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A case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Streptococcus constellatus as a rare agent of endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis, which was caused by a rare etiological agent, Streptococcus constellatus. In our case, transesophageal echocardiography showed a large and broad abscess formation throughout the patient's aortic prosthetic valve ring and left atrium. Despite specific intravenous antibiotic therapy, the infection was uncontrollable, and the patient underwent surgical treatment. The pathogen rarely causes endocarditis, but it is known to have a strong potential to form abscess, and therefore its infection may be more serious than other Streptococcus species. Our case seems to be the first report of surgical treatment of PVE caused by S. constellatus. As in our case, transesophageal echocardiography is useful for the detection of vegetation and abscess, and early cardiac surgery may be a more appropriate therapeutic approach for endocarditis caused by S. constellatus. PMID:23831301

Ko, Toshiyuki; Mahara, Keitaro; Ota, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Tobaru, Tetsuya; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Kikuchi, Ken; Umemura, Jun; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Tomoike, Hitonobu

2013-07-05

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Streptococcus constellatus: agente etiológico asociado en empiema pleural Streptococcus constellatusas a causative agent of empyema: Report of one case  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus constellatus is a commensal microorganism in man but may cause infections in different locations. We report a 59 years old male with severe sequelae of a previous cerebrovascular accident that consulted in the emergency room for fever of 15 days of evolution. A right empyema was diagnosed. The bacteriological culture of the effusion disclosed the presence of Streptococcus constellatus and two anaerobic strains (Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium urealyticus). The patient was treated with a pleural drainage and received ceftriaxone and clindamycin during six weeks. He was discharged in good conditions and is asymptomatic after eight months of follow up (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 1030-2)

José Antonio Díaz Peromingo; Joaquín Sánchez Leira; Florinda García Suárez; Emilio Padín Paz; Juan Saborido Froján

2006-01-01

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Streptococcus constellatus: agente etiológico asociado en empiema pleural/ Streptococcus constellatusas a causative agent of empyema: Report of one case  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Streptococcus constellatus is a commensal microorganism in man but may cause infections in different locations. We report a 59 years old male with severe sequelae of a previous cerebrovascular accident that consulted in the emergency room for fever of 15 days of evolution. A right empyema was diagnosed. The bacteriological culture of the effusion disclosed the presence of Streptococcus constellatus and two anaerobic strains (Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium urealyt (more) icus). The patient was treated with a pleural drainage and received ceftriaxone and clindamycin during six weeks. He was discharged in good conditions and is asymptomatic after eight months of follow up (Rev Méd Chile 2006; 134: 1030-2)

Díaz Peromingo, José Antonio; Sánchez Leira, Joaquín; García Suárez, Florinda; Padín Paz, Emilio; Saborido Froján, Juan

2006-08-01

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Meningitis aguda por Streptococcus Constellatus: a propósito de un caso fatal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 14 años, con el único antecedente de sinusitis resuelta hacía un año, que desarrolló de nuevo una pansinusitis y una meningitis aguda que lo llevó en diez días a la muerte. Durante su estancia hospitalaria no fue posible determinar el agente etiológico, sin embargo los cultivos post mortem demostraron que el microorganismo presente era Streptococcus constellatus un comensal habitual de las mucosas del ser humano, del (more) cual se han descrito muy pocos casos de meningitis en pacientes inmunocompetentes, lo cual hace de este caso un verdadero reto diagnóstico para los médicos tratantes y los anatomopatólogos. Abstract in english The present case is of a 14 year-old male with the only history of a sinusitis that solved one year before presentation.The patient developed a newly-onset pansinusitis followed by pyogenic meningitis that lead him to death ten days after. It was not possible to determine the etiologic agent during his hospitalization but postmortem culture tests taken from the leptomeninges and the etmoidal cells showed Streptococcus constellatus, a usual commensal in human mucous membra (more) nes. Very few cases of acute meningitis caused by S. constellatus have been described in immunocompetent patients, which makes this case a real diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists.

Vargas Sanabria, Maikel; Guzmán Cervantes, Rodolfo

2011-09-01

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Meningitis aguda por Streptococcus Constellatus: a propósito de un caso fatal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 14 años, con el único antecedente de sinusitis resuelta hacía un año, que desarrolló de nuevo una pansinusitis y una meningitis aguda que lo llevó en diez días a la muerte. Durante su estancia hospitalaria no fue posible determinar el agente etiológico, sin embargo los cultivos post mortem demostraron que el microorganismo presente era Streptococcus constellatus un comensal habitual de las mucosas del ser humano, del cual se han descrito muy pocos casos de meningitis en pacientes inmunocompetentes, lo cual hace de este caso un verdadero reto diagnóstico para los médicos tratantes y los anatomopatólogos.The present case is of a 14 year-old male with the only history of a sinusitis that solved one year before presentation.The patient developed a newly-onset pansinusitis followed by pyogenic meningitis that lead him to death ten days after. It was not possible to determine the etiologic agent during his hospitalization but postmortem culture tests taken from the leptomeninges and the etmoidal cells showed Streptococcus constellatus, a usual commensal in human mucous membranes. Very few cases of acute meningitis caused by S. constellatus have been described in immunocompetent patients, which makes this case a real diagnostic challenge for clinicians and pathologists.

