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Streptococcus constellatus: agente etiológico asociado en empiema pleural Streptococcus constellatusas a causative agent of empyema: Report of one case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus constellatus is a commensal microorganism in man but may cause infections in different locations. We report a 59 years old male with severe sequelae of a previous cerebrovascular accident that consulted in the emergency room for fever of 15 days of evolution. A right empyema was diagnosed. The bacteriological culture of the effusion disclosed the presence of Streptococcus constellatus and two anaerobic strains (Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium urealyticus. The patient was treated with a pleural drainage and received ceftriaxone and clindamycin during six weeks. He was discharged in good conditions and is asymptomatic after eight months of follow up (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 1030-2

José Antonio Díaz Peromingo

2006-08-01

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Streptococcus constellatus and Prevotella bivia penile abscess.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus constellatus (S. constellatus) is known to cause abscesses in the oral, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts, frequently in association with anaerobic bacteria. We report a rare case of S. constellatus and Prevotella bivia (P. bivia) causing a penile abscess, which was successfully treated with surgical drainage and antibiotic treatment. PMID:17982605

Nalmas, Sandhya; Bishburg, Eliahu; Chan, Trini

2007-01-01

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Streptococcus constellatus: agente etiológico asociado en empiema pleural / Streptococcus constellatusas a causative agent of empyema: Report of one case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Streptococcus constellatus is a commensal microorganism in man but may cause infections in different locations. We report a 59 years old male with severe sequelae of a previous cerebrovascular accident that consulted in the emergency room for fever of 15 days of evolution. A right empyema was diagno [...] sed. The bacteriological culture of the effusion disclosed the presence of Streptococcus constellatus and two anaerobic strains (Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium urealyticus). The patient was treated with a pleural drainage and received ceftriaxone and clindamycin during six weeks. He was discharged in good conditions and is asymptomatic after eight months of follow up (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 1030-2)

José Antonio, Díaz Peromingo; Joaquín, Sánchez Leira; Florinda, García Suárez; Emilio, Padín Paz; Juan, Saborido Froján.

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Multiple pyogenic liver abscesses caused by Streptococcus constellatus in the Amazon region. Case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are few studies reporting pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) caused by Streptococcus constellatus in the medical literature. S. constellatus is a comensal microorganism that belongs to the Streptococcus milleri's bacteria group and is not considered to be pathogenic for humans. We report the case of a 23-year-old man with a 15-days history of abdominal pain in the right flank followed by daily fever, chills, nausea, vomits, sialism and jaundice. Physical examination revealed moderate jaundice (2+/4+), abdominal distention, generalized pain and tender over the right flank with positive Blumberg's sign. Additionally, the liver was palpable 5 cm below the costal margin in the right midclavicular line. Abdominal Computerized Tomography showed multiple hypodense hepatic images suggestive of liver abscesses. The patient underwent surgical exploration of the abdomen through a sub-costal incision and, during operation ruptured abscess localized on the hepatic segment III was drained. Culture of the purulent material obtained at surgery yielded Streptococcus constellatus as the causative agent. Liver abscess is a potential life-threatening disease that must be treated as soon as possible with invasive approaches, if necessary, and bacteriological studies performed when possible, allowing isolation of causative agents and specific antibiotic therapy. PMID:19841508

Rodrigues, André Luiz Santos; Soares, Manoel C P; Ramos, Francisco L P; Crociati Meguins, Lucas

2009-01-01

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Meningitis aguda por Streptococcus Constellatus: a propósito de un caso fatal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 14 años, con el único antecedente de sinusitis resuelta hacía un año, que desarrolló de nuevo una pansinusitis y una meningitis aguda que lo llevó en diez días a la muerte. Durante su estancia hospitalaria no fue posible determinar el agente etiológico [...] , sin embargo los cultivos post mortem demostraron que el microorganismo presente era Streptococcus constellatus un comensal habitual de las mucosas del ser humano, del cual se han descrito muy pocos casos de meningitis en pacientes inmunocompetentes, lo cual hace de este caso un verdadero reto diagnóstico para los médicos tratantes y los anatomopatólogos. Abstract in english The present case is of a 14 year-old male with the only history of a sinusitis that solved one year before presentation.The patient developed a newly-onset pansinusitis followed by pyogenic meningitis that lead him to death ten days after. It was not possible to determine the etiologic agent during [...] his hospitalization but postmortem culture tests taken from the leptomeninges and the etmoidal cells showed Streptococcus constellatus, a usual commensal in human mucous membranes. Very few cases of acute meningitis caused by S. constellatus have been described in immunocompetent patients, which makes this case a real diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists.

Maikel, Vargas Sanabria; Rodolfo, Guzmán Cervantes.

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Taxonomy of the Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus and description of Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus has been the subject of much taxonomic confusion, which has hampered the full appreciation of its clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to critically re-examine the taxonomy of the Anginosus group, with special attention to ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains, using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of seven housekeeping genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished seven distinct and coherent clusters in the Anginosus group. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic characters supported the MLSA clustering and currently recognized taxa of the Anginosus group. Single gene analyses showed considerable allele sharing between species, thereby invalidating identification based on single-locus sequencing. Two novel clusters of ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains within the Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus species and isolated from patients with sore throat showed sufficient phylogenetic distances from other clusters to warrant status as novel subspecies. The novel cluster within S. anginosus was identified as the previously recognized DNA homology cluster, DNA group 2. The names S. anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. (type strain CCUG 39159(T)?=?DSM 25818(T)?=?SK1267(T)) and S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov. (type strain SK1359(T)?=?CCUG 62387(T)?=?DSM 25819(T)) are proposed.

Jensen, Anders; Hoshino, Tomonori

2013-01-01

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Streptococcus dysgalactiae Subspecies Equisimilis; An Agent Rarely Encountered in the Etiology of Septic Arthritis  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is one of the pyogenic group C and G streptococcus, which may be found in the normal gastrointestinal and genitourinary flora of a healthy human. Many cases have been reported in literature; however, reports of septic arthritis due to this agent without predisposing factors are extremely rare. Diagnosis of this agent is possible in advanced laboratories. Appropriate treatment for septic arthritis caused this agent is made by parenteral antibiotherapy without debridement following accurate diagnosis.

Meryem Iraz

2013-08-01

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Empiema pleural por Streptococcus grupo anginosus en un preescolar y revisión de la literatura: Case report and review Streptococcus anginosus pleural emphyema in a child  

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Full Text Available Presentamos el caso clínico de un preescolar con antecedente de malformación pulmonar que 43 días tras una neumonectomía izquierda, ingresó al Hospital Padre Hurtado con fiebre de una semana de evolución. En una TAC pulmonar se demostró una gran colección intrapleural izquierda de la que se aisló Streptococcus grupo anginosus y Prevotella spp. Se efectuó tratamiento antimicrobiano con penicilina más clindamicina. Existe gran confusión en la terminología y clasificación de Streptococcus grupo anginosus. En la actualidad no existe duda que es un grupo que posee tres especies, S. anginosus, S. constellatus y S. intermedius. Son parte de la flora normal de orofaringe, nasofaringe, tracto gastrointestinal y vagina. Este grupo ha sido reconocido como causa de infecciones supurativas en niños y adultos. La mayoría de las cepas se describen como susceptibles a penicilina; sin embargo, existen reportes que sugieren la emergencia de resistencia. Se discuten las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnóstico e informe microbiológicosLeft pneumonectomy in a child with congenital pulmonary malformation was performed two months prior to admission. Within one week he had high fever. Chest CT scan showed massive left pleural effusion. Both Streptococcus anginosus group and Prevotella spp. grew from the fluid obtained by pleural punction. Antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated with clindamycin and penicillin. Streptococus anginosus group is quite confusing in terms of classification and taxonomy. Now it is well recognized that three species belong to this genera: S. anginosus S. constellatus and S. intermedius. They all are considered normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract and vagina but also they have been identified as agents of suppurative infections in children and adults. Many reports show adequate response to penicillin, however there is some emerging resistance in strains isolated in other studies. In this article we also suggest some diagnostic and microbiologic recommendations

Paola Pidal M.

2004-01-01

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Empiema pleural por Streptococcus grupo anginosus en un preescolar y revisión de la literatura: Case report and review / Streptococcus anginosus pleural emphyema in a child  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos el caso clínico de un preescolar con antecedente de malformación pulmonar que 43 días tras una neumonectomía izquierda, ingresó al Hospital Padre Hurtado con fiebre de una semana de evolución. En una TAC pulmonar se demostró una gran colección intrapleural izquierda de la que se aisló St [...] reptococcus grupo anginosus y Prevotella spp. Se efectuó tratamiento antimicrobiano con penicilina más clindamicina. Existe gran confusión en la terminología y clasificación de Streptococcus grupo anginosus. En la actualidad no existe duda que es un grupo que posee tres especies, S. anginosus, S. constellatus y S. intermedius. Son parte de la flora normal de orofaringe, nasofaringe, tracto gastrointestinal y vagina. Este grupo ha sido reconocido como causa de infecciones supurativas en niños y adultos. La mayoría de las cepas se describen como susceptibles a penicilina; sin embargo, existen reportes que sugieren la emergencia de resistencia. Se discuten las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnóstico e informe microbiológicos Abstract in english Left pneumonectomy in a child with congenital pulmonary malformation was performed two months prior to admission. Within one week he had high fever. Chest CT scan showed massive left pleural effusion. Both Streptococcus anginosus group and Prevotella spp. grew from the fluid obtained by pleural punc [...] tion. Antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated with clindamycin and penicillin. Streptococus anginosus group is quite confusing in terms of classification and taxonomy. Now it is well recognized that three species belong to this genera: S. anginosus S. constellatus and S. intermedius. They all are considered normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract and vagina but also they have been identified as agents of suppurative infections in children and adults. Many reports show adequate response to penicillin, however there is some emerging resistance in strains isolated in other studies. In this article we also suggest some diagnostic and microbiologic recommendations

Paola, Pidal M.; Javiera, Basaure O.; Priscilla, Prado D.; Pedro, Alarcón L..

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Molecular pathogenicity of Streptococcus anginosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus anginosus and the closely related species Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius, are primarily commensals of the mucosa. The true pathogenic potential of this group has been under-recognized for a long time because of difficulties in correct species identification as well as the commensal nature of these species. In recent years, streptococci of the S. anginosus group have been increasingly found as relevant microbial pathogens in abscesses and blood cultures and they play a pathogenic role in cystic fibrosis. Several international studies have shown a surprisingly high frequency of infections caused by the S. anginosus group. Recent studies and a genome-wide comparative analysis suggested the presence of multiple putative virulence factors that are well-known from other streptococcal species. However, very little is known about the molecular basis of pathogenicity in these bacteria. This review summarizes our current knowledge of pathogenicity factors and their regulation in S. anginosus. PMID:24848553

Asam, D; Spellerberg, B

2014-08-01

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[Streptococcus pyogenes--much more than the aetiological agent of scarlet fever].  

Science.gov (United States)

The grampositive bacterium S. pyogenes (beta-haemolytic group A Streptococcus) is a natural colonizer of the human oropharynx mucous membrane and one of the most common agents of infectious diseases in humans. S. pyogenes causes the widest range of disease in humans among all bacterial pathogens. It is responsible for various skin infections such as impetigo contagiosa and erysipelas, and localized mucous membrane infections of the oropharynx (e. g. tonsillitis and pharyngitis). Betahaemolytic group A Streptococcus causes also invasive diseases such as sepses including puerperal sepsis. Additionally, S. pyogenes induces toxin-mediated syndromes, i. e. scarlet fever, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF). STSS and NF are severe, frequently fatal diseases that have emerged in Europe and Northern America during the last two decades. Finally, some immunpathological diseases such as acute rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis also result from S. pyogenes infections. Most scientists recommend penicillins (benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicllin) as drugs of first choice for treatment of Streptococcus tonsillopharyngitis and scarlet fever. Erysipelas and some other skin infections should be treated with benzylpenicillin. Intensive care measurements are needed for treatment of severe toxin-mediated S. pyogenes diseases. These measurements include the elimination of internal bacterial foci, concomitant application of clindamycin and benzylpenicillin and suitable treatment of shock symptoms. Management of immunpathological diseases requires antiphlogistical therapy. Because of the wide distribution of S. pyogenes in the general population and the lack of an effective vaccine, possibilities for prevention allowing a suitable protection for diseases due to S. pyogenes are very limited. PMID:19947304

Stock, Ingo

2009-11-01

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Uncovering newly emerging variants of Streptococcus suis, an important zoonotic agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis is recognized as a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent. Two large-scale outbreaks of severe S. suis epidemics occurred in China in 1998 and 2005 that posed serious concerns to public health and challenged the conventional conception that opportunistic infections of S. suis serotype 2 (SS2) in humans were only sporadic cases. An extensive, collaborative study on Chinese SS2 variants, which exhibit strong invasiveness and high pathogenicity, has resulted in the description of a new disease form of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and a putative pathogenicity island (termed 89K). The abbreviation of STSS is used for the severe disease caused by both Staphylococci and Streptococci. The main virulence factors involved in STSS caused by either Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes consist of so-called superantigens or molecules that trigger a nonspecific, uncontrolled activation of T cells and massive cytokine release. However, although a collection of new virulence factors have been described, no superantigen candidates have been found for SS2 strains, implying that a different mechanism could be involved in the STSS form caused by SS2 variants. PMID:20071175

Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Ma, Ying; Gao, George F

2010-03-01

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Caracterización clínica y microbiológica de las infecciones causadas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus grupo anginosus, y sus especies constellatus, anginosus e intermedius, causan infecciones supuradas. Su identificación microbiológica es compleja pues pueden ser beta-hemolíticos y comparten antígenos de Lancefield con otros estreptococos. Si bien morfológicamente son colonias pequeñas y presentan un olor característicos, si sólo se realiza test de látex para aglutinación del carbohidrato C pueden ser clasificados erróneamente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evalu...

Gustavo Caro D.; Ingrid Riedel K; Patricia García C

2004-01-01

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Action of agents on glucosyltransferases from Streptococcus mutans in solution and adsorbed to experimental pellicle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucosyltransferase (Gtf) activity mediates sucrose-dependent adherence of mutans streptococci to the tooth surface, is essential for the cariogenicity of these micro-organisms, and contributes significantly to the exopolysaccharide component of the dental-plaque matrix. Clearly, agents that inhibit Gtfs could have therapeutic benefit. Here the effects of agents that inhibit Gtfs in solution and adsorbed to a surface were explored. Various classes of chemical reagents were tested for their ability to inhibit the enzymes responsible for insoluble-glucan synthesis (GtfB), insoluble/soluble glucan synthesis (GtfC), and soluble-glucan (GtfD) from Streptococcus mutans. Standard inhibition assays were done with Gtf enzyme in solution or with Gtf adsorbed to parotid saliva-coated hydroxylapatite (surface phase). Reagents tested included the metallic cations Li+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+; the oxidizing compounds hypochlorite, Rose Bengal, perborate, and sodium-meta-periodate; and a panel of sugars and sugar analogues including sorbitol, xylitol, 1',4',6' trideoxy-trichloro-galactosucrose (TGS), and 1-deoxynojirimycin (dNJ). In solution, Gtf activity was inhibited significantly, at the highest concentrations tested: by the metal ions Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ (approx. 40-80% inhibition); by Rose Bengal and hypochlorite (approx. 80-90% inhibition); and by TGS and dNJ (approx. 50-80%). However, surface-adsorbed Gtfs displayed increased resistance to inhibition by the same metal cations and oxidizing compounds that inhibited them in solution. In contrast, both TGS and dNJ possessed similar inhibition profiles for both surface-bound Gtf and enzyme in solution. These data indicate that the nature of the inhibitor is important, and also whether the Gtf enzyme is in solution or adsorbed to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite. PMID:10217511

Wunder, D; Bowen, W H

1999-03-01

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In Vitro Activities of Retapamulin and 16 Other Antimicrobial Agents against Recently Obtained Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates?  

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Retapamulin in vitro activity against 400 Streptococcus pyogenes clinical isolates obtained from skin, pharynx, ear fluid, and blood samples recovered from 2007 to 2009 was studied. The isolates belonged to 26 different emm types, including isolates nonsusceptible to erythromycin (n = 187), tetracycline (n = 99), ciprofloxacin (n = 59), and bacitracin (n = 43). Results were compared to the activities of 16 other antibiotics for topical and systemic use. Retapamulin MICs ranged from ?0.015 t...

Pe?rez-trallero, Emilio; Tamayo, Esther; Montes, Milagrosa; Garci?a-arenzana, Jose? M.; Iriarte, Victor

2011-01-01

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?acteriology of pleural infection «Streptococcus milleri group» in the limelight  

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Full Text Available SUMMARY. Bacterial infection of the pleura is an old disease that continues to have a considerable mortality, of >15%. It is more common in males, and in the presence of diabetes mellitus, malignancy and alcoholism. The bacteriology of pleural infection has been changing during the past decades. Although pleural fluid culture is the «gold standard» for the identification of microorganisms in the pleural fluid, molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR have a notably higher sensitivity (75% versus 60%. Community-acquired pleural infection (CAPI and hospital-acquired pleural infection (HAPI have substantial differences in both their bacteriology and mortality, while the bacteriology of both differs markedly from that of pneumonia. The «Streptococcus milleri group» is the predominant isolate in CAPI, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae. In HAPI the most common isolates are Staphylococcus aureus, usually methicillin-resistant (MRSA, and Enterococcus spp. Given the higher incidence of CAPI compared to HAPI, «Streptococcus milleri» accounts for the greatest number of pleural infections. The «Streptococcus milleri group» consists of Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius. The unique characteristics of these bacteria favour the production of putrifying and necrotizing infections. The most common thoracic infection due to these organisms is empyema. Drainage of the infected pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics are essential components of the management of pleural infection. Knowledge of the pleural infection bacteriology is a useful adjunct in the selection of the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Pneumon 2009; 22(1:46–64.

Richard W. Light

2009-01-01

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Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia  

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Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, Colombia, entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1996. Se observó que 119 de todos los aislamientos (36,7% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida por lo menos a un antimicrobiano, que 39 (12% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina y que de estos últimos aislamientos, 29 presentaban resistencia intermedia y 10 resistencia alta. Nueve aislamientos (2,8% presentaban resistencia a la ceftriaxona, 80 (24,7% a la combinación de trimetoprima y sulfametoxazol (TMS, 49 (15,1% al cloranfenicol y 31 (9,6% a la eritromicina. Se observó resistencia a dos antimicrobianos en 31 aislamientos (9,6% y multirresistencia en 22 (6,7%. Estos 22 aislamientos mostraron resistencia al TMS. Las asociaciones más frecuentes fueron penicilina, TMS y eritromicina en 5 casos; penicilina, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 4; penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol y TMS en 3; y penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 3 casos. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a la penicilina fueron: 23F (53,8%, 14 (25,6%, 6B (7,7%, 9V (5,1%, 19F (5,1% y 34 (2,6%. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a antimicrobianos distintos de la penicilina fueron: 5 (37,5%, 23F (7,5%, 14 (18,8% y 6B (13,8%. Esta diferencia en la distribución de los serotipos fue estadísticamente significativa (P A study was done to determine the patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae that caused invasive disease diagnosed in children under the age of 5 in Colombia between 1994 and 1996, as well as to establish the distribution of the capsular types of the resistant isolates. The analysis was done using 324 isolates obtained during the performance of the National Serotyping Protocol for S. pneumoniae carried out in Bogotá, Medellín, and Cali, Colombia, between July 1994 and March 1996. Of the 324 isolates, 119 (36.7% showed diminished susceptibility to at least one antimicrobial agent, including 39 (12% that showed diminished susceptibility to penicillin. Of these 39 resistant to penicillin, 29 showed intermediate resistance and 10 showed high resistance. Nine isolates (2.8% showed resistance to ceftriaxone, 80 (24.7% to the combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMS, 49 (15.1% to chloramphenicol, and 31 (9.6% to erythromycin. Resistance to two antimicrobial agents was observed in 31 isolates (9.6%; multiple resistance was found in 22 (6.7%. These 22 multiresistant isolates all showed resistance to TMS. The most frequent associations were penicillin, TMS, and erythromycin (5 cases; penicillin, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (4 cases; penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and TMS (3 cases; and penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, TMS, and erythromycin (3 cases. The most frequent serotypes in the penicillin-resistant isolates were: 23F (53.8%, 14 (25.6%, 6B (7.7%, 9V (5.1%, 19F (5.1%, and 34 (2.6%. The most frequent serotypes in the isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents other than penicillin were: 5 (37.5%, 23F (7.5%, 14 (18.8%, and 6B (13.8%. This difference in the distribution of the serotypes was statistically significant (P < 0.0001. The study results indicate the need to maintain active surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns in order to avoid resistance in S. pneumoniae and to provide timely in formation to change practices regarding prescribing and consuming antimicrobial agents.

Aura Lucía Leal

1999-03-01

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Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá,...

Aura Lucía Leal; Castañeda Elizabeth

1999-01-01

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In Vitro Activity of Antimicrobial Agents Against Streptococcus Pyogenes Isolates from patients with Acute Tonsillopharyngitis in Dakar, Senegal  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes is the most important causative agent of tonsillopharyngitis. Beta-lactam antibiotics, particularly penicillin, are the drug of first choice and macrolides are recommended for patients who are allergic to penicillin. However, other antibiotics are also used for the treatment of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. In recent years, the increase in the incidence of respiratory tract pathogens that are resistant to current antibacterial agents highlights the need to monitor the evolution of the resistance of these pathogens to antibiotics. In this study, we assess the susceptibility of 98 isolates of S. pyogenes to 16 antibiotics. The pathogens were recovered from patients with acute tonsillopharyngitis in Dakar, the Senegalese capital city, who were recruited from May 2005 to August 2006. All strains were susceptible to penicillin with low Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC = 0,016 mg/L. Amoxicillin had high activity (100% showing its importance in treatment of streptococcal infections. Cephalosporins had MIC90 values ranging from 0.016 to 0.094 mg/L. Macrolides have shown high activity. All strains were resistant to tetracyclin. Other molecules such as teicoplanin, levofloxacin and chloramphenicol were also active and would represent alternatives to treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to this pathogen. These results indicate that no significant resistance to antibiotics was found among patients with tonsillopharyngitis studied in Dakar. Limitations of this study were that the number of isolates tested was small and all isolates were collected from one hospital in Dakar. Hence, results may not be representative of the isolates found, in the wider community or other regions of Senegal. Further studies are needed in other parts of Dakar and other geographic regions of Senegal, in order to better clarify the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. pyogenes isolates recovered from patients with tonsillopharyngitis.

A. Gueye Ndiaye

2009-01-01

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Caracterización clínica y microbiológica de las infecciones causadas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus / Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus grupo anginosus, y sus especies constellatus, anginosus e intermedius, causan infecciones supuradas. Su identificación microbiológica es compleja pues pueden ser beta-hemolíticos y comparten antígenos de Lancefield con otros estreptococos. Si bien morfológicamente son colonias pequeñas [...] y presentan un olor característicos, si sólo se realiza test de látex para aglutinación del carbohidrato C pueden ser clasificados erróneamente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar un algoritmo que utiliza 3 pruebas bioquímicas, conocer su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos y describir las características clínicas de infecciones producidas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus. Se estudiaron cepas de Streptococcus grupo C, G y F, determinando sus características morfológicas de colonia, para identificar cepas de colonia pequeña que se incluyeron en el algoritmo de bajo costo propuesto (b-glucuronidasa y el test Voges-Proskauer) comparándose al método API Rapid ID 32 Strept®, establecido como estándar de oro. Se estudiaron 219 cepas, de las cuales 101 presentaron las características morfológicas compatibles con grupo anginosus, identificándose S. constellatus en 58% (59/101), S. anginosus en 37% (37/101) y S. intermedius en 5% (5/101). Las cepas aisladas procedían principalmente de infecciones piogénicas (61%, 62/101), en especial de foco abdominal. Se observó 98% de susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima y resistencia a eritromicina y clindamicina en 6,8 y 5%, respectivamente. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 30 años (2-85), con distribución similar por sexo y predominio de pacientes hospitalizados. Los resultados expuestos demuestra la efectividad del algoritmo de bajo costo para la detección de S. grupo anginosus. En nuestra experiencia este grupo bacteriano conserva su susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima, siendo necesario vigilar clindamicina y eritromicina Abstract in english Streptococcus anginosus group and its species constellatus, anginosus and intermedius, produce suppurative infections. Its microbiological identification is complex because it can be beta-hemolytic and shares Lancefield antigens with other Streptococci. This group grows as small colonies and present [...] s a characteristic smell, but if only latex test for carbohydrate C agglutination is used it can be erroneously classified. The aims of this publication were to evaluate an algorithm that includes three biochemical tests, and to describe in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics and clinical characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group. Streptoccoccal strains belonging to groups C, G and F were evaluated, determining its colony characteristics in order to select small colony strains that were included into the proposed low cost algorithm (beta-glucurosidase and Voges Proskauer tests) comparing them with API Rapid ID 32 Strept® method, considered the gold standard. Two hundred nineteen strains were studied, 101 had a morphological profile compatible with the anginosus group, identifying S. constellatus in 58% (59/101), S. anginosus in 37% (37/101) and S. intermedius in 5% (5/101). Strains were isolated mainly from pyogenic infections (61%, 62/101), specially from abdominal origin. High grade of penicillin and cefotaxime susceptibility (98%) and low grade resistance to erithromycin and clindamycin (6,8 and 5% respectively) were observed. Mean patient age was 30 years old (2-85), a similar sex distribution with predominance of inpatients. These results document the usefulness of the proposed low cost algorithm for detection of S. anginosus group. In our experience this bacterial group maintains good susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime, and we recommend a continous surveillance of clindamycin and erythromycin susceptibility

Gustavo, Caro D.; Ingrid, Riedel K.; Patricia, García C..

 
 
 
 
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Streptococcus suis, an important pig pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent--an update on the worldwide distribution based on serotyping and sequence typing  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen causing economic problems in the pig industry. Moreover, it is a zoonotic agent causing severe infections to people in close contact with infected pigs or pork-derived products. Although considered sporadic in the past, human S. suis infections have been reported during the last 45 years, with two large outbreaks recorded in China. In fact, the number of reported human cases has significantly increased in recent years. In this review, we present the worldwide distribution of serotypes and sequence types (STs), as determined by multilocus sequence typing, for pigs (between 2002 and 2013) and humans (between 1968 and 2013). The methods employed for S. suis identification and typing, the current epidemiological knowledge regarding serotypes and STs and the zoonotic potential of S. suis are discussed. Increased awareness of S. suis in both human and veterinary diagnostic laboratories and further establishment of typing methods will contribute to our knowledge of this pathogen, especially in regions where complete and/or recent data is lacking. More research is required to understand differences in virulence that occur among S. suis strains and if these differences can be associated with specific serotypes or STs.

Goyette-Desjardins, Guillaume; Auger, Jean-Philippe; Xu, Jianguo; Segura, Mariela; Gottschalk, Marcelo

2014-01-01

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Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Streptococcus equi evolution: the role of CRISPRs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The host-restricted bacterium Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of equine strangles, the most frequently diagnosed infectious disease of horses worldwide. The disease is characterized by abscessation of the lymph nodes of the head and neck, leading to significant welfare and economic cost. S. equi is believed to have evolved from an ancestral strain of Streptococcus zooepidemicus, an opportunistic pathogen of horses and other animals. Comparison of the genome of S. equi strain 4047 with those of S. zooepidemicus identified examples of gene loss due to mutation and deletion, and gene gain through the acquisition of mobile genetic elements that have probably shaped the pathogenic specialization of S. equi. In particular, deletion of the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) locus in the ancestor of S. equi may have predisposed the bacterium to acquire and incorporate new genetic material into its genome. These include four prophages and a novel integrative conjugative element. The virulence cargo carried by these mobile genetic elements is believed to have shaped the ability of S. equi to cause strangles. Further sequencing of S. zooepidemicus has highlighted the diversity of this opportunistic pathogen. Again, CRISPRs are postulated to influence evolution, balancing the need for gene gain over genome stability. Analysis of spacer sequences suggest that these pathogens may be susceptible to a limited range of phages and provide further evidence of cross-species exchange of genetic material among Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. PMID:24256234

Waller, Andrew S; Robinson, Carl

2013-12-01

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Identification of ?-haemolysin-encoding genes in Streptococcus anginosus.  

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Streptococcus anginosus is an emerging pathogen, but little is known about its virulence factors. To detect the genes responsible for ?-haemolysis we performed genomic mutagenesis of the ?-haemolytic S. anginosus type strain ATCC 12395 using the vector pGhost9:ISS1. Integration site analysis of 15 non-haemolytic mutants identified a gene cluster with high homology to the genes of the streptolysin S (SLS) encoding sag gene cluster of S. pyogenes. The gene cluster harbours 10 open reading frames displaying significant similarities to the S. pyogenes genes sagA-sagI, with the identities on protein level ranging from 38 to 87%. Complementation assays of S. anginosus sagB and sagD integration mutants with the respective genes confirmed their importance for ?-haemolysin production and suggest the presence of post-translational modifications in S. anginosus SLS similar to SLS of S. pyogenes. Characterization of the S. anginosus haemolysin in comparison to the S. pyogenes SLS showed that the haemolysin is surface bound, but in contrast to S. pyogenes neither fetal calf serum nor RNA was able to stabilize the haemolysin of S. anginosus in culture supernatants. Inhibition of ?-haemolysis by polyethylene glycol of different sizes was carried out, giving no evidence of a pore-forming haemolytic mechanism. Analysis of a whole genome shotgun sequence of Streptococcus constellatus, a closely related streptococcal species that belongs to the S. anginosus group, revealed a similar sag gene cluster. Employing a genomic mutagenesis strategy we were able to determine an SLS encoding gene cluster in S. anginosus and demonstrate its importance for ?-haemolysin production in S. anginosus. PMID:23594064

Asam, D; Mauerer, S; Walheim, E; Spellerberg, B

2013-08-01

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Single- and multistep resistance selection studies on the activity of retapamulin compared to other agents against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retapamulin had the lowest rate of spontaneous mutations by single-step passaging and the lowest parent and selected mutant MICs by multistep passaging among all drugs tested for all Staphylococcus aureus strains and three Streptococcus pyogenes strains which yielded resistant clones. Retapamulin has a low potential for resistance selection in S. pyogenes, with a slow and gradual propensity for resistance development in S. aureus. PMID:16436741

Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; McGhee, Pamela; Dewasse, Bonifacio; Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Appelbaum, Peter C

2006-02-01

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Prevalencia de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae y otros gérmenes causantes de otitis media aguda en niños de Latinoamérica: Revisión sistemática de la bibliografía / Prevalence of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other agents that cause acute otitis media in children in Latin America: A systematic review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La otitis media aguda (OMA) es un diagnóstico frecuente en pediatría. Streptococcus pneumoniae continúa siendo el germen más prevalente a nivel mundial, seguido de Haemophilus influenzae. Sin embargo, la introducción de vacunas contra el neumococo ha venido cambiando la microbiología de la OMA. Obje [...] tivo. Establecer la prevalencia del neumococo, sus serotipos y la prevalencia de otros gérmenes comunes en niños latinoamericanos con OMA. Fuente de los datos. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de artículos originales en siete bases de datos, limitada a publicaciones entre 1999 y 2010, a menores de 18 años y a idiomas inglés y castellano. Se completó la búsqueda por estrategia de "bola de nieve". Métodos de revisión. Los criterios de elegibilidad incluyeron artículos originales de prevalencia de corte transversal, realizados en población pediátrica latinoamericana y con criterios de inclusión y exclusión homogéneos. Se extrajo la información pertinente de los artículos seleccionados. Resultados. Once artículos cumplieron los criterios de elegibilidad. En Latinoamérica, específcamente en Costa Rica, Chile, Brasil y Argentina, el germen más prevalente fue Streptococcus pneumoniae (43,5%), (el serotipo más frecuente es el 19F, excepto en Argentina, donde es el 14) seguido por Haemophilus influenzae (30%) y Moraxella catarrhalis (6,4%). Conclusiones. El germen más prevalente en OMA en niños latinoamericanos es Streptococcus pneumoniae, hallazgo concordante con lo registrado en Europa y Estados Unidos. Se requieren más estudios en los otros países de la región y su población pediátrica vacunada contra el neumococo, con el fin de establecer un perfil epidemiológico y microbiológico actualizado de Latinoamérica. Abstract in english Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common diagnosis in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most prevalent agent worldwide, followed by Haemophilus influenzae. However, the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has changed the microbiology of AOM. Objective. To establish the prevalence of pneum [...] ococcal serotypes and other common germs in Latin American children with AOM. Source of data. We carried out a systematic search for original articles in seven databases, limited to publications between 1999 and 2010, children under 18, and English and Spanish languages. Search was completed with "snowball" strategy. Review methods. Eligibility criteria included original prevalence cross-sectional articles, conducted in pediatric populations in Latin America, with homogeneous inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant information was extracted from the selected articles. Results. Eleven articles met the eligibility criteria. In Latin America, specifically Costa Rica, Chile, Brazil and Argentina, Streptococcus pneumoniae (43.5%) was the most frequent germ, (serotype 19F is the most frequent, except in Argentina where it is 14) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (30%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (6.4%). Conclusions. The more prevalent germ in Latin American children AOM is Streptococcus pneumoniae, a finding consistent with those from Europe and the U.S. Further studies are required in the other countries of the region and its pediatric pneumococcal vaccinated population, in order to establish an updated epidemiological and microbiological profile in Latin America.

Norma Carolina, Barajas Viracachá.

2011-06-01

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Prevalencia de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae y otros gérmenes causantes de otitis media aguda en niños de Latinoamérica: Revisión sistemática de la bibliografía / Prevalence of serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other agents that cause acute otitis media in children in Latin America: A systematic review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La otitis media aguda (OMA) es un diagnóstico frecuente en pediatría. Streptococcus pneumoniae continúa siendo el germen más prevalente a nivel mundial, seguido de Haemophilus influenzae. Sin embargo, la introducción de vacunas contra el neumococo ha venido cambiando la microbiología de la OMA. Obje [...] tivo. Establecer la prevalencia del neumococo, sus serotipos y la prevalencia de otros gérmenes comunes en niños latinoamericanos con OMA. Fuente de los datos. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de artículos originales en siete bases de datos, limitada a publicaciones entre 1999 y 2010, a menores de 18 años y a idiomas inglés y castellano. Se completó la búsqueda por estrategia de "bola de nieve". Métodos de revisión. Los criterios de elegibilidad incluyeron artículos originales de prevalencia de corte transversal, realizados en población pediátrica latinoamericana y con criterios de inclusión y exclusión homogéneos. Se extrajo la información pertinente de los artículos seleccionados. Resultados. Once artículos cumplieron los criterios de elegibilidad. En Latinoamérica, específcamente en Costa Rica, Chile, Brasil y Argentina, el germen más prevalente fue Streptococcus pneumoniae (43,5%), (el serotipo más frecuente es el 19F, excepto en Argentina, donde es el 14) seguido por Haemophilus influenzae (30%) y Moraxella catarrhalis (6,4%). Conclusiones. El germen más prevalente en OMA en niños latinoamericanos es Streptococcus pneumoniae, hallazgo concordante con lo registrado en Europa y Estados Unidos. Se requieren más estudios en los otros países de la región y su población pediátrica vacunada contra el neumococo, con el fin de establecer un perfil epidemiológico y microbiológico actualizado de Latinoamérica. Abstract in english Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common diagnosis in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most prevalent agent worldwide, followed by Haemophilus influenzae. However, the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines has changed the microbiology of AOM. Objective. To establish the prevalence of pneum [...] ococcal serotypes and other common germs in Latin American children with AOM. Source of data. We carried out a systematic search for original articles in seven databases, limited to publications between 1999 and 2010, children under 18, and English and Spanish languages. Search was completed with "snowball" strategy. Review methods. Eligibility criteria included original prevalence cross-sectional articles, conducted in pediatric populations in Latin America, with homogeneous inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant information was extracted from the selected articles. Results. Eleven articles met the eligibility criteria. In Latin America, specifically Costa Rica, Chile, Brazil and Argentina, Streptococcus pneumoniae (43.5%) was the most frequent germ, (serotype 19F is the most frequent, except in Argentina where it is 14) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (30%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (6.4%). Conclusions. The more prevalent germ in Latin American children AOM is Streptococcus pneumoniae, a finding consistent with those from Europe and the U.S. Further studies are required in the other countries of the region and its pediatric pneumococcal vaccinated population, in order to establish an updated epidemiological and microbiological profile in Latin America.

Norma Carolina, Barajas Viracachá.

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Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virule [...] nce factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing), classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis.

Regianne Umeko, Kamiya; Tiago, Taiete; Reginaldo Bruno, Gonçalves.

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Streptococcus tigurinus, a novel member of the Streptococcus mitis group, causes invasive infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently described the novel species Streptococcus tigurinus sp. nov. belonging to the Streptococcus mitis group. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. According to its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, S. tigurinus is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. We retrospectively analyzed our 16S rRNA gene molecular database, which contains sequences of all clinical samples obtained in our institute since 2003. We detected 17 16S rRNA gene sequences which were assigned to S. tigurinus, including sequences from the 3 S. tigurinus strains described previously. S. tigurinus originated from normally sterile body sites, such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or heart valves, of 14 patients and was initially detected by culture or broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR, followed by sequencing. The 14 patients had serious invasive infections, i.e., infective endocarditis (n = 6), spondylodiscitis (n = 3), bacteremia (n = 2), meningitis (n = 1), prosthetic joint infection (n = 1), and thoracic empyema (n = 1). To evaluate the presence of Streptococcus tigurinus in the endogenous oral microbial flora, we screened saliva specimens of 31 volunteers. After selective growth, alpha-hemolytic growing colonies were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and subsequent molecular methods. S. tigurinus was not identified among 608 strains analyzed. These data indicate that S. tigurinus is not widely distributed in the oral cavity. In conclusion, S. tigurinus is a novel agent of invasive infections, particularly infective endocarditis. PMID:22760039

Zbinden, Andrea; Mueller, Nicolas J; Tarr, Philip E; Eich, Gerhard; Schulthess, Bettina; Bahlmann, Anna S; Keller, Peter M; Bloemberg, Guido V

2012-09-01

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Streptococcus mutans y caries dental / Streptococcus mutans and dental caries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus mutans es uno de los microorganismos cariogénicos asociados a la caries dental. De acuerdo con la hipótesis de la placa ecológica, la caries dental es la consecuencia de cambios en el balance natural de la microflora de la placa dental causados por la alteración de las condiciones ambi [...] entales locales (homeostasis microbiana oral). El estudio de su participación en la colonización de tejidos dentales, implantación e interacción con otros microrganismos es de mucha importancia para la comprensión de la dinámica de las biopelículas dentales. Por medio de técnicas de biología molecular, se ha avanzado en la identificación de los diferentes tipos que habitan la cavidad oral, los productos que generan y que son críticos para su implantación, las interacciones con otras especies y el desarrollo de nuevos procedimientos que ayuden su identificación como uno de los agentes más importantes en la caries dental. Esta revisión examina los últimos avances en la biología de Streptococcus mutans, su papel en la génesis de la caries y las técnicas de identificación y estudio más usadas en los últimos años. Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans is one of cariogenic microorganisms associated with tooth decay. According with the hypothesis of the ecological plaque, dental caries is the consequence of changes in the natural balance in the dental plaque microflora (oral microbial homeostasis). Its role in the colonization [...] of dental tissues, implantation and interaction with other microorganisms is of paramount importance for the understanding of the dynamics of dental biofilms. By means of molecular biology techniques, there have been advances in the identification of the different types that live in the oral cavity, the products they produce which are critical for its implantation, the interaction with other species and the development of new procedures that help its identification as one of the most important agents in dental caries. This review examines the latest advances in the biology of Streptococcus mutans, its role in the genesis of the caries and the identification and study techniques most used in recent years.

Juan Carlos, Ojeda-Garcés; Eliana, Oviedo-García; Luis Andrés, Salas.

2013-01-01

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Streptococcus gordonii septic arthritis : two cases and review of literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in antimicrobial and surgical therapy, septic arthritis remains a rheumatologic emergency that can lead to rapid joint destruction and irreversible loss of function. In adults, Staphylococcus aureus is the most common microorganism isolated from native joints. Streptococcus gordonii is a prominent member of the viridans group of oral bacteria and is among the bacteria most frequently identified as being primary agent of subacute bacterial endocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, Streptococcus gordonii has not yet been described as agent of septic arthritis. Case Presentation We describe here two cases of septic arthritis due to Streptococcus gordonii. It gives us an opportunity to review epidemiology, diagnosis criteria and management of septic arthritis. Conclusion Although implication of S. gordonii as aetiologic agent of subacute endocarditis is well known, this organism is a rare cause of septic arthritis. In this case, the exclusion of associated endocarditis is warranted.

Yombi Jean cyr

2012-09-01

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[Streptococcus bovis, taxonomic status, clinical relevance and antimicrobial susceptibility].  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus bovis is a large bacterial complex of facultative anaerobic Gram-positive cocci that includes distinct, genetically-related species. Traditionally, S. bovis was classified into three biotypes: I (mannitol fermentation-positive), II/1 (mannitol-negative and ?-glucuronidase-negative), and II/2 (mannitol-negative and ?-glucuronidase-positive). The introduction of molecular techniques in the last few decades has led to proposals for a genetic classification of this complex: S. bovis biotype I belongs to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, S. bovis biotype II/1 is, in fact, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius, designated as Streptococcus lutetiensis, and S. bovis biotype II/2 is Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, commonly designated as Streptococcus pasteurianus. Although this modern taxonomy is currently accepted, many clinicians remain unfamiliar with these terms. The importance of correct identification lies in the strong association between bacteriemia, endocarditis and/or colon cancer and the various subspecies. In general, S. bovis is more susceptible to antimicrobial agents than other streptococci, but high levels of resistance to macrolides and tetracycline have been described. PMID:23453226

Romero-Hernández, Beatriz; del Campo, Rosa; Cantón, Rafael

2013-02-01

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Laboratory diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections: past and future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important causative agent of pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia, sinusitis and otitis media. The gold standard diagnostic method is still culture even if bacteriological diagnosis is making progress in molecular biology and in proteomics areas. PMID:23240165

Bandettini, R; Melioli, G

2012-06-01

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Sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B / Group B Streptococcus neonatal sepsis: up-to-date  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus grupo B (SGB) es uno de los principales agentes causales de sepsis neonatal precoz, siendo un importante factor de morbimortalidad neonatal y de costos en salud pública. Se han implementado múltiples estrategias para evitar la transmisión vertical desde la madre colonizada a su reci [...] én nacido, de modo de prevenir la infección de éste último. La más usada en la actualidad es la profilaxis antibiótica administrada a la madre en el momento del parto dependiendo del resultado de un cultivo perineal realizado entre las semanas 35 y 37 de gestación. Mediante esta estrategia se ha logrado disminuir de manera importante la incidencia de la sepsis neonatal por este agente, pero existen aprehensiones acerca de la posible generación de resistencia antibiótica o reacciones adversas a fármacos por parte de la madre. Por esto último, nuevas técnicas de prevención se encuentran en estudio, como las vacunas contra el SGB. En los recién nacidos la infección por Streptococcus agalactiae puede manifestarse de diversas maneras, siendo la sepsis y la meningitis las más frecuentes y mortales. El porcentaje de secuelas entre los sobrevivientes es elevado, por lo que ante la sospecha precoz de infección debe iniciarse tratamiento antibiótico a la brevedad. Abstract in english Group B Streptococcus is one of the leading bacterias causing early onset neonatal sepsis. It constitutes an important factor of neonatal morbidity and mortality and high costs in health. Many strategies have been formulated to avoid vertical transmission from the colonized mother to the newborn, in [...] an attempt to prevent infection of the infant. The most used nowadays is antibiotic prophylaxis given to the mother during labor, depending on the results of recto-vaginal culture taken during 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. This strategy has importantly diminished the prevalence of early onset neonatal sepsis by this agent, although there is still concern about the potential generation of antibiotic resistance and drug-induced adverse reactions in the mother. New techniques for prevention are being developed, such as vaccines against Streptococcus. In the newborn, infection caused by Streptococcus has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, like sepsis and meningitis which are the most frequent and lethal. Neurological sequelae are common among the survivors, so an early suspicion of disease must lead to a prompt antibiotic treatment.

MAGDALENA, CRUZ O; ADRIANA, DOREN V; JOSÉ LUIS, TAPIA I; FERNANDO, ABARZÚA C.

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Sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B Group B Streptococcus neonatal sepsis: up-to-date  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Streptococcus grupo B (SGB es uno de los principales agentes causales de sepsis neonatal precoz, siendo un importante factor de morbimortalidad neonatal y de costos en salud pública. Se han implementado múltiples estrategias para evitar la transmisión vertical desde la madre colonizada a su recién nacido, de modo de prevenir la infección de éste último. La más usada en la actualidad es la profilaxis antibiótica administrada a la madre en el momento del parto dependiendo del resultado de un cultivo perineal realizado entre las semanas 35 y 37 de gestación. Mediante esta estrategia se ha logrado disminuir de manera importante la incidencia de la sepsis neonatal por este agente, pero existen aprehensiones acerca de la posible generación de resistencia antibiótica o reacciones adversas a fármacos por parte de la madre. Por esto último, nuevas técnicas de prevención se encuentran en estudio, como las vacunas contra el SGB. En los recién nacidos la infección por Streptococcus agalactiae puede manifestarse de diversas maneras, siendo la sepsis y la meningitis las más frecuentes y mortales. El porcentaje de secuelas entre los sobrevivientes es elevado, por lo que ante la sospecha precoz de infección debe iniciarse tratamiento antibiótico a la brevedad.Group B Streptococcus is one of the leading bacterias causing early onset neonatal sepsis. It constitutes an important factor of neonatal morbidity and mortality and high costs in health. Many strategies have been formulated to avoid vertical transmission from the colonized mother to the newborn, in an attempt to prevent infection of the infant. The most used nowadays is antibiotic prophylaxis given to the mother during labor, depending on the results of recto-vaginal culture taken during 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. This strategy has importantly diminished the prevalence of early onset neonatal sepsis by this agent, although there is still concern about the potential generation of antibiotic resistance and drug-induced adverse reactions in the mother. New techniques for prevention are being developed, such as vaccines against Streptococcus. In the newborn, infection caused by Streptococcus has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, like sepsis and meningitis which are the most frequent and lethal. Neurological sequelae are common among the survivors, so an early suspicion of disease must lead to a prompt antibiotic treatment.

MAGDALENA CRUZ O

2008-10-01

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Genetic manipulation of Streptococcus pyogenes (the Group A Streptococcus, GAS).  

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Streptococcus pyogenes (the Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild superficial infections (pharyngitis, impetigo) to severe, often life-threatening invasive diseases (necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome) in humans. This unit describes molecular techniques for the genetic manipulation of S. pyogenes with detailed protocols for transformation, gene disruption, allelic exchange, transposon mutagenesis, and genetic complementation. PMID:24510894

Le Breton, Yoann; McIver, Kevin S

2013-01-01

36

Inhibition of the cooperative adhesion of Streptococcus sanguis to hydroxylapatite.  

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The adhesion of Streptococcus sanguis to hydroxylapatite is a process involving several adhesins and receptors. Binding isotherms and Scatchard plots of the adhesion suggest that cooperative interactions occur at low cell densities. It was found that sulfolane, a hydrophobic-bond diluent, was capable of inhibiting the cooperative adhesion of S. sanguis to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite beads. Sodium thiocyanate, a chaotropic agent, inhibited not only cooperative adhesion, but also the adhesion thought to result from noncooperative interactions. It is suggested that strong chaotropic agents may not only inhibit adhesin-receptor complexes, but also may influence the secondary/tertiary structures of interacting species. PMID:2177022

Zhang, X H; Rosenberg, M; Doyle, R J

1990-09-15

37

Identification and characterization of a novel secreted glycosidase with multiple glycosidase activities in Streptococcus intermedius.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus intermedius is a known human pathogen and belongs to the anginosus group (S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus) of streptococci (AGS). We found a large open reading frame (6,708 bp) in the lac operon, and bioinformatic analysis suggested that this gene encodes a novel glycosidase that can exhibit ?-d-galactosidase and N-acetyl-?-d-hexosaminidase activities. We, therefore, named this protein "multisubstrate glycosidase A" (MsgA). To test whether MsgA has these glycosidase activities, the msgA gene was disrupted in S. intermedius. The msgA-deficient mutant no longer showed cell- and supernatant-associated ?-d-galactosidase, ?-d-fucosidase, N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase, and N-acetyl-?-d-galactosaminidase activities, and all phenotypes were complemented in trans with a recombinant plasmid carrying msgA. Purified MsgA had all four of these glycosidase activities and exhibited the lowest Km with 4-methylumbelliferyl-linked N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminide and the highest kcat with 4-methylumbelliferyl-linked ?-d-galactopyranoside. In addition, the purified LacZ domain of MsgA had ?-d-galactosidase and ?-d-fucosidase activities, and the GH20 domain exhibited both N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase and N-acetyl-?-d-galactosaminidase activities. The ?-d-galactosidase and ?-d-fucosidase activities of MsgA are thermolabile, and the optimal temperature of the reaction was 40°C, whereas almost all enzymatic activities disappeared at 49°C. The optimal temperatures for the N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase and N-acetyl-?-d-galactosaminidase activities were 58 and 55°C, respectively. The requirement of sialidase treatment to remove sialic acid residues of the glycan branch end for glycan degradation by MsgA on human ?1-antitrypsin indicates that MsgA has exoglycosidase activities. MsgA and sialidase might have an important function in the production and utilization of monosaccharides from oligosaccharides, such as glycans for survival in a normal habitat and for pathogenicity of S. intermedius. PMID:24858187

Imaki, Hidenori; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Taue, Chiharu; Masuda, Sachiko; Takao, Ayuko; Maeda, Nobuko; Tabata, Atsushi; Whiley, Robert A; Nagamune, Hideaki

2014-08-01

38

Production of bacteriocins in a liquid medium by Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sterile-filtered, liquid medium composed of one-half-strength APT broth and 4% (wt/vol) yeast extract was found to support the production of bacteriocins by Streptococcus mutans strains BHT and GS-5. Culture supernatants, adjusted to pH 7.0 and sterilized by filtration, contained bacteriocin-like activity, which could be demonstrated by spotting dilutions onto top agar lawns seeded with Streptococcus pyogenes as the sensitive indicator and by adding dilutions to log-phase indicator broth cultures. A quantitative assay was developed for BHT bacteriocin, based on its lethal effects. Bacteriocin production did not occur until after the log phase of growth had ceased and was not inducible by ultraviolet irradiation or treatment with mitomycin C. Non-bacteriocinogenic clones of strain BHT occurred spontaneously at high frequency, suggesting control by a plasmid, but this frequency was not increased by treatment with the plasmid-curing agents acridine orange and ethidium bromide. PMID:1211924

Delisle, A L

1975-12-01

39

A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cultura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta. Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica.BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detects the genes responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin within approximately 8 hours. OBJECTIVE: To compare the PCR and MIC methods in determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin. METHOD: A total of 153 Streptococcus pneumoniae samples, isolated from various anatomical sites, were evaluated in order to detect mutations in the genes encoding pbp1a, pbp2a and pbp2x, which are responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance. A correlation was found between mutations and penicillin MIP, as determined by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Overal Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was 22.8% (16.3% intermediate resistance and 6.5% high resistance. In a statistically significant finding, we observed no mutations in the penicillin-sensitive samples and only one mutation, typically in the gene encoding pbp2x, among the samples with intermediate resistance, whereas mutations in all three genes studied were observed in the high-resistance samples. CONCLUSION: For determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin, PCR is a rapid method of detection that could well be used in clinical practice.

Eduardo Walker Zettler

2004-12-01

40

A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae / Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cu [...] ltura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM). A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta). Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain re [...] action (PCR) detects the genes responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin within approximately 8 hours. OBJECTIVE: To compare the PCR and MIC methods in determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin. METHOD: A total of 153 Streptococcus pneumoniae samples, isolated from various anatomical sites, were evaluated in order to detect mutations in the genes encoding pbp1a, pbp2a and pbp2x, which are responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance. A correlation was found between mutations and penicillin MIP, as determined by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Overal Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was 22.8% (16.3% intermediate resistance and 6.5% high resistance). In a statistically significant finding, we observed no mutations in the penicillin-sensitive samples and only one mutation, typically in the gene encoding pbp2x, among the samples with intermediate resistance, whereas mutations in all three genes studied were observed in the high-resistance samples. CONCLUSION: For determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin, PCR is a rapid method of detection that could well be used in clinical practice.

Eduardo Walker, Zettler; Rosane M., Scheibe; Cícero A. G., Dias; Patrícia, Santafé; José da Silva, Moreira; Diógenes S., Santos; Carlos Cezar, Fritscher.

 
 
 
 
41

A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae / Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cu [...] ltura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM). A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta). Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain re [...] action (PCR) detects the genes responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin within approximately 8 hours. OBJECTIVE: To compare the PCR and MIC methods in determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin. METHOD: A total of 153 Streptococcus pneumoniae samples, isolated from various anatomical sites, were evaluated in order to detect mutations in the genes encoding pbp1a, pbp2a and pbp2x, which are responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance. A correlation was found between mutations and penicillin MIP, as determined by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Overal Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was 22.8% (16.3% intermediate resistance and 6.5% high resistance). In a statistically significant finding, we observed no mutations in the penicillin-sensitive samples and only one mutation, typically in the gene encoding pbp2x, among the samples with intermediate resistance, whereas mutations in all three genes studied were observed in the high-resistance samples. CONCLUSION: For determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin, PCR is a rapid method of detection that could well be used in clinical practice.

Eduardo Walker, Zettler; Rosane M., Scheibe; Cícero A. G., Dias; Patrícia, Santafé; José da Silva, Moreira; Diógenes S., Santos; Carlos Cezar, Fritscher.

2004-12-01

42

Fumarate Reductase Activity of Streptococcus faecalis  

Science.gov (United States)

Some characteristics of a fumarate reductase from Streptococcus faecalis are described. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.4; optimal activity was observed when the ionic strength of the phosphate buffer was adjusted to 0.088. The Km value of the enzyme for reduced flavin mononucleotide was 2 × 10?4 m as determined with a 26-fold preparation. In addition to fumarate, the enzyme reduced maleate and mesaconate. No succinate dehydrogenase activity was detected, but succinate did act as an inhibitor of the fumarate reductase activity. Other inhibitors were malonate, citraconate, and trans-, trans-muconate. Metal-chelating agents did not inhibit the enzyme. A limited inhibition by sulfhydryl-binding agents was observed, and the preparations were sensitive to air oxidation and storage. Glycine, alanine, histidine, and possibly lysine stimulated fumarate reductase activity in the cell-free extracts. However, growth in media supplemented with glycine did not enhance fumarate reductase activity. The enzymatic activity appears to be constitutive. PMID:4960892

Aue, B. J.; Diebel, R. H.

1967-01-01

43

Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis in children: report of two cases and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis (SPM) occurs sporadically, even with the increase of invasive streptococcal disease observed in the past years. We reported two cases of SPM in infants to alert pediatricians for the possibility of this agent as a cause of meningitis in previously healthy children. [...

Mariana V., Arnoni; Eitan N., Berezin; Marco A.P., Sáfadi; Flávia J., Almeida; Cláudia R.C., Lopes.

44

Adhesion of streptococcus rattus and streptococcus mutans to metal surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adhesion of Streptococcus rattus BHT and Streptococcus mutans IB to metal specimens of amalgam, silver, tin and copper was studied using (6-3H) thymidine labeled cells. In the standard assay the metal specimens were suspended by a nylon thread in an adhesion solution containing a chemically defined bacterial growth medium (FMC), sucrose, and radiolabeled bacteria. Maximum amounts of adhering bacteria were obtained after about 100 min of incubation. Saturation of the metal specimens with bacteria was not observed. Both strains also adhered in the absence of sucrose, indicating that glucan formation was not necessary for adhesion. However, in the presence of glucose, adhesion was only 26-45% of that observed in the presence of equimolar sucrose. Sucrose-dependent stimulation of adhesion seemed to be due to increased cell-to-cell adhesion capacity. Isolated radiolabeled water-insoluble and water-soluble polysaccharides produced from sucrose by S. rattus BHT were not adsorbed to the metal surfaces. (author)

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Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente / Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C), vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2) y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La iden [...] tificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias. Abstract in english A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles) were positive. The isolate was preliminary identi [...] fied by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

A., Nagel; V., Manias; N., Busquets; S., Sniadowsky; J., Anzardi; E. De Los A., Méndez.

2008-09-01

46

Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C, vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2 y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La identificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias.A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles were positive. The isolate was preliminary identified by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

A. Nagel

2008-09-01

47

Galactose Metabolism by Streptococcus mutans  

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The galK gene, encoding galactokinase of the Leloir pathway, was insertionally inactivated in Streptococcus mutans UA159. The galK knockout strain displayed only marginal growth on galactose, but growth on glucose or lactose was not affected. In strain UA159, the sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) for lactose and the PTS for galactose were induced by growth in lactose and galactose, although galactose PTS activity was very low, suggesting that S. mutans does not have a galactose-specific P...

Abranches, Jacqueline; Chen, Yi-ywan M.; Burne, Robert A.

2004-01-01

48

Caracterização Genética da Resistência à Eritromicina em Streptococcus agalactia e Degestantes saudáveis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus agalactiae (Grupo B de Lancefield, EGB), um microrganismo comensal do homem, reconhecido em 1920 como o agente etiológico da mastite bovina, tem sido associado a infecções em parturientes e recém-nascidos, sendo o principal agente de septicemia e meningite neonatal. Para evitar a infecção perinatal recomenda-se a pesquisa da bactéria na região vagino-perianal durante o terceiro semestre de gravidez, indicando o tratamento antibiótico durante o parto das gestantes coloni...

Pinheiro, Sandra Marisa Oliveira Sequeira

2009-01-01

49

Infecciones por Streptococcus agalactiae en un servicio de neonatología abierto / Infections due to Streptococcus agalactiae at an open neonatology service  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de las infecciones por estreptococo del grupo B en recién nacidos egresados de los hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutivos con [...] infecciones por Streptococcus agalactiae, ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre febrero de 1992 y diciembre del 2007. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas, con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad, así como relación entre variables categóricas. RESULTADOS. Hubo 76 recién nacidos con infección por Streptococcus agalactiae, lo cual constituyó una tasa promedio anual de 1,9 x 100 ingresos. Predominaron las infecciones de inicio tardío y las adquiridas en la comunidad (89,5 % y 93,4 %, respectivamente). La meningitis fue la forma clínica más frecuente, seguida de la bacteriemia aislada. Hubo 56 de 76 recién nacidos con bacteriemia (73,7 %). El Streptococcus agalactiae tuvo elevada sensibilidad ante la penicilina, la eritromicina, la vancomicina, la cefotaxima y el cloranfenicol. Hubo 7 fallecidos (9,2 %) y todos fueron pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central. CONCLUSIONES. Streptococcus agalactiae es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, tanto en la comunidad como en el medio hospitalario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central con bacteriemia o sin ella, aún manteniendo un patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los antibióticos betalactámicos. Abstract in english INTRODUCCIÓN. The objective of the present study was to know the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infections caused by group B Streptococcus in newborns discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that included consecutive infants with infections due to Strept [...] ococcus agalactiae admitted in the Neonatology Service of «Juan M. Márquez» University Pediatric Hospital from February 1992 to December 2007 was conducted. Different clinical and epidemiological variables were processed and analyzed, with calculation of incidence and lethality rates and relation among the categoric variables. RESULTS. There were 76 newborns with infection due to Streptococcus agalactiae for an average annual rate of 1.9 x 100 admissions. It was observed a predominance of late onset infections and of those acquired in the community (89.5 % y 93.4 %, respectively). Meningitis was the most common clinical form followed by isolated bacteriemia. 56 of the 76 newborn infants had bacteriemia (73.7 %). Streptococcus agalactiae showed a high sensitivity to penicillin, erythromycine, vancomycin, cefotaxime and cloranphenicol. There were 7 deaths (9.2 %). All of them had infection of the CNS. CONCLUSIONS. Streptococcus agalactiae is an agent that causes infections affecting the newborn infant, both in the community and in the hospital. These infections may be lethal in some patients with infection of the CNS with o without bacteriemia, even when they maintain a pattern of elevated susceptibility to betalactamic antibiotics.

Manuel, Díaz Álvarez; Daniel, Claver Isás; Julián, Pérez Amarillo.

2008-12-01

50

Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. Material and methods This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. Results All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awareness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairemnt, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characeteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatment with II and III generation cephalosporins and one with one aminoglycosides. All patients were cured, but 4 of them developed sequelae like permanent sensorineural deafness and mild ataxia. Conclusions Streptococcus suis infection is present as a zoonosis in pigs, while humans are contracted occasionally, most frequently related to occupational risk. In cases with bacterial meningitis with sepsis and hearing loss, Streptococcus suis infections must be suspected. Effective prevention requires collaboration between epidemiologists, veterinarians and human medicine physicians. .

Dragojlovi? Julijana

2005-01-01

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Comparative genomics of the dairy isolate Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against related members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex.  

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BACKGROUND: Within the genus Streptococcus, only Streptococcus thermophilus is used as a starter culture in food fermentations. Streptococcus macedonicus though, which belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC), is also frequently isolated from fermented foods mainly of dairy origin. Members of the SBSEC have been implicated in human endocarditis and colon cancer. Here we compare the genome sequence of the dairy isolate S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 to the other SBSE...

Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Anastasiou, Rania; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Blom, Jochen; Papandreou, Nikos; Hamodrakas, Stavros; Ferreira, Ste?phanie; Renault, Pierre; Supply, Philip; Pot, Bruno; Tsakalidou, Effie

2014-01-01

52

In vitro antimicrobial activity of peroxide-based bleaching agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibacterial activity of 4 commercial bleaching agents (Day White, Colgate Platinum, Whiteness 10% and 16%) on 6 oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus sanguinis, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. A chlorhexidine solution was used as a positive control, while distilled water was the negative control. Bleaching agents and control materials were inserted in sterilized stainless-steel cylinders that were positioned under inoculated agar plate (n = 4). After incubation according to the appropriate period of time for each microorganism, the inhibition zones were measured. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (a = 0.05). All bleaching agents and the chlorhexidine solution produced antibacterial inhibition zones. Antimicrobial activity was dependent on peroxide-based bleaching agents. For most microorganisms evaluated, bleaching agents produced inhibition zones similar to or larger than that observed for chlorhexidine. C albicans, L casei, and L acidophilus were the most resistant microorganisms. PMID:17625621

Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; de Oliveira, Rogério; Reis, André Figueiredo; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Giannini, Marcelo

2007-06-01

53

Streptococcus pneumoniae e inmunidad innata / Streptococcus pneumoniae and innate immunity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus pneumoniae es un patógeno importante del ser humano que causa significativa morbilidad y mortalidad especialmente en las edades extremas de la vida. Posee diversos factores de virulencia que ponen a prueba la inmunidad del huésped. El sistema inmune innato es la primera línea de def [...] ensa para enfrentar a este patógeno, realizándose esta acción de manera precoz y no específica. De la indemnidad de este sistema depende que la infección potencial en una primera instancia sea controlada y que se activen correctamente los mecanismos de la inmunidad específica. En este artículo se revisarán y actualizarán los principales mecanismos defensivos mediados por la inmunidad innata contra este patógeno. Abstract in english Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen of humans that causes significant morbidity and mortality mainly in the extreme ages of life. It has several virulence factors that tested the immunity of the host. The innate immune system is the first line of defense to deal with this pathogen bein [...] g an early and non-specific response. The control of the disease will depend on the activation of the innate immunity in first instance and the development of a proper specific immunity against the pathogen. In this article we make an update of the innate immunity against this pathogen.

Guillermo, Zepeda E; Carolina, Gvirtzman K; Javiera, Kreft V; Erika, Inostroza V; Patricia, Díaz A.

2013-04-01

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Streptococcus pneumoniae e inmunidad innata / Streptococcus pneumoniae and innate immunity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus pneumoniae es un patógeno importante del ser humano que causa significativa morbilidad y mortalidad especialmente en las edades extremas de la vida. Posee diversos factores de virulencia que ponen a prueba la inmunidad del huésped. El sistema inmune innato es la primera línea de def [...] ensa para enfrentar a este patógeno, realizándose esta acción de manera precoz y no específica. De la indemnidad de este sistema depende que la infección potencial en una primera instancia sea controlada y que se activen correctamente los mecanismos de la inmunidad específica. En este artículo se revisarán y actualizarán los principales mecanismos defensivos mediados por la inmunidad innata contra este patógeno. Abstract in english Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen of humans that causes significant morbidity and mortality mainly in the extreme ages of life. It has several virulence factors that tested the immunity of the host. The innate immune system is the first line of defense to deal with this pathogen bein [...] g an early and non-specific response. The control of the disease will depend on the activation of the innate immunity in first instance and the development of a proper specific immunity against the pathogen. In this article we make an update of the innate immunity against this pathogen.

Guillermo, Zepeda E; Carolina, Gvirtzman K; Javiera, Kreft V; Erika, Inostroza V; Patricia, Díaz A.

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Increase in erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia, 1994-2008 Incremento de la resistencia a eritromicina de Streptococcus pneumoniae, Colombia, 1994-2008  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commonly implicated agent in invasive disease. For infections of S. pneumoniae resistant to ?-lactam, macrolides are an alternative treatment. However, resistance to macrolides has increased worldwide as well.
Objective. The frequency of resistance to erythromycin was determined for S. pneumoniae over a 15-year surveillance period, and the resistant isolates were characterized phenotypically and genotypically.
Material...

Clara Inés Agudelo; Elizabeth Castañeda; Carolina Duarte; Claudia Santos; Marylin Hidalgo

2011-01-01

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Anticariogenic activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) against Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of dental caries is mainly associated with oral pathogens, especially cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. Preliminary antibacterial screening revealed that the extract of Myristica fragrans, widely cultivated for the spice and flavor of foods, possessed strong inhibitory activity against S. mutans. The anticariogenic compound was successfully isolated from the methanol extract of M. fragrans by repeated silica gel chromatography, and its structure was identified as macelignan by instrumental analysis using 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and EI-MS. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of macelignan against S. mutans was 3.9 microg/ml, which was much lower than those of other natural anticariogenic agents such as 15.6 microg/ml of sanguinarine, 250 microg/ml of eucalyptol, 500 microg/ml of menthol and thymol, and 1000 microg/ml of methyl salicylate. Macelignan also possessed preferential activity against other oral microorganisms such as Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in the MIC range of 2-31.3 microg/ml. In particular, the bactericidal test showed that macelignan, at a concentration of 20 microg/ml, completely inactivated S. mutans in 1 min. The specific activity and fast-effectiveness of macelignan against oral bacteria strongly suggest that it could be employed as a natural antibacterial agent in functional foods or oral care products. PMID:16492529

Chung, J Y; Choo, J H; Lee, M H; Hwang, J K

2006-03-01

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ANTIBIOFILM ACTIVITY OF SALIX ALBA PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND STREPTOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM DENTAL PLAQUE SAMPLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the pathogens have the ability to form biofilms which makes them resistant to the antimicrobial agents. The emergence of new multi drug resistant strains is a big concern. Hence there is a growing need to find alternative antimicrobial agents. Plants have been used for ancient years to control many diseases. In the present study we evaluated antibiofilm activity of Salix alba bark extract against the Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus which are the main cause of dental plaque formation. This is the first study of its kind where bark extract of Slaix alba was used for antibiofilm activity. In the present study it was found that the Salix alba bark extract has a good effect on the microbial biofilm formation. Hence the use of Salix alba can be considered for controlling the biofilm formation. This is the primary study and more research is needed in this regard.

Mussrat Fayaz

2014-09-01

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Preparation against Streptococcus Pneumoniae-Associated Diseases  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Design of Laboratory Sample of Complex Preparation Based on Specific Bacteriophages and their Lytic Enzymes for a Prophylaxis and Treatment of Human and Animals Streptococcus Pneumoniae-Assiciated Diseses

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Actividad antibacteriana de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér. sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis frente a clorhexidina / Antibacterial activity of Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her. against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) es ampliamente utilizado en medicina natural para el tratamiento de enfermedades bucales, pero se desconocen aún sus propiedades farmacológicas, actividad antibacteriana y la composición de sus fitoconstituyentes. Objetivo: realizar un e [...] studio comparativo de la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto acuoso obtenido de las hojas de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis, frente a la clorhexidina. Métodos: para el ensayo antibacteriano se empleó el método de difusión en agar. Se trabajó con 18 muestras de microorganismos de cada especie mencionada, aisladas de los pacientes de una clínica dental. Posteriormente, se prepararon 6 concentraciones diferentes del extracto acuoso, para comparar la actividad antibacteriana frente al colutorio de clorhexidina. El análisis fitoquímico preliminar se realizó mediante el ensayo a la gota. Los datos obtenidos se sometieron a análisis estadísticos como estimadores de media y dispersión, análisis de varianza unifactorial y prueba de Tukey. Resultados: la más alta actividad antibacteriana se obtuvo en la concentración de 400 mg/mL y la más baja en la de 25 mg/mL del extracto acuoso, sobre las tres especies de Streptococcus, en comparación con la clorhexidina; con efecto similar a la concentración de 200 mg/mL. El ensayo fitoquímico preliminar indicó la presencia de flavonoides, taninos, esteroides, antocianinas y saponinas. Conclusiones: el extracto acuoso de Pelargonium peltatum tiene actividad antibacteriana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus sanguis. Abstract in english Introduction: Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her (ivy geranium) is widely used in natural medicine for the treatment of oral disease, but its pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity and phytoconstituent composition are still unknown. Objective: carry out a comparative study of the in vitro a [...] ntibacterial activity of the aqueous extract obtained from leaves of Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her (ivy geranium) against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine. Methods: the agar diffusion method was used for the antibacterial assay. A study was conducted of 18 samples of microorganisms from the above-mentioned species, isolated from patients cared for at a dental clinic. Six different concentrations were prepared of the aqueous extract to compare antibacterial activity versus the chlorhexidine gargle. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was conducted by drop assay. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses such as mean and dispersion estimators, unifactorial analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: the highest antibacterial activity against the three species of Streptococcus was obtained with the 400 mg/ml concentration, and the lowest with the 25 mg/ml concentration of the aqueous extract, in comparison with chlorhexidine, with a similar effect to the 200 mg/ml concentration. The preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, anthocyanins and saponins. Conclusions: the aqueous extract of Pelargonium peltatum has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis.

Juana del Carmen, Guerrero Hurtado; Zoila Mercedes, Ortiz Rubio; Luis Fernando, Peralta Berrospi; Fredy Romel, Pérez Azahuanche.

2013-06-01

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Actividad antibacteriana de Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Hér. sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis frente a clorhexidina Antibacterial activity of Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Her. against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Hér (geranio hiedra es ampliamente utilizado en medicina natural para el tratamiento de enfermedades bucales, pero se desconocen aún sus propiedades farmacológicas, actividad antibacteriana y la composición de sus fitoconstituyentes. Objetivo: realizar un estudio comparativo de la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto acuoso obtenido de las hojas de Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Hér (geranio hiedra sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis, frente a la clorhexidina. Métodos: para el ensayo antibacteriano se empleó el método de difusión en agar. Se trabajó con 18 muestras de microorganismos de cada especie mencionada, aisladas de los pacientes de una clínica dental. Posteriormente, se prepararon 6 concentraciones diferentes del extracto acuoso, para comparar la actividad antibacteriana frente al colutorio de clorhexidina. El análisis fitoquímico preliminar se realizó mediante el ensayo a la gota. Los datos obtenidos se sometieron a análisis estadísticos como estimadores de media y dispersión, análisis de varianza unifactorial y prueba de Tukey. Resultados: la más alta actividad antibacteriana se obtuvo en la concentración de 400 mg/mL y la más baja en la de 25 mg/mL del extracto acuoso, sobre las tres especies de Streptococcus, en comparación con la clorhexidina; con efecto similar a la concentración de 200 mg/mL. El ensayo fitoquímico preliminar indicó la presencia de flavonoides, taninos, esteroides, antocianinas y saponinas. Conclusiones: el extracto acuoso de Pelargonium peltatum tiene actividad antibacteriana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus sanguis.Introduction: Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Her (ivy geranium is widely used in natural medicine for the treatment of oral disease, but its pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity and phytoconstituent composition are still unknown. Objective: carry out a comparative study of the in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract obtained from leaves of Pelargonium peltatum (L. L'Her (ivy geranium against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine. Methods: the agar diffusion method was used for the antibacterial assay. A study was conducted of 18 samples of microorganisms from the above-mentioned species, isolated from patients cared for at a dental clinic. Six different concentrations were prepared of the aqueous extract to compare antibacterial activity versus the chlorhexidine gargle. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was conducted by drop assay. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses such as mean and dispersion estimators, unifactorial analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: the highest antibacterial activity against the three species of Streptococcus was obtained with the 400 mg/ml concentration, and the lowest with the 25 mg/ml concentration of the aqueous extract, in comparison with chlorhexidine, with a similar effect to the 200 mg/ml concentration. The preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, anthocyanins and saponins. Conclusions: the aqueous extract of Pelargonium peltatum has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis.

Juana del Carmen Guerrero Hurtado

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Surface interactome in Streptococcus pyogenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Very few studies have so far been dedicated to the systematic analysis of protein interactions occurring between surface and/or secreted proteins in bacteria. Such interactions are expected to play pivotal biological roles that deserve investigation. Taking advantage of the availability of a detailed map of surface and secreted proteins in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus (GAS)), we used protein array technology to define the "surface interactome" in this important human pathogen. Eighty-three proteins were spotted on glass slides in high density format, and each of the spotted proteins was probed for its capacity to interact with any of the immobilized proteins. A total of 146 interactions were identified, 25 of which classified as "reciprocal," namely, interactions that occur irrespective of which of the two partners was immobilized on the chip or in solution. Several of these interactions were validated by surface plasmon resonance and supported by confocal microscopy analysis of whole bacterial cells. By this approach, a number of interesting interactions have been discovered, including those occurring between OppA, DppA, PrsA, and TlpA, proteins known to be involved in protein folding and transport. These proteins, all localizing at the septum, might be part, together with HtrA, of the recently described ExPortal complex of GAS. Furthermore, SpeI was found to strongly interact with the metal transporters AdcA and Lmb. Because SpeI strictly requires zinc to exert its function, this finding provides evidence on how this superantigen, a major player in GAS pathogenesis, can acquire the metal in the host environment, where it is largely sequestered by carrier proteins. We believe that the approach proposed herein can lead to a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms underlying bacterial invasion, colonization, and pathogenesis. PMID:22199230

Galeotti, Cesira L; Bove, Elia; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Nogarotto, Renzo; Norais, Nathalie; Pileri, Silvia; Lelli, Barbara; Falugi, Fabiana; Balloni, Sergio; Tedde, Vittorio; Chiarot, Emiliano; Bombaci, Mauro; Soriani, Marco; Bracci, Luisa; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

2012-04-01

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Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion

Kilian, Mogens

2001-01-01

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Comprehensive Study of Strains Previously Designated Streptococcus bovis Consecutively Isolated from Human Blood Cultures and Emended Description of Streptococcus gallolyticus and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modern taxonomy has delineated Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius within the heterogenous group of previously designated clinical Streptococcus bovis bacteria. In the present study, 58 consecutive blood culture isolates initially designated S. bovis were further characterized by applying phenotypic and molecular genetic methods, and possible disease associations were ...

Beck, Marcella; Frodl, Reinhard; Funke, Guido

2008-01-01

64

Latest developments on Streptococcus suis: an emerging zoonotic pathogen: part 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis, Beijing, China, 12-13 August 2013. This second and final chapter of the report on the First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis follows on from Part 1, published in the April 2014, volume 9, issue 4 of Future Microbiology. S. suis is a swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent afflicting people in close contact with infected pigs or pork meat. Although sporadic cases of human infections had been reported worldwide, deadly S. suis outbreaks emerged in Asia. The severity of the disease underscores the lack of knowledge on the virulence and zoonotic evolution of this human-infecting agent. The pathogenesis of the infection, interactions with host cells and new avenues for treatments were among the topics discussed during the First International Workshop on S. suis (China 2013). PMID:24957086

Segura, Mariela; Zheng, Han; de Greeff, Astrid; Gao, George F; Grenier, Daniel; Jiang, Yongqiang; Lu, Chengping; Maskell, Duncan; Oishi, Kazunori; Okura, Masatoshi; Osawa, Ro; Schultsz, Constance; Schwerk, Christian; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Smith, Hilde; Srimanote, Potjanee; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Tang, Jiaqi; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Wells, Jerry M; Wertheim, Heiman; Zhu, Baoli; Xu, Jianguo; Gottschalk, Marcelo

2014-01-01

65

Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30%) de los cuales 26 (44.8%) correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5%) a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6%) a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1%) a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4%) a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus c...

Egido, J. M. F.; Maestre, J. R.; Pena Izquierdo, M. Y.

1995-01-01

66

Real-Time Monitoring of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known etiological agent in dental caries, to attach and form a biofilm is an important key to its virulence. The effects of various environmental factors (i.e. sucrose concentration, flow rate and temperature as well as genetic manipulations) on the capability of S. mutans (UA 140) to attach, form and detach were monitored in situ using quartz crystal microbalance. The biofilm growth rate was much slower than that of planktonic growth. Greater avail...

Tam, K.; Kinsinger, N.; Ayala, P.; Qi, F.; Shi, W.; Myung, N. V.

2007-01-01

67

Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA) en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de las vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%). Se observó susceptibilidad dismi...

Leal Aura Lucía; Castañeda Elizabeth

1997-01-01

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High Prevalence of Inducible Erythromycin Resistance among Streptococcus bovis Isolates in Taiwan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Susceptibilities to 13 antimicrobial agents were determined by measurement of MICs for 60 isolates of Streptococcus bovis from blood cultures. Thirty-eight isolates (63.3%) had high-level resistance to erythromycin (MICs, ?128 ?g/ml). Among the 38 erythromycin-resistant strains, 21 isolates (55%) had inducible resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (iMLS isolates) and 17 (45%) had constitutive resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (cMLS isolates). Tetracyclin...

Teng, Lee-jene; Hsueh, Po-ren; Ho, Shen-wu; Luh, Kwen-tay

2001-01-01

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Isolation of Streptococcus tigurinus - a novel member of Streptococcus mitis group from a case of periodontitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Streptococcus viridians group and is closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated only by newer molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene analysis. During the course of study on bacteraemia and infective endocarditis with reference to periodontitis and viridians group of streptococci, a strain of S. tigurinus isolated from subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontitis identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis, which was originally identified as Streptococcus pluranimalium by Vitek 2. Confirmation by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed 99.39% similarity (1476/1485 bp) with S. tigurinus AZ_3a(T) (AORU01000002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of S. tigurinus from the oral cavity of a periodontitis patient. PMID:24974898

Dhotre, Shree V; Mehetre, Gajanan T; Dharne, Mahesh S; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Nagoba, Basavraj S

2014-08-01

70

Meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae / Bacterial meningoencephalitis to Streptococcus pneumoniae: a health problem to solve  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: el Streptococcus pneumoniae ocupa el primer lugar entre las bacterias causales de meningoencefalitis bacteriana desde el año 2000, la cual afecta a niños y adultos con alta letalidad. Objetivo: caracterizar algunos aspectos epidemiológicos y microbiológicos de la meningoencefalitis bacte [...] riana a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y observacional acerca de la meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae en el laboratorio de microbiología del Centro Provincial de Higiene Epidemiología y Microbiología en el desde el 2000 al 2009. El universo fue de 209 pacientes con meningoencefalitis bacteriana y la muestra de 50 enfermos positivos a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Resultados: el 24,4 % de los pacientes tuvieron Streptococcus pneumoniae. Todas las edades fueron afectadas, especialmente los ancianos con letalidad del 80 %. Hubo 40 % de fallecimientos en niños y 60 % en adultos. El estudio bacteriológico del líquido cefaloraquidio resultó ser la prueba más importante para establecer el diagnóstico de meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Se detectó el 84 % de cepas resistentes a la penicilina. Conclusiones: los resultados demuestran que se debe extremar la vigilancia de las meningoencefalitis a este germen en población vulnerable ante la elevada letalidad observada en los enfermos positivos a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Abstract in english Background: the Streptococcus pneumoniae occupies the first place among the causal bacteria of bacterial meningoencephalitis since the year 2000, which affects children and adults with great lethality. Objective: to characterize some epidemiological and microbiological aspects from the bacterial men [...] ingoencephalitis to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Method: a descriptive and observational study on bacterial meningoencephalitis to Streptococcus pneumoniae was performedin the microbiology lab at the Provincial Center of Hygiene Epidemiology and Microbiology from 2000 to 2009. The universe was constituted by 209 patients with bacterial meningoencephalitis and the sample was formed of 50 positive patients to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Results: the 24,4 % of patients had Streptococcus pneumoniae. All the ages were affected, especially the old men with lethality of 80 %. There was 40% of deaths in children and 60 % in adults. The bacteriological study of the cerebrospinal fluid turned out to be the most important test to establish the bacterial meningoencephalitis diagnostic to Streptococcus pneumoniae. The 84% of strains was detected to be resistant to penicillin. Conclusions: results demonstrate that an extreme surveillance should be carried to the meningoencephalitis to this germ in vulnerable population in the face of the great lethality observed in the positive patients to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Ingrid, Estévez Sierra; Alexis, Sanchén Casas; Odalys, Rodríguez Heredia; Gloria, García González.

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Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections with Involvement of Multiple Organs in Lambs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Respiratory diseases particularly lamb pneumonia is a multifactorial disease involving the interaction between host, etiological agent and environment. The present study was carried out to determine the causative agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in a sheep flock and to establish its pathogenicity and public health importance. The incidence occurred in sheep unit at Madhurikund farm of University (DUVASU, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India. At the time of incidence, the population of sheep at the farm was 90. Affected animals were clinically examined and nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from live animals, while morbid materials were collected from dead animals after postmortem examination. The etiological agent was isolated and characterized with conventional microbiological and biochemical methods. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the bacteria isolated from blood, different organs and cerebrospinal fluid. The antibiotic sensitivity revealed resistant to multiple drugs viz., penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Pathological examination revealed multiple involvements of organs with different degrees of inflammation and haemorrhages of the lower respiratory tract, lungs, liver, heart and kidney. Further, its pathogenicity was established by histopathological examination. In conclusion, presence of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in weaning lambs with the involvement of multiple organs appears to be an emerging zoonotic threat to human particularly in shepherds. This seems to be the first report of isolation of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from outbreak in lambs with multiple organ involvement in India.

Arvind Kumar Sharma

2013-01-01

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Prevalência de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico em crianças portadoras de necessidades especiais Prevalence of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus in children with special health care needs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Faringotonsilite causada por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico afeta principalmente crianças e imunocomprometidos, sendo Streptococcus pyogenes (Grupo A o agente mais comum em faringotonsilites bacterianas. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou a busca por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico do Grupo A (SBHGA e Não A (SBHGNA na orofaringe de indivíduos com necessidades especiais da APAE (Maceió-AL. MÉTODO:Estudo prospectivo com amostras da orofaringe de pacientes com síndrome de Down e outras desordens mentais (teste e estudantes de escola privada (controle de 5-15 anos. Culturas em ágar sangue (5% foram identificadas através dos testes de Gram/catalase e o método de disco difusão com bacitracina/sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, aplicando-se o teste Chi-quadrado em análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Um total de 222 colônias bacterianas foram isoladas em 74 indivíduos da APAE e 65 no grupo controle. No grupo teste, episódios prévios de faringotonsilites foram relatados por 36,49% (27/74 e 9,46% (7/74 foram diagnosticados com sintomas e/ou sinais sugestivos de infecção orofaríngea. Nenhuma amostra de S. pyogenes foi confirmada na APAE, sendo todas identificadas como SBHGNA, com cinco SBHGA no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO:A identificação precoce de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico é importante para o tratamento rápido de faringotonsilites e a ausência de S. pyogenes evita futuras sequelas supurativas ou não supurativas no grupo da APAE.Pharyngotonsillitis by ?-hemolytic Streptococcus mostly affects children and imunocompromissed, being Streptococcuspyogenes (Group A the most common agent in bacterial pharyngotonsillitis. AIM:This work targeted the research of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus Group-A (SBHGA and No-A (SBHGNA in the oropharynx of individuals with special health needs from the APAE (Maceió-AL. METHOD: A prospective study with oropharynx samples from patients with Down syndrome and other mental disorders (test and students from a private school (control aged 5-15 years. Cultures in blood agar (5% were identified through Gram/catalase tests and bacitracin/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole disk diffusion method, applying the chi-squared statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 222 bacterial colonies were isolated in 74 individuals from APAE and 65 in the control group. In the test group, previous episodes of pharyngotonsillitis were reported by 36.49% (27/74 and 9.46% (7/74 were diagnosed with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of oropharynx infection. No positive sample of S. pyogenes was confirmed at APAE, being all samples classified as SBHGNA, with 5 SBHGA in the control group. CONCLUSION: The early identification of ?-hemolytic Steptococcus is important for the fast treatment of pharyngotonsillitis and the absence of S. pyogenes avoid future suppurative or not-suppurative sequels in the group from APAE.

Viviane Martha Santos de Morais

2012-10-01

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Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30%) de los cuales 26 (44.8%) correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5%) a G [...] ardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6%) a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1%) a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4%) a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7%) a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania) dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción") para el Streptococcus morbillorum. Abstract in english We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30%) of these cultures, 26 (44.8%) corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%), to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%), to Enteroc [...] occus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 %) to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%), to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7%) to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germany)provides a typical pattern ("good identification") for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

J.M. F., Egido; J.R., Maestre; M.Y., Pena Izquierdo.

1995-06-01

74

Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30% de los cuales 26 (44.8% correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5% a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6% a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1% a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4% a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7% a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción" para el Streptococcus morbillorum.We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30% of these cultures, 26 (44.8% corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%, to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%, to Enterococcus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 % to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%, to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7% to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germanyprovides a typical pattern ("good identification" for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

J.M. F. Egido

1995-06-01

75

Inhibitory activity by barley coffee components towards Streptococcus mutans biofilm.  

Science.gov (United States)

It was shown that barley coffee (BC) interferes with Streptococcus mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite. After BC component fractionation by dialysis and gel filtration chromatography (GFC), it was found that the low molecular mass ( 1,000 kDa) melanoidin fraction display strong anti-adhesive properties towards S. mutans. In this study, we have further examined the potential of BC, BC LMM fraction and BC HMM melanoidin fraction as caries controlling agents by evaluating their anti-biofilm activity.The effects of BC and BC fractions on biofilm formation by S. mutans ATCC 25175 and its detachment from pre-developed biofilms were evaluated by microtiter plate assay. It was found that BC and its fractions, at concentrations ranging from 60 to 15 mg ml(-1) that are devoid of antimicrobial activity, inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. An increase of S. mutans ATCC 25175 detachment from 24 h developed biofilm was observed at the highest tested concentrations. Interestingly, BC and BC fractions also showed anti-biofilm activity towards a variety of S. mutans clinical strains isolated from saliva, plaque and caries lesions of adult donors. In general, the HMM melanoidin fraction was more active than the LMM fraction. These findings, classifying BC LMM fraction and BC HMM melanoidin fractions as natural anti-biofilm agents, represent the basis for studying their possible use as anti-caries agents. PMID:20361189

Stauder, Monica; Papetti, Adele; Daglia, Maria; Vezzulli, Luigi; Gazzani, Gabriella; Varaldo, Pietro E; Pruzzo, Carla

2010-11-01

76

Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina / In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. [...] e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis. Abstract in english The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-po [...] sitive Staphylococcus (94.4%) and Streptococcus sp. (85.2%) showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

Andrea Pinto, Loguercio; Ana Cláudia Mello, Groff; Andréia Folleto, Pedrozzo; Niura Mazzini, Witt; Mariana Sá e, Silva; Agueda Castagna de, Vargas.

2006-02-01

77

Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina / In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. [...] e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis. Abstract in english The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-po [...] sitive Staphylococcus (94.4%) and Streptococcus sp. (85.2%) showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

Andrea Pinto, Loguercio; Ana Cláudia Mello, Groff; Andréia Folleto, Pedrozzo; Niura Mazzini, Witt; Mariana Sá e, Silva; Agueda Castagna de, Vargas.

78

Atividade in vitro do extrato de própolis contra agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina In vitro activity of propolis extract against bovine mastitis bacterial agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a atividade in vitro do extrato alcoólico de própolis, contra agentes da mastite bovina, comparando-o aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados no tratamento convencional. Foram utilizados 36 isolados coagulase-positivos de Staphylococcus sp. e 27 isolados de Streptococcus sp.; 94,4% dos Staphylococcus sp. e 85,2% dos Streptococcus sp. foram susceptíveis ao extrato de própolis.The present study aimed to determine the in vitro activity of propolis extract, comparing it to the most common antibacterial drugs against bovine mastitis bacterial agents. Thirty-six isolates of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus sp. and twenty-seven of Streptococcus sp. were analyzed. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (94.4% and Streptococcus sp. (85.2% showed susceptibility to propolis extract.

Andrea Pinto Loguercio

2006-02-01

79

Interaction of anti-kojibiose antibody with the lipoteichoic acids from Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antisera prepared in rabbits by immunization with p-aminophenyl beta-kojibioside conjugated to bovine serum albumin (antikojibiose sera), readily agglutinated whole cells of Streptococcus faecalis or Streptococcus faecium, and showed specific reactions with the lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) of these streptococci by passive hemagglutination, microscale enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis. The interaction of the antikojibiose sera with the LTAs was inhibited best by...

Kessler, R. E.; Duke, J.; Goldstein, I. J.

1984-01-01

80

Adherence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis to salivary components bound to glass.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adherence of radiolabeled Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis to saliva-treated glass surfaces was studied under conditions which minimized bacteria-glass interactions. Treatment of glass with an alkylsilane solution decreased nonspecific bacterial adherence and enhanced adsorption of radiolabeled salivary components to these surfaces. Addition of Triton X-100 to the bacterial suspensions also reduced nonspecific adherence to siliconized glass, but did not affect adherence to saliv...

Stinson, M. W.; Jinks, D. C.; Merrick, J. M.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Identification of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus surface associated proteins by enzymatic shaving.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is responsible for a wide variety of infections in many species. Attempts to control the infection caused by this agent are hampered by a lack of effective vaccines and useful diagnostic kits. Surface proteins of bacterial species are usually involved in interaction with host and hopefully act as biomarkers for serodiagnosis and subunit vaccine components. In this study, the surface proteins of SEZ C55138 strain were systematically identified by surface shaving with trypsin and a total of 20 surface associated proteins were found. Further analysis of five selected novel proteins (SzM, FBP, SAP, CSP and 5'-Nu) revealed that they all expressed in vivo and their recombinant derived proteins could be reactive with convalescent sera. These identified immunogenic surface proteins have potential as SEZ vaccine candidates and diagnostic markers. PMID:22613253

Wei, Zigong; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Pingping; Lu, Zhaohui; Chen, Yaosheng

2012-10-12

82

Latest developments on Streptococcus suis: an emerging zoonotic pathogen: part 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

First International Workshop on Streptococcus suis, Beijing, China, 12-13 August 2013 The first international workshop on Streptococcus suis, which is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent, took place in Beijing, jointly organized by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Canada and the National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC. The aim of the meeting was to gather together, for the first time, more than 80 researchers working on S. suis, from countries including China, Canada, Japan, The Netherlands, Germany, Thailand, the UK and Vietnam. This article, the first of a two-part report on this First International Workshop, reviews current aspects of the epidemiology and population genomics of S. suis, covers public health concerns and discusses questions about S. suis serotyping and molecular diagnostics. PMID:24810343

Segura, Mariela; Zheng, Han; de Greeff, Astrid; Gao, George F; Grenier, Daniel; Jiang, Yongqiang; Lu, Chengping; Maskell, Duncan; Oishi, Kazunori; Okura, Masatoshi; Osawa, Ro; Schultsz, Constance; Schwerk, Christian; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Smith, Hilde; Srimanote, Potjanee; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Tang, Jiaqi; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Wells, Jerry M; Wertheim, Heiman; Zhu, Baoli; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Xu, Jianguo

2014-01-01

83

Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8?% and 93.1?% similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase ? subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7?% similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0?% and 82.9?% similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5?% similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T)?=?JCM 19287(T)?=?DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T)?=?JCM 19288(T)?=?DSM 27513(T)) are proposed. PMID:24994777

Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

2014-09-01

84

Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T) ?= CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T) ?= CCMM B833(T)) are proposed. PMID:24786712

Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

2014-07-01

85

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a group of disorders recently recognized as a clinical entity. A case of PANDAS is described here, which remitted after 1 month of treatment. Recent Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection should be considered in a child who presents with a sudden explosive onset of tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms. PMID:23372243

Maini, Baljeet; Bathla, Manish; Dhanjal, Gurdeep S; Sharma, Prem D

2012-10-01

86

Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing.

Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael

2008-01-01

87

Incidence and Pathogenic Effect of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We evaluated the incidence of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae in clinical isolates by phenotypic methods and DNA-DNA hybridization. The pathogenic role of this organism was investigated with the mouse peritonitis/sepsis model. Our results show a low incidence (1/120 pneumococcal isolates) and a potential pathogenic effect for S. pseudopneumoniae.

Harf-monteil, Colette; Granello, Carole; Le Brun, Ce?cile; Monteil, Henri; Riegel, Philippe

2006-01-01

88

Streptococcus sinensis Endocarditis outside Hong Kong  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus sinensis has been described as a causative organism for infective endocarditis in 3 Chinese patients from Hong Kong. We describe a closely related strain in an Italian patient with chronic rheumatic heart disease. The case illustrates that S. sinensis is a worldwide emerging pathogen.

Uc?kay, Ilker; Rohner, Peter; Bolivar, Ignacio; Ninet, Be?atrice; Djordjevic, Marina; Nobre, Vandack; Garzoni, Christian; Schrenzel, Jacques

2007-01-01

89

Regulation of neuraminidase expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid; NeuNAc is one of the most important carbohydrates for Streptococcus pneumoniae due of its role as a carbon and energy source, receptor for adhesion and invasion and molecular signal for promotion of biofilm formation, nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion of the lung. Results In this work, NeuNAc and its metabolic derivative N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc were used to analyze regulatory mechanisms of the neuraminidase locus expression. Genomic and metabolic comparison to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis elucidates the metabolic association of the two amino sugars to different parts of the locus coding for the two main pneumococcal neuraminidases and confirms the substrate specificity of the respective ABC transporters. Quantitative gene expression analysis shows repression of the locus by glucose and induction of all predicted transcriptional units by ManNAc and NeuNAc, each inducing with higher efficiency the operon encoding for the transporter with higher specificity for the respective amino sugar. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated enhanced surface exposure of NanA on pneumococci grown in NeuNAc and ManNAc and an activity assay allowed to quantify approximately twelve times as much neuraminidase activity on induced cells as opposed to glucose grown cells. Conclusions The present data increase the understanding of metabolic regulation of the nanAB locus and indicate that experiments aimed at the elucidation of the relevance of neuraminidases in pneumococcal virulence should possibly not be carried out on bacteria grown in glucose containing media.

Gualdi Luciana

2012-09-01

90

Antibacterial effect of composite incorporating Triclosan against Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been shown that composite incorporating the antibacterial agent Triclosan (Irgasan DP 300, which is sparingly soluble in water, inhibited in vitro plaque formation by Streptococcus mutans, although the release of the agent was much less than the minimum inhibitory concentration for the bacterium. In this study, the inhibitory effect of the composite incorporating 1% Triclosan against growth and adherence of S. mutans was investigated. S. mutans was inoculated on the surface of a specimen made of control or Triclosan-incorporated composite and the number of bacteria was compared after 3, 6, 12 and 24 hr of incubation. The adherence of S. mutans to the control and experimental composite, with or without saliva treatment, was also examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composite incorporating Triclosan demonstrated significant inhibition of growth of S. mutans after 6, 12 and 24 hr of incubation. Adherence of S. mutans to the Triclosan-incorporated composite was less compared with control for both non-treated and saliva-treated specimens. It is concluded that the antiplaque effect of composite incorporating Triclosan depends upon its ability to inhibit bacterial growth and adherence, and Triclosan-incorporated composite is able to exhibit the antibacterial activity even after being treated with saliva. PMID:9206462

Imazato, S; Torii, M; Tsuchitani, Y

1995-12-01

91

An outbreak of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis in a hospital in the south of Brazil Surto causado por Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis, em um hospital, no Sul do Brasil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The beta-hemolytic group C streptococci (Lancefield's group) has been considered an emergent human pathogen, showing an important role as an opportunist agent, being responsible for nosocomial infections and outbreaks. This study is reporting the first outbreak of nosocomial infection caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in Brazil. From January, 2002, to December, 2004, S. equisimilis was isolated in 67/207 (32.37%) samples from secretions of patients' infected wounds, inte...

Rosângela Stadnick Lauth de Almeida Torres; Cristiane Coimbra de Paula; Marcelo Pilonetto; Christine Krawiec Fontana; João Carlos Minozzo; Rafael de Almeida Torres

2007-01-01

92

Infecciones por Streptococcus anginosusen otorrinolaringología: Revisión de 9 casos clínicos / Infections caused by Streptococcus anginosusin otolaryngology: Review of 9 clinical cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El Streptococcus anginosus (SA) es un habitante común de la cavidad oral y tracto gastrointestinal, y puede ser un patógeno agresivo causante de abscesos en varios sitios del cuerpo. Aparentemente, su rol en infecciones de cabeza y cuello está adquiriendo cierta notoriedad y no está cl [...] aramente reportado en la literatura. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las implicancias clínicas de estas infecciones en otorrinolaringología. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo de todos los pacientes diagnosticados microbiológicamente con infecciones causadas por Streptococcus anginosus, tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau entre los años 2007 a 2012. Se describen las características clínicas, microbiológicas y el manejo de los pacientes. Resultados: La muestra estuvo constituida por 9 casos, 3 hombres y 6 mujeres, con una mediana de edad de 52 años (rango 6-70). Los sitios de infección fueron: absceso periamigdalino (2 casos), un absceso peritraqueostoma, un absceso submandibular, un absceso submentoniano, un absceso parafaríngeo con extensión retrofaríngea y mediastino, un caso de absceso cerebral frontal secundario a sinusitis frontal complicada, un caso de otitis media crónica activa, y un caso de sinusitis maxilar crónica. Discusión: El SA ha sido reportado como un agente causal de infecciones potencialmente graves en cabeza y cuello. Su identificación requiere de consideraciones especiales para el cultivo, y al ser un microorganismo común puede ser confundido e informado como S viridans o Streptococcus anaeróbico. Es importante reconocer al SA como un patógeno a considerar en infecciones de cabeza y cuello. Abstract in english Introduction: Streptococcus anginosus (SA) is a common inhabitant of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, and can be an aggressive pathogen causing abscesses in various body sites. Apparently, its role in head and neck infections is gaining some notoriety that it is not clearly reported in th [...] e literature. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical implications of this infections in otolaryngology. Material and method: A retrospective case series study of all patients diagnosed microbiologically with Streptococcus anginosus infections treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, HospitalBarros Luco-Trudeau from 2007 to 2012. We describe the clinical and microbiological features, and treatment of each patient. Results: The sample consisted of 9 patients, 3 men and 6 women, with a median age of 52 years (range 6-70). The sites of infection were: peritonsillar abscess (2 cases), peritracheostomy abscess, submandibular abscess, submental abscess, parapharyngeal abscess with retropharyngeal and mediastinal extension, a case of frontal brain abscess secondary to frontal sinusitis, a case of otitis chronic active half, and one case of chronic maxillary sinusitis. Discussion: SA has been reported as a causative agent ofpotentially serious infections in the head and neck region. Their identification requires special considerations for growing, and because of being a common microorganism may be confused and informed as Streptococcus viridans or anaerobic streptococcus. It is important to recognize SA as a relevant pathogen in head and neck infections.

Felipe, Cardemil M; Daniel, Muñoz S; Maritza, Rahal E; Jaime, Osorio M; René, Sepúlveda S; Rodrigo, Urzúa B.

2013-04-01

93

Infecciones por Streptococcus anginosusen otorrinolaringología: Revisión de 9 casos clínicos / Infections caused by Streptococcus anginosusin otolaryngology: Review of 9 clinical cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El Streptococcus anginosus (SA) es un habitante común de la cavidad oral y tracto gastrointestinal, y puede ser un patógeno agresivo causante de abscesos en varios sitios del cuerpo. Aparentemente, su rol en infecciones de cabeza y cuello está adquiriendo cierta notoriedad y no está cl [...] aramente reportado en la literatura. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las implicancias clínicas de estas infecciones en otorrinolaringología. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo de todos los pacientes diagnosticados microbiológicamente con infecciones causadas por Streptococcus anginosus, tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau entre los años 2007 a 2012. Se describen las características clínicas, microbiológicas y el manejo de los pacientes. Resultados: La muestra estuvo constituida por 9 casos, 3 hombres y 6 mujeres, con una mediana de edad de 52 años (rango 6-70). Los sitios de infección fueron: absceso periamigdalino (2 casos), un absceso peritraqueostoma, un absceso submandibular, un absceso submentoniano, un absceso parafaríngeo con extensión retrofaríngea y mediastino, un caso de absceso cerebral frontal secundario a sinusitis frontal complicada, un caso de otitis media crónica activa, y un caso de sinusitis maxilar crónica. Discusión: El SA ha sido reportado como un agente causal de infecciones potencialmente graves en cabeza y cuello. Su identificación requiere de consideraciones especiales para el cultivo, y al ser un microorganismo común puede ser confundido e informado como S viridans o Streptococcus anaeróbico. Es importante reconocer al SA como un patógeno a considerar en infecciones de cabeza y cuello. Abstract in english Introduction: Streptococcus anginosus (SA) is a common inhabitant of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, and can be an aggressive pathogen causing abscesses in various body sites. Apparently, its role in head and neck infections is gaining some notoriety that it is not clearly reported in th [...] e literature. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical implications of this infections in otolaryngology. Material and method: A retrospective case series study of all patients diagnosed microbiologically with Streptococcus anginosus infections treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, HospitalBarros Luco-Trudeau from 2007 to 2012. We describe the clinical and microbiological features, and treatment of each patient. Results: The sample consisted of 9 patients, 3 men and 6 women, with a median age of 52 years (range 6-70). The sites of infection were: peritonsillar abscess (2 cases), peritracheostomy abscess, submandibular abscess, submental abscess, parapharyngeal abscess with retropharyngeal and mediastinal extension, a case of frontal brain abscess secondary to frontal sinusitis, a case of otitis chronic active half, and one case of chronic maxillary sinusitis. Discussion: SA has been reported as a causative agent ofpotentially serious infections in the head and neck region. Their identification requires special considerations for growing, and because of being a common microorganism may be confused and informed as Streptococcus viridans or anaerobic streptococcus. It is important to recognize SA as a relevant pathogen in head and neck infections.

Felipe, Cardemil M; Daniel, Muñoz S; Maritza, Rahal E; Jaime, Osorio M; René, Sepúlveda S; Rodrigo, Urzúa B.

94

Caracterización de los sistemas de captación de zinc y de hierro en Streptococcus suis: Potencial antigénico y protector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus suis es un importante patógeno que causa grandes pérdidas económicas en la industria porcina a nivel mundial, siendo también un importante agente zoonótico. Aunque son varias las aproximaciones que se han desarrollado mediante vacunas vivas o recombinantes para prevenir las enfermedades provocadas por S. suis, los esfuerzos para controlar su infección se ven dificultados por la falta de herramientas efectivas contra este patógeno.Diferentes tipos de transportadores impli...

Aranda Rodri?guez, Jesu?s

2008-01-01

95

Caracterización de los sistemas de captación de zinc y de hierro en Streptococcus suis : potencial antigénico y protector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus suis es un importante patógeno que causa grandes pérdidas económicas en la industria porcina a nivel mundial, siendo también un importante agente zoonótico. Aunque son varias las aproximaciones que se han desarrollado mediante vacunas vivas o recombinantes para prevenir las enfermedades provocadas por S. suis, los esfuerzos para controlar su infección se ven dificultados por la falta de herramientas efectivas contra este patógeno. Diferentes tipos de transportadores impli...

Aranda Rodri?guez, Jesu?s

2009-01-01

96

Prevalência de Streptococcus suis sorotipo 2: discussão da literatura brasileira / Prevalence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: discussion of the Brazilian literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Streptococcus suis é mundialmente considerado um dos patógenos de maior impacto sanitário e econômico na indústria suinícola. Dentre os sorotipos descritos como zoonóticos, o sorotipo 2 é o mais frequentemente isolado de animais e humanos doentes na maioria dos países. O estudo da epidemiologia das [...] infecções por S. suis no Brasil é importante para a implantação de medidas efetivas de controle. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma revisão crítica da literatura brasileira, com suporte da literatura mundial, abordando o diagnóstico do agente e sua prevalência em animais clinicamente doentes e portadores sadios, com destaque para a prevalência do sorotipo 2 no país. Abstract in english Streptococcus suis is considered worldwide as one of the pathogens of biggest health and economic impact in the swine industry. Among the serotypes described as zoonotic, serotype 2 is the most frequently isolated from diseased animals and humans in most countries. The study of the epidemiology of S [...] . suis infections in Brazil is important and may help in the development of effective control measures. The aim of this study was to conduct a critical review of Brazilian literature, with support of the world literature, addressing the diagnosis of the agent and its prevalence in clinically ill animals and healthy carriers, especially regarding to the prevalence of the serotype 2 in the country.

Taíssa Cook Siqueira, Soares; Antonio Carlos, Paes.

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Seeing Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Common Killer Bacteria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Look around you. The diversity and complexity of life on earth is overwhelming and data continues to grow. In our desire to understand and explain everything scientifically from molecular evolution to supernovas we depend on visual representations. This paper investigates visual representations of the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae by use of ink, watercolours and computer graphics. We propose a novel artistic visual rendering of Streptococcus pneumoniae and ask what the value of these kind of representations are compared to traditional scientific data. We ask if drawings and computer-assisted representations can add to our scientific knowledge about this dangerous bacteria. Is there still a role for the scientific illustrator in the scientific process and synthesis of scientific knowledge?

Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

2014-01-01

98

Primary psoas abscess due to Streptococcus milleri  

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Full Text Available Abstract Primary Psoas abscess (PPA is an infrequent clinical entity with obscure pathogenesis and vague clinical presentation. High index of clinical suspicion is required for the diagnosis of psoas abscess. We also emphasises the importance of bacteriological confirmation of microorganism involved, although Staphylococcus aureus remains the commonest pathogen. We report an extremely rare case of PPA caused by Streptococcus milleri. Only one case has been reported in literature so far.

Abeysekara Abeywardana MS

2008-02-01

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The Role and Efficacy of Herbal Antimicrobial Agents in Orthodontic Treatment  

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Aims: To assess the effect of herbal antimicrobial agents on Streptococcus mutans count in biofilm formations during orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: We calculated the growth inhibition of oral bacteria in the orthodontic appliances after herbal antibacterial agents were placed in culture media. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of these agents on Streptococcus mutans growth were determined. After cultivating colonies of Streptococci in biofilm medium with these herbal antimicrobial agents and orthodontic attachments, viable cell counting was performed from the bacteria which were attached on them. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of morphology was observed on bacterial cells which were attached to orthodontic attachments. The effects of these agents were then evaluated and recommendations were forwarded. Results: There was an increase in count of Streptococcus mutans with respect to the herbal antibacterial agents. Conclusion: Despite the antibacterial functions of these herbal agents, there was increase in the biofilm formation caused by Streptococcus mutans to orthodontic bands, which had occurred most likely through upregulation of glucosyl transferase expression. These extracts may thus play an important role in increased bacterial attachment to orthodontic wires. Thus, this study was corroborative of an amalgamation of Ayurvedic therapy and Orthodontic treatment. PMID:25121056

Mishra, Sumita; Kumar Sahu, Sanjeeb; Bhusan Nanda, Smruti; Charan Sahu, Kanhu

2014-01-01

100

Prevalência de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico em crianças portadoras de necessidades especiais / Prevalence of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus in children with special health care needs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Faringotonsilite causada por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico afeta principalmente crianças e imunocomprometidos, sendo Streptococcus pyogenes (Grupo A) o agente mais comum em faringotonsilites bacterianas. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou a busca por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico do Grupo A (SBHGA) e Não A [...] (SBHGNA) na orofaringe de indivíduos com necessidades especiais da APAE (Maceió-AL). MÉTODO:Estudo prospectivo com amostras da orofaringe de pacientes com síndrome de Down e outras desordens mentais (teste) e estudantes de escola privada (controle) de 5-15 anos. Culturas em ágar sangue (5%) foram identificadas através dos testes de Gram/catalase e o método de disco difusão com bacitracina/sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, aplicando-se o teste Chi-quadrado em análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Um total de 222 colônias bacterianas foram isoladas em 74 indivíduos da APAE e 65 no grupo controle. No grupo teste, episódios prévios de faringotonsilites foram relatados por 36,49% (27/74) e 9,46% (7/74) foram diagnosticados com sintomas e/ou sinais sugestivos de infecção orofaríngea. Nenhuma amostra de S. pyogenes foi confirmada na APAE, sendo todas identificadas como SBHGNA, com cinco SBHGA no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO:A identificação precoce de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico é importante para o tratamento rápido de faringotonsilites e a ausência de S. pyogenes evita futuras sequelas supurativas ou não supurativas no grupo da APAE. Abstract in english Pharyngotonsillitis by ?-hemolytic Streptococcus mostly affects children and imunocompromissed, being Streptococcuspyogenes (Group A) the most common agent in bacterial pharyngotonsillitis. AIM:This work targeted the research of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus Group-A (SBHGA) and No-A (SBHGNA) in the orop [...] harynx of individuals with special health needs from the APAE (Maceió-AL). METHOD: A prospective study with oropharynx samples from patients with Down syndrome and other mental disorders (test) and students from a private school (control) aged 5-15 years. Cultures in blood agar (5%) were identified through Gram/catalase tests and bacitracin/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole disk diffusion method, applying the chi-squared statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 222 bacterial colonies were isolated in 74 individuals from APAE and 65 in the control group. In the test group, previous episodes of pharyngotonsillitis were reported by 36.49% (27/74) and 9.46% (7/74) were diagnosed with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of oropharynx infection. No positive sample of S. pyogenes was confirmed at APAE, being all samples classified as SBHGNA, with 5 SBHGA in the control group. CONCLUSION: The early identification of ?-hemolytic Steptococcus is important for the fast treatment of pharyngotonsillitis and the absence of S. pyogenes avoid future suppurative or not-suppurative sequels in the group from APAE.

Viviane Martha Santos de, Morais; Alice Ramos, Orsi; Fernanda Cristina de Albuquerque, Maranhão; Therezita Maria Peixoto Patury Galvão, Castro; Karina Cavalcante Beltrão de, Castro; Denise Maria Wanderlei, Silva.

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
101

Prevalência de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico em crianças portadoras de necessidades especiais / Prevalence of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus in children with special health care needs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Faringotonsilite causada por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico afeta principalmente crianças e imunocomprometidos, sendo Streptococcus pyogenes (Grupo A) o agente mais comum em faringotonsilites bacterianas. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou a busca por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico do Grupo A (SBHGA) e Não A [...] (SBHGNA) na orofaringe de indivíduos com necessidades especiais da APAE (Maceió-AL). MÉTODO:Estudo prospectivo com amostras da orofaringe de pacientes com síndrome de Down e outras desordens mentais (teste) e estudantes de escola privada (controle) de 5-15 anos. Culturas em ágar sangue (5%) foram identificadas através dos testes de Gram/catalase e o método de disco difusão com bacitracina/sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, aplicando-se o teste Chi-quadrado em análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Um total de 222 colônias bacterianas foram isoladas em 74 indivíduos da APAE e 65 no grupo controle. No grupo teste, episódios prévios de faringotonsilites foram relatados por 36,49% (27/74) e 9,46% (7/74) foram diagnosticados com sintomas e/ou sinais sugestivos de infecção orofaríngea. Nenhuma amostra de S. pyogenes foi confirmada na APAE, sendo todas identificadas como SBHGNA, com cinco SBHGA no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO:A identificação precoce de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico é importante para o tratamento rápido de faringotonsilites e a ausência de S. pyogenes evita futuras sequelas supurativas ou não supurativas no grupo da APAE. Abstract in english Pharyngotonsillitis by ?-hemolytic Streptococcus mostly affects children and imunocompromissed, being Streptococcuspyogenes (Group A) the most common agent in bacterial pharyngotonsillitis. AIM:This work targeted the research of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus Group-A (SBHGA) and No-A (SBHGNA) in the orop [...] harynx of individuals with special health needs from the APAE (Maceió-AL). METHOD: A prospective study with oropharynx samples from patients with Down syndrome and other mental disorders (test) and students from a private school (control) aged 5-15 years. Cultures in blood agar (5%) were identified through Gram/catalase tests and bacitracin/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole disk diffusion method, applying the chi-squared statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 222 bacterial colonies were isolated in 74 individuals from APAE and 65 in the control group. In the test group, previous episodes of pharyngotonsillitis were reported by 36.49% (27/74) and 9.46% (7/74) were diagnosed with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of oropharynx infection. No positive sample of S. pyogenes was confirmed at APAE, being all samples classified as SBHGNA, with 5 SBHGA in the control group. CONCLUSION: The early identification of ?-hemolytic Steptococcus is important for the fast treatment of pharyngotonsillitis and the absence of S. pyogenes avoid future suppurative or not-suppurative sequels in the group from APAE.

Viviane Martha Santos de, Morais; Alice Ramos, Orsi; Fernanda Cristina de Albuquerque, Maranhão; Therezita Maria Peixoto Patury Galvão, Castro; Karina Cavalcante Beltrão de, Castro; Denise Maria Wanderlei, Silva.

102

Sepsis neonatal tardía por Streptococcus pyogenes / Late neonatal sepsis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Actualmente, Streptococcus grupo A es una causa infrecuente de infección en el período neonatal. La descripción de casos de infección grave en el recién nacido es esporádica. Presentamos un recién nacido de 12 días de vida que acudió al servicio de urgencias por síndrome febril sin foco, que durante [...] su ingreso desarrolló afectación neurológica y sistémica. Describimos la presentación clínica, la evolución y el tratamiento. El aislamiento de Streptococcus grupo A en el hemocultivo confrma la sepsis tardía por este germen con probable meningitis asociada. Abstract in english Currently, the group A Streptococcus is a unusual cause of infection in the neonatal period. The description of cases of severe infection in the newborn is sporadic. We present a 12-days-old newborn attended at the emergency room for fever without focus, which developed neurological and systemic inv [...] olvement during admission. Clinical presentation, evolution and treatment are described. Blood culture isolation of group A Streptococcus confrmed late sepsis by this bacteria, probably with associated meningitis.

Mercedes, Fariñas Salto; Aída, De la Huerga López; Cristina, Menéndez Hernando; Ester Sanz, López.

2011-08-01

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Novel Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius variants harboring lactose metabolism genes homologous to Streptococcus thermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) commonly associated with human and animal infections. We elucidated the lactose metabolism of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius predominant in African fermented milk products. S. infantarius subsp. infantarius isolates (n = 192) were identified in 88% of spontaneously fermented camel milk suusac samples (n = 24) from Kenya and Somalia at log?? 8.2-8.5 CFU mL?¹. African S. infantarius isolates excreted stoichiometric amounts of galactose when grown on lactose, exhibiting a metabolism similar to Streptococcus thermophilus and distinct from their type strain. African S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 harbors a regular gal operon with 99.7-100% sequence identity to S. infantarius subsp. infantarius ATCC BAA-102(T) and a gal-lac operon with 91.7-97.6% sequence identity to S. thermophilus, absent in all sequenced SBSEC strains analyzed. The expression and functionality of lacZ was demonstrated in a ?-galactosidase assay. The gal-lac operon was identified in 100% of investigated S. infantarius isolates (n = 46) from suusac samples and confirmed in Malian fermented cow milk isolates. The African S. infantarius variant potentially evolved through horizontal gene transfer of an S. thermophilus-homologous lactose pathway. Safety assessments are needed to identify any putative health risks of this novel S. infantarius variant. PMID:22475940

Jans, Christoph; Gerber, Andrea; Bugnard, Joséphine; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

2012-08-01

104

Problemas de resistencia en Streptococcus pyogenes / Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los problemas de resistencia de Streptoco-ccus pyogenes son relativos a la adquisición de resistencia a macrólidos lo cual ocurre mediante dos mecanismos: modificación del sitio de acción en el ribosoma, resistencia tipo MLS B codificada por el gen erm que se asocia con resistencia a lincosamidas y [...] streptogramina B, y por eflujo activo codificado por gen mef con resistencia sólo a macrólidos, siendo éste el mecanismo más frecuentemente encontrado en este microorganismo. En Chile se han aislado cepas de Streptoco-ccus pyogenes resistentes a macrólidos desde 1994, con porcentaje de resistencia promedio en los últimos seis años de 7% en el área Metropolitana Abstract in english Streptococcus pyogenes resistance problems are refered to macrolides resistance which occurs by two mechanisms: modification of the target site in the ribosomes, MLS B resistance codified by gen erm and associated with resistance to lincosamines and streptogramin B, or by an active efflux mechanism [...] codified by gen mef which confers resistance to macrolides only, this being the most frequently described in this specie. In Chile Streptococcus pyogenes strains resistant to macrolides have been isolated since 1994, with rates of 7% in last six years at the Metropolitan area

Rossanna, Camponovo C..

105

Antibacterial substances from Albizia myriophylla wood against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.  

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Albizia myriophylla has been used for long by Thai traditional healers as an important ingredient herb in Thai herbal formulas for caries. In this study, three flavonoids lupinifolin (6), 8-methoxy-7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (7), and 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (8), a triterpenoid lupeol (3) as well as four sterols ?-sitosterone (1), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-one (2), ?-sitosterol (4), and stigmasterol (5) were isolated from A. myriophylla wood. The antibacterial activity of these compounds against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 was performed using broth microdilution method. All compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against S. mutans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 1-256 and 2-256 ?g/ml, respectively. Among the isolated compounds, lupinifolin (6) was found to be the most potent with MIC and MBC of 1 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively. Lupinifolin (6) also showed a strong activity against ten clinical isolates of S. mutans with MIC and MBC ranging from 0.25-2 and 0.5-8 ?g/ml, respectively. These results reported the bioactive ingredients of A. myriophylla which support its ethnomedical claims as well. Lupinifolin (6) may have a potential to be a natural anticariogenic agent. PMID:23479194

Joycharat, Nantiya; Thammavong, Sonesay; Limsuwan, Surasak; Homlaead, Sirilux; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek; Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan

2013-06-01

106

Structural genomics studies of human caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus mutans is the primary causative agent of human dental caries. To better understand this pathogen at the atomic structure level and to establish potential drug and vaccine targets, we have carried out structural genomics research since 2005. To achieve the goal, we have developed various in-house automation systems including novel high-throughput crystallization equipment and methods, based on which a large-scale, high-efficiency and low-cost platform has been establish in our laboratory. From a total of 1,963 annotated open reading frames, 1,391 non-membrane targets were selected prioritized by protein sequence similarities to unknown structures, and clustered by restriction sites to allow for cost-effective high-throughput conventional cloning. Selected proteins were over-expressed in different strains of Escherichia coli. Clones expressed soluble proteins were selected, expanded, and expressed proteins were purified and subjected to crystallization trials. Finally, protein crystals were subjected to X-ray analysis and structures were determined by crystallographic methods. Using the previously established procedures, we have so far obtained more than 200 kinds of protein crystals and 100 kinds of crystal structures involved in different biological pathways. In this paper we demonstrate and review a possibility of performing structural genomics studies at moderate laboratory scale. Furthermore, the techniques and methods developed in our study can be widely applied to conventional structural biology research practice. PMID:24474570

Li, Lanfen; Nan, Jie; Li, Dan; Brostromer, Erik; Wang, Zixi; Liu, Cong; Hou, Qiaoming; Fan, Xuexin; Ye, Zhaoyang; Su, Xiao-Dong

2014-09-01

107

Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis against the cariogenic microorganism, Streptococcus mutans. For such purpose, a minimum inhibition concentration test of copaiba oil against S. mutans was performed, using the serial dilution in broth technique, with a negative control, a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine) and a 10% copaíba oil solution as a test. A minimum bactericidal concentration test with tubes presenting microbial inhibition was also conduced. In the minimum inhibitory concentration test, copaiba oil showed inhibition of bacterial growth at all concentrations tested up to 0.78 µL/mL of the 10% copaiba oil solution in the broth. In addition, the negative control had no inhibition, and the 0.12% chlorhexidine solution was effective up to 6.25 µL/mL in the broth. Copaiba oil showed a bacteriostatic activity against S. mutans at low concentrations, and could be a an option of phytotherapic agent to be used against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention of caries disease. PMID:22460312

Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Mussi, Maria Carolina Martins; Fiorini, João Evangelista; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo; Schneedorf, José Mauricio

2012-01-01

108

Streptococcus mutans: fructose transport, xylitol resistance, and virulence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, possesses at least two fructose phosphotransferase systems (PTSs), encoded by fruI and fruCD. fruI is also responsible for xylitol transport. We hypothesized that fructose and xylitol transport systems do not affect virulence. Thus, colonization and cariogenicity of fruI(-) and fruCD(-) single and double mutants, their WT (UA159), and xylitol resistance (X(r)) of S. mutans were studied in rats fed a high-sucrose diet. A sucrose phosphorylase (gtfA(-)) mutant and a reference strain (NCTC-10449S) were additional controls. Recoveries of fruI mutant from the teeth were decreased, unlike those for the other strains. The fruCD mutation was associated with a slight loss of cariogenicity on enamel, whereas mutation of fruI was associated with a loss of cariogenicity in dentin. These results also suggest why xylitol inhibition of caries is paradoxically associated with spontaneous emergence of so-called X(r) S. mutans in habitual human xylitol users. PMID:16567561

Tanzer, J M; Thompson, A; Wen, Z T; Burne, R A

2006-04-01

109

Characterization of porcine dendritic cell response to Streptococcus suis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen and important zoonotic agent causing mainly septicemia and meningitis. However, the mechanisms involved in host innate and adaptive immune responses toward S. suis as well as the mechanisms used by S. suis to subvert these responses are unknown. Here, and for the first time, the ability of S. suis to interact with bone marrow-derived swine dendritic cells (DCs was evaluated. In addition, the role of S. suis capsular polysaccharide in modulation of DC functions was also assessed. Well encapsulated S. suis was relatively resistant to phagocytosis, but it increased the relative expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 and triggered the release of several cytokines by DCs, including IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40 and TNF-?. The capsular polysaccharide was shown to interfere with DC phagocytosis; however, once internalized, S. suis was readily destroyed by DCs independently of the presence of the capsular polysaccharide. Cell wall components were mainly responsible for DC activation, since the capsular polysaccharide-negative mutant induced higher cytokine levels than the wild-type strain. The capsular polysaccharide also interfered with the expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80/86 and MHC-II on DCs. To conclude, our results show for the first time that S. suis interacts with swine origin DCs and suggest that these cells might play a role in the development of host innate and adaptive immunity during an infection with S. suis serotype 2.

Lecours Marie-Pier

2011-06-01

110

Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas: Prevalencia en el Hospital Nacional Alejandro Posadas Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: Prevalence at the Posadas Hospital  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (estreptococo grupo B de Lancefield es el microorganismo más frecuentemente involucrado en infección neonatal por transmisión vertical madre-feto. También es responsable de infecciones en mujeres embarazadas y adultos con enfermedades de base. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de portación de S. agalactiae en mujeres embarazadas que concurrieron al Hospital Posadas y determinar la sensibilidad a penicilina, eritromicina y clindamicina de los aislamientos. De las 1203 gestantes estudiadas, se aisló S. agalactiae en 113 muestras, con una prevalencia de 9,39%. Se realizaron las pruebas de sensibilidad a 87 de los 113 aislamientos. Todos ellos resultaron sensibles a penicilina y únicamente 2 cepas fueron resistentes a eritromicina y clindamicina (mecanismo MLS constitutivo. Resaltamos la importancia de conocer la resistencia a estos dos últimos agentes, en el caso de mujeres alérgicas a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos.Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus, is the most frequently microorganism involved in neonatal infections through the mother-fetus vertical transmission. It is also responsible for infections in pregnant women, and adults with underlying diseases. The objective of this work was to know the S. agalactiae carrier prevalence in pregnant women who attended to Posadas Hospital, and to study the susceptibility pattern of the isolates to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. From 1203 pregnant women studied, S. agalactiae was recovered in 113, which means a prevalence of 9.39%. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested to 87 isolates. All of them were susceptible to penicillin, and only 2 isolates were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (constitutive MLS mechanism. We emphasize the importance of knowing these last resistance, in the case of beta-lactam antibiotics allergic women.

S. Di Bartolomeo

2005-09-01

111

Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas: Prevalencia en el Hospital Nacional Alejandro Posadas / Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: Prevalence at the Posadas Hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus agalactiae (estreptococo grupo B de Lancefield) es el microorganismo más frecuentemente involucrado en infección neonatal por transmisión vertical madre-feto. También es responsable de infecciones en mujeres embarazadas y adultos con enfermedades de base. El objetivo de este trabajo fu [...] e conocer la prevalencia de portación de S. agalactiae en mujeres embarazadas que concurrieron al Hospital Posadas y determinar la sensibilidad a penicilina, eritromicina y clindamicina de los aislamientos. De las 1203 gestantes estudiadas, se aisló S. agalactiae en 113 muestras, con una prevalencia de 9,39%. Se realizaron las pruebas de sensibilidad a 87 de los 113 aislamientos. Todos ellos resultaron sensibles a penicilina y únicamente 2 cepas fueron resistentes a eritromicina y clindamicina (mecanismo MLS constitutivo). Resaltamos la importancia de conocer la resistencia a estos dos últimos agentes, en el caso de mujeres alérgicas a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos. Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus), is the most frequently microorganism involved in neonatal infections through the mother-fetus vertical transmission. It is also responsible for infections in pregnant women, and adults with underlying diseases. The objective of this work w [...] as to know the S. agalactiae carrier prevalence in pregnant women who attended to Posadas Hospital, and to study the susceptibility pattern of the isolates to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. From 1203 pregnant women studied, S. agalactiae was recovered in 113, which means a prevalence of 9.39%. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested to 87 isolates. All of them were susceptible to penicillin, and only 2 isolates were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (constitutive MLS mechanism). We emphasize the importance of knowing these last resistance, in the case of beta-lactam antibiotics allergic women.

S., Di Bartolomeo; M., Gentile; G., Priore; S., Valle; A., Di Bella.

2005-09-01

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Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study  

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Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer?s chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU/ml and < 10 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

Jeevarathan J

2007-01-01

113

Streptococcus mutans, Caries and Simulation Models  

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Full Text Available Dental caries and dental plaque are among the most common diseases worldwide, and are caused by a mixture of microorganisms and food debris. Specific types of acid-producing bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, colonize the dental surface and cause damage to the hard tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates e.g., sucrose and fructose. This paper reviews the link between S. mutans and caries, as well as different simulation models that are available for studying caries. These models offer a valuable approach to study cariogenicity of different substrates as well as colonization of S. mutans.

Arthur C. Ouwehand

2010-03-01

114

Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus  

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Full Text Available The first case of the confirmed necrotizing fasciitis caused by Group A Streptococcus in Yugoslavia was presented. Male patient, aged 28, in good health, suddenly developed symptoms and signs of severe infective syndrome and intensive pain in the axillary region. Parenteral antibiotic, substitution and supportive therapy was conducted along with the radical surgical excision of the necrotizing tissue. The patient did not develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome thanks to the early established diagnosis and timely applied aggressive treatment. He was released from the hospital as completely cured two months after the admission.

Miki? Dragan

2002-01-01

115

Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avaliou a atividade inibitória do óleo de copaíba (Copaifera officinalis contra o microrganismo cariogênico, Streptococcus mutans. Para isso, foi realizado um teste de concentração mínima inibitória do óleo de copaíba contra S. mutans, utilizando a técnica de diluição seriada em caldo, c [...] om um controle negativo, um controle positivo (clorexidina a 0,12%) e uma solução de óleo de copaíba 10% como teste. Também foi conduzido um teste de concentração mínima bactericida com os tubos que apresentaram inibição microbiana. No teste de concentração inibitória mínima, o óleo de copaíba mostrou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em todas as concentrações testadas até 0,78 µL/mL da solução a 10% do óleo de copaíba no caldo. Além disso, o controle negativo não teve nenhuma inibição, e a solução de clorexidina 0,12% foi eficaz até 6,25 µL/mL no caldo. O óleo de copaíba mostrou uma atividade bacteriostática contra S. mutans em baixas concentrações, apresentando-se assim como uma opção de fitoterápico a ser utilizado contra bactérias cariogênicas na prevenção de cáries. Abstract in english This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis against the cariogenic microorganism, Streptococcus mutans. For such purpose, a minimum inhibition concentration test of copaiba oil against S. mutans was performed, using the serial dilution in broth technique, with [...] a negative control, a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine) and a 10% copaíba oil solution as a test. A minimum bactericidal concentration test with tubes presenting microbial inhibition was also conduced. In the minimum inhibitory concentration test, copaiba oil showed inhibition of bacterial growth at all concentrations tested up to 0.78 µL/mL of the 10% copaiba oil solution in the broth. In addition, the negative control had no inhibition, and the 0.12% chlorhexidine solution was effective up to 6.25 µL/mL in the broth. Copaiba oil showed a bacteriostatic activity against S. mutans at low concentrations, and could be a an option of phytotherapic agent to be used against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention of caries disease.

Fábio Alessandro, Pieri; Maria Carolina Martins, Mussi; João Evangelista, Fiorini; Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo, Moreira; José Mauricio, Schneedorf.

116

Recombinant production of Streptococcus equisimilis streptokinase by Streptomyces lividans  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptokinase (SK is a potent plasminogen activator with widespread clinical use as a thrombolytic agent. It is naturally secreted by several strains of beta-haemolytic streptococci. The low yields obtained in SK production, lack of developed gene transfer methodology and the pathogenesis of its natural host have been the principal reasons to search for a recombinant source for this important therapeutic protein. We report here the expression and secretion of SK by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces lividans. The structural gene encoding SK was fused to the Streptomyces venezuelae CBS762.70 subtilisin inhibitor (vsi signal sequence or to the Streptomyces lividans xylanase C (xlnC signal sequence. The native Vsi protein is translocated via the Sec pathway while the native XlnC protein uses the twin-arginine translocation (Tat pathway. Results SK yield in the spent culture medium of S. lividans was higher when the Sec-dependent signal peptide mediates the SK translocation. Using a 1.5 L fermentor, the secretory production of the Vsi-SK fusion protein reached up to 15 mg SK/l. SK was partially purified from the culture supernatant by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. A 44-kDa degradation product co-eluted with the 47-kDa mature SK. The first amino acid residues of the S. lividans-produced SK were identical with those of the expected N-terminal sequence. The Vsi signal peptide was thus correctly cleaved off and the N-terminus of mature Vsi-SK fusion protein released by S. lividans remained intact. This result also implicates that the processing of the recombinant SK secreted by Streptomyces probably occurred at its C-terminal end, as in its native host Streptococcus equisimilis. The specific activity of the partially purified Streptomyces-derived SK was determined at 2661 IU/mg protein. Conclusion Heterologous expression of Streptococcus equisimilis ATCC9542 skc-2 in Streptomyces lividans was successfully achieved. SK can be translocated via both the Sec and the Tat pathway in S. lividans, but yield was about 30 times higher when the SK was fused to the Sec-dependent Vsi signal peptide compared to the fusion with the Tat-dependent signal peptide of S. lividans xylanase C. Small-scale fermentation led to a fourfold improvement of secretory SK yield in S. lividans compared to lab-scale conditions. The partially purified SK showed biological activity. Streptomyces lividans was shown to be a valuable host for the production of a world-wide important, biopharmaceutical product in a bio-active form.

Vallín Carlos

2007-07-01

117

The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial photodynamic therapy: a comparison of two different photosensitizers and light sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans is the main etiological agent for dental caries. Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced as a new modality in bacterial decontamination. Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial PDT [...] using two different photosensitizers and light sources. Material and Methods: Standard suspensions of S. mutans were exposed to laser light at 662 nm and Radachlorin® or LED 630 nm in combination with Toluidine blue O (TBO). Radiation-only groups, photosensitizer alone, and groups with no treatment were used as controls. Bacterial suspension from each treatment was subcultured onto the surface of Mueller-Hinton agar plates and bacterial growth was assessed. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p

Neda, HAKIMIHA; Farzaneh, KHOEI; Abbas, BAHADOR; Reza, FEKRAZAD.

2014-04-01

118

The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial photodynamic therapy: a comparison of two different photosensitizers and light sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans is the main etiological agent for dental caries. Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced as a new modality in bacterial decontamination. Objective: This in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to antibacterial PDT [...] using two different photosensitizers and light sources. Material and Methods: Standard suspensions of S. mutans were exposed to laser light at 662 nm and Radachlorin® or LED 630 nm in combination with Toluidine blue O (TBO). Radiation-only groups, photosensitizer alone, and groups with no treatment were used as controls. Bacterial suspension from each treatment was subcultured onto the surface of Mueller-Hinton agar plates and bacterial growth was assessed. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p

Neda, HAKIMIHA; Farzaneh, KHOEI; Abbas, BAHADOR; Reza, FEKRAZAD.

119

Acción de la inmunoglobulina A secretora en el proceso de adherencia del Streptococcus mutans al diente humano / Effect of secretory IgA on the adherence of Streptococcus Mutans on human teeth  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La caries dental, es una enfermedad infecciosa crónica que afecta a todas las edades, en la cual la presencia de Streptococcus mutans se constituye en una causa determinante más no suficiente para el desarrollo de dicha enfermedad, siendo éste el microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado en la cavid [...] ad oral. La Inmunoglobulina A secretora actúa como primer agente de defensa inmunológica de la superficie de la mucosa oral interfiriendo en la colonización bacteriana del diente a través de distintos mecanismos, sin embargo existen evidencias contradictorias sobre el verdadero papel en el desarrollo de la caries dental. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en explicar mediante revisión bibliográfica desde 1990 hasta el 2009, la acción de la inmunoglobulina A secretora en el proceso de adherencia de Streptococcus mutans al diente humano. Abstract in english Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease that affects all age groups in which the presence of Streptococcus mutans constitutes a decisive but not sufficient cause for development of the disease, and is the most frequently isolated organism in the oral cavity. On other hand, secretory IgA (IgA-S [...] ) as the first immune defense agent that protects oral mucosal surface by impeding bacterial colonization of the tooth through different mechanisms; however there is contradictory evidence regarding the actual role of IgA-S and its relation with the development of dental caries. The purpose was to complete a review of the literature between 1990 to 2008o in order to explain the action of secretory immunoglobulin A during the adherence process of Streptococcus mutans to human teeth.

Adriana Lucía, Chamorro-Jiménez; Andrea, Ospina-Cataño; Camilo, Arango-Rincón; Cecilia María, Martínez-Delgado.

120

Erythromycine resistance in streptococcus pyogenes group a throat isolates in sukkur city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine and evaluate the predominant and common etiologic agent(s) of pharyngitis in Sukkur city and to determine their current antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends. Out of 257 throat samples, 149 positive for Streptococcus pyogenes Group A between November 2001 and May 2003 from adult population of Sukkur city were tested for their susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin and clairithromycin. The throat samples (swabs) were examined by Gram-stain, API system, and for presence of a hemolysis. Samples were further cultured on Muller Hinton agar for determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The sensitivity was performed on only those samples which were positive for S. pyogenes. Of all throat isolates, 95% were predominantly resistant to erythromycin. Their sensitivity towards clindamycin was 30%, azithromycin 44% and clairithromycin 76% respectively. The current pharyngeal isolates of S. pyogenes exhibited frequent and alarmingly high erythromycin resistance which may be due to both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

An octamer of enolase from Streptococcus suis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enolase is a conserved cytoplasmic metalloenzyme existing universally in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The enzyme can also locate on the cell surface and bind to plasminogen, via which contributing to the mucosal surface localization of the bacterial pathogens and assisting the invasion into the host cells. The functions of the eukaryotic enzymes on the cell surface expression (including T cells, B cells, neutrophils, monocytoes, neuronal cells and epithelial cells) are not known. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2, SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen which has recently caused two large-scale outbreaks in southern China with severe streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) never seen before in human sufferers. We recently identified the SS2 enolase as an important protective antigen which could protect mice from fatal S.suis 2 infection. In this study, a 2.4-angstrom structure of the SS2 enolase is solved, revealing an octameric arrangement in the crystal. We further demonstrated that the enzyme exists exclusively as an octamer in solution via a sedimentation assay. These results indicate that the octamer is the biological unit of SS2 enolase at least in vitro and most likely in vivo as well. This is, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive characterization of the SS2 enolase octamer both structurally and biophysically, and the second octamer enolase structure in addition to that of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We also investigated the plasminogen binding property of the SS2 enzyme. PMID:23055041

Lu, Qiong; Lu, Hao; Qi, Jianxun; Lu, Guangwen; Gao, George F

2012-10-01

122

Otogenic meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available Meningitis/ meningoencephalitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae are with severe course and high mortality rate. Acase of severe meningoencephalitis by S. pneumoniae secondary to chronic bilateral otitis and mastoiditis is presentedhere. A 37-year-old male patient was admitted with fever, excitation, somnolence and meningeal irritation. Investigationof cerebrospinal fluid (CSF revealed increased protein level (11.3 g/L, leucocytes count 59,790/?L (93% neutrophils,extremely decreased glucose level (0.1 mmol/L. S. pneumoniae was confirmed by latex test and culture of CSF.Otitis media and mastoiditis were found bilaterally by computerized tomography. Bilateral cortical mastoidectomy wasperformed together with antibacterial treatment by consequently ceftazidime and cefepime and corticosteroids wereadministered. He experienced progressive improvement and was discharged with normal laboratory parameters andwithout sequels after 17 days hospital treatment. In conclusion, both surgical and conservative treatments are crucialfor outcome of meningitis/ meningoencephalitis by S. pneumoniae secondary to chronic mastoiditis. J Microbiol InfectDis 2013; 3(2: 86-88Key words: Streptococcus pneumoniae, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, mastoiditis

Tsetsa Georgieva Doichinova

2013-06-01

123

Starch hydrolysis by Strepto-coccus equinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dunican, Lawrence K. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.) and Harry W. Seeley. Starch hydrolysis by Streptococcus equinus. J. Bacteriol. 82:264-269. 1962.-In a study of starch hydrolysis by strains of Streptococcus equinus, 52 isolates were obtained and their amylolytic abilities determined. It was found that all the strains could hydrolyze starch to some extent when grown in the presence of an easily fermentable carbohydrate, viz., glucose. Without this carbohydrate the organisms did not hydrolyze starch. The hydrolysis of starch was inhibited when the organisms were grown in an atmosphere of 5% CO(2) and 95% N(2), even if grown in the presence of a fermentable monosaccharide. S. bovis, which was used as a reference organism, readily hydrolyzed starch in the absence of monosaccharides and in atmospheres containing CO(2). In no instance did S. equinus hydrolyze the starch to the level of reducing sugars. Negligible amounts of reducing sugars were recovered when the cell-free filtrates of S. equinus were incubated with starch. With S. bovis, the yield of reducing sugars under such conditions was almost quantitative. These facts extend further the differences between these related organisms. The ability to synthesize an internal starchlike polysaccharide was noted in most of the strains of S. equinus. Synthesis was found when the organisms were grown on maltose or on a starch medium containing a small amount of fermentable monosaccharide. PMID:13888473

DUNICAN, L K; SEELEY, H W

1962-02-01

124

Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis / Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Existe un incremento de la meningoencefalitis producida por Streptococcus pneumoniae, después de las campañas exitosas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las caracteristicas clinicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio, [...] las complicaciones y el manejo terapéutico de los pacientes que sufrieron esta enfermedad desde 1993 a 2006. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron doce niños con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana en este periodo. RESULTADOS: Los niños menores de un año son los más frecuentemente afectados. El shock séptico y el edema cerebral las mayores complicaciones. Tres pacientes fallecieron. Esta enfermedad ha tenido un curso serio. El tratamiento temprano del edema cerebral es muy importante para reducir la mortalidad. Los medicamentos de elección para tratar la meningoencefalitis por Strepcococcus pneumoniae en los casos estudiados fueron la vancomicina combinada con cefalosporina del tipo de la cefatoxima o la ceftriaxona. CONCLUSION: Los pacientes con meningoencefalitis por Streptoccocus pneumoniae exhibieron características clínica, complicaciones y secuelas las cuales se diferencian de otras meningoencefalitis bacterianas. Por eso estos elementos pueden ayudar a los médicos en el diagnóstico diferencial Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the [...] complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis admitted to the pediatric hospital of San Miguel del Padron, City of Havana in this period were assessed. RESULTS: Children under one year are the most frequently affected. Septic shock and brain edema were the most severe complications. Three patients died, implying that this disease has a serious course. Early treatment of brain edema is very important to reduce mortality. The elective drugs for treatment of these cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were vancomycin combined with cephalosporin, cefotaxime or ceftriaxone type. CONCLUSION: Patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis show clinical characteristics, complications, and sequels that are different to other bacterial meningoencephalitis, meaning that they could be helpful for physicians considering the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis.

Raisa, Bu-Coifiu Fanego; Alberto J., Dorta-Contreras; Bárbara, Padilla-Docal; Martha, O' Farril-Sanchez; Isabel, Lopez-Hernandez.

125

Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica y Streptococcus suis EN EL COMPLEJO RESPIRATORIO PORCINO / Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica AND Streptococcus suis IN THE PORCINE RESPIRATORY COMPLEX  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El complejo respiratorio porcino (CRP) es un proceso dinámico que involucra una variedad de factores e incluye las condiciones ambientales, el hospedero y las diferentes interacciones microbianas que se establecen entre los microorganismos primarios como Mycoplasma hyoneumoniae o el virus del síndro [...] me respiratorio-reproductivo porcino y bacterias secundarias como Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica o Streptococcus suis. La mayoría de estas entidades corresponden a géneros y especies que pueden formar parte de la microbiota normal del tracto respiratorio, pero la capacidad patógena de las cepas reside fundamentalmente en la presencia y expresión de genes asociados a la virulencia, que en muchos casos se adquieren por transferencia horizontal, por lo que existen diferentes genotipos y es necesario el monitoreo mediante pruebas sensibles. El propósito de esta revisión es ampliar el conocimiento sobre los atributos de virulencia de las bacterias que actúan como agentes secundarios en el CRP. Al considerar la complejidad del mismo el mejor método de control radica en la prevención, en este sentido los programas vacunales priorizan a los agentes primarios, pero es necesario disponer de ensayos de monitoreo que permitan vigilar la presencia y potencialidades patógenas de las bacterias que incrementan la severidad de los procesos respiratorios actuando como agentes secundarios. Abstract in english The porcine respiratory complex is the denomination for multiple changes and lesions that result in a decreased respiratory capacity of affected pigs. It is a dynamic process which involves different factors such as environment, host and different microbial interactions between primary agents like M [...] ycoplasma hypneumoniae or the porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus with Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica or Streptococcus suis which act as secondary pathogens and increase the severity of the disease. These entities correspond to genera and species being part of the normal flora and the pathogenic capacity lies on different genes which are acquired by horizontal transfer, thus there are different genotypes associated or not to the pathogen. The aim of this article is to make an analysis about bacteria virulence attributes which act as secondary pathogens in the respiratory disease in pigs. It is important to consider the management and control of the farm based on biosecurity and it is necessary to have different diagnostic methods for testing bacteria virulence attributes that act as secondary agents, because nowadays vaccination program are directed to primary agents.

Ivette, Espinosa; Siomara, Martínez.

2008-12-01

126

Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica y Streptococcus suis EN EL COMPLEJO RESPIRATORIO PORCINO / Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica AND Streptococcus suis IN THE PORCINE RESPIRATORY COMPLEX  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El complejo respiratorio porcino (CRP) es un proceso dinámico que involucra una variedad de factores e incluye las condiciones ambientales, el hospedero y las diferentes interacciones microbianas que se establecen entre los microorganismos primarios como Mycoplasma hyoneumoniae o el virus del síndro [...] me respiratorio-reproductivo porcino y bacterias secundarias como Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica o Streptococcus suis. La mayoría de estas entidades corresponden a géneros y especies que pueden formar parte de la microbiota normal del tracto respiratorio, pero la capacidad patógena de las cepas reside fundamentalmente en la presencia y expresión de genes asociados a la virulencia, que en muchos casos se adquieren por transferencia horizontal, por lo que existen diferentes genotipos y es necesario el monitoreo mediante pruebas sensibles. El propósito de esta revisión es ampliar el conocimiento sobre los atributos de virulencia de las bacterias que actúan como agentes secundarios en el CRP. Al considerar la complejidad del mismo el mejor método de control radica en la prevención, en este sentido los programas vacunales priorizan a los agentes primarios, pero es necesario disponer de ensayos de monitoreo que permitan vigilar la presencia y potencialidades patógenas de las bacterias que incrementan la severidad de los procesos respiratorios actuando como agentes secundarios. Abstract in english The porcine respiratory complex is the denomination for multiple changes and lesions that result in a decreased respiratory capacity of affected pigs. It is a dynamic process which involves different factors such as environment, host and different microbial interactions between primary agents like M [...] ycoplasma hypneumoniae or the porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus with Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica or Streptococcus suis which act as secondary pathogens and increase the severity of the disease. These entities correspond to genera and species being part of the normal flora and the pathogenic capacity lies on different genes which are acquired by horizontal transfer, thus there are different genotypes associated or not to the pathogen. The aim of this article is to make an analysis about bacteria virulence attributes which act as secondary pathogens in the respiratory disease in pigs. It is important to consider the management and control of the farm based on biosecurity and it is necessary to have different diagnostic methods for testing bacteria virulence attributes that act as secondary agents, because nowadays vaccination program are directed to primary agents.

Ivette, Espinosa; Siomara, Martínez.

127

Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro del aceite de girasol ozonizado sobre Streptococcus mutans  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans es considerado como el principal agente etiológico de las caries bucales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto letal que ejerce el aceite de girasol ozonizado (OLEOZON® sobre este microorganismo. Se evaluó la influencia que presentan diferentes factores, como el pH, la concentración del agente antimicrobiano OLEOZON® y el tiempo de contacto. Se determinaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias, las que presentaron un comportamiento similar entre especies del mismo género, no así con bacterias de otro género. Se demostró que la actividad del OLEOZON®, no variaba significativamente con las variaciones de pH estudiadas, aunque se obtuvo una ligera disminución en el número de microorganismos a pH ligeramente ácido, la cual fue mayor de un 99,9% del número inicial de microorganismo. El estudio de las distintas concentraciones reveló un efecto significativo sobre la letalidad del microorganismo, siendo la equivalente a 285 mg/mL, la de mayor efectividad. Con un tiempo de contacto de diez minutos entre el microorganismo y el agente, se logró una letalidad del 99,9 %, no así con el de tres minutos, con el cual se logró una reducción de hasta un 95 %, de la concentración inicial del microorganismo. Se obtuvo una ecuación, la cual relaciona los tres parámetros en estudio y que permitió examinar la influencia que ejercía el pH, la concentraci ón del agente antimicrobiano y el tiempo en la muerte del microorganismo. Estos resultados demuestran que el OLEOZON® es un producto eficaz para el tratamiento de las infecciones provocadas por Streptococcus mutans.

Ir\\u00E1n Fern\\u00E1ndez Torres

2006-01-01

128

Multicenter evaluation of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus species.  

Science.gov (United States)

This multicenter study evaluated the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System STREP panel (BD Diagnostic Systems). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) with 13 agents was performed on 2,013 streptococci (938 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates; 396 group B streptococci [GBS]; 369 viridans group streptococci [VGS]; 290 beta-hemolytic streptococcus groups A, C, and G; and 20 other streptococci) with the Phoenix system and a broth microdilution reference method. Clinical and challenge isolates were tested against cefepime, cefotaxime (CTX), ceftriaxone (CTR), clindamycin (CLI), erythromycin (ERY), gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, linezolid, meropenem, penicillin (PEN), tetracycline (TET), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Clinical isolates with major errors or very major errors (VMEs) were retested in duplicate by both methods. The final results for clinical isolates showed the following trends. For all of the organism-antimicrobial agent combinations tested, categorical agreement (CA) was 92 to 100%, with one exception-VGS-PEN (87% CA; all errors were minor). For S. pneumoniae, there was one major error with CLI (0.1%) and one or two VMEs with CTX (4%), CTR (4.5%), ERY (0.9%), and TET (0.7%). For groups A, C, and G, the CA was 97 to 100% and the only VMEs were resolved by additional reference laboratory testing. For GBS, there was only one VME (TET, 0.3%) and D-zone testing of 23 isolates with CLI major errors (one isolate unavailable) revealed inducible CLI resistance. For VGS, the major error rates were 0 to 3% and VMEs occurred with seven agents (3.5 to 7.1%). The mean times required for organism groups to generate results ranged from 8.4 to 9.4 h. The Phoenix system provided reliable and rapid AST results for most of the organism-antimicrobial agent combinations tested. PMID:17652483

Richter, Sandra S; Howard, Wanita J; Weinstein, Melvin P; Bruckner, David A; Hindler, Janet F; Saubolle, Michael; Doern, Gary V

2007-09-01

129

Agent Orange  

Science.gov (United States)

... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Agent Orange Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Veterans who develop type 2 diabetes and were exposed to Agent Orange may be eligible for VA benefits. Learn more » ...

130

Control of glycolysis by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Streptococcus cremoris and Streptococcus lactis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The decreased response of the energy metabolism of lactose-starved Streptococcus cremoris upon readdition of lactose is caused by a decrease of the glycolytic activity (B. Poolman, E. J. Smid, and W. N. Konings, J. Bacteriol. 169:1460-1468, 1987). The decrease in glycolysis is accompanied by a decrease in the activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoglycerate mutase. The steady-state levels of pathway intermediates upon refeeding with lactose after various periods of ...

Poolman, B.; Bosman, B.; Kiers, J.; Konings, W. N.

1987-01-01

131

Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient  

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Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C), vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2) y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La identificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comen...

Nagel, A.; Manias, V.; Busquets, N.; Sniadowsky, S.; Anzardi, J.; Me?ndez, E. Los A.

2008-01-01

132

Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered specific for S. pneumoniae hamper the exact identification of S. pneumoniae. Based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes of a collection of 634 streptococcal strains, identified by multilocus sequence analysis, we detected a cytosine at position 203 present in all 440 strains of S. pneumoniae but replaced by an adenosine residue in all strains representing other species of mitis group streptococci. The S. pneumoniae-specific sequence signature could be demonstrated by sequence analysis or indirectly by restriction endonuclease digestion of a PCR amplicon covering the site. The S. pneumoniae-specific signature offers an inexpensive means for validation of the identity of clinical isolates and should be used as an integrated marker in the annotation procedure employed in 16S rRNA-based molecular studies of complex human microbiotas. This may avoid frequent misidentifications such as those we demonstrate to have occurred in previous reports and in reference sequence databases.

Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

2011-01-01

133

Agent engineering  

CERN Document Server

Agent engineering concerns the development of autonomous computational or physical entities capable of perceiving, reasoning, adapting, learning, cooperating and delegating in a dynamic environment. It is one of the most promising areas of research and development in information technology, computer science and engineering. This book addresses some of the key issues in agent engineering: What is meant by "autonomous agents"? How can we build agents with autonomy? What are the desirable capabilities of agents with respect to surviving (they will not die) and living (they will furthermore enjoy

Liu, Jiming; Zhong, Ning; Wang, Patrick S P

2001-01-01

134

Streptococcus halichoeri sp. nov., isolated from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed on six unidentified, Gram-positive, catalase-negative, chain-forming Streptococcus-like organisms recovered from grey seals. Biochemically the six strains were highly related to each other, but they did not appear to correspond to any recognized species of the genus Streptococcus. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed that phylogenetically the strains were members of the genus Streptococcus, but sequence divergence values of greater than 3 % compared with reference streptococcal species demonstrated that the organisms from seals represent a novel species. SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins confirmed the phenotypic distinctiveness of the seal organisms. Based on biochemical criteria and molecular chemical and genetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown organism from seals be classified as a novel species, Streptococcus halichoeri sp. nov., the type strain of which is CCUG 48324T (= CIP 108195T). PMID:15388740

Lawson, Paul A; Foster, Geoffrey; Falsen, Enevold; Davison, Nick; Collins, Matthew D

2004-09-01

135

Exogenous group G Streptococcus endophthalmitis following intravitreal ranibizumab injection  

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Full Text Available Suleyman Kugu,1 Mehmet Sahin Sevim,2 Nilufer Zorlutuna Kaymak,1 Gurkan Erdogan,3 Baran Kandemir,1 Omer Kamil Dogan41Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, 2Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, 3Umraniye Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, 4World Eye Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: We report a case of group G Streptococcus endophthalmitis following an intravitreal ranibizumab injection for a choroidal neovascular membrane. Pars plana vitrectomy was applied for endophthalmitis and group G Streptococcus cultures were isolated in the vitreous samples taken from the patient. Twenty-four hours following pars plana vitrectomy the patient underwent myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of group G Streptococcus endophthalmitis following an intravitreal injection.Keywords: group G Streptococcus, endophthalmitis, intravitreal injection

Kugu S

2012-08-01

136

Degradation of C3 by Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

After growth to exponential phase in Todd-Hewitt broth, clinical and laboratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 3, 4, and 14 readily degraded first the beta and then the alpha chains of purified human C3 in the absence of serum or other complement proteins, as assessed by SDS-PAGE. With exponentially growing pneumococci, degradation of native C3 was detectable within 30 min; methylamine-treated C3 and preformed C3b were degraded with equal avidity. Pneumococcal C3-degrading activity was cell associated, abolished by heat killing, and independent of the presence of the polysaccharide capsule. After degradation, 44% of C3 molecules contained a disrupted thiolester bond. Pneumococci treated with 100 micrograms of mutanolysin released 94% of C3-degrading activity from the pneumococcal surface into the supernatant. These studies demonstrate that clinical and laboratory isolates of virulent pneumococci degrade and inactivate soluble C3. PMID:8077717

Angel, C S; Ruzek, M; Hostetter, M K

1994-09-01

137

Design of an Improved Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR Assay for Molecular Detection of Streptococcus pneumonia  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Streptococcus pneumoniae accounts for bacterial meningitis and is an important cause of morbidity among children and elderly. Control of this disease depends on rapid detection of the causative bacteria. The methods for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae are gram staining, culture, and serological tests. These tests are time consuming and are limited by antimicrobial agents leading to false negative results. Currently, molecular methods such as PCR are used routinely for detection of infectious organisms. This study was performed with the aim of designing an improved PCR assay for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae.Methods: The specific diagnostic primers were designed based on ply gene of the bacterium. After amplifying the target gene on the genomic DNA, the PCR product was cloned in pTZ57R/T plasmid and the confirmed pTZ-ply plasmid was used as positive control in next experiments. Sensitivity of the assay was determined by performing the PCR on 10-fold serial dilutions of pTZ-ply. Specificity of the assay was determined using the genomic DNA of other related or unrelated bacterial species.Results: The PCR, as expected, generated a 727bp amplicon. No PCR amplification was observed on the genome of negative controls. These findings indicate high specificity of the PCR. The lowest limit of detection of the assay in the detection of the ply gene was 250 copies in a 25µl reaction.Conclusion: The high sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity of the designed assay suggested the assay as an appropriate test for use in clinical laboratories. The further evaluation of the assay using clinical samples or artificially contaminated materials will confirm the application of this assay in clinical settings.

Amir Hossein Mohseni

2013-09-01

138

Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov., isolated from the human throat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The novel, Gram-stain-positive, ovoid, lactic acid bacterial isolates LMG 27205, LMG 27206, LMG 27207(T) and MRI-F 18 were obtained from throat samples of healthy humans. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that these isolates belong to the genus Streptococcus, specifically the Streptococcus mitis group, with Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus mitis as the nearest neighbours (99.45 and 98.56?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the respective type strains). Genotypic fingerprinting by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), DNA-DNA hybridizations, comparative sequence analysis of pheS, rpoA and atpA and physiological and biochemical tests revealed that these bacteria formed a taxon well separated from its nearest neighbours and other species of the genus Streptococcus with validly published names and, therefore, represent a novel species, for which the name Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov. is proposed, with LMG 27207(T) (?=?DSM 26920(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23749274

Huch, Melanie; De Bruyne, Katrien; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Bub, Achim; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Watzl, Bernhard; Snauwaert, Isabel; Franz, Charles M A P; Vandamme, Peter

2013-11-01

139

Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias siendo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño. Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente.The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children’s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pneumoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution in Costa Rica, the predicted vaccine protection is calculated in 74%.

Hernán Sierra- Fernandez

2006-06-01

140

Sensibilidad antibiótica y recomendaciones de tratamiento para Streptococcus pneumoniae Antibiotic sensitivity and treatment recommendations for Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la sensibilidad antibiótica de Streptococcus pneumoniae a los antimicrobianos usados con más frecuencia en la práctica clínica y revisar las recomendaciones actuales de tratamiento de la enfermedad neumocócica. Durante el periodo octubre 2000 a septiembre 2002 se recogieron los datos demográficos, el diagnóstico clínico del paciente, el origen de la muestra y la sensibilidad antibiótica de todos los Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados en los...

Gil-setas, A.; Mazo?n, A.; Torroba, L.; Barricarte, A.; Garci?a-irure, J. J.; Petit, A.; Polo, M. E.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

[Diuretic agent].  

Science.gov (United States)

This clause explains a diuretic as an antihypertensive agent. A diuretic is a medicine used as a first-line agent also in the present. As an antihypertensive agent, a thiazide-type diuretic drug is used in many cases. Use of furosemide is not recommended other than a chronic kidney disease patient. Considering future medical economics, it is desirable to use a diuretic drug positively. PMID:25167755

Hirama, Akio; Tsuruoka, Shuichi

2014-08-01

142

Negotiating Agents  

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Negotiation is a complex emotional decision-making process aiming to reach an agreement to exchange goods or services. From an agent technological perspective creating negotiating agents that can support humans with their negotiations is an interesting challenge. Already more than a decade, negotiating agents can outperform human beings (in terms of deal optimality) if the negotiation space is well-understood. However, the inherent semantic problem and the emotional issues involved make that ...

Jonker, Catholijn M. Delft University Of Technology; Hindriks, Koen V. Delft University Of Technology; Wiggers, Pascal Delft University Of Technology; Broekens, Joost Delft University Of Technology

2012-01-01

143

Estudio de Sensibilidad de 115 Cepas de Streptococcus Agalactiae a Distintos Antimicrobianos de Uso Clínico (Recibido: Mayo 2001 / Aceptado: Agosto 2001)  

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Streptococcus agalactiae ha adquirido gran importancia en los últimos años como agente etiológico de infecciones serias. El objetivo fue evaluar la sensibilidad de 115 cepas a 9 antibióticos de uso clínico. Las cepas fueron identificadas por pruebas bioquímicas y se determinó la sensibilidad por el método de dilución en agar (NCCLS) a penicilina, ampicilina, cefotaxima, eritromicina, claritromcina, levofloxacina, vancomicina y gentamicina. El fenotipo de resistencia a eritromicina y ...

Truppia, Luis; Mollerach, Anali?a; Perisutti, Rosana; Mendosa, Alejandra; Me?ndez, Emilce

2009-01-01

144

Isolation, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of the Streptococcus mutans mannitol-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and the mannitol-specific factor III gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system.  

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Streptococcus mutans, the causative agent of dental caries, utilizes carbohydrates by means of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). The PTS facilitates vectorial translocation of metabolizable carbohydrates to form the corresponding sugar-phosphates, which are subsequently converted to glycolytic intermediates. The PTS consists of both sugar-specific and sugar-independent components. Complementation of an Escherichia coli mtlD mutation with a streptococcal recomb...

Honeyman, A. L.; Curtiss, R.

1992-01-01

145

Hydrogen peroxide-dependent DNA release and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in Streptococcus gordonii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certain oral streptococci produce H(2)O(2) under aerobic growth conditions to inhibit competing species like Streptococcus mutans. Additionally, H(2)O(2) production causes the release of extracellular DNA (eDNA). eDNA can participate in several important functions: biofilm formation and cell-cell aggregation are supported by eDNA, while eDNA can serve as a nutrient and as an antimicrobial agent by chelating essential cations. eDNA contains DNA fragments of a size that has the potential to transfer genomic information. By using Streptococcus gordonii as a model organism for streptococcal H(2)O(2) production, H(2)O(2)-dependent eDNA release was further investigated. Under defined growth conditions, the eDNA release process was shown to be entirely dependent on H(2)O(2). Chromosomal DNA damage seems to be the intrinsic signal for the release, although only actively growing cells were proficient eDNA donors. Interestingly, the process of eDNA production was found to be coupled with the induction of the S. gordonii natural competence system. Consequently, the production of H(2)O(2) triggered the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) is potentially much more than a simple toxic metabolic by-product; rather, its production could serve as an important environmental signal that facilitates species evolution by transfer of genetic information and an increase in the mutation rate. PMID:21984796

Itzek, Andreas; Zheng, Lanyan; Chen, Zhiyun; Merritt, Justin; Kreth, Jens

2011-12-01

146

Acute septicemia caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus in turkey poults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus gallolyticus, previously known as Streptococcus bovis biotypes I and II/2, is a well-known cause of sepsis and meningitis in humans and birds. The present case report describes an outbreak of fatal septicemia associated with S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (S. bovis biotype II/2) in 11 turkey flocks in Pennsylvania between 2010 and 2013. Affected poults were 2-3 wk of age. Major clinical observation was sudden increase in mortality among turkey poults without any premonitory clinical signs. Postmortem examination findings revealed acute septicemia with lesions such as fibrinous pericarditis, meningitis, splenic multifocal fibrinoid necrosis, hepatitis, osteochondritis, myositis, and airsacculitis. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from several organs by routine bacterial culture. Biotyping identified bacteria as streptococci, whereas 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identified them as S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles revealed that all the strains isolated were sensitive to penicillin and erythromycin with different sensitivity profiles for other antibacterial agents tested. The present study reports the first confirmed case of acute septicemia in turkey poults caused by S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. PMID:25055641

Saumya, Dona; Wijetunge, S; Dunn, Patricia; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Pierre, Traci; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

2014-06-01

147

Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus parauberis from vacuum-packaging refrigerated seafood products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus parauberis is known as an etiological agent of mastitis in cows and for producing streptococcosis in farmed fish, although its presence in foods has seldom been reported. In this work, two bacterial isolates were recovered from a spoiled vacuum-packaged refrigerated seafood product. Both isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, exhibiting 99% homology with respect to S. parauberis. Both isolates were also characterized by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Genetic analysis revealed the clonal homogeneity of the isolates and their grouping together with other S. parauberis strains in a different cluster with respect to Streptococcus uberis strains. Proteomic analysis by MALDI-TOF MS allowed for the identification of five mass peaks in the range of 2200-6000 m/z that resulted to be specific to the species S. parauberis and allowed its rapid and direct identification with respect to other pathogenic and spoilage bacteria potentially present in seafood and other food products. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report of S. parauberis in seafood in general and in vacuum-packed food products in particular. Moreover, it provides a rapid method based on MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of S. parauberis. PMID:22265288

Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Calo-Mata, P; Cañas, B; Gallardo, J M; Barros-Velázquez, J

2012-05-01

148

In vitro biofilm forming potential of Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine in China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of bio?lms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by confoca [...] l laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.

Guo, Dawei; Wang, Liping; Lu, Chengping.

149

In vitro biofilm forming potential of Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine in China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of bio?lms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by confoca [...] l laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.

Guo, Dawei; Wang, Liping; Lu, Chengping.

2012-09-01

150

Parallel evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis to pathogenic and mutualistic lifestyles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analysis shows that the species constitutes one evolutionary lineage in a cluster of the otherwise commensal Streptococcus mitis strains, with which humans live in harmony. In a comparative analysis of 35 genomes, including phylogenetic analyses of all predicted genes, we have shown that the pathogenic pneumococcus has evolved into a master of genomic flexibility while lineages that evolved into the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious coexistence with their host by stabilizing an approximately 15%-reduced genome devoid of many virulence genes. Our data further provide evidence that interspecies gene transfer between S. pneumoniae and S. mitis occurs in a unidirectional manner, i.e., from S. mitis to S. pneumoniae. Import of genes from S. mitis and other mitis, anginosus, and salivarius group streptococci ensured allelic replacements and antigenic diversification and has been driving the evolution of the remarkable structural diversity of capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae. Our study explains how the unique structural diversity of the pneumococcal capsule emerged and conceivably will continue to increase and reveals a striking example of the fragile border between the commensal and pathogenic lifestyles. While genomic plasticity enabling quick adaptation to environmental stress is a necessity for the pathogenic streptococci, the commensal lifestyle benefits from stability. Importance: One of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the commensal Streptococcus mitis are closely related obligate symbionts associated with hominids. Faced with a shortage of accessible hosts, the two opposing lifestyles evolved in parallel. We have shown that the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious coexistence with its host by stabilizing a reduced genome devoid of many virulence genes. Meanwhile, the pathogenic pneumococcus evolved into a master of genomic flexibility and imports genes from S. mitis and other related streptococci. This process ensured antigenic diversification and has been driving the evolution of the remarkable structural diversity of capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae, which conceivably will continue to increase and present a challenge to disease prevention. PMID:25053789

Kilian, Mogens; Riley, David R; Jensen, Anders; Brüggemann, Holger; Tettelin, Hervé

2014-01-01

151

Parallel Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis to Pathogenic and Mutualistic Lifestyles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

UNLABELLED: The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans. Intriguingly, phylogenetic analysis shows that the species constitutes one evolutionary lineage in a cluster of the otherwise commensal Streptococcus mitis strains, with which humans live in harmony. In a comparative analysis of 35 genomes, including phylogenetic analyses of all predicted genes, we have shown that the pathogenic pneumococcus has evolved into a master of genomic flexibility while lineages that evolved into the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious coexistence with their host by stabilizing an approximately 15%-reduced genome devoid of many virulence genes. Our data further provide evidence that interspecies gene transfer between S. pneumoniae and S. mitis occurs in a unidirectional manner, i.e., from S. mitis to S. pneumoniae. Import of genes from S. mitis and other mitis, anginosus, and salivarius group streptococci ensured allelic replacements and antigenic diversification and has been driving the evolution of the remarkable structural diversity of capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae. Our study explains how the unique structural diversity of the pneumococcal capsule emerged and conceivably will continue to increase and reveals a striking example of the fragile border between the commensal and pathogenic lifestyles. While genomic plasticity enabling quick adaptation to environmental stress is a necessity for the pathogenic streptococci, the commensal lifestyle benefits from stability. IMPORTANCE: One of the leading causes of fatal infections affecting humans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the commensal Streptococcus mitis are closely related obligate symbionts associated with hominids. Faced with a shortage of accessible hosts, the two opposing lifestyles evolved in parallel. We have shown that the nonpathogenic S. mitis secured harmonious coexistence with its host by stabilizing a reduced genome devoid of many virulence genes. Meanwhile, the pathogenic pneumococcus evolved into a master of genomic flexibility and imports genes from S. mitis and other related streptococci. This process ensured antigenic diversification and has been driving the evolution of the remarkable structural diversity of capsular polysaccharides of S. pneumoniae, which conceivably will continue to increase and present a challenge to disease prevention.

Kilian, Mogens; Riley, David R

2014-01-01

152

Xylitol and the bactericidal effect of chlorhexidine and fluoride on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was made to investigate the effect of xylitol on the bactericidal and bacteriostatic action of chlorohexidine diacetate (CHX) and sodium fluoride (F) in ATCC strains of Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguis. Standardized bacterial cell suspensions were used in tests for bactericidal effect and for inhibition of growth and sucrose fermentation. The results showed no interference of xylitol with the antibacterial effect of CHX and F combinations. Xylitol did not show any additive effect either but appeared inert in the combinations used. PMID:8498160

Nuuja, T; Meurman, J H; Torkko, H

1993-04-01

153

Fibrinogen binding and resistance to phagocytosis of Streptococcus sanguis expressing cloned M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes.  

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The biological properties of Streptococcus pyogenes M protein cloned and expressed in S. sanguis were investigated. The spm-5 gene previously cloned into Escherichia coli was subcloned into the E. coli-S. sanguis shuttle plasmid pVA838 to produce a newly constructed plasmid, pBK100. Cells of S. sanguis transformed with pBK100 expressed 53-, 55-, and 58-kilodalton polypeptides reacting with type 5 M protein antiserum in immunoblots. The M protein was expressed on the surface of S. sanguis cell...

Poirier, T. P.; Kehoe, M. A.; Whitnack, E.; Dockter, M. E.; Beachey, E. H.

1989-01-01

154

ESTUDIO DE SENSIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE 183 CEPAS DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE AISLADAS EN REGION VAGINO-PERINEAL DE EMBARAZADAS EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available fluctúa entre 1 y 3 por 1000 recién nacidos vivos. Se han entregado pautas dirigidas a reducir las tasas de sepsis precoz con la administración de antibióticos intraparto. Se ha propuesto como antibiótico de primera elección la Penicilina o Ampicilina, y Clindamicina para pacientes alérgicos a las primeras, pero también se ha planteado el uso de Eritromicina o Cefazolina. Se estudia la sensibilidad a estas drogas, en 183 cepas de Streptococcus Grupo B, aisladas en 917 embarazadas, al final del tercer trimestre, en región vaginal y pStreptococcus agalactiae (Grupo B Streptococcus is the main bacterial agent involved in neonatal sepsis of early onset (1 to 3/1000 live newborns. Has been given standards for reducing the rates of neonatal sepsis of early onset using antibiotics during labor. Has been proposed as the first choice Penicilin or Ampicilin and Clindamicin for allergic patients. Erythromycin and Cefazolin has been proposed to treat this patients. This report study sensibilities for this drugs in 183 Group B Streptococcus strains from vaginal and perianal region of 917 pregnant women during the last trimester

Cristián Belmar J.

2002-01-01

155

Simultaneous Specific Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Sputum Samples from Patients with Suspected Influenza by Multiplex-PCR  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are the most common cause in bacterial pneumonia. Also these agents can cause bacterial superinfection in patients with influenza. Aim of this study was Simultaneous specific detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in sputum samples from patients with suspected influenza by Multiplex-PCR. Materials and methods: In this study, 170 sputum samples in patients with suspected influenza with age from 3 months to 70 years, received the Influenza Reference Laboratory – Tehran Medical university were tested by Multiplex PCR. Amplified DNA fragments size was 394 bp for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 199 bp for Haemophilus influenzae and 416 bp for Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Results: of all 170 samples, 30 samples were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza. Of the 30 positive samples, 27 samples (15/8 % and 3 samples (1/7 % were positive for S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that Multiplex-PCR able to diagnosis desired bacteria in short time and so this molecular method can use as complementary technique especially when the results of gram stain, culture or serological test are negative.

Amin Moazami

2014-01-01

156

Sensibilidad antibiótica y recomendaciones de tratamiento para Streptococcus pneumoniae / Antibiotic sensitivity and treatment recommendations for Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la sensibilidad antibiótica de Streptococcus pneumoniae a los antimicrobianos usados con más frecuencia en la práctica clínica y revisar las recomendaciones actuales de tratamiento de la enfermedad neumocócica. Durante el periodo octubre 2000 a septiembre [...] 2002 se recogieron los datos demográficos, el diagnóstico clínico del paciente, el origen de la muestra y la sensibilidad antibiótica de todos los Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados en los laboratorios de microbiología del Servicio Navarro de Salud, que atienden a una población de 555.829 habitantes. Se obtuvieron 465 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae (166 de origen invasor). Los aislamientos procedentes de exudado ótico fueron los más resistentes y los de hemocultivo los más sensibles. El porcentaje de resistencia a penicilina fue del 43%, 6,1% para amoxicilina y 6,6% para cefotaxima. El 36,3% de los aislamientos fueron resistentes a eritromicina, de ellos un 85,45% exhibía un fenotipo MLS B y un 14,55% un fenotipo M. Se detectó multirresistencia en un 32,3% de los aislamientos. La resistencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae a betalactámicos, especialmente penicilina, amoxicilina y cefotaxima/ceftriaxona no impide su uso clínico en la mayoría de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae de nuestra área, exceptuando los casos de meningitis neumocócica. Abstract in english The aims of present paper were to determine the susceptibility of the strains to the most usual antibiotics in clinical practice and to review the current recomendations to guide the most appropiate treatment. During the period october 2000 to september 2002, the patient’s data (age and sex), source [...] of the sample, diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility were collected on Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from microbiology laboratories in the Navarra region (555.829 inhabitans). Four hundred and sixty five isolates were identified (166 from invasive infections). Generally, isolates from ear swabs were the most resistant to the antimicrobials tested, while those from blood culture were the most susceptible. Of the Streptococcus pneumoniae tested, 43% were resistant to penicillin, 6.1% to amoxicillin and 6.6% to cefotaxime. Of the 36.3% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that were resistant to erythromycin, 85.45% exhibited the MLS B phenotype while the remaining 14.55% presented with the M phenotype. Multiple-resistance was detected in 32.3% of the strains. The antibiotic resistance rates to beta-lactams (specially penicillin, amoxicillin and cefotaxime/ceftrixone) in Streptococcus pneumoniae don’t prevent its clinical use for the most of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in our area, except for pneumococcal meningitis.

A., Gil-Setas; A., Mazón; L., Torroba; A., Barricarte; J.J., García-Irure; A., Petit; M.E., Polo.

2004-04-01

157

Characterization of a rat salivary sialoglycoprotein complex which agglutinates Streptococcus mutans.  

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Rat saliva agglutinated Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt and NCTC 10449 and Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 7864 but not S. mutans NCTC 10921, GS 5, or LM 7, Streptococcus sobrinus 6715-13 or OMZ 65, or Streptococcus cricetus HS 6, as measured turbidometrically. The specificity of agglutination by rat saliva was the same as that by human saliva. Agglutination was associated with a mucin complex (rat salivary agglutinin complex [rS-A]) of sulfated sialoglycoproteins, with a trace of associated lipid a...

Brack, C. M.; Reynolds, E. C.

1987-01-01

158

Oxidizing agent and reducing agent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Object: To chemically separate an uranium isotope by means of oxidizing and reducing chromatography using an ion exchanger. Structure: An ion exchange resin is used to effect oxidizing and reducing reaction in an interface between a zone of uranium adsorption and a zone of oxidizing agent adsorption or in an interface between an uranium adsorbent and a zone of reducing agent adsorption. In enriching the uranium isotope at the interface, and where an oxidizing agent or reducing agent is arranged at upstream of the uranium ion adsorbed to the ion exchange resin, a distribution ratio of metal ion of reduced substance resulting from the oxidizing reaction or metal ion of oxidized substance resulting from the reducing reaction to the ion exchanger is less than 3.0, whereas, where the oxidizing agent or reducing agent is arranged at downstream from the zone of uranium adsorption, the distribution ratio of the oxidizing agent or reducing agent to metal ion exchange resin is in excess of 2. (Taniai, N.)

159

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Streptococcus bovis: case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication that occurs in patient with cirrhosis and ascites. It occurs in 10% to 30% of patients admitted to hospital. The organisms that cause SBP are predominantly enteric. Escherichia coli is the most frequent recovered pathogen, [...] and Gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp., are being considered an emerging causative agent of SBP. Streptococcus bovis that may be found as part of the commensal bowel flora in about 10% of healthy adults constitute an uncommon cause of peritonitis that was first reported in 1994. We describe the first case of SBP at the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM) caused by S. bovis, resistant to the antibiotics erythromycin and clindamycin (inducible clindamycin resistance detected by disk diffusion test using the D-zone test).

Rosmari, Hörner; Adenilde, Salla; Loiva Otonelli de, Oliveira; Nara Lucia Frasson Dal, Forno; Roselene Alves, Righi; Vanessa Oliveira, Domingues; Fabiane, Rigatti; Letícia Eichstaedt, Mayer.

2010-06-01

160

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Streptococcus bovis: case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication that occurs in patient with cirrhosis and ascites. It occurs in 10% to 30% of patients admitted to hospital. The organisms that cause SBP are predominantly enteric. Escherichia coli is the most frequent recovered pathogen, [...] and Gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp., are being considered an emerging causative agent of SBP. Streptococcus bovis that may be found as part of the commensal bowel flora in about 10% of healthy adults constitute an uncommon cause of peritonitis that was first reported in 1994. We describe the first case of SBP at the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM) caused by S. bovis, resistant to the antibiotics erythromycin and clindamycin (inducible clindamycin resistance detected by disk diffusion test using the D-zone test).

Rosmari, Hörner; Adenilde, Salla; Loiva Otonelli de, Oliveira; Nara Lucia Frasson Dal, Forno; Roselene Alves, Righi; Vanessa Oliveira, Domingues; Fabiane, Rigatti; Letícia Eichstaedt, Mayer.

 
 
 
 
161

Ecology and pathogenicity of gastrointestinal Streptococcus bovis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus bovis is an indigenous resident in the gastrointestinal tracts of both humans and animals. S. bovis is one of the major causes of bacterial endocarditis and has been implicated in the incidence of human colon cancer, possibly due to chronic inflammatory response at the site of intestinal colonization. Certain feeding regimens in ruminants can lead to overgrowth of S. bovis in the rumen, resulting in the over-production of lactate and capsular polysaccharide causing acute ruminal acidosis and bloat, respectively. There are multiple strategies in controlling acute lactic acidosis and bloat. The incidence of the two diseases may be controlled by strict dietary management. Gradual introduction of grain-based diets and the feeding of coarsely chopped roughage decrease the incidence of the two disease entities. Ionophores, which have been used to enhance feed conversion and growth rate in cattle, have been shown to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen. Other methods of controlling lactic acid bacteria in the ruminal environment (dietary supplementation of long-chain fatty acids, induction of passive and active immune responses to the bacteria, and the use of lytic bacteriophages) have also been investigated. It is anticipated that through continued in-depth ecological analysis of S. bovis the characteristics responsible for human and animal pathogenesis would be sufficiently identified to a point where more effective control strategies for the control of this bacteria can be developed. PMID:19100852

Herrera, Paul; Kwon, Young Min; Ricke, Steven C

2009-01-01

162

Sorption of streptococcus faecium to glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method has been developed by which to study the sorption of Streptococcus faecium to soda-lime cover glasses. Conditions were chosen to minimize the influence on sorption of bacterial polymer production, passive sorption being studied rather than attachment mediated by metabolic activities. Sorption of S. faecium increased with increasing temperature (to 50degC), time, and cell concentration, but equilibrium apparently was not reached even after incubation for 8 hours or at a cell concentration of 3 x 1010 per ml. Sorption increased with solute molarity up to 0.1 M concentration of NaCl and KCl, indicating an effect of the electrical double layers on the apposition of cells to the glass surface. Desorption of bacteria could be obtained after multiple washings of the glasses in buffer or by the action of Tween 80, but not if sorbed bacteria were left in distilled water, various salt solutions, urea, or in suspensions of unlabelled bacteria. It was concluded that sorption occurred as a result of chemical interactions between the glass and the cell surface. Tween 80 at a concentration of 1 per cent inhibited sorption to 26 per cent of buffer controls, 2 M urea was less effective, and 1 M NaCl was without effect. It is suggested that hydrophobic interactions may be of importance in the binding of S. faecium to glass. (author)

163

?-Phosphoglucomutase contributes to aciduricity in Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans encounters an array of sugar moieties within the oral cavity due to a varied human diet. One such sugar is ?-d-glucose 1-phosphate (?DG1P), which must be converted to glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) before further metabolism to lactic acid. The conversion of ?DG1P to G6P is mediated by ?-phosphoglucomutase, which has not been previously observed in any oral streptococci, but has been extensively characterized and the gene designated pgmB in Lactococcus lactis. An orthologue was identified in S. mutans, SMU.1747c, and deletion of the gene resulted in the inability of the deletion strain to convert ?DG1P to G6P, indicating that SMU.1747c is a ?-phosphoglucomutase and should be designated pgmB. In this study, we sought to characterize how deletion of pgmB affected known virulence factors of S. mutans, specifically acid tolerance. The ?pgmB strain showed a decreased ability to survive acid challenge. Additionally, the strain lacking ?-phosphoglucomutase had a diminished glycolytic profile compared with the parental strain. Deletion of pgmB had a negative impact on the virulence of S. mutans in the Galleria mellonella (greater wax worm) animal model. Our results indicate that pgmB plays a role at the juncture of carbohydrate metabolism and virulence. PMID:24509501

Buckley, Andrew A; Faustoferri, Roberta C; Quivey, Robert G

2014-04-01

164

Quorum sensing in group A Streptococcus  

Science.gov (United States)

Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread phenomenon in the microbial world that has important implications in the coordination of population-wide responses in several bacterial pathogens. In Group A Streptococcus (GAS), many questions surrounding QS systems remain to be solved pertaining to their function and their contribution to the GAS lifestyle in the host. The QS systems of GAS described to date can be categorized into four groups: regulator gene of glucosyltransferase (Rgg), Sil, lantibiotic systems, and LuxS/AI-2. The Rgg family of proteins, a conserved group of transcription factors that modify their activity in response to signaling peptides, has been shown to regulate genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and competence. The sil locus, whose expression is regulated by the activity of signaling peptides and a putative two-component system (TCS), has been implicated on regulating genes involved with invasive disease in GAS isolates. Lantibiotic regulatory systems are involved in the production of bacteriocins and their autoregulation, and some of these genes have been shown to target both bacterial organisms as well as processes of survival inside the infected host. Finally AI-2 (dihydroxy pentanedione, DPD), synthesized by the LuxS enzyme in several bacteria including GAS, has been proposed to be a universal bacterial communication molecule. In this review we discuss the mechanisms of these four systems, the putative functions of their targets, and pose critical questions for future studies. PMID:25309879

Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Federle, Michael J.

2014-01-01

165

Urticaria recurrente asociada a infección por Streptococcus pyogenes / Recurrent urticaria associated with group Streptococcus pyogenes infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La mayoría de las urticarias crónicas o agudas recidivantes son idiopáticas. Presentamos un caso de urticaria aguda recidivante en una niña de tres años, en la que, tras el estudio realizado, solo se objetivó un valor elevado de anticuerpos antiestreptolisina O (ASLO). La desaparición de la urticari [...] a tras el tratamiento con penicilina G-benzatina intramuscular, junto con la normalización de los ASLO, sugiere que la etiología de esta podría ser las infecciones recurrentes por el Streptococcus pyogenes. Destacar la importancia de incluir en el protocolo diagnóstico de la urticaria la determinación de los ASLO, lo cual permite el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoces de las infecciones por S. pyogenes. Abstract in english We present a case of relapsing acute urticaria in a three years old girl who after the study only showed a high value of ASLO (antistreptolysin O titer). The disappearance of urticaria after intramuscular penicillin G benzathine treatment, together with the ASLO normalization, suggested that the eti [...] ology of this could be recurrent Streptococcal infections. We conclude the importance of including ASLO determination in the diagnostic protocol of urticaria, allowing early diagnosis and treatment of Group A Streptococcus infections.

M. P., López Sáez; P., Carrillo Fernández-Paredes; A. J., Huertas Amorós; J. A., Pagán Alemán.

166

Urticaria recurrente asociada a infección por Streptococcus pyogenes / Recurrent urticaria associated with group Streptococcus pyogenes infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La mayoría de las urticarias crónicas o agudas recidivantes son idiopáticas. Presentamos un caso de urticaria aguda recidivante en una niña de tres años, en la que, tras el estudio realizado, solo se objetivó un valor elevado de anticuerpos antiestreptolisina O (ASLO). La desaparición de la urticari [...] a tras el tratamiento con penicilina G-benzatina intramuscular, junto con la normalización de los ASLO, sugiere que la etiología de esta podría ser las infecciones recurrentes por el Streptococcus pyogenes. Destacar la importancia de incluir en el protocolo diagnóstico de la urticaria la determinación de los ASLO, lo cual permite el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoces de las infecciones por S. pyogenes. Abstract in english We present a case of relapsing acute urticaria in a three years old girl who after the study only showed a high value of ASLO (antistreptolysin O titer). The disappearance of urticaria after intramuscular penicillin G benzathine treatment, together with the ASLO normalization, suggested that the eti [...] ology of this could be recurrent Streptococcal infections. We conclude the importance of including ASLO determination in the diagnostic protocol of urticaria, allowing early diagnosis and treatment of Group A Streptococcus infections.

M. P., López Sáez; P., Carrillo Fernández-Paredes; A. J., Huertas Amorós; J. A., Pagán Alemán.

2013-09-01

167

Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina / Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 [...] e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratório e de amostras de sangue não relacionadas a infecções meníngeas e foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretações categóricas de CIM foram baseadas em padrões atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetíveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treate [...] d, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC

Flávia, Rossi; Maria Renata Gomes, Franco; Heleni Mota de Pina, Rodrigues; Denise, Andreazzi.

168

Caracterización molecular en aislados chilenos de Streptococcus agalactiae / Molecular characterization of Chilean isolates of streptococcus agalactiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae is the main causing organism of invasive infections such as sepsis and meningitis in the newborn. Aim: To perform a genotype characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae strains coming form invasive infections of newborns and colonized pregnant women. Material and methods: A [...] group of 58 strains not related epidemiologically isolated from colonized pregnant women and invasive infections in newborns, were studied. Pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE) and polymerase chain reaction amplification of hylB and IS 1548 genes, as possible virulence markers, were performed. Results: Among the studied strains, 37 genetic subtypes were observed. There were nine groups of identical PFGE patterns. Three corresponded to serotype la and six to serotype III. An erythromycin and clindamycin resistant clone was identified in three colonized women and a newborn with sepsis, which were not epidemiologically related. The hylB gene was equally present in cases of neonatal meningitis or colonized pregnant women. Conclusions: There was a great degree of polymorphism among the studied strains. The ample presence of hylB gene and the absence of the insertion element IS1548 in the hylB gene in invasive and colonizing strains, indicates that both groups of strains are potentially pathogenic

Patricia, Rojo; Pamela, Araya; M Angélica, Martínez T; Juan Carlos, Hormazábal; Aurora, Maldonado; Jorge, Fernández.

169

Pericarditis purulenta primaria por Streptococcus pneumoniae, a propósito de un caso clínico / Primary purulent pericarditis by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Case-report and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hoy en día la pericarditis purulenta (PP) es una patología poco frecuente, pero de pronóstico grave. Comunicamos el caso clínico de un paciente de 3 meses, sano previamente. Consultó por palidez, rechazo alimentario y dificultad respiratoria de pocas horas de evolución. La radiografía de tórax demos [...] tró cardiomegalia. Evolucionó hacia shock cardiogénico por taponamiento cardíaco. Recibió inicialmente expansores de volumen y drogas vasoactivas. Antibioterapia con vancomicina y ceftriaxona. Ecocar-diograma objetivó derrame pericárdico extenso, complementado con TAC que descartó foco infeccioso endotoráxico. Se realizó pericardiocentesis y luego ventana pericárdica. Se aisló en hemocultivo Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensible a penicilina. Luego de drenaje quirúrgico y control de infección presentó evolución favorable. No se encontró sitio infeccioso extrapericárdico. Completó tres semanas de tratamiento antibiótico. Estudio inmunológico fue normal. La PP es observada raramente en individuos sanos. La presentación en este caso fue de horas, por un agente inhabitual y de extrema gravedad. Un diagnóstico precoz, en conjunto con un tratamiento médico-quirúrgico es fundamental, como la mejor forma de evitar secuelas. Abstract in english Background: Purulent pericarditis has become a rare clinical entity since the onset of antimicrobial therapy and has a poor outcome in the majority of cases. Case-report: A healthy 3 month-old patient admitted with dyspnea, pallor and anorexia, developing cardiogenic shock due to cardiac tamponade. [...] Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly. He required mechanical ventilation, volume resuscitation and vasoactive drugs. Echocardiogram showed a large pericardial effusion, CT sean ruled out lung and mediastinal infection. Pericardial drainage was performed and Vancomycin plus Ceftriaxone were initiated, with a positive blood culture for Penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae. The evolution was favourable after surgical drainage and controlling the infection. No extraperdicardial infection was found. He received 3 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Immunological studies were normal. Conclusión: Primary purulent pericarditis is uncommon, so early detection and treatment of this life-threatening condition may lead to a good outcome.

ALEJANDRO, DONOSO F; FRANCO, DÍAZ R; KATALINA, BERTRÁN S; PABLO, CRUCES R.

170

A fishy tale: a man with empyema caused by Streptococcus halichoeri.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004, veterinary laboratories in the United Kingdom reported a novel Lancefield group B streptococcus, Streptococcus halichoeri, in seals. We report a case of Streptococcus halichoeri causing postoperative empyema in a patient. A search of the literature revealed that this is the first case of S. halichoeri ever reported in humans. PMID:24478513

Foo, Rui Min; Chan, Douglas

2014-02-01

171

Complete genome sequence of the African dairy isolate Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius strain CJ18.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius, a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex, is highly prevalent in artisanal dairy fermentations in Africa. Here the complete genome sequence of the dairy-adapted S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 strain--a strain predominant in traditionally fermented camel milk (suusac) from Kenya--is presented. PMID:22461547

Jans, Christoph; Follador, Rainer; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo; Stevens, Marc J A

2012-04-01

172

In-vitro antibacterial study of zinc oxide nanostructures on Streptococcus sobrinus  

Science.gov (United States)

Zinc oxide nanostructures were prepared using a pilot plant of zinc oxide boiling furnace. Generally, it produced two types of nanostructures different in morphology; one is rod-like shaped (ZnO-1) and a plate-like shape (ZnO-2). The properties of ZnO were studied by structural, optical and morphological using XRD, PL and FESEM respectively. The XRD patterns confirmed the wurtzite structures of ZnO with the calculated crystallite size of 41 nm (ZnO-1) and 42 nm (ZnO-2) using Scherrer formula. The NBE peaks were determined by photoluminescence spectra which reveal peak at 3.25 eV and 3.23 eV for ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 respectively. Prior to that, the morphologies for both ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 were demonstrated from FESEM micrographs. Subsequently the antibacterial study was conducted using in-vitro broth dilution technique towards a gram positive bacterium Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 33478) to investigate the level of antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanostructures as antibacterial agent. Gradual increment of ZnO concentrations from 10-20 mM affected the inhibition level after twenty four hours of incubation. In conjunction with concentration increment of ZnO, the percentage inhibition towards Streptococcus sobrinus was also increased accordingly. The highest inhibition occurred at 20 mM of ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 for 98% and 77% respectively. It showed that ZnO has good properties as antibacterial agent and relevancy with data presented by XRD, PL and FESEM were determined.

Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Rahman, Rosliza Abd

2014-10-01

173

Aumento de resistencia de Streptococcus agalactiae vaginal-anal en el tercer trimestre de gestación a eritromicina y clindamicina al cabo de una década de tamizaje universal Streptococcus agalactiae increase in resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin in vaginal-anal colonization in third quarter of pregnancy in one decade of universal screening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introducción: Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente causal de sepsis perinatal precoz. La adquisición de políticas de prevención ha traído consigo la utilización frecuente de antimicrobianos intra-parto. La vigilancia de resistencia antimicrobiana se hace indispensable para definir el fármaco de elección y alternativas en dicha profilaxis. Nuestro centro realiza tamizaje universal desde hace 10 años. Objetivos: Determinar la evolución de la resistencia antimicrobiana de S....

Fernando Abarzúa C.; Alejandra Arias E; Patricia García C; Constanza Ralph T; Jaime Cerda L; Ingrid Riedel K; Cynthia Gárate O

2011-01-01

174

PCR de "Salmonella" spp, "Streptococcus suis", "Brucella abortus" e circovírus suíno tipo 2 em taiassuídeos de vida livre e cativeiro PCR of “Salmonella” spp, “Streptococcus suis”, “Brucella abortus” e Porcine circovirus type 2 in free-living and captive peccaries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os taiassuídeos são animais silvestres pertencentes a mesma ordem taxonômica dos suínos (Artiodactyla, que apesar de pertencerem a famílias diferentes apresentam várias doenças em comum. Das três espécies existentes, duas ocorrem naturalmente no Brasil: Tayassu tajacu e Tayassu pecari, conhecidas como cateto e queixada, respectivamente. A importância do estudo dos microrganismos encontrados nestas populações, justifica-se pelo fato destes poderem agir como reservatórios de doenças para animais domésticos, crescente aumento na criação comercial de espécies silvestres com objetivos de complementar a renda de produtores rurais e preservação ecológica, além de questões de saúde pública. Este estudo verificou a ocorrência de microrganismos patogênicos para suínos em taiassuídeos de cativeiro e de vida livre. A presença de Salmonella spp., Streptococcus suis, Brucella abortus e Circovírus suíno tipo 2 foi pesquisada pela Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase. Dos 31 animais de cativeiro, 25,80% (8/31 foram positivos para Salmonella spp., 22,58% (7/31 para Brucella abortus e 3,22% (1/31 para Streptococcus suis. Das 15 amostras de swab de tonsila dos queixadas de vida livre 13,33% (2/15 foram positivas para Brucella abortus e negativo para Streptococcus suis e Salmonella spp. Todos os animais estudados foram negativos para circovírus suíno tipo 2. A ocorrência de microrganismos foi significativamente (p = 0,0011 maior nos animais de cativeiro do que nos de vida livre, demonstrando a necessidade de abrangência nestas pesquisas tendo em vista o caráter zoonótico da maioria dos agentes pesquisados e da proximidade destes animais ao homem. Palavras-chave: Brucella abortus, Circovírus suíno tipo 2, Salmonella spp., Streptococcus suis, taiassuídeosThe tayassuideos are wild animals in the same taxonomic order of pigs (Artiodactyla and, although belonging to different families, have more in common diseases, which are characterized by the same clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment. From the three species, two occur naturally in Brazil: Tayassu tajacu and Tayassu peccary, also known as collered peccary and white lipped peccary, respectively. The importance of the study of microorganisms found in these populations is because these animals can act as reservoirs of diseases to domestic animal, potential zoonotic risk and a problem to specie conservation. In this study, it was examined the occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms for pigs in tayassuideos from captivity and living free. The presence of Salmonella spp., Streptococcus suis, Brucella abortus and Porcine circovirus type 2 was investigated by the Polymerase Chain Reaction. From the 31 animals of captivity, 25.8% (8/31 were positive for Salmonella spp., 22.58% (7/31 for Brucella abortus and 3.22% (1/31 for Streptococcus suis. From the 15 swab samples from the tonsil of free-living peccaries, 13.33% (2/ 15 were positive for Brucella abortus and negative for Streptococcus suis and Salmonella spp. All animals were negative for Porcine circovirus type 2. Occurrence of microorganisms was significantly (p = 0,0011 higher in animals in captivity than in free-living, demonstrating the needing for inclusiveness in research aimed at the character of the majority of zoonotic agents that were searched and proximity of these animals to humans.

Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida

2010-09-01

175

Case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus equisimilis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shinsuke Suemori1, Akira Sawada1, Shinya Komori1, Kiyofumi Mochizuki1, Kiyofumi Ohkusu2, Hirofumi Takemura31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of General and Cardiothoracic Surgery Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, JapanAbstract: We report a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus equisimilis. A 74-year-old woman with endocarditis developed endogenous endophthalmitis. The patient underwent emergency mitral valvuloplasty, and intravitreal and subconjunctival injections of vancomycin and meropenem. After the surgery, she was treated with topical antibiotics, ointment, intravenous gentamicin and intravenous penicillin G potassium. The causative organism was identified as S. equisimilis. S. equisimilis should be considered as a pathogen that can cause severe endogenous endophthalmitis.Keywords: endogenous endophthalmitis, group G Streptococcus, endocarditis, Streptococcus equisimilis

Shinsuke Suemori

2010-08-01

176

Group B streptococcus endocarditis associated with multiple pulmonary septic emboli  

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Full Text Available Endocarditis is a rare presentation of group B streptococcal infection. Its association with pulmonary septic embolism was only barely studied and limited data is available up to date. Multiple septic emboli is a common complication of bacterial endocarditis, but only a few cases have been documented in relation to group B streptococcus. We present the case of an 87-year-old female patient with multiple underlying conditions that predisposed the development of bacterial endocarditis secondary to group B streptococcus and subsequently multiple pulmonary septic emboli. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and azythromycin with good response and complete recovery without any further complications. In the event of a diagnosed case of group B streptococcus endocarditis, there should be a low threshold for the suspicion of septic pulmonary emboli especially in cases with right valves involvement.

Deborah Abaitey

2011-03-01

177

Sorbitol transport by Streptococcus sanguis 160.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sorbitol metabolism was examined with a sorbitol-fermenting strain (160) of Streptococcus sanguis isolated from the dental plaque of a subject using sorbitol-containing chewing-gum for 4 years. S. sanguis 160 was grown in continuous culture (pH, 7.0; dilution rate, 0.1 h-1) with glucose, sorbitol and nitrogen (sorbitol-excess) limitations. Cells grown with a glucose limitation exhibited low, but detectable, uptake of [14C]-sorbitol and transition to medium limiting in sorbitol resulted in a 5-fold increase in sorbitol uptake. Kinetic data revealed that both glucose and sorbitol-limited cells possessed 2 transport systems for sorbitol (Ks = 3.3-6.7 and 36-64 microM), but continued growth of the organism on limiting sorbitol resulted in the loss of the high-affinity system. Decryptified, sorbitol-limited cells phosphorylated sorbitol in the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), but not with ATP, indicating sorbitol transport solely via the PEP phosphotransferase (PTS) system. PEP-dependent activity in glucose-limited and sorbitol-excess cells was 6- and 4-fold lower than that of the sorbitol-limited cells. Uptake of [14C]-sorbitol and activity for Ell for sorbitol [Ellsor] of the PTS in cells in transition from a glucose to sorbitol limitation confirmed the induction of the sorbitol-PTS and the repression of the glucose-PTS in the presence of sorbitol. Cells grown with an excess of sorbitol exhibited very low Ellsor activity. A crossover experiment with membranes and soluble fractions from glucose-, sorbitol- and nitrogen-limited cells of S. sanguis 160 demonstrated the induction of a soluble PTS component in sorbitol-limited cells essential for sorbitol transport via the PTS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1945499

Svensater, G; Hamilton, I R

1991-06-01

178

Heteroresistance to penicillin in Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heteroresistance to beta-lactam antibiotics has been mainly described for staphylococci, for which it complicates diagnostic procedures and therapeutic success. This study investigated whether heteroresistance to penicillin exists in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Population analysis profile (PAP) showed the presence of subpopulations with higher penicillin resistance in four of nine clinical pneumococcal strains obtained from a local surveillance program (representing the multiresistant clones ST179, ST276, and ST344) and in seven of 16 reference strains (representing the international clones Spain(23F)-1, Spain(9V)-3, Spain(14)-5, Hungary(19A)-6, South Africa(19A)-13, Taiwan(23F)-15, and Finland(6B)-12). Heteroresistant strains had penicillin minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (for the majority of cells) in the intermediate- to high-level range (0.19-2.0 mug/ml). PAP curves suggested the presence of subpopulations also for the highly penicillin-resistant strains Taiwan(19F)-14, Poland(23F)-16, CSR(19A)-11, and CSR(14)-10. PAP of bacterial subpopulations with higher penicillin resistance showed a shift toward higher penicillin-resistance levels, which reverted upon multiple passages on antibiotic-free media. Convergence to a homotypic resistance phenotype did not occur. Comparison of two strains of clone ST179 showed a correlation between the heteroresistant phenotype and a higher-penicillin MIC and a greater number of altered penicillin-binding proteins (PBP1a, -2b, and -2x), respectively. Therefore, heteroresistance to penicillin occurs in international multiresistant clones of S. pneumoniae. Pneumococci may use heteroresistance to penicillin as a tool during their evolution to high penicillin resistance, because it gives the bacteria an opportunity to explore growth in the presence of antibiotics before acquisition of resistance genes. PMID:17704255

Morand, Brigitte; Mühlemann, Kathrin

2007-08-28

179

Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias si [...] endo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño). Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente. Abstract in english The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than [...] 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children’s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pneumoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution in Costa Rica, the predicted vaccine protection is calculated in 74%.

Hernán, Sierra- Fernandez; Malka, Schultz- Faingezicht; Carolina, Soley-Gutiérrez; Silvia, Guevara- Jiménez; Adriano, Arguedas- Mohs.

180

Sunscreening Agents  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Immunoasssay Chromatographic Antigen Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Pharyngitis in Children: A Cross/ Sectional Study  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS is an important pharyngotonsillitis etiologic agent in children. The objective of this study was diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis based on rapid antigen detection test and conventional pharyngeal culture.Materials and Methods: The rapid GABHS antigen detection test was compared to culture on blood agar, the gold standard for the diagnosis of this etiologic agent.Results: Streptococcal antigen was detected in pharyngeal specimens of 34.5% of cases by rapid strip test. We detected group A Streptococcus in 17.2% of pharyngeal culture. There was no agreement between two methods ( PV < 0.1. The negative pharyngeal culture results are probably due to antibiotic usage in 43.2 % of patients. Positive rapid test results in pharyngeal swab was age dependent ( P < 0.05. There was good correlation between observing the "petechia in pharynx of patients" and positive rapid test in pharyngeal swab (P < 0.004. Throat culture results were relatated to previous antibiotic usage ( P < 0.03.Conclusion: The rapid test in pharyngeal swab is helpful for rapid diagnosis and treatment of GABHS pharyngitis. Diagnosis of GABHS pharyngitis based on soley clinical findings is misleading in the majority of cases. Petechia observed in pharynx of the cases was highly predictive of streptococcal pharyngitis.

S Noorbakhsh

2011-06-01

182

Comparison of inhibitory dilutions of a thymol-based mouthwash (Orion® with chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Applying the suitable mouthwash can kill bacteria or reduce the bacterial growth; in the same context, diluting mouthwashes can decrease their probable side effects. In this study, the maximum inhibitory concentrations of two common mouthwashes were evaluated.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, agar dilution and disk diffusion methods were used. Sixty-nine bacterial plates were cultured to evaluate the effects of thymol and chlorhexidine mouthwashes on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. The results of agar dilution method were recorded as "growth' and "no growth", and the results of disk diffusion were recorded as means of growth inhibitory halos. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test using SPSS software. (? = 0.05.Results: Growth inhibitory halos for different concentrations of the two mouthwashes decreased with an increase in dilution rate. In agar dilution method, dilutions less than 80% of the initial concentration for thymol-based mouthwash and less than 70% for chlorhexidine could not inhibit bacterial growth. Growth inhibition halos with 100% thymol-based mouthwash (Orion® were 10.15 ± 0.1 mm for Steptococcus mutans and 9.2 7 ± 0.16 mm for Streptococcus sanguis. Mean rank of the two mouthwashes was statistically significant for the two bacterial strains under study (p value < 0.001.Conclusion: Both mouthwashes were effective on the bacteria under study; however, this efficacy was higher for Streptococcus sanguis. Chlorhexidine mouthwash was more potent to inhibit bacterial growth than thymol-based mouthwash if diluted. Key words: Mouthwash, Chlorhexidine, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Thymol.

Shokrollah Assar

2011-01-01

183

Vasoactive Agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is a short review of vasoactive drugs which are in use in todays clinical practice. In the past century, development of vasoactive drugs went through several phases. All of these drugs are today divided into several groups, depending on their place of action, pharmacological pathways and/or effects on target organ or organ system. Hence, many different agents are today in clinical practice, we have shown comparison between them. These agents provide new directions in the treatment of cardiovascular compromise, suggesting that the primary goal of therapy is to produce a vasodilatory effect of the circulation rather than to reverse hemodynamic failure by using inotropic agents, with their inherent risks and side effects.

Goranovic, Tanja

2006-10-01

184

Geno- and phenotypic diversity of avian isolates of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis) and associated diagnostic problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, strains of Streptococcus bovis were reclassified as Streptococcus gallolyticus. In the present study we describe for the first time an outbreak of S. gallolyticus in a broiler flock. Mortality during the first week was normal (infantarius and (ii) S. alactolyticus plus S. intestinalis. According to information in GenBank, none of the strains included from the two monophyletic groups have been isolated from birds. Further biochemical analyses, including tannase activity, identified for the first time avian isolates belonging to S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. However, these investigations also demonstrated a clear heterogeneity with pigeon isolates. PMID:17166965

Chadfield, M S; Christensen, J P; Decostere, A; Christensen, H; Bisgaard, M

2007-03-01

185

Isolamento de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite e teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos / Isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigamos a ocorrência de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite que espontaneamente procuraram atendimento em farmácias e unidades de saúde. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Com auxílio de "swab" e abaixador de língua foram coletadas amostra [...] s da orofaringe de 58 indivíduos, as quais foram semeadas por técnica de esgotamento em placas contendo ágar sangue. No momento da coleta, nenhum dos indivíduos estava sob tratamento com antibióticos. A identificação do S. pyogenes foi feita presuntivamente pelo teste de sensibilidade a bacitracina e confirmada pela grupagem sorológica através da extração do antígeno grupo-específico. RESULTADOS: Das 58 amostras de orofaringe analisadas, 32 (55,2%) foram provenientes de indivíduos atendidos em farmácias e 26 (44,8%) foram obtidas daqueles que procuraram as unidades de saúde. Um total de 15 (25,9%) amostras apresentou cultura positiva para S. pyogenes, sendo a maioria dos isolamentos (9/15, 60%) proveniente de indivíduos atendidos em farmácia. Streptococcus pyogenes foi isolado em 33,3% (11/33) dos indivíduos com idade entre zero e 15 anos e em 16% (4/25) daqueles com idade acima de 15 anos. As 15 cepas isoladas foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos testados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do presente estudo enfatizam a importância do diagnóstico bacteriológico no tratamento adequado da faringoamigdalite estreptocócica que permite a prevenção das complicações supurativas ou não supurativas e a erradicação do microrganismo da orofaringe. Abstract in english AIM: We investigate the occurrence of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis that spontaneously sought attendance in drugstores or in health units. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohorte. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Samples from oropharynx of 58 individuals were collected with swab and [...] tongue depressor and inoculated on sheep blood agar plates. At the moment the samples were collected, none of the individuals was under treatment with antibiotics. The presumptive identification of S. pyogenes was made by the susceptibility test to bacitracin and confirmed by the serological grouping through the extraction of the group-specific carbohydrate "C" antigen. RESULTS: From the 58 samples of oropharynx analyzed, 32 (55.2%) were from individuals assisted in drugstores and 26 (44.8%) were obtained from those that sought health units. A total of 15 (25.9%) samples presented positive culture for S. pyogenes, being most of the strains (9/15, 60%) coming from individuals assisted in drugstores. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in 33.3% (11/33) of the individuals from zero to 15 years of age and in 16% (4/25) of those over 15. The strains were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study emphasize the importance of the bacteriological diagnosis in the proper treatment for the streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis that determine the prevention of the supurative or non supurative complications and the eradication of the microorganism of the oropharynx.

Rozana, Scalabrin; Gisele D., Buss; Kelly Cristina S., Iamaguchi; Celso Luiz, Cardoso; Lourdes B., Garcia.

186

Photodynamic inactivation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis biofilms in vitro.  

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate specific effects of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using erythrosine (ER) and Rose Bengal (RB) photosensitizers and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) on the viability of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis biofilms. Biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth to production of biofilms, inoculated with microbial suspension (10(6) cells/mL) and incubated for 48 h. After the formation of biofilms, the effects of the photosensitizers ER and RB at a concentration of 5 ?M for 5 min and blue LED (455 ± 20 nm) for 180 s, photosensitizers alone and conjugated were evaluated. Next, the disks were placed in tubes with sterile physiological solution (0.9 % sodium chloride) and sonicated for to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were carried and aliquots seeded in brain heart infusion agar which were then incubated for 48 h. Then the numbers colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL; log10) were counted and analyzed statistically (ANOVA, Tukey test, P ? 0.05). Significant decreases in the viability of all microorganisms were observed for biofilms exposed to PDI mediated by both photosensitizers. The reductions with RB and ER were, 0.62 and 0.52 log10 CFU mL(-1) for S. mutans biofilms (p=0.001), and 0.95 and 0.88 log10 CFU mL(-1) for S. sanguinis biofilms (p=0.001), respectively. The results showed that biofilms formed in vitro by S. mutans and S. sanguinis, were sensitive to PDI using a blue LED associated with photosensitizers ER or RB, indicating its use in the control of caries and periodontal diseases. PMID:22847685

Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Costa, Anna Carolina Borges Pereira; Carreira, Claudia Moura; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

2013-05-01

187

Infecciones invasoras por Streptococcus b hemolítico Grupo A / Grupo Invasive infections by group a streptococcus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde los años ochenta ha habido un resurgimiento de infecciones severas por Streptococcus b hemolítico Grupo A (SBHGA). Objetivo: Evaluar en nuestro medio el comportamiento clínico y los factores predisponentes en infecciones invasoras por SBHGA. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron antecedentes clíni [...] cos de 37 fichas de niños con cultivo positivo al SBHGA hospitalizados en el Servicio de Pediatría y Cirugía Infantil del Hospital Dr. Félix Bulnes Cerda entre marzo de 1995 y enero de 2005. Resultados: 81% fueron pacientes eutróficos sin patología asociada. Destacan como factores condicionantes: quemadura (30%), varicela (19%) y traumatismo (16%). La sintomatología más frecuente fue fiebre (84%) y signos inflamatorios locales (40%). Los cuadros clínicos fueron: infección de tejido blando (32%), bacteremia sin focalización (30%), osteoartritis (10,8%), pleuroneumonía (10,8%), shock tóxico (8,1%) y fasceitis necrotizante (5,4%). Tres pacientes fallecieron. Conclusión: Las infecciones invasoras por SBHGA afectan mayoritariamente a niños sanos cuyo principal factor predisponente es una puerta cutánea, y puede ser fatal Abstract in english Since 1980 there has been a resurgence of severe infections by Group A Streptococcus (GAS). Objective: To evaluate in our hospital the clinical behaviour and predisposing factors for GAS infections. Methods: Clinical information from 37 charts of children with GAS positive cultures hospitalized in F [...] élix Bulnes Cerda Hospital were analyzed between March 1995 and January 2005. Results: 81% healthy children with predisposing factors: burns (30%), varicella (19%) and trauma (16%). The main symptoms were fever (84%) and local inflammatory signs (40%). The clinical manifestations include soft tissue infections (32%), bacteremia (30%), osteoarthritis (10,8%), empyema (10,8%), toxic shock (8,1%) and necrotizing fasciitis (5,4%). Three patients died. Conclusion: Invasive GAS mainly affects healthy children with skin port of entry and may cause death

Claudia, Alarcón O; Mary Carmen, Ordenes P; Marisol, Denegri M; Jorge, Zúñiga.

188

Streptococcus pneumoniae Pilus Subunits Protect Mice against Lethal Challenge?  

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Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major public health threat worldwide. The recent discovery that this pathogen possesses pili led us to investigate their protective abilities in a mouse model of intraperitoneal infection. Both active and passive immunization with recombinant pilus subunits afforded protection against lethal challenge with the S. pneumoniae serotype 4 strain TIGR4. PMID:17145945

Gianfaldoni, Claudia; Censini, Stefano; Hilleringmann, Markus; Moschioni, Monica; Facciotti, Claudia; Pansegrau, Werner; Masignani, Vega; Covacci, Antonello; Rappuoli, Rino; Barocchi, Michele Anne; Ruggiero, Paolo

2007-01-01

189

Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus subunits protect mice against lethal challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major public health threat worldwide. The recent discovery that this pathogen possesses pili led us to investigate their protective abilities in a mouse model of intraperitoneal infection. Both active and passive immunization with recombinant pilus subunits afforded protection against lethal challenge with the S. pneumoniae serotype 4 strain TIGR4. PMID:17145945

Gianfaldoni, Claudia; Censini, Stefano; Hilleringmann, Markus; Moschioni, Monica; Facciotti, Claudia; Pansegrau, Werner; Masignani, Vega; Covacci, Antonello; Rappuoli, Rino; Barocchi, Michèle Anne; Ruggiero, Paolo

2007-02-01

190

Brain abscess due to Streptococcus oralis in an immunocompetent patient.  

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A bacteriologically proven case of brain abscess, due to Streptococcus oralis is being reported in a 12-year-old girl who is a known case of congenital heart disease. The patient presented with fever, headache and vomiting. Pus cultures yielded S. oralis. PMID:24713909

Solanki, R; Subramanian, S; Lakshmi, V; Bhushanam, V; Kumar, A

2014-01-01

191

Streptococcus Gallolyticus Bacteraemia associated with colonic adenomatous polyps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A bacteriémia por Streptococcus gallolyticus associa-se frequentemente ao carcinoma colorrectal, tornando obrigatória a colonoscopia nestas situações. A endocardite bacteriana e a artrite séptica são também comuns neste tipo de bacteriémias. Tem sido levantada a hipótese das bactérias intestinais po [...] derem ter um papel promotor de hiperproliferação celular aberrante em lesões cólicas pré-neoplásicas, aparentemente devido a processos inflamatórios crónicos e produção de metabolitos carcinogénicos. Os autores apresentam o caso dum doente com vários pólipos adenomatosos tubulares do cólon direito, em dois dos quais se demonstrou uma área de displasia de alto grau adjacente a zona de colite infecciosa bacteriana, associados a quadro clínico de infecção sistémica por Streptococcus gallolyticus e artrite do tornozelo. Abstract in english Bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus is frequently associated with colorectal carcinoma, making evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract by colonoscopy obligatory in such cases. Bacterial endocarditis and purulent arthritis are also common in patients with these bacteraemias. Intestinal bac [...] teria could behave as promoters of aberrant hyperproliferative behaviour in preneoplastic colorectal lesions, apparently due to chronic inflammatory processes and production of carcinogenic metabolites. The authors treated a patient with several tubular adenomatous polyps of the right colon, two of which showed areas of high-grade dysplasia adjacent to areas of infectious bacterial colitis associated with Streptococcus gallolyticus bacteraemia and unilateral ankle arthritis.

A., Murinello; P., Mendonça; C., Ho; P., Tavares; H., Peres; R. Rio, Tinto; A., Morbey; C., Campos; A., Lázaro; A., Milheiro; M. J., Arias; J., Oliveira; S., Braz.

2006-05-01

192

Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans strain OMZ 176 by xylitol.  

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The present study showed that xylitol exhibited a dose-related inhibition of the growth of Streptococcus mutans in a Brain Heart Infusion medium. It is suggested that the mechanism involved may be an effect of the translocation of glucose across the bacterial cell membrane. Sorbitol showed no similar effect but caused a delay in the reaching of the stationary phase. PMID:7368940

Assev, S; Vegarud, G; Rölla, G

1980-02-01

193

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction as a mastitis screening test for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis in bulk milk samples.  

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Effective diagnostic tools for screening herds for mastitis pathogens are important in development and monitoring of mastitis control programmes. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for simultaneous detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis was used in preliminary studies to assess its applicability as an alternative method for monitoring mastitis caused by these organisms at the herd level. PCR was used to detect the presence of these organisms in bulk milk samples. Correlations with bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMCC), total bacteria counts and thermoduric bacteria counts were evaluated. A total of 176 bulk milk samples were collected from 42 herds on five consecutive occasions at approx. 10-d intervals. Str. uberis was the most common organism in these bulk milk samples. There was no relationship between presence of either Staph. aureus, Str. dysgalactiae or Str. uberis and BMCC, total bacteria counts or thermoduric bacteria counts. However, presence of Str. agalactiae was associated with high BMCC and total bacteria counts. The results of this study show that regular analysis of bulk milk using this multiplex PCR assay may be a useful tool for monitoring herd status with respect to Str. agalactiae, but is of less value for monitoring occurrence of Staph. aureus, Str. dysgalactiae and Str. uberis. Further investigations are needed to clarify the relationship between positive PCR results and the prevalence of infected cows in the herd. PMID:12800868

Phuektes, Patchara; Browning, Glenn F; Anderson, Garry; Mansell, Peter D

2003-05-01

194

Population diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the upper respiratory tracts of adults, determined by a nonculture strategy.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat. A culture-independent method was used, based on cloning and sequencing of PCR amplicons of the housekeeping gene gdh, which shows remarkable, yet species-specific, genetic polymorphism. Samples were collected from all potential ecological niches in the oral cavity and pharynx of two adults on two occasions separated by 2 years. Based on analysis of close to 10,000 sequences, significant diversity was observed in populations of all three species. Fluctuations in the relative proportions of individual clones and species were observed over time. While a few clones dominated, the proportions of most clones were very small. The results show that the frequent turnover of S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. infantis clones observed by cultivation can be explained by fluctuations in the relative proportions of clones, most of which are below the level of detection by the traditional culture technique, possibly combined with loss and acquisition from contacts. These findings provide a platform for understanding the mechanisms that govern the balance within the complex microbiota at mucosal sites and between the microbiota and the mucosal immune system of the host.

Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, H

2008-01-01

195

Streptococcus infantarius sp. nov., Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius subsp. nov. and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli subsp. nov., isolated from humans and food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen strains isolated from human specimens or from food products were characterized as atypical variants of mannitol-negative Streptococcus bovis. They were tested for extended biochemical criteria, ribotyping and DNA-DNA hybridization in order to define their taxonomic status. These strains were demonstrated to constitute a DNA relatedness group that includes strains of DNA group 4 of Farrow et al. (1984). Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequences demonstrated that these strains represent a new species which belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex and which has been provisionally named S. infantarius by Bouvet et al. (1997). Biotyping and ribotyping allowed differentiation of these strains from the aesculin-positive strains of S. bovis belonging to the previously described biotypes I, II.1 and II.2. The results of the ribotyping and hybridization assays demonstrated the presence of two different DNA subgroups within the 18 strains. On the basis of these data, the names S. infantarius subsp. infantarius (aesculin-negative for five strains out of seven, including the type strain HDP 90056T = NCDO 599T) and S. infantarius subsp. coli (aesculin-positive, reference strain HDP 90248 = NCDO 2620) are proposed as the names for these two subspecies within the S. infantarius species. PMID:10939646

Schlegel, L; Grimont, F; Collins, M D; Régnault, B; Grimont, P A; Bouvet, A

2000-07-01

196

Comprehensive study of strains previously designated Streptococcus bovis consecutively isolated from human blood cultures and emended description of Streptococcus gallolyticus and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern taxonomy has delineated Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius within the heterogenous group of previously designated clinical Streptococcus bovis bacteria. In the present study, 58 consecutive blood culture isolates initially designated S. bovis were further characterized by applying phenotypic and molecular genetic methods, and possible disease associations were investigated by studying the patients' records. Published phenotypic characteristics of S. gallolyticus and S. infantarius were not unequivocal and did not allow an unambiguous phenotypic differentiation of the 58 clinical isolates. However, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences clearly assigned the strains to S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (n = 29), S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (n = 12), and S. infantarius subsp. coli (n = 17). Only 28% of the patients with available records presented with endocarditis and 7% presented with colon carcinoma, whereas 37% of the patients had altered liver parenchyma and 28% had gall bladder disease as underlying diseases. Detailed antimicrobial susceptibility data on both S. gallolyticus subspecies and S. infantarius subsp. coli are given for the first time. As a result of the extensive characterization of the largest number of S. gallolyticus and S. infantarius human clinical isolates published so far, emended species descriptions are given. It is recommended that both clinical microbiologists and infectious disease specialists avoid the designation S. bovis for true S. gallolyticus and S. infantarius strains in the future in order to get a clearer picture of the possible disease associations of these species. PMID:18614655

Beck, Marcella; Frodl, Reinhard; Funke, Guido

2008-09-01

197

Taxonomic dissection of the Streptococcus bovis group by analysis of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) sequences: reclassification of 'Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli' as Streptococcus lutetiensis sp. nov. and of Streptococcus bovis biotype 11.2 as Streptococcus pasteurianus sp. nov.  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomic dissection of the Streptococcus bovis-Streptococcus equinus group was carried out upon obtaining sequences for the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) of the type strains of S. bovis, Streptococcus caprinus, S. equinus, Streptococcus gallolyticus, Streptococcus infantarius, Streptococcus macedonicus and Streptococcus waius. The sodA sequences of 29 streptococcal strains of animal and human origin that were related to S. bovis were also sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis of the sodA sequences revealed that the S. bovis-S. equinus group comprises five different clusters that correspond to five distinct species. The type strains of S. bovis and S. equinus were associated in the same cluster, corresponding to the species S. equinus. The type strains of S. caprinus, S. gallolyticus, S. macedonicus and S. waius were associated in the same cluster, which defined a single species containing S. gallolyticus and its junior synonym S. caprinus, and S. macedonicus and its junior synonym S. waius. The two subspecies thought to constitute the species S. infantarius, namely S. infantarius subsp. infantarius and 'S. infantarius subsp. coli', were located in two distinct clusters. One of these clusters defined the species S. infantarius and included the type strain of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius. The other cluster defined 'S. infantarius subsp. coli', leading to the proposal of its reclassification as the novel species Streptococcus lutetiensis (NEM 782T = CIP 106849T). The remaining cluster comprised all of the strains previously identified as belonging to S. bovis biotype 11.2, leading to the proposal to reassign these strains to the novel species Streptococcus pasteurianus (NEM 1202T = CIP 107122T). The results of the phylogenetic analysis were confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, thus demonstrating that sequence databases of defined DNA targets, such as sodA, may constitute a valuable alternative approach for modern bacterial systematics. PMID:12148636

Poyart, Claire; Quesne, Gilles; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

2002-07-01

198

Severe acute otitis media caused by mucoid streptococcus pyogenes in a previously healthy adult.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus (S.) pyogenes is well recognized as the most common pathogen causing pharyngotonsillitis in school-age children. In Japan, mucoid Streptococcus pneumoniae is well known as a causative agent of severe acute otitis media (AOM); however, mucoid S. pyogenes has rarely been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an AOM patient caused by mucoid S. pyogenes in Japan. A 36-year-old previously healthy female was referred to our hospital with suspicion of cerebrospinal otorrhea due to increasing otalgia accompanied by headache following myringotomy. Bacterial cultures of middle ear secretions were performed, and mucoid-form colonies surrounded by zones of complete ?-hemolysis were produced on sheep's blood agar. Antigen-agglutination test results were positive for S. pyogenes, and thus the patient received treatment with panipenem-betamipron 2.0 g/day for 10 days, which resolved nearly all symptoms. The bacteriological features of this strain were then investigated. The M-protein genotype encoded by the emm gene, the major virulence factor of S. pyogenes, was determined to be emm75. Generally, S. pyogenes forms colonies having non-mucoid matt appearances based on ?-hemolysis of sheep's blood agar. The mucoid phenotype results from abundant production of hyaluronic acid capsular polysaccharide, a key virulence determinant. emm75 is common in noninvasive, but less common in invasive disease. In conclusion, mucoid S. pyogenes can cause severe infection even in previously healthy persons. Emergence of mucoid S. pyogenes and drug resistance trends should be monitored in the future. PMID:24727832

Kakuta, Risako; Yano, Hisakazu; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Hiromitsu; Irimada, Mihoko; Oda, Kiyoshi; Arai, Kazuaki; Ozawa, Daiki; Takahashi, Takashi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Katori, Yukio

2014-01-01

199

Genetic polymorphism of Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members / Polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans em membros de famílias brasileiras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar, através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR) a capacidade de diferenciar clones geneticamente distintos de Streptococcus mutans e estabelecer o grau de similaridade intrafamilial para os isolados. Para o presente estudo [...] , foram selecionadas 22 famílias brasileiras. Amostras de saliva foram coletadas de todos os membros das famílias. Das crianças com idade entre 5-18 meses obteve-se amostras de placa dental. Após o isolamento das colônias com características morfológicas, realizou-se a identificação bioquímica com base na fermentação de carboidratos. O polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans foi pesquisado através da técnica de AP-PCR utilizando-se o primer OPA-13. Os fragmentos de DNA obtidos foram amplificados e comparados através de eletroforese em gel de agarose. Dentre as espécies identificadas nas 22 famílias analisadas, o pai apresentou cepas com similaridade genética aos dos bebês em três das famílias analisadas; em 12 famílias a mãe apresentou cepas com similaridade com as cepas de Streptococcus mutans do bebê e 7 bebês apresentaram cepas de S. mutans com similaridade genética das cepas do irmão mais velho. A técnica de AP-PCR foi eficaz em demonstrar a heterogeneidade genética de Streptococcus mutans entre os membros das famílias brasileiras analisadas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine whether random amplified polymorphic DNA (AP-PCR) analysis is able to differentiate genetically different clones of mutans streptococci, in 22 Brazilian family members. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from fathers, mothers and infants. For 5-18 months [...] babies with erupting primary dentition, plaque samples were collected using sterile tooth pick tips. From these samples, mutans streptococci were isolated on SB-20 agar plates. After growth, representative colonies were identified by biochemical methods on the basis of carbohydrate fermentation. Streptococcus mutans isolates were obtained from all family members and AP-PCR typed separately with a random primer (OPA-13). Bacterial cell lysates were used as template in PCR reactions and the amplified DNA fragments obtained were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results demonstrated that the father shared the baby's genotype in three families and the mother shared the baby's genotype in 12 families seven babies harbored Streptococcus mutans strains similar to those of their siblings. The technique was able to demonstrate the genetic Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members.

Denise Madalena Palomari, Spolidorio; José Francisco, Höfling; Antônio Carlos, Pizzolitto; Edvaldo Antonio, Rosa; Thaís de Cássia, Negrini; Luís Carlos, Spolidorio.

200

Detecting agents.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as...

Johnson, Susan C.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Structural basis of pilus anchoring by the ancillary pilin RrgC of Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pili are surface-attached, fibrous virulence factors that play key roles in the pathogenesis process of a number of bacterial agents. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a causative agent of pneumonia and meningitis, and the appearance of drug-resistance organisms has made its treatment challenging, especially in developing countries. Pneumococcus-expressed pili are composed of three structural proteins: RrgB, which forms the polymerized backbone, RrgA, the tip-associated adhesin, and RrgC, which presumably associates the pilus with the bacterial cell wall. Despite the fact that the structures of both RrgA and RrgB were known previously, structural information for RrgC was still lacking, impeding the analysis of a complete model of pilus architecture. Here, we report the structure of RrgC to 1.85 Å and reveal that it is a three-domain molecule stabilized by two intradomain isopeptide bonds. RrgC does not depend on pilus-specific sortases to become attached to the cell wall; instead, it binds the preformed pilus to the peptidoglycan by employing the catalytic activity of SrtA. A comprehensive model of the type 1 pilus from S. pneumoniae is also presented. PMID:24755220

Shaik, Md Munan; Maccagni, Amandine; Tourcier, Guillaume; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Dessen, Andréa

2014-06-13

202

Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de las vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%. Se observó susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina en 19 aislamientos (17%, con sensibilidad intermedia en 12 (11% y franca resistencia en 7 (6%. Solo 1 de los 19 aislamientos resistentes a penicilina mostró también resistencia a la ceftriaxona. Se observó sensibilidad disminuida a la eritromicina en 3 aislamientos (3%, al cloranfenicol en 6 (5% y al cotrimoxazol (trimetoprima + sulfametoxazol en 46 (40%. Se encontró multirresistencia en 7 aislamientos (6%. El serotipo con sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina que se halló con mayor frecuencia fue el 23F (68,4%. Se observó una asociación entre la edad, el uso previo de antibióticos y la colonización con S. pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina o multirresistencia. Este estudio confirma la presencia de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. pneumoniae en Colombia y resalta la importancia del uso racional de los antibióticos y de la implementación de la vigilancia epidemiológica sobre este agente.

Leal Aura Lucía

1997-01-01

203

Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and methods Despite continuous efforts, the increasing prevalence of resistance among pathogenic bacteria to common antibiotics has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal activity of zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles has not yet been studied. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of bismuth nanoparticles against oral bacteria and their antibiofilm capabilities. Results Our results showed that stable colloidal bismuth nanoparticles had 69% antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans growth and achieved complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are similar to those obtained with chlorhexidine, the most commonly used oral antiseptic agent. The minimal inhibitory concentration of bismuth nanoparticles that interfered with S. mutans growth was 0.5 mM. Conclusion These results suggest that zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles could be an interesting antimicrobial agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic preparation. PMID:22619547

Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Diaz, David; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Garza-Enriquez, Marianela; De la Garza-Ramos, Myriam A; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

2012-01-01

204

Antibacterial effect of dental adhesive containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate on the development of Streptococcus mutans biofilm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives. PMID:25046750

Wang, Suping; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H K; Weir, Michael D; Ge, Yang; Wang, Shida; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei

2014-01-01

205

Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm  

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Full Text Available Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05. In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

Suping Wang

2014-07-01

206

Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP. Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratório e de amostras de sangue não relacionadas a infecções meníngeas e foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretações categóricas de CIM foram baseadas em padrões atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetíveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treated, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC < 2 µg/mL, and, consequently, they were also susceptible to amoxicillin, ampicillin, third/fourth generation cephalosporins, and ertapenem. Of the S. pneumoniae strains, 99% were also susceptible to moxifloxacin, and only one strain showed an MIC = 1.5 µg/mL (intermediate. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed high susceptibility rates to parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin among S. pneumoniae isolates unrelated to meningitis, which differs from international reports. Reports on penicillin resistance should be based on updated breakpoints for non-meningitis isolates in order to guide the selection of an antimicrobial therapy and to improve the prediction of the clinical outcomes.

Flávia Rossi

2012-02-01

207

Biofilm formation and virulence expression by Streptococcus mutans are altered when grown in dual-species model  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial cell-cell interactions in the oral flora are believed to play an integral role in the development of dental plaque and ultimately, its pathogenicity. The effects of other species of oral bacteria on biofilm formation and virulence gene expression by Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, were evaluated using a dual-species biofilm model and RealTime-PCR analysis. Results As compared to mono-species biofilms, biofilm formation by S. mutans was significantly decreased when grown with Streptococcus sanguinis, but was modestly increased when co-cultivated with Lactobacillus casei. Co-cultivation with S. mutans significantly enhanced biofilm formation by Streptococcus oralis and L. casei, as compared to the respective mono-species biofilms. RealTime-PCR analysis showed that expression of spaP (for multi-functional adhesin SpaP, a surface-associated protein that S. mutans uses to bind to the tooth surface in the absence of sucrose, gtfB (for glucosyltransferase B that synthesizes ?1,6-linked glucan polymers from sucrose and starch carbohydrates and gbpB (for surface-associated protein GbpB, which binds to the glucan polymers was decreased significantly when S. mutans were co-cultivated with L. casei. Similar results were also found with expression of spaP and gbpB, but not gtfB, when S. mutans was grown in biofilms with S. oralis. Compared to mono-species biofilms, the expression of luxS in S. mutans co-cultivated with S. oralis or L. casei was also significantly decreased. No significant differences were observed in expression of the selected genes when S. mutans was co-cultivated with S. sanguinis. Conclusions These results suggest that the presence of specific oral bacteria differentially affects biofilm formation and virulence gene expression by S. mutans.

Ahn Sang-Joon

2010-04-01

208

Conventional use of honey as antibacterial agent  

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Full Text Available Background : Honey has since been found to possess antibacterial property and is therefore employed for wound therapy. The current problems with conventional antibacterial agents, led to the choice of honey as well as other natural products by the populace, in the treatment of bacterial infections. The present study evaluates the antibacterial spectrum and efficacy of honey and compared same with tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Methods : Different concentrations (12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100.0 % of honey were studied in - vitro using Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella sp., Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Results :The data obtained showed a dose dependent inhibitory action of honey, except with Streptococcus faecalis where there was no growth inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of honey presented Staphylococcus albus as the most susceptible organism and Escherichia coli, the least. While ciprofloxacin (2.0 mg/ml exerted a greater potency than honey, tetracycline was found to be less potent than 100% concentration of honey, except with Escherichia coli. Conclusion :The antibacterial action of honey was observed with 50% as well as the neat concentration. However, ciprofloxacin exhibited a greater potency and efficacy as well as a broader spectrum than honey, which shows that where a broad spectrum antibacterial is required, the conventional drugs, especially the newer ones are preferred to honey.

Agbaje E

2006-06-01

209

Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en niños: Report of a case due to penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae / Pneumococcal endocarditis in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente de infección bacteriana invasora en niños; sin embargo, es extremadamente infrecuente como causa de endocarditis. Esta entidad clínica se manifiesta generalmente como una enfermedad aguda y grave con alta mortalidad, que requiere tratamiento médico-qui [...] rúrgico precoz, afectando con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años 4 meses, de extrema ruralidad, que presentó endocarditis infecciosa (EI) de válvula mitral asociada a meningitis, aislándose en hemocultivos S. pneumoniae resistente a penicilina y se discute las estrategias terapéuticas Abstract in english Despite S. pneumoniae is one of main etiologies of invasive bacterial infection in children, it rarely causes infectious endocarditis in children. Pneumococcal endocarditis is a serious condition that affects mainly the mitral valve, with a rapidly destructive nature and a high fatality rate, demand [...] ing prompt medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a school girl coming from extreme rurality who presented both meningitis and endocarditis, and whose blood cultures isolated penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae

M. Soledad, Wenzel A; Marlis, Täger F; Roberto, Burgos L; M. Teresa, Bilbao M.

210

Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en niños: Report of a case due to penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumococcal endocarditis in children  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente de infección bacteriana invasora en niños; sin embargo, es extremadamente infrecuente como causa de endocarditis. Esta entidad clínica se manifiesta generalmente como una enfermedad aguda y grave con alta mortalidad, que requiere tratamiento médico-quirúrgico precoz, afectando con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años 4 meses, de extrema ruralidad, que presentó endocarditis infecciosa (EI de válvula mitral asociada a meningitis, aislándose en hemocultivos S. pneumoniae resistente a penicilina y se discute las estrategias terapéuticasDespite S. pneumoniae is one of main etiologies of invasive bacterial infection in children, it rarely causes infectious endocarditis in children. Pneumococcal endocarditis is a serious condition that affects mainly the mitral valve, with a rapidly destructive nature and a high fatality rate, demanding prompt medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a school girl coming from extreme rurality who presented both meningitis and endocarditis, and whose blood cultures isolated penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae

M. Soledad Wenzel A

2006-09-01

211

Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en niños: Report of a case due to penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae / Pneumococcal endocarditis in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente de infección bacteriana invasora en niños; sin embargo, es extremadamente infrecuente como causa de endocarditis. Esta entidad clínica se manifiesta generalmente como una enfermedad aguda y grave con alta mortalidad, que requiere tratamiento médico-qui [...] rúrgico precoz, afectando con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años 4 meses, de extrema ruralidad, que presentó endocarditis infecciosa (EI) de válvula mitral asociada a meningitis, aislándose en hemocultivos S. pneumoniae resistente a penicilina y se discute las estrategias terapéuticas Abstract in english Despite S. pneumoniae is one of main etiologies of invasive bacterial infection in children, it rarely causes infectious endocarditis in children. Pneumococcal endocarditis is a serious condition that affects mainly the mitral valve, with a rapidly destructive nature and a high fatality rate, demand [...] ing prompt medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a school girl coming from extreme rurality who presented both meningitis and endocarditis, and whose blood cultures isolated penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae

M. Soledad, Wenzel A; Marlis, Täger F; Roberto, Burgos L; M. Teresa, Bilbao M.

2006-09-01

212

Reappraisal of the taxonomy of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex and related species: description of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus subsp. nov., S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus subsp. nov. and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus subsp. nov.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus' is a large bacterial complex including different species frequently isolated from infections of humans (Streptococcus gallolyticus, Streptococcus infantarius) or animals (S. bovis, S. equinus, Streptococcus alactolyticus). The separation of S. bovis into three different biotypes has been partially correlated with genetic differentiation. In addition, recent advances in bacterial phylogeny have led to the inclusion of Streptococcus macedonicus and Streptococcus waius in this complex. The aim of this study was to improve physiological differentiation between species related to the complex and to clarify their respective phylogenetic positions. In this study, physiological, genetic and phylogenetic analyses of a set of 88 streptococcal strains were performed. The diversity of strains of S. bovis biotype II was analysed, and it was confirmed that they belong to different species, either S. equinus or S. infantarius. It was demonstrated that S. gallolyticus, S. bovis biotype II.2, S. macedonicus and S. waius form a single DNA cluster separated into three different subspecies. They are delineated by different biochemical traits, limited DNA-DNA relatedness and noticeable divergence in 16S rDNA sequences. According to the current definition of species, the names S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus subsp. nov., S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus subsp. nov. and S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus subsp. nov. are proposed for these three subspecies. PMID:12807180

Schlegel, Laurent; Grimont, Francine; Ageron, Elisabeth; Grimont, Patrick A D; Bouvet, Anne

2003-05-01

213

Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae: a case of S. agalactiae infection in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus  

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Full Text Available A multiplex PCR (m-PCR technique was developed for simultaneous detection of the causative agents responsible forstreptococcosis of cultured fish in Thailand i.e., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae.The study on the sensitivity of the technique indicated that the minimum detected DNA concentration was 9.76, 39.06, and19.53 pg for S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieae, respectively. Detection of streptococcosis in healthy and diseased Niletilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus cultured in Paphayomand Bangkaew District, Phatthalung Province and Sichon and Hua Sai District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand, bym-PCR technique showed positive results for S. agalactiae from tilapia cultured in Bangkaew and Hua Sai and negativeresults for samples from Paphayom and Sichon. The m-PCR results were in accordance with microbiological culture techniques,which detected S. agalactiae from tilapia cultured in Bangkaew and Hua Sai indicating that our m-PCR assay is a sensitiveand specific diagnostic tool for simultaneous detection of streptococcosis caused by S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieaein cultured fish in Thailand.

Chutima Tantikitti

2012-11-01

214

Trading Agents  

CERN Document Server

Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

Wellman, Michael

2011-01-01

215

KGB agents  

Science.gov (United States)

A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

Gaina, Alex

216

13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

...including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 108.1620...including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. (a) Agents...or TCs pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition of...

2010-01-01

217

7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

...including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 4290.1620...including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. (a) Agents...or TCs pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition of...

2010-01-01

218

13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.  

Science.gov (United States)

...including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 107.1620...including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. (a) Agents...or TCs pursuant to this part. (1) Selling Agent. As a condition of...

2010-01-01

219

Antibacterial Activity of Iranian Green and Black Tea on Streptococcus Mutans: An In Vitro Study  

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Objective: Dental caries is a common infectious disease.Streptococcus mutans is the prevalent decay microorganism. The anti Streptococcus mutans activity of non fermented and semi-fermented tea has been shown. The aim of this study was to determine the anti Streptococcus mutans activity of Iranian green and black tea (non fermented and fermented type).Materials and Methods: The study was experimental. The aerial parts of wild-growing Camellia sinensis were collected from Lahijan province. The...

Kharazi Fard, M. J.; Niakan, M.; Jalayer Naderi, N.; Zardi, S.

2011-01-01

220

Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of group B Streptococcus virulence  

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Group B Streptococcus commonly colonises healthy adults without symptoms, yet under certain circumstances displays the ability to invade host tissues, evade immune detection and cause serious invasive disease. Consequently, Group B Streptococcus remains a leading cause of neonatal pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. Here we review recent information on the bacterial factors and mechanisms that direct host–pathogen interactions involved in the pathogenesis of Group B Streptococcus infection. N...

Maisey, Heather C.; Doran, Kelly S.; Nizet, Victor

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Infecciones invasivas por Streptococcus pneumoniae: Estudio epidemiológico e importancia del desarrollo de un sistema de vigilancia Invasive infections caused by Strep. pneumoniae: an epidemiological study and the importance of developing a monitoring system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Las infecciones invasivas por Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) producen mortalidad elevada en países en desarrollo, con tasas entre 4 y 100 veces mayores que las de Estados Unidos o Canadá. Es el primer agente causal de neumonía en la infancia y de meningitis fuera de los brotes epidémicos por Neisseria meningitidis. La OPS, a través del grupo SIREVA, dedicado al desarrollo de vacunas en Latinoamérica, organizó un programa de vigilancia de infecciones invasivas por Spn en seis países: A...

Ángela Gentile; Raúl Ruvinsky; Angela Gentile; Mabel Regueira; Alejandra Corso; Julio Pace; Julia Bakir; José Luis Di Fabio; Alicia Rossi; Marta Altschuler; Silvia González Ayala; Claudia Hernández; Etelvina Rubeglio; Rosa Bologna; Sara Grenón

2004-01-01

222

Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Domestic Rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. In August 2011, a severe infectious disease affecting rabbits, which caused 42% mortality, occurred in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. The main clinical signs included acute respiratory distress syndrome, fever, paddling and convulsions. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from the primary organs and tissues of diseased rabbits and then identified as S. agalactiae by morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequences analysis. All isolates of S. agalactiae showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to florfenicol, ampicillin,gentamicin and norfloxacin, as well as being resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. agalactiae natural infection in domestic rabbits. PMID:23465082

Ren, S Y; Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, X X; He, M; Peng, X; Wu, C Y; Lai, W M

2014-12-01

223

Case Report: Group B Streptococcus meningitis in an adolescent    

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) usually colonizes the gastrointestinal and lower genital tracts of asymptomatic hosts, yet the incidence of invasive disease is on the rise . We describe a case of an 18 year old woman, recently diagnosed with lupus, who reported a spontaneous abortion six weeks prior to her hospitalization.  She presented with fever, altered mental status, and meningeal signs, paired with a positive blood culture for GBS. Magnetic resonance imaging of her brain demonstrated an extra-axial fluid collection, and she was diagnosed with meningitis.  She received prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy and aggressive treatment for lupus, leading to clinical recovery. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing GBS as a potential pathogen in all patients presenting with CNS infection .  

Vittorino, Roselle; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; Ratner, Adam J.; Starr, Amy; McCann, Teresa

2014-01-01

224

Streptococcus group C meningitis with cavernous sinus thrombosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mattew Clarke,1 Hilary Enuh,1 Jessie Saverimuttu,2 Jay Nfonoyim31Department of Medicine, 2Division of Infectious Disease, 3Critical Care Unit, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USAAbstract: Group C Streptococcus (GCS is a rare cause of bacteremia in humans. It is mostly associated with zoonological infections. Although GCS can be part of the normal oral, skin, and genitourinary flora, an infection with this pathogen can be highly virulent, causing rapid, disseminating disease. With a mortality of about 25%, the poor prognosis is linked to the severity of illness and the high level of virulence of the organism. Only a few cases of GCS meningitis have been reported. We present the first case of GCS meningitis with cavernous sinus thrombosis.Keyword: streptococcus group C, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis

Clarke M

2013-08-01

225

Group B Streptococcus detection: comparison of PCR assay and culture as a screening method for pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most important causal agents of serious neonatal infections. Numerous assays have been evaluated for GBS screening in order to validate a fast and efficient method. The aim of this study was to compare the culture technique (estab [...] lished as the gold standard) with the molecular method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers (atr gene). Two hundred and sixty-three samples were analyzed. Vaginal samples were collected, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations, from women over 35 weeks of pregnancy at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA). Two different extraction methods were tested in all samples collected. PCR technique yielded 71 (26.99%) positive results. Sensitivity and specificity for PCR were 100% and 86.88%, respectively. PCR demonstrated a shorter turnaround time than the culture. The molecular methodology proved to be a useful screening for GBS, allowing effective treatment to be initiated in shorter time to prevent newborn infection.

Fernanda, de-Paris; Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro, Machado; Tailise Conte, Gheno; Bruna Maria, Ascoli; Kátia Ruschel Pilger de, Oliveira; Afonso Luis, Barth.

2011-08-01

226

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY IMMUNE RESPONSE TO FORMALIN INACTIVATED STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE ISOLATES IN RABBITS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate primary and secondary immune response to formalin inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in rabbits. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from mastitic buffaloes. The organism was characterized on the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical tests. An increased geomean antibody titer was observed in rabbits inoculated with single dose (Group A and double dose (Group B of Streptococcus agalactiae antigen. It was also evident from the results that the double dose of Streptococcus agalactiae antigen in rabbits (Group B showed better and long lasting humoral antibody response as compared to single dose (Group A.

M. ABUBAKAR, G. MUHAMMAD1 AND K. IBRAHIM

2006-07-01

227

Streptococcus mutans attachment on a cast titanium surface  

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This study examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and the corrosion of cast commercially pure titanium, used in dental dentures. The sample discs were cast in commercially pure titanium using the vacuum-pressure machine (Rematitan System). The surfaces of each metal were ground and polished with sandpaper (#300-4000) and alumina paste (0.3 µm). The roughness of the surface (Ra) was measured using the Surfcorder rugosimeter SE 1700. Fou...

Sicknan Soares da Rocha; Adilson César Abreu Bernardi; Antônio Carlos Pizzolitto; Gelson Luis Adabo; Elisabeth Loshchagin Pizzolitto

2009-01-01

228

Is Streptococcus pyogenes Resistant or Susceptible to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole?  

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Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly believed to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), resulting in reservations about using SXT for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) where S. pyogenes is involved. S. pyogenes' in vitro susceptibility to SXT depends on the medium's thymidine content. Thymidine allows S. pyogenes to bypass the sulfur-mediated inhibition of folate metabolism and, historically, has resulted in apparently reduced susceptibility of S. pyogenes to sulfur antibacte...

Bowen, Asha C.; Lilliebridge, Rachael A.; Tong, Steven Y. C.; Baird, Robert W.; Ward, Peter; Mcdonald, Malcolm I.; Currie, Bart J.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

2012-01-01

229

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes  

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Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils...

Julien Sfeir; Corinne Lefrançois; Dominique Baudoux; Amp Xe Verine Derbr Amp Xe, S.; Patricia Licznar

2013-01-01

230

Streptococcus suis Meningitis with Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

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Streptococcus suis infection is an emerging zoonosis in Asia. The most common disease manifestation is meningitis, which is often associated with hearing loss and cochleovestibular signs. S. suis infection in humans mainly occurs among risk groups that have frequent exposure to pigs or raw pork. Here, we report a case of S. suis meningitis in a 67-yr-old pig carcass handler, who presented with dizziness and sensorineural hearing loss followed by headaches. Gram-positive diplococci were isolat...

Huh, Hee Jae; Park, Kyoung-jin; Jang, Ja-hyun; Lee, Mina; Lee, Jang Ho; Ahn, Yoon Hee; Kang, Cheol-in; Ki, Chang-seok; Lee, Nam Yong

2011-01-01

231

Disulfide reduction and sulfhydryl uptake by Streptococcus mutans.  

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Incubation of Streptococcus mutans cells with certain disulfide compounds resulted in accumulation of reduced sulfhydryl compounds in the extracellular medium or in both the medium and the cells. Oxidized lipoic acid and lipoamide competed for reduction. At high concentrations, these compounds were reduced at rates comparable to that of glucose metabolism, and all of the increase in sulfhydryls was in the medium. Cystamine did not compete with these compounds for reduction but was also reduce...

Thomas, E. L.

1984-01-01

232

Suppurative keratitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae after cataract surgery.  

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Six elderly patients are described (age range 76-86 years) in whom a characteristic peripheral suppurative keratitis developed 1-36 months after uncomplicated cataract surgery. A corneal section had been used in all patients and four or five interrupted nylon sutures were present at the time of onset. Streptococcus pneumoniae was cultured from a corneal scrape in all cases. Treatment with appropriate antibiotics resulted in slow resolution though supplementary topical steroids were necessary ...

Charteris, D. G.; Batterbury, M.; Armstrong, M.; Tullo, A. B.

1994-01-01

233

Carbohydrate Availability Regulates Virulence Gene Expression in Streptococcus suis  

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Streptococcus suis is a major bacterial pathogen of young pigs causing worldwide economic problems for the pig industry. S. suis is also an emerging pathogen of humans. Colonization of porcine oropharynx by S. suis is considered to be a high risk factor for invasive disease. In the oropharyngeal cavity, where glucose is rapidly absorbed but dietary ?-glucans persist, there is a profound effect of carbohydrate availability on the expression of virulence genes. Nineteen predicted or confirmed ...

Ferrando, M. L.; Baarlen, P.; Orru?, G.; Piga, R.; Bongers, R. S.; Wels, M.; Greeff, A.; Smith, H.; Wells, J. M.

2014-01-01

234

Testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae for resistance to penicillin.  

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The increasing prevalence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae requires antibiotic susceptibility tests that can be done with greater ease and reliability. We measured the MIC of penicillin for pneumococci by the tube macrodilution method with Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB), Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM), Todd-Hewitt broth with 0.5% yeast extract (THY), and MHB with 3% lysed horse blood (LHB). Eight (19%) and 6 (14%) of 42 pneumococcal isolates failed to generate turbid growth in MHB ...

Marshall, K. J.; Musher, D. M.; Watson, D.; Mason, E. O.

1993-01-01

235

Estructura y función de la fosforilcolín esterasa de streptococcus pneumoniae  

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La fosforilcolín esterasa de Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pce) es la enzima responsable de la hidrólisis de los residuos de fosforilcolina de los ácidos teicoicos y lipoteicoicos unidos a la pared celular de neumococo. La fosforilcolina es un compuesto crucial en la patogénesis de la bacteria ya que se une específicamente a los receptores del factor de activación plaquetaria humano y sirve como anclaje para una familia de proteínas denominadas proteínas de unión a colina. En la presente...

Lagartera Ortiz, Laura

2006-01-01

236

Rgg Coordinates Virulence Factor Synthesis and Metabolism in Streptococcus pyogenes  

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Streptococcus pyogenes is a human-specific pathogen that relies on its host for metabolic substrates. Rgg-like proteins constitute a family of transcriptional regulators present in several gram-positive bacteria. In S. pyogenes, Rgg influences the expression of several virulence-associated proteins localized to the cell wall and extracellular environment. Secreted enzymes may degrade host macromolecules, thereby liberating metabolic substrates. To determine if Rgg regulation of exoprotein exp...

Chaussee, Michael S.; Somerville, Greg A.; Reitzer, Larry; Musser, James M.

2003-01-01

237

Investigation of Probiotic Chocolate Effect on Streptococcus mutans Growth Inhibition  

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Background: One of the most important factors in inducing the logarithmic growth of Streptococcus mutans, is a diet containing fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose. Objectives: The aim of the current research was to compare the ability of ordinary and probiotic chocolate to induce or inhibit the growth of S. mutans..Materials and Methods: Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum and L. acidophilus as probiotic strains, were cultivated on MRS agar for 24 hours at 35° C in 5% CO2. S. mutans ...

Anita Khanafari,; Sepideh Hosseini Porgham

2012-01-01

238

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

1989-09-01

239

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

240

Aspectos Clínicos y neuroinmunológicos de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae  

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Full Text Available Después de exitosas campañas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae hubo unaumento de casos de meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Con el objetivo de describir las característicasclínicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio y las complicaciones encontradas a un grupo de pacientes que sufrieron de estaenfermedad entre 1993 y 2006, evaluar el estado de la barrera sangre-líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR y el patrón derespuesta de síntesis intratecal de inmunoglobulinas a través del reibergrama, se estudiaron 12 niños conmeningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae que ingresaron en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón,Ciudad de La Habana, en ese periodo. Se dosificaron albúmina IgA, IgM e IgG y sus subclases por inmunodifusión radial en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. La edad más frecuente resultó la menor de un año. Las mayores complicaciones fueron: shock séptico y edema cerebral. Hubo tres pacientes fallecidos. Los patrones de las tres clases mayores de inmunoglobulinas aparecieron en el 33% del total. Los dos patrones de subclases de IgG más IgM tuvieron en común la disfunción de la barrera sangre-líquido cefalorraquídeo. La respuesta inmune intratecal en los pacientes con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae tiene características distintivas que lo diferencian de otras meningoencefalitis de origen bacteriano por lo que en su conjunto podrían ser elementos a ser tomados en cuenta para auxiliar al médico en su diagnóstico diferencial y en la táctica para una vacuna cubana.

Marlén González

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

The tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate suppresses cariogenic virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, possesses a series of virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity. Alternatives to traditional antimicrobial treatment, agents selectively inhibiting the virulence factors without necessarily suppressing the resident oral species, are promising. The anticariogenic properties of tea have been suggested in experimental animals and humans. Tea polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), have been shown to inhibit the growth and glucosyltransferases activity of S. mutans. However, their effects on biofilm and cariogenic virulence factors of oral streptococci other than glucosyltransferases have not been well documented. In this study, we investigated the biological effect of EGCg on the virulence factors of S. mutans associated with its acidogenicity and acidurity. The antimicrobial effects of EGCg on S. mutans biofilm grown in chemically defined medium were also examined. EGCg inhibited growth of S. mutans planktonic cells at an MIC of 31.25 ?g/ml and a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 62.5 ?g/ml. EGCg also inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation at 15.6 ?g/ml (minimum concentration that showed at least 90% inhibition of biofilm formation) and reduced viability of the preformed biofilm at 625 ?g/ml (sessile MIC??). EGCg at sub-MIC levels inhibited acidogenicity and acidurity of S. mutans cells. Analysis of the data obtained from real-time PCR showed that EGCg significantly suppressed the ldh, eno, atpD, and aguD genes of S. mutans UA159. Inhibition of the enzymatic activity of F?F?-ATPase and lactate dehydrogenase was also noted (50% inhibitory concentration between 15.6 and 31.25 ?g/ml). These findings suggest that EGCg is a natural anticariogenic agent in that it exhibits antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and suppresses the specific virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity. PMID:21149622

Xu, Xin; Zhou, Xue D; Wu, Christine D

2011-03-01

242

Use of a bacteriophage lysin, PlyC, as an enzyme disinfectant against Streptococcus equi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of the purulent infection equine strangles. This disease is transmitted through shedding of live bacteria from nasal secretions and abscess drainage or by contact with surfaces contaminated by the bacteria. Disinfectants are effective against S. equi, but inactivation by environmental factors, damage to equipment, and toxicity are of great concern. Bacteriophage-encoded lysins (cell wall hydrolases) have been investigated as therapeutic agents due to their ability to lyse susceptible gram-positive organisms. Here, we investigate the use of one lysin, PlyC, as a narrow-spectrum disinfectant against S. equi. This enzyme was active against >20 clinical isolates of S. equi, including both S. equi subsp. equi and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Significantly, PlyC was 1,000 times more active on a per weight basis than Virkon-S, a common disinfecting agent, with 1 microg of enzyme able to sterilize a 10(8) CFU/ml culture of S. equi in 30 min. PlyC was subjected to a standard battery of tests including the Use Dilution Method for Testing Disinfectants and the Germicidal Spray Products Test. Results indicate that aerosolized PlyC can eradicate or significantly reduce the S. equi load on a variety of materials found on common stable and horse-related equipment. Additionally, PlyC was shown to retain full activity under conditions that mimic a horse stable, i.e., in the presence of nonionic detergents, hard water, or organic materials. We propose PlyC as the first protein-based, narrow-spectrum disinfectant against S. equi, which may augment or supplement the use of broad-spectrum disinfectants in barns and stables where equine strangles is prevalent. PMID:19139235

Hoopes, J Todd; Stark, Caren J; Kim, Han Ah; Sussman, Daniel J; Donovan, David M; Nelson, Daniel C

2009-03-01

243

Use of a Bacteriophage Lysin, PlyC, as an Enzyme Disinfectant against Streptococcus equi?  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of the purulent infection equine strangles. This disease is transmitted through shedding of live bacteria from nasal secretions and abscess drainage or by contact with surfaces contaminated by the bacteria. Disinfectants are effective against S. equi, but inactivation by environmental factors, damage to equipment, and toxicity are of great concern. Bacteriophage-encoded lysins (cell wall hydrolases) have been investigated as therapeutic agents due to their ability to lyse susceptible gram-positive organisms. Here, we investigate the use of one lysin, PlyC, as a narrow-spectrum disinfectant against S. equi. This enzyme was active against >20 clinical isolates of S. equi, including both S. equi subsp. equi and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Significantly, PlyC was 1,000 times more active on a per weight basis than Virkon-S, a common disinfecting agent, with 1 ?g of enzyme able to sterilize a 108 CFU/ml culture of S. equi in 30 min. PlyC was subjected to a standard battery of tests including the Use Dilution Method for Testing Disinfectants and the Germicidal Spray Products Test. Results indicate that aerosolized PlyC can eradicate or significantly reduce the S. equi load on a variety of materials found on common stable and horse-related equipment. Additionally, PlyC was shown to retain full activity under conditions that mimic a horse stable, i.e., in the presence of nonionic detergents, hard water, or organic materials. We propose PlyC as the first protein-based, narrow-spectrum disinfectant against S. equi, which may augment or supplement the use of broad-spectrum disinfectants in barns and stables where equine strangles is prevalent. PMID:19139235

Hoopes, J. Todd; Stark, Caren J.; Kim, Han Ah; Sussman, Daniel J.; Donovan, David M.; Nelson, Daniel C.

2009-01-01

244

Contribution of the Alanine-Rich Region of Streptococcus mutans P1 to Antigenicity, Surface Expression, and Interaction with the Proline-Rich Repeat Domain  

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Streptococcus mutans is considered to be the major etiologic agent of human dental caries. Attachment of S. mutans to the tooth surface is required for the development of caries and is mediated, in part, by the 185-kDa surface protein variously known as antigen I/II, PAc, and P1. Such proteins are expressed by nearly all species of oral streptococci. Characteristics of P1 include an alanine-rich repeat region and a centrally located proline-rich repeat region. The proline-rich region of P1 ha...

Seifert, Trevor B.; Bleiweis, Arnold S.; Brady, L. Jeannine

2004-01-01

245

Fibronectin binding by Streptococcus milleri group strains and partial characterisation of the fibronectin receptor of Streptococcus anginosus F4.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Streptococcus milleri group were shown to bind fibronectin (Fn) to their cell-surface and this binding increased the adhesion of cells to hydroxyapatite. The binding of Fn to Streptococcus anginosus F4 was studied in more detail. Fn binding to bacterial cells increased the association of the bacteria with the polymorphonuclear leukocytes obtained from the peritoneal cavity of rats but did not increase killing of the bacteria. The cell-surface receptor was a protein of M(r) 14,000 which was released from cells after mutanolysin digestion. The binding was specific, with cells having a maximum number of binding sites per cell of 770. Electron microscopy, using gold-labelled Fn, localised the receptor to areas between daughter cells. PMID:8559042

Willcox, M D; Loo, C Y; Harty, D W; Knox, K W

1995-09-01

246

Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus difficile 16S-23S intergenic rDNA: genetic homogeneity and species-specific PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus difficile is a non-hemolytic Gram-positive bacterial coccus that causes septicemia and meningoencephalitis in farmed tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Recent studies have demonstrated S. difficile to be a group B, type Ib streptococcus with a whole cell protein electrophoretic profile indistinguishable from S. agalactiae and a biochemical profile similar to that observed for other group B, type Ib streptococci isolated from fish and frogs. The aim of this study was to expand on these findings by comparative nucleic acid sequence analysis of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacers of S. difficile and S. agalactiae. The 97.7% sequence homology identified in these studies supports the taxonomic relationship of these two organisms. The sequence data generated were also used to construct a pair of species-specific PCR primers for use in molecular detection and identification schemes. PMID:11163706

Berridge, B R; Bercovier, H; Frelier, P F

2001-01-26

247

Discrimination between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis based on sorting of their MALDI mass spectra.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate species-level identification of alpha-hemolytic (viridans) streptococci (VGS) is very important for understanding their pathogenicity and virulence. However, an extremely high level of similarity between VGS within the mitis group (S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, S. oralis and S. pseudopneumoniae) often results in misidentification of these organisms. Earlier, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been suggested as a tool for the rapid identification of S. pneumoniae. However, by using Biotyper 3.0 (Bruker) or Vitek MS (bioMérieux) databases, Streptococcus mitis/oralis species can be erroneously identified as S. pneumoniae. ClinProTools 2.1 software was used for the discrimination of MALDI-TOF mass spectra of 25 S. pneumoniae isolates, 34 S. mitis and three S. oralis. Phenotypical tests and multilocus gene typing schemes for the S. pneumoniae (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/) and viridans streptococci (http://viridans.emlsa.net/) were used for the identification of isolates included in the study. The classifying model was generated based on different algorithms (Genetic Algorithm, Supervised Neural Network and QuickClassifier). In all cases, values of sensitivity and specificity were found to be equal or close to 100%, allowing discrimination of mass spectra of different species. Three peaks (6949, 9876 and 9975 m/z) were determined conferring the maximal statistical weight onto each model built. We find this approach to be promising for viridans streptococci discrimination. PMID:23331578

Ikryannikova, L N; Filimonova, A V; Malakhova, M V; Savinova, T; Filimonova, O; Ilina, E N; Dubovickaya, V A; Sidorenko, S V; Govorun, V M

2013-11-01

248

[Enolase of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is involved in the antiphagocytosis of Streptococcus suis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To prepare the recombinant enolase of Streptococcus suis (SsEno), analyze the effect of SsEno on the antiphagocytosis by antibody-blocking assay in the human blood bactericidal model, and identify the human fibrinogen (hFg)-binding activity of SsEno protein. Methods SsEno gene was amplified using the primers designed according to 05ZYH33 genome sequences and cloned into the expression vector pET28a to construct recombinant plasmids. The plasmids were transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3) and induced to express by IPTG. The expression level was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The recombinant proteins were purified by nickel affinity chromatography and identified by Western blotting. High-titer specific antiserum against SsEno was prepared by immunizing rabbits with the purified recombinant proteins. The impact of SsEno on antiphagocytosis was analyzed by antibody-blocking assay in the human blood bactericidal model. In addition, the specific binding activity with hFg was identified by Far-Western blotting and ELISA. Results The prokaryotic expression vector of hisSsEno (SsEno with His tag) was constructed and high-purity recombinant expressed protein was purified. In specific antibody blocking assay, antiserum against the SsEno significantly decreased the percent of survival bacteria as observed in high virulent strain 05ZYH33. Additionally, hisSsEno was proved to have the specific binding activity with hFg. Conclusion SsEno was found to be a potential antiphagocytic factor of S. suis with a specific binding to hFg, suggesting that SsEno play an important role in antiphagocytosis of S. suis. PMID:25374077

Huo, Chunyue; Ji, Ying; Ren, Lili; Zhang, Jing; Kong, Junling

2014-11-01

249

Adherence characteristics of endocarditis-derived Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis biotype I) isolates to host extracellular matrix proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of the Streptococcus bovis group are frequent colonizers of the intestinal tract, which can also cause endocarditis. However, their ability to adhere to and colonize host tissues and the factors associated with pathogenicity are largely unknown. Here, we assessed 17 endocarditis-derived human isolates [identified here as 15 Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (S. bovis biotype I), one S. gallolyticus ssp. pasteurianus (biotype II/2) and one Streptococcus infantarius ssp. coli (biotype II/1)] for their in vitro adherence to components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Adherence to collagen type I was found to be the most common phenotype exhibited by 76% of isolates, followed by collagen type IV (53%), fibrinogen (47%), collagen type V (35%) and fibronectin (35%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analyses showed that >50% of endocarditis-derived S. gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus isolates are genetically diverse, although two clusters of two and four isolates were observed. The diversity of strains and differences observed in adherence characteristics to distinct host ECM proteins suggest that isolates of S. gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus produce different surface components, similar to other gram-positive pathogens, to colonize the host and cause infection. PMID:19054100

Sillanpää, Jouko; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Ferraro, Mary J; Murray, Barbara E

2008-12-01

250

Inactivation of dipeptidyl peptidase IV attenuates the virulence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 that causes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.  

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Di-peptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), originally recognized as CD26 in eukaryotic cells, is distributed widely in microbial pathogens, including Streptococcus suis (S. suis), an emerging zoonotic agent. However, the role of DPP IV in S. suis virulence remains unclear. Here, we identified a dpp IV homologue from highly invasive isolate of S. suis 2 (SS2) causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Enzymatic assays reproduced its enzymatic activity of dpp IV protein product as a functional DPP IV, and ELISA analysis demonstrated that SS2 DPP IV can interact with human fibronectin. An isogenic SS2 mutant of dpp IV, Delta dpp IV, was obtained by homologous recombination. Experimental animal infection suggested that an inactivation of dpp IV attenuates greatly its high virulence of Chinese virulent strains of SS2. Functional complementation can restore this defect in SS2 pathogenicity. To our knowledge, it may confirm, for the first time, that DPP IV contributes to SS2 virulence. PMID:19484301

Ge, Junchao; Feng, Youjun; Ji, Hongfeng; Zhang, Huimin; Zheng, Feng; Wang, Changjun; Yin, Zhimin; Pan, Xiuzhen; Tang, Jiaqi

2009-09-01

251

Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain SA20-06, a fish pathogen associated to meningoencephalitis outbreaks.  

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Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is the causative agent of meningoencephalitis in fish, mastitis in cows, and neonatal sepsis in humans. Meningoencephalitis is a major health problem for tilapia farming and is responsible for high economic losses worldwide. Despite its importance, the genomic characteristics and the main molecular mechanisms involved in virulence of S. agalactiae isolated from fish are still poorly understood. Here, we present the genomic features of the 1,820,886 bp long complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SA20-06 isolated from a meningoencephalitis outbreak in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil, and its annotation, consisting of 1,710 protein-coding genes (excluding pseudogenes), 7 rRNA operons, 79 tRNA genes and 62 pseudogenes. PMID:23991251

Pereira, Ulisses de Pádua; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Aburjaile, Flávia Figueira; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Guimarães, Luís Carlos; Silva de Almeida, Sintia; Diniz, Carlos Augusto Almeida; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Gomes de Sá, Pablo; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda Marriam; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Araújo, Flávio Marcos Gomes; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Oliveira, Guilherme; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco; Figueiredo, Henrique César Pereira

2013-01-01

252

Meningitis bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus suis en criadores de cerdos: comunicación de los primeros dos casos en Chile / Streptococcus suis meningitis in pig farmers: report of first two cases in Chile  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La infección humana por Streptococcus suis es una zoonosis con riesgo ocupacional conocido, siendo la meningitis aguda su manifestación clínica más frecuente. Se presentan los dos primeros casos en Chile. Primer caso: Mujer de 54 años con un cuadro de cefalea y vómitos, confusión y signos meníngeos. [...] Evolucionó con un shock séptico. Segundo caso: Varón de 48 años, refirió cefalea y vómitos. Presentó signos meníngeos al examen físico. En ambos casos en la tinción de Gram de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) se observaron cocáceas grampositivas. Fueron tratados con ceftriaxona y dexametasona. El cultivo de LCR fue positivo en ambos casos para S. suis serotipo 2. En los dos pacientes la evolución clínica fue favorable, sin alteraciones neurológicas al alta. En ambos casos se obtuvo en forma retrospectiva el antecedente de realizar labores de crianza de ganado porcino. Se destaca la importancia de investigar los antecedentes epidemiológicos para sospechar este agente etiológico en meningitis aguda. Se debe considerar el riesgo ocupacional en una posible infección por este patógeno humano emergente y educar a la población en riesgo sobre medidas preventivas simples. Abstract in english Human infection by Streptococcus suis is a zoonosis with a known occupational risk. Meningitis is its most frequent clinical manifestation. We present the first two cases in Chile. First case: 54-year-old female patient, pig-farmer. She presented headache, vomiting, confusion and meningismus. She pr [...] esented septic shock. Second case: 48-year-old male patient, also pig farmer, presented headache, vomiting and meningismus. A Gram's staining of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed gram-positive cocci in both cases. Ceftriaxone and dexamethasone treatment was administered. The CSF cultures were positive for Streptococcus suis serotype 2. The patients experienced a good outcome, without neurological sequelae at the time of discharge. It is considerable to evaluate epidemiologic factors in order to suspect this etiological agent in cases of meningitis. These cases enhance the need of heighten awareness of potential for occupational exposure and infection by this emerging human pathogen. Educating population at risk about simple preventive measures must be considered.

Erica, Koch; Gino, Fuentes; Rodrigo, Carvajal; Ricardo, Palma; Verónica, Aguirre; Carolina, Cruz; Ruby, Henríquez; Mario, Calvo.

2013-10-01

253

IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS  

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Full Text Available Immunosuppressive drugs play an important role in preventing the rejection of organ or tissue grafts and in the treatment of certain diseases that arise from dysregulation of the immune response. In recent years, many new immunosuppressive drugs have been discovered and developed for clinical use. The wide array of new drugs offers the opportunity to use combinations that block different pathways of immune activation. In transplantation, the major classes of immunosuppressive drugs used are: Glucocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative/antimetabolic agents, and biologics (antibodies. Newer drugs like Mizoribine, RS61443, Brequinar sodium are inhibitors of DNA synthesis and inhibitors of cell activation/maturation like (Deoxyspergualin, CP 17193 have also showed promising results. Tacrolimus (FK 506 and Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF have already replaced immunosuppressive maintenance protocols. The other two drugs, Leflunomide and Sirolimus (SRL, are still under investigation for use in solid organ transplantation. Anti-interleukin-2 (IL-2 receptor antibodies, anti-CD25 [interleukin (IL-2 receptor] antibodies (basiliximab, daclizumab target growth factor pathways, have shown promising results in phase III trials. These drugs have met with a high degree of clinical success in treating conditions such as acute immune rejection of organ transplants and severe autoimmune diseases. This article reviews the pharmacodynamics, adverse effects and uses of the major classes of immunosuppressive drugs.

Dr Pramila Yadav

2010-05-01

254

PROFILAXIS DE SEPSIS NEONATAL PRECOZ POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B) BASADA EN VACUNAS: REVISIÓN DE LA LITERATURA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus agalactiae o grupo B (SGB), es el principal agente de sepsis neonatal precoz. A pesar de los intentos de prevención de esta infección, aún no se logra la efectividad esperada. Es por esto que se ha intentado desarrollar una vacuna que pueda prevenir la mayoría de las patologías que [...] esta bacteria produce, incluyendo la sepsis neonatal precoz y tardía. De esta manera se evitarían las limitaciones actuales de la profilaxis antibiótica. Los intentos de crear una vacuna han incluido la utilización de polisacáridos del SGB tanto puros como asociados a proteínas como el toxoide tetánico. También, se han usado proteínas específicas de la cápsula que tienen potencial efectividad como factores inmunogénicos. Las vacunas conjugadas son las más estudiadas en la actualidad, habiendo completado estudios clínicos en fase II, tanto en adultos sanos como en embarazadas. Al ser la sepsis neonatal una complicación grave aún no controlada óptimamente, la creación de una vacuna contra este patógeno sería de gran impacto en salud pública. Se presentan los diferentes tipos de vacunas desarrolladas y el estado de avance en el que se encuentran. Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae or group B, is the mayor causing agent of early onset neonatal sepsis. Although mayor prevention strategies have been made, the expected effectiveness hasn't been achieved. That's why efforts have been made to develop a vaccine that can prevent most of the diseases these bac [...] teria can produce, including early and late onset neonatal sepsis. These way, actual antibiotic prophylaxis limitations can be avoided. Attempts include the utilization of Streptococcus group B polysaccharides in their puré state or combined with proteins as tetanic toxoid. Specific capsule proteins have been used also because of their po-tential effectiveness as inmunogenic factors. Overall vaccines conjugated ones are the most studied, having completed phase II clinical triáis in healthy adults and pregnant women. Neonatal sepsis is a severe compli-cation that has not been controlled yet, so the creation of a vaccine against this pathogen would be of great impact in public health. We introduce now the different developed vaccines and their state of progress.

Lorena, Campodónico O; Adriana, Doren V; Magdalena, Cruz O; Fernando, Abarzúa C.

255

PROFILAXIS DE SEPSIS NEONATAL PRECOZ POR STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GRUPO B BASADA EN VACUNAS: REVISIÓN DE LA LITERATURA  

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Full Text Available El Streptococcus agalactiae o grupo B (SGB, es el principal agente de sepsis neonatal precoz. A pesar de los intentos de prevención de esta infección, aún no se logra la efectividad esperada. Es por esto que se ha intentado desarrollar una vacuna que pueda prevenir la mayoría de las patologías que esta bacteria produce, incluyendo la sepsis neonatal precoz y tardía. De esta manera se evitarían las limitaciones actuales de la profilaxis antibiótica. Los intentos de crear una vacuna han incluido la utilización de polisacáridos del SGB tanto puros como asociados a proteínas como el toxoide tetánico. También, se han usado proteínas específicas de la cápsula que tienen potencial efectividad como factores inmunogénicos. Las vacunas conjugadas son las más estudiadas en la actualidad, habiendo completado estudios clínicos en fase II, tanto en adultos sanos como en embarazadas. Al ser la sepsis neonatal una complicación grave aún no controlada óptimamente, la creación de una vacuna contra este patógeno sería de gran impacto en salud pública. Se presentan los diferentes tipos de vacunas desarrolladas y el estado de avance en el que se encuentran.Streptococcus agalactiae or group B, is the mayor causing agent of early onset neonatal sepsis. Although mayor prevention strategies have been made, the expected effectiveness hasn't been achieved. That's why efforts have been made to develop a vaccine that can prevent most of the diseases these bacteria can produce, including early and late onset neonatal sepsis. These way, actual antibiotic prophylaxis limitations can be avoided. Attempts include the utilization of Streptococcus group B polysaccharides in their puré state or combined with proteins as tetanic toxoid. Specific capsule proteins have been used also because of their po-tential effectiveness as inmunogenic factors. Overall vaccines conjugated ones are the most studied, having completed phase II clinical triáis in healthy adults and pregnant women. Neonatal sepsis is a severe compli-cation that has not been controlled yet, so the creation of a vaccine against this pathogen would be of great impact in public health. We introduce now the different developed vaccines and their state of progress.

Lorena Campodónico O

2008-01-01

256

Perfil fermentativo e valor nutritivo de silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis / Fermentation and nutritive value of elephant grass silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi desenvolvido objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da inoculação de estirpes de Streptococcus bovis (HC5 e JB1) sobre o pH, a produção de amônia e o valor nutricional em silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, c [...] om três tratamentos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - capimelefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis HC5 e T3 - capim-elefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis JB1, utilizando cinco repetições por tratamento. A menor concentração de amônia foi observada na silagem tratada com inoculante à base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5,90 p.100 N-total). A inoculação aumentou os teores de ácido láctico e diminuiu os teores de ácidos acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo que as silagens inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 e HC5 foram os que apresentaram os maiores valores de ácido láctico. Não houve diferença estatística para os teores de MS e PB. Para os valores das fibras, a silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 apresentou o menor valor de FDN (59,77 p.100) e HEM (26,71 p.100). O maior valor da DIVMS foi observado na silagem com Streptococcus bovis JB1, mostrando superioridade de quatro pontos percentuais (64,23 p.100) em relação ao tratamento sem inoculante bacteriano (60,35 p.100). O uso Streptococcus bovis JB1 melhora o processo fermentativo além de promover melhorarias na qualidade da fibra e na DIVMS da silagem estudada. Abstract in english The experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of strains of Streptococcus bovis (HC5 and JB1) on pH, ammonia production and nutritional value in elephant-grass silages (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). The experimental design was entirely randomized, with three treatments: T1 elephant- grass, T2 - [...] grass-elephant inoculated with Streptococcus bovis HC5, T3 - elephant grass inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, totaling five replicates per treatment. The smallest value of ammonia was observed in the silage treated with inoculante the base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5.90% N-total). Inoculation increased the levels of lactic acid and decreased levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids, and the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 were those with the highest values of lactic acid. There were not statistical differences for the tenors of dry matter (MS) and crude protein (PB). For the values of the fibers, the grass-elephant silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, it presented the smallest value of neutral detergent fiber (59.77 %) and Hemicellulose (26.71 %). The largest value of in vitro dry matter digestibility (DIVMS) was observed in the silage with Streptococcus bovis JB1, showing superiority of four percentile points (64.23 %) in relation to the treatment without bacterial inoculante (60.35 %). The use Streptococcus bovis JB1 was efficient in the process fermentativo besides promoting would get better in the quality of the fiber and DIVMS in the studied silage.

D.J., Ferreira; A.M., Zanine; E.M., Santos; R.P., Lana; W.L., Silva; A.L., Souza; O.G., Pereira.

257

Perfil fermentativo e valor nutritivo de silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis / Fermentation and nutritive value of elephant grass silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi desenvolvido objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da inoculação de estirpes de Streptococcus bovis (HC5 e JB1) sobre o pH, a produção de amônia e o valor nutricional em silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, c [...] om três tratamentos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - capimelefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis HC5 e T3 - capim-elefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis JB1, utilizando cinco repetições por tratamento. A menor concentração de amônia foi observada na silagem tratada com inoculante à base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5,90 p.100 N-total). A inoculação aumentou os teores de ácido láctico e diminuiu os teores de ácidos acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo que as silagens inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 e HC5 foram os que apresentaram os maiores valores de ácido láctico. Não houve diferença estatística para os teores de MS e PB. Para os valores das fibras, a silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 apresentou o menor valor de FDN (59,77 p.100) e HEM (26,71 p.100). O maior valor da DIVMS foi observado na silagem com Streptococcus bovis JB1, mostrando superioridade de quatro pontos percentuais (64,23 p.100) em relação ao tratamento sem inoculante bacteriano (60,35 p.100). O uso Streptococcus bovis JB1 melhora o processo fermentativo além de promover melhorarias na qualidade da fibra e na DIVMS da silagem estudada. Abstract in english The experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of strains of Streptococcus bovis (HC5 and JB1) on pH, ammonia production and nutritional value in elephant-grass silages (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). The experimental design was entirely randomized, with three treatments: T1 elephant- grass, T2 - [...] grass-elephant inoculated with Streptococcus bovis HC5, T3 - elephant grass inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, totaling five replicates per treatment. The smallest value of ammonia was observed in the silage treated with inoculante the base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5.90% N-total). Inoculation increased the levels of lactic acid and decreased levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids, and the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 were those with the highest values of lactic acid. There were not statistical differences for the tenors of dry matter (MS) and crude protein (PB). For the values of the fibers, the grass-elephant silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, it presented the smallest value of neutral detergent fiber (59.77 %) and Hemicellulose (26.71 %). The largest value of in vitro dry matter digestibility (DIVMS) was observed in the silage with Streptococcus bovis JB1, showing superiority of four percentile points (64.23 %) in relation to the treatment without bacterial inoculante (60.35 %). The use Streptococcus bovis JB1 was efficient in the process fermentativo besides promoting would get better in the quality of the fiber and DIVMS in the studied silage.

D.J., Ferreira; A.M., Zanine; E.M., Santos; R.P., Lana; W.L., Silva; A.L., Souza; O.G., Pereira.

1223-12-01

258

Co-infection by Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: three case reports  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bacterial infections may appear as sequelae of remote tuberculous infections, especially thoracic infections. The simultaneous appearance of tuberculosis and bacterial infection is not common, and, to our knowledge, the association of infection by Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has not been reported previously in the literature. Case presentation We report three cases of dual infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that were first diagnosed as pyogenic abscesses because of an isolation of Streptococcus anginosus. Despite a course of antibiotics and drainage, the outcome of this initial treatment was unfavourable. A re-evaluation yielded a diagnosis of mixed infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusion In a geographical area with a high prevalence of tuberculous disease, the rare possibility of dual infection with Streptococcus anginosus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be considered.

Rabuñal Ramón

2009-01-01

259

Control of Streptococcus sanguinis oral biofilm by novel chlorhexidine-chitosan mouthwash: an in vitro study  

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Full Text Available Objective: The most common prevalent infectious oral diseases in humans are caries and periodontal diseases, which are usually associated with dental plaque. The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate and compare the impact of new mouthwash formulation consisting of chlorhexidine (0.1% and bioadhesive chitosan (0.5% on dental plaque bacterial reduction, to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. Methods: In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Streptococcus sanguinis from clinical plaque samples to four different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates to chlorhexidine (0.2%, chitosan (0.5%, chlorhexidine (0.1% plus chitosan (0.5% combination and saline were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Results: The zone of inhibition showed that chlorhexidine, chitosan and chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthwash exert an antimicrobial activity. A markedly higher and significant activity was obtained with chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthwash. On intergroup comparison there were statistically significant differences between all the tested solutions, except between chlorhexidine and chitosan mouthwash. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the present study, results showed that chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthrinse are superior in antimicrobial activity than chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 165-169

Bangalore V. Karthikeyan

2013-04-01

260

Gene content differences across strains of Streptococcus uberis identified using oligonucleotide microarray comparative genomic hybridization.  

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Streptococcus uberis is one of the principal causative agents of bovine mastitis. The organism is typically considered an environmental pathogen. In this study, two multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes and whole genome DNA microarrays were used to evaluate the degree and nature of genome flexibility between S. uberis strains. The 21 isolates examined in this study arise from a collection of 232 international isolates for which previous epidemiological and preliminary genotyping data existed. The microarray analysis resulted in an estimate of the core genome for S. uberis, consisting of 1530 ORFs, among 1855 tested, representing 82.5% of the S. uberis 0140J genome. The remaining ORFs were variable in gene content across the 21 tested strains. A total of 26 regions of difference (RDs), consisting of three or more contiguous ORFs, were identified among the variable genes. Core genes mainly encoded housekeeping functions, while the variable genes primarily fell within categories such as protection responses, degradation of small molecules, laterally acquired elements, and two component systems. Recombination detection procedures involving the MLST loci suggested S. uberis is a highly recombinant species, precluding accurate phylogenetic reconstructions involving these data. On the other hand, the microarray data did provide limited support for an association of gene content with strains found in multiple cows and/or multiple herds, suggesting the possibility of genes related to bovine transmissibility or host-adaptation. PMID:19056519

Lang, Ping; Lefébure, Tristan; Wang, Wei; Zadoks, Ruth N; Schukken, Ynte; Stanhope, Michael J

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Distribution of putative virulence genes in Streptococcus mutans strains does not correlate with caries experience.  

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Streptococcus mutans, a member of the human oral flora, is a widely recognized etiological agent of dental caries. The cariogenic potential of S. mutans is related to its ability to metabolize a wide variety of sugars, form a robust biofilm, produce copious amounts of lactic acid, and thrive in the acid environment that it generates. The remarkable genetic variability present within the species is reflected at the phenotypic level, notably in the differences in the cariogenic potential between strains. However, the genetic basis of these differences is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we surveyed by PCR and DNA hybridization the distribution of putative virulence genes, genomic islands, and insertion sequences across a collection of 33 strains isolated from either children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) or those who were caries free (CF). We found this genetically diverse group of isolates to be remarkably homogeneous with regard to the distribution of the putative virulence genes and genetic elements analyzed. Our findings point to the role of other factors in the pathogenesis of S-ECC, such as uncharacterized virulence genes, differences in gene expression and/or enzymatic activity, cooperation between S. mutans strains or with other members of the oral biota, and host factors. PMID:21209168

Argimón, Silvia; Caufield, Page W

2011-03-01

262

Evaluation of genotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans using distinct arbitrary primers  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR with arbitrary primers, several primers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11 presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.

Cínthia Pereira Machado Tabchoury

2008-12-01

263

Antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities of high molecular weight coffee components against Streptococcus mutans.  

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In previous studies we demonstrated that green and roasted coffee contains low molecular weight (LMW) compounds capable of inhibiting the ability of Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of human dental caries, to adhere to hydroxyapatite (HA) beads. This study addressed the ability of the whole high molecular weight coffee fraction (cHMW) and of its melanoidin and non-melanoidin components (GFC1-5), applied at concentrations that occur in coffee beverages, to (i) inhibit S. mutans growth; (ii) affect S. mutans sucrose-dependent adhesion to and detachment from saliva-coated HA beads (sHA); and (iii) inhibit biofilm development on microtiter plates. The results indicated that only cHMW is endowed with antimicrobial activity. The cHMW fraction and each of the five GFC components inhibited S. mutans adhesion, the strongest effect being exerted by cHMW (91%) and GFC1 (88%). S. mutans detachment from sHA was four times greater (?20%) with cHMW and the GFC1 and GFC4 melanoidins than with controls. Finally, biofilm production by S. mutans was completely abolished by cHMW and was reduced by 20% by the melanoidin components GFC2 and GFC4 and by the non-melanoidin component GFC5 compared with controls. Altogether these findings show that coffee beverage contains both LMW compounds and HMW melanoidin and non-melanoidin components with a strong ability to interfere in vitro with the S. mutans traits relevant for cariogenesis. PMID:21038921

Stauder, Monica; Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Schito, Anna Maria; Gazzani, Gabriella; Pruzzo, Carla; Daglia, Maria

2010-11-24

264

Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Supplemented-Chewing Candy Against Streptococcus mutans  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is considered to play a major etiological role in development of human dental plaque believed to related to dental caries, the most prevalent disease of the human oral cavity. The objectives of the present study were to formulate and produce propolis supplemented-chewing candy and to investigate its antibacterial activity against S. mutans. Propolis is a natural resinous bee-hive product thought to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating activities. Propolis was extracted from hives of bees of Trigona spp. using ethanol. The extract was coated with maltodextrine and homogenized to generate propolis microparticles. The particles were introduced into chewing candy preparations for the production of propolis supplemented-chewing candy. The candy was then subjected to in vitro antibacterial assays to test its activity against S. mutans isolated from human dental plaque. Results showed that the ethanol extracted propolis of Trigona spp. bee-hives can be homogenized to form propolis microparticles. The propolis microparticles could be used as a supplement in the formulation of chewing candy preparations. The propolis supplemented-chewing candy showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans. The candy, therefore, has the potential to be used as an antiplaque agent for prevention of dental caries.

AHMAD ENDANG ZAINAL HASAN

2011-09-01

265

Conjugative transfer of resistance determinants among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major source of human perinatal diseases and bovine mastitis. Erythromycin (Ery) and tetracycline (Tet) are usually employed for preventing human and bovine infections although resistance to such agents has become common among GBS strains. Ery and Tet resistance g [...] enes are usually carried by conjugative transposons (CTns) belonging to the Tn916 family, but their presence and transferability among GBS strains have not been totally explored. Here we evaluated the presence of Tet resistance genes (tetM and tetO) and CTns among Ery-resistant (Ery-R) and Ery-susceptible (Ery-S) GBS strains isolated from human and bovine sources; and analyzed the ability for transferring resistance determinants between strains from both origins. Tet resistance and int-Tn genes were more common among Ery-R when compared to Ery-S isolates. Conjugative transfer of all resistance genes detected among the GBS strains included in this study (ermA, ermB, mef, tetM and tetO), in frequencies between 1.10-7 and 9.10-7, was possible from bovine donor strains to human recipient strain, but not the other way around. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of in vitro conjugation of Ery and Tet resistance genes among GBS strains recovered from different hosts.

Tatiana Castro Abreu, Pinto; Natália Silva, Costa; Ana Beatriz de Almeida, Corrêa; Ivi Cristina Menezes de, Oliveira; Marcos Correa de, Mattos; Alexandre Soares, Rosado; Leslie Claude, Benchetrit.

2014-09-01

266

[Selection of virulent mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Utilization of a murine model of septicemia].  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic construction of virulence deficient mutant is a strategy to analyse virulence genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and was used to virulence factors as capsule, pneumolysin, autolysin and PspA. We perform a model allowing the in vivo positive selection of virulent S. pneumoniae mutants. Mice which are the most susceptible animals to pneumococcal infection, offer the best model for screening virulent S. pneumoniae. Indeed, after intraperitoneal injection of bacterial mix which was composed to a lot of avirulent bacteria (6 log10 CFU per mouse) (V1015 strain, DL50 = 7.05) and few virulent pneumococci (1 to 2 log10 CFU per mouse) (P4241 strain, DL50 < 1), mice cleared all avirulent bacteria but not virulent pneumococci. Thus, mice dead in 3 to 4 days with septicaemia and positive hemoculture contained only virulent strain. This model was validated by in vivo selection of a virulent mutant (V1042, DL50 = 4.1) which was obtained after transformation of avirulent strain V1015 with the genomic fragment of virulent strain P4241. Our model of screening was the only one allowing detection of virulent S. pneumoniae mutants. This new genetic strategy which consisted in gene addition and used mouse as selection agent, could be used to discover new virulence genes required to in vivo bacterial development. PMID:10418032

Amory-Rivier, C; Rieux, V; Azoulay-Dupuis, E; Carbon, C; Trombe, M C

1999-05-01

267

Purification of NADH: hypothiocyanite oxidoreductase in Streptococcus sanguis.  

Science.gov (United States)

NADH: hypothiocyanite oxidoreductase (NHOR) activity, found in some oral Streptococci, is postulated to protect these microorganisms against salivary peroxidase-produced hypothiocyanite. NHOR, however, has not been purified so far. The purification of NHOR from crude extracts of Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 7863 strain (by ultrafiltration and anion-exchange chromatography) revealed one fraction of 125 +/- kDa. However, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis provided a single protein of 21.1 +/- 1.2 kDa. This last discovery suggests that NHOR enzyme is a hexameric complex having six subunits. PMID:8733891

Courtois, P H; Pourtois, M

1996-04-01

268

Vitamin B6 requirements of nutritionally variant Streptococcus mitior.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growth rate of three vitamin B6-dependent Streptococcus mitior (B6DS) and two non-B6DS strains in Todd-Hewitt broth, with and without vitamin B6 supplementation, was examined. Even in optimally supplemented culture media, the growth rate of the three B6DS strains was much slower than that of comparable non-B6DS strains. Uptake studies with [3H] pyridoxine suggest that these B6DS strains cannot assimilate pyridoxine. Although not transported intracellularly, pyridoxine inhibited the growth...

Schiller, N. L.; Roberts, R. B.

1982-01-01

269

[Proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae: perspectives for development of pneumococcal vaccine].  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pneumoniae cell wall and cytoplasmic proteins contribute directly to pathogenesis of pneumococcal infection. Protective effect of pneumococcal proteins such as pneumolysin (Ply), muramylamidase (LytA) and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). There is discussion in the literature about development of conjugared pneumococcal vaccines, which should include polysaccharides of invasive serotypes of pneumococci as well as protein antigens of this pathogen, for prevention of infections caused by S. pneumoniae. Researches suggest that such hybrid vaccines will be effective, first of all, for children 65 years old because immune response to polysaccharide vaccines either do not form at all or insufficient for prevention of pneumococcal infection. PMID:21384595

Vorob'ev, D S; Semenova, I B; Kurbatova, E A

2010-01-01

270

Import and Metabolism of Glutathione by Streptococcus mutans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glutathione (?-GluCysGly, GSH) is not found in most gram-positive bacteria, but some appear to synthesize it and others, including Streptococcus mutans ATCC 33402, import it from their growth medium. Import of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) by S. mutans 33402 in 7H9 medium was shown to require glucose and to occur with an apparent Km of 18 ± 5 ?M. GSSG, GSH, S-methylglutathione, and homocysteine-glutathione mixed disulfide (hCySSG) were imported at comparable rates (measured by depletion of s...

Sherrill, Christopher; Fahey, Robert C.

1998-01-01

271

Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines.

Shifeng Wang

2014-01-01

272

Identification of Rgg Binding Sites in the Streptococcus pyogenes Chromosome ? †  

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Streptococcus pyogenes Rgg is a regulatory protein that controls the transcription of 588 genes in strain NZ131 during the post-exponential phase of growth, including the virulence-associated genes encoding the extracellular SpeB protease, pullulanase A (PulA), and two extracellular nucleases (SdaB and Spd-3). Rgg binds to DNA proximally to the speB promoter (PspeB) to activate transcription; however, it is not known if Rgg binds to the promoters of other genes to influence expression, or if ...

Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Mcshan, W. Michael; Dunman, Paul M.; Chaussee, Michael S.

2011-01-01

273

Characterization of the stringent and relaxed responses of Streptococcus equisimilis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 739-codon rel(Seq) gene of Streptococcus equisimilis H46A is bifunctional, encoding a strong guanosine 3',5'-bis(diphosphate) 3'-pyrophosphohydrolase (ppGppase) and a weaker ribosome-independent ATP:GTP 3'-pyrophosphoryltransferase [(p)ppGpp synthetase]. To analyze the function of this gene, (p)ppGpp accumulation patterns as well as protein and RNA synthesis were compared during amino acid deprivation and glucose exhaustion between the wild type and an insertion mutant carrying a rel(Seq)...

Mechold, U.; Malke, H.

1997-01-01

274

Streptococcus group C meningitis with cavernous sinus thrombosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Group C Streptococcus (GCS) is a rare cause of bacteremia in humans. It is mostly associated with zoonological infections. Although GCS can be part of the normal oral, skin, and genitourinary fora, an infection with this pathogen can be highly virulent, causing rapid, disseminating disease. With a mortality of about 25%, the poor prognosis is linked to the severity of illness and the high level of virulence of the organism. Only a few cases of GCS meningitis have been reported. We present the first case of GCS meningitis with cavernous sinus thrombosis. PMID:23966796

Clarke, Mattew; Enuh, Hilary; Saverimuttu, Jessie; Nfonoyim, Jay

2013-01-01

275

Saliva-binding region of Streptococcus mutans surface protein antigen.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 190-kDa surface protein antigen (PAc) of Streptococcus mutans binds to human salivary components. For detection of specific binding of the PAc protein to human salivary components, a simple sandwich assay was used. Microtiter plates precoated with recombinant PAc (rPAc), PAc fragments, or S. mutans whole cells were allowed to react with human whole saliva and then were incubated with biotinylated rPAc. The biotinylated rPAc bound to salivary components was detected by use of alkaline phosph...

Okahashi, N.; Ohta, H.; Koga, T.

1993-01-01

276

Characterization of a P1-deficient strain of Streptococcus mutans that expresses the SpaA protein of Streptococcus sobrinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Streptococcus sobrinus SpaA protein and the Streptococcus mutans P1 protein share 66% sequence homology at the amino acid level. To determine if the SpaA protein can be expressed in S. mutans and functionally replace the P1 protein, the spaA gene of S. sobrinus 6715 was isolated from plasmid pX1303 and inserted into the Escherichia coli-Streptococcus shuttle vector pVA838. The resulting plasmid pX1600 was transformed into the P1-deficient strain S. mutans 834 that has defects in saliva-mediated aggregation and in the ability to adhere to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surfaces. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of cellular protein fractions of S. mutans 834 (pX1600) detected in mutanolysin-solubilized cell walls a major protein of 210 kDa with an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of S. sobrinus SpaA protein and a minor 210-kDa protein and a major 64-kDa protein in the extracellular protein fraction. Analysis of virulence traits showed that expression of SpaA protein by S. mutans 834(pX1600) cells had restored the ability of the S. mutans 834 cells to aggregate in the presence of saliva or salivary agglutinin but not to adhere to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. This cell aggregation was inhibited specifically by antisera to S. sobrinus SpaA protein. These results indicate that SpaA plays a role in the virulence of S. sobrinus by specifically interacting with fluid-phase salivary agglutinin to mediate cell aggregation. PMID:8751913

Kuykindoll, R J; Holt, R G

1996-09-01

277

Acción in vitro de diez plantas medicinales sobre diez cepas diferentes de Streptococcus pneumoniae / In vitro activity of ten medicinal plants on ten Streptococcus pneumoniae strains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El portador sano es el principal diseminador de las infecciones neumocócicas por la nasofaringe. Una alternativa para combatirlo son las plantas medicinales. Objetivos: Determinar la efectividad de diez plantas medicinales frente a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Diseño: Estudio experimental [...] in vitro. Material biológico: Plantas medicinales y cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intervenciones: Los extractos de 10 plantas medicinales fueron puestos en contacto in vitro con 10 cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Principales medidas de resultados: Actividad de las plantas medicinales sobre las cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Resultados: almendro y Bellaco caspi fueron las únicas plantas que dieron pequeño halo de inhibición con algunas cepas; con almendro se inhibió dos cepas y con Bellaco caspi, se inhibió siete cepas y tres resultaron resistentes. Estos resultados no tuvieron relación con el serotipo de neumococo ni con los antibióticos utilizados en los antibiogramas realizados previamente. Conclusiones: El Bellaco caspi podría ser una alternativa para atacar al neumococo en la nasofaringe. Pero, por haber presentado resistencia a tres cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, antes de usarlo sería conveniente desarrollar un antibiograma de los neumococos contra las plantas medicinales. Abstract in english Introduction: The healthy carrier is the main disseminator of pneumococcal infections through nasopharynx; an alternative for treatment is a medicinal plant. Objectives: To determine the effectivity of ten medicinal plants against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Design: In vitro experimental study. Biolog [...] ic materials: Medicinal plant extracts and Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Interventions: Ten medicinal plant extracts were put in contact in vitro with 10 different Streptococcus pneumonia strains. Main outcome measures: Medicinal plant extracts activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Results: Only almendro y Bellaco caspi showed small inhibition halos with some strains; with almendro two of 10 Pneumococcus strains were inhibited and with Bellaco caspi seven strains were inhibited and three were resistant. These results had no relation either with Pneumococcus serotype or with antibiotics used according to antibiograms. Conclusions: Bellaco caspi could be an alternative for treating nasopharynx Pneumococcus, but due to resistance to three Streptococcus pneumonia strains there is no total guarantee and an antibiogram for pneumococci against medicinal plants is needed.

JM, Guevara Duncan; C, Fuertes Ruitón; E, Valencia Bazalar; JMM, Guevara Granados; R, Zerpa Larrauri; V, Béjar Castillo; L, Patiño Gabriel; JC, Celis Salinas.

2012-10-01

278

Acción in vitro de diez plantas medicinales sobre diez cepas diferentes de Streptococcus pneumoniae / In vitro activity of ten medicinal plants on ten Streptococcus pneumoniae strains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El portador sano es el principal diseminador de las infecciones neumocócicas por la nasofaringe. Una alternativa para combatirlo son las plantas medicinales. Objetivos: Determinar la efectividad de diez plantas medicinales frente a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Diseño: Estudio experimental [...] in vitro. Material biológico: Plantas medicinales y cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intervenciones: Los extractos de 10 plantas medicinales fueron puestos en contacto in vitro con 10 cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Principales medidas de resultados: Actividad de las plantas medicinales sobre las cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae. Resultados: almendro y Bellaco caspi fueron las únicas plantas que dieron pequeño halo de inhibición con algunas cepas; con almendro se inhibió dos cepas y con Bellaco caspi, se inhibió siete cepas y tres resultaron resistentes. Estos resultados no tuvieron relación con el serotipo de neumococo ni con los antibióticos utilizados en los antibiogramas realizados previamente. Conclusiones: El Bellaco caspi podría ser una alternativa para atacar al neumococo en la nasofaringe. Pero, por haber presentado resistencia a tres cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, antes de usarlo sería conveniente desarrollar un antibiograma de los neumococos contra las plantas medicinales. Abstract in english Introduction: The healthy carrier is the main disseminator of pneumococcal infections through nasopharynx; an alternative for treatment is a medicinal plant. Objectives: To determine the effectivity of ten medicinal plants against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Design: In vitro experimental study. Biolog [...] ic materials: Medicinal plant extracts and Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Interventions: Ten medicinal plant extracts were put in contact in vitro with 10 different Streptococcus pneumonia strains. Main outcome measures: Medicinal plant extracts activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Results: Only almendro y Bellaco caspi showed small inhibition halos with some strains; with almendro two of 10 Pneumococcus strains were inhibited and with Bellaco caspi seven strains were inhibited and three were resistant. These results had no relation either with Pneumococcus serotype or with antibiotics used according to antibiograms. Conclusions: Bellaco caspi could be an alternative for treating nasopharynx Pneumococcus, but due to resistance to three Streptococcus pneumonia strains there is no total guarantee and an antibiogram for pneumococci against medicinal plants is needed.

JM, Guevara Duncan; C, Fuertes Ruitón; E, Valencia Bazalar; JMM, Guevara Granados; R, Zerpa Larrauri; V, Béjar Castillo; L, Patiño Gabriel; JC, Celis Salinas.

279

Biochemical properties of CO2-dependent streptococci.  

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A total of 153 clinical isolates and 10 reference strains were employed in an investigation of CO2-dependent streptococci. Their selection was based on a lactic acid homofermentative end product. This group of organisms grew best in 5 to 10% CO2, and several species, including Streptococcus mutans, S. intermedius, Streptococcus MG, S. anginosus, and S. constellatus, required increased CO2 for primary recovery. A basal medium of thioglycolate with 0.1% Tween 80 and phenol red was prepared and ...

Pulliam, L.; Porschen, R. K.; Hadley, W. K.

1980-01-01

280

Comparative transcriptomic analysis of streptococcus pseudopneumoniae with viridans group streptococci  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, is a novel member of the genus Streptococcus, falling close to related members like S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, and S. oralis. Its recent appearance has shed light on streptococcal infections, which has been unclear till recently. In this study, the transcriptome of S. pseudopneumoniae CCUG 49455T was analyzed using the S. pneumoniae R6 microarray platform and compared with those of S. pneumoniae KCTC 5080T, S. mitis KCTC 3556T, and S. oralis KCTC 13048T strains. Results Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed the extent of genetic relatedness among the species, and implies that S. pseudopneumoniae is the most closely related to S. pneumoniae. A total of 489, 444 and 470 genes were upregulated while 347, 484 and 443 were downregulated relative to S. pneumoniae in S. pseudopneumoniae, S. oralis and S. mitis respectively. Important findings were the up-regulation of TCS (two component systems and transposase which were found to be specific to S. pseudopneumoniae. Conclusions This study provides insight to the current understanding of the genomic content of S. pseudopneumoniae. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed hierarchical clustering of expression data of S. pseudopneumoniae with S. pneumoniae and S. mitis with S. oralis. This proves that transcriptional profiling can facilitate in elucidating the genetic distance between closely related strains.

Park Hee

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Lysogenic transfer of group A Streptococcus superantigen gene among Streptococci.  

Science.gov (United States)

A group A Streptococcus (GAS) isolate, serotype M12, recovered from a patient with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was analyzed for superantigen-carrying prophages, revealing phi149, which encodes superantigen SSA. Sequence analysis of the att-L proximal region of phi149 showed that the phage had a mosaic nature. Remarkably, we successfully obtained lysogenic conversion of GAS clinical isolates of various M serotypes (M1, M3, M5, M12, M19, M28, and M94), as well as of group C Streptococcus equisimilis (GCSE) clinical isolates, via transfer of a recombinant phage phi149::Km(r). Phage phi149::Km(r) from selected lysogenized GAS and GCSE strains could be transferred back to M12 GAS strains. Our data indicate that horizontal transfer of lysogenic phages among GAS can occur across the M-type barrier; these data also provide further support for the hypothesis that toxigenic conversion can occur via lysogeny between species. Streptococci might employ this mechanism specifically to allow more efficient adaptation to changing host challenges, potentially leading to fitter and more virulent clones. PMID:18179387

Vojtek, Ivo; Pirzada, Zaid A; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Mastny, Markus; Janapatla, Rajendra P; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

2008-01-15

282

Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Serotype-specific mortality from invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease revisited.Martens P, Worm SW, Lundgren B, Konradsen HB, Benfield T. Department of Infectious Diseases 144, Hvidovre University Hospital, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. pernillemartens@yahoo.com BACKGROUND: Invasive infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Case series and experimental data have shown that the capsular serotype is involved in the pathogenesis and a determinant of disease outcome. METHODS: Retrospective review of 464 cases of invasive disease among adults diagnosed between 1990 and 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. RESULTS: After adjustment for other markers of disease severity, we found that infection with serotype 3 was associated with an increased relative risk (RR) of death of 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-5.27), whereas infection with serotype 1 was associated with a decreased risk of death (RR 0.23 (95% CI, 0.06-0.97)). Additionally, older age, relative leucopenia and relative hypothermia were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that capsular serotypes independently influenced the outcome from invasive pneumococcal disease. The limitations of the current polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine warrant the development of alternative vaccines. We suggest that the virulence of pneumococcal serotypes should be considered in the design of novel vaccines.

Martens, P; Worm, Signe H.Westring

2004-01-01

283

Meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente: reporte de un caso  

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Full Text Available Introducción: Streptococcus pneumoniae es una bacteria que reside en el aparato respiratorio superior de las personas saludables, pero resulta una infección cuando alcanza localizaciones normalmente estériles, tales como el aparato respiratorio inferior, sistema circulatorio, y sistema nervioso central. Esto ocurre en personas inmunodeprimidas, por diferentes causas. Objetivo: destacar la virulencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae drogo resistente. Caso clínico: niña que llega al hospital por presentar un proceso respiratorio, de varios días de evolución, con fiebre y rinorrea. Ingresó en la sala de Infecciones Respiratorias. Comenzó con deshidratación y somnolencia, por lo que se le realizó una segunda punción lumbar, que resultó con salida de líquido cefalorraquídeo, purulento y presencia de 202 células a predominio de polimorfonucleares, glucosa disminuida, aumento de las proteínas, y Pandy xxxx. La niña se agrava y presenta signos de intenso edema cerebral, con fontanela abombada. Se trató con antimicrobianos como la vancomicina y el ceftriaxone, por varios días. En el laboratorio de Microbiología se confirmó el crecimiento de Streptococccus pneumoniae sensible al meronem que pasa a reemplazar al ceftriaxone. La paciente salió paulatinamente de su gravedad hasta que fue dada de alta con seguimiento y rehabilitación, por presentar secuelas. Conclusiones: este patógeno tan peligroso con sus atributos de virulencia y su elevada resistencia a los antimicrobianos, constituye un fenómeno emergente.

Olga Mar\\u00EDa Rodr\\u00EDguez Fern\\u00E1ndez

2011-01-01

284

Phylogenomics and the dynamic genome evolution of the genus Streptococcus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

Richards, Vincent P; Palmer, Sara R; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M; Highlander, Sarah K; Town, Christopher D; Burne, Robert A; Stanhope, Michael J

2014-04-01

285

Disease manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms of group a Streptococcus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), causes mild human infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo and serious infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Furthermore, repeated GAS infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, including acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, and rheumatic heart disease. Combined, these diseases account for over half a million deaths per year globally. Genomic and molecular analyses have now characterized a large number of GAS virulence determinants, many of which exhibit overlap and redundancy in the processes of adhesion and colonization, innate immune resistance, and the capacity to facilitate tissue barrier degradation and spread within the human host. This improved understanding of the contribution of individual virulence determinants to the disease process has led to the formulation of models of GAS disease progression, which may lead to better treatment and intervention strategies. While GAS remains sensitive to all penicillins and cephalosporins, rising resistance to other antibiotics used in disease treatment is an increasing worldwide concern. Several GAS vaccine formulations that elicit protective immunity in animal models have shown promise in nonhuman primate and early-stage human trials. The development of a safe and efficacious commercial human vaccine for the prophylaxis of GAS disease remains a high priority. PMID:24696436

Walker, Mark J; Barnett, Timothy C; McArthur, Jason D; Cole, Jason N; Gillen, Christine M; Henningham, Anna; Sriprakash, K S; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L; Nizet, Victor

2014-04-01

286

Responses of innate immune cells to group A Streptococcus  

Science.gov (United States)

Group A Streptococcus (GAS), also called Streptococcus pyogenes, is a Gram-positive beta-hemolytic human pathogen which causes a wide range of mostly self-limiting but also several life-threatening diseases. Innate immune responses are fundamental for defense against GAS, yet their activation by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and GAS-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is incompletely understood. In recent years, the use of animal models together with the powerful tools of human molecular genetics began shedding light onto the molecular mechanisms of innate immune defense against GAS. The signaling adaptor MyD88 was found to play a key role in launching the immune response against GAS in both humans and mice, suggesting that PRRs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are involved in sensing this pathogen. The specific TLRs and their ligands have yet to be identified. Following GAS recognition, induction of cytokines such as TNF and type I interferons (IFNs), leukocyte recruitment, phagocytosis, and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been recognized as key events in host defense. A comprehensive knowledge of these mechanisms is needed in order to understand their frequent failure against GAS immune evasion strategies.

Fieber, Christina; Kovarik, Pavel

2014-01-01

287

MOBILE AGENT: EMERGING TECHNOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, challenges, and open problems of mobile agent technology.

RAJGURU P. V. DR. DESHMUKH S. D

2011-12-01

288

Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavities of elephants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two strains were isolated from oral cavity samples of healthy elephants. The isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organisms that were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of these organisms in the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus criceti ATCC 19642(T) and Streptococcus orisuis NUM 1001(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbours with 98.2 and 96.9?% gene sequence similarity, respectively. When multi-locus sequence analysis using four housekeeping genes, groEL, rpoB, gyrB and sodA, was carried out, similarity of concatenated sequences of the four housekeeping genes from the new isolates and Streptococcus mutans was 89.7?%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments suggested that the new isolates were distinct from S. criceti and other species of the genus Streptococcus. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic differences, it is proposed that the novel isolates are classified in the genus Streptococcus as representatives of Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov. The type strain of S. oriloxodontae is NUM 2101(T) (?=?JCM 19285(T)?=?DSM 27377(T)). PMID:25139416

Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Saito, Masanori; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

2014-11-01

289

Epidemic Assessment of Bacterial Agents in Osteomyelitis and Their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Determination  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the causative agents of osteomyelitis and specifying their antibiotic resistance pattern in patients referred to pediatrics ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital. This study has been performed in Tehran during January to December 2006. In this study, synovial fluid was taken from 90 patients who referred to pediatrics ward of Imam Khomeini. Samples were examined by direct test, culture and biochemical tests. In next step, antibiogram by disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer Test was established on each positive sample and finally, the results were analyzed. Of 90 examined samples, 27 bacterial cases were isolated; Staphylococcus aureus with 55.9% was the most epidemic agent and Klebsiella sp., coagulase negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterobacter sp. were the next common agents, respectively. However, it was revealed that more than 40% Staphylococcus aureus are sensitivity to Vancomycin, Gentamicin, Sulfamethoxazole and Erythromycin and most of gram negative Rods isolated of were sensitivity to Amikacin, Ampicillin and Cephalothin (50-100%. The most of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterobacter sp. were sensitive to Vancomycin, gentamicin and Cephalothin. Similar to previous results, it was proved either in our study that Staphylococcus aureus is the main agent of osteomyelitis and gram negative bacteria with coagulase negative Staphylococci and Streptococci are other agents. Also, it was observed that the most isolated bacteria had high antibiotic resistance to common drugs.

Reza Mirnejad

2008-01-01

290

Meningitis bacteriana por Streptococcus pyogenes: revisión de la literatura / Bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes: literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) es una etiología poco habitual de meningitis bacteriana a pesar de ser un germen que frecuentemente produce infecciones en otras localizaciones en la edad pediátrica. Material y métodos: se revisaron los casos de bacteriemia por S. pyogenes y los [...] factores de riesgo asociados en la base de datos del Servicio de Microbiología del Hospital Universitario La Paz desde junio de 2002 a junio de 2012. Resultados: únicamente se encontró un caso de bacteremia por S. pyogenes asociado a meningitis, que se describe en este artículo. Conclusiones: a pesar de su baja incidencia, se debe tener en cuenta el S. pyogenes en el diagnóstico diferencial de meningitis bacterianas, especialmente en pacientes con factores de riesgo asociados Abstract in english Introduction: Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) is a rare cause of meningitis despite being a common source of pediatric infections in other sites. Material and methods: A search was performed of the pediatric patients with S. pyogenes bacteremia in the microbiology database of the Hospital Infan [...] til La Paz from June 2002 until June 2012. Results: A single case of S. pyogenes meningitis was found and is reported in this article. Conclusions: Despite its low incidence, S. pyogenes should be considered in the differential diagnosis of meningitis, particularly in patients with associated risk factors.

E., Ballesteros Moya; L., Herrera Castillo; L., Escosa García; M.P., Romero González; F., Lázaro Perona; M.I. de, José Gómez.

291

Pericarditis purulenta y empiema pleural por Streptococcus pneumoniae / Purulent pericarditis and pleural empyema due to Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de 59 años de edad sin historia clínica previa que ingresó en nuestra Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) al presentar un cuadro de insuficiencia respiratoria e inestabilidad hemodinámica. Se le diagnosticó una pericarditis purulenta causada por Streptococcus [...] pneumoniae complicada con un derrame pericárdico masivo y un empiema pleural. Se realizó una punción pericardica que no fue efectiva y el derrame pericárdico se evacuó finalmente mediante drenaje quirúrgico. El empiema pleural fue igualmente evacuado. Recibió tratamiento antibiótico y se recuperó, normalizandose la función cardiaca. Abstract in english We present the case of a 59 years old woman with no previous clinical history of disease who was admitted in our ICU due to respiratory failure and hemodynamic inestabillity. She was found to have purulent pericarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, complicated by masive pericardial effusion and p [...] leural empyema. A pericardial tap was performed unsuccessfully and finally pericardial effusion was evacuated by surgical drainage. Pleural empyema was also evacuated. She received antibiotical treatment and recovered with normalisation of heart function.

B., Suberviola Cañas; J. C., Rodríguez Borregan; A., González Castro; E., Miñambres; F. J., Burón Mediavilla.

292

Meningitis y absceso cerebral por Streptococcus intermedius en un paciente con infección por VIH-1 / Meningitis and brain abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius in a patient infected with HIV-1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los estreptococos de grupo milleri se caracterizan por su tendencia a provocar infecciones piógenas invasoras en diferentes localizaciones. Las meningitis estreptocócicas no neumocócicas son poco frecuentes en pacientes adultos y pueden asociarse a la presencia de un absceso cerebral. Los abscesos c [...] erebrales son colecciones localizadas dentro del parénquima cerebral que se originan como complicación de una infección, siendo los estreptococos microaerófilos y las bacterias anaerobias los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados. Aunque no es inusual la presencia de colecciones intracraneales de etiología infecciosa en pacientes con infección por VIH-1, los abscesos cerebrales producidos por las bacterias piógenas habituales son muy infrecuentes y es T. gondii el agente etiológico más frecuente. Aportamos un caso de meningitis y absceso cerebral por S. intermedius en un paciente con infección por VIH-1. Abstract in english Streptococcus milleri group have been recognized as an important pathogens for abscess formation in various organs. Streptococci other than Streptococcus pneumoniae are a rare cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and can be associated with the presence of an undiagnosed brain abscess. Brain absce [...] ss is a focal collection within the brain parenchyma wich can arise as a complication of a variety of infections. The most common etiologic organisms in clinical series have been microaerophilic streptococci and anaerobic bacterias. Although intracraneal mass lesions that occur as a result of infection have commonly been reported in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, brain abscess due to the common bacterial pathogens are rarely described in HIV infected patients and Toxoplasma gondii is the organism most frecuently isolated from stereotactic brain biopsy in these patients. We report a patient with both HIV-1 infection and streptococcal meningitis secondary to brain abscess caused by S. intermedius

M., Vallalta Morales; E., Solaz Moreno; J., Lacruz Rodrigo; M., Salavert Lletí; G., Silla Burdalo; C., Pérez-Bellés.

2005-06-01

293

Streptolysin O and NAD-Glycohydrolase Prevent Phagolysosome Acidification and Promote Group A Streptococcus Survival in Macrophages  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is an ongoing threat to human health as the agent of streptococcal pharyngitis, skin and soft tissue infections, and life-threatening conditions such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. In animal models of infection, macrophages have been shown to contribute to host defense against GAS infection. However, as GAS can resist killing by macrophages in vitro and induce macrophage cell death, it has been suggested that GAS intracellular survival in macrophages may enable persistent infection. Using isogenic mutants, we now show that the GAS pore-forming toxin streptolysin O (SLO) and its cotoxin NAD-glycohydrolase (NADase) mediate GAS intracellular survival and cytotoxicity for macrophages. Unexpectedly, the two toxins did not inhibit fusion of GAS-containing phagosomes with lysosomes but rather prevented phagolysosome acidification. SLO served two essential functions, poration of the phagolysosomal membrane and translocation of NADase into the macrophage cytosol, both of which were necessary for maximal GAS intracellular survival. Whereas NADase delivery to epithelial cells is mediated by SLO secreted from GAS bound to the cell surface, in macrophages, the source of SLO and NADase is GAS contained within phagolysosomes. We found that transfer of NADase from the phagolysosome to the macrophage cytosol occurs not by simple diffusion through SLO pores but rather by a specific translocation mechanism that requires the N-terminal translocation domain of NADase. These results illuminate the mechanisms through which SLO and NADase enable GAS to defeat macrophage-mediated killing and provide new insight into the virulence of a major human pathogen. PMID:25227466

Bastiat-Sempe, Benedicte; Love, John F.; Lomayesva, Natalie

2014-01-01

294

Phylogenomic analysis of natural selection pressure in Streptococcus genomes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparative analyses of bacterial pathogens, it has been common practice to discriminate between two types of genes: (i those shared by pathogens and their non-pathogenic relatives (core genes, and (ii those found exclusively in pathogens (pathogen-specific accessory genes. Rather than attempting to a priori delineate genes into sets more or less relevant to pathogenicity, we took a broad approach to the analysis of Streptococcus species by investigating the strength of natural selection in all clusters of homologous genes. The genus Streptococcus is comprised of a wide variety of both pathogenic and commensal lineages, and we relate our findings to the pre-existing knowledge of Streptococcus virulence factors. Results Our analysis of 1730 gene clusters revealed 136 cases of positive Darwinian selection, which we suggest is most likely to result from an antagonistic interaction between the host and pathogen at the molecular level. A two-step validation procedure suggests that positive selection was robustly identified in our genomic survey. We found no evidence to support the notion that pathogen specific accessory genes are more likely to be subject to positive selection than core genes. Indeed, we even uncovered a few cases of essential gene evolution by positive selection. Among the gene clusters subject to positive selection, a large fraction (29% can be connected to virulence. The most striking finding was that a considerable fraction of the positively selected genes are also known to have tissue specific patterns of expression during invasive disease. As current expression data is far from comprehensive, we suggest that this fraction was underestimated. Conclusion Our findings suggest that pathogen specific genes, although a popular focus of research, do not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of virulence. The results of this study, and others, support the notion that the products of both core and accessory genes participate in complex networks that comprise the molecular basis of virulence. Future work should seek to understand the evolutionary dynamics of both core and accessory genes as a function of the networks in which they participate.

Bielawski Joseph

2007-08-01

295

Sepsis neonatal por Estreptococos Pyogenes Neonatal Sepsis by Streptococcus pyogenes  

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Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, recién nacido a término adecuado para la edad gestacional, quien nace por parto vaginal, con el antecedente de fiebre en la madre durante el periodo de postparto inmediato. Los padres consultan a los 2 días de vida pues le notan dificultad respiratoria, hipoactividad y rechazo a la leche materna. El paciente se interna y se aborda como una sepsis. Durante su estancia en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Niños asocia fallo respiratorio que amerita ventilación mecánica asistida por varios días en diferentes ocasiones, derrame pleural exudativo, convulsiones de origen hipóxico isquémico. Con reporte de hemocultivos positivos por Estreptococos pyogenes. El Estreptococos pyogenes o estreptococo ?-hemol?tico del grupo A, fue un problema en los comienzos del siglo pasado, siendo frecuente en las infecciones puerperales y del reci?n nacido. En la actualidad es un germen sumamente raro en los procesos de sepsis neonatal.2 La gravedad de la enfermedad causada por este microorganismo en el periodo neonatal var?a desde una onfalitis crónica de bajo grado a una septicemia, una meningitis fulminante y la muerte.1 El presente artículo pretende hacer un resumen del paciente, con su evolución clínica, radiológica y además ejemplificar todas las complicaciones que tuvimos con este germen tan poco frecuente en la actualidad en sepsis neonatal.We present herein the case of a newborn patient of appropriate gestational age weight ( 3700 grams, born by vaginal delivery, from a mother that had had 2 previous pregnancies (2 normal deliveries. During the immediate puerperium she had fever. The parents consulted at the age of 2 days, stating that they had noticed difficult breathing since his birth, hipoactivity and poor appetite. He was admitted to the hospital and underwent several studies searching for the origin and germ causing the sepsis. He developed respiratory failure and needed mechanical ventilation for several days on different occasions. He had exudative pleural effusion and hypoxic ischemic seizures. Later on, his blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus ?- hemolytic group A infection, used to be a common entity in the beginning of the past century, it was commonly associated with puerperal infections and newborn infections, but its incidence declined and nowadays, is uncommon during the neonatal period. Its clinical manifestations could vary from chronic omphalitis up to a low grade septicemia or fulminant meningitis. Since its incidence has declined, at the present time; is an unusual infection of the neonatal period. Ampicillin and gentamicin are currently recommended as first-line antimicrobials, ampicillin replacing the previously recommended penicillin.

Gilberto Rodríguez-Herrera

2009-09-01

296

Infecciones tisulares por Streptococcus ß-hemolítico grupo A en Hospital Regional de Talca Tissue infections caused by group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus in a Regional Chilean Hospital  

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Full Text Available Background: A resurgence of group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus infections such as fasciitis, cellulitis and Strptococcal Toxic Syndrome has been observed recently. Aim: To study the clinical features of patients with group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus infections in a regional hospital. Patients and methods: Retrospective review of medical records of patients notified as having a group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus tissue infection, between 1994 and 1999. Results: twenty four patients were notified in the period as having a group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus infection and 18 (13 male, mean age 39 tears old had tissue involvement. Eleven patients had a fasciitis (61%, six had a cellulitis (33% and 14 patients (77%, a Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome. Eight patients died during hospital stay. The infection portal of entry was identify in 13 patients (the skin in 10 and intramuscular injections in three. Deceased patients had a longer lapse of disease before admission than patients discharged alive (5(range 3h-7 days and 2.1 (range 6h-5 days respectively. In seven patients a quick serological test, designed for pharyngeal infections was performed and it was positive in five. Blood cultures were positive in seven patients and in 11, the germ was isolated from the lesions. Conclusions: As the early diagnosis of group A ß hemolytic Streptococcus tissue infections has a prognostic value, the population should be instructed to recognize early signs and symptoms of these infections (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 1215-19

Sandra Hasbún A

2000-11-01

297

Software Agents, Agent Systems and their Applications  

CERN Document Server

Seen by many as the next revolution in software development for large, complex, distributed systems, agent systems represent one of the more exciting research areas in computer science. With the development of powerful personal devices, the vision of a personal agent now seems increasingly appealing too. It can even be claimed that intelligent software agents will eventually become an essential part of Web 4.0. Software agents are finding their way into areas such as environmental security, climate change, seismic safety, epidemic prevention, detection and response, computer emergency response

Essaaidi, M; Paprzycki, M

2012-01-01

298

Pericardite em suínos ao abate no Rio Grande Sul: avaliação de agentes bacterianos e lesões associadas / Bacterial agents and lesions associated with pericarditis in slaughter pigs in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a frequência de lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas e dos agentes bacterianos envolvidos em pericardites em suínos no abate no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram coletadas em frigoríficos de suínos com Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF) entre [...] fevereiro a outubro de 2010 e a condenação por pericardite dos animais acompanhados foi de 3,9% (299/7.571). No total foram investigados 91 casos de pericardites, 89% deles foram classificados como crônicos por histopatologia e pleurite crônica foi observada em 47% dos pulmões correspondentes, todavia não houve associação significativa entre as duas lesões. Os agentes bacterianos isolados a partir dos corações foram Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis e Streptococcus suis. DNA bacterianos mais detectados pela PCR foram de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae e Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Houve associação significativa entre isolamento de P. multocida e Streptococcus sp. nos corações e pulmões correspondentes. Esses resultados sugerem que a infecção no pulmão possa ter servido de porta de entrada para a colonização do pericárdio adjacente. Apesar de M. hyopneumoniae ter sido o agente detectado com maior frequência pela PCR em corações e pulmões correspondentes, não houve associação significativa da detecção dos agentes nos órgãos. Isto sugere que as infecções foram eventos independentes. Os demais agentes investigados não apresentaram associação significativa entre isolamento ou detecção de DNA em coração e pulmão correspondente. Outro achado importante foi a presença de coinfecções bacterianas em 2% dos corações e por PCR foi detectado DNA bacteriano de dois ou mais agentes em 16,5% dos corações. Esses resultados sugerem que as coinfecções em pericardites precisam ser melhor estudadas. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to identify the frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lesions and bacterial agents involved with pericarditis in slaughter pigs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The samples were collected in slaughterhouses with Federal Inspection Service (SIF) between Feb [...] ruary and October, 2010. Condemnation due to pericarditis in the examined animals was 3.9% (299/7,571). Ninety one cases of pericarditis were examined and by histopathology 89% were chronic and 47% of the corresponding lungs showed chronic pleuritis, but there was no significant association between both lesions. The bacterial agents isolated from the hearts were Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis and Streptococcus suis. Bacterial DNA from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were the most frequently detected by PCR. There was significant association between isolation of P. multocida and Streptococcus spp. in the hearts and corresponding lungs. The results suggest that lung infection could act as a port of entry to the colonization of the adjacent pericardium. In spite of the fact that M. hyopneumoniae was the agent more frequently identified by PCR in the heart and corresponding lung, there was no significant association of the agent in the organs. This suggests that the infections were independent events. The other agents investigated did not show significant association between isolation or DNA detection in heart and corresponding lungs. Another important finding was the presence of coinfection between bacterial agents in 2% of the hearts and by PCR were identified bacterial DNA of two or more agents in 16.5% of the hearts. These results suggest that coinfections in cases of pericarditis need further investigation.

Carolini F., Coelho; Priscila, Zlotowski; Caroline P. de, Andrade; Sandra M., Borowski; Thaís S., Gaggini; Laura L. de, Almeida; David, Driemeier; David E.S.N. de, Barcellos.

299

Pericardite em suínos ao abate no Rio Grande Sul: avaliação de agentes bacterianos e lesões associadas / Bacterial agents and lesions associated with pericarditis in slaughter pigs in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a frequência de lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas e dos agentes bacterianos envolvidos em pericardites em suínos no abate no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram coletadas em frigoríficos de suínos com Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF) entre [...] fevereiro a outubro de 2010 e a condenação por pericardite dos animais acompanhados foi de 3,9% (299/7.571). No total foram investigados 91 casos de pericardites, 89% deles foram classificados como crônicos por histopatologia e pleurite crônica foi observada em 47% dos pulmões correspondentes, todavia não houve associação significativa entre as duas lesões. Os agentes bacterianos isolados a partir dos corações foram Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis e Streptococcus suis. DNA bacterianos mais detectados pela PCR foram de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae e Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Houve associação significativa entre isolamento de P. multocida e Streptococcus sp. nos corações e pulmões correspondentes. Esses resultados sugerem que a infecção no pulmão possa ter servido de porta de entrada para a colonização do pericárdio adjacente. Apesar de M. hyopneumoniae ter sido o agente detectado com maior frequência pela PCR em corações e pulmões correspondentes, não houve associação significativa da detecção dos agentes nos órgãos. Isto sugere que as infecções foram eventos independentes. Os demais agentes investigados não apresentaram associação significativa entre isolamento ou detecção de DNA em coração e pulmão correspondente. Outro achado importante foi a presença de coinfecções bacterianas em 2% dos corações e por PCR foi detectado DNA bacteriano de dois ou mais agentes em 16,5% dos corações. Esses resultados sugerem que as coinfecções em pericardites precisam ser melhor estudadas. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to identify the frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lesions and bacterial agents involved with pericarditis in slaughter pigs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The samples were collected in slaughterhouses with Federal Inspection Service (SIF) between Feb [...] ruary and October, 2010. Condemnation due to pericarditis in the examined animals was 3.9% (299/7,571). Ninety one cases of pericarditis were examined and by histopathology 89% were chronic and 47% of the corresponding lungs showed chronic pleuritis, but there was no significant association between both lesions. The bacterial agents isolated from the hearts were Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis and Streptococcus suis. Bacterial DNA from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were the most frequently detected by PCR. There was significant association between isolation of P. multocida and Streptococcus spp. in the hearts and corresponding lungs. The results suggest that lung infection could act as a port of entry to the colonization of the adjacent pericardium. In spite of the fact that M. hyopneumoniae was the agent more frequently identified by PCR in the heart and corresponding lung, there was no significant association of the agent in the organs. This suggests that the infections were independent events. The other agents investigated did not show significant association between isolation or DNA detection in heart and corresponding lungs. Another important finding was the presence of coinfection between bacterial agents in 2% of the hearts and by PCR were identified bacterial DNA of two or more agents in 16.5% of the hearts. These results suggest that coinfections in cases of pericarditis need further investigation.

Carolini F., Coelho; Priscila, Zlotowski; Caroline P. de, Andrade; Sandra M., Borowski; Thaís S., Gaggini; Laura L. de, Almeida; David, Driemeier; David E.S.N. de, Barcellos.

2014-07-01

300

Withania somnifera attenuates acid production, acid tolerance and extra-cellular polysaccharide formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is a plant of the Solanaceae family. It has been widely used as a remedy for a variety of ailments in India and Nepal. The plant has also been used as a controlling agent for dental diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of the methanol extract of W. somnifera against the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms and to identify the components of the extract. To determine the activity of the extract, assays for sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence, glycolytic acid production, acid tolerance, and extracellular polysaccharide formation were performed using Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The viability change of S. mutans biofilms cells was also determined. A phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed using TLC and LC/MS/MS. The extract showed inhibitory effects on sucrose-dependent bacterial adherence (? 100 ?g/ml), glycolytic acid production (? 300 ?g/ml), acid tolerance (? 300 ?g/ml), and extracellular polysaccharide formation (? 300 ?g/ml) of S. mutans biofilms. However, the extract did not alter the viability of S. mutans biofilms cells in all concentrations tested. Based on the phytochemical analysis, the activity of the extract may be related to the presence of alkaloids, anthrones, coumarines, anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, and steroid lactones (withanolide A, withaferin A, withanolide B, withanoside IV, and 12-deoxy withastramonolide). These data indicate that W. somnifera may be a potential agent for restraining the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms. PMID:24467542

Pandit, Santosh; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

[Change in the active transport of amino acids during competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae].  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pneumoniae can be transformed by DNA. Transformation occurs in a transitory physiological state called competence. We observed a modulation of the Vi of aminoacid uptakes which seems selectively related to the energy coupling of the corresponding transports. PMID:6420013

Trombe, M C

1983-01-01

302

The Transforming Streptococcus Pneumoniae in the 21st Century  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important pathogen causingsepsis, sinusitis, otitis media, bacterial meningitis and bacterialpneumonia, results in global morbidity and mortality eachyear. The burden of pneumococcal disease is highest in childrenand the elderly. Treatment of pneumococcal infection hasbeen hampered by the complexity of the host immuneresponse. In recent decades, the increase of S. pneumoniaestrains’ resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics and other classes ofantimicrobials has made treatment even more complicated.Fortunately, the advent of heptavalent conjugate vaccine confersa high degree of protection against pneumococcal diseaseand colonization caused by vaccine serotype strains. After theintroduction of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, invasivepneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes and antibiotic-resistant isolates has been reduced. However, naturallytransformable pneumococci may escape vaccine-induced immunity by switching their capsulargenes to non-vaccine serotypes. Development of cheaper, serotype-independent vaccinesbased on a combination of protein antigens should be pursued.

Pei-Lan Shao

2008-04-01

303

Postcaesarean open-heart surgery for Streptococcus sanguinis infective endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 33-week pregnant (gravida 3), 29-year-old woman was transferred for management of Streptococcus sanguinis infective endocarditis. A vegetation was present on the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve with moderate mitral regurgitation. On admission (day 1), the ultrasound examination revealed splenic abscesses and retarded intrauterine growth albeit with normal vessels. The fetal heart rate was 140 bpm. On day 11, the baby was delivered by Caesarean, and then the mother underwent tubal ligation followed by a mitral valve repair. The splenic abscess was treated with antibiotics. The woman was clinically stable and recovered uneventfully. This successful outcome was achieved by a strategic (optimal and sequential) timeline for selecting the mode of delivery and type of mitral valve correction. PMID:24234426

Kongwattanakul, Kiattisak; Tribuddharat, Sirirat; Prathanee, Sompop; Pachirat, Orathai

2013-01-01

304

Sortase A confers protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pneumoniae sortase A (SrtA) is a transpeptidase that is highly conserved among pneumococcal strains, whose involvement in adhesion/colonization has been reported. We found that intraperitoneal immunization with recombinant SrtA conferred to mice protection against S. pneumoniae intraperitoneal challenge and that the passive transfer of immune serum before intraperitoneal challenge was also protective. Moreover, by using the intranasal challenge model, we observed a significant reduction of bacteremia when mice were intraperitoneally immunized with SrtA, while a moderate decrease of lung infection was achieved by intranasal immunization, even though no influence on nasopharynx colonization was seen. Taken together, our results suggest that SrtA is a good candidate for inclusion in a multicomponent, protein-based, pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:19433540

Gianfaldoni, Claudia; Maccari, Silvia; Pancotto, Laura; Rossi, Giacomo; Hilleringmann, Markus; Pansegrau, Werner; Sinisi, Antonia; Moschioni, Monica; Masignani, Vega; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Ruggiero, Paolo

2009-07-01

305

Sortase A Confers Protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae in Mice?  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pneumoniae sortase A (SrtA) is a transpeptidase that is highly conserved among pneumococcal strains, whose involvement in adhesion/colonization has been reported. We found that intraperitoneal immunization with recombinant SrtA conferred to mice protection against S. pneumoniae intraperitoneal challenge and that the passive transfer of immune serum before intraperitoneal challenge was also protective. Moreover, by using the intranasal challenge model, we observed a significant reduction of bacteremia when mice were intraperitoneally immunized with SrtA, while a moderate decrease of lung infection was achieved by intranasal immunization, even though no influence on nasopharynx colonization was seen. Taken together, our results suggest that SrtA is a good candidate for inclusion in a multicomponent, protein-based, pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:19433540

Gianfaldoni, Claudia; Maccari, Silvia; Pancotto, Laura; Rossi, Giacomo; Hilleringmann, Markus; Pansegrau, Werner; Sinisi, Antonia; Moschioni, Monica; Masignani, Vega; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Ruggiero, Paolo

2009-01-01

306

Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia leading to the diagnosis of multiple myeloma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant plasma cell disorder characterised by the neoplastic proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin. Anaemia, bone pain from lytic lesions, hypercalcaemia and renal failure are the most common presentations at diagnosis; however, the presence of infection at the time of diagnosis is rarely reported. The author reports an elderly male presenting with isolated fever and initial blood cultures positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Investigating the patient's underlying immunodeficient state predisposing him to this infection, serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis identified monoclonal IgG ? and bone marrow biopsy revealed diffuse plasma cell infiltration that comprised 35% of the cellular elements, which were all consistent with MM. This case report highlights the importance of considering MM in asymptomatic elderly patients who present with acute pneumococcal infection without an apparent predisposing factor. PMID:25239987

Shahani, Savita; Shahani, Lokesh

2014-01-01

307

[Controversies on antibiotics for common group A streptococcus infections].  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of common group A streptococcus (GAS) infections remains controversial. French recommendations advocate systematic treatment of streptococcal tonsillitis after confirmation by rapid diagnostic test. Oral amoxicillin twice daily for 6 days is the first-line treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis is restricted to at-risk patients after contact with invasive GAS case. These recommendations take into consideration the prevention of complications, even if they are rare, the reduction of infectiousness and the reduction of the duration of symptoms. Different recommendations have been issued in other countries, particularly in Europe and are based on different considerations. These differences do not originate in the absence of demonstrative scientific studies but rather in societal considerations, themselves guided by the history of each different health system (and also judicial system). This is probably necessary to obtain physicians and public support. The French attitude reflects these considerations. However, its lack of enforcement needs to question about its origins. PMID:25399493

Grimprel, E; Cohen, R

2014-11-01

308

Streptococcus mitis strains causing severe clinical disease in cancer patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetically diverse viridans group streptococci (VGS) are increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of human diseases. We used a recently developed multilocus sequence analysis scheme to define the species of 118 unique VGS strains causing bacteremia in patients with cancer; Streptococcus mitis (68 patients) and S. oralis (22 patients) were the most frequently identified strains. Compared with patients infected with non-S. mitis strains, patients infected with S. mitis strains were more likely to have moderate or severe clinical disease (e.g., VGS shock syndrome). Combined with the sequence data, whole-genome analyses showed that S. mitis strains may more precisely be considered as >2 species. Furthermore, we found that multiple S. mitis strains induced disease in neutropenic mice in a dose-dependent fashion. Our data define the prominent clinical effect of the group of organisms currently classified as S. mitis and lay the groundwork for increased understanding of this understudied pathogen. PMID:24750901

Shelburne, Samuel A; Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldana, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Horstmann, Nicola; Thompson, Erika; Flores, Anthony R

2014-05-01

309

PauA: a novel plasminogen activator from Streptococcus uberis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromosomal DNA from two geographically distinct isolates of Streptococcus uberis was used to clone the plasminogen activator in an active form in Escherichia coli. The cloned fragments from each strain contained four potential open reading frames (ORFs). That for the plasminogen activator encoded a protein of 286 amino acids (33.4 kDa) which is cleaved between residues 25 and 26 during secretion by S. uberis. The amino acid sequence of the mature protein showed only weak homology (23.5-28%) to streptokinase. The plasminogen activator gene, pauA, in S. uberis was located between two ORFs with high homology to the DNA mismatch repair genes, hexA and hexB, and not on a DNA fragment between the genes encoding an ATP binding cassette transporter protein (abc) and a protein involved in the formation and degradation of guanosine polyphosphates (rel) as is the case for streptokinase in other streptococci. PMID:10483719

Rosey, E L; Lincoln, R A; Ward, P N; Yancey, R J; Leigh, J A

1999-09-01

310

Group A streptococcus inhibitors by high-throughput virtual screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which can cause multiple types of disease from mild infections of skin and throat to invasive and life-threatening infections. Recently RNase J1 and J2 were found to be essential for the growth of GAS. In order to identify inhibitors against RNase J1/J2, homology models of both the ligand-free apo-form and the ligand-bound holo-form complexes were constructed as templates for high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS). A focused small molecule library and the commercially available Maybridge database were employed as sources for potential inhibitors. A cell-based biological assay identified two compounds with 10 ?M MIC activity. PMID:24880231

Hu, Haipeng; Mao, Shuli; Bugrysheva, Julia V; Pruett, Sarah; Liotta, Dennis C; Scott, June R; Snyder, James P

2014-07-23

311

Interferon-? inhibits group B Streptococcus survival within human endothelial cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Endothelial dysfunction is a major component of the pathophysiology of septicaemic group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections. Although cytokines have been shown to activate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the capacity of interferon (IFN)-? to enhance the microbicidal activity of HUVECs [...] against GBS has not been studied. We report that the viability of intracellular bacteria was reduced in HUVECs activated by IFN-?. Enhanced fusion of lysosomes with bacteria-containing vacuoles was observed by acid phosphatase and the colocalisation of Rab-5, Rab-7 and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 with GBS in IFN-?-activated HUVECs. IFN-? resulted in an enhancement of the phagosome maturation process in HUVECs, improving the capacity to control the intracellular survival of GBS.

Viviane de Oliveira Freitas, Lione; Michelle Hanthequeste Bittencourt dos, Santos; Jessica Silva Santos de, Oliveira; Ana Luiza, Mattos-Guaraldi; Prescilla Emy, Nagao.

2014-11-01

312

Agglutination of Streptococcus suis by sialic acid-binding lectins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 35 Streptococcus suis capsular-type reference strains as well as 45 field strains of type 2 were tested with sialic acid-binding lectins from Sambucus nigra (SNA I), Triticum vulgaris, Maackia amurensis, Homarus americanus, and Limax flavus. Only types 1, 1/2, 2, 14, 15, and 16 agglutinated with SNA I and/or the T. vulgaris lectin. All field strains agglutinated only with SNA I. Reaction with SNA I was probably due to the sialic acid moiety since it disappeared after sialidase treatment. These results confirm the presence of sialic acid in S. suis with the possible terminal sequence N-acetylneuraminic acid-alpha(2,6)GalNAc. PMID:7559986

Charland, N; Kellens, J T; Caya, F; Gottschalk, M

1995-08-01

313

Streptococcus pyogenes degrades extracellular matrix in chondrocytes via MMP-13.  

Science.gov (United States)

Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of human diseases, including bacterial arthritis. The pathogenesis of arthritis is characterized by synovial proliferation and the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We report here that GAS strain JRS4 invaded a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 and induced the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas an isogenic mutant of JRS4 lacking a fibronectin-binding protein, SAM1, failed to invade the chondrocytes or degrade the ECM. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was strongly elevated during the infection with GAS. A reporter assay revealed that the activation of the AP-1 transcription factor and the phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinase participated in MMP-13 expression. These results suggest that MMP-13 plays an important role in the destruction of infected joints during the development of septic arthritis. PMID:18586009

Sakurai, Atsuo; Okahashi, Nobuo; Maruyama, Fumito; Ooshima, Takashi; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Ichiro

2008-08-29

314

Streptococcus pyogenes degrades extracellular matrix in chondrocytes via MMP-13  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of human diseases, including bacterial arthritis. The pathogenesis of arthritis is characterized by synovial proliferation and the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We report here that GAS strain JRS4 invaded a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 and induced the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas an isogenic mutant of JRS4 lacking a fibronectin-binding protein, SAM1, failed to invade the chondrocytes or degrade the ECM. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was strongly elevated during the infection with GAS. A reporter assay revealed that the activation of the AP-1 transcription factor and the phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinase participated in MMP-13 expression. These results suggest that MMP-13 plays an important role in the destruction of infected joints during the development of septic arthritis

315

Novel Clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Invasive Disease in Malaysia  

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Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood disease in South East Asia, little has previously been reported regarding the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and very few studies have explored pneumococcal epidemiology using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we describe serotype, multilocus sequence type (ST), and penicillin susceptibility of thirty pneumococcal invasive disease isolates received by the University of Malaya Medical Centre between February 2000 and January 2007 and relate this to the serotypes included in current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. A high level of diversity was observed; fourteen serotypes and 26 sequence types (ST), (11 of which were not previously described) were detected from 30 isolates. Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci accounted for 33% of isolates. The extent of molecular heterogeneity within carried and disease-causing Malaysian pneumococci remains unknown. Larger surveillance and epidemiological studies are now required in this region to provide robust evidence on which to base future vaccine policy. PMID:24941079

Jefferies, Johanna M.; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Devi Sekaran, Shamala; Clarke, Stuart C.

2014-01-01

316

Antibacterial activities of inorganic agents on six bacteria associated with oral infections by two susceptibility tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antibacterial effects of six inorganic antibacterial agents were assessed using broth dilution and agar dilution tests on six pathogenic bacteria associated with oral infectious diseases: Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), S. mutans (Ingbritt), Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 15987), Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 393), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). The results of the broth dilution test were significantly lower than those of the agar dilution test (F=38.290; P<0.01). The six inorganic agents notably inhibited the growth of tested common oral bacteria in vitro. Among them, Longbei inorganic antibiotic powder was the strongest antibacterial agent, followed by ZnO whisker antibacterial complex (ZnOw) AT-83, IONPURE-H, basic magnesium hypochlorite, ZnOw AT-88 and Antim-AMS2. The broth dilution test appears to be more suitable for testing insoluble inorganic agents. PMID:16713190

Fang, Ming; Chen, Ji-Hua; Xu, Xiu-Li; Yang, Pei-Hong; Hildebrand, Hartmut F

2006-06-01

317

The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection  

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The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolysis and is a host defense mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system after tissue injury. During bacterial infections, the coagulation system cooperates with the inflammatory system to eliminate the invading pathogens. However, pathogenic bacteria have frequently evolved mechanisms to exploit the hemostatic system components for their own benefit. Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus, provides a remarkable example of the extraordinary capacity of pathogens to exploit the host hemostatic system to support microbial survival and dissemination. The coagulation cascade comprises the contact system (also known as the intrinsic pathway) and the tissue factor pathway (also known as the extrinsic pathway), both leading to fibrin formation. During the early phase of S. pyogenes infection, the activation of the contact system eventually leads to bacterial entrapment within a fibrin clot, where S. pyogenes is immobilized and killed. However, entrapped S. pyogenes can circumvent the antimicrobial effect of the clot by sequestering host plasminogen on the bacterial cell surface that, after conversion into its active proteolytic form, plasmin, degrades the fibrin network and facilitates the liberation of S. pyogenes from the clot. Furthermore, the surface-localized fibrinolytic activity also cleaves a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, thereby enabling S. pyogenes to migrate across barriers and disseminate within the host. This review summarizes the knowledge gained during the last two decades on the role of coagulation/fibrinolysis in host defense against S. pyogenes as well as the strategies developed by this pathogen to evade and exploit these host mechanisms for its own benefit.

Loof, Torsten G.; Deicke, Christin; Medina, Eva

2014-01-01

318

DNA Microarray-Based Typing of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae frequently colonizes the urogenital tract, and it is a major cause of bacterial septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia in newborns. For typing purposes, a microarray targeting group B streptococcus (GBS) virulence-associated markers and resistance genes was designed and validated with reference strains, as well as clinical and veterinary isolates. Selected isolates were also subjected to multilocus sequence typing. It was observed that putative typing markers, such as alleles of the alpha-like protein or capsule types, vary independently of each other, and they also vary independently from the affiliation to their multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-defined sequence types. Thus, it is not possible to assign isolates to sequence types based on the identification of a single distinct marker, such as a capsule type or alp allele. This suggests the occurrence of frequent genomic recombination. For array-based typing, a set of 11 markers (bac, alp, pil1 locus, pepS8, fbsB, capsule locus, hylB, abiG-I/-II plus Q8DZ34, pil2 locus, nss plus srr plus rogB2, and rgfC/A/D/B) was defined that provides a framework for splitting the tested 448 S. agalactiae isolates into 76 strains that clustered mainly according to MLST-defined clonal complexes. There was evidence for region- and host-specific differences in the population structure of S. agalactiae, as well as an overrepresentation of strains related to sequence type 17 among the invasive isolates. The arrays and typing scheme described here proved to be a convenient tool for genotyping large numbers of clinical/veterinary isolates and thus might help obtain insight into the epidemiology of S. agalactiae. PMID:25165085

Nitschke, Heike; Slickers, Peter; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan

2014-11-01

319

Production of Exopolysaccharides by Strains of Streptococcus thermophilus  

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Full Text Available Two strains of Streptococcus thermophilus producing capsular and capsular-ropy exopolysaccharides (EPS were examined for their growth and EPS production in M17 medium supplemented with glucose, galactose or lactose and incubated at 30, 37 or 42 ° C for 24 hours. Growth parameters (viable cells, OD, lactate production, pH and EPS production were determined. Flow behavior of the EPS dispersions was assessed as a function of concentration and temperature. Culture growth during incubation was affected by types of sugar, temperature and time. Growth was enhanced by glucose, lactose and higher incubation temperature. EPS concentration in the medium was greater in the presence of glucose and galactose. Despite the restricted growth conditions, the capsular strain produced comparable levels of EPS to the capsular-ropy strain even under sub-optimal incubation temperature.Two strains of Streptococcus thermophilus producing capsular and capsular-ropy exopolysaccharides (EPS were examined for their growth and EPS production in M17 medium supplemented with glucose, galactose or lactose and incubated at 30, 37 or 42 ° C for 24 hours. Growth parameters (viable cells, OD, lactate production, pH and EPS production were determined. Flow behavior of the EPS dispersions was assessed as a function of concentration and temperature. Culture growth during incubation was affected by types of sugar, temperature and time. Growth was enhanced by glucose, lactose and higher incubation temperature. EPS concentration in the medium was greater in the presence of glucose and galactose. Despite the restricted growth conditions, the capsular strain produced comparable levels of EPS to the capsular-ropy strain even under sub-optimal incubation temperature.

UMI PURWANDARI

2010-04-01

320

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Levofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in Human Skin Blister Fluid  

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The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in serum and in skin blister fluid (SBF) was determined for 20 volunteers after a single 500-mg oral dose of levofloxacin. In addition, ex vivo bactericidal activity of SBF against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus was studied. SBF containing levofloxacin and granulocytes killed 5.2 log of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria and 2.0 log of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria during a 6-h incubation.

Trampuz, Andrej; Wenk, Markus; Rajacic, Zarko; Zimmerli, Werner

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Methodological variations in the isolation of genomic DNA from Streptococcus bacteria  

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In this work, genomic DNA of Streptococcus pyogenes, S. mutans and S. sobrinus was isolated using two methods: either using the detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 65ºC; or by applying ultrasound to a mixture of silica and celite in CTAB. The composite method that used ultrasound was the more efficient, allowing the straightforward extraction of genomic DNA from Gram-positive bacteria with good quality and reproducibility.O gênero Streptococcus encontra-se amplamente dist...

Mônica Moreira; Juliana Noschang; Ivana Froede Neiva; Yanê Carvalho; llma Hiroko Higuti; Vânia Aparecida Vicente

2010-01-01

322

Group B Streptococcus Pullulanase Crystal Structures in the Context of a Novel Strategy for Vaccine Development? †  

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The group B streptococcus type I pullulanase (SAP) is a class 13 glycoside hydrolase that is anchored to the bacterial cell surface via a conserved C-terminal anchoring motif and involved in ?-glucan degradation. Recent in vitro functional studies have shown that SAP is immunogenic in humans and that anti-SAP sera derived from immunized animals impair both group A and group B streptococcus pullulanase activities, suggesting that in vivo immunization with this antigen could prevent streptococ...

Gourlay, Louise J.; Santi, Isabella; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Grandi, Guido; Soriani, Marco; Bolognesi, Martino

2009-01-01

323

Aspecific complaints of a gastrostomy feeding tube caused by Group A Streptococcus.  

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Full Text Available A seven-year old girl with a gastrostomy feeding tube presented with aspecific symptoms such as discomfort and a foul smell. No cause could be found but a culture revealed Group A Streptococcus. These were eradicated by antibiotic treatment and the symptoms resolved immediately. In patients with a gastrostomy feeding tube presenting with aspecific complaints for which a cause can not be found, a culture for Group A Streptococcus should be obtained.

Tina E. Faber

2009-09-01

324

Aspecific complaints of a gastrostomy feeding tube caused by Group A Streptococcus.  

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A seven-year old girl with a gastrostomy feeding tube presented with aspecific symptoms such as discomfort and a foul smell. No cause could be found but a culture revealed Group A Streptococcus. These were eradicated by antibiotic treatment and the symptoms resolved immediately. In patients with a gastrostomy feeding tube presenting with aspecific complaints for which a cause can not be found, a culture for Group A Streptococcus should be obtained.

Faber, Tina E.; Vries, Tjalling W.

2009-01-01

325

Carrier state of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae among school children in Pokhara, Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To determine the incidence of carrier state of Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae among school children. Methods Specimen from posterior pharyngeal wall and tonsils were collected on calcium alginate coated swabs from 102 participants. Processing of specimen and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by standard procedures. Results Potential pathogens isolated in our study were S. pneumoniae (14.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.7%), Corynebacterium diphtheriae (3.9%), Streptococcus pyogenes (3.9%) and Haemophilus influenzae (1.9%). Important findings in antibiogram include high resistance of S. pneumoniae to penicillin (73%) and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to oxacillin (23%). Conclusions Pharyngeal colonization by S. pneumoniae among school children was found high and there is need of introduction of pneumococcal vaccines among children. Despite expected universal vaccination, pharyngeal colonization by Corynebacterium diphtheriae is possible and there is possibility of transmission.

Bhatta, Dharm Raj; Gokhale, Shishir; Sharma, Annavarapu Laxminarasimha; Gupta, Umesh; Gaur, Abhishek; Gowda, Supram; Raut, Shristi; Thapa, Sangeeta; Khadka, Rupendra

2014-01-01

326

Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus en líquido cefalorraquídeo de un paciente pediátrico / Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus isolated from cerebrospinal fluid in a pediatric patient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hasta la fecha se han descrito casos de meningitis por Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus en adultos, y de los pocos casos pediátricos, el mayor número se presentó en neonatos. En este trabajo presentamos un caso de meningitis y bacteriemia por este estreptococo en un paciente de 9 meses [...] , con reiteradas hospitalizaciones por enfermedades respiratorias; este constituye el primer aislamiento documentado del citado microorganismo en Santa Fe. Abstract in english Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus is known to cause bacterial meningitis in adults, and most of the few pediatric cases observed occurred in neonates. We report the case of a 9-month old boy with a history of repeated hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases, who presented meningiti [...] s and bacteremia by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasterianus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in Santa Fe to this date.

Liz M, Vélez Balestro; María R., Baroni; Maria C., Ochoteco; María L., Zurbriggen; Stella M., Virgolini.

327

Resistencia a penicilina y otros antimicrobianos en 103 aislamientos clínicos de Streptococcus pneumoniae (2000-2001) Resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobials in 103 clinical isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae (2000-2001)  

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Fundamentos. Conocer en nuestro hospital la sensibilidad a penicilina de aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, así como analizar la asociación de resistencia a penicilina y otros antimicrobianos y la actividad de cefotaxima y cefepima en cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae resistentes a penicilina. Métodos. Se determinó la sensibilidad de 103 aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae, procedentes de muestras clínicas durante los años 2000-2001, a penicilina, eritromicina, cloramfenicol...

Garci?a-irure, J. J.; Navascue?s, A.; Marti?n, I.; Gastesi, C.

2003-01-01

328

Infectious endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis associated with colonic carcinoma: case report and literature review  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies in the literature have warned of the need for investigation of colonic lesions among patients, especially elderly ones, who have bacteremia and/or endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis. Bacteremia and infectious endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis may be related to the presence of neoplastic lesions in the large intestine and hepatic disease. AIM: This report describes a patient who presented infectious endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis associated with colonic carcinoma and tubular-villous adenomas. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of this bacterium among patients with septicemia and/or endocarditis is also related to the presence of villous or tubular-villous adenomas in the large intestine. For this reason, complete and detailed investigation of the large intestine must be performed in patients with infectious endocarditis, even in the absence of intestinal symptoms. An increased incidence of this condition or hepatic dysfunction has been reported among patients with infectious endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis. Patients with infectious endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis and normal colonoscopy may be included in the group at risk for developing colonic cancer. The knowledge that there is an association between endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis and carcinoma of the colon has important clinical implications. If the lesion can be discovered at an early stage, curative resection may become possible.

Waisberg Jaques

2002-01-01

329

Core-gene-encoded peptide regulating virulence-associated traits in Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, high-coverage genome sequence of 57 isolates of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, was completed. The SMU.1147 gene, encoding a 61-amino-acid (61-aa) peptide, was present in all sequenced strains of S. mutans but absent in all bacteria in current databases. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed that SMU.1147 is cotranscribed with scnK and scnR, which encode the histidine kinase and response regulator, respectively, of a two-component system (TCS). The C terminus of the SMU.1147 gene product was tagged with a FLAG epitope and shown to be expressed in S. mutans by Western blotting with an anti-FLAG antibody. A nonpolar mutant of SMU.1147 formed less biofilm in glucose-containing medium and grew slower than did the wild-type strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, at low pH, or in the presence of H2O2. Mutation of SMU.1147 dramatically reduced genetic competence and expression of comX and comY, compared to S. mutans UA159. The competence defect of the SMU.1147 mutant could not be overcome by addition of sigX-inducing peptide (XIP) in defined medium or by competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) in complex medium. Complementation with SMU.1147 on a plasmid restored all phenotypes. Interestingly, mutants lacking either one of the TCS components and a mutant lacking all three genes behaved like the wild-type strain for all phenotypes mentioned above, but all mutant strains grew slower than UA159 in medium supplemented with 0.3 M NaCl. Thus, the SMU.1147-encoded peptide affects virulence-related traits and dominantly controls quorum-sensing pathways for development of genetic competence in S. mutans. PMID:23603743

Kim, Jeong Nam; Stanhope, Michael J; Burne, Robert A

2013-06-01

330

Evolutionary and population genomics of the cavity causing bacteria Streptococcus mutans.  

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Streptococcus mutans is widely recognized as one of the key etiological agents of human dental caries. Despite its role in this important disease, our present knowledge of gene content variability across the species and its relationship to adaptation is minimal. Estimates of its demographic history are not available. In this study, we generated genome sequences of 57 S. mutans isolates, as well as representative strains of the most closely related species to S. mutans (S. ratti, S. macaccae, and S. criceti), to identify the overall structure and potential adaptive features of the dispensable and core components of the genome. We also performed population genetic analyses on the core genome of the species aimed at understanding the demographic history, and impact of selection shaping its genetic variation. The maximum gene content divergence among strains was approximately 23%, with the majority of strains diverging by 5-15%. The core genome consisted of 1,490 genes and the pan-genome approximately 3,296. Maximum likelihood analysis of the synonymous site frequency spectrum (SFS) suggested that the S. mutans population started expanding exponentially approximately 10,000 years ago (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3,268-14,344 years ago), coincidental with the onset of human agriculture. Analysis of the replacement SFS indicated that a majority of these substitutions are under strong negative selection, and the remainder evolved neutrally. A set of 14 genes was identified as being under positive selection, most of which were involved in either sugar metabolism or acid tolerance. Analysis of the core genome suggested that among 73 genes present in all isolates of S. mutans but absent in other species of the mutans taxonomic group, the majority can be associated with metabolic processes that could have contributed to the successful adaptation of S. mutans to its new niche, the human mouth, and with the dietary changes that accompanied the origin of agriculture. PMID:23228887

Cornejo, Omar E; Lefébure, Tristan; Bitar, Paulina D Pavinski; Lang, Ping; Richards, Vincent P; Eilertson, Kirsten; Do, Thuy; Beighton, David; Zeng, Lin; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Burne, Robert A; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D; Stanhope, Michael J

2013-04-01

331

?-Mangostin Disrupts the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms and Facilitates Its Mechanical Removal  

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?-Mangostin (?MG) has been reported to be an effective antimicrobial agent against planktonic cells of Streptococcus mutans, a biofilm-forming and acid-producing cariogenic organism. However, its anti-biofilm activity remains to be determined. We examined whether ?MG, a xanthone purified from Garcinia mangostana L grown in Vietnam, disrupts the development, acidogenicity, and/or the mechanical stability of S. mutans biofilms. Treatment regimens simulating those experienced clinically (twice-daily, 60 s exposure each) were used to assess the bioactivity of ?MG using a saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) biofilm model. Topical applications of early-formed biofilms with ?MG (150 µM) effectively reduced further biomass accumulation and disrupted the 3D architecture of S. mutans biofilms. Biofilms treated with ?MG had lower amounts of extracellular insoluble and intracellular iodophilic polysaccharides (30–45%) than those treated with vehicle control (P3-fold biofilm detachment from sHA vs. vehicle-treated biofilms; PPTS system, and F1F0-ATPase) were significantly inhibited by ?MG. The expression of manL, encoding a key component of the mannose PTS, and gtfB were slightly repressed by ?MG treatment (P<0.05), while the expression of atpD (encoding F-ATPase) and gtfC genes was unaffected. Hence, this study reveals that brief exposures to ?MG can disrupt the development and structural integrity of S. mutans biofilms, at least in part via inhibition of key enzymatic systems associated with exopolysaccharide synthesis and acidogenicity. ?MG could be an effective anti-virulence additive for the control and/or removal of cariogenic biofilms. PMID:25350668

Nguyen, Phuong Thi Mai; Falsetta, Megan L.; Hwang, Geelsu; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Koo, Hyun

2014-01-01

332

The antibacterial activity of plant extracts containing polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of commercially available and 70% aqueous propanone (P70) extracts from plants chosen for polyphenol content on Streptococcus mutans and other bacteria were determined using a standard susceptibility agar dilution technique to investigate their potential use as anticariogenic agents. The effects on adhesion of S. mutans to glass were also studied. The lowest MICs were for the P70 extracts of red grape skin (0.5 mg ml(-1)) and green tea and sloe berry skin (2 mg ml(-1)). The commercial extracts generally had a lower activity with a minimum MIC of 2 mg ml(-1) for tea extracts, grape seed extracts and Pynogenol (extract of maritime pine). All other extracts had MICs of > or = 4 mg ml(-1). Unfermented cocoa had greater antimicrobial activity than fermented cocoa and the activity of the fractionated extract increased with the extent of epicatechin polymerization. Epicatechin polymer had an MIC of 1 mg ml(-1) and an MBC of 64 mg ml(-1). Selected extracts were tested against other oral bacteria and showed activity against gram-positive organisms. P70 extracts of unfermented cocoa, epicatechin polymer fraction, green tea and red grape seed were bacteriostatic and prevented acid production when added at the MIC to cultures of S. mutans grown in a chemically defined medium supplemented with either glucose or sucrose. There was a reduction in viability which was greater when added to washed cells, but there were some viable cells after 24 h. The extracts also reduced adherence of S. mutans to glass. PMID:17713333

Smullen, J; Koutsou, G A; Foster, H A; Zumbé, A; Storey, D M

2007-01-01

333

Complete genome and comparative analysis of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infectious endocarditis, while the pathogenicity of this species is widely unclear. To gain insight into the pathomechanisms and the underlying genetic elements for lateral gene transfer, we sequenced the entire genome of this pathogen. Results We sequenced the whole genome of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain ATCC BAA-2069, consisting of a 2,356,444 bp circular DNA molecule with a G+C-content of 37.65% and a novel 20,765 bp plasmid designated as pSGG1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 2,309 ORFs and the presence of 80 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs in the chromosome. Furthermore, 21 ORFs were detected on the plasmid pSGG1, including tetracycline resistance genes telL and tet(O/W/32/O. Screening of 41 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates revealed one plasmid (pSGG2 homologous to pSGG1. We further predicted 21 surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPxTG, which were shown to play a functional role in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. In addition, we performed a whole genome comparison to the recently sequenced S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain UCN34, revealing significant differences. Conclusions The analysis of the whole genome sequence of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes understanding of genetic factors concerning the pathogenesis and adhesion to ECM of this pathogen. For the first time we detected the presence of the mobilizable pSGG1 plasmid, which may play a functional role in lateral gene transfer and promote a selective advantage due to a tetracycline resistance.

Dreier Jens

2011-08-01

334

Early host response in the mammary gland after experimental Streptococcus uberis challenge in heifers.  

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Streptococcus uberis is a highly prevalent causative agent of bovine mastitis, which leads to large economic losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to examine the host response during acute inflammation after experimental challenge with capsulated Strep. uberis. Gene expression in response to Strep. uberis was compared between infected and control quarters in 3 animals. All quarters (n=16) were sampled at 16 different locations. Microarray data showed that 239 genes were differentially expressed between infected and control quarters. No differences in gene expression were observed between the different locations. Microarray data were confirmed for several genes using quantitative PCR analysis. Genes differentially expressed due to early Strep. uberis mastitis represented several stages of the process of infection: (1) pathogen recognition; (2) chemoattraction of neutrophils; (3) tissue repair mechanisms; and (4) bactericidal activity. Three different pathogen recognition genes were induced: ficolins, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, and toll-like receptor 2. Calgranulins were found to be the most strongly upregulated genes during early inflammation. By histology and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that changes in gene expression in response to Strep. uberis were induced both in infiltrating somatic milk cells and in mammary epithelial cells, demonstrating that the latter cell type plays a role in milk production as well as immune responsiveness. Given the rapid development of inflammation or mastitis after infection, early diagnosis of (Strep. uberis) mastitis is required for prevention of disease and spread of the pathogen. Insight into host responses could help to design immunomodulatory therapies to dampen inflammation after (early) diagnosis of Strep. uberis mastitis. Future research should focus on development of these early diagnostics and immunomodulatory components for mastitis treatment. PMID:23587380

de Greeff, Astrid; Zadoks, Ruth; Ruuls, Lisette; Toussaint, Mathilda; Nguyen, Thi Kim Anh; Downing, Alison; Rebel, Johanna; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Smith, Hilde

2013-06-01

335

Role of glucose and CcpA in capsule expression and virulence of Streptococcus suis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus suis is one of the most important pathogens in pigs and is also an emerging zoonotic agent. After crossing the epithelial barrier, S. suis causes bacteraemia, resulting in meningitis, endocarditis and bronchopneumonia. Since the host environment seems to be an important regulatory component for virulence, we related expression of virulence determinants of S. suis to glucose availability during growth and to the sugar metabolism regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA). We found that expression of the virulence-associated genes arcB, representing arcABC operon expression, cps2A, representing capsular locus expression, as well as sly, ofs, sao and epf, differed significantly between exponential and early stationary growth of a highly virulent serotype 2 strain. Deletion of ccpA altered the expression of the surface-associated virulence factors arcB, sao and eno, as well as the two currently proven virulence factors in pigs, ofs and cps2A, in early exponential growth. Global expression analysis using a cDNA expression array revealed 259 differentially expressed genes in early exponential growth, of which 141 were more highly expressed in the CcpA mutant strain 10?ccpA and 118 were expressed to a lower extent. Interestingly, among the latter genes, 18 could be related to capsule and cell wall synthesis. Correspondingly, electron microscopy characterization of strain 10?ccpA revealed a markedly reduced thickness of the capsule. This phenotype correlated with enhanced binding to porcine plasma proteins and a reduced resistance to killing by porcine neutrophils. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CcpA has a significant effect on the capsule synthesis and virulence properties of S. suis. PMID:21349980

Willenborg, J; Fulde, M; de Greeff, A; Rohde, M; Smith, H E; Valentin-Weigand, P; Goethe, R

2011-06-01

336

Translation quality control is maintained by the penicillin resistance factor MurM in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a causative agent of nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis and septicaemia. Penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae depends in part upon MurM, an aminoacyl-tRNA-ligase that attaches L-serine or L-alanine to the stem peptide lysine of Lipid II in cell wall peptidoglycan. To investigate the exact substrates the translation machinery provides MurM, quality control by alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) was investigated. AlaRS mischarged serine and glycine to tRNAAla, as observed in other bacteria, and also transferred alanine, serine and glycine to tRNAPhe. S. pneumoniae tRNAPhe has an unusual U4:C69 mismatch in its acceptor stem that prevents editing by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS), leading to the accumulation of misaminoacylated tRNAs that could serve as substrates for translation or for MurM. Whilst the peptidoglycan layer of S. pneumoniae tolerates a combination of both branched and linear muropeptides, deletion of MurM results in a reversion to penicillin sensitivity in strains that were previously resistant. However, since MurM is not required for cell viability, the reason for its functional conservation across all strains of S. pneumoniae has remained elusive. We now show that MurM is directly involved in translation quality control by acting as a broad specificity trans editing factor that specifically deacylates tRNA misaminoacylated with either serine or alanine. This activity of MurM does not require the presence of its second substrate, Lipid II, and can functionally substitute for the activity of widely conserved editing domain homologues of AlaRS, termed AlaXPs proteins, which are themselves absent from S. pneumoniae.

Shepherd, Jennifer; Ibba, Michael

2013-01-01

337

Understanding Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection in pigs through a transcriptional approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2 is an important pathogen of pigs. S suis 2 infections have high mortality rates and are characterized by meningitis, septicemia and pneumonia. S. suis 2 is also an emerging zoonotic agent and can infect humans that are exposed to pigs or their by-products. To increase our knowledge of the pathogenesis of meningitis, septicemia and pneumonia in pigs caused by S. suis 2, we profiled the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, brain and lung tissues to infection with S. suis 2 strain SC19 using the Affymetrix Porcine Genome Array. Results A total of 3,002 differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the three tissues, including 417 unique genes in brain, 210 in lung and 213 in PBMC. These genes showed differential expression (DE patterns on analysis by visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID. The DE genes involved in the immune response included genes related to the inflammatory response (CD163, the innate immune response (TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, TIRAP, cell adhesion (CD34, SELE, SELL, SELP, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, antigen processing and presentation (MHC protein complex and angiogenesis (VEGF, together with genes encoding cytokines (interleukins. Five selected genes were validated by qRT-PCR analysis. Conclusions We studied the response to infection with S. suis 2 strain SC19 by microarray analysis. Our findings confirmed some genes identified in previous studies and discovered numerous additional genes that potentially function in S. suis 2 infections in vivo. This new information will form the foundation of future investigations into the pathogenesis of S. suis.

Long Tiansi

2011-05-01

338

In vitro effect of photodynamic therapy on aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus sanguinis.  

Science.gov (United States)

New periodontal disease treatments are needed to prevent infection progression. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the greatest pledges for this purpose. It involves the use of light of specific wavelength to activate a nontoxic photosensitizing agent in the presence of oxygen for eradication of target cells, and can be used for photokilling of microorganisms. This study evaluated in vitro the photodynamic effect of 0.01% toluidine blue-O (TBO) in combination with an AlGaInP diode laser light source on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.) and Streptococcus sanguinis (S.s.). Suspensions (2 mL) containing A.a. and S.s. at 1.5 x 108 CFU/mL concentration were prepared and divided into 3 groups: Control group (no treatment), Dye group (inoculum and TBO for 5 min) and Dye/Laser group (inoculum, TBO for 5 min and laser for 3 min). Next, a dilution for subsequent subculture in 20 mL of Trypic Soy Agar (A.a) and Brucella Agar (S.s.) in Petri dishes (Pourplate Method) was done. Incubation of A.a. in microaerophilia and S.s. in aerobiosis at 35oC for 48 h was performed for subsequent visual counting of CFU/mL. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test at 5% significance level. For both strains, the control group showed a significantly higher (p0.05) in the CFU counts. The Dye/Laser group presented a significant decrease in the CFU counts (p<0.05) compared with the Control group (61.53% for A.a. and 84.32% for S.s.). It may be concluded that PDT was effective in reducing the numbers of A.a. and S.s. in vitro. PMID:22011896

Mattiello, Fabiano Dalla Lana; Coelho, Alan Augusto Kalife; Martins, Odair Pimentel; Mattiello, Rodrigo Dalla Lana; Ferrão Júnior, José Peixoto

2011-01-01

339

Analysis of the in vitro adherence of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans / Análise da aderência in vitro de Streptococcus mutans e Candida albicans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a capacidade de aderência in vitro de Streptococcus mutans e Candida albicans. Ensaios de aderência foram realizados in vitro na superfície dentária, com posterior análise por Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (M.E.V.). Dentes humanos extraídos foram inocul [...] ados com Streptococcus mutans e Candida albicans, além de ambas espécies em conjunto, e foram incubados a 37ºC por 21 dias. Os inóculos eram provenientes de amostras salivares de crianças colonizadas por ambos microrganismos. Como controles foram utilizadas linhagens de referência ATCC dos dois microrganismos. A análise por M.E.V. mostrou a formação de um biofilme que cobriu toda a superfície dentária analisada de forma mais homogênea quando incubados juntos do que separadamente. Um segundo experimento foi desenvolvido utilizando isolados mostrando maior aderência dos experimentos anteriores e cortes de polietileno de alta densidade como substrato. A potencialização da capacidade de aderência de Streptococcus mutans e Candida albicans em associação foi confirmada. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro adherence capacity of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Adherence assays were conducted on dental surfaces and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Extracted human teeth were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans o [...] r Candida albicans and with both species simultaneously, and incubated at 37ºC for 21 days. Bacterial inocula had been obtained from saliva samples of children that had been colonized by both organisms. ATCC reference strains were used as controls. SEM analyses showed that the biofilm that covered the entire analyzed dental surface was more homogeneous inoculated with the two microorganisms simultaneously than with each species separately. In a second experiment, carried out with isolates that had shown the highest adherence the isolates were tested for adherence to high-density polyethylene substrates. The potentialization of the adherence capacity of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans when in association was confirmed.

Dicler de Sant' Anna Vitor, Barbieri; Vânia Aparecida, Vicente; Fabian Calixto, Fraiz; Osmir José, Lavoranti; Terezinha Inês Estivalet, Svidzinski; Rosângela Lameira, Pinheiro.

340

Identificación de otros agentes infecciosos en casos sospechosos de síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavirus Identification of infectious agents in cases suspicious of Hantavirus infection but with negative serology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of acute respiratory illness caused by Hantavirus is based in the rapid and progressive clinical course, epidemiological background and the serological confirmation of the virus. When the presence of the virus is not confirmed a differential diagnosis must be made with other infections. Between 1999 and 2001, the Chilean Public Health Institute received 1063 blood samples from patients with a suspicious clinical picture, to study the presence of Andes strain of Hantavirus. In 134 of these samples, the presence of the virus was confirmed. Aim: To study the presence of other infections in sera from patients with suspected Hantavirus acute respiratory illness but serologically negative for Hantavirus. Material and methods: A retrospective study of 98 serum samples, received at the National Public Health Institute, of patients with negative serology for Hantavirus. The presence of antibodies against influenza virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Leptospira and Streptococcus pneumoniae was determined using Latex techniques. Results: Leptospira was detected in 23 patients, influenza virus in 13, Streptococcus pneumoniae in six and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in one case. Leptospira infections were confirmed in four cases by ELISA determination of IgM antibodies. Influenza virus infection was confirmed in three cases by Hemmaglutation Inhibition Assay. Conclusions: In suspected cases of Hantavirus acute respiratory infection, but with negative serology, other infectious agents such as Leptospira, influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, must be sought

María Hinojosa P

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Radiographic scanning agent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A composition and method for the preparation of a technetium-99m -based scanning agent are disclosed. The scanning agent is prepared from /sup 99m/Tc, in a +3, +4 and/or +5 oxidation state, and a methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone-seeking agent which carries the radionuclide to bone mineral. The methanehydroxydiphosphonate agent provides scan sharpness equivalent or superior to commercial scanning agents, and is superior for detecting myocardial infarcts, as compared with commercial scanning agents such as ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and methanediphosphonate

342

Novel real-time PCR assays using TaqMan minor groove binder probes for identification of fecal carriage of Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex from rectal swab specimens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Real-time PCR based on the recN and gyrB genes was developed to detect four Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBEC) subspecies from rectal swab specimens. The overall prevalence was 35.2%: Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (11.1%), S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (13%), Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli (20.4%), and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius (11.1%). To conclude, these real-time PCR assays provide a reliable molecular method to detect SBEC pathogenic subspecies from rectal swab specimens. PMID:24391203

Lopes, Paulo Guilherme Markus; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente; Agnes, Grasiela; Costabeber, Ane Micheli; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

2014-03-01

343

Bacteriemia por Streptococcus pyogenes: Presentación de un caso clínico con aparición tardía de neumonía / Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pyogenes: Report of one case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english We report a 58-year-old female presenting with fever and vomiting. The initial laboratory examination disclosed two blood cultures that were positive for Streptococcus Pyogenes. An abdominal CAT scan showed a right basal pneumonia. The patient was treated with antimicrobials and discharged with oral [...] cefadroxil for 21 days. One month after discharge she was asymptomatic and with a normal C reactive protein. Pneumonia is an important differential diagnosis in unknown origin bacteremia caused by Streptococcus Pyogenes. It may have a fulminant evolution and may complicate with abscess and empyema.

CAROLINA, RAMÍREZ; JUAN PABLO, ARAB; GONZALO, EYMIN.

344

Clonal characterization of Streptococcus mutans strains by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis Caracterização clonal de cepas de Streptococcus mutans por eletroforese de enzimas codificadas por multilocus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty-one Streptococcus mutans strains were clustered by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE. Six isoenzymes showed strong infra-specific discriminatory power (M1P, MPI, PLP, NSP, GOT, and LAP. MLEE is a robust technique that may be used to explore clonal diversity of S. mutans isolates in epidemiological surveys.Vinte e uma cepas de Streptococcus mutans foram agrupadas pela eletroforese de enzimas codificadas por multilocus (MLEE. Seis isoenzimas apresentaram forte poder discriminatório (M1P, MPI, PLP, NSP, GOT e LAP. A MLEE é uma técnica robusta que pode ser empregada no estudo da diversidade clonal de cepas de S. mutans, em estudos epidemiológicos.

Rosimeire Takaki Rosa

2006-03-01

345

Function of the pyruvate oxidase-lactate oxidase cascade in interspecies competition between Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex interspecies interactions occur constantly between oral commensals and the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque. Previously, we showed that oral commensal Streptococcus oligofermentans possesses multiple enzymes for H(2)O(2) production, especially lactate oxidase (Lox), allowing it to out-compete S. mutans. In this study, through extensive biochemical and genetic studies, we identified a pyruvate oxidase (pox) gene in S. oligofermentans. A pox deletion mutant completely lost Pox activity, while ectopically expressed pox restored activity. Pox was determined to produce most of the H(2)O(2) in the earlier growth phase and log phase, while Lox mainly contributed to H(2)O(2) production in stationary phase. Both pox and lox were expressed throughout the growth phase, while expression of the lox gene increased by about 2.5-fold when cells entered stationary phase. Since lactate accumulation occurred to a large degree in stationary phase, the differential Pox- and Lox-generated H(2)O(2) can be attributed to differential gene expression and substrate availability. Interestingly, inactivation of pox causes a dramatic reduction in H(2)O(2) production from lactate, suggesting a synergistic action of the two oxidases in converting lactate into H(2)O(2). In an in vitro two-species biofilm experiment, the pox mutant of S. oligofermentans failed to inhibit S. mutans even though lox was active. In summary, S. oligofermentans develops a Pox-Lox synergy strategy to maximize its H(2)O(2) formation so as to win the interspecies competition. PMID:22287002

Liu, Lei; Tong, Huichun; Dong, Xiuzhu

2012-04-01

346

AP-PCR detection of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in caries-free and caries-active subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to identify the number and distribution of genotypes of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus) isolated from caries-free and caries-active subjects. Non-stimulated saliva, buccal smooth surface of the right upper teeth, fissures of sound occlusal surface, and carious surface were sampled from 7 caries-free and 7 caries-active (DMFT ? 6) students aged 22-24 years. S. mutans and S. sobrinus were isolated using Chelex-100 and primarily identified by colony morphology and biochemical characteristics. The isolates of S. mutans were genotyped using arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction. A total of 516 isolates of S. mutans were genotyped from 47 sites in 14 students, and 44 different genotypes were determined. All of the caries-free individuals harbored S. mutans but not S. sobrinus, although individuals 3 and 7 had no S. mutans in their saliva. The CFU value of S. mutans on carious surfaces was the highest, and values in saliva, fissures, and occlusal surfaces were higher in caries-active individuals than in caries-free individuals. We detected 28 genotypes of S. mutans in caries-free individuals, each of who carried more than 3 genotypes. However, we found only 16 genotypes of S. mutans in caries-active individuals, each of who carried no more than 3 genotypes. More genotypes are harbored in the saliva, fissures, and smooth surfaces of caries-free individuals than of caries-active individuals. The proportion of samples positive for S. mutans and S. sobrinus was significantly higher in caries-active individuals than in caries-free individuals, and the presence of these species is a risk factor for high DMFT in dental caries. Isolates of S. mutans exist that have apparent genetic diversity. The genotypes of isolates might relate to differences in caries susceptibility. PMID:22407567

Jiang, Qianzhou; Yu, Miao; Min, Zhipeng; Yi, Anhua; Chen, Dong; Zhang, Qi

2012-06-01

347

Recombinant hyaluronate associated protein as a protective immunogen against Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus challenge in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The capsule of Streptococcus equi, the cause of strangles, and Streptococcus zooepidemicus, associated with equine lower airway disease, plays an important role in evasion of phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leucocytes. It is composed of hyaluronate, making it non-immunogenic. A hyaluronate associated protein (HAP) from S. equisimilis, whose gene has been sequenced [1], was investigated (a) for its presence in S. equi and S. zooepidemicus and (b) as an immunogen able to interfere with capsule structure and protect against experimental challenge of mice. The purified capsule of S. equi contained a protein of similar molecular mass to the S. equisimilis protein (approximately 53 kDa). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers derived from the published sequence of S. equisimilis HAP yielded a product from S. equi and S. zooepidemicus of the expected size and susceptibility to restriction endonucleases. Subcloning of two large in frame StuI/SspI fragments of the HAP gene from S. equi, approximately equivalent to the two halves of the molecule, into the expression vector pGEX-3X yielded only the carboxy half in the correct orientation. This latter recombinant produced a GST fusion protein (HAP-GST) of the expected size that was affinity purified. Antibodies in rabbit antiserum to the native protein in purified hyaluronate reacted strongly in immunoblots with HAP-GST. Antiserum to HAP-GST, when soaked into filter paper strips, caused a diminution of capsule production by S. equi cultured on blood agar. Antiserum added into fresh rabbit blood was not opsonic for S. equi. Immunization with HAP-GST significantly reduced rhinitis in Balb/C mice challenged nasally with S. equi and significantly increased survival time and clearance of bacteria in CBA/CA mice challenged intraperitoneally with S. zooepidemicus. PMID:10455004

Chanter, N; Ward, C L; Talbot, N C; Flanagan, J A; Binns, M; Houghton, S B; Smith, K C; Mumford, J A

1999-09-01

348

Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 ?g mL(-1)). Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them. PMID:24294257

Barrientos, Leticia; Herrera, Christian L; Montenegro, Gloria; Ortega, Ximena; Veloz, Jorge; Alvear, Marysol; Cuevas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A

2013-01-01

349

Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anticancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis sampl [...] es and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 µgmL-1). Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them.

Leticia, Barrientos; Christian L., Herrera; Gloria, Montenegro; Ximena, Ortega; Jorge, Veloz; Marysol, Alvear; Alejandro, Cuevas; Nicolás, Saavedra; Luis A., Salazar.

350

Multiple liver abscesses with isolation of streptococcus intermedius related to a pyogenic dental infection in an immuno-competent patient  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction Streptococcus intermedius - a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group - is part of the normal microbial flora of the oral cavity. Despite being regarded as a harmless apathogenic commensal, Streptococcus intermedius has been described to cause abscesses in various locations of the body. Case Presentation We report the clinical case and course of treatment of a 18-year-old male patient presenting with multiple ...

Neumayr A; Kubitz R; Jg, Bode; Bilk P; Häussinger D

2010-01-01

351

Scale conditioning agents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unlike the first generation scale conditioning agents, the advanced scale conditioning agents remove magnetite from the deposit matrix. The magnetite dissolution is performed at a slow, controlled rate to maximize penetration of the solvent into voids and discontinuities within the structure of the deposit and maximize the release of fillers and binding agent as the dissolution process proceeds. Therefore, the advanced scale conditioning agents can penetrate, partially dissolve, and dislocate hardened and densified tube scale. When compared with the first generation scale conditioning agents, advanced scale conditioning agents also provide important advantages for plant technical personnel. Performance objectives can be established to determine the amount of scale to be removed during the application of the advanced scale conditioning agent and with this information the formulation of the advanced scale conditioning agent can be pre-selected prior to initiating verification testing with samples of deposits either previously removed, or yet to be removed, from the steam generator secondary side. (authors)

Rootham, M.W. [Mike Rootham and Associates (United States)

2002-07-01

352

Scale conditioning agents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Unlike the first generation scale conditioning agents, the advanced scale conditioning agents remove magnetite from the deposit matrix. The magnetite dissolution is performed at a slow, controlled rate to maximize penetration of the solvent into voids and discontinuities within the structure of the deposit and maximize the release of fillers and binding agent as the dissolution process proceeds. Therefore, the advanced scale conditioning agents can penetrate, partially dissolve, and dislocate hardened and densified tube scale. When compared with the first generation scale conditioning agents, advanced scale conditioning agents also provide important advantages for plant technical personnel. Performance objectives can be established to determine the amount of scale to be removed during the application of the advanced scale conditioning agent and with this information the formulation of the advanced scale conditioning agent can be pre-selected prior to initiating verification testing with samples of deposits either previously removed, or yet to be removed, from the steam generator secondary side. (authors)