ha hallado ningún caso similar en la literatura. Se destaca el antecedente previo inmediato de la realización de una endoscopia digestiva alta con toma de biopsia de esófago como posible causa de bacteriemia e impacto pericárdico. El curso evolutivo fue malo y el paciente falleció a los 34 días. Esta inusual asociación bacteriana en un huésped debilitado e inmunodeprimido, debería ser incluida dentro de los diagnósticos etiológicos diferenciales de la pericarditis purulenta. Abstract in english Purulent pericarditis (PP) is an uncommon condition with high mortality. In the preantibiotic period, Staphyloccocus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the most common etiologic agents. We describe the case of a 75-year old man with septic shock, PP and cardiac tamponade caused by Streptococcu [...] s agalactiae and Salmonella enterica no-typhi. To our knowledge this association of pathogenic organisms has not been previously reported in the literature. The pathogenesis is here reviewed, and in our patient presumably, purulent pericarditis occurred via hematogeneus spread undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patient’s course was complicated and he died on 34 th hospital day. After this case report it is considered that differential etiologic diagnosis of PP should include these agents, especially in immunodepressed patients with predisposing factors.

Lourdes, Arruvito; Marcos G., Ber; Jose A., Martínez Martínez.

135

Streptococcus agalactiae vaginitis: nonhemolytic variant on the Liofilchem® Chromatic StreptoB.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) vaginal pathogenicity is not uniformly acknowledged throughout the literature; accordingly, in women, genital itching and burning, along with leukorrhea are commonly and almost exclusively referred to bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Conversely, GBS virulence for vagina was recognized in the past, as the organism has been observed to potentially cause local inflammation and discharge, as well as lactobacilli rarefaction. We depict here a case where a nonhemolytic (?-hemolytic) GBS strain was found to be the etiologic agent of vaginal infection. Such uncommon S. agalactiae phenotypes are hard to be recognized and may be therefore responsible for misdiagnosing and underestimation of GBS vaginitis prevalence; here, we had the support of the Liofilchem(®) Chromatic StreptoB medium, that successfully detected such an atypical variant. PMID:23923091

Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; D'Antonio, Marianna; D'Amario, Claudio; Fazii, Paolo; D'Antonio, Domenico

2013-01-01

136

Streptococcus agalactiae vaginitis: nonhemolytic variant on the Liofilchem® Chromatic StreptoB  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) vaginal pathogenicity is not uniformly acknowledged throughout the literature; accordingly, in women, genital itching and burning, along with leukorrhea are commonly and almost exclusively referred to bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Conversely, GBS virulence for vagina was recognized in the past, as the organism has been observed to potentially cause local inflammation and discharge, as well as lactobacilli rarefaction. We depict here a case where a nonhemolytic (?-hemolytic) GBS strain was found to be the etiologic agent of vaginal infection. Such uncommon S. agalactiae phenotypes are hard to be recognized and may be therefore responsible for misdiagnosing and underestimation of GBS vaginitis prevalence; here, we had the support of the Liofilchem® Chromatic StreptoB medium, that successfully detected such an atypical variant.

Savini, Vincenzo; Marrollo, Roberta; D'Antonio, Marianna; D'Amario, Claudio; Fazii, Paolo; D'Antonio, Domenico

2013-01-01

137

Aortitis con bacteriemia por Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus Aortitis with bacteriemia by Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus  

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Full Text Available La infección por Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus es propia de animales y en el hombre es generalmente accidental con reporte de pocos casos. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 56 años, matarife, con cuadro de dolor abdominal, documentándose por TAC y en cirugía dilatación aneurismática de la aorta por debajo de las renales, con colección purulenta y ulceración del vaso de donde se aisló Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus, aislándose también la bacteria de los hemocultivos.Infections by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus occur in animals. In human beings these infections are generally accidental, and few cases have been reported. We present the case of a 56-year-old male, a butcher, who presented with abdominal pain. Aneurismatic dilatation of the aorta below the renal arteries was documented by CT-scanning. A purulent collection and arterial ulceration were found during surgery; Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus was isolated from the collection and from blood cultures.

Carlos Alberto Betancur

2009-06-01

138

Competition and Coexistence between Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in the Dental Biofilm  

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The human mucosal surface is colonized by the indigenous microflora, which normally maintains an ecological balance among different species. Certain environmental or biological factors, however, may trigger disruption of this balance, leading to microbial diseases. In this study, we used two oral bacterial species, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis (formerly S. sanguis), as a model to probe the possible mechanisms of competition/coexistence between different species which occup...

2005-01-01

139

Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Actinomyces viscosus in the Presence of Human Saliva  

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Glucose uptake was examined by using whole-cell suspensions of Streptococcus mutans (strains BHT, Ingbritt, and GS-5), Streptococcus mitis (strains 9811 and 72×41), and Actinomyces viscosus (strains T6 and WVU626) incubated for up to 90 min in 0 to 82% (vol/vol) human whole salivary supernatant. Glucose uptake by the S. mutans strains was completely inhibited at all saliva concentrations. Dithiothreitol (DTT), present during saliva incubation, prevented saliva inhibition. Glucose uptake was ...

1982-01-01

140

Disseminated viridians streptococcus (Streptococcus mitis) infection presenting with toxic shock-like syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a case of a 35-year-old man with no known underlying disease who presented with fever, cellulitis with hemorrhagic blebs on the left leg, monoarthricular left knee arthritis, multiple organ failure and septic shock. His clinical syndrome was compatible with toxic shock syndrome and his blood grew alpha hemolytic (viridians) Streptococcus mitis. To our knowledge, there are few reported cases of toxic shock syndrome cause by Streptococcus mitis in immune-competent adults. PMID:23682535

Intalapaporn, Poj; Wongcharoen, Sunee; Chinapha, Anongnart; Jariyasethpong, Tavatchai

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Population Diversity and Dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the Upper Respiratory Tracts of Adults, Determined by a Nonculture Strategy?  

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We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat. A culture-independent method was used, based on cloning and sequencing of PCR amplicons of the housekeeping gene gdh, which shows remarkable, yet species-specific, genetic polymorphism. Samples we...

2008-01-01

142

?????H12 (Bacteria???????3) : Streptococcus iniae  

Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae Not detected Collins, M. D. and Jones, D., 1979. J. Gen. Microbiol., 114, 27 & Wilkins Co. Baltimore, Vol. 2, p1043-1071 L-Lys Brooks , B. W. et al., 1980. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 30,

143

?????H12 (Bacteria???????3) : Streptococcus dysgalactiae  

Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae Negative Garvie, E. et al., 1983. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 33, 404 -4 ie, E. et al., 1983. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 33, 404 -405 L-Lys Garvie, E. et al., 1983. Int. J. Syst. B acteriol., 33, 404 -405

144

Acute vertebral osteomyelitis complicating Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis.  

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The first well documented case of acute pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis presenting as the initial manifestation of Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis is reported. The importance of suspecting vertebral osteomyelitis in the presence of disc infection and the diagnostic value of imaging procedures are underlined.

Demers, C.; Tremblay, M.; Lacourcie?re, Y.

1988-01-01

145

Penicillin tolerance in Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790.  

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Tolerant strains of Streptococcus faecium had higher levels of muramidase 2 and lower levels of trypsinactivable muramidase 1 than did susceptible strains. Susceptible strains lysed faster than did tolerant strains in buffer and at some antibiotic concentrations. The addition of Triton X-100 produced equal lysis rates for susceptible and tolerant cultures.

1987-01-01

146

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection  

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Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a group of disorders recently recognized as a clinical entity. A case of PANDAS is described here, which remitted after 1 month of treatment. Recent Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection should be considered in a child who presents with a sudden explosive onset of tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms.

Maini, Baljeet; Bathla, Manish; Dhanjal, Gurdeep S.; Sharma, Prem D.

2012-01-01

147

Regulation of neuraminidase expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid; NeuNAc is one of the most important carbohydrates for Streptococcus pneumoniae due of its role as a carbon and energy source, receptor for adhesion and invasion and molecular signal for promotion of biofilm formation, nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion of the lung. Results In this work, NeuNAc and its metabolic derivative N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc were used to analyze regulatory mechanisms of the neuraminidase locus expression. Genomic and metabolic comparison to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis elucidates the metabolic association of the two amino sugars to different parts of the locus coding for the two main pneumococcal neuraminidases and confirms the substrate specificity of the respective ABC transporters. Quantitative gene expression analysis shows repression of the locus by glucose and induction of all predicted transcriptional units by ManNAc and NeuNAc, each inducing with higher efficiency the operon encoding for the transporter with higher specificity for the respective amino sugar. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated enhanced surface exposure of NanA on pneumococci grown in NeuNAc and ManNAc and an activity assay allowed to quantify approximately twelve times as much neuraminidase activity on induced cells as opposed to glucose grown cells. Conclusions The present data increase the understanding of metabolic regulation of the nanAB locus and indicate that experiments aimed at the elucidation of the relevance of neuraminidases in pneumococcal virulence should possibly not be carried out on bacteria grown in glucose containing media.

Gualdi Luciana

2012-09-01

148

Streptococcus suis-Related Prosthetic Joint Infection and Streptococcal Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome in a Pig Farmer in the United States.  

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Streptococcus suis is an emerging swine-associated zoonotic agent that can cause meningitis and septicemia in humans. We present, to our knowledge, the first case of S. suis arthroplasty infection and streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome due to an nonencapsulated serotype 5 strain in North America. PMID:24719433

Gomez, Eric; Kennedy, Cassie C; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Cunningham, Scott A; Patel, Robin; Virk, Abinash

2014-06-01

149

Actividad antibacteriana de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér. sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis frente a clorhexidina Antibacterial activity of Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her. against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine  

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Introducción: Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) es ampliamente utilizado en medicina natural para el tratamiento de enfermedades bucales, pero se desconocen aún sus propiedades farmacológicas, actividad antibacteriana y la composición de sus fitoconstituyentes. Objetivo: realizar un estudio comparativo de la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto acuoso obtenido de las hojas de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococ...

2013-01-01

150

Real-time PCR for detection of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid of human patients with meningitis  

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Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and is the main cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adult patients in Vietnam. We developed an internally controlled real-time PCR for detection of S. suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples targeted at the cps2J gene. Sensitivity and specificity in culture-confirmed clinical samples were 100%. The PCR detected S. suis serotype 2 infection in 101 of 238 (42.4%) prospectively collected CSF samples, of which 55 (23%) were culture positive. Culture-negative but PCR-positive CSF samples were significantly associated with the use of antimicrobial agents before admission. S. suis serotype 2 infection was more common than infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis combined. Our results strikingly illustrate the additional diagnostic value of PCR in patients who are pretreated with antimicrobial agents and demonstrate the extremely high prevalence of S. suis infections among Vietnamese adult patients with bacterial meningitis.

Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Diep, To Song; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Campbell, James; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

2011-01-01

151

Real-time PCR for detection of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid of human patients with meningitis.  

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Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and is the main cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adult patients in Vietnam. We developed an internally controlled real-time PCR for detection of S. suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples targeted at the cps2J gene. Sensitivity and specificity in culture-confirmed clinical samples were 100%. The PCR detected S. suis serotype 2 infection in 101 of 238 (42.4%) prospectively collected CSF samples, of which 55 (23%) were culture positive. Culture-negative but PCR-positive CSF samples were significantly associated with the use of antimicrobial agents before admission. S. suis serotype 2 infection was more common than infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis combined. Our results strikingly illustrate the additional diagnostic value of PCR in patients who are pretreated with antimicrobial agents and demonstrate the extremely high prevalence of S. suis infections among Vietnamese adult patients with bacterial meningitis. PMID:21767702

Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Diep, To Song; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Campbell, James; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

2011-08-01

152

21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. ...Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents...

2009-04-01

153

77 FR 26014 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae  

Science.gov (United States)

...Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae AGENCY: Technology Transfer...vaccine conjugate for prevention of Streptococcus pneumonia infection in humans...entitled ``Functional Epitopes of Streptococcus Pneumoniae PsaA Antigen and Uses...

2012-05-02

154

In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Various Combinations of Penicillin and Clindamycin against Four Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes  

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Previous studies using mouse models of Streptococcus pyogenes necrotizing fasciitis demonstrated that clindamycin had greater efficacy than penicillin. Frequently both agents are used concurrently in the treatment of severe S. pyogenes infections. This study investigated interactions between penicillin and clindamycin. E-test and broth microdilution assays suggested additivity or indifference, while timed-killing assays demonstrated concentration-dependent variable effects. Timed-kill studies...

1998-01-01

155

Insertional inactivation of Streptococcus pyogenes sod suggests that prtF is regulated in response to a superoxide signal.  

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In establishing an infection, Streptococcus pyogenes has the capacity to bind to the host extracellular matrix protein fibronectin via its protein F adhesin. Previous studies have suggested that the expression of protein F is stimulated during aerobic growth or upon addition of superoxide-generating agents to the culture under O2-limited conditions. To further explore the role of superoxide, we have examined the transcription of the gene which encodes protein F (prtF), as well as the expressi...

Gibson, C. M.; Caparon, M. G.

1996-01-01

156

Activity of the Diaminopyrimidine AR-709 against Recently Collected Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae from North America?  

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Broth microdilution was used to determine the MICs of AR-709 and comparator antimicrobial agents for 224 invasive multidrug-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. AR-709 was highly active, with a MIC50 of 0.25 ?g/ml, a MIC90 of 0.5 ?g/ml, and a range of ?0.008 ?g/ml to 1 ?g/ml.

Ressner, Roseanne A.; Moore, Matthew R.; Jorgensen, James H.

2008-01-01

157

Loss of the Group A Streptococcus Regulator Srv Decreases Biofilm Formation In Vivo in an Otitis Media Model of Infection ?  

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Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common causative agent of pharyngitis, but the role of GAS in otitis media is underappreciated. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that GAS colonizes the middle ear and establishes itself in localized, three-dimensional communities representative of biofilms. To test this hypothesis, the middle ears of chinchillas were infected with either a strain of GAS capable of forming biofilms in vitro (MGAS5005) or a strain deficient in biofilm formation du...

Roberts, Amity L.; Connolly, Kristie L.; Doern, Christopher D.; Holder, Robert C.; Reid, Sean D.

2010-01-01

158

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis.  

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The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium ...

Scannapieco, F. A.; Bergey, E. J.; Reddy, M. S.; Levine, M. J.

1989-01-01

159

Einfluss von Cytarabin auf die Pathogenitätsfaktoren von Streptococcus mitis  

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Streptococcus mitis belongs to the viridans streptococci and is a common cause of infections in neutropenic patients with hematologic alignancies. Therapy with high-dose cytarabine is a known risk factor for invasive infections. In this study, the impact of cytarabine on the virulence factors of S. mitis was investigated. 16 Streptococcus mitis and 2 Streptococcus oralis isolates originating from pediatric blood cultures were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All the investigated str...

2009-01-01

160

Streptococcus dysgalactiae endocarditis presenting as acute endophthalmitis  

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Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. The identification of Group C and G streptococci such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae is comparatively uncommon and has only been reported in a few case reports or series. We therefore report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae first presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis, the most likely source being bilateral feet osteomyelitis in a patient with type I diabetes. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous benzylpenicillin, intravitreal antibiotics, bilateral below knee amputations and mitral valve replacement. She survived all surgical procedures and regained partial visual acuity in the affected eye.

Tsung Han Woo

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

M-Like Proteins of Streptococcus dysgalactiae  

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Streptococcus dysgalactiae is one of the most important bacterial species isolated from bovine mastitis. To identify potential virulence factors of this species we prepared chromosomal DNA from strain 8215 and constructed a phage display library. By affinity selection of the library against fibrinogen (Fg), we isolated and characterized a gene, called demA, encoding a protein with the molecular mass of ?58 kDa, called DemA, displaying both plasma protein binding properties and sequence simi...

Vasi, Jo?zsef; Frykberg, Lars; Carlsson, Lena E.; Lindberg, Martin; Guss, Bengt

2000-01-01

162

Molecular Characterization of Nontypeable Group B Streptococcus  

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Traditionally, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigen has been used to distinguish between the nine known serotypes of group B streptococcus (GBS) by classical antibody-antigen reactions. In this study, we used PCR for all CPSs and selected protein antigens, multilocus sequencing typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to molecularly characterize 92 clinical isolates identified as nontypeable (NT) by CPS-specific antibody-antigen reactivity. The PCR and MLST were perform...

Ramaswamy, Srinivas V.; Ferrieri, Patricia; Flores, Aurea E.; Paoletti, Lawrence C.

2006-01-01

163

Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus  

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The first case of the confirmed necrotizing fasciitis caused by Group A Streptococcus in Yugoslavia was presented. Male patient, aged 28, in good health, suddenly developed symptoms and signs of severe infective syndrome and intensive pain in the axillary region. Parenteral antibiotic, substitution and supportive therapy was conducted along with the radical surgical excision of the necrotizing tissue. The patient did not develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome thanks to the early establish...

2002-01-01

164

Group B streptococcus, phospholipids, and pulmonary hypertension*  

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Group B streptococcus is the most common cause of bacterial infection in the newborn. Infection in many cases causes persistent pulmonary hypertension which impairs gas exchange in the lung. We purified the bacterial components causing pulmonary hypertension and showed that they are the phospholipids cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. Synthetic cardiolipin or phosphatidylglycerol also induced pulmonary hypertension in lambs. The recognition that bacterial phospholipids may cause pulmonary ...

2011-01-01

165

Ferrous iron transport in Streptococcus mutans.  

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Radioiron uptake from 59FeCl3 by Streptococcus mutans OMZ176 was increased by anaerobiosis, sodium ascorbate, and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), although there was a 10-min lag before PMS stimulation was evident. The reductant ascorbate may have provided ferrous iron. The PMS was reduced by the cells, and the reduced PMS then may have generated ferrous iron for transport; reduced PMS also may have depleted dissolved oxygen. We conclude that S. mutans transports only ferrous iron, utilizing red...

1986-01-01

166

Ornithine transport and exchange in Streptococcus lactis.  

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Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 appeared to accumulate [14C]ornithine to a high concentration in the absence of an exogenous energy source. However, analysis of intracellular amino acid pool constituents and results of transport experiments revealed that the accumulation of ornithine represented a homoexchange between extracellular [14C]ornithine and unlabeled ornithine in the cell. The energy-independent exchange of ornithine was not inhibited by proton-conducting uncouplers or by ...

Thompson, J.

1987-01-01

167

Invasive Streptococcus iniae Infections Outside North America  

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Streptococcus iniae, a fish pathogen causing infections in aquaculture farms worldwide, has only been reported to cause human infections in North America. In this article, we report the first two cases of invasive S. iniae infections in two Chinese patients outside North America. While the first patient presented with bacteremic cellulitis, which is the most common presentation in previous cases, the second patient represents the first recognized case of S. iniae osteomyelitis. Both S. iniae ...

Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Tse, Herman; Leung, Kit-wah; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-yung

2003-01-01

168

Phenotypic Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Development  

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Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most common pathogens associated with chronic otitis media with effusion, which has been hypothesized to be a biofilm disease. S. pneumoniae has been shown to form biofilms, however, little is known about the developmental process, the architecture, and the changes that occur upon biofilm development. In the current study we made use of a continuous-culture biofilm system to characterize biofilm development of 14 different S. pneumoniae strains representi...

2006-01-01

169

Genome of Streptococcus oralis Strain Uo5?  

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Streptococcus oralis, a commensal species of the human oral cavity, belongs to the Mitis group of streptococci, which includes one of the major human pathogens as well, S. pneumoniae. We report here the first complete genome sequence of this species. S. oralis Uo5, a high-level penicillin- and multiple-antibiotic-resistant isolate from Hungary, is competent for genetic transformation under laboratory conditions. Comparative and functional genomics of Uo5 will be important in understanding the...

2011-01-01

170

Antimicrobial Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada during 2000  

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A total of 2,245 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected from 63 microbiology laboratories from across Canada during 2000 and characterized at a central laboratory. Of these isolates, 12.4% were not susceptible to penicillin (penicillin MIC, ?0.12 ?g/ml) and 5.8% were resistant (MIC, ?2 ?g/ml). Resistance rates among non-?-lactam agents were the following: macrolides, 11.1%; clindamycin, 5.7%; chloramphenicol, 2.2%; levofloxacin, 0.9%; gatifloxacin, 0.8%; moxifloxa...

Low, Donald E.; Azavedo, Joyce; Weiss, Karl; Mazzulli, Tony; Kuhn, Magdalena; Church, Deirdre; Forward, Kevin; Zhanel, George; Simor, Andrew; Mcgeer, A.

2002-01-01

171

Virulence of a spaP Mutant of Streptococcus mutans in a Gnotobiotic Rat Model  

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Streptococcus mutans, the principal etiologic agent of dental caries in humans, possesses a variety of virulence traits that enable it to establish itself in the oral cavity and initiate disease. A 185-kDa cell surface-localized protein known variously as antigen I/II, antigen B, PAc, and P1 has been postulated to be a virulence factor in S. mutans. We showed previously that P1 expression is necessary for in vitro adherence of S. mutans to salivary agglutinin-coated hydroxyapatite as well as ...

1999-01-01

172

DETERMINACION DE LA PORTACION DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B EN EMBARAZADAS DURANTE EL TERCER TRIMESTRE MEDIANTE INMUNOENSAYO  

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Full Text Available Dado que la sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B es una enfermedad de alta letalidad, y considerando además que la portación de este germen en nuestra población de embarazadas se acerca a 20%, es que, resulta muy importante disponer de algún test rápido y confiable para realizar screening. Este estudio evalúa el rendimiento de un inmunoensayo para pesquisa de Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas sin factores de riesgo y a fines del tercer trimestre. Los resultados muestran una baja sensibilidad y un bajo valor predictivo positivo para este método, lo que no lo hace recomendable para su implementación clínicaNeonatal sepsis of early onset by group B Streptococcus has a high mortality rate. Twenty percent of our pregnant population have vaginal colonization by this bacterial agent, so clinical practice require a fast and efficient screening test. This report checks a Group B Streptococcus immunoassay screening test in the last trimester for pregnant women without risk factors. The low sensitivity and low positive predictive value of the test make it not recomendable for clinical practice

Fernando Abarzúa

2002-01-01

173

Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis Colonization Correlated with Caries Experience in Children  

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The aim of this study was to examine the colonization of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in the oral cavity and the association with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). Saliva and plaque samples were collected from 14 S-ECC children and 8 caries-free (CF) children. All S-ECC children were S. mutans positive; 100% of CF children and 93% of S-ECC children were S. sanguinis positive. The children's caries severity was positively correlated with levels of S. mutans (p < 0.001)...

Ge, Y.; Caufield, P. W.; Fisch, G. S.; Li, Y.

2008-01-01

174

Prevalência de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico em crianças portadoras de necessidades especiais / Prevalence of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus in children with special health care needs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Faringotonsilite causada por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico afeta principalmente crianças e imunocomprometidos, sendo Streptococcus pyogenes (Grupo A) o agente mais comum em faringotonsilites bacterianas. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou a busca por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico do Grupo A (SBHG [...] A) e Não A (SBHGNA) na orofaringe de indivíduos com necessidades especiais da APAE (Maceió-AL). MÉTODO:Estudo prospectivo com amostras da orofaringe de pacientes com síndrome de Down e outras desordens mentais (teste) e estudantes de escola privada (controle) de 5-15 anos. Culturas em ágar sangue (5%) foram identificadas através dos testes de Gram/catalase e o método de disco difusão com bacitracina/sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, aplicando-se o teste Chi-quadrado em análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Um total de 222 colônias bacterianas foram isoladas em 74 indivíduos da APAE e 65 no grupo controle. No grupo teste, episódios prévios de faringotonsilites foram relatados por 36,49% (27/74) e 9,46% (7/74) foram diagnosticados com sintomas e/ou sinais sugestivos de infecção orofaríngea. Nenhuma amostra de S. pyogenes foi confirmada na APAE, sendo todas identificadas como SBHGNA, com cinco SBHGA no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO:A identificação precoce de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico é importante para o tratamento rápido de faringotonsilites e a ausência de S. pyogenes evita futuras sequelas supurativas ou não supurativas no grupo da APAE. Abstract in english Pharyngotonsillitis by ?-hemolytic Streptococcus mostly affects children and imunocompromissed, being Streptococcuspyogenes (Group A) the most common agent in bacterial pharyngotonsillitis. AIM:This work targeted the research of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus Group-A (SBHGA) and No-A (SBHGNA) i [...] n the oropharynx of individuals with special health needs from the APAE (Maceió-AL). METHOD: A prospective study with oropharynx samples from patients with Down syndrome and other mental disorders (test) and students from a private school (control) aged 5-15 years. Cultures in blood agar (5%) were identified through Gram/catalase tests and bacitracin/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole disk diffusion method, applying the chi-squared statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 222 bacterial colonies were isolated in 74 individuals from APAE and 65 in the control group. In the test group, previous episodes of pharyngotonsillitis were reported by 36.49% (27/74) and 9.46% (7/74) were diagnosed with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of oropharynx infection. No positive sample of S. pyogenes was confirmed at APAE, being all samples classified as SBHGNA, with 5 SBHGA in the control group. CONCLUSION: The early identification of ?-hemolytic Steptococcus is important for the fast treatment of pharyngotonsillitis and the absence of S. pyogenes avoid future suppurative or not-suppurative sequels in the group from APAE.

Morais, Viviane Martha Santos de; Orsi, Alice Ramos; Maranhão, Fernanda Cristina de Albuquerque; Castro, Therezita Maria Peixoto Patury Galvão; Castro, Karina Cavalcante Beltrão de; Silva, Denise Maria Wanderlei.

175

Sympathetic empyema arising from streptococcus anginosus splenic abscess  

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Full Text Available We report a 52 year old male with a history splenic infarction, abdominal pain and shortness of breath. CT scanning revealed a splenic abcess and empyema. Cultures from both sites grew Streptococcus anginosus. These resolved with drainage and antibiotics. Physicians should consider Streptococcus species when confronted with a patient with splenic infarction.

Wissa E

2012-03-01

176

Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus Strain ND03?  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus thermophilus strain ND03 is a Chinese commercial dairy starter used for the manufacture of yogurt. It was isolated from naturally fermented yak milk in Qinghai, China. We present here the complete genome sequence of ND03 and compare it to three other published genomes of Streptococcus thermophilus strains.

Sun, Zhihong; Chen, Xia; Wang, Jicheng; Zhao, Wenjing; Shao, Yuyu; Wu, Lan; Zhou, Zhemin; Sun, Tiansong; Wang, Lei; Meng, He; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Wei

2011-01-01

177

Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study  

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Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer?s chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU/ml and < 10 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

Jeevarathan J

2007-01-01

178

Problemas de resistencia en Streptococcus pyogenes / Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los problemas de resistencia de Streptoco-ccus pyogenes son relativos a la adquisición de resistencia a macrólidos lo cual ocurre mediante dos mecanismos: modificación del sitio de acción en el ribosoma, resistencia tipo MLS B codificada por el gen erm que se asocia con resistencia a lincosamidas y [...] streptogramina B, y por eflujo activo codificado por gen mef con resistencia sólo a macrólidos, siendo éste el mecanismo más frecuentemente encontrado en este microorganismo. En Chile se han aislado cepas de Streptoco-ccus pyogenes resistentes a macrólidos desde 1994, con porcentaje de resistencia promedio en los últimos seis años de 7% en el área Metropolitana Abstract in english Streptococcus pyogenes resistance problems are refered to macrolides resistance which occurs by two mechanisms: modification of the target site in the ribosomes, MLS B resistance codified by gen erm and associated with resistance to lincosamines and streptogramin B, or by an active efflux mechanism [...] codified by gen mef which confers resistance to macrolides only, this being the most frequently described in this specie. In Chile Streptococcus pyogenes strains resistant to macrolides have been isolated since 1994, with rates of 7% in last six years at the Metropolitan area

Camponovo C., Rossanna.

179

Problemas de resistencia en Streptococcus pyogenes Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los problemas de resistencia de Streptoco-ccus pyogenes son relativos a la adquisición de resistencia a macrólidos lo cual ocurre mediante dos mecanismos: modificación del sitio de acción en el ribosoma, resistencia tipo MLS B codificada por el gen erm que se asocia con resistencia a lincosamidas y streptogramina B, y por eflujo activo codificado por gen mef con resistencia sólo a macrólidos, siendo éste el mecanismo más frecuentemente encontrado en este microorganismo. En Chile se han aislado cepas de Streptoco-ccus pyogenes resistentes a macrólidos desde 1994, con porcentaje de resistencia promedio en los últimos seis años de 7% en el área MetropolitanaStreptococcus pyogenes resistance problems are refered to macrolides resistance which occurs by two mechanisms: modification of the target site in the ribosomes, MLS B resistance codified by gen erm and associated with resistance to lincosamines and streptogramin B, or by an active efflux mechanism codified by gen mef which confers resistance to macrolides only, this being the most frequently described in this specie. In Chile Streptococcus pyogenes strains resistant to macrolides have been isolated since 1994, with rates of 7% in last six years at the Metropolitan area

Rossanna Camponovo C.

2002-01-01

180

Antibacterial substances from Albizia myriophylla wood against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Albizia myriophylla has been used for long by Thai traditional healers as an important ingredient herb in Thai herbal formulas for caries. In this study, three flavonoids lupinifolin (6), 8-methoxy-7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (7), and 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (8), a triterpenoid lupeol (3) as well as four sterols ?-sitosterone (1), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-one (2), ?-sitosterol (4), and stigmasterol (5) were isolated from A. myriophylla wood. The antibacterial activity of these compounds against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 was performed using broth microdilution method. All compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against S. mutans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 1-256 and 2-256 ?g/ml, respectively. Among the isolated compounds, lupinifolin (6) was found to be the most potent with MIC and MBC of 1 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively. Lupinifolin (6) also showed a strong activity against ten clinical isolates of S. mutans with MIC and MBC ranging from 0.25-2 and 0.5-8 ?g/ml, respectively. These results reported the bioactive ingredients of A. myriophylla which support its ethnomedical claims as well. Lupinifolin (6) may have a potential to be a natural anticariogenic agent. PMID:23479194

Joycharat, Nantiya; Thammavong, Sonesay; Limsuwan, Surasak; Homlaead, Sirilux; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek; Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Characterization of porcine dendritic cell response to Streptococcus suis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen and important zoonotic agent causing mainly septicemia and meningitis. However, the mechanisms involved in host innate and adaptive immune responses toward S. suis as well as the mechanisms used by S. suis to subvert these responses are unknown. Here, and for the first time, the ability of S. suis to interact with bone marrow-derived swine dendritic cells (DCs was evaluated. In addition, the role of S. suis capsular polysaccharide in modulation of DC functions was also assessed. Well encapsulated S. suis was relatively resistant to phagocytosis, but it increased the relative expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 and triggered the release of several cytokines by DCs, including IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40 and TNF-?. The capsular polysaccharide was shown to interfere with DC phagocytosis; however, once internalized, S. suis was readily destroyed by DCs independently of the presence of the capsular polysaccharide. Cell wall components were mainly responsible for DC activation, since the capsular polysaccharide-negative mutant induced higher cytokine levels than the wild-type strain. The capsular polysaccharide also interfered with the expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80/86 and MHC-II on DCs. To conclude, our results show for the first time that S. suis interacts with swine origin DCs and suggest that these cells might play a role in the development of host innate and adaptive immunity during an infection with S. suis serotype 2.

Lecours Marie-Pier

2011-06-01

182

Agent engineering  

CERN Document Server

Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P

2001-01-01

183

Immunochemical Properties of Glucosyltransferases from Streptococcus mutans  

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Antiserum against purified mutansynthetase (EC 2.4.1.?) of Streptococcus mutans 6715 (serotype g), which is responsible for the synthesis of water-insoluble glucan (ISG) in the presence of both sucrose and water-soluble glucan, was prepared. The specificity of the antiserum was tested by using crude enzyme preparations (CEPs) of S. mutans strains of various serotypes. On immunodiffusion, the antiserum cross-reacted with CEPs from strains of serotypes a (HS-6 and AHT), d (OMZ176), and g (OMZ65...

Fukui, Kazuhiro; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Kato, Keijiro; Miyake, Yoichiro; Nogami, Ryuzo; Moriyama, Takafumi

1983-01-01

184

Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus  

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Full Text Available The first case of the confirmed necrotizing fasciitis caused by Group A Streptococcus in Yugoslavia was presented. Male patient, aged 28, in good health, suddenly developed symptoms and signs of severe infective syndrome and intensive pain in the axillary region. Parenteral antibiotic, substitution and supportive therapy was conducted along with the radical surgical excision of the necrotizing tissue. The patient did not develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome thanks to the early established diagnosis and timely applied aggressive treatment. He was released from the hospital as completely cured two months after the admission.

Miki? Dragan

2002-01-01

185

Ferrous iron transport in Streptococcus mutans  

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Radioiron uptake from /sup 59/FeCl/sub 3/ by Streptococcus mutans OMZ176 was increased by anaerobiosis, sodium ascorbate, and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), although there was a 10-min lag before PMS stimulation was evident. The reductant ascorbate may have provided ferrous iron. The PMS was reduced by the cells, and the reduced PMS then may have generated ferrous iron for transport; reduced PMS also may have depleted dissolved oxygen. It was concluded that S. mutans transports only ferrous iron, utilizing reductants furnished by glucose metabolism to reduce iron prior to its uptake.

Evans, S.L.; Arcenaeux, J.E.L.; Byers, B.R.; Martin, M.E.; Aranha, H.

1986-12-01

186

Lack of SOS repair in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wild-type strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were non-mutable by UV radiation and thymidine starvation. Moreover, UV-irradiated pneumococcal ?2 phages were not reactivated in an irradiated host. This suggests that, in pneumococcus, there is no efficient inducible repair process similar to the SOS repair described in detail for E. coli. We also report that mutations cannot be induced by a process thought to be linked to competence during transformation with isogenic wild-type DNA either on wild-type strains or in strains in which the hex function of excision and repair of mismatched bases is inactive. (orig.)

1980-01-01

187

Características laboratoriais das ceratites e conjuntivites causadas por Streptococcus sp Laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar os resultados laboratoriais de conjuntivites e ceratites com cultura positiva para Streptococcus sp, avaliando a incidência das diferentes espécies e os dados dos antibiogramas. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuários de pacientes encaminhados ao laboratório de Doenças Externas do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP com resultado de cultivo bacteriano positivo de córnea ou conjuntiva e com identificação de alguma cepa do gênero Streptococcus sp, no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2001. Analisou-se idade do paciente, espécie de Streptococcus e os testes de sensibilidade aos seguintes antibióticos: cefalotina, amicacina, gentamicina, tobramicina, ciprofloxacina, lomefloxacina, ofloxacina, norfloxacina e vancomicina. RESULTADOS: As espécies mais encontradas foram Streptococcus pneumoniae e Streptococcus viridans. Com relação aos antibióticos, a sensibilidade foi maior à cefalotina, às quinolonas e à vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se os antibióticos tópicos comercialmente disponíveis, as quinolonas apresentam melhor espectro de ação quando comparadas aos aminoglicosídios.PURPOSE: To evaluate laboratorial findings of Streptococcus keratitis and conjunctivitis, analyzing the different species and the results of bacterial susceptibility to an antibiotics. METHODS: Retrospective study of the records from the External Disease Laboratory of the Ophthalmology Department of the Federal University of São Paulo, with conjunctival or corneal positive bacterial culture for Streptococcus sp, between January 1995 and December 2001. The collected data were age, Streptococcus species and the bacterial susceptibility to the following antibiotics: cephalotin, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramicin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and vancomicin. RESULTS: The most frequent species were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus viridans. Regarding bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics we found a higher susceptibility to the following antibiotics: cephalotin, quinolones and vancomicin. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the commercially available topic antibiotics, the quinolones presented better results when compared to the aminoglycosides.

Helena Parente Solari

2004-10-01

188

In Vitro Activities of the Novel Ketolide Telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus Species  

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The in vitro susceptibilities of 184 erythromycin-resistant streptococci to a novel ketolide, telithromycin (HMR 3647), were tested. These clinical isolates included 111 Streptococcus pyogenes, 18 group C streptococcus, 18 group G streptococcus, and 37 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. The MICs for all but eight S. pyogenes strains were ?0.5 ?g/ml, indicating that telithromycin is active in vitro against erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus strains. All strains for which MICs were ?1 ?g...

Jalava, Jari; Kataja, Janne; Seppa?la?, Helena; Huovinen, Pentti

2001-01-01

189

Genetic Relationships between Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus mitis: Characterization of “Atypical” Pneumococci and Organisms Allied to S. mitis Harboring S. pneumoniae Virulence Factor-Encoding Genes  

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The oral streptococcal group (mitis phylogenetic group) currently consists of nine recognized species, although the group has been traditionally difficult to classify, with frequent changes in nomenclature over the years. The pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae), an important human pathogen, is traditionally distinguished from the most closely related oral streptococcal species Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis on the basis of three differentiating characteristics: optochin susc...

2000-01-01

190

Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis admitted to the pediatric hospital of San Miguel del Padron, City of Havana in this period were assessed. RESULTS: Children under one year are the most frequently affected. Septic shock and brain edema were the most severe complications. Three patients died, implying that this disease has a serious course. Early treatment of brain edema is very important to reduce mortality. The elective drugs for treatment of these cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were vancomycin combined with cephalosporin, cefotaxime or ceftriaxone type. CONCLUSION: Patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis show clinical characteristics, complications, and sequels that are different to other bacterial meningoencephalitis, meaning that they could be helpful for physicians considering the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis.OBJETIVO: Existe un incremento de la meningoencefalitis producida por Streptococcus pneumoniae, después de las campañas exitosas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las caracteristicas clinicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio, las complicaciones y el manejo terapéutico de los pacientes que sufrieron esta enfermedad desde 1993 a 2006. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron doce niños con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana en este periodo. RESULTADOS: Los niños menores de un año son los más frecuentemente afectados. El shock séptico y el edema cerebral las mayores complicaciones. Tres pacientes fallecieron. Esta enfermedad ha tenido un curso serio. El tratamiento temprano del edema cerebral es muy importante para reducir la mortalidad. Los medicamentos de elección para tratar la meningoencefalitis por Strepcococcus pneumoniae en los casos estudiados fueron la vancomicina combinada con cefalosporina del tipo de la cefatoxima o la ceftriaxona. CONCLUSION: Los pacientes con meningoencefalitis por Streptoccocus pneumoniae exhibieron características clínica, complicaciones y secuelas las cuales se diferencian de otras meningoencefalitis bacterianas. Por eso estos elementos pueden ayudar a los médicos en el diagnóstico diferencial

Raisa Bu-Coifiu Fanego

2009-12-01

191

Effects of Two Fluoride Varnishes and One Fluoride/Chlorhexidine Varnish on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus Biofilm Formation in Vitro  

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Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the effect of two fluoride varnishes and one fluoride/chlorhexidine varnish on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus biofilm formation, in vitro.

Pinar Erdem, Arzu; Sepet, Elif; Kulekci, Gu?ven; Trosola, Sule Can; Guven, Yegane

2012-01-01

192

Isolation and Characterization of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Auxotrophs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans.  

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Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis is essential for the maintenance of membrane structure and function in many groups of anaerobic bacteria. Like Escherichia coli, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae produces straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids. In E. coli UFA synthesis requires the action of two gene products, the essential isomerase/dehydratase encoded by fabA and an elongation condensing enzyme encoded by fabB. S. pneumoniae lacks both ...

Altabe, Silvia; Lo?pez Garci?a, Paloma; Mendoza, Diego

2007-01-01

193

Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Its Subspecies, and Its Clinical and Phylogenetic Relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes  

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The taxonomic status and structure of Streptococcus dysgalactiae have been the object of much confusion. Bacteria belonging to this species are usually referred to as Lancefield group C or group G streptococci in clinical settings in spite of the fact that these terms lack precision and prevent recognition of the exact clinical relevance of these bacteria. The purpose of this study was to develop an improved basis for delineation and identification of the individual species of the pyogenic gr...

Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

2012-01-01

194

Multiplex quantitative PCR for detection of lower respiratory tract infection and meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis  

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Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae cause pneumonia and as Neisseria meningitidis they are important agents of meningitis. Although several PCR methods have been described for these bacteria the specificity is an underestimated problem. Here we present a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR (qmPCR) for detection of S. pneumoniae (9802 gene fragment), H. influenzae (omp P6 gene) and N...

Mk, Abdeldaim Guma; Strålin Kristoffer; Korsgaard Jens; Blomberg Jonas; Welinder-Olsson Christina; Herrmann Björn

2010-01-01

195

Design of an Improved Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR Assay for Molecular Detection of Streptococcus pneumonia  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Streptococcus pneumoniae accounts for bacterial meningitis and is an important cause of morbidity among children and elderly. Control of this disease depends on rapid detection of the causative bacteria. The methods for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae are gram staining, culture, and serological tests. These tests are time consuming and are limited by antimicrobial agents leading to false negative results. Currently, molecular methods such as PCR are used routinely for detection of infectious organisms. This study was performed with the aim of designing an improved PCR assay for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae.Methods: The specific diagnostic primers were designed based on ply gene of the bacterium. After amplifying the target gene on the genomic DNA, the PCR product was cloned in pTZ57R/T plasmid and the confirmed pTZ-ply plasmid was used as positive control in next experiments. Sensitivity of the assay was determined by performing the PCR on 10-fold serial dilutions of pTZ-ply. Specificity of the assay was determined using the genomic DNA of other related or unrelated bacterial species.Results: The PCR, as expected, generated a 727bp amplicon. No PCR amplification was observed on the genome of negative controls. These findings indicate high specificity of the PCR. The lowest limit of detection of the assay in the detection of the ply gene was 250 copies in a 25µl reaction.Conclusion: The high sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity of the designed assay suggested the assay as an appropriate test for use in clinical laboratories. The further evaluation of the assay using clinical samples or artificially contaminated materials will confirm the application of this assay in clinical settings.

Amir Hossein Mohseni

2013-09-01

196

Exogenous group G Streptococcus endophthalmitis following intravitreal ranibizumab injection  

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Full Text Available Suleyman Kugu,1 Mehmet Sahin Sevim,2 Nilufer Zorlutuna Kaymak,1 Gurkan Erdogan,3 Baran Kandemir,1 Omer Kamil Dogan41Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, 2Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, 3Umraniye Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, 4World Eye Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: We report a case of group G Streptococcus endophthalmitis following an intravitreal ranibizumab injection for a choroidal neovascular membrane. Pars plana vitrectomy was applied for endophthalmitis and group G Streptococcus cultures were isolated in the vitreous samples taken from the patient. Twenty-four hours following pars plana vitrectomy the patient underwent myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of group G Streptococcus endophthalmitis following an intravitreal injection.Keywords: group G Streptococcus, endophthalmitis, intravitreal injection

Kugu S

2012-08-01

197

Comparative genomics of the dairy isolate Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against related members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Within the genus Streptococcus, only Streptococcus thermophilus is used as a starter culture in food fermentations. Streptococcus macedonicus though, which belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC), is also frequently isolated from fermented foods mainly of dairy origin. Members of the SBSEC have been implicated in human endocarditis and colon cancer. Here we compare the genome sequence of the dairy isolate S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 to the other SBSEC genomes in order to assess in silico its potential adaptation to milk and its pathogenicity status. Results Despite the fact that the SBSEC species were found tightly related based on whole genome phylogeny of streptococci, two distinct patterns of evolution were identified among them. Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus infantarius CJ18 and Streptococcus pasteurianus ATCC 43144 seem to have undergone reductive evolution resulting in significantly diminished genome sizes and increased percentages of potential pseudogenes when compared to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. In addition, the three species seem to have lost genes for catabolizing complex plant carbohydrates and for detoxifying toxic substances previously linked to the ability of S. gallolyticus to survive in the rumen. Analysis of the S. macedonicus genome revealed features that could support adaptation to milk, including an extra gene cluster for lactose and galactose metabolism, a proteolytic system for casein hydrolysis, auxotrophy for several vitamins, an increased ability to resist bacteriophages and horizontal gene transfer events with the dairy Lactococcus lactis and S. thermophilus as potential donors. In addition, S. macedonicus lacks several pathogenicity-related genes found in S. gallolyticus. For example, S. macedonicus has retained only one (i.e. the pil3) of the three pilus gene clusters which may mediate the binding of S. gallolyticus to the extracellular matrix. Unexpectedly, similar findings were obtained not only for the dairy S. infantarius CJ18, but also for the blood isolate S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144. Conclusions Our whole genome analyses suggest traits of adaptation of S. macedonicus to the nutrient-rich dairy environment. During this process the bacterium gained genes presumably important for this new ecological niche. Finally, S. macedonicus carries a reduced number of putative SBSEC virulence factors, which suggests a diminished pathogenic potential.

2014-01-01

198

Transfer of plasmids by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Transfer of resistance plasmids occurred by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) similiarly to the process in other streptococcal groups. The 20-megadalton plasmid pIP501 mediated its own DNase-resistant transfer by filter mating and mobilized the 3.6-megadalton non-self-transmissible pMV158. Pneumococcal strains acted as donors or as recipients for intraspecies transfers and for interspecific transfers with Streptococcus faecalis. Transfer-deficient mutants of pIP501 have been found.

Smith, M.D.; Shoemaker, N.B.; Burdett, V.; Guild, W.R.

1980-01-01

199

Protease production by Streptococcus sanguis associated with subacute bacterial endocarditis.  

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A viridans streptococcus (Streptococcus sanguis biotype II) isolated from the blood of a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis was examined for protease production. In broth culture, extracellular proteolytic enzymes were not produced by this organism until after the early exponential phase of growth, with maximal protease production occurring during the stationary phase. Four distinct proteases were isolated and purified from the supernatant fluids of stationary-phase cultures, employ...

Straus, D. C.

1982-01-01

200

Phosphate/hexose 6-phosphate antiport in Streptococcus lactis.  

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After growth in appropriate media, resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 7962 showed a rapid exchange between external and internal pools of inorganic phosphate. This exchange was not found in other strains of S. lactis (ML3, 133, or K1) or in Streptococcus faecalis. Phosphate exchange in S. lactis 7962 did not require other anions or cations in the assay medium, nor was phosphate influx affected by the membrane potential and pH gradient formed during glycolysis. Thus, the exchange reaction w...

Maloney, P. C.; Ambudkar, S. V.; Thomas, J.; Schiller, L.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Adhesion-related interactions of Actinomyces and Streptococcus biofilm bacteria  

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Adhesion of bacteria is a key event in biofilm formation and is mediated by bacterial adhesins recognising host or bacterial partner receptors. In oral biofilm formation, primary Actinomyces and Streptococcus colonizers adhere to salivary pellicle proteins such as proline-rich proteins (PRPs) as well as to mucosal surfaces. Subsequently, Actinomyces and Streptococcus strains and other bacteria, such as Veillonella, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas, adhere to each other. The nature of this comm...

Drobni, Mirva

2006-01-01

202

The epidemiology of severe Streptococcus pyogenes disease in Europe  

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Diseases caused by the Lancefield group A streptococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, are amongst the most challenging to clinicians and public health specialists alike. Although severe infections caused by S. pyogenes are relatively uncommon, affecting around 3 per 100,000 of the population per annum in developed countries, the case fatality is high relative to many other infections. Despite a long scientific tradition of studying their occurrence and characteristics, many aspects of their epidem...

Lamagni, Theresa

2008-01-01

203

Chromosomally mediated high-level gentamicin resistance in Streptococcus mitis.  

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Four blood culture isolates of Streptococcus mitis were found to be resistant to penicillin (MIC, 16 to 32 micrograms/ml) and gentamicin (MIC, 128 or 1,000 micrograms/ml), and the two antibiotics demonstrated a lack of in vitro synergy. As shown by polymerase chain reaction assays, the structural gene known to encode high-level gentamicin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Streptococcus agalactiae was also present in all four S. mitis strains. Attempts to isolate p...

1993-01-01

204

Streptococcus mitis: walking the line between commensalism and pathogenesis  

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Streptococcus mitis is a viridans streptococcus and a normal commensal of the human oropharynx. However, S. mitis can escape from this niche and cause a variety of infectious complications including infective endocarditis, bacteraemia and septicaemia. It uses a variety of strategies to effectively colonize the human oropharynx. These include expression of adhesins, immunoglobulin A proteases and toxins, and modulation of the host immune system. These various colonization factors allow S. mill...

2011-01-01

205

Contribution of Glutathione Peroxidase to the Virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes  

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Glutathione peroxidases are widespread among eukaryotic organisms and function as a major defense against hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides. However, glutathione peroxidases are not well studied among prokaryotic organisms and have not previously been shown to promote bacterial virulence. Recently, a gene with homology to glutathione peroxidase was shown to contribute to the antioxidant defenses of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus). Since this bacterium causes numerous supp...

Brenot, Audrey; King, Katherine Y.; Janowiak, Blythe; Griffith, Owen; Caparon, Michael G.

2004-01-01

206

M-Like Proteins of Streptococcus dysgalactiae  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus dysgalactiae is one of the most important bacterial species isolated from bovine mastitis. To identify potential virulence factors of this species we prepared chromosomal DNA from strain 8215 and constructed a phage display library. By affinity selection of the library against fibrinogen (Fg), we isolated and characterized a gene, called demA, encoding a protein with the molecular mass of ?58 kDa, called DemA, displaying both plasma protein binding properties and sequence similarities with the M and M-like proteins of other streptococcal species. Purified recombinant DemA protein was found to completely inhibit Fg-binding to cells of S. dysgalactiae. A continued sequence analysis revealed that the demA gene was preceded by an open reading frame (dmgA) coding for a putative protein, called DmgA, with high similarities to the Mga proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes. By additional cloning, the corresponding dmgA and demA genes from another strain, called Epi9, were isolated and analyzed. These genes, called dmgB and demB, respectively, revealed a high degree of similarity to the corresponding genes in strain 8215. Increased binding of Fg by cells of strain Epi9, grown in an atmosphere with 10% CO2, was correlated to an enhanced transcription of the demB gene as shown in a Northern blot. Strain 8215 did not respond to CO2, which could be explained by a nonfunctional dmgA gene due to insertion of an insertion sequence element. Based on sequence similarities of the described proteins to Mga, M, and M-like proteins and the response to elevated level of CO2, we suggest that the dmg and dem genes are members of a regulon similar to the described mga regulon in S. pyogenes, which encodes several virulence factors in this species.

Vasi, Jozsef; Frykberg, Lars; Carlsson, Lena E.; Lindberg, Martin; Guss, Bengt

2000-01-01

207

Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm  

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Full Text Available Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo1, Donaji Velasco-Arias2, David Diaz2, Katiushka Arevalo-Niño1, Marianela Garza-Enriquez1, Myriam A De la Garza-Ramos1, Claudio Cabral-Romero11Instituto de Biotecnologia, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias de la Salud, CIDICS, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 2Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal, MexicoBackground and methods: Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities.Results: Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM.Conclusion: These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation.Keywords: zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles, antimicrobial agent, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans

Hernandez-Delgadillo R

2012-04-01

208

Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov., isolated from the human throat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The novel, Gram-stain-positive, ovoid, lactic acid bacterial isolates LMG 27205, LMG 27206, LMG 27207(T) and MRI-F 18 were obtained from throat samples of healthy humans. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that these isolates belong to the genus Streptococcus, specifically the Streptococcus mitis group, with Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus mitis as the nearest neighbours (99.45 and 98.56?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the respective type strains). Genotypic fingerprinting by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), DNA-DNA hybridizations, comparative sequence analysis of pheS, rpoA and atpA and physiological and biochemical tests revealed that these bacteria formed a taxon well separated from its nearest neighbours and other species of the genus Streptococcus with validly published names and, therefore, represent a novel species, for which the name Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov. is proposed, with LMG 27207(T) (?=?DSM 26920(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23749274

Huch, Melanie; De Bruyne, Katrien; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Bub, Achim; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Watzl, Bernhard; Snauwaert, Isabel; Franz, Charles M A P; Vandamme, Peter

2013-11-01

209

Phenotypical characteristics of group B streptococcus in parturients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Colonization by Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is highly prevalent among pregnant women, with prevalence rates ranging between 4% and 30%. The infection may be transmitted vertically and may result in serious neonatal consequences. In the period from November 2003 to May 2004, a cross-sectional study w [...] as carried out among 316 parturients at the Jundiaí Teaching Hospital to establish the prevalence of genital GBS colonization, to identify the factors associated with colonization and the characteristic phenotypes of these streptococci. Samples from rectal and vaginal areas were collected for selective culture in Todd-Hewitt broth. Susceptibility to 7 antimicrobial agents was tested using the antibiotic diffusion disk technique, and the isolated strains were classified using specific antisera. The prevalence of GBS colonization was 14.6%. No strain was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin or nitrofurantoin. The majority of strains were sensitive to cephalothin. Greatest resistance was to gentamicin (76.1%), followed by clindamycin (17.4%). The most frequent serotype was Ib (23.9%), followed by serotypes II and Ia (19.6% and 17.4%, respectively). There was no correlation between serotype and greater antimicrobial resistance. In conclusion, the prevalence of GBS in parturients was high and penicillin continues to be the drug of choice for intrapartum prophylaxis. The most frequent serotype (Ib) found in this study differs from those found in the majority of studies carried out in other countries, revealing the need to identify prevalent serotypes in each region so that specific vaccines can be designed.

Jose Antonio, Simoes; Valeria Moraes Neder, Alves; Sergio Eduardo Longo, Fracalanzza; Rodrigo Pauperio Soares de, Camargo; Lenir, Mathias; Helaine Maria Besteti Pires, Milanez; Eliane Melo, Brolazo.

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Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias siendo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño. Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente.The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children’s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pneumoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution in Costa Rica, the predicted vaccine protection is calculated in 74%.

Hernán Sierra- Fernandez

2006-06-01

211

Detection of Streptococcus suis in bioaerosols of swine confinement buildings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia. Also recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent, it is responsible for outbreaks of human infections in Asian countries. Serotype 2 is the predominant isolate from diseased animals and humans. The aerosolization of S. suis in the air of swine confinement buildings (SCB) was studied. The presence of S. suis in bioaerosols was monitored in SCB where cases of infection had been reported and in healthy SCB without reported infections. Using a quantitative-PCR (qPCR) method, we determined the total number of bacteria (1 × 10(8) to 2 × 10(8) airborne/m(3)), total number of S. suis bacteria (4 × 10(5) to 10 × 10(5) airborne/m(3)), and number of S. suis serotype 2 and 1/2 bacteria (1 × 10(3) to 30 × 10(3) airborne/m(3)) present in the air. S. suis serotypes 2 and 1/2 were detected in the air of all growing/finishing SCB that had documented cases of S. suis infection and in 50% of healthy SCB. The total number of bacteria and total numbers of S. suis and S. suis serotype 2 and 1/2 bacteria were monitored in one positive SCB during a 5-week period, and it was shown that the aerosolized S. suis serotypes 2 and 1/2 remain airborne for a prolonged period. When the effect of aerosolization on S. suis was observed, the percentage of intact S. suis bacteria (showing cell membrane integrity) in the air might have been up to 13%. Finally S. suis was found in nasal swabs from 14 out of 21 healthy finishing-SCB workers, suggesting significant exposure to the pathogen. This report provides a better understanding of the aerosolization, prevalence, and persistence of S. suis in SCB. PMID:24632262

Bonifait, Laetitia; Veillette, Marc; Létourneau, Valérie; Grenier, Daniel; Duchaine, Caroline

2014-06-01

212

Phenotypical characteristics of group B streptococcus in parturients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Colonization by Group B Streptococcus (GBS is highly prevalent among pregnant women, with prevalence rates ranging between 4% and 30%. The infection may be transmitted vertically and may result in serious neonatal consequences. In the period from November 2003 to May 2004, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 316 parturients at the Jundiaí Teaching Hospital to establish the prevalence of genital GBS colonization, to identify the factors associated with colonization and the characteristic phenotypes of these streptococci. Samples from rectal and vaginal areas were collected for selective culture in Todd-Hewitt broth. Susceptibility to 7 antimicrobial agents was tested using the antibiotic diffusion disk technique, and the isolated strains were classified using specific antisera. The prevalence of GBS colonization was 14.6%. No strain was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin or nitrofurantoin. The majority of strains were sensitive to cephalothin. Greatest resistance was to gentamicin (76.1%, followed by clindamycin (17.4%. The most frequent serotype was Ib (23.9%, followed by serotypes II and Ia (19.6% and 17.4%, respectively. There was no correlation between serotype and greater antimicrobial resistance. In conclusion, the prevalence of GBS in parturients was high and penicillin continues to be the drug of choice for intrapartum prophylaxis. The most frequent serotype (Ib found in this study differs from those found in the majority of studies carried out in other countries, revealing the need to identify prevalent serotypes in each region so that specific vaccines can be designed.

Jose Antonio Simoes

2007-04-01

213

Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge. PMID:24481032

Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

2014-01-01

214

Impact of the SpeB Protease on Binding of the Complement Regulatory Proteins Factor H and Factor H-Like Protein 1 by Streptococcus pyogenes  

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Microbial pathogens often exploit human complement regulatory proteins such as factor H (FH) and factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) for immune evasion. Fba is an FH and FHL-1 binding protein expressed on the surface of the human pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, a common agent of pharyngeal, skin, and soft-tissue infections. Fba has been shown to contribute to phagocytosis resistance, intracellular invasion, and virulence in mice. Here, we look at the role of Fba in recruitment of FH ...

Wei, Lin; Pandiripally, Vinod; Gregory, Eugene; Clymer, Micaya; Cue, David

2005-01-01

215

Characterization of mleR, a positive regulator of malolactic fermentation and part of the acid tolerance response in Streptococcus mutans  

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Abstract Background One of the key virulence determinants of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, is its strong acid tolerance. The acid tolerance response (ATR) of S. mutans comprises several mechanisms that are induced at low pH and allow the cells to quickly adapt to a lethal pH environment. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) converts L-malate to L-lactate and carbon dioxide and furthermore regenerates ATP, which is used ...

Lemme André; Sztajer Helena; Wagner-Döbler Irene

2010-01-01

216

Toward New Therapeutics for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: Propargyl-Linked Antifolates Are Potent Inhibitors of MRSA and Streptococcus pyogenes  

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Hospital- and community-acquired, complicated skin and soft tissue infections, often attributed to Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, present a significant health burden that is associated with increased health care costs and mortality. As these two species are difficult to discern on diagnosis and are associated with differential profiles of drug resistance, the development of an efficacious antibacterial agent that targets both organisms is a high priority. Herein we describe...

Viswanathan, Kishore; Frey, Kathleen M.; Scocchera, Eric W.; Martin, Brooke D.; Swain Iii, P. Whitney; Alverson, Jeremy B.; Priestley, Nigel D.; Anderson, Amy C.; Wright, Dennis L.

2012-01-01

217

Multilocus Sequence Types, Serotypes, and Variants of the Surface Antigen PspA in Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Meningitis Patients in Poland  

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Meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae represents an important factor of morbidity and mortality in humans. In a significant number of cases, this disease is associated with specific clones of the organism, the so-called invasive pneumococcal clones. The aim of the study was to analyze 156 S. pneumoniae isolates identified as etiological agents of meningitis in Poland in the years 1997 through 2002. The isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the results w...

Sadowy, Ewa; Skoczyn?ska, Anna; Fiett, Janusz; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hryniewicz, Waleria

2006-01-01

218

Cloning of the Streptococcus mutans Gene Encoding Glucan Binding Protein B and Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Protein Production in Clinical Isolates  

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Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of dental caries, produces several activities that promote its accumulation within the dental biofilm. These include glucosyltransferases, their glucan products, and proteins that bind glucan. At least three glucan binding proteins have been identified, and GbpB, the protein characterized in this study, appears to be novel. The gbpB gene was cloned and the predicted protein sequence contained several unusual features and shared extensive hom...

Mattos-graner, Renata O.; Jin, Song; King, William F.; Chen, Tsute; Smith, Daniel J.; Duncan, Margaret J.

2001-01-01

219

mef(A) is the predominant macrolide resistance determinant in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes in Germany  

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Abstract In this study, macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from Germany were carefully characterised by susceptibility testing, phenotyping, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of macrolides resistance genes, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Of 2045 S. pneumoniae and 352 S. pyogenes isolates, 437 (21.4%) and 29 (8.2%), respectively, were found to be macrolide-resistant. Among the S. pneumoniae isolates, the most prevale...

2011-01-01

220

Comparison of a 3-Set Genotyping System with Multilocus Sequence Typing for Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus)  

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Group B streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) is the most common cause of neonatal and obstetric sepsis and is an increasingly important cause of septicemia in elderly individuals and immunocompromised patients. Epidemiological studies of GBS infections require comprehensive typing systems that provide information about variable characteristics, such as antigenic type, virulence, or antibiotic resistance, as well as the “backbone” structure or the genetic lineage of isolates. We h...

Sun, Ying; Kong, Fanrong; Zhao, Zuotao; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Differentiation of banding patterns between Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus isolates in rep-PCR using ERIC primer  

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Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are considered to be important bacterial species in the initiation of human dental caries. Therefore, the establishment of a reliable genotyping method to distinguish S. mutans from S. sobrinus is of central importance.We assessed the usefulness of repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) using ERIC primer banding patterns in differentiating S. mutans and S. sobrinus.Five S. mutans and two S. sobrinus prototype strai...

Tamami Okada; Kazuko Takada; Kou Fujita; Takuji Ikemi; Osgood, Robert C.; Childers, Noel K.; Michalek, Suzanne M.

2011-01-01

222

Severe Streptococcus infection in spotted hyenas in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a population of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) monitored between 1996 and 2005 in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania, 16 individuals from five of eight social groups displayed clinical signs of an infection, including severe unilateral swelling of the head followed by abscess formation at the mandibular angle, respiratory distress, mild ataxia, and lethargy. Two (12.5%) of these 16 individuals died within days of developing signs. Clinical signs in hyenas were first noted in 2001, and most cases occurred between September 2002 and February 2003, suggesting an outbreak of infection during this period. Histopathological examination of internal organs from one hyena that died with signs revealed morphological changes consistent with severe bacterial infection. Phenotypic examination and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the causative agent of infection revealed a Lancefield group C Streptococcus with a high level of homology to S. equi subsp. ruminatorum, a subspecies of S. equi recently described in domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus) with mastitis in Spain. Strains similar to this bacterium were also isolated from two hyenas without obvious clinical signs, suggesting that hyenas may be 'carriers' of this bacterium, and from a sympatric Burchell's zebra (Equus burchelli), a herbivore species often consumed by hyenas. To our knowledge this is the first report of a Streptococcus infection in these two wildlife species. The high genetic similarity between the hyena and zebra isolates indicates that inter-specific transmission may occur, possibly when hyenas consume infected zebra carcasses. PMID:16460891

Höner, Oliver P; Wachter, Bettina; Speck, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Ludwig, Arne; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Wohlsein, Peter; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Hofer, Heribert; East, Marion L

2006-06-15

223

Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía / Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Colombian children with pneumonia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de la [...] s vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%). Se observó susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina en 19 aislamientos (17%), con sensibilidad intermedia en 12 (11%) y franca resistencia en 7 (6%). Solo 1 de los 19 aislamientos resistentes a penicilina mostró también resistencia a la ceftriaxona. Se observó sensibilidad disminuida a la eritromicina en 3 aislamientos (3%), al cloranfenicol en 6 (5%) y al cotrimoxazol (trimetoprima + sulfametoxazol) en 46 (40%). Se encontró multirresistencia en 7 aislamientos (6%). El serotipo con sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina que se halló con mayor frecuencia fue el 23F (68,4%). Se observó una asociación entre la edad, el uso previo de antibióticos y la colonización con S. pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina o multirresistencia. Este estudio confirma la presencia de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. pneumoniae en Colombia y resalta la importancia del uso racional de los antibióticos y de la implementación de la vigilancia epidemiológica sobre este agente. Abstract in english Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the principal causal agents of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children, and its resistance to antibiotics has increased worldwide. This study examined the patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics of S. pneumoniae that had colonized the upper respiratory trac [...] t of 272 children hospitalized for pneumonia in two hospitals in Santafé de Bogotá. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 114 patients (42%). Diminished susceptibility to penicillin was noted in 19 isolations (17%), with 12 (11%) showing an intermediate level of sensitivity and 7 (6%) outright resistance. Only 1 of the 19 isolates resistant to penicillin also showed resistance to ceftriaxone. There was diminished sensitivity to erythromycin in 3 isolations (3%), to chloramphenicol in 6 (5%), and to cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole) in 46 (40%). Resistance to multiple drugs was found in 7 isolations (6%). The most commonly encountered penicillin-resistant serotype was 23F (68.4%). An association was observed among age, previous use of antibiotics, and colonization by S. pneumoniae with reduced penicillin susceptibility or multiple-drug resistance. This study confirmed the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae in Colombia and highlights the importance of the rational use of antibiotics and of the implementation of epidemiologic surveillance for this agent.

Aura Lucía, Leal; Elizabeth, Castañeda.

224

Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Colombian children with pneumonia / Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de la [...] s vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%). Se observó susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina en 19 aislamientos (17%), con sensibilidad intermedia en 12 (11%) y franca resistencia en 7 (6%). Solo 1 de los 19 aislamientos resistentes a penicilina mostró también resistencia a la ceftriaxona. Se observó sensibilidad disminuida a la eritromicina en 3 aislamientos (3%), al cloranfenicol en 6 (5%) y al cotrimoxazol (trimetoprima + sulfametoxazol) en 46 (40%). Se encontró multirresistencia en 7 aislamientos (6%). El serotipo con sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina que se halló con mayor frecuencia fue el 23F (68.4%). Se observó una asociación entre la edad, el uso previo de antibióticos y la colonización con S. pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina o multirresistencia. Este estudio confirma la presencia de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. pneumoniae en Colombia y resalta la importancia del uso racional de los antibióticos y de la implementación de la vigilancia epidemiológica sobre este agente. Abstract in english Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the principal causal agents of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children, and its resistance to antibiotics has increased worldwide. This study examined the patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics of S. pneumoniae that had colonized the upper respiratory trac [...] t of 272 children hospitalized for pneumonia in two hospitals in Santafé de Bogotá. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 114 patients (42%). Diminished susceptibility to penicillin was noted in 19 isolates (17%), with 12 (11%) having an intermediate level of sensitivity and 7 (6%) showing outright resistance. Only 1 of the 19 isolates resistant to penicillin also showed resistance to ceftriaxone. There was diminished sensitivity to erythromycin in 3 isolates (3%), to chloramphenicol in 6 (5%), and to co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole) in 46 (40%). Resistance to multiple drugs was found in 7 isolates (6%). The most commonly encountered penicillin-resistant serotype was 23F (68.4%). An association was observed between age, prior use of antibiotics, and colonization by S. pneumoniae with reduced penicillin sensitivity or multiple-drug resistance. This study confirmed the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae in Colombia and highlights the importance of the rational use of antibiotics and of the implementation of epidemiologic surveillance for this agent.

Aura Lucía, Leal; Elizabeth, Castañeda.

225

In vitro biofilm forming potential of Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine in China  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of bio?lms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.

Guo Dawei

2012-09-01

226

In vitro biofilm forming potential of Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine in China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of bio?lms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by [...] confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.

Dawei, Guo; Liping, Wang; Chengping, Lu.

227

Simultaneous Specific Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Sputum Samples from Patients with Suspected Influenza by Multiplex-PCR  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are the most common cause in bacterial pneumonia. Also these agents can cause bacterial superinfection in patients with influenza. Aim of this study was Simultaneous specific detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in sputum samples from patients with suspected influenza by Multiplex-PCR. Materials and methods: In this study, 170 sputum samples in patients with suspected influenza with age from 3 months to 70 years, received the Influenza Reference Laboratory – Tehran Medical university were tested by Multiplex PCR. Amplified DNA fragments size was 394 bp for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 199 bp for Haemophilus influenzae and 416 bp for Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Results: of all 170 samples, 30 samples were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza. Of the 30 positive samples, 27 samples (15/8 % and 3 samples (1/7 % were positive for S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that Multiplex-PCR able to diagnosis desired bacteria in short time and so this molecular method can use as complementary technique especially when the results of gram stain, culture or serological test are negative.

Amin Moazami

2014-01-01

228

Sensibilidad antibiótica y recomendaciones de tratamiento para Streptococcus pneumoniae Antibiotic sensitivity and treatment recommendations for Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la sensibilidad antibiótica de Streptococcus pneumoniae a los antimicrobianos usados con más frecuencia en la práctica clínica y revisar las recomendaciones actuales de tratamiento de la enfermedad neumocócica. Durante el periodo octubre 2000 a septiembre 2002 se recogieron los datos demográficos, el diagnóstico clínico del paciente, el origen de la muestra y la sensibilidad antibiótica de todos los Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados en los laboratorios de microbiología del Servicio Navarro de Salud, que atienden a una población de 555.829 habitantes. Se obtuvieron 465 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae (166 de origen invasor. Los aislamientos procedentes de exudado ótico fueron los más resistentes y los de hemocultivo los más sensibles. El porcentaje de resistencia a penicilina fue del 43%, 6,1% para amoxicilina y 6,6% para cefotaxima. El 36,3% de los aislamientos fueron resistentes a eritromicina, de ellos un 85,45% exhibía un fenotipo MLS B y un 14,55% un fenotipo M. Se detectó multirresistencia en un 32,3% de los aislamientos. La resistencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae a betalactámicos, especialmente penicilina, amoxicilina y cefotaxima/ceftriaxona no impide su uso clínico en la mayoría de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae de nuestra área, exceptuando los casos de meningitis neumocócica.The aims of present paper were to determine the susceptibility of the strains to the most usual antibiotics in clinical practice and to review the current recomendations to guide the most appropiate treatment. During the period october 2000 to september 2002, the patient’s data (age and sex, source of the sample, diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility were collected on Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from microbiology laboratories in the Navarra region (555.829 inhabitans. Four hundred and sixty five isolates were identified (166 from invasive infections. Generally, isolates from ear swabs were the most resistant to the antimicrobials tested, while those from blood culture were the most susceptible. Of the Streptococcus pneumoniae tested, 43% were resistant to penicillin, 6.1% to amoxicillin and 6.6% to cefotaxime. Of the 36.3% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that were resistant to erythromycin, 85.45% exhibited the MLS B phenotype while the remaining 14.55% presented with the M phenotype. Multiple-resistance was detected in 32.3% of the strains. The antibiotic resistance rates to beta-lactams (specially penicillin, amoxicillin and cefotaxime/ceftrixone in Streptococcus pneumoniae don’t prevent its clinical use for the most of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in our area, except for pneumococcal meningitis.

A. Gil-Setas

2004-04-01

229

Splenic abscess and multiple brain abscesses caused by Streptococcus intermedius in a young healthy man  

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We report a case of splenic abscess with multiple brain abscesses caused by Streptococcus intermedius in a healthy young man without any identifiable risk factors, which resolved with percutaneous drainage and antibiotics. Streptococcus intermedius, a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group, is a common commensal organism of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, and it is a known cause of deep-seated infections. Suppurative infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group are some...

Maliyil, Jepsin; Caire, William; Nair, Rajasree; Bridges, Debbie

2011-01-01

230

The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study  

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Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the developm...

2007-01-01

231

recA-Based PCR Assay for Accurate Differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Other Viridans Streptococci?  

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Proper identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae by conventional methods remains problematic. The discriminatory power of the 16S rRNA gene, which can be considered the “gold standard” for molecular identification, is too low to differentiate S. pneumoniae from closely related species such as Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus oralis in the routine clinical laboratory. A 313-bp part of recA was selected on the basis of variability within the S. mitis g...

2011-01-01

232

Discrimination of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Viridans Group Streptococci by Genomic Subtractive Hybridization  

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Two oligonucleotide primer sets for the discrimination of Streptococcus pneumoniae from “pneumococcus-like” oral streptococcal isolates by PCR were developed. Genomic subtractive hybridization was performed to search for differences between Streptococcus pneumoniae strain WU2 and the most closely related oral streptococcus, Streptococcus mitis strain 903. We identified 19 clones that contained S. pneumoniae-specific nucleotide fragments that were absent from the chromosomal DNA of typical...

2005-01-01

233

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Streptococcus bovis: case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication that occurs in patient with cirrhosis and ascites. It occurs in 10% to 30% of patients admitted to hospital. The organisms that cause SBP are predominantly enteric. Escherichia coli is the most frequent recovered pathogen, [...] and Gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp., are being considered an emerging causative agent of SBP. Streptococcus bovis that may be found as part of the commensal bowel flora in about 10% of healthy adults constitute an uncommon cause of peritonitis that was first reported in 1994. We describe the first case of SBP at the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM) caused by S. bovis, resistant to the antibiotics erythromycin and clindamycin (inducible clindamycin resistance detected by disk diffusion test using the D-zone test).

Rosmari, Hörner; Adenilde, Salla; Loiva Otonelli de, Oliveira; Nara Lucia Frasson Dal, Forno; Roselene Alves, Righi; Vanessa Oliveira, Domingues; Fabiane, Rigatti; Letícia Eichstaedt, Mayer.

234

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Streptococcus bovis: case report and review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP is a frequent and severe complication that occurs in patient with cirrhosis and ascites. It occurs in 10% to 30% of patients admitted to hospital. The organisms that cause SBP are predominantly enteric. Escherichia coli is the most frequent recovered pathogen, and Gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp., are being considered an emerging causative agent of SBP. Streptococcus bovis that may be found as part of the commensal bowel flora in about 10% of healthy adults constitute an uncommon cause of peritonitis that was first reported in 1994. We describe the first case of SBP at the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM caused by S. bovis, resistant to the antibiotics erythromycin and clindamycin (inducible clindamycin resistance detected by disk diffusion test using the D-zone test.

Rosmari Hörner

2010-06-01

235

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from clinically healthy swine in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. This study is the first to report on the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis isolated from clinically healthy pigs in Brazil; the fourth major pork producer in the world. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 260 strains was determined by disc diffusion method. Strains were commonly susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, and florfenicol, with more than 80% of the strains being susceptible to these antimicrobials. A high frequency of resistance to some of the antimicrobial agents was demonstrated, with resistance being most common to sulfa-trimethoprim (100%), tetracycline (97.69%), clindamycin (84.61%), norfloxacin (76.92%), and ciprofloxacin (61.15%). A high percentage of multidrug resistant strains (99.61%) were also found. The results of this study indicate that ceftiofur, cephalexin, and florfenicol are the antimicrobials of choice for empirical control of the infections caused by S. suis. PMID:24688177

Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Megid, Jane; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Gottschalk, Marcelo

2014-04-01

236

Excision-repair capacity in Streptococcus pneumoniae; Cloning and expression of a uvr-like gene  

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Although deficient in photoreactivation and some SOS-like functions, Streptococcus pneumoniae has the capacity to carry out excision repair when exposed to UV light. The repair ability and sensitivity to UV irradiation or treatment with chemical agents in the wild type and a UV-sensitive mutant strain indicate that UV-induced pyrimidine dimers might be repaired in pneumococcus by a system similar to the uvr-dependent system in Escherichia coli. A gene complementing the mutation conferring UV sensitivityj of the mutant strain has been cloned. The coding region directs the synthesis of a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 78 kDa. The relationship with uvr-like protein in R. coli is discussed. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.

Sicard, N. (Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse (France). Centre de Recherche de Biochimie et de Genetique Cellulaires); Estevenon, A.M. (Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). U.F.R. Sciences Pharmaceutiques)

1990-05-01

237

Pericarditis purulenta primaria por Streptococcus pneumoniae, a propósito de un caso clínico / Primary purulent pericarditis by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Case-report and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hoy en día la pericarditis purulenta (PP) es una patología poco frecuente, pero de pronóstico grave. Comunicamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 3 meses, sano previamente. Consultó por palidez, rechazo alimentario y dificultad respiratoria de pocas horas de evolución. La radiografía de tórax demos [...] tró cardiomegalia. Evolucionó hacia shock cardiogénico por taponamiento cardíaco. Recibió inicialmente expansores de volumen y drogas vasoactivas. Antibioterapia con vancomicina y ceftriaxona. Ecocar-diograma objetivó derrame pericárdico extenso, complementado con TAC que descartó foco infeccioso endotoráxico. Se realizó pericardiocentesis y luego ventana pericárdica. Se aisló en hemocultivo Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensible a penicilina. Luego de drenaje quirúrgico y control de infección presentó evolución favorable. No se encontró sitio infeccioso extrapericárdico. Completó tres semanas de tratamiento antibiótico. Estudio inmunológico fue normal. La PP es observada raramente en individuos sanos. La presentación en este caso fue de horas, por un agente inhabitual y de extrema gravedad. Un diagnóstico precoz, en conjunto con un tratamiento médico-quirúrgico es fundamental, como la mejor forma de evitar secuelas. Abstract in english Background: Purulent pericarditis has become a rare clinical entity since the onset of antimicrobial therapy and has a poor outcome in the majority of cases. Case-report: A healthy 3 month-old patient admitted with dyspnea, pallor and anorexia, developing cardiogenic shock due to cardiac tamponade. [...] Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly. He required mechanical ventilation, volume resuscitation and vasoactive drugs. Echocardiogram showed a large pericardial effusion, CT sean ruled out lung and mediastinal infection. Pericardial drainage was performed and Vancomycin plus Ceftriaxone were initiated, with a positive blood culture for Penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. The evolution was favourable after surgical drainage and controlling the infection. No extraperdicardial infection was found. He received 3 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Immunological studies were normal. Conclusión: Primary purulent pericarditis is uncommon, so early detection and treatment of this life-threatening condition may lead to a good outcome.

ALEJANDRO, DONOSO F; FRANCO, DÍAZ R; KATALINA, BERTRÁN S; PABLO, CRUCES R.

238

Pericarditis purulenta primaria por Streptococcus pneumoniae, a propósito de un caso clínico Primary purulent pericarditis by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Case-report and literature review  

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Full Text Available Hoy en día la pericarditis purulenta (PP es una patología poco frecuente, pero de pronóstico grave. Comunicamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 3 meses, sano previamente. Consultó por palidez, rechazo alimentario y dificultad respiratoria de pocas horas de evolución. La radiografía de tórax demostró cardiomegalia. Evolucionó hacia shock cardiogénico por taponamiento cardíaco. Recibió inicialmente expansores de volumen y drogas vasoactivas. Antibioterapia con vancomicina y ceftriaxona. Ecocar-diograma objetivó derrame pericárdico extenso, complementado con TAC que descartó foco infeccioso endotoráxico. Se realizó pericardiocentesis y luego ventana pericárdica. Se aisló en hemocultivo Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensible a penicilina. Luego de drenaje quirúrgico y control de infección presentó evolución favorable. No se encontró sitio infeccioso extrapericárdico. Completó tres semanas de tratamiento antibiótico. Estudio inmunológico fue normal. La PP es observada raramente en individuos sanos. La presentación en este caso fue de horas, por un agente inhabitual y de extrema gravedad. Un diagnóstico precoz, en conjunto con un tratamiento médico-quirúrgico es fundamental, como la mejor forma de evitar secuelas.Background: Purulent pericarditis has become a rare clinical entity since the onset of antimicrobial therapy and has a poor outcome in the majority of cases. Case-report: A healthy 3 month-old patient admitted with dyspnea, pallor and anorexia, developing cardiogenic shock due to cardiac tamponade. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly. He required mechanical ventilation, volume resuscitation and vasoactive drugs. Echocardiogram showed a large pericardial effusion, CT sean ruled out lung and mediastinal infection. Pericardial drainage was performed and Vancomycin plus Ceftriaxone were initiated, with a positive blood culture for Penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. The evolution was favourable after surgical drainage and controlling the infection. No extraperdicardial infection was found. He received 3 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Immunological studies were normal. Conclusión: Primary purulent pericarditis is uncommon, so early detection and treatment of this life-threatening condition may lead to a good outcome.

ALEJANDRO DONOSO F

2008-12-01

239

A fishy tale: a man with empyema caused by Streptococcus halichoeri.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004, veterinary laboratories in the United Kingdom reported a novel Lancefield group B streptococcus, Streptococcus halichoeri, in seals. We report a case of Streptococcus halichoeri causing postoperative empyema in a patient. A search of the literature revealed that this is the first case of S. halichoeri ever reported in humans. PMID:24478513

Foo, Rui Min; Chan, Douglas

2014-02-01

240

Simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus sp. by polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bacterial meningits Detecção simultânea da Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae e Streptococcus sp. pela reação em cadeia da polimerase no diagnóstico das meningites bacterianas  

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The simultaneous detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus sp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis, as well as the applicability of PCR as a routine test. A cohort study was carried out with 182 children (2 months to 12 years of age) with suspicion of bacterial meningitis. Routine tests identified the etiologic agent in 65/84 children whose clinical status and laboratory findings suggested the presence ...

Luciane Failace; Mario Wagner; Marisa Chesky; Rosana Scalco; Luiz Fernando Jobim

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Ecology and pathogenicity of gastrointestinal Streptococcus bovis.  

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Streptococcus bovis is an indigenous resident in the gastrointestinal tracts of both humans and animals. S. bovis is one of the major causes of bacterial endocarditis and has been implicated in the incidence of human colon cancer, possibly due to chronic inflammatory response at the site of intestinal colonization. Certain feeding regimens in ruminants can lead to overgrowth of S. bovis in the rumen, resulting in the over-production of lactate and capsular polysaccharide causing acute ruminal acidosis and bloat, respectively. There are multiple strategies in controlling acute lactic acidosis and bloat. The incidence of the two diseases may be controlled by strict dietary management. Gradual introduction of grain-based diets and the feeding of coarsely chopped roughage decrease the incidence of the two disease entities. Ionophores, which have been used to enhance feed conversion and growth rate in cattle, have been shown to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen. Other methods of controlling lactic acid bacteria in the ruminal environment (dietary supplementation of long-chain fatty acids, induction of passive and active immune responses to the bacteria, and the use of lytic bacteriophages) have also been investigated. It is anticipated that through continued in-depth ecological analysis of S. bovis the characteristics responsible for human and animal pathogenesis would be sufficiently identified to a point where more effective control strategies for the control of this bacteria can be developed. PMID:19100852

Herrera, Paul; Kwon, Young Min; Ricke, Steven C

2009-01-01

242

Ornithine transport and exchange in Streptococcus lactis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 appeared to accumulate [14C]ornithine to a high concentration in the absence of an exogenous energy source. However, analysis of intracellular amino acid pool constituents and results of transport experiments revealed that the accumulation of ornithine represented a homoexchange between extracellular [14C]ornithine and unlabeled ornithine in the cell. The energy-independent exchange of ornithine was not inhibited by proton-conducting uncouplers or by metabolic inhibitors. Intracellular [14C]ornithine was retained by resting cells after suspension in a buffered medium. However, addition of unlabeled ornithine to the suspension elicited rapid exit of labeled amino acid. The initial rate of exist of [14C]ornithine was dependent on the concentration of unlabeled ornithine in the medium, but this accelerative exchange diffusion process caused no net loss of amino acid. By contrast, the presence of a fermentable energy source caused a rapid expulsion of and new decrease in the concentration of intracellular ornithine. Kinetic analyses of amino acid transport demonstrated competitive inhibition between lysine and ornithine, and data obtained by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography established the heteroexchange of these basic amino acids. The effects of amino acids and of ornithine analogs on both entry and exit of [14C]ornithine have been examined. The data suggest that common carrier mediates the entry and exchange of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in cells of S. lactis

1987-01-01

243

Ornithine transport and exchange in Streptococcus lactis  

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Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 appeared to accumulate (/sup 14/C)ornithine to a high concentration in the absence of an exogenous energy source. However, analysis of intracellular amino acid pool constituents and results of transport experiments revealed that the accumulation of ornithine represented a homoexchange between extracellular (/sup 14/C)ornithine and unlabeled ornithine in the cell. The energy-independent exchange of ornithine was not inhibited by proton-conducting uncouplers or by metabolic inhibitors. Intracellular (/sup 14/C)ornithine was retained by resting cells after suspension in a buffered medium. However, addition of unlabeled ornithine to the suspension elicited rapid exit of labeled amino acid. The initial rate of exist of (/sup 14/C)ornithine was dependent on the concentration of unlabeled ornithine in the medium, but this accelerative exchange diffusion process caused no net loss of amino acid. By contrast, the presence of a fermentable energy source caused a rapid expulsion of and new decrease in the concentration of intracellular ornithine. Kinetic analyses of amino acid transport demonstrated competitive inhibition between lysine and ornithine, and data obtained by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography established the heteroexchange of these basic amino acids. The effects of amino acids and of ornithine analogs on both entry and exit of (/sup 14/C)ornithine have been examined. The data suggest that common carrier mediates the entry and exchange of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in cells of S. lactis.

Thompson, J.

1987-09-01

244

?-Phosphoglucomutase contributes to aciduricity in Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans encounters an array of sugar moieties within the oral cavity due to a varied human diet. One such sugar is ?-d-glucose 1-phosphate (?DG1P), which must be converted to glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) before further metabolism to lactic acid. The conversion of ?DG1P to G6P is mediated by ?-phosphoglucomutase, which has not been previously observed in any oral streptococci, but has been extensively characterized and the gene designated pgmB in Lactococcus lactis. An orthologue was identified in S. mutans, SMU.1747c, and deletion of the gene resulted in the inability of the deletion strain to convert ?DG1P to G6P, indicating that SMU.1747c is a ?-phosphoglucomutase and should be designated pgmB. In this study, we sought to characterize how deletion of pgmB affected known virulence factors of S. mutans, specifically acid tolerance. The ?pgmB strain showed a decreased ability to survive acid challenge. Additionally, the strain lacking ?-phosphoglucomutase had a diminished glycolytic profile compared with the parental strain. Deletion of pgmB had a negative impact on the virulence of S. mutans in the Galleria mellonella (greater wax worm) animal model. Our results indicate that pgmB plays a role at the juncture of carbohydrate metabolism and virulence. PMID:24509501

Buckley, Andrew A; Faustoferri, Roberta C; Quivey, Robert G

2014-04-01

245

Penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Penicillin-binding protein (PBP) patterns of penicillin-resistant laboratory-constructed transformants were compared with the PBP profiles of 26 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. For transformation studies DNA from a penicillin-resistant clinical isolate was used to transform a susceptible laboratory strain. Penicillin resistance was achieved in two transformation cycles. The frequency of transformation appeared to be dependent on the genetic status of the recipient used for the second transformation cross. Penicillin resistance was also attained in a single transformation round when time was allowed for full expression of random multiple transformations. PBP 2b was the first PBP to show an alteration in penicillin-binding affinity. This PBP was not easily detected in those transformants for which penicillin MICs exceeded 0.2 mg/l. The PBP profiles of the clinical isolates were complex. In addition to previously-described PBPs, new intermediate classes were demonstrated. No correlation between PBP profile and susceptibility was observed with clinical isolates except that PBP-2b exhibited molecular weight changes in moderately susceptible strains. PMID:3243732

Chalkley, L J; Koornhof, H J

1988-12-01

246

Sorption of streptococcus faecium to glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method has been developed by which to study the sorption of Streptococcus faecium to soda-lime cover glasses. Conditions were chosen to minimize the influence on sorption of bacterial polymer production, passive sorption being studied rather than attachment mediated by metabolic activities. Sorption of S. faecium increased with increasing temperature (to 50degC), time, and cell concentration, but equilibrium apparently was not reached even after incubation for 8 hours or at a cell concentration of 3 x 1010 per ml. Sorption increased with solute molarity up to 0.1 M concentration of NaCl and KCl, indicating an effect of the electrical double layers on the apposition of cells to the glass surface. Desorption of bacteria could be obtained after multiple washings of the glasses in buffer or by the action of Tween 80, but not if sorbed bacteria were left in distilled water, various salt solutions, urea, or in suspensions of unlabelled bacteria. It was concluded that sorption occurred as a result of chemical interactions between the glass and the cell surface. Tween 80 at a concentration of 1 per cent inhibited sorption to 26 per cent of buffer controls, 2 M urea was less effective, and 1 M NaCl was without effect. It is suggested that hydrophobic interactions may be of importance in the binding of S. faecium to glass. (author)

1977-01-01

247

Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

Cook, Laura C; Federle, Michael J

2014-05-01

248

Caracterización molecular en aislados chilenos de Streptococcus agalactiae / Molecular characterization of Chilean isolates of streptococcus agalactiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae is the main causing organism of invasive infections such as sepsis and meningitis in the newborn. Aim: To perform a genotype characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae strains coming form invasive infections of newborns and colonized pregnant women. Material and methods: A [...] group of 58 strains not related epidemiologically isolated from colonized pregnant women and invasive infections in newborns, were studied. Pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE) and polymerase chain reaction amplification of hylB and IS 1548 genes, as possible virulence markers, were performed. Results: Among the studied strains, 37 genetic subtypes were observed. There were nine groups of identical PFGE patterns. Three corresponded to serotype la and six to serotype III. An erythromycin and clindamycin resistant clone was identified in three colonized women and a newborn with sepsis, which were not epidemiologically related. The hylB gene was equally present in cases of neonatal meningitis or colonized pregnant women. Conclusions: There was a great degree of polymorphism among the studied strains. The ample presence of hylB gene and the absence of the insertion element IS1548 in the hylB gene in invasive and colonizing strains, indicates that both groups of strains are potentially pathogenic

Patricia, Rojo; Pamela, Araya; M Angélica, Martínez T; Juan Carlos, Hormazábal; Aurora, Maldonado; Jorge, Fernández.

249

Caracterización molecular en aislados chilenos de Streptococcus agalactiae Molecular characterization of Chilean isolates of streptococcus agalactiae  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is the main causing organism of invasive infections such as sepsis and meningitis in the newborn. Aim: To perform a genotype characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae strains coming form invasive infections of newborns and colonized pregnant women. Material and methods: A group of 58 strains not related epidemiologically isolated from colonized pregnant women and invasive infections in newborns, were studied. Pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE and polymerase chain reaction amplification of hylB and IS 1548 genes, as possible virulence markers, were performed. Results: Among the studied strains, 37 genetic subtypes were observed. There were nine groups of identical PFGE patterns. Three corresponded to serotype la and six to serotype III. An erythromycin and clindamycin resistant clone was identified in three colonized women and a newborn with sepsis, which were not epidemiologically related. The hylB gene was equally present in cases of neonatal meningitis or colonized pregnant women. Conclusions: There was a great degree of polymorphism among the studied strains. The ample presence of hylB gene and the absence of the insertion element IS1548 in the hylB gene in invasive and colonizing strains, indicates that both groups of strains are potentially pathogenic

Patricia Rojo

2008-05-01

250

Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina / Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 [...] e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratório e de amostras de sangue não relacionadas a infecções meníngeas e foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretações categóricas de CIM foram baseadas em padrões atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetíveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treate [...] d, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC

Rossi, Flávia; Franco, Maria Renata Gomes; Rodrigues, Heleni Mota de Pina; Andreazzi, Denise.

251

Urticaria recurrente asociada a infección por Streptococcus pyogenes / Recurrent urticaria associated with group Streptococcus pyogenes infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La mayoría de las urticarias crónicas o agudas recidivantes son idiopáticas. Presentamos un caso de urticaria aguda recidivante en una niña de tres años, en la que, tras el estudio realizado, solo se objetivó un valor elevado de anticuerpos antiestreptolisina O (ASLO). La desaparición de la urticari [...] a tras el tratamiento con penicilina G-benzatina intramuscular, junto con la normalización de los ASLO, sugiere que la etiología de esta podría ser las infecciones recurrentes por el Streptococcus pyogenes. Destacar la importancia de incluir en el protocolo diagnóstico de la urticaria la determinación de los ASLO, lo cual permite el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoces de las infecciones por S. pyogenes. Abstract in english We present a case of relapsing acute urticaria in a three years old girl who after the study only showed a high value of ASLO (antistreptolysin O titer). The disappearance of urticaria after intramuscular penicillin G benzathine treatment, together with the ASLO normalization, suggested that the eti [...] ology of this could be recurrent Streptococcal infections. We conclude the importance of including ASLO determination in the diagnostic protocol of urticaria, allowing early diagnosis and treatment of Group A Streptococcus infections.

López Sáez, M. P.; Carrillo Fernández-Paredes, P.; Huertas Amorós, A. J.; Pagán Alemán, J. A..

252

Immunomodulating agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation involves a universally recognized, although incompletely understood, cascade of molecular events orchestrated by lymphokines and other innate biochemicals of immunity. Repeated or extended contact with immunogenic agents results in adaptive immunity involving antigen-induced events that stimulate down-stream immune cells and result in expansion of the inflammatory cascade. When immunogenic stimulation persists or autoregulatory immune mechanisms go awry, however, adaptive immunologic events can result in immune-mediated processes detrimental to systemic or organ-specific homeostasis. Because of the complexities of immunologic events, the potential side effects of long-term corticosteroid therapy, and the focused spectrum of most conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (centered on arachidonic acid-related mechanisms), a variety of other chemotherapeutic immunosuppressive agents have assumed an increasingly prominent therapeutic role in veterinary ophthalmology in the management of chronic ocular inflammatory diseases. In addition, nonimmunosuppressive immunomodulating agents (ie, immuno-stimulants or immunorestoratives) may be used as adjunctive therapies in the management of ocular or visual system diseases. PMID:15110981

Moore, Cecil P

2004-05-01

253

Group B streptococcal neonatal infections in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus is the most common pathogen found in neonatal sepsis in North America. OBJECTIVES: We describe 15 cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public and teaching hospital. METHODS: We conducted a study at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from January 1st, 1996 to June 30, 1999. Diagnosis of neonatal infection was established according to the findings of Group B Streptococcus in blood culture associated with alterations resembling sepsis on the basis of clinical picture and laboratory findings. RESULTS: Fifteen cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus were detected. Eleven cases consisted of early-onset sepsis, 2 cases of occult bacteremia and 2 cases of late-onset sepsis. Eight cases had septic shock (53%, 8 cases had pneumonia (53%, and 4 cases had meningitis (27%. Fourteen cases were diagnosed from a positive blood culture, and 1 case from evidence of these bacteria in pulmonary anatomopathological examination. Thirteen cases (87% were diagnosed before 72 hours of life. We had 3 deaths (20%, and 3 cases of meningitis developing neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus Group B is one of the most important pathogens in the etiology of early-onset neonatal sepsis at our hospital, with high mortality and morbidity. However, we do not know the incidence of GBS neonatal infections at other hospitals. More data are needed to establish a basis for trials of different strategies to reduce these infections.FUNDAMENTOS: Streptococcus do grupo B é o principal agente etiológico responsável pela sepse neonatal na América do Norte. OBJETIVOS: Relatar 15 casos de infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B (Streptococus agalactiae ocorridos na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal de um hospital público e universitário. MÉTODO: O estudo foi realizado no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre no período de 1º de janeiro de 1996 a 30 de junho de 1999. O diagnóstico de infecção neonatal foi feito a partir do isolamento e identificação de Streptococcus do grupo B em hemocultura combinado com alterações clínicas e laboratoriais sugestivas de sepse. RESULTADOS: Foram detectados quinze casos de infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B, sendo onze casos de sepse de origem precoce, dois casos de bacteremia oculta e dois casos de sepse de origem tardia. Oito casos tiveram choque séptico (53%, oito casos com pneumonia (53% e quatro casos com meningite (27%. Quatorze casos foram diagnosticados a partir da hemocultura e um caso através da presença desta bactéria no exame anátomo-patológico do pulmão. Treze casos (87% foram diagnosticados antes de três dias de vida. Ocorreram três óbitos (20% e três pacientes com meningite ficaram com seqüelas neurológicas. CONCLUSÃO: O Streptococcus do Grupo B é uma das bactérias mais importantes na etiologia da sepse neonatal de início precoce em nosso hospital com elevada mortalidade e também com elevada morbidade. Entretanto, não se conhece sua incidência em outros hospitais. São necesssários outros estudos para determinar seu papel na sepse neonatal e assim estabelecer diferentes estratégias para sua redução.

Ernani MIURA

2001-10-01

254

[Spinal epidural abscess due to group C Streptococcus].  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal epidural abscess is a rare clinical entity, presenting insidiously with nonspecific clinical manifestations. The diagnosis is usually difficult and, if not made early, the consequences may be disastrous. The therapeutic strategy consists of surgical drainage and systemic antibiotherapy for 4 to 6 weeks; in carefully selected patients, the surgical intervention may be avoided. We describe the case of a diabetic woman who presented with a spinal epidural abscess due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, a group C Streptococcus, treated successfully with parenteral antibiotherapy followed by oral antibiotherapy. Group C streptococci are bacteria typically associated with disease in animals, nowadays emerging as important human pathogens. This is the first reported case of spinal epidural abscess due to a Group C Streptococcus. PMID:17928789

Carragoso, Adelino; Capelo, Joana

2007-01-01

255

Group B streptococcus endocarditis associated with multiple pulmonary septic emboli  

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Full Text Available Endocarditis is a rare presentation of group B streptococcal infection. Its association with pulmonary septic embolism was only barely studied and limited data is available up to date. Multiple septic emboli is a common complication of bacterial endocarditis, but only a few cases have been documented in relation to group B streptococcus. We present the case of an 87-year-old female patient with multiple underlying conditions that predisposed the development of bacterial endocarditis secondary to group B streptococcus and subsequently multiple pulmonary septic emboli. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and azythromycin with good response and complete recovery without any further complications. In the event of a diagnosed case of group B streptococcus endocarditis, there should be a low threshold for the suspicion of septic pulmonary emboli especially in cases with right valves involvement.

Deborah Abaitey

2011-03-01

256

Case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus equisimilis  

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Full Text Available Shinsuke Suemori1, Akira Sawada1, Shinya Komori1, Kiyofumi Mochizuki1, Kiyofumi Ohkusu2, Hirofumi Takemura31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of General and Cardiothoracic Surgery Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, JapanAbstract: We report a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus equisimilis. A 74-year-old woman with endocarditis developed endogenous endophthalmitis. The patient underwent emergency mitral valvuloplasty, and intravitreal and subconjunctival injections of vancomycin and meropenem. After the surgery, she was treated with topical antibiotics, ointment, intravenous gentamicin and intravenous penicillin G potassium. The causative organism was identified as S. equisimilis. S. equisimilis should be considered as a pathogen that can cause severe endogenous endophthalmitis.Keywords: endogenous endophthalmitis, group G Streptococcus, endocarditis, Streptococcus equisimilis

Shinsuke Suemori

2010-08-01

257

Trovafloxacin Treatment of Viridans Group Streptococcus Experimental Endocarditis  

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The activity of trovafloxacin was compared with those of vancomycin and penicillin in a model of Streptococcus sanguis species group (trovafloxacin MIC, 0.125 ?g/ml) and Streptococcus mitis species group (trovafloxacin MIC, 0.125 ?g/ml) experimental endocarditis. Rabbits with catheter-induced aortic valve vegetations were given no treatment, trovafloxacin at 15 mg/kg of body weight three times a day (t.i.d.), vancomycin at 15 mg/kg twice a day, or penicillin at 1.2 × 106 IU t.i.d. After 3 ...

2000-01-01

258

Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium.

Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2007-03-15

259

Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium

2007-03-01

260

Bacteriophages of Streptococcus pneumoniae: a molecular approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have characterized four families of pneumococcal phages with remarkable morphologic and physiological differences. Dp-1 and Cp-1 are lytic phages, whereas HB-3 and EJ-1 are temperate phages. Interestingly, Cp-1 and HB-3 have a terminal protein covalently linked to the 5' ends of their lineal DNAs. In the case of Dp-1, we have found that the choline residues of the teichoic acid were essential components of the phage receptors. We have also developed a transfection system using mature DNAs from Dp-4 and Cp-1. In the later case, the transfecting activity of the DNA was destroyed by treatment with proteolytic enzymes, a feature also shared by the genomes of several small Bacillus phages. DNA replication was investigated in the case of Dp-4 and Cp-1 phages. The terminal protein linked to Cp-1 DNA plays a key role in the peculiar mechanism of DNA replication that has been coined as protein-priming. Recently, the linear 19,345-bp double-stranded DNA of Cp-1 has been completely sequenced, several of its gene products have been analyzed, and a complete transcriptional map has been ellaborated. Most of the pneumococcal lysins exhibit an absolute dependence of the presence of choline in the cell wall substrate for activity, and phage lysis requires, as reported for other systems, the action of a second phage-encoded protein, the holin, which presumably forms some kind of lesion in the membrane. The two lytic gene cassettes, from EJ-1 and Cp-1 phages, have been cloned and expressed in heterologous and homologous systems. The finding that some lysogenic strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae harbor phage remnants has provided important clues on the interchanges between phage and bacteria and supports the view of the chimeric origin of phages. PMID:9185145

García, P; Martín, A C; López, R

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias si [...] endo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño). Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente. Abstract in english The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than [...] 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children’s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pneumoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution in Costa Rica, the predicted vaccine protection is calculated in 74%.

Hernán, Sierra- Fernandez; Malka, Schultz- Faingezicht; Carolina, Soley-Gutiérrez; Silvia, Guevara- Jiménez; Adriano, Arguedas- Mohs.

262

Isolamento de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite e teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos / Isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigamos a ocorrência de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite que espontaneamente procuraram atendimento em farmácias e unidades de saúde. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Com auxílio de "swab" e abaixador de língua foram coletadas amostra [...] s da orofaringe de 58 indivíduos, as quais foram semeadas por técnica de esgotamento em placas contendo ágar sangue. No momento da coleta, nenhum dos indivíduos estava sob tratamento com antibióticos. A identificação do S. pyogenes foi feita presuntivamente pelo teste de sensibilidade a bacitracina e confirmada pela grupagem sorológica através da extração do antígeno grupo-específico. RESULTADOS: Das 58 amostras de orofaringe analisadas, 32 (55,2%) foram provenientes de indivíduos atendidos em farmácias e 26 (44,8%) foram obtidas daqueles que procuraram as unidades de saúde. Um total de 15 (25,9%) amostras apresentou cultura positiva para S. pyogenes, sendo a maioria dos isolamentos (9/15, 60%) proveniente de indivíduos atendidos em farmácia. Streptococcus pyogenes foi isolado em 33,3% (11/33) dos indivíduos com idade entre zero e 15 anos e em 16% (4/25) daqueles com idade acima de 15 anos. As 15 cepas isoladas foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos testados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do presente estudo enfatizam a importância do diagnóstico bacteriológico no tratamento adequado da faringoamigdalite estreptocócica que permite a prevenção das complicações supurativas ou não supurativas e a erradicação do microrganismo da orofaringe. Abstract in english AIM: We investigate the occurrence of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis that spontaneously sought attendance in drugstores or in health units. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohorte. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Samples from oropharynx of 58 individuals were collected with swab and [...] tongue depressor and inoculated on sheep blood agar plates. At the moment the samples were collected, none of the individuals was under treatment with antibiotics. The presumptive identification of S. pyogenes was made by the susceptibility test to bacitracin and confirmed by the serological grouping through the extraction of the group-specific carbohydrate "C" antigen. RESULTS: From the 58 samples of oropharynx analyzed, 32 (55.2%) were from individuals assisted in drugstores and 26 (44.8%) were obtained from those that sought health units. A total of 15 (25.9%) samples presented positive culture for S. pyogenes, being most of the strains (9/15, 60%) coming from individuals assisted in drugstores. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in 33.3% (11/33) of the individuals from zero to 15 years of age and in 16% (4/25) of those over 15. The strains were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study emphasize the importance of the bacteriological diagnosis in the proper treatment for the streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis that determine the prevention of the supurative or non supurative complications and the eradication of the microorganism of the oropharynx.

Rozana, Scalabrin; Gisele D., Buss; Kelly Cristina S., Iamaguchi; Celso Luiz, Cardoso; Lourdes B., Garcia.

263

Isolamento de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite e teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos Isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigamos a ocorrência de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite que espontaneamente procuraram atendimento em farmácias e unidades de saúde. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Com auxílio de "swab" e abaixador de língua foram coletadas amostras da orofaringe de 58 indivíduos, as quais foram semeadas por técnica de esgotamento em placas contendo ágar sangue. No momento da coleta, nenhum dos indivíduos estava sob tratamento com antibióticos. A identificação do S. pyogenes foi feita presuntivamente pelo teste de sensibilidade a bacitracina e confirmada pela grupagem sorológica através da extração do antígeno grupo-específico. RESULTADOS: Das 58 amostras de orofaringe analisadas, 32 (55,2% foram provenientes de indivíduos atendidos em farmácias e 26 (44,8% foram obtidas daqueles que procuraram as unidades de saúde. Um total de 15 (25,9% amostras apresentou cultura positiva para S. pyogenes, sendo a maioria dos isolamentos (9/15, 60% proveniente de indivíduos atendidos em farmácia. Streptococcus pyogenes foi isolado em 33,3% (11/33 dos indivíduos com idade entre zero e 15 anos e em 16% (4/25 daqueles com idade acima de 15 anos. As 15 cepas isoladas foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos testados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do presente estudo enfatizam a importância do diagnóstico bacteriológico no tratamento adequado da faringoamigdalite estreptocócica que permite a prevenção das complicações supurativas ou não supurativas e a erradicação do microrganismo da orofaringe.AIM: We investigate the occurrence of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis that spontaneously sought attendance in drugstores or in health units. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohorte. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Samples from oropharynx of 58 individuals were collected with swab and tongue depressor and inoculated on sheep blood agar plates. At the moment the samples were collected, none of the individuals was under treatment with antibiotics. The presumptive identification of S. pyogenes was made by the susceptibility test to bacitracin and confirmed by the serological grouping through the extraction of the group-specific carbohydrate "C" antigen. RESULTS: From the 58 samples of oropharynx analyzed, 32 (55.2% were from individuals assisted in drugstores and 26 (44.8% were obtained from those that sought health units. A total of 15 (25.9% samples presented positive culture for S. pyogenes, being most of the strains (9/15, 60% coming from individuals assisted in drugstores. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in 33.3% (11/33 of the individuals from zero to 15 years of age and in 16% (4/25 of those over 15. The strains were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study emphasize the importance of the bacteriological diagnosis in the proper treatment for the streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis that determine the prevention of the supurative or non supurative complications and the eradication of the microorganism of the oropharynx.

Rozana Scalabrin

2003-12-01

264

Serotipos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus agalactiae Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae  

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Full Text Available Background : Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus, GBS, is the leading cause of neonatal and maternal infections and an opportunistic pathogen in adults with underlying disease. In the last decade, a dramatic increase in the resistance of this microorganism to erythromycin and clindamycin has been observed. Aim: To determine the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of S agalactiae collected from infections and colonization and to assess the genetic mechanisms of macrolide and clindamycin resistance. Material and methods: A total of 100 GBS isolates were collected between 1998 and 2002, in Santiago, Chile. They were isolated from the amniotic fluid from patients with premature rupture of membranes (7 isolates, blood from neonatal sepsis (10 isolates, neonate colonizations (2 strains, skin and soft tissue infections (7 isolates, urinary tract infections (5 isolates, genital infections (3 isolates, articular fluid (one isolate, and 65 strains were recovered from vaginal colonization55. Results: Serotypes Ia, II and III were the predominant serotypes identified in our study, accounting for 90 (90% of the strains. Five isolates belonged to serotypes Ib (5% and two (2% to serotype V respectively; no strains belonging to serotype IV were found. All strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and four isolates (4% were resistant to both erythromycin (MIC >64 µg/ml and clindamycin (MIC >64 µg/ml. The strains had a constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (cMLSB resistance phenotype and the erm(A gene was present in the four isolates. Conclusions: Serotypes Ia, II and III were the predominant serotypes in this study. All strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and four (4% strains were resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin. The cMLSB resistance phenotype, and the erm(A gene was detected in resistant strains (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 549-55.

María Angélica Martínez T

2004-05-01

265

Infecciones invasoras por Streptococcus b hemolítico Grupo A / Grupo Invasive infections by group a streptococcus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde los años ochenta ha habido un resurgimiento de infecciones severas por Streptococcus b hemolítico Grupo A (SBHGA). Objetivo: Evaluar en nuestro medio el comportamiento clínico y los factores predisponentes en infecciones invasoras por SBHGA. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron antecedentes clíni [...] cos de 37 fichas de niños con cultivo positivo al SBHGA hospitalizados en el Servicio de Pediatría y Cirugía Infantil del Hospital Dr. Félix Bulnes Cerda entre marzo de 1995 y enero de 2005. Resultados: 81% fueron pacientes eutróficos sin patología asociada. Destacan como factores condicionantes: quemadura (30%), varicela (19%) y traumatismo (16%). La sintomatología más frecuente fue fiebre (84%) y signos inflamatorios locales (40%). Los cuadros clínicos fueron: infección de tejido blando (32%), bacteremia sin focalización (30%), osteoartritis (10,8%), pleuroneumonía (10,8%), shock tóxico (8,1%) y fasceitis necrotizante (5,4%). Tres pacientes fallecieron. Conclusión: Las infecciones invasoras por SBHGA afectan mayoritariamente a niños sanos cuyo principal factor predisponente es una puerta cutánea, y puede ser fatal Abstract in english Since 1980 there has been a resurgence of severe infections by Group A Streptococcus (GAS). Objective: To evaluate in our hospital the clinical behaviour and predisposing factors for GAS infections. Methods: Clinical information from 37 charts of children with GAS positive cultures hospitalized in F [...] élix Bulnes Cerda Hospital were analyzed between March 1995 and January 2005. Results: 81% healthy children with predisposing factors: burns (30%), varicella (19%) and trauma (16%). The main symptoms were fever (84%) and local inflammatory signs (40%). The clinical manifestations include soft tissue infections (32%), bacteremia (30%), osteoarthritis (10,8%), empyema (10,8%), toxic shock (8,1%) and necrotizing fasciitis (5,4%). Three patients died. Conclusion: Invasive GAS mainly affects healthy children with skin port of entry and may cause death

Claudia, Alarcón O; Mary Carmen, Ordenes P; Marisol, Denegri M; Jorge, Zúñiga.

266

PREVALENCIA DE COLONIZACION POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B) EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE DEL EMBARAZO PESQUISADO EN MEDIO DE CULTIVO NO SELECTIVO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente bacteriano responsable de sepsis neonatal. Para evitar la infección perinatal se recomienda la pesquisa de la bacteria en región vagino-perianal durante el tercer trimestre, indicando tratamiento antibiótico durante el parto en aquellas gestantes co [...] lonizadas. La prevalencia de colonización varía según el tipo de cultivo utilizado (selectivo vs no selectivo). El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia de colonización del Streptococcus agalactiae en la población de embarazadas controladas en nuestra maternidad durante los años 2001-2002. Se tomó cultivo en medio no selectivo, entre las 35-37 semanas de gestación a 1658 pacientes, encontrando una prevalencia de colonización vagino-perianal de 6,2%. Esta cifra es bastante menor a la comunicada en otros estudios en embarazadas chilenas, por lo que creemos importante la implementación de medios de cultivos selectivos para mejorar el rendimiento de pesquisa Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae is the main bacterial agent in neonatal sepsis. To avoid the perinatal infection, a vaginal and anal culture in the third trimester is recomended and then treated with antibiotics during labour. The prevalence varies depending on the type of culture used (selective vs non se [...] lective medium). The aim of our study was to know the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women followed in our hospital during 2001-2002. Vaginal and anal samples were taken at 35-37 weeks using non selective medium. We recruited 1658 patients, finding a prevalence of 6.2%. Due to the lower prevalence expected in comparison to other studies in Chilean pregnancies, we believe that the application of selective medium for streptococcal culture may improve results

Enrique, Valdés R; Carolina, Pastene S; T, Masumi Grau; Jorge, Catalán M; Paula, Candia P; Guido, Juarez D; Rafael, Caballero T.

267

PREVALENCIA DE COLONIZACION POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE DEL EMBARAZO PESQUISADO EN MEDIO DE CULTIVO NO SELECTIVO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente bacteriano responsable de sepsis neonatal. Para evitar la infección perinatal se recomienda la pesquisa de la bacteria en región vagino-perianal durante el tercer trimestre, indicando tratamiento antibiótico durante el parto en aquellas gestantes colonizadas. La prevalencia de colonización varía según el tipo de cultivo utilizado (selectivo vs no selectivo. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia de colonización del Streptococcus agalactiae en la población de embarazadas controladas en nuestra maternidad durante los años 2001-2002. Se tomó cultivo en medio no selectivo, entre las 35-37 semanas de gestación a 1658 pacientes, encontrando una prevalencia de colonización vagino-perianal de 6,2%. Esta cifra es bastante menor a la comunicada en otros estudios en embarazadas chilenas, por lo que creemos importante la implementación de medios de cultivos selectivos para mejorar el rendimiento de pesquisaStreptococcus agalactiae is the main bacterial agent in neonatal sepsis. To avoid the perinatal infection, a vaginal and anal culture in the third trimester is recomended and then treated with antibiotics during labour. The prevalence varies depending on the type of culture used (selective vs non selective medium. The aim of our study was to know the prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women followed in our hospital during 2001-2002. Vaginal and anal samples were taken at 35-37 weeks using non selective medium. We recruited 1658 patients, finding a prevalence of 6.2%. Due to the lower prevalence expected in comparison to other studies in Chilean pregnancies, we believe that the application of selective medium for streptococcal culture may improve results

Enrique Valdés R

2003-01-01

268

Trading Agents  

CERN Document Server

Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

Wellman, Michael

2011-01-01

269

Transformation of Streptococcus lactis Protoplasts by Plasmid DNA †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polyethylene glycol-treated protoplasts prepared from Streptococcus lactis LM3302, a lactose-negative (Lac?) derivative of S. lactis ML3, were transformed to lactose-fermenting ability by a transductionally shortened plasmid (pLM2103) coding for lactose utilization.

Kondo, Jeffery K.; Mckay, Larry L.

1982-01-01

270

Serological identification of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 165 strains of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior were selected on the basis of their biochemical reactions using established identification procedures. These strains were also classified using API Database and were then screened against five candidate grouping sera. Biochemical tests and serological identification were in general complementary, but no regular associations between biotype and serological reaction were observed.

Ball, L. C.

1985-01-01

271

Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in Barbados.  

Science.gov (United States)

An imported case of pneumonia caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae occurred in a tourist, shortly after arriving in Barbados. The isolate was of serogroup 6 and exhibited intermediate resistance to penicillin. This was the first isolation of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae in Barbados. PMID:9354361

Levett, P N; Massay, R J

1997-09-01

272

rpoB Mutation Conferring Rifampin Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes  

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Streptococcus pyogenes BM4478 and Staphylococcus aureus BM4479 were isolated from a patient undergoing rifampin therapy. High-level resistance to rifampin was due to the following mutations in the rpoB gene: Ser522Leu in strain BM4478 and His526Asn and Ser574Leu in strain BM4479.

Aubry-damon, He?le?ne; Galimand, Marc; Gerbaud, Guy; Courvalin, Patrice

2002-01-01

273

Subtyping of Streptococcus uberis by DNA amplification fingerprinting.  

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Total DNA of Streptococcus uberis from cows with mastitis was analyzed by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and compared with restriction endonuclease fingerprinting (REF). DAF grouped 22 strains into 15 distinct patterns, while REF grouped them into 12 patterns. These results suggest that DAF is a useful technique for subtyping strains of S. uberis.

Jayarao, B. M.; Bassam, B. J.; Caetano-anolle?s, G.; Gresshoff, P. M.; Oliver, S. P.

1992-01-01

274

Transmission of Streptococcus pyogenes causing successive infections in a family.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated during a 10-month period from members of a family with infections and asymptomatic carriage. T-serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed that distinct GAS clones were introduced into the family over a short period of time. PMID:12848734

Mazón, A; Gil-Setas, A; Sota de la Gándara, L J; Vindel, A; Sáez-Nieto, J A

2003-06-01

275

Serotype Distribution and Drug Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Palestinian Territories  

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To determine antimicrobial drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes, we analyzed isolates from blood cultures of sick children residing in the West Bank before initiation of pneumococcal vaccination. Of 120 serotypes isolated, 50.8%, 73.3%, and 80.8% of the bacteremia cases could have been prevented by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Serotype 14 was the most drug-resistant serotype isolated.

Kattan, Randa; Abu Rayyan, Amal; Zheiman, Inas; Idkeidek, Suzan; Baraghithi, Sabri; Rishmawi, Nabeel; Turkuman, Sultan; Abu-diab, Afaf; Ghneim, Riyad; Zoughbi, Madeleine; Dauodi, Rula; Ghneim, Raed; Issa, Abed-el-razeq; Siryani, Issa; Al Qas, Randa

2011-01-01

276

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the draft genome sequences of PKUSS-HG01 and PKUSS-LG01, two clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans from human dental plaque. The genomics information will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of pathogenicity and evolution of S. mutans. PMID:24926045

Zheng, Hui; Guo, Lihong; Du, Ning; Lin, Jiuxiang; Song, Lai; Liu, Guiming; Chen, Feng

2014-01-01

277

Role of type I interferons in Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus pneumoniae ist die häufigste Ursache für ambulant erworbene Pneumonien weltweit. Daher müssen die Wirts-Pathogen-Interaktionen erforscht werden, um neue Therapiestrategien zu entwickeln. In dieser Studie habe ich 1. den Typ I Interferon (IFN)-stimulierenden Signalweg des angeborenen Immunsystems in Pneumokokken-infizierten Wirtszellen sowie 2. dessen Bedeutung in der Pneumokokkenpneumonie untersucht. Humane und murine Makrophagen, aber nicht alveolare Epithelzellen, produzie...

Koppe, Uwe Moritz Eberhard

2012-01-01

278

Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The methanol extracts of five tropical plants, Baeckea frutescens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Kaempferia pandurata, Physalis angulata and Quercus infectoria, exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. In particular, G. glabra, K. pandurata and P. angulata conferred fast killing bactericidal effect against S. mutans in 2 min at 50 microg/ml of extract concentration. PMID:15351117

Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Shim, Jae-Seok; Chung, Jae-Youn

2004-09-01

279

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type B Carriage, Central Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of children was conducted in 3 Central Asian Republics. Approximately half of the Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotypes included in available vaccine formulations. Approximately 6% of children carried Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Using pneumococcal and Hib conjugate vaccines may decrease illness in the Central Asian Republics. PMID:16229788

Factor, Stephanie H; LaClaire, Leslye; Bronsdon, Melinda; Suleymanova, Fleura; Altynbaeva, Gulbanu; Kadirov, Bakhtiyar A; Shamieva, Uulkan; Dowell, Scott F; Schuchat, Anne; Facklam, Richard; Schwartz, Benjamin; Chorba, Terence

2005-09-01

280

Outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Psychiatric Unit  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Katherine Fleming-Dutra, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses her investigation of a Streptococcus pneumoniae outbreak in a pediatric psychiatric unit.  Created: 11/2/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/5/2012.

2012-11-02

 
 
 
 
281

Characterization of the Streptococcus adjacens group antigen structure.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serological classification of bacteria requires the presence of an antigen unique to the organism of interest. Streptococci are serologically differentiated by group antigens, many of which are carbohydrates, although some are amphiphiles. This report describes the chemical characterization of the Streptococcus adjacens group antigen structure. Previous studies demonstrated that the amphiphile contained phosphorus, ribitol, galactose, galactosamine, alanine, and fatty acids. Phosphodiester bo...

Sieling, P. A.; Thomas, M. J.; Rijn, I.

1992-01-01

282

Approach to Validating an Opsonophagocytic Assay for Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) polysaccharide serotype-specific antibodies that have opsonophagocytic activity are considered a primary mechanism of host defense against pneumococcal disease. In vitro opsonophagocytic assays (OPAs) with antibody and complement to mediate opsonophagocytic killing of bacteria have been designed and developed as an adjunct to the standardized serum immunoglobulin G antipneumococcal capsular polysaccharide enzyme immunoassay to assess the effectiveness o...

2005-01-01

283

Streptococcus troglodytae sp. nov., from the chimpanzee oral cavity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six strains, TKU 25, TKU 28, TKU 30, TKU 31(T), TKU 33 and TKU 34, were isolated from the oral cavity of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Colonies of strains grown on Mitis-Salivarius agar were similar in morphology to that of Streptococcus mutans. The novel strains were Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci that lacked catalase activity. Analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates showed that the most closely related strain was the type strain of S. mutans (96.4?%). The next closely related strains to the isolates were the type strains of Streptococcus devriesei (94.5?%) and Streptococcus downei (93.9?%). These isolates could be distinguished from S. mutans by inulin fermentation and alkaline phosphatase activity (API ZYM system). The peptidoglycan type of the novel isolates was Glu-Lys-Ala(3). Strains were not susceptible to bacitracin. On the basis of phenotypic characterization, partial 16S rRNA gene and two housekeeping gene (groEL and sodA) sequence data, we propose a novel taxon, Streptococcus troglodytae sp. nov.; the type strain is TKU 31(T) (?=?JCM 18038(T)?=?DSM 25324(T)). PMID:22447699

Okamoto, Masaaki; Imai, Susumu; Miyanohara, Mayu; Saito, Wataru; Momoi, Yasuko; Abo, Tomoko; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Ikawa, Tomoko; Ogawa, Takumi; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Kaneko, Akihisa; Watanabe, Akino; Watanabe, Shohei; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

2013-02-01

284

Effects of Streptococcus Thermophilus Bacteria on rat gene expression profiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'impatto dellethermophiluds Streptococcus sull'epitelio del colon di ratto. Dopo la generazione del modello di ratto axenico e inoculato con S. thermophilus abbiamo investigato l'interazione tra il batterio e epithelo del colon di ratto. Dopo questo studio integrativo abbiamo analizzato l’espressione genica del colon usando due diversi approcci:

Chegdani, Fatima

2011-01-01

285

Comprehensive study of strains previously designated Streptococcus bovis consecutively isolated from human blood cultures and emended description of Streptococcus gallolyticus and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern taxonomy has delineated Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius within the heterogenous group of previously designated clinical Streptococcus bovis bacteria. In the present study, 58 consecutive blood culture isolates initially designated S. bovis were further characterized by applying phenotypic and molecular genetic methods, and possible disease associations were investigated by studying the patients' records. Published phenotypic characteristics of S. gallolyticus and S. infantarius were not unequivocal and did not allow an unambiguous phenotypic differentiation of the 58 clinical isolates. However, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences clearly assigned the strains to S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (n = 29), S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (n = 12), and S. infantarius subsp. coli (n = 17). Only 28% of the patients with available records presented with endocarditis and 7% presented with colon carcinoma, whereas 37% of the patients had altered liver parenchyma and 28% had gall bladder disease as underlying diseases. Detailed antimicrobial susceptibility data on both S. gallolyticus subspecies and S. infantarius subsp. coli are given for the first time. As a result of the extensive characterization of the largest number of S. gallolyticus and S. infantarius human clinical isolates published so far, emended species descriptions are given. It is recommended that both clinical microbiologists and infectious disease specialists avoid the designation S. bovis for true S. gallolyticus and S. infantarius strains in the future in order to get a clearer picture of the possible disease associations of these species. PMID:18614655

Beck, Marcella; Frodl, Reinhard; Funke, Guido

2008-09-01

286

Population diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the upper respiratory tracts of adults, determined by a nonculture strategy.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat. A culture-independent method was used, based on cloning and sequencing of PCR amplicons of the housekeeping gene gdh, which shows remarkable, yet species-specific, genetic polymorphism. Samples were collected from all potential ecological niches in the oral cavity and pharynx of two adults on two occasions separated by 2 years. Based on analysis of close to 10,000 sequences, significant diversity was observed in populations of all three species. Fluctuations in the relative proportions of individual clones and species were observed over time. While a few clones dominated, the proportions of most clones were very small. The results show that the frequent turnover of S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. infantis clones observed by cultivation can be explained by fluctuations in the relative proportions of clones, most of which are below the level of detection by the traditional culture technique, possibly combined with loss and acquisition from contacts. These findings provide a platform for understanding the mechanisms that govern the balance within the complex microbiota at mucosal sites and between the microbiota and the mucosal immune system of the host.

Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, H

2008-01-01

287

SHILA SINDURA: AN ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kupipakwa rasayana is a unique and highly evolved pharmaceutical preparation of the four murchita parada yogas. Shila Sindura is sagandha (with sulphur, sagni (processing with heat, kantastha (near the neck of the bottle murchita parada yoga, which has mercury (parada, sulphur (gandhaka and arsenic di sulphide (manashila as ingredients. It is indicated in all types of skin disorders (sarva kushtahara, skin problems associated with itching (kandu, rakta dosha hara (vitiated raktadhatu and other diseases of infectious origin like fever (jwara, sannipataja jwara, abscess (vidradhi, gonorrhoea (upadamsha, medhya, rasayana and hridya at a dose of 125-250 mg (1-2 ratti. Antimicrobial activity of Shila Sindura was conducted against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungus to evaluate its efficacy as broad spectrum antibiotic. So an attempt had been made to put forth “Shila Sindura: An Antimicrobial Agent”. Shila Sindura has an effective antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans in both Gradient plate technique and Kirby bauer method.

Dasari Srilakshmi

2012-10-01

288

Interference between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus: In Vitro Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Killing by Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Science.gov (United States)

The bactericidal activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae toward Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by hydrogen peroxide. Catalase eliminated this activity. Pneumococci grown anaerobically or genetically lacking pyruvate oxidase (SpxB) were not bactericidal, nor were nonpneumococcal streptococci. These results provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the interspecies interference observed in epidemiologic studies.

Regev-Yochay, Gili; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Thompson, Claudette M.; Malley, Richard; Lipsitch, Marc

2006-01-01

289

Celulitis por Streptococcus equi: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura / Streptococcus equi Cellulitis: Case Report and Literature Review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus equi es un coco gram positivo, perteneciente al grupo C de Lancefield, causa una enfermedad de gran relevancia en caballos, la gurma o adenitis equina (1-2); en humanos, estas infecciones son poco frecuentes, siendo más frecuentes las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos, faringiti [...] s, neumonía, síndrome tóxico similar al shock y endocarditis. Cuando la infección está asociada a bacteriemia, la mortalidad reportada es del 25%.(3) Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 44 años que ingresa al servicio de urgencias de la Clínica universidad de la Sabana con un cuadro clínico de celulitis en mano derecha por Streptococcus equi . Abstract in english Streptococcus equi is a gram-positive cocci, from group C of Lance 􀃀 eld. It causes an important disease in horses, strangles or equine adenitis (1-2). In humans, these infections are rare, and skin and soft tissue infections, pharyngitis, pneumonia, toxic shock-like syndrome and endocardit [...] is are more frequently observed. When the infection is associated with bacteremia, the reported mortality is near 25% (3). We report the case of a 44-year old man who was admitted to the emergency department of the University of Sabana Clinic with cellulitis due to Streptococcus equi in his right hand.

Julio César, García Casallas; Francisco, Cuervo Millán; Luis Felipe, Kling; M. Angelica, Palencia Boada.

290

Genetic polymorphism of Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members Polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans em membros de famílias brasileiras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether random amplified polymorphic DNA (AP-PCR analysis is able to differentiate genetically different clones of mutans streptococci, in 22 Brazilian family members. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from fathers, mothers and infants. For 5-18 months babies with erupting primary dentition, plaque samples were collected using sterile tooth pick tips. From these samples, mutans streptococci were isolated on SB-20 agar plates. After growth, representative colonies were identified by biochemical methods on the basis of carbohydrate fermentation. Streptococcus mutans isolates were obtained from all family members and AP-PCR typed separately with a random primer (OPA-13. Bacterial cell lysates were used as template in PCR reactions and the amplified DNA fragments obtained were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results demonstrated that the father shared the baby's genotype in three families and the mother shared the baby's genotype in 12 families seven babies harbored Streptococcus mutans strains similar to those of their siblings. The technique was able to demonstrate the genetic Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar, através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR a capacidade de diferenciar clones geneticamente distintos de Streptococcus mutans e estabelecer o grau de similaridade intrafamilial para os isolados. Para o presente estudo, foram selecionadas 22 famílias brasileiras. Amostras de saliva foram coletadas de todos os membros das famílias. Das crianças com idade entre 5-18 meses obteve-se amostras de placa dental. Após o isolamento das colônias com características morfológicas, realizou-se a identificação bioquímica com base na fermentação de carboidratos. O polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans foi pesquisado através da técnica de AP-PCR utilizando-se o primer OPA-13. Os fragmentos de DNA obtidos foram amplificados e comparados através de eletroforese em gel de agarose. Dentre as espécies identificadas nas 22 famílias analisadas, o pai apresentou cepas com similaridade genética aos dos bebês em três das famílias analisadas; em 12 famílias a mãe apresentou cepas com similaridade com as cepas de Streptococcus mutans do bebê e 7 bebês apresentaram cepas de S. mutans com similaridade genética das cepas do irmão mais velho. A técnica de AP-PCR foi eficaz em demonstrar a heterogeneidade genética de Streptococcus mutans entre os membros das famílias brasileiras analisadas.

Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio

2003-07-01

291

Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05. In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

Suping Wang

2014-07-01

292

Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Colombian children with pneumonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the principal causal agents of acute respiratory infection (ARI in children, and its resistance to antibiotics has increased worldwide. This study examined the patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics of S. pneumoniae that had colonized the upper respiratory tract of 272 children hospitalized for pneumonia in two hospitals in Santafé de Bogotá. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 114 patients (42%. Diminished susceptibility to penicillin was noted in 19 isolates (17%, with 12 (11% having an intermediate level of sensitivity and 7 (6% showing outright resistance. Only 1 of the 19 isolates resistant to penicillin also showed resistance to ceftriaxone. There was diminished sensitivity to erythromycin in 3 isolates (3%, to chloramphenicol in 6 (5%, and to co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole in 46 (40%. Resistance to multiple drugs was found in 7 isolates (6%. The most commonly encountered penicillin-resistant serotype was 23F (68.4%. An association was observed between age, prior use of antibiotics, and colonization by S. pneumoniae with reduced penicillin sensitivity or multiple-drug resistance. This study confirmed the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae in Colombia and highlights the importance of the rational use of antibiotics and of the implementation of epidemiologic surveillance for this agent.

Leal Aura Lucía

1997-01-01

293

Effects of ginkgoneolic acid on the growth, acidogenicity, adherence, and biofilm of Streptococcus mutans in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ginkgo biloba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, ginkgoneolic acid, a kind of compound extracted from G. biloba, was investigated for its effects on growth, acid production, adherence, biofilm formation, and biofilm morphology of Streptococcus mutans. The results showed that ginkgoneolic acid inhibited not only the growth of S. mutans planktonic cells at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 ?g/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 8 ?g/mL but also the acid production and adherence to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite of S. mutans at sub-MIC concentration. In addition, this agent was effective in inhibiting the biofilm formation of S. mutans (MBIC(50)?=?4 ?g/mL), and it reduced 1-day-developed biofilm of S. mutans by 50 % or more at low concentration (MBRC(50)?=?32 ?g/mL). Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that ginkgoneolic acid disrupted biofilm integrity effectively. These findings suggest that ginkgoneolic acid is a natural anticariogenic agent in that it exhibits antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and suppresses the specific virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity. PMID:22956463

He, Jinzhi; Wang, Shida; Wu, Tingxi; Cao, Yangpei; Xu, Xin; Zhou, Xuedong

2013-03-01

294

Radioprotective Agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

Ilker Kelle

2008-01-01

295

Biofilm formation and virulence expression by Streptococcus mutans are altered when grown in dual-species model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial cell-cell interactions in the oral flora are believed to play an integral role in the development of dental plaque and ultimately, its pathogenicity. The effects of other species of oral bacteria on biofilm formation and virulence gene expression by Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, were evaluated using a dual-species biofilm model and RealTime-PCR analysis. Results As compared to mono-species biofilms, biofilm formation by S. mutans was significantly decreased when grown with Streptococcus sanguinis, but was modestly increased when co-cultivated with Lactobacillus casei. Co-cultivation with S. mutans significantly enhanced biofilm formation by Streptococcus oralis and L. casei, as compared to the respective mono-species biofilms. RealTime-PCR analysis showed that expression of spaP (for multi-functional adhesin SpaP, a surface-associated protein that S. mutans uses to bind to the tooth surface in the absence of sucrose, gtfB (for glucosyltransferase B that synthesizes ?1,6-linked glucan polymers from sucrose and starch carbohydrates and gbpB (for surface-associated protein GbpB, which binds to the glucan polymers was decreased significantly when S. mutans were co-cultivated with L. casei. Similar results were also found with expression of spaP and gbpB, but not gtfB, when S. mutans was grown in biofilms with S. oralis. Compared to mono-species biofilms, the expression of luxS in S. mutans co-cultivated with S. oralis or L. casei was also significantly decreased. No significant differences were observed in expression of the selected genes when S. mutans was co-cultivated with S. sanguinis. Conclusions These results suggest that the presence of specific oral bacteria differentially affects biofilm formation and virulence gene expression by S. mutans.

Ahn Sang-Joon

2010-04-01

296

Agent Building Software  

Science.gov (United States)

AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

2000-01-01

297

Infecciones invasivas por Streptococcus pneumoniae: Estudio epidemiológico e importancia del desarrollo de un sistema de vigilancia Invasive infections caused by Strep. pneumoniae: an epidemiological study and the importance of developing a monitoring system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Las infecciones invasivas por Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) producen mortalidad elevada en países en desarrollo, con tasas entre 4 y 100 veces mayores que las de Estados Unidos o Canadá. Es el primer agente causal de neumonía en la infancia y de meningitis fuera de los brotes epidémicos por Neisseria meningitidis. La OPS, a través del grupo SIREVA, dedicado al desarrollo de vacunas en Latinoamérica, organizó un programa de vigilancia de infecciones invasivas por Spn en seis países: A...

2004-01-01

298

Trends in Drug Resistance, Serotypes, and Molecular Types of Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonizing Preschool-Age Children Attending Day Care Centers in Lisbon, Portugal: a Summary of 4 Years of Annual Surveillance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of the nasopharyngeal cultures recovered from 942 day care center (DCC) attendees in Lisbon, Portugal, 591 (62%) yielded Streptococcus pneumoniae during a surveillance performed in February and March of 1999. Forty percent of the isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. In particular, 2% were penicillin resistant and 20% had intermediate penicillin resistance. Multidrug resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was the most frequent antibiotype (17% of all i...

Nunes, S.; Sa?-lea?o, R.; Carric?o, J.; Alves, C. R.; Mato, R.; Avo?, A. Brito; Saldanha, J.; Almeida, J. S.; Sanches, I. Santos; Lencastre, H.

2005-01-01

299

Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae: a case of S. agalactiae infection in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A multiplex PCR (m-PCR technique was developed for simultaneous detection of the causative agents responsible forstreptococcosis of cultured fish in Thailand i.e., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae.The study on the sensitivity of the technique indicated that the minimum detected DNA concentration was 9.76, 39.06, and19.53 pg for S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieae, respectively. Detection of streptococcosis in healthy and diseased Niletilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus cultured in Paphayomand Bangkaew District, Phatthalung Province and Sichon and Hua Sai District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand, bym-PCR technique showed positive results for S. agalactiae from tilapia cultured in Bangkaew and Hua Sai and negativeresults for samples from Paphayom and Sichon. The m-PCR results were in accordance with microbiological culture techniques,which detected S. agalactiae from tilapia cultured in Bangkaew and Hua Sai indicating that our m-PCR assay is a sensitiveand specific diagnostic tool for simultaneous detection of streptococcosis caused by S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieaein cultured fish in Thailand.

Chutima Tantikitti

2012-11-01

300

Streptococcus iniae Capsule Impairs Phagocytic Clearance and Contributes to Virulence in Fish?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Surface capsular polysaccharides play a critical role in protecting several pathogenic microbes against innate host defenses during infection. Little is known about virulence mechanisms of the fish pathogen Streptococcus iniae, though indirect evidence suggests that capsule could represent an important factor. The putative S. iniae capsule operon contains a homologue of the cpsD gene, which is required for capsule polymerization and export in group B Streptococcus and Streptococcus pneumoniae...

Locke, Jeffrey B.; Colvin, Kelly M.; Datta, Anup K.; Patel, Silpa K.; Naidu, Nandita N.; Neely, Melody N.; Nizet, Victor; Buchanan, John T.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

LambdaSa1 and LambdaSa2 Prophage Lysins of Streptococcus agalactiae?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Putative N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase genes from LambdaSa1 and LambdaSa2 prophages of Streptococcus agalactiae were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes lysed the cell walls of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The peptidoglycan digestion products in the cell wall lysates were not consistent with amidase activity. Instead, the structure of the muropeptide digestion fragments indicated that both the LambdaSa1 and Lambd...

Pritchard, David G.; Dong, Shengli; Kirk, Marion C.; Cartee, Robert T.; Baker, John R.

2007-01-01

302

Antibacterial Activity of Iranian Green and Black Tea on Streptococcus Mutans : An In Vitro Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Dental caries is a common infectious disease.Streptococcus mutans is the prevalent decay microorganism. The anti Streptococcus mutans activity of non fermented and semi-fermented tea has been shown. The aim of this study was to determine the anti Streptococcus mutans activity of Iranian green and black tea (non fermented and fermented type).Materials and Methods: The study was experimental. The aerial parts of wild-growing Camellia sinensis were collected from Lahijan province. The...

2011-01-01

303

Effect of Human Saliva on Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans and Other Oral Microorganisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined the effects of human whole salivary supernatant and parotid fluid on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Actinomyces viscosus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The following three effects of saliva were observed: (i) inhibition of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), (ii) promotion of a transient, rapid (0 to 30 s) burst of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), and (iii) enhancement of glucose uptake (S. mitis, A. vi...

1981-01-01

304

IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Immunosuppressive drugs play an important role in preventing the rejection of organ or tissue grafts and in the treatment of certain diseases that arise from dysregulation of the immune response. In recent years, many new immunosuppressive drugs have been discovered and developed for clinical use. The wide array of new drugs offers the opportunity to use combinations that block different pathways of immune activation. In transplantation, the major classes of immunosuppressive drugs used are: Glucocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative/antimetabolic agents, and biologics (antibodies. Newer drugs like Mizoribine, RS61443, Brequinar sodium are inhibitors of DNA synthesis and inhibitors of cell activation/maturation like (Deoxyspergualin, CP 17193 have also showed promising results. Tacrolimus (FK 506 and Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF have already replaced immunosuppressive maintenance protocols. The other two drugs, Leflunomide and Sirolimus (SRL, are still under investigation for use in solid organ transplantation. Anti-interleukin-2 (IL-2 receptor antibodies, anti-CD25 [interleukin (IL-2 receptor] antibodies (basiliximab, daclizumab target growth factor pathways, have shown promising results in phase III trials. These drugs have met with a high degree of clinical success in treating conditions such as acute immune rejection of organ transplants and severe autoimmune diseases. This article reviews the pharmacodynamics, adverse effects and uses of the major classes of immunosuppressive drugs.

Dr Pramila Yadav

2010-05-01

305

Antimicrobial resistant profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the nasopharynx of secondary school students in Jos, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has compromised the effectiveness of therapy for pneumococcal diseases and asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriers play an important role in transmission of resistant strains. Method : Eighty-eight volunteer students attending 2 secondary schools in Jos, Nigeria were involved in this study to determine the antimicrobial resistant profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the nasopharynx. The study population consisted of males and females between the ages of 15 - 25 years. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were analyzed for the presence of S. pneumoniae using standard bacteriological methods. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method. Results : S. pneumoniae was isolated from 37(42.04% of the 88 samples. Isolates showed the highest resistance of 12 (32.43% to erythromycin and lowest resistance of 4(10.81% to ciprofloxacin. The resistance profiles for the 26(70.27% penicillin-sensitive and 11(29.72% penicillin-resistant isolates were similar. Both exhibited varying degrees of resistance to several groups of antimicrobials. However, isolates found to be resistant to penicillin showed a higher degree of resistance to other antimicrobial agents. Conclusion : This study has shown that some secondary school students are carriers of multiple antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae .

Kandakai-Olukemi Y

2009-03-01

306

The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial photodynamic therapy: a comparison of two different photosensitizers and light sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans is the main etiological agent for dental caries. Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced as a new modality in bacterial decontamination. Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial PDT [...] using two different photosensitizers and light sources. Material and Methods: Standard suspensions of S. mutans were exposed to laser light at 662 nm and Radachlorin® or LED 630 nm in combination with Toluidine blue O (TBO). Radiation-only groups, photosensitizer alone, and groups with no treatment were used as controls. Bacterial suspension from each treatment was subcultured onto the surface of Mueller-Hinton agar plates and bacterial growth was assessed. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p<0.05). Results: PDT with TBO and Radachlorin® significantly reduced S. mutans viability, whereas no difference was observed between two groups of PDT. In the groups treated just with the photosensitizer or irradiated alone, no significant reduction of S. mutans colonies was observed. Conclusion: S. mutans colonies were susceptible to either 662 nm laser or LED light in the presence of Radachlorin® and TBO respectively with no priority.

HAKIMIHA, Neda; KHOEI, Farzaneh; BAHADOR, Abbas; FEKRAZAD, Reza.

307

Antibacterial Properties of Dental Luting Agents : Potential to Hinder the Development of Secondary Caries  

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A modified direct contact test was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of four commercially available dental luting agents (RelyX Unicem, Ketac Cem, Ceramir Crown & Bridge and Harvard Cement) and two reference materials (glass-ionomer cement and calcium aluminate cement) compared to a negative-control material (PMMA). Streptococcus mutans bacteria were placed in direct contact with specimens that had been aged for 10?min, 1?day, and 7?days, in order to test the antibacteri...

2012-01-01

308

Antibacterial Properties of Dental Luting Agents: Potential to Hinder the Development of Secondary Caries  

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A modified direct contact test was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of four commercially available dental luting agents (RelyX Unicem, Ketac Cem, Ceramir Crown & Bridge and Harvard Cement) and two reference materials (glass-ionomer cement and calcium aluminate cement) compared to a negative-control material (PMMA). Streptococcus mutans bacteria were placed in direct contact with specimens that had been aged for 10?min, 1?day, and 7?days, in order to test the antibacterial p...

2012-01-01

309

Effect of acidity and antimicrobial agent-like compounds on viability of Plesiomonas shigelloides.  

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Nineteen Plesiomonas shigelloides strains were evaluated for their stability at acidic and slightly alkaline pHs and for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agent-like compounds produced by enteric flora. Most P. shigelloides isolates were rapidly inactivated under high-acid (pH 4 or less) conditions. Screening of enteric bacteria for elaboration of factors active against P. shigelloides revealed two organisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus [Enterococcus] faecium) capable of secr...

Janda, J. M.

1987-01-01

310

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE TO FORMALIN INACTIVATED STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE ISOLATES IN RABBITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate primary and secondary immune response to formalin inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in rabbits. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from mastitic buffaloes. The organism was characterized on the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical tests. An increased geomean antibody titer was observed in rabbits inoculated with single dose (Group A and double dose (Group B of Streptococcus agalactiae antigen. It was also evident from the results that the double dose of Streptococcus agalactiae antigen in rabbits (Group B showed better and long lasting humoral antibody response as compared to single dose (Group A.

M. ABUBAKAR, G. MUHAMMAD1 AND K. IBRAHIM

2006-07-01

311

Progress in development of Group A Streptococcus vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a major Gram-positive human pathogen that causes diverse human diseases with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of an effective GAS vaccine is hindered by the occurrence of many unique GAS serotypes, the complexity of the global epidemiology of GAS infections, and safety concerns over the cross-reactivity of some antigen-specific antibodies with human tissues and proteins. Although no licensed GAS vaccine is available, a number of candidate vaccines have been or are being evaluated in laboratory or in clinical trials. This minireview provides brief information on the progress and difficulty in the development of GAS vaccines. PMID:24372248

Song, Yingli; Zhang, Xiaolan; Lu, Chunmei; Zhang, Fengmin; Zhu, Hui

2014-11-01

312

Streptococcus group C meningitis with cavernous sinus thrombosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mattew Clarke,1 Hilary Enuh,1 Jessie Saverimuttu,2 Jay Nfonoyim31Department of Medicine, 2Division of Infectious Disease, 3Critical Care Unit, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USAAbstract: Group C Streptococcus (GCS is a rare cause of bacteremia in humans. It is mostly associated with zoonological infections. Although GCS can be part of the normal oral, skin, and genitourinary flora, an infection with this pathogen can be highly virulent, causing rapid, disseminating disease. With a mortality of about 25%, the poor prognosis is linked to the severity of illness and the high level of virulence of the organism. Only a few cases of GCS meningitis have been reported. We present the first case of GCS meningitis with cavernous sinus thrombosis.Keyword: streptococcus group C, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis

Clarke M

2013-08-01

313

Evaluation of a new serotyping kit for Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new serotyping test kit (Streptococcus pneumoniae antisera "Seiken" set; Denka kit) was evaluated for 285 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae in comparison with the standard capsular reaction (Quellung test). This new kit is based on the slide-agglutination method and is composed of eight pool sera, 40 group or type sera and 41 specific type sera. All serotyping results by using the Denka kit were completely identical to those obtained by using the conventional Quellung test. For types and groups, sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 100 %, respectively. For specific types, sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 100 %, respectively. The Denka kit is relatively rapid (mean test time, 5 min, versus 15 min by Quellung test), cheap (0.5 US$ per test, versus 1.4 US$ per Quellung test), easy to perform and does not require special equipment. The Denka kit may be useful for fieldworkers in developing countries involved in epidemiological surveys and vaccine development. PMID:14532342

Mudany, Mildred Anyango; Kikuchi, Ken; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Uchiyama, Takehiko

2003-11-01

314

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus in identical siblings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS), these cases of childhood-onset obsessive compulsive disorder and tic disorders resemble the presentation of Sydenham chorea, in that they have an acute onset following a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection (group A Streptococcus), with accompanying neurological signs, and an episodic or sawtooth course. Familial associations of this subgroup of patients remain understudied. This report provides phenotypic descriptions of three youth with PANDAS as well as their genetically identical siblings (in two cases of twins and one case of triplets). These cases highlight the potential for environmental influences for discordant presentations in genetically identical siblings. Despite identical genetics, presentations showed marked variation across siblings (from a full PANDAS presentation to asymptomatic). Further research into environmentally driven influences such as postinfectious molecular mimicry and epigenetic factors that may influence the manifestation of these pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders will promote our understanding of their prevention and treatment. PMID:21486169

Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K

2011-04-01

315

[Evaluation of rapid diagnostic kits for the detection of group A streptococcus to Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus spp. with Lancefield's group A antigen].  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the basic performance of eight rapid diagnostic kits for the detection of Group A streptococcus by immunochromatography under the same conditions. Kits were the; QuickVue Dipstick Strep A (Sumitomo Seiyaku Biomedical Co., Ltd.), TESTPACK Plus STREP A (ABBOTT JAPAN Co., Ltd), CLEAVIEW STREP A (Nihon Schering K. K.), QuickVue STREP A (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd), ImmunoCard STAT! STREP A (TFB, INC.), DIPSTICK 'Eiken' STREP A (Eiken Chemical Co., Ltd.), Rapid Testa Strep A (Daiichi Pure Chemical Co., Ltd.), and StatCheck Strep A (KAINOS Laboratories, Inc.). Four of these kits, i.e. QuickVue Dipstick Strep A, TESTPACK Plus STREP A, Rapid Testa Strep A, and StatCheck Strep A showed sensitivity at 1.0 x 10(5) CFU/mL (1.0 x 10(4)CFU/test) with all of S. pyogenes tested, while the Anginosus group and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis with Lancefield' s group A antigen showed sensitivity very similar to S. pyogenes. Of these strains, S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis formed a beta-hemolytic colony resembling that of S. pyogenes on sheep blood agar, and was sensitive to bacitracin. It is thus indispensable to identify the colony using biochemical tests such as the PYR (pyrrolidonylarylamidase production) test. In using rapid diagnostic kits for the detection of Group A streptococcus, it is important to rule out the possibility of Group A streptococcus other than S. pyogenes in throats. Severe invasive group-G streptococcal infections are increasing recently. Concerning S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, it is especially important to conduct these identification tests. PMID:17176853

Mitsuno, Noriko; Hari, Tomohiro; Tamagawa, Nobuyoshi; Itoi, Juichi; Ikeda, Eiji; Hamasaki, Kazuko; Katsukawa, Chihiro; Okuyama, Michiko

2006-11-01

316

Mechanisms of Macrolide Resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Russia?  

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Among 76 macrolide-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected between 2003 and 2005 from Central Russia, the resistance mechanisms detected in the isolates included erm(B) alone (50%), mef alone [mef(E), mef(I), or a different mef subclass; 19.7%], or both erm(B) and mef(E) (30.3%). Isolates with dual resistance genes [erm(B) and mef(E)] belonged to clonal complex CC81 or CC271.

Reinert, Ralf R.; Filimonova, Olga Y.; Al-lahham, Adnan; Grudinina, Svetlana A.; Ilina, Elena N.; Weigel, Linda M.; Sidorenko, Sergey V.

2008-01-01

317

Properties of a Streptococcus lactis strain that ferments lactose slowly.  

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Streptococcus lactis 7962, which ferments lactose slowly, has a lactose phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and low phospho-beta-galactosidase activity, in addition to high beta-galactosidase activity. Lactose 6'-phosphate accumulated to a high concentration (greater than 100 mM) in cells growing on lactose. In contrast, lactic streptococci, which ferment lactose rapidly and use only the lactose-phosphotransferase system for uptake, contained high phospho-beta-galactosidas...

Crow, V. L.; Thomas, T. D.

1984-01-01

318

Comparison of Streptokinase Activity from Streptococcus mutans using Different Substrates  

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Streptokinase is a novel bacterial fibrinolytic enzyme that binds and activates plasminogen and is produced by several species of Streptococci. Streptococcus mutans was selected for optimum production of streptokinase using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass in liquid state fermentation. Substrates were applied in different concentrations ranging from 0.1-0.8%. Maximum fibrinolytic activity was observed by 0.3% corn steep liquor, 0.5% molasses and rice polishing ...

2013-01-01

319

Pyridine analogs inhibit the glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans.  

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Soluble glucan synthesis catalyzed by dextransucrase preparations from Streptococcus mutans 6715 were inhibited by pyridoxal-5-phosphate and several other pyridine analogs, including pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxamine-5-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid. Pyridine and pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde were not effective inhibitors of the enzyme. Kinetic analyses suggested that pyridoxal-5-phosphate is a noncompetitive inhibitor of dextransucrase. The inactivation was dependent on time, py...

Thaniyavarn, S.; Taylor, K. G.; Singh, S.; Doyle, R. J.

1982-01-01

320

Streptococcus group C meningitis with cavernous sinus thrombosis  

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Mattew Clarke,1 Hilary Enuh,1 Jessie Saverimuttu,2 Jay Nfonoyim31Department of Medicine, 2Division of Infectious Disease, 3Critical Care Unit, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USAAbstract: Group C Streptococcus (GCS) is a rare cause of bacteremia in humans. It is mostly associated with zoonological infections. Although GCS can be part of the normal oral, skin, and genitourinary flora, an infection with this pathogen can be highly virulent, causing rapid, disseminating di...

Clarke M; Enuh H; Saverimuttu J; Nfonoyim J

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Sortase A Confers Protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae in Mice?  

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Streptococcus pneumoniae sortase A (SrtA) is a transpeptidase that is highly conserved among pneumococcal strains, whose involvement in adhesion/colonization has been reported. We found that intraperitoneal immunization with recombinant SrtA conferred to mice protection against S. pneumoniae intraperitoneal challenge and that the passive transfer of immune serum before intraperitoneal challenge was also protective. Moreover, by using the intranasal challenge model, we observed a significant r...

Gianfaldoni, Claudia; Maccari, Silvia; Pancotto, Laura; Rossi, Giacomo; Hilleringmann, Markus; Pansegrau, Werner; Sinisi, Antonia; Moschioni, Monica; Masignani, Vega; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Ruggiero, Paolo

2009-01-01

322

Genetic transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae by heterologous plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid.  

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A number of heterologous plasmid deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) coding for erythromycin, tylosin, lincomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol resistance have been introduced into Streptococcus pneumoniae via genetic transformation with frequencies that varied between 10(-5) to as high as 5 x 10(-1) per colony-forming unit. Transformation with plasmid DNA required pneumococcal competence, was competed by chromosomal DNA, and showed a saturation at about 0.5 micrograms/ml (with a recipient popu...

Barany, F.; Tomasz, A.

1980-01-01

323

Changing Molecular Epidemiology of Group B Streptococcus in Korea  

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The prevalence of group B streptococcus (GBS) among pregnant women and disease burdens in neonates and adults are increasing in Korea. Colonizing isolates, collected by screening pregnant women (n=196), and clinical isolates collected from clinical patients throughout Korea (n=234), were serotyped and screened for antibiotic resistance. Serotype III (29.8%) and V (27.7%) predominated, followed by Ia (17.0%). Antibiotic resistance was higher among clinical than colonizing isolates for erythrom...

Seo, Yong Soo; Srinivasan, Usha; Oh, Kwan-young; Shin, Jung-hwan; Chae, Jeong Don; Kim, Moon Young; Yang, Jae Hyug; Yoon, Hye-ryung; Miller, Brady; Debusscher, Joan; Foxman, Betsy; Ki, Moran

2010-01-01

324

Antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Implications for medical practice.  

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OBJECTIVE: To review the definition and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, its links with antibiotic prescribing, data on antibiotic prescribing and prescribing appropriateness, and evidence-based treatment guidelines for common respiratory tract syndromes. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Primary studies consist of cross-sectional surveys and case-control studies. Treatment guidelines are based on clinical trials, meta-analyses, and cohort studies. Study designs were appropriat...

Wang, E. E.; Kellner, J. D.; Arnold, S.

1998-01-01

325

The Streptococcus pneumoniae Pilus-1 Displays a Biphasic Expression Pattern  

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The Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-1 is encoded by pilus islet 1 (PI-1), which has three clonal variants (clade I, II and III) and is present in about 30% of clinical pneumococcal isolates. In vitro and in vivo assays have demonstrated that pilus-1 is involved in attachment to epithelial cells and virulence, as well as protection in mouse models of infection. Several reports suggest that pilus-1 expression is tightly regulated and involves the interplay of numerous genetic regulators, includi...

Angelis, Gabriella; Moschioni, Monica; Muzzi, Alessandro; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Censini, Stefano; Delany, Isabel; Lo Sapio, Morena; Sinisi, Antonia; Donati, Claudio; Masignani, Vega; Barocchi, Miche?le A.

2011-01-01

326

Group B Streptococcus Late-Onset Disease: 2003-2010  

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BACKGROUND: There is insufficient population-based data on group B streptococcus (GBS) late-onset disease (LOD). Risk factors and routes of GBS transmission are poorly understood. METHODS: A prospective, cohort study was conducted to collect incidence data on LOD and evaluate GBS infections over an 8-year period (2003-2010). Starting from January 2007, maternal rectovaginal and breast milk cultures were routinely collected on confirmation of the LOD diagnosis to assess maternal GBS culture st...

Berardi, Alberto; Rossi, Cecilia; Lugli, Licia; Creti, Roberta; Reggiani, Maria Letizia Bacchi; Lanari, Marcello; Memo, Luigi; Pedna, Maria Federica; Venturelli, Claudia; Perrone, Enrica; Ciccia, Matilde; Tridapalli, Elisabetta; Piepoli, Marina; Contiero, Raffaella; Ferrari, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

327

Rheumatic fever–associated Streptococcus pyogenes isolates aggregate collagen  

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Acute rheumatic fever is a serious autoimmune sequel of Streptococcus pyogenes infection. This study shows that serotype M3 and M18 S. pyogenes isolated during outbreaks of rheumatic fever have the unique capability to bind and aggregate human basement membrane collagen type IV. M3 protein is identified as collagen-binding factor of M3 streptococci, whereas M18 isolates bind collagen through a hyaluronic acid capsule, revealing a novel function for M3 protein and capsule. Following in vivo mo...

2003-01-01

328

Identification of Group A Streptococcus Antigenic Determinants Upregulated In Vivo  

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Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes a range of diseases in humans, from mild noninvasive infections to severe invasive infections. The molecular basis for the varying severity of disease remains unclear. We identified genes expressed during invasive disease using in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT), applied for the first time in a gram-positive organism. Convalescent-phase sera from patients with invasive disease were pooled, adsorbed against antigens derived from in vitro-grown GAS, an...

Salim, Kowthar Y.; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.; Chang, Peter; Bast, Darrin J.; Handfield, Martin; Hillman, Jeffrey D.; Azavedo, Joyce C. S.

2005-01-01

329

Application of molecular typing to the epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

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The spread of antibiotic resistance and the development of new vaccines have focused attention on the epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae over recent years. While serotyping and the determination of antibiotic resistance remain primary methods for characterising pneumococci, molecular typing can add greater discrimination and complementary information. Methods based on restriction fragment length polymorphism within total DNA or non-specific polymerase chain reaction provide information ...

Hall, L. M.

1998-01-01

330

Overproduction of a dextranase inhibitor by Streptococcus sobrinus mutants.  

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An inhibitor of Streptococcus sobrinus endodextranase was detected in the extracellular fractions of UAB66 mutants identified following ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis as either devoid of dextranase activity (Dex-) or overproducing water-soluble glucan. The two groups of mutants had the same phenotype and displayed no dextranase activity in assays of extracellular fractions (H. Murchison, S. Larrimore, and R. Curtiss III, Infect. Immun. 34:1044-1055, 1981) and had been shown to be defectiv...

Wanda, S. Y.; Camilli, A.; Murchison, H. M.; Curtiss, R.

1994-01-01

331

Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Fluoroquinolones in Canada?  

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Ciprofloxacin, the first fluoroquinolone to be used to treat lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), demonstrates poor potency against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its use has been associated with the emergence of resistance. During the last decade, fluoroquinolones with enhanced in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae have replaced ciprofloxacin for the treatment of LRTI. Here, we analyzed the impact of more active fluoroquinolone usage on pneumococci by examining the fluoroquinolone usa...

2011-01-01

332

Binding of Streptococcus pyogenes to soluble and insoluble fibronectin.  

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The interaction of soluble and insoluble fibronectin with Streptococcus pyogenes was investigated. Soluble fibronectin bound to S. pyogenes in a dose-dependent and irreversible manner. Lipoteichoic acid competitively inhibited the binding of fibronectin to S. pyogenes but had little effect on the binding of fibronectin to staphylococci or pneumococci. The phase of growth of the streptococci had a slight effect on binding of fibronectin, with optimal binding occurring in the late log phase. S....

Courtney, H. S.; Ofek, I.; Simpson, W. A.; Hasty, D. L.; Beachey, E. H.

1986-01-01

333

Brain abscess due to Wolinella recta and Streptococcus intermedius  

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The authors present a case of a 62-year-old female with a frontal lobe brain abscess caused by Wolinella recta and two strains of Streptococcus intermedius. One of the strains of S intermedius was resistant to penicillin. Resolution of the abscess required 60 days of antibiotic therapy and aspiration on four occasions. The source of the brain abscess could not be determined. This is the first case in which W recta has been isolated from a brain abscess.

Marrie, Thomas J.; Kerr, Elizabeth

1990-01-01

334

Fatal Necrotizing Fasciitis Due to Streptococcus pneumoniae: A Case Report  

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Necrotizing fasciitis is known to be a highly lethal infection of deep-seated subcutaneous tissue and superficial fascia. Reports of necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae are exceedingly rare. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis in a 62-yr-old man with liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. He presented with painful swelling of left leg and right hand. On the day of admission, compartment syndrome was aggravated and the patient underwent surgical exploration. Intra-opera...

2011-01-01

335

Purification and Cloning of a Streptokinase from Streptococcus uberis  

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A bovine plasminogen activator was purified from the culture supernatant of the bovine pathogen Streptococcus uberis NCTC 3858. After the final reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography step a single protein with a molecular mass of 32 kDa was detected in the active fraction. A partial peptide map was established, and degenerate primers were designed and used for amplification of fragments of the gene encoding the activator. Inverse PCR was subsequently used for obtaining the full-...

Johnsen, Laust B.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens; Petersen, Torben E.

1999-01-01

336

The ineffectiveness of tobramycin combination therapy in Streptococcus faecium endocarditis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A patient required mitral valve replacement following ineffective antibiotic treatment of enterococcal endocarditis caused by Streptococcus faecium. Endocarditis had relapsed despite therapy with ampicillin and tobramycin for six weeks. A second relapse had occurred following treatment with penicillin and gentamicin. Initial failure of antibiotic therapy may be related to the known lack of in vitro and in vivo synergy between penicillin and tobramycin against S. faecium. Effective therapy of ...

Goldstein, J. A.; Cohen, H.; Bia, F. J.

1983-01-01

337

Transposon mutagenesis of group B streptococcus beta-hemolysin biosynthesis.  

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Beta-hemolysin production by group B streptococci (GBS) is speculated to be a major virulence factor of the organism. A virulent, beta-hemolytic group B streptococcus strain was mutagenized with the self-conjugative transposon Tn916 to derive isogenic strains with mutations only in the gene(s) responsible for beta-hemolysin biosynthesis. There was no significant difference between the virulence of the parent strain and that of the mutant strains in a neonatal rat sepsis model.

1987-01-01

338

Phenotypical characteristics of group B streptococcus in parturients  

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Colonization by Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is highly prevalent among pregnant women, with prevalence rates ranging between 4% and 30%. The infection may be transmitted vertically and may result in serious neonatal consequences. In the period from November 2003 to May 2004, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 316 parturients at the Jundiaí Teaching Hospital to establish the prevalence of genital GBS colonization, to identify the factors associated with colonization and the characte...

Jose Antonio Simoes; Valeria Moraes Neder Alves; Sergio Eduardo Longo Fracalanzza; Rodrigo Pauperio Soares de Camargo; Lenir Mathias; Helaine Maria Besteti Pires Milanez; Eliane Melo Brolazo

2007-01-01

339

Proton Motive Force During Growth of Streptococcus lactis Cells  

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Experiments with the aerotolerant anaerobe Streptococcus lactis provide the opportunity for determining the proton motive force (?p) in dividing cells. The two components of ?p, ?? (the transmembrane potential) and ?pH (the chemical gradient of H+), were determined by the accumulation of radiolabeled tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) and benzoate ions. The ?? was calibrated with the K+ diffusion potential in starved, valinomycin-treated cells. With resting, glycolyzing cells, the ?p was m...

Kashket, Eva R.; Blanchard, Alaina G.; Metzger, William C.

1980-01-01

340

Transcriptional Regulation of the Cellobiose Operon of Streptococcus mutans? §  

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The ability of Streptococcus mutans to catabolize cellobiose, a ?-linked glucoside generated during the hydrolysis of cellulose, is shown to be regulated by a transcriptional regulator, CelR, which is encoded by an operon with a phospho-?-glucosidase (CelA) and a cellobiose-specific sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease (EIICel). The roles of CelR, EIICel components, and certain fructose/mannose-PTS permeases in the transcriptional regulation of the cel locus were analyzed. The res...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains using the phage profiling method  

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We recently developed a method that allows fast differentiation between Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) strains. The method named phage profiling (PP) is based on a simple assumption that a regular PCR reaction with Taq polymerase and relatively short elongation time is not able to yield long DNA fragment, such as ~40–50 kb integrated prophage. Only fragments without any integrated DNA or short fragments inserted between integration sites can be efficiently amplified. We designed primers that ...

2012-01-01

342

Catechin-incorporated dental copolymers inhibit growth of Streptococcus mutans  

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Objective: To test the inhibitory growth activity of green tea catechin incorporated into dental resins compared to resins containing the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans in vitro. Material and Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCg) and chlorhexidine (CHX) were determined according to the microdilution method. Resin discs (5 mm × 3 mm) were prepared from Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (R1) and Bis-GMA/CH3...

Alexandra Mankovskaia; Le?vesque, Ce?line M.; Anuradha Prakki

2013-01-01

343

Association of protein with the cell wall of Streptococcus mutans.  

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Cell walls from Streptococcus mutans were prepared by conventional technique and subjected to a series of extraction procedures involving classical protein solvents. The extracted walls contained several non-peptidoglycan amino acids and were also amenable to radiolabeling with [125I]sodium iodide and chloramine T. The cell walls could be chemically modified with tetranitromethane and diazo-1H-tetrazole, suggesting the presence of tyrosine or histidine or both. Flourescence spectra of the wal...

Nesbitt, W. E.; Staat, R. H.; Rosan, B.; Taylor, K. G.; Doyle, R. J.

1980-01-01

344

Genetic Locus for Streptolysin S Production by Group A Streptococcus  

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Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Streptolysin S (SLS) is the cytolytic factor that creates the zone of beta-hemolysis surrounding GAS colonies grown on blood agar. We recently reported the discovery of a potential genetic determinant involved in SLS production, sagA, encoding a small peptide of 53 amino acids (S. D. Betschel, S. M. Borgia, N. L. Barg, D. E. Low, and J. C. De Azavedo, In...

Nizet, Victor; Beall, Bernard; Bast, Darrin J.; Datta, Vivekananda; Kilburn, Laurie; Low, Donald E.; Azavedo, Joyce C. S.

2000-01-01

345

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils...

Sfeir, Julien; Lefranc?ois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbre?, Se?verine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

346

In vitro activity of propolis against Streptococcus pyogenes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Propolis, a multifunctional substance used by bees to maintain the safety of their hives, is popular for its therapeutic potential against some micro-organisms. Ethanolic extracts of two propolis specimens, collected from different areas within a region in the north-west of Italy, were examined to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against 46 Streptococcus pyogenes strains. By both agar dilution and agar diffusion methods, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal...

2000-01-01

347

Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Its Close Commensal Relatives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a member of the Mitis group of streptococci which, according to 16S rRNA-sequence based phylogenetic reconstruction, includes 12 species. While other species of this group are considered prototypes of commensal bacteria, S. pneumoniae is among the most frequent microbial killers worldwide. Population genetic analysis of 118 strains, supported by demonstration of a distinct cell wall carbohydrate structure and competence pheromone sequence signature, shows that S. p...

2008-01-01

348

Population Dynamics of Streptococcus mitis in Its Natural Habitat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic structure of the typical commensal Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 in its natural habitat in the human oral cavity and pharynx and to investigate the role that selected microbial properties and host, spatial, and temporal factors play in determining the structure of the bacterial population. Consecutive samples were collected from buccal and pharyngeal mucosal surfaces of two infants, their four parents, and two elderly individuals over a peri...

2001-01-01

349

Molecular Characterization of Multidrug Resistance in Streptococcus mitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antimicrobial resistance was characterized for 14 strains of Streptococcus mitis. HinfI restriction fragment length mapping of gyrA PCR amplicons from three ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates correlated with mutations associated with such resistance in other organisms. By using PCR, seven erythromycin-resistant strains were found to possess either the mef or ermB gene. Hybridization revealed tet(M) in seven tetracycline-resistant isolates.

1999-01-01

350

Identification and preliminary characterization of a Streptococcus sanguis fibrillar glycoprotein.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cell surface fibrils could be released from Streptococcus sanguis 12 but not from strains 12na or N by freeze-thawing followed by brief homogenization. Fibrils were isolated from the homogenate by ultracentrifugation or ammonium sulfate precipitation. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of dense masses of aggregated fibrils in these preparations. Under nondenaturing conditions, no proteins were seen in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE anal...

Morris, E. J.; Ganeshkumar, N.; Song, M.; Mcbride, B. C.

1987-01-01

351

Molecular Basis of Rifampin Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rifampin resistance among South African clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae was shown to be due to missense mutations within the rpoB gene. Sequence analysis of 24 rifampin-resistant isolates revealed the presence of mutations within cluster I as well as novel mutations in an area designated pneumococcus cluster III. Of the 24 isolates characterized, only 1 resistant isolate did not contain any mutations in the regions sequenced. Either the cluster I or the cluster III mutations sep...

1999-01-01

352

Streptococcus mutans attachment on a cast titanium surface  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and the corrosion of cast commercially pure titanium, used in dental dentures. The sample discs were cast in commercially pure titanium using the vacuum-pressure machine (Rematitan System). The surfaces of each metal were ground and polished with sandpaper (#300-4000) and alumina paste (0.3 µm). The roughness of the surface (Ra) was measured using the Surfcorder rugosimeter SE 1700. Fou...

Sicknan Soares da Rocha; Adilson César Abreu Bernardi; Antônio Carlos Pizzolitto; Gelson Luis Adabo; Elisabeth Loshchagin Pizzolitto

2009-01-01

353

Large-Scale Identification of Virulence Genes from Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of bacterial pneumonia, and it is also responsible for otitis media and meningitis in children. Apart from the capsule, the virulence factors of this pathogen are not completely understood. Recent technical advances in the field of bacterial pathogenesis (in vivo expression technology and signature-tagged mutagenesis [STM]) have allowed a large-scale identification of virulence genes. We have adapted to S. pneumoniae the STM technique, originally us...

Polissi, Alessandra; Pontiggia, Andrea; Feger, Georg; Altieri, Mario; Mottl, Harald; Ferrari, Livia; Simon, Daniel

1998-01-01

354

Phylogenomic analysis of natural selection pressure in Streptococcus genomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In comparative analyses of bacterial pathogens, it has been common practice to discriminate between two types of genes: (i) those shared by pathogens and their non-pathogenic relatives (core genes), and (ii) those found exclusively in pathogens (pathogen-specific accessory genes). Rather than attempting to a priori delineate genes into sets more or less relevant to pathogenicity, we took a broad approach to the analysis of Streptococcus species by investigating the strength of natural selecti...

Anisimova, M.; Bielawski, J.; Dunn, K.; Yang, Z.

2007-01-01

355

Genetic analysis of fructan-hyperproducing strains of Streptococcus mutans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fructan polymer, synthesized from sucrose by the extracellular fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans, is thought to contribute to the progression of dental caries. It may serve as an extracellular storage polysaccharide facilitating survival and acid production. It may also have a role in adherence or accumulation of bacterial cells on the tooth surface. A number of clinical isolates of S. mutans which produce large, mucoid colonies on sucrose-containing agar as a result of increased p...

Kiska, D. L.; Macrina, F. L.

1994-01-01

356

A Novel Monoclonal Antibody against FbaA Can Inhibit the Binding of the Complement Regulatory Protein Factor H to Group A Streptococcus ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some microbial pathogens utilize human complement regulatory proteins, such as factor H (FH) and factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1), for immune evasion. FbaA is an FHL-1 and FH binding protein expressed on the surface of group A streptococcus (GAS), a common agent of pharyngeal, skin, and soft tissue infections. In this study, we prepared monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against FbaA, assayed them for specificity, and located their binding domains in FbaA. We found an MAb called FbaA MAb2, which dem...

Ma, Cuiqing; Guo, Yiyang; Gu, Haiyan; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Hainan; Feng, Huidong; Wei, Lin

2011-01-01

357

Roles of Salivary Components in Streptococcus mutans Colonization in a New Animal Model Using NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus mutans plays an important role in biofilm formation on the tooth surface and is the primary causative agent of dental caries. The binding of S. mutans to the salivary pellicle is of considerable etiologic significance and is important in biofilm development. Recently, we produced NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? mice that show hyposalivation, lower salivary antibody, and an extended life span compared to the parent strain: NOD.e2f1?/?. In this study we used NOD/SCID.e2f1?/? 4 or 6 m...

Ito, Tatsuro; Maeda, Takahide; Senpuku, Hidenobu

2012-01-01

358

General Game Management Agent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The task of managing general game playing in a multi-agent system is the problem addressed in this paper. It is considered to be done by an agent. There are many reasons for constructing such an agent, called general game management agent. This agent manages strategic interactions between other agents - players, natural or also artificial. The agent records the interaction for further benchmarking and analysis. He can also be used for a kind of restricted communications. His...

Tagiew, Rustam

2009-01-01

359

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

1989-01-01

360

The tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate suppresses cariogenic virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, possesses a series of virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity. Alternatives to traditional antimicrobial treatment, agents selectively inhibiting the virulence factors without necessarily suppressing the resident oral species, are promising. The anticariogenic properties of tea have been suggested in experimental animals and humans. Tea polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), have been shown to inhibit the growth and glucosyltransferases activity of S. mutans. However, their effects on biofilm and cariogenic virulence factors of oral streptococci other than glucosyltransferases have not been well documented. In this study, we investigated the biological effect of EGCg on the virulence factors of S. mutans associated with its acidogenicity and acidurity. The antimicrobial effects of EGCg on S. mutans biofilm grown in chemically defined medium were also examined. EGCg inhibited growth of S. mutans planktonic cells at an MIC of 31.25 ?g/ml and a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 62.5 ?g/ml. EGCg also inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation at 15.6 ?g/ml (minimum concentration that showed at least 90% inhibition of biofilm formation) and reduced viability of the preformed biofilm at 625 ?g/ml (sessile MIC??). EGCg at sub-MIC levels inhibited acidogenicity and acidurity of S. mutans cells. Analysis of the data obtained from real-time PCR showed that EGCg significantly suppressed the ldh, eno, atpD, and aguD genes of S. mutans UA159. Inhibition of the enzymatic activity of F?F?-ATPase and lactate dehydrogenase was also noted (50% inhibitory concentration between 15.6 and 31.25 ?g/ml). These findings suggest that EGCg is a natural anticariogenic agent in that it exhibits antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and suppresses the specific virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity. PMID:21149622

Xu, Xin; Zhou, Xue D; Wu, Christine D

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Clinical resistance and decreased susceptibility in Streptococcus suis isolates from clinically healthy fattening pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis (S. suis) has often been reported as an important swine pathogen and is considered as a new emerging zoonotic agent. Consequently, it is important to be informed on its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. In the current study, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) population distribution of nine antimicrobial agents has been determined for nasal S. suis strains, isolated from healthy pigs at the end of the fattening period from 50 closed or semiclosed pig herds. The aim of the study was to report resistance based on both clinical breakpoints (clinical resistance percentage) and epidemiological cutoff values (non-wild-type percentage). Non-wild-type percentages were high for tetracycline (98%), lincomycin (92%), tilmicosin (72%), erythromycin (70%), tylosin (66%), and low for florfenicol (0%) and enrofloxacin (0.3%). Clinical resistance percentages were high for tetracycline (95%), erythromycin (66%), tylosin (66%), and low for florfenicol (0.3%) and enrofloxacin (0.3%). For tiamulin, for which no clinical breakpoint is available, 57% of the isolates did not belong to the wild-type population. Clinical resistance and non-wild-type percentages differed substantially for penicillin. Only 1% of the tested S. suis strains was considered as clinically resistant, whereas 47% of the strains showed acquired resistance when epidemiological cutoff values were used. In conclusion, MIC values for penicillin are gradually increasing, compared to previous reports, although pigs infected with strains showing higher MICs may still respond to treatment with penicillin. The high rate of acquired resistance against tiamulin has not been reported before. Results from this study clearly demonstrate that the use of different interpretive criteria contributes to the extent of differences in reported antimicrobial resistance results. The early detection of small changes in the MIC population distribution of isolates, while clinical failure may not yet be observed, provides the opportunity to implement appropriate risk management steps. PMID:23249177

Callens, Bénédicte F; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek; Butaye, Patrick; Dewulf, Jeroen; Boyen, Filip

2013-04-01

362

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, December 5, 2003, Volume 52, Number 28. Invasive Streptococcus Pyogenes After Allograft Implantation, Colorado, 2003.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes a case of invasive disease with streptococcus pyogens (i.e., group A streptococcus (GAS)), after reconstructive knee surgery using contaminated allograft tissue and provides recommendations to reduce the risk for allograft-associated ...

2003-01-01

363

Discrimination between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis based on sorting of their MALDI mass spectra.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate species-level identification of alpha-hemolytic (viridans) streptococci (VGS) is very important for understanding their pathogenicity and virulence. However, an extremely high level of similarity between VGS within the mitis group (S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, S. oralis and S. pseudopneumoniae) often results in misidentification of these organisms. Earlier, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been suggested as a tool for the rapid identification of S. pneumoniae. However, by using Biotyper 3.0 (Bruker) or Vitek MS (bioMérieux) databases, Streptococcus mitis/oralis species can be erroneously identified as S. pneumoniae. ClinProTools 2.1 software was used for the discrimination of MALDI-TOF mass spectra of 25 S. pneumoniae isolates, 34 S. mitis and three S. oralis. Phenotypical tests and multilocus gene typing schemes for the S. pneumoniae (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/) and viridans streptococci (http://viridans.emlsa.net/) were used for the identification of isolates included in the study. The classifying model was generated based on different algorithms (Genetic Algorithm, Supervised Neural Network and QuickClassifier). In all cases, values of sensitivity and specificity were found to be equal or close to 100%, allowing discrimination of mass spectra of different species. Three peaks (6949, 9876 and 9975 m/z) were determined conferring the maximal statistical weight onto each model built. We find this approach to be promising for viridans streptococci discrimination. PMID:23331578

Ikryannikova, L N; Filimonova, A V; Malakhova, M V; Savinova, T; Filimonova, O; Ilina, E N; Dubovickaya, V A; Sidorenko, S V; Govorun, V M

2013-11-01

364

Meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente: reporte de un caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Streptococcus pneumoniae es una bacteria que reside en el aparato respiratorio superior de las personas saludables, pero resulta una infección cuando alcanza localizaciones normalmente estériles, tales como el aparato respiratorio inferior, sistema circulatorio, y sistema nervioso cent [...] ral. Esto ocurre en personas inmunodeprimidas, por diferentes causas. Objetivo: destacar la virulencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae drogo resistente. Caso clínico: niña que llega al hospital por presentar un proceso respiratorio, de varios días de evolución, con fiebre y rinorrea. Ingresó en la sala de Infecciones Respiratorias. Comenzó con deshidratación y somnolencia, por lo que se le realizó una segunda punción lumbar, que resultó con salida de líquido cefalorraquídeo, purulento y presencia de 202 células a predominio de polimorfonucleares, glucosa disminuida, aumento de las proteínas, y Pandy xxxx. La niña se agrava y presenta signos de intenso edema cerebral, con fontanela abombada. Se trató con antimicrobianos como la vancomicina y el ceftriaxone, por varios días. En el laboratorio de Microbiología se confirmó el crecimiento de Streptococccus pneumoniae sensible al meronem que pasa a reemplazar al ceftriaxone. La paciente salió paulatinamente de su gravedad hasta que fue dada de alta con seguimiento y rehabilitación, por presentar secuelas. Conclusiones: este patógeno tan peligroso con sus atributos de virulencia y su elevada resistencia a los antimicrobianos, constituye un fenómeno emergente. Abstract in english Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterium that resides in the upper respiratory system of healthy people, but turns into infection, when it reaches usually sterile locations such as the lower respiratory system, the circulatory, and the central nervous systems. This occurs in immunocompr [...] omised persons, for different reasons. Objective: to point out the Streptococcus pneumoniae's virulence resistant to drugs. Clinical case: it is presented a girl who arrived at the hospital with a respiratory process, of several days of evolution with fever and rhinorrhea, the girl was admitted in the respiratory ward. She started with dehydratation and sleepiness; a second lumbar puncture was made, a purulent cerebrospinal fluid and the presence of 202 cells, most of them polymorphonuclear, with decreased glucose and a protein augmentation, with Pandy xxxx, was observed. The girl gets worse and presented an intense cerebral edema, with enlarged fontanel, she was treated with antimicrobials such as vancomycin and ceftriaxone for several days. The microbiology laboratory confirmed the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae sensitive to meronem and replaces ceftriaxone. Result: the patient gradually left his gravity until that she was discharged from hospital with follow-up and rehabilitation, by sequels. Conclusions: this dangerous pathogen with their attributes of virulence and its high resistance to antimicrobials is an emerging phenomenon.

Olga María, Rodríguez Fernández; Odalis, Ferrer Morell; Yuneixy, Pérez Morales; Alexis, Sanchén Casas.

365

Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core geno...

2013-01-01

366

[Evolution of antibiotic resistance and serogroups of Streptococcus pneumoniae over the 1997-2003 period in Brittany].  

Science.gov (United States)

At this time, many antibiotics have decreased activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major agent of infectious disease. In this study, we evaluated antibiotic susceptibility and serogroups of strains isolated from bacteraemia, meningitis and acute otitis media in adults and children over the 1997-2003 period in Brittany, France. In 2003, 62% of the isolates were not susceptible to penicillin and 11% were fully resistant. The prevalence of erythromycin resistance was 63%. Resistance rates were higher among isolates recovered from children than adults. Serogroups 19 and 14 were the most frequently isolated, especially the 19 one among children. The emergence of this serogroup might be a consequence of the use of heptavalent conjugate vaccine introduced in 2001 in France. Future surveillance after vaccination will be needed to detect emerging serogroups and resistance among S. pneumoniae. PMID:16176862

Mignard, S; Donnio, P-Y; Vaucel, J; Abalain, M-L; Anguill, M; Aubry, J-P; Desbordes, L; Dufour, M-J; Esvant, J-Y; Gangneux, F; Geffroy, F; Gougeon, A; Laborie, J-L; Lebrun, C; Le Gac, A; Lelay, G; Lerestif-Gautier, A-L; LeMeur, A; Minet, J; Morvan, O; Plessis, P; Pouedras, P; Rome, J; Tandé, D; Valogne, A; Voisine, C; Ygout, J-F

2005-01-01

367

Identification of a fibrinolytic enzyme by Bacillus vallismortis and its potential as a bacteriolytic enzyme against Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

A potent fibrinolytic enzyme-producing bacterium was isolated from the traditional Korean condiment Chungkook-jang and identified as Bacillus vallismortis Ace02. The extracellular fibrinolytic enzyme was purified with a 18% recovery of activity from supernatant cultures using CM-Sepharose column chromatography and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 757 kFU mg(-1). Its molecular mass was about 28 kDa and the initial amino acids of the N-terminal sequence were AQSVPYGVSQ. The full amino acid sequence of fibrinolytic enzyme Ace02 corresponded with bacteriolytic enzyme, L27, from Bacillus licheniformis, which has strong lytic activity against Streptococcus mutans, a major causative strain of dental caries. This suggests that the purified enzyme should be used for prevention of dental caries as well as being an effective thrombolytic agent. PMID:17308884

Kim, Jae-Bum; Jung, Woo-Hyuk; Ryu, Ji-Myung; Lee, Yeo-Joon; Jung, Joon-Ki; Jang, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Sung-Woo

2007-04-01

368

Sonochemical coatings of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on teeth model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibiotic resistance has prompted the search for new agents that can inhibit bacterial growth. We recently reported on the antibiofilm activities of nanosized ZnO and CuO nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by using sonochemical irradiation. In this study, we examined the antibacterial activity of ZnO and CuO NPs in a powder form and also examined the antibiofilm behavior of teeth surfaces that were coated with ZnO and CuO NPs using sonochemistry. Free ZnO and CuO NPs inhibited biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans . Furthermore, by using the sonochemical procedure, we were able to coat teeth surfaces that inhibited bacterial colonization. PMID:22830392

Eshed, Michal; Lellouche, Jonathan; Matalon, Shlomo; Gedanken, Aharon; Banin, Ehud

2012-08-21

369

Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain SA20-06, a fish pathogen associated to meningoencephalitis outbreaks  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is the causative agent of meningoencephalitis in fish, mastitis in cows, and neonatal sepsis in humans. Meningoencephalitis is a major health problem for tilapia farming and is responsible for high economic losses worldwide. Despite its importance, the genomic characteristics and the main molecular mechanisms involved in virulence of S. agalactiae isolated from fish are still poorly understood. Here, we present the genomic features of the 1,820,886 bp long complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SA20-06 isolated from a meningoencephalitis outbreak in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil, and its annotation, consisting of 1,710 protein-coding genes (excluding pseudogenes), 7 rRNA operons, 79 tRNA genes and 62 pseudogenes.

Pereira, Ulisses de Padua; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Aburjaile, Flavia Figueira; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Juca; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Guimaraes, Luis Carlos; Silva de Almeida, Sintia; Diniz, Carlos Augusto Almeida; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Gomes de Sa, Pablo; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda Marriam; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Araujo, Flavio Marcos Gomes; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Oliveira, Guilherme; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco; Figueiredo, Henrique Cesar Pereira

2013-01-01

370

PROFILAXIS DE SEPSIS NEONATAL PRECOZ POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B) BASADA EN VACUNAS: REVISIÓN DE LA LITERATURA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus agalactiae o grupo B (SGB), es el principal agente de sepsis neonatal precoz. A pesar de los intentos de prevención de esta infección, aún no se logra la efectividad esperada. Es por esto que se ha intentado desarrollar una vacuna que pueda prevenir la mayoría de las patologías que [...] esta bacteria produce, incluyendo la sepsis neonatal precoz y tardía. De esta manera se evitarían las limitaciones actuales de la profilaxis antibiótica. Los intentos de crear una vacuna han incluido la utilización de polisacáridos del SGB tanto puros como asociados a proteínas como el toxoide tetánico. También, se han usado proteínas específicas de la cápsula que tienen potencial efectividad como factores inmunogénicos. Las vacunas conjugadas son las más estudiadas en la actualidad, habiendo completado estudios clínicos en fase II, tanto en adultos sanos como en embarazadas. Al ser la sepsis neonatal una complicación grave aún no controlada óptimamente, la creación de una vacuna contra este patógeno sería de gran impacto en salud pública. Se presentan los diferentes tipos de vacunas desarrolladas y el estado de avance en el que se encuentran. Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae or group B, is the mayor causing agent of early onset neonatal sepsis. Although mayor prevention strategies have been made, the expected effectiveness hasn't been achieved. That's why efforts have been made to develop a vaccine that can prevent most of the diseases these bac [...] teria can produce, including early and late onset neonatal sepsis. These way, actual antibiotic prophylaxis limitations can be avoided. Attempts include the utilization of Streptococcus group B polysaccharides in their puré state or combined with proteins as tetanic toxoid. Specific capsule proteins have been used also because of their po-tential effectiveness as inmunogenic factors. Overall vaccines conjugated ones are the most studied, having completed phase II clinical triáis in healthy adults and pregnant women. Neonatal sepsis is a severe compli-cation that has not been controlled yet, so the creation of a vaccine against this pathogen would be of great impact in public health. We introduce now the different developed vaccines and their state of progress.

Campodónico O, Lorena; Doren V, Adriana; Cruz O, Magdalena; Abarzúa C, Fernando.

371

[Evaluation of antigen diagnostic kit in group A streptococcus mass infection].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a Food-borne group A streptococcus epidemic at Kitasato University campus on July 30 and 31, 2005, believed caused by lunch. A current mass group A streptococcus infection differing from the food-borne epidemic above occurred at Kitasato University East Hospital, also believed caused by lunch. Group A streptococcus was detected using a prompt diagnostic kit and bacterial culture from 116 clinical specimens taken from 116 patients with group A streptococcus pharyngitis at Kitasato University East Hospital on August 5, 2005. To investigate the utility of immunochromatographic detection of group A streptococcus antigen, 116 clinical specimens obtained from pharyngeal membranes by swab were examined using a prompt diagnostic kit for group A streptococcus (ImmunoCard STAT! STREP A TEST) and conventional bacterial culture. Group A streptococcus positivity differed between the two methods. Fourteen patients were found to be positive by the prompt diagnostic kit and 23 by bacterial culture. Four patients showing 1.0 x 10(6) cfu/mL estimated by the culture were difficult to diagnose with the prompt diagnostic kit,even though the detection sensitivity of this kit was 1.0 x 10(6) cfu/mL or more. Conventional bacterial culture should therefore be used in addition to the prompt diagnostic kit to detect group A streptococcus, especially in pharyngeal samples obtained from patients with pharyngitis. PMID:17695800

Nihonyanagi, Shin; Obata, Susumu; Nakazaki, Nobuhiko; Hirai, Makoto; Hirata, Yasuyosi; Takayama, Yoko; Ohtani, Shinichi; Kanoh, Yuhsaku; Akahoshi, Tohru; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Inoue, Matsuhisa

2007-07-01

372

Delayed diagnosis of meningitis caused by beta-haemolytic group G. Streptococcus in an older woman.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of meningitis caused by group G beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (dysgalactiae, subspecies equisimilis) is reported in an 83-year-old woman. Streptococci species other than Streptococcus pneumoniae are seldom found in patients with acute bacterial meningitis, therefore, our discussion is focused on this rare organism. The question of the diagnosis of meningitis in the elderly is also addressed. PMID:11728766

Luyx, C; Vanpee, D; Glupczynski, Y; Swine, C; Gillet, J B

2001-11-01

373

Identification of a pheA Gene Associated with Streptococcus mitis by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We performed suppression subtractive hybridization to identify genomic differences between Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on the pheA gene, a primer set specific to S. mitis detection was found in 18 out of 103 S. mitis-specific clones. Our findings would be useful for discrimination of S. mitis from other closely related cocci in the oral environment.

2012-01-01

374

Streptococcus viridans osteomyelitis and endocarditis following dental treatment: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of infective endocarditis with the organism Streptococcus viridans being a rare cause of the condition. This case highlights an unusual presentation of Streptococcus viridans associated with infective endocarditis and pyogenic osteomyelitis in a patient following a dental procedure.

Choudhury, Maitrayee; Patel, Brijesh R.; Patel, Minal; Bashir, Tariq

2009-01-01

375

MOBILE AGENT: EMERGING TECHNOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, challenges, and open problems of mobile agent technology.

RAJGURU P. V. DR. DESHMUKH S. D

2011-12-01

376

Perfil fermentativo e valor nutritivo de silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis / Fermentation and nutritive value of elephant grass silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi desenvolvido objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da inoculação de estirpes de Streptococcus bovis (HC5 e JB1) sobre o pH, a produção de amônia e o valor nutricional em silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, c [...] om três tratamentos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - capimelefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis HC5 e T3 - capim-elefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis JB1, utilizando cinco repetições por tratamento. A menor concentração de amônia foi observada na silagem tratada com inoculante à base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5,90 p.100 N-total). A inoculação aumentou os teores de ácido láctico e diminuiu os teores de ácidos acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo que as silagens inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 e HC5 foram os que apresentaram os maiores valores de ácido láctico. Não houve diferença estatística para os teores de MS e PB. Para os valores das fibras, a silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 apresentou o menor valor de FDN (59,77 p.100) e HEM (26,71 p.100). O maior valor da DIVMS foi observado na silagem com Streptococcus bovis JB1, mostrando superioridade de quatro pontos percentuais (64,23 p.100) em relação ao tratamento sem inoculante bacteriano (60,35 p.100). O uso Streptococcus bovis JB1 melhora o processo fermentativo além de promover melhorarias na qualidade da fibra e na DIVMS da silagem estudada. Abstract in english The experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of strains of Streptococcus bovis (HC5 and JB1) on pH, ammonia production and nutritional value in elephant-grass silages (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). The experimental design was entirely randomized, with three treatments: T1 elephant- grass, T2 - [...] grass-elephant inoculated with Streptococcus bovis HC5, T3 - elephant grass inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, totaling five replicates per treatment. The smallest value of ammonia was observed in the silage treated with inoculante the base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5.90% N-total). Inoculation increased the levels of lactic acid and decreased levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids, and the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 were those with the highest values of lactic acid. There were not statistical differences for the tenors of dry matter (MS) and crude protein (PB). For the values of the fibers, the grass-elephant silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, it presented the smallest value of neutral detergent fiber (59.77 %) and Hemicellulose (26.71 %). The largest value of in vitro dry matter digestibility (DIVMS) was observed in the silage with Streptococcus bovis JB1, showing superiority of four percentile points (64.23 %) in relation to the treatment without bacterial inoculante (60.35 %). The use Streptococcus bovis JB1 was efficient in the process fermentativo besides promoting would get better in the quality of the fiber and DIVMS in the studied silage.

D.J., Ferreira; A.M., Zanine; E.M., Santos; R.P., Lana; W.L., Silva; A.L., Souza; O.G., Pereira.

377

Control of Streptococcus sanguinis oral biofilm by novel chlorhexidine-chitosan mouthwash: an in vitro study  

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Full Text Available Objective: The most common prevalent infectious oral diseases in humans are caries and periodontal diseases, which are usually associated with dental plaque. The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate and compare the impact of new mouthwash formulation consisting of chlorhexidine (0.1% and bioadhesive chitosan (0.5% on dental plaque bacterial reduction, to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. Methods: In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Streptococcus sanguinis from clinical plaque samples to four different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates to chlorhexidine (0.2%, chitosan (0.5%, chlorhexidine (0.1% plus chitosan (0.5% combination and saline were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Results: The zone of inhibition showed that chlorhexidine, chitosan and chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthwash exert an antimicrobial activity. A markedly higher and significant activity was obtained with chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthwash. On intergroup comparison there were statistically significant differences between all the tested solutions, except between chlorhexidine and chitosan mouthwash. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the present study, results showed that chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthrinse are superior in antimicrobial activity than chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 165-169

Bangalore V. Karthikeyan

2013-04-01

378

Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range of 2.2- to 6.2-fold, by 1/2 and 1/4 MIC of triclosan. Observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of a dense biofilm attached to the polystyrene surface. Growth of S. mutans in the presence of triclosan at sub-MICs also increased its capacity to adhere to a monolayer of gingival epithelial cells. The expression of several genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that sub-MICs of triclosan significantly increased the expression of comD, gtfC, and luxS, and to a lesser extent of gtfB and atlA genes. These findings stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of therapeutic triclosan since sub-MICs may promote colonization of the oral cavity by S. mutans.

Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Grignon, Louis; Spolidorio, Denise Palomari; Grenier, Daniel

2014-01-01

379

Antimicrobial activity of Rheedia brasiliensis and 7-epiclusianone against Streptococcus mutans.  

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This in vitro study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Rheedia brasiliensis fruit (bacupari) and its bioactive compound against Streptococcus mutans. Hexane, ethyl-acetate and ethanolic extracts obtained (concentrations ranging from 6.25 to 800 microg/ml) were tested against S. mutans UA159 through MIC/MBC assays. S. mutans 5-days-old biofilms were treated with the active extracts (100 x MIC) for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4h (time-kill) and plated for colony counting (CFU/ml). Active extracts were submitted to exploratory chemical analyses so as to isolate and identify the bioactive compound using spectroscopic methods. The bioactive compound (concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 80 microg/ml) was then tested through MIC/MBC assays. Peel and seed hexane extracts showed antimicrobial activity against planktonic cells at low concentrations and were thus selected for the time kill test. These hexane extracts reduced S. mutans biofilm viability after 4h, certifying of the bioactive compound presence. The bioactive compound identified was the polyprenylated benzophenone 7-epiclusianone, which showed a good antimicrobial activity at low concentrations (MIC: 1.25-2.5 microg/ml; MBC: 10-20 microg/ml). The results indicated that 7-epiclusianone may be used as a new agent to control S. mutans biofilms; however, more studies are needed to further elucidate the mechanisms of action and the anticariogenic potential of such compound found in R. brasiliensis. PMID:18276126

Almeida, L S B; Murata, R M; Yatsuda, R; Dos Santos, M H; Nagem, T J; Alencar, S M; Koo, H; Rosalen, P L

2008-10-01

380

Evaluation of genotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans using distinct arbitrary primers  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with arbitrary primers, several prim [...] ers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11) presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.

Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Sousa, Maria Clara K.; Arthur, Rodrigo Alex; Mattos-Graner, Renata Oliveira; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha; Cury, Jaime Aparecido.

 
 
 
 
381

Evaluation of genotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans using distinct arbitrary primers  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR with arbitrary primers, several primers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11 presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.

Cínthia Pereira Machado Tabchoury

2008-12-01

382

Short Fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Their Role in Coadhesion with Streptococcus gordonii  

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Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the causative agents of adult periodontitis, attaches and forms biofilms on substrata of Streptococcus gordonii. Coadhesion and biofilm development between these organisms requires the interaction of the short fimbriae of P. gingivalis with the SspB streptococcal surface polypeptide. In this study we investigated the structure and binding activities of the short fimbriae of P. gingivalis. Electron microscopy showed that isolated short fimbriae have an average length of 103 nm and exhibit a helical structure with a pitch of ca. 27 nm. Mfa1, the major protein subunit of the short fimbriae, bound to SspB protein, and this reaction was inhibited by purified recombinant Mfa1 and monospecifc anti-Mfa1 serum in a dose-dependent manner. Complementation of a polar Mfa1 mutant with the mfa1 gene restored the coadhesion phenotype of P. gingivalis. Hence, the Mfa1 structural fimbrial subunit does not require accessory proteins for binding to SspB. Furthermore, the interaction of Mfa1 with SspB is necessary for optimal coadhesion between P. gingivalis and S. gordonii.

Park, Yoonsuk; Simionato, M. Regina; Sekiya, Kachiko; Murakami, Yukitaka; James, Deanna; Chen, Weibin; Hackett, Murray; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Demuth, Donald R.; Lamont, Richard J.

2005-01-01

383

Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Supplemented-Chewing Candy Against Streptococcus mutans  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is considered to play a major etiological role in development of human dental plaque believed to related to dental caries, the most prevalent disease of the human oral cavity. The objectives of the present study were to formulate and produce propolis supplemented-chewing candy and to investigate its antibacterial activity against S. mutans. Propolis is a natural resinous bee-hive product thought to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating activities. Propolis was extracted from hives of bees of Trigona spp. using ethanol. The extract was coated with maltodextrine and homogenized to generate propolis microparticles. The particles were introduced into chewing candy preparations for the production of propolis supplemented-chewing candy. The candy was then subjected to in vitro antibacterial assays to test its activity against S. mutans isolated from human dental plaque. Results showed that the ethanol extracted propolis of Trigona spp. bee-hives can be homogenized to form propolis microparticles. The propolis microparticles could be used as a supplement in the formulation of chewing candy preparations. The propolis supplemented-chewing candy showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans. The candy, therefore, has the potential to be used as an antiplaque agent for prevention of dental caries.

AHMAD ENDANG ZAINAL HASAN

2011-09-01

384

A novel observation of pubic osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus viridans after dental extraction: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pubic osteomyelitis should be suspected in athletic individuals with sudden groin pain, painful restriction of hip movements and fever. It is an infrequent and confusing disorder, which is often heralded by atypical gait disturbance and diffuse pain in the pelvic girdle. The most common pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus but, on occasions, efforts to identify infectious agents sometimes prove negative. Pubic osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus viridans has not been reported previously in the literature. Case presentation We describe the case of a fit 24-year-old athlete, who had a wisdom tooth extracted 2 weeks prior to the presentation, which could have served as a port of entry and predisposed the patient to transient bacteraemia. Conclusion S. viridans is well known for causing infective endocarditis of native damaged heart valves, but to the best of the authors' knowledge it has not been reported previously as a cause of pubic osteomyelitis. We believe that this case should alert physicians to the association between dental procedures and osteomyelitis of the pubis secondary to S. viridans.

Naqvi Naseem

2008-07-01

385

Deep neck infection complicating lymphadenitis caused by Streptococcus intermedius in an immunocompetent child  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus intermedius belongs to the Streptococcus anginosus group. It is part of the normal flora of the human mouth, but it can be etiologically associated with deep-site infections. Case presentation We present a case of deep neck infection complicating Streptococcus intermedius lymphadenitis, which developed in an immunocompetent 14-year-old boy with a history of recent dental work. The infection was ultimately eradicated by a combined medical and surgical approach. Conclusion Our report suggests that combined medical and surgical therapy is essential for the complete resolution of deep infections caused by Streptococcus intermedius. Molecular biological techniques can be useful in guiding the diagnostic investigation and providing insight into the possibility of occult abscesses, which are particularly common with Streptococcus intermedius infections.

D'Inzeo Tiziana

2006-03-01

386

Co-infection by Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: three case reports  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bacterial infections may appear as sequelae of remote tuberculous infections, especially thoracic infections. The simultaneous appearance of tuberculosis and bacterial infection is not common, and, to our knowledge, the association of infection by Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has not been reported previously in the literature. Case presentation We report three cases of dual infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that were first diagnosed as pyogenic abscesses because of an isolation of Streptococcus anginosus. Despite a course of antibiotics and drainage, the outcome of this initial treatment was unfavourable. A re-evaluation yielded a diagnosis of mixed infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusion In a geographical area with a high prevalence of tuberculous disease, the rare possibility of dual infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be considered.

Rabuñal Ramón

2009-01-01

387

Clonal characterization of Streptococcus mutans strains by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis Caracterização clonal de cepas de Streptococcus mutans por eletroforese de enzimas codificadas por multilocus  

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Twenty-one Streptococcus mutans strains were clustered by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE). Six isoenzymes showed strong infra-specific discriminatory power (M1P, MPI, PLP, NSP, GOT, and LAP). MLEE is a robust technique that may be used to explore clonal diversity of S. mutans isolates in epidemiological surveys.Vinte e uma cepas de Streptococcus mutans foram agrupadas pela eletroforese de enzimas codificadas por multilocus (MLEE). Seis isoenzimas apresentaram forte poder discrimi...

Rosimeire Takaki Rosa; Marcelo Henrique Napimoga; José Francisco Höfling; Reginaldo Bruno Gonçalves; Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro Rosa

2006-01-01

388

A Collagen-Binding Adhesin, Acb, and Ten Other Putative MSCRAMM and Pilus Family Proteins of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis Group, Biotype I)? §  

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Members of the Streptococcus bovis group are important causes of endocarditis. However, factors associated with their pathogenicity, such as adhesins, remain uncharacterized. We recently demonstrated that endocarditis-derived Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates frequently adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Here, we generated a draft genome sequence of an ECM protein-adherent S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain and found, by genome-wide analyses, 11 predi...

Sillanpa?a?, Jouko; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R.; Qin, Xiang; Singh, Kavindra V.; Muzny, Donna M.; Kovar, Christie L.; Nazareth, Lynne V.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Ferraro, Mary J.; Steckelberg, James M.; Weinstock, George M.; Murray, Barbara E.

2009-01-01

389

Evaluation of Several Biochemical and Molecular Techniques for Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Their Detection in Respiratory Samples  

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The identification and detection of mitis group streptococci, which contain Streptococcus pneumoniae, have been hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific assays. In this study, we evaluated several biochemical and molecular assays for the identification of S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and their distinction from other mitis group streptococci using a collection of 54 isolates obtained by the routine culturing of 53 respiratory specimens from patients with community-acq...

2012-01-01

390

Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis Specifically Selects for Cotrimoxazole Resistance in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus with Varied Polymorphisms in the Target Genes folA and folP  

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The selection of antibiotic resistance by cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was evaluated, and we characterized the mechanism of cotrimoxazole resistance in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. In vitro susceptibility to six antibiotics was evaluated on 64 mutans streptococci group (MSG) isolates from a cotrimoxazole prophylaxis group and compared to 84 MSG isolates from a nonprophylaxis group. The folA and folP genes were sequenced and compared with reference sequences at NCBI. Only resi...

William, Buwembo; Rwenyonyi, Charles Mugisha; Swedberg, Go?te; Kironde, Fred

2012-01-01

391

Serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae en Cuba y progresión de la resistencia a la penicilina Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in Cuba and progression of resistance to penicilina  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: en Cuba, a partir de 2006, ha sido difícil establecer la incidencia real de las meningitis bacterianas y otras enfermedades invasivas por Streptococcus pneumoniae, como consecuencia del bajo porcentaje de aislamiento e identificación de este agente en la red de laboratorios de microbiología del país. OBJETIVO: alertar sobre la necesidad de revitalizar la vigilancia activa de la enfermedad neumocócica invasiva, epidemiológica y microbiológica, fundamentalmente las meningitis y neumonías, en la etapa previa a la vacunación. MÉTODOS: se compararon la circulación de los serogrupos/serotipos capsulares y la susceptibilidad a penicilina de los aislamientos de S. pneumoniae responsables de infecciones invasivas, en dos períodos de la vigilancia: años 1994-2006 y 2007-2009. RESULTADOS: los serogrupos más frecuentes fueron: 3, 6, 7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20 y 23, pero se constató durante el segundo período de estudio, la circulación de otros no contenidos en las vacunas conjugadas disponibles comercialmente (serogrupo 15 y asociados a resistencia a antimicrobianos (serotipo 5. Por otra parte, se puso de manifiesto un incremento de la resistencia a la penicilina. CONCLUSIONES: para garantizar una alta efectividad con la inclusión en el calendario de vacunación infantil en Cuba, de alguna de las vacunas conjugadas contra S. pneumoniae, se impone el estudio de un número más representativo de aislamientos. Esto también permitirá hacer una correcta evaluación de la tendencia al incremento de la resistencia a la penicilina y adoptar guías de tratamiento adecuadas en el medio cubano.INTRODUCTION: since 2006 in Cuba, there has been difficult to determine the actual incidente of bacterial meningitis and other invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, as a result of the low percentage of isolation and identification of this agent in the domestic microbiology lab network. OBJECTIVE: to warn of the need of revitalizing the active surveillance of invasive, epidemiological and microbiological pneumoccocic diseases, mainly meningitis and pneumoniae in the phase prior to vaccination. METHODS: a comparison was made on the circulation of capsulary serogroups/serotypes and the invasive infection-causing S. pneumoniae isolates susceptibility to penicilline in two periods: 1994-2006 and 2007-2009. RESULTS: the most frequent serogroups were 3, 6, 7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 23; however, in the second period, it was observed that others not contained in the available conjugate vaccines (serogrup 15 and associated to antimicrobial resistance (serotype 5 were circulating. On the other hand, increased resistance to penicilline was evident. CONCLUSIONS: it is required to study a more representative number of isolates in order to assure high effectiveness with the incorporation of some S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccines in the Cuban infant vaccination schedule. This will also allow duly assessing increased resistance to penicilline and adopting therapeutical guidelines suited to the Cuban setting.

Gilda T. Toraño Peraza

2010-08-01

392

Antimicrobial activity of nisin against the swine pathogen Streptococcus suis and its synergistic interaction with antibiotics.  

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Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections in pigs, including meningitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Furthermore, this bacterium is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Recently, increased antibiotic resistance in S. suis has been reported worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of nisin, a bacteriocin of the lantibiotic class, as an antibacterial agent against the pathogen S. suis serotype 2. In addition, the synergistic activity of nisin in combination with conventional antibiotics was assessed. Using a plate assay, the nisin-producing strain Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454 proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of S. suis (n=18) belonging to either sequence type (ST)1, ST25, or ST28. In a microdilution broth assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of purified nisin ranged between 1.25 and 5 ?g/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 5 and 10 ?g/mL toward S. suis. The use of a capsule-deficient mutant of S. suis indicated that the presence of this polysaccharidic structure has no marked impact on susceptibility to nisin. Following treatment of S. suis with nisin, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed lysis of bacteria resulting from breakdown of the cell membrane. A time-killing curve showed a rapid bactericidal activity of nisin. Lastly, synergistic effects of nisin were observed in combination with several antibiotics, including penicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and ceftiofur. This study brought clear evidence supporting the potential of nisin for the prevention and treatment of S. suis infections in pigs. PMID:24096107

Lebel, Geneviève; Piché, Fanny; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

2013-12-01

393

Collagen mediates adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to human dentin.  

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Some strains of Streptococcus mutans were found to recognize and bind collagen type I. Binding of 125I-labeled collagen type I was specific in that collagen types I and II, but not unrelated proteins, were able to inhibit binding of the labeled ligand to bacteria. Collagen binding to S. mutans was partially reversible and involved a limited number of bacterial binding sites per cell. S. mutans UA 140 cells bound collagen type I with high affinity (Kd = 8 x 10(-8) M). The number of binding sit...

Switalski, L. M.; Butcher, W. G.; Caufield, P. C.; Lantz, M. S.

1993-01-01

394

Isolation, Production And Purification Of Streptokinase From Streptococcus Pyogenes  

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Full Text Available Streptokinase a fibrinolytic enzyme is very effective in treating acute myocardial infarction and it iscertainly more cost-effective. In view of the relatively recent availability of the competing recombinant tPA,skepticism is being expressed about the continued viability of streptokinase therapy. Despite this research onstreptokinase continues, and it remains a vital and affordable therapy especially in the world's poorer healthcaresystems. Our present study focuses on the production of streptokinase from Streptococcus pyogenes species andpartial purification of streptokinase by ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and column chromatography. Theenzyme is quantified by Lowry's method and its electrophoretic mobility and molecular weight were determined bySDS-PAGE.

V.S. Shembekar

2013-07-01

395

Insoluble glucan synthesis by Streptococcus mutans serotype c strains.  

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Both dextransucrase and mutansynthetase activities have been purified from the culture fluids of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 (serotype c). Although homogeneous dextransucrase preparations normally synthesize little insoluble glucan, essentially all of the glucan synthesized by this enzyme in the presence of 1.5 M (NH4)2SO4 was water insoluble. Linkage analysis of the insoluble glucans indicated that the presence of NH4+ increased the portion of alpha-1,3-glucose linkages relative to alpha-1,6-g...

Kuramitsu, H. K.; Wondrack, L.

1983-01-01

396

Lincomycin Resistance Gene lnu(D) in Streptococcus uberis?  

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Streptococcus uberis UCN 42, isolated from a case of bovine mastitis, was intermediately resistant to lincomycin (MIC = 2 ?g/ml) while remaining susceptible to clindamycin (MIC = 0.06 ?g/ml) and erythromycin. A 1.1-kb SacI fragment was cloned from S. uberis UCN 42 total DNA on plasmid pUC 18 and introduced into Escherichia coli AG100A, where it conferred resistance to both clindamycin and lincomycin. The sequence analysis of the fragment showed the presence of a new gene, named lnu(D), that...

Petinaki, Efthymia; Gue?rin-fauble?e, Ve?ronique; Pichereau, Vianney; Villers, Corinne; Achard, Adeline; Malbruny, Brigitte; Leclercq, Roland

2008-01-01

397

Streptococcus group C meningitis with cavernous sinus thrombosis  

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Group C Streptococcus (GCS) is a rare cause of bacteremia in humans. It is mostly associated with zoonological infections. Although GCS can be part of the normal oral, skin, and genitourinary fora, an in