Maikel Vargas Sanabria; Rodolfo Guzmán Cervantes

2011-01-01

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Mitral and aortic valve endocarditis caused by a rare pathogen: Streptococcus constellatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus constellatus endocarditis is associated with systemic embolism and frequently with a poor prognosis. We describe the first case reported in the literature of infective endocarditis by penicillin-resistant S. constellatus causing both mitral and aortic valve regurgitation, treated successfully with double-valve replacement.

Concistrè G; Chiaramonti F; Miceli A; Glauber M

2012-06-01

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Molecular and enzymatic characterization of betaC-S lyase in Streptococcus constellatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus constellatus are frequently isolated from dental abscesses and other suppurative lesions. We previously reported that betaC-S lyase from a strain of S. anginosus produced significantly more hydrogen sulfide than betaC-S lyases from other streptococci. The purpose of this study was to establish the molecular and enzymatic features of the betaC-S lyase in S. constellatus and to elucidate whether this unique capacity is common to many strains of S. constellatus and S. anginosus. METHODS: The capacity of crude extract to produce hydrogen sulfide was evaluated among 16 strains of S. constellatus, S. anginosus, and Streptococcus gordonii. The lcd gene encoding betaC-S lyase was cloned from the genomic DNA of each strain to compare the deduced amino acid sequences. The recombinant betaC-S lyases of three representative strains were purified and characterized. RESULTS: Incubation of crude extracts from all strains of S. constellatus and S. anginosus with l-cysteine resulted in the production of a large amount of hydrogen sulfide. The primary sequence of betaC-S lyase was very similar among strains of S. constellatus and S. anginosus. The kinetic properties of the betaC-S lyases purified from S. constellatus resembled those for betaC-S lyases purified from S. anginosus. In contrast, the betaC-S lyases of S. constellatus and S. gordonii differed in terms of their hydrogen sulfide production, with the former producing much more. CONCLUSION: A high level of hydrogen sulfide production, which appears to be a common feature in both S. constellatus and S. anginosus, may be associated with their abscess formation.

Yoshida Y; Ito S; Sasaki T; Kishi M; Kurota M; Suwabe A; Kunimatsu K; Kato H

2008-06-01

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[Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Streptococcus constellatus infection complicated with perivalvular abscess: serial observation by transesophageal echocardiography: a case report].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 61-year-old man was admitted to an associated hospital because of fever. He had undergone aortic valve and mitral valve replacement 6 years ago, because of rheumatic aortic valve stenosis, and mitral valve stenosis and regurgitation. He had prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a rare Streptococcus constellatus infection complicated by multiple organ failure and systemic embolism. We considered that surgical treatment was difficult, and continued antibiotic treatment. The inflammatory reaction and fever improved. Prosthetic valve endocarditis is often difficult to identify and treat. Streptococcus constellatus infection is characterized by destruction and formation of abscess. We followed up the patient by transesophageal echocardiography, and observed the course of change of the paravalvular abscess around the aortic valve from echogenic to echolucent.

Ejima K; Ishizuka N; Tanaka H; Tanimoto K; Shoda M; Kasanuki H

2003-09-01

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[Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Streptococcus constellatus infection complicated with perivalvular abscess: serial observation by transesophageal echocardiography: a case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 61-year-old man was admitted to an associated hospital because of fever. He had undergone aortic valve and mitral valve replacement 6 years ago, because of rheumatic aortic valve stenosis, and mitral valve stenosis and regurgitation. He had prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a rare Streptococcus constellatus infection complicated by multiple organ failure and systemic embolism. We considered that surgical treatment was difficult, and continued antibiotic treatment. The inflammatory reaction and fever improved. Prosthetic valve endocarditis is often difficult to identify and treat. Streptococcus constellatus infection is characterized by destruction and formation of abscess. We followed up the patient by transesophageal echocardiography, and observed the course of change of the paravalvular abscess around the aortic valve from echogenic to echolucent. PMID:14526662

Ejima, Koichiro; Ishizuka, Naoko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Tanimoto, Kyomi; Shoda, Morio; Kasanuki, Hiroshi

2003-09-01

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Taxonomy of the Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus and description of Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus has been the subject of much taxonomic confusion, which has hampered the full appreciation of its clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to critically re-examine the taxonomy of the Anginosus group, with special attention to ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains, using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of seven housekeeping genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished seven distinct and coherent clusters in the Anginosus group. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic characters supported the MLSA clustering and currently recognized taxa of the Anginosus group. Single gene analyses showed considerable allele sharing between species, thereby invalidating identification based on single-locus sequencing. Two novel clusters of ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains within the Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus species and isolated from patients with sore throat showed sufficient phylogenetic distances from other clusters to warrant status as novel subspecies. The novel cluster within S. anginosus was identified as the previously recognized DNA homology cluster, DNA group 2. The names S. anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. (type strain CCUG 39159(T)?=?DSM 25818(T)?=?SK1267(T)) and S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov. (type strain SK1359(T)?=?CCUG 62387(T)?=?DSM 25819(T)) are proposed.

Jensen, Anders; Hoshino, Tomonori

2013-01-01

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Taxonomy of the Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus and description of Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus has been the subject of much taxonomic confusion, which has hampered the full appreciation of its clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to critically re-examine the taxonomy of the Anginosus group, with special attention to ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains, using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of seven housekeeping genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished seven distinct and coherent clusters in the Anginosus group. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic characters supported the MLSA clustering and currently recognized taxa of the Anginosus group. Single gene analyses showed considerable allele sharing between species, thereby invalidating identification based on single-locus sequencing. Two novel clusters of ?-haemolytic, Lancefield group C strains within the Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus anginosus species and isolated from patients with sore throat showed sufficient phylogenetic distances from other clusters to warrant status as novel subspecies. The novel cluster within S. anginosus was identified as the previously recognized DNA homology cluster, DNA group 2. The names S. anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. (type strain CCUG 39159(T) = DSM 25818(T) = SK1267(T)) and S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov. (type strain SK1359(T) = CCUG 62387(T) = DSM 25819(T)) are proposed. PMID:23223817

Jensen, Anders; Hoshino, Tomonori; Kilian, Mogens

2012-12-07

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Streptococcus agalactie como agente etiológico de Doença Sexualmente Transmissível/ Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O Streptococcus agalactie é um importante micro-organismo causador de doenças em gestantes, neonatos, idosos (maiores de 65 anos de idade), e portadores de doenças crônicas debilitantes, sendo um patógeno incomum em pacientes que não se enquadrem nestas faixas etárias ou perfil clínico (1-5), e, raramente, é descrito como agente causador de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Descrevemos o caso de um adulto jovem hígido de 19 anos, apresentando lesões ulcerad (more) as genitais e oral, assim como corrimento uretral e ocular, sugestivas de terem sido causadas pelo Streptococcus agalactie, e adquiridas através do contato sexual (doenças sexualmente transmissíveis). Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age) and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5) and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative g (more) enital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

Frey, Marcos Noronha; Ioppi, Ana Elisa Empinotti; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; Prado, Guilherme Pinheiro

2011-12-01

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The antimicrobial effect of an iron-binding agent on Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antimicrobial activity of 2,2'-bipyridine, an iron-binding agent, was investigated by incorporating this agent into Scotchbond dental adhesive resin. The growth of Streptococcus mutans on the surface of resin, media and culture vessel was determined by optical density measurements. It was observed that 2,2'-bipyridine exhibited excellent antimicrobial properties.

Bapna MS; Mukherjee S; Murphy R

1992-03-01

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Empiema pleural por Streptococcus grupo anginosus en un preescolar y revisión de la literatura: Case report and review Streptococcus anginosus pleural emphyema in a child  

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Full Text Available Presentamos el caso clínico de un preescolar con antecedente de malformación pulmonar que 43 días tras una neumonectomía izquierda, ingresó al Hospital Padre Hurtado con fiebre de una semana de evolución. En una TAC pulmonar se demostró una gran colección intrapleural izquierda de la que se aisló Streptococcus grupo anginosus y Prevotella spp. Se efectuó tratamiento antimicrobiano con penicilina más clindamicina. Existe gran confusión en la terminología y clasificación de Streptococcus grupo anginosus. En la actualidad no existe duda que es un grupo que posee tres especies, S. anginosus, S. constellatus y S. intermedius. Son parte de la flora normal de orofaringe, nasofaringe, tracto gastrointestinal y vagina. Este grupo ha sido reconocido como causa de infecciones supurativas en niños y adultos. La mayoría de las cepas se describen como susceptibles a penicilina; sin embargo, existen reportes que sugieren la emergencia de resistencia. Se discuten las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnóstico e informe microbiológicosLeft pneumonectomy in a child with congenital pulmonary malformation was performed two months prior to admission. Within one week he had high fever. Chest CT scan showed massive left pleural effusion. Both Streptococcus anginosus group and Prevotella spp. grew from the fluid obtained by pleural punction. Antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated with clindamycin and penicillin. Streptococus anginosus group is quite confusing in terms of classification and taxonomy. Now it is well recognized that three species belong to this genera: S. anginosus S. constellatus and S. intermedius. They all are considered normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract and vagina but also they have been identified as agents of suppurative infections in children and adults. Many reports show adequate response to penicillin, however there is some emerging resistance in strains isolated in other studies. In this article we also suggest some diagnostic and microbiologic recommendations

Paola Pidal M.; Javiera Basaure O.; Priscilla Prado D.; Pedro Alarcón L.

2004-01-01

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Empiema pleural por Streptococcus grupo anginosus en un preescolar y revisión de la literatura: Case report and review/ Streptococcus anginosus pleural emphyema in a child  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Presentamos el caso clínico de un preescolar con antecedente de malformación pulmonar que 43 días tras una neumonectomía izquierda, ingresó al Hospital Padre Hurtado con fiebre de una semana de evolución. En una TAC pulmonar se demostró una gran colección intrapleural izquierda de la que se aisló Streptococcus grupo anginosus y Prevotella spp. Se efectuó tratamiento antimicrobiano con penicilina más clindamicina. Existe gran confusión en la terminología y cla (more) sificación de Streptococcus grupo anginosus. En la actualidad no existe duda que es un grupo que posee tres especies, S. anginosus, S. constellatus y S. intermedius. Son parte de la flora normal de orofaringe, nasofaringe, tracto gastrointestinal y vagina. Este grupo ha sido reconocido como causa de infecciones supurativas en niños y adultos. La mayoría de las cepas se describen como susceptibles a penicilina; sin embargo, existen reportes que sugieren la emergencia de resistencia. Se discuten las recomendaciones actuales para el diagnóstico e informe microbiológicos Abstract in english Left pneumonectomy in a child with congenital pulmonary malformation was performed two months prior to admission. Within one week he had high fever. Chest CT scan showed massive left pleural effusion. Both Streptococcus anginosus group and Prevotella spp. grew from the fluid obtained by pleural punction. Antimicrobial therapy was immediately initiated with clindamycin and penicillin. Streptococus anginosus group is quite confusing in terms of classification and taxonomy. (more) Now it is well recognized that three species belong to this genera: S. anginosus S. constellatus and S. intermedius. They all are considered normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal tract and vagina but also they have been identified as agents of suppurative infections in children and adults. Many reports show adequate response to penicillin, however there is some emerging resistance in strains isolated in other studies. In this article we also suggest some diagnostic and microbiologic recommendations

Pidal M., Paola; Basaure O., Javiera; Prado D., Priscilla; Alarcón L., Pedro

2004-01-01

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[Streptococcus pyogenes--much more than the aetiological agent of scarlet fever].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The grampositive bacterium S. pyogenes (beta-haemolytic group A Streptococcus) is a natural colonizer of the human oropharynx mucous membrane and one of the most common agents of infectious diseases in humans. S. pyogenes causes the widest range of disease in humans among all bacterial pathogens. It is responsible for various skin infections such as impetigo contagiosa and erysipelas, and localized mucous membrane infections of the oropharynx (e. g. tonsillitis and pharyngitis). Betahaemolytic group A Streptococcus causes also invasive diseases such as sepses including puerperal sepsis. Additionally, S. pyogenes induces toxin-mediated syndromes, i. e. scarlet fever, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF). STSS and NF are severe, frequently fatal diseases that have emerged in Europe and Northern America during the last two decades. Finally, some immunpathological diseases such as acute rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis also result from S. pyogenes infections. Most scientists recommend penicillins (benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicllin) as drugs of first choice for treatment of Streptococcus tonsillopharyngitis and scarlet fever. Erysipelas and some other skin infections should be treated with benzylpenicillin. Intensive care measurements are needed for treatment of severe toxin-mediated S. pyogenes diseases. These measurements include the elimination of internal bacterial foci, concomitant application of clindamycin and benzylpenicillin and suitable treatment of shock symptoms. Management of immunpathological diseases requires antiphlogistical therapy. Because of the wide distribution of S. pyogenes in the general population and the lack of an effective vaccine, possibilities for prevention allowing a suitable protection for diseases due to S. pyogenes are very limited.

Stock I

2009-11-01

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[Characteristics of "Streptococcus mutans" from endocarditis and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Strains of Streptococcus mutans were isolated from blood cultures of ten patients with endocarditis. Nine of these patients had a typical clinical picture of subacute bacterial endocarditis, with fever, weakness, heart murmur and multiple positive blood cultures. All the patients had previous valvular heart diseases; only in three cases the initiating event involved some type of dental manipulations which where supposed as the source of infection. The major criteria for recognizing S. mutans were colony morphology on blood agar, characteristic extracellular polysaccharide production in 5% sucrose broth, acid formation in mannitol and sorbitol broth, and the failure of antigenic extracts of S. mutans to react with streptococcal group antisera. The susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was tested by the diffusimetric method with susceptibility disks. All the strains were susceptible to penicillin G, erythromycin, pristinamycin, lincomycin and tetracycline, and resistant to streptomycin and gentamicine.

Horodniceanu T; Delbos F; Chabbert YA

1977-02-01

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[Characteristics of "Streptococcus mutans" from endocarditis and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Strains of Streptococcus mutans were isolated from blood cultures of ten patients with endocarditis. Nine of these patients had a typical clinical picture of subacute bacterial endocarditis, with fever, weakness, heart murmur and multiple positive blood cultures. All the patients had previous valvular heart diseases; only in three cases the initiating event involved some type of dental manipulations which where supposed as the source of infection. The major criteria for recognizing S. mutans were colony morphology on blood agar, characteristic extracellular polysaccharide production in 5% sucrose broth, acid formation in mannitol and sorbitol broth, and the failure of antigenic extracts of S. mutans to react with streptococcal group antisera. The susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was tested by the diffusimetric method with susceptibility disks. All the strains were susceptible to penicillin G, erythromycin, pristinamycin, lincomycin and tetracycline, and resistant to streptomycin and gentamicine. PMID:900695

Horodniceanu, T; Delbos, F; Chabbert, Y A

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Nasal Carriage in Vietnamese Children of Streptococcus pneumoniae Resistant to Multiple Antimicrobial Agents  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance to antimicrobial agents in Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing rapidly in many Asian countries. There is little recent information concerning resistance levels in Vietnam. A prospective study of pneumococcal carriage in 911 urban and rural Vietnamese children, of whom 44% were nasal carriers, was performed. Carriage was more common in children 1.0 mg/liter). A total of 54 of 399 isolates (13%) had intermediate susceptibility to ceftriaxone, and 3 of 399 isolates (1%) were resistant. Penicillin resistance was 21.7 (95% confidence interval, 7.0 to 67.6) times more common in urban than in rural children (35 versus 2%; P, <0.001). More than 40% of isolates from urban children were also resistant to erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Penicillin resistance was independently associated with an urban location when the age of the child was controlled for. Multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more antimicrobial agent groups) was present in 32% of isolates overall but in 39% of isolates with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin and 86% of isolates with penicillin resistance. The predominant serotypes of the S. pneumoniae isolates were 19, 23, 14, 6, and 18. Almost half of the penicillin-resistant isolates serotyped were serotype 23, and these isolates were often multidrug resistant. This study suggests that resistance to penicillin and other antimicrobial agents is common in carriage isolates of S. pneumoniae from children in Vietnam.

Parry, Christopher M.; Diep, To Song; Wain, John; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Gainsborough, Mary; Nga, Diem; Davies, Catrin; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Hien, Tran Tinh; White, Nicholas J.; Farrar, Jeremy J.

2000-01-01

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Reproduction, distribution and abundance of Bothus constellatus (Pisces: Bothidae), in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico  

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Full Text Available A total of 3 593 individuals of Bothus constellatus was captured during five oceanographic cruises carried out in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Its distribution, abundance, and reproduction patterns were stated by means of the analysis of the population parameters (i.e. density, biomass, weight and size average, visceral and gonadosomatic index, and maturity stages). B. constellatus is a typical demersal marine species, because it does not occur in estuaries, but occurs near to them on the continental shelf. It is distributed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec in depths lesser than 60 m, with high abundance around the 40 m isobath, and in front of Mar Muerto Lagoon. During January and May the biomass and density were high. The size at first maturity of females is 101 mm total length, and maturation occurs first in zones influenced by estuarine processes. Reproduction and recruitment were detected in all the collections.

M. Tapia-García; M. C. García-Abad; G. Cerdenares Ladrón de Guevara

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Streptococcus sanguinis isolate displaying a phenotype with cross-resistance to several rRNA-targeting agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes a clinical case of a 71-year-old male with a history of ischemic cardiomyopathy after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and a rare linezolid-resistant Streptococcus sanguinis strain (MIC, 32 ?g/ml). The patient received courses of several antimicrobial agents, including linezolid for 79 days. The S. sanguinis strain had mutations in the 23S rRNA (T2211C, T2406C, G2576T, C2610T) and an amino acid substitution (N56D) in L22 and exhibited cross-resistance to ribosome-targeting agents.

Mendes RE; Deshpande LM; Kim J; Myers DS; Ross JE; Jones RN

2013-08-01

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Short communication: Streptococcus species isolated from mastitis milk samples in Germany and their resistance to antimicrobial agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mastitis is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in dairy cattle and is a reason for antimicrobial drug usage in dairy cows. The bacteria involved in bovine mastitis are mainly Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and coliforms. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance among Streptococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis milk. Antimicrobial resistance in Strep. uberis (n=227), Strep. dysgalactiae (n=49), and Strep. agalactiae (n=3) was determined for 9 antimicrobial agents using the broth microdilution method in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Of all Streptococcus spp., 13% were multidrug resistant. The rate of multidrug resistance was higher among Strep. uberis (15%) than among Strep. dysgalactiae (6%) and Strep. agalactiae (0%). Resistance to tetracycline was the most common, followed by resistance to erythromycin, pirlimycin, and gentamicin. Resistance rates were higher on farms with more than 80 cows compared with those with fewer than 20 cows. ?-Lactams should remain the drugs of choice in the treatment of streptococcal mastitis. The slightly elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations determined for these antibiotics may indicate, however, the emergence of resistant streptococci. To identify such changes in susceptibility as early as possible, antimicrobial resistance in streptococci should be surveyed regularly.

Minst K; Märtlbauer E; Miller T; Meyer C

2012-12-01

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Agents of the "suis-ide diseases" of swine: Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Streptococcus suis have emerged as important pathogens of swine, particularly in high health status herds. Their association with a wide range of serious clinical conditions and has given rise to the moniker "suis-ide diseases." These o...

MacInnes, J I; Desrosiers, R

24

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as etiological agents of conjunctivitis outbreaks in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil  

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Full Text Available In the study of conjunctivitis outbreaks occurring from September 1994 to September 1996 in the region of Ribeirão Preto, conjunctival exudates of 92 patients were cultivated in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory I, Ribeirão Preto. Most cases occurred in the age range 2-7 years. The etiological agents which were most frequently isolated from the analyzed cases were: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in 40.22% and 21.74%, respectively. 51.35% of the S. pneumoniae isolated strains were not typable. The oxacillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains were submitted to the minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC) and three of them presented intermediate resistance, whereas only one was highly resistant to penicillin.No estudo de surtos de conjuntivite ocorridos no período de setembro de 1994 a setembro de 1996, na região de Ribeirão Preto, foram semeadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratório I, Ribeirão Preto, exsudatos conjuntivais de 92 pacientes, sendo que a maioria dos casos estava na faixa etária de 2-7 anos. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente isolados dos casos analisados foram: Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae em 40,22% e 21,74% respectivamente. 51,35% das cepas de S. pneumoniae isoladas foram não tipáveis. As cepas de S. pneumoniae oxacilina resistente foram submetidas ao teste de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), sendo que três apresentaram resistência intermediária e apenas uma foi altamente resistente à penicilina.

Marta I. C. MEDEIROS; Suzel N. NEME; Paulo da SILVA; Jaqueline O. SILVA; Ana Maria M. CARNEIRO; Maria Claudia CARLONI; Maria Cristina de C. BRANDILEONE

1998-01-01

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Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as etiological agents of conjunctivitis outbreaks in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the study of conjunctivitis outbreaks occurring from September 1994 to September 1996 in the region of Ribeirão Preto, conjunctival exudates of 92 patients were cultivated in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory I, Ribeirão Preto. Most cases occurred in the age range 2-7 years. The etiological agents which were most frequently isolated from the analyzed cases were: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in 40.22% and 21.74%, respectively. 51.35% of the S. pneumoniae isolated strains were not typable. The oxacillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains were submitted to the minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC) and three of them presented intermediate resistance, whereas only one was highly resistant to penicillin.

MEDEIROS Marta I. C.; NEME Suzel N.; SILVA Paulo da; SILVA Jaqueline O.; CARNEIRO Ana Maria M.; CARLONI Maria Claudia; BRANDILEONE Maria Cristina de C.

1998-01-01

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?acteriology of pleural infection «Streptococcus milleri group» in the limelight  

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Full Text Available SUMMARY. Bacterial infection of the pleura is an old disease that continues to have a considerable mortality, of >15%. It is more common in males, and in the presence of diabetes mellitus, malignancy and alcoholism. The bacteriology of pleural infection has been changing during the past decades. Although pleural fluid culture is the «gold standard» for the identification of microorganisms in the pleural fluid, molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have a notably higher sensitivity (75% versus 60%). Community-acquired pleural infection (CAPI) and hospital-acquired pleural infection (HAPI) have substantial differences in both their bacteriology and mortality, while the bacteriology of both differs markedly from that of pneumonia. The «Streptococcus milleri group» is the predominant isolate in CAPI, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae. In HAPI the most common isolates are Staphylococcus aureus, usually methicillin-resistant (MRSA), and Enterococcus spp. Given the higher incidence of CAPI compared to HAPI, «Streptococcus milleri» accounts for the greatest number of pleural infections. The «Streptococcus milleri group» consists of Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius. The unique characteristics of these bacteria favour the production of putrifying and necrotizing infections. The most common thoracic infection due to these organisms is empyema. Drainage of the infected pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics are essential components of the management of pleural infection. Knowledge of the pleural infection bacteriology is a useful adjunct in the selection of the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Pneumon 2009; 22(1):46–64.

Vasileios Skouras; Vlasis Polychronopoulos; Richard W. Light

2009-01-01

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Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial empirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Central Laboratory from April 2001 to august 2002 have been evaluated. One hundred S. pneumoniae have been isolated, of which 15% were resistant to penicillin, 1% to cephalosporin and 0% to vancomycin. The serotypes most found were 14 (19%), 3 and 23F (10% each). When only the resistant serotypes were analyzed, the most prevalent was the 14 with 44%. The risk factors found in relation to the S. pneumoniae resistance were: age under one year old (p=0.01) and previous use of antibiotic (p=0.046). The resistance rates found, which were moderate to penicillin, low to cephalosporin and neutral to vancomycin, suggest the isolated use of a 3rd generation cephalosporin as an initial empirical therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with a communitarian background. PMID:18813710

Rossoni, Andrea Maciel de Oliveira; Dalla Costa, Libera Maria; Berto, Denize Bonato; Farah, Sônia Santos; Gelain, Marilene; Brandileone, Maria Cristina de Cunto; Ramos, Vitor Hugo Mariano; Almeida, Sergio Monteiro de

2008-09-01

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Action of selected agents on the accumulation of /sup 18/F by Streptococcus mutans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The action of certain substances known to induce cellular alterations, or encountered in the oral cavity, on the accumulation of /sup 18/F by Streptococcus mutans GS-5 has been investigated. A 62-67% inhibition in the number of /sup 18/F atoms bound per mg dry weight of cells could be induced by a 15 min pretreatment with 2.7 x 10/sup -4/ M cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide, 1 x 10/sup -1/ M acetic anhydride, or 7 x 10/sup -2/ M HCl. Plate counts indicated that alteration of the cellular composition rather than viability was responsible for this diminution in /sup 18/F accumulation. Prior exposure for 15 min of this organism to 1 M HCHO or 0.1 M NaOH did not alter /sup 18/F accumulation. Of the common salts encountered in the oral cavity, CaCl/sub 2/ enhanced /sup 18/F binding. Pretreatment of the assay cells for 15-160 min with 0.1 mg/ml of trypsin, pronase, protease, ..cap alpha..-glucosidase, dextranase, or lactoferrin had no significant effect on the accumulation of /sup 18/. However, pre-exposure of cells for 60 min to 1-10 mg/ml of either amylase or lipase induced a 40-67% inhibition in the binding of /sup 18/F, while lysozyme enhanced the binding of /sup 18/F by the cells. It would appear then that the binding of /sup 18/F by S. mutans may be altered by certain substances encountered in the oral cavity. 17 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

Yotis, W.W.; Zeb, M.; Brennan, P.C.; Kirchner, F.R.; Glendenin, L.E.; Wu-Yuan, C.D.

1983-01-01

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Estudio fitoquímico y actividad antibacterial de Psidium guineense Sw (choba) frente a Streptococcus mutans, agente causal de caries dentales Phytochemical study and antibacterial activity of Psidium guíneense Sw (choba) against Streptococcus mutans, causal agent of dental caries  

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Full Text Available Se comprobaron las potencialidades antibacteriales del extracto etanólicoy de sus fracciones éter de petróleo, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y acuosa obtenidos de la cáscara y pulpa de Psidium guineense Sw (choba) frente a la bacteria Gram positiva Streptococcus mutans ATCC 31089 y a una cepa de la misma bacteria aislada de paciente. El S. mutans está reconocido como el principal agente causal de las caries dentales. Se comprobó, por técnicas de coloración y cromatografía en capa delgada, el contenido de metabolitos secundarios en los extractos etanólicos crudos y en sus respectivas fracciones. Los ensayos antibacteriales se realizaron por la técnica de perforación en gel empleando la escala de 0,5 de McFarland a 10(8) ufc/mL. Se utilizó agar base sangre y se aplicaron 50 mL de los extractos etanólicos de la cáscara y la pulpa de P. guineense diluidos en DMSO a concentraciones de 400 y 0,4 mg/mL. Según los mayores porcentajes de inhibición obtenidos de estos extractos, se tomaron las fracciones en concentraciones entre 25 y 100 mg/mL y para la cepa S. mutans aislada de paciente, concentraciones de 400 y 200 mg/mL. Los extractos etanólicos crudos mostraron actividad frente a estas bacterias; las fracciones de mayor actividad fueron las nombradas M1FA (fracción acetato de choba fruto cáscara verde seca) y M3FA (fracción acetato de choba fruto pulpa verde seca). La actividad antimicrobiana de la especie P. guineense pudiera ser atribuida a los metabolitos secundarios, taninos, flavonoides, terpenos y aldehídos, presentes en el fruto de esta especie.The antibacterial potentialities of the ethanol extract and its petroleum ether, dicloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions obtained from the peel and pulp of Psidium guineense Sw ( choba) against the Gram positive Streptococcus mutants ATCC 31089 and a strain of the same germ isolated from a patient, were proved . S. Mutans is recognized as the causal agent of dental caries. The content of secondary metabolites in the crude ethanol extracts and in its respective fractions were proved by staining and thin layer chromatography. The antibacterial tests were made by means of the gel perforation technique and using McFarland's 0.5 scale at 108 ufc/mL. Blood base agar was utilized and 50 mL of the ethanol extracts from the peel and pulp of P. guineense diluted in DMSO at concentrations of 400 and 0.4 mg/mL were applied. According to the highest percentages of inhibition obtained from these extracts, the fractions were taken in concentrations between 25 and 100 mg/ mL and from 400 and 200 mg/mL for the S. mutans strain isolated from a patient. The crude ethanol extracts showed activity against these bacteria. The fractions with the greatest activity were the so-called M1FA (fraction of acetate of choba fruit's dry green peel) and M3FA (fraction of acetate of choba fruit's dry green pulp). The antimicrobial activity of the P. guineense species may be attributed to secondary metabolites, taninns, flavonoids, terpenes and aldehydes present in the fruit of this species.

Adriana María Neira González; Martha Beatriz Ramírez González; Nidia Lizbeth Sánchez Pinto

2005-01-01

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Estudio fitoquímico y actividad antibacterial de Psidium guineense Sw (choba) frente a Streptococcus mutans, agente causal de caries dentales/ Phytochemical study and antibacterial activity of Psidium guíneense Sw (choba) against Streptococcus mutans, causal agent of dental caries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se comprobaron las potencialidades antibacteriales del extracto etanólicoy de sus fracciones éter de petróleo, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y acuosa obtenidos de la cáscara y pulpa de Psidium guineense Sw (choba) frente a la bacteria Gram positiva Streptococcus mutans ATCC 31089 y a una cepa de la misma bacteria aislada de paciente. El S. mutans está reconocido como el principal agente causal de las caries dentales. Se comprobó, por técnicas de coloración y cro (more) matografía en capa delgada, el contenido de metabolitos secundarios en los extractos etanólicos crudos y en sus respectivas fracciones. Los ensayos antibacteriales se realizaron por la técnica de perforación en gel empleando la escala de 0,5 de McFarland a 10(8) ufc/mL. Se utilizó agar base sangre y se aplicaron 50 mL de los extractos etanólicos de la cáscara y la pulpa de P. guineense diluidos en DMSO a concentraciones de 400 y 0,4 mg/mL. Según los mayores porcentajes de inhibición obtenidos de estos extractos, se tomaron las fracciones en concentraciones entre 25 y 100 mg/mL y para la cepa S. mutans aislada de paciente, concentraciones de 400 y 200 mg/mL. Los extractos etanólicos crudos mostraron actividad frente a estas bacterias; las fracciones de mayor actividad fueron las nombradas M1FA (fracción acetato de choba fruto cáscara verde seca) y M3FA (fracción acetato de choba fruto pulpa verde seca). La actividad antimicrobiana de la especie P. guineense pudiera ser atribuida a los metabolitos secundarios, taninos, flavonoides, terpenos y aldehídos, presentes en el fruto de esta especie. Abstract in english The antibacterial potentialities of the ethanol extract and its petroleum ether, dicloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions obtained from the peel and pulp of Psidium guineense Sw ( choba) against the Gram positive Streptococcus mutants ATCC 31089 and a strain of the same germ isolated from a patient, were proved . S. Mutans is recognized as the causal agent of dental caries. The content of secondary metabolites in the crude ethanol extracts and in its respectiv (more) e fractions were proved by staining and thin layer chromatography. The antibacterial tests were made by means of the gel perforation technique and using McFarland's 0.5 scale at 108 ufc/mL. Blood base agar was utilized and 50 mL of the ethanol extracts from the peel and pulp of P. guineense diluted in DMSO at concentrations of 400 and 0.4 mg/mL were applied. According to the highest percentages of inhibition obtained from these extracts, the fractions were taken in concentrations between 25 and 100 mg/ mL and from 400 and 200 mg/mL for the S. mutans strain isolated from a patient. The crude ethanol extracts showed activity against these bacteria. The fractions with the greatest activity were the so-called M1FA (fraction of acetate of choba fruit's dry green peel) and M3FA (fraction of acetate of choba fruit's dry green pulp). The antimicrobial activity of the P. guineense species may be attributed to secondary metabolites, taninns, flavonoids, terpenes and aldehydes present in the fruit of this species.

Neira González, Adriana María; Ramírez González, Martha Beatriz; Sánchez Pinto, Nidia Lizbeth

2005-12-01

31

Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes Meningite bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente aos antimicrobianos e seus sorotipos  

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Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial empirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Central Laboratory from April 2001 to august 2002 have been evaluated. One hundred S. pneumoniae have been isolated, of which 15% were resistant to penicillin, 1% to cephalosporin and 0% to vancomycin. The serotypes most found were 14 (19%), 3 and 23F (10% each). When only the resistant serotypes were analyzed, the most prevalent was the 14 with 44%. The risk factors found in relation to the S. pneumoniae resistance were: age under one year old (p=0.01) and previous use of antibiotic (p=0.046). The resistance rates found, which were moderate to penicillin, low to cephalosporin and neutral to vancomycin, suggest the isolated use of a 3rd generation cephalosporin as an initial empirical therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with a communitarian background.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as taxas de resistência de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolados de pacientes com meningite, à penicilina G, ceftriaxona e vancomicina; avaliar possíveis fatores de risco para resistência antimicrobiana; descrever os sorotipos encontrados e sugerir a terapêutica empírica inicial para meningite. Foram isoladas 100 amostras de S. pneumoniae, encontrando-se 15% de resistência à penicilina, 1% à cefalosporina e 0% à vancomicina. Os sorotipos mais encontrados foram 14 (19%), 3 e 23F (10% cada). Analisando-se os resistentes, o sorotipo 14 (44%) também foi o mais freqüente. Os fatores de risco para resistência de S. pneumoniae encontrados foram: idade menor que um ano (p=0,01) e o uso prévio de antibiótico (p=0,046). As taxas de resistência encontradas, moderada a penicilina, baixa para cefalosporina e nula para vancomicina, sugerem como terapêutica empírica inicial para tratamento da meningite bacteriana aguda de origem comunitária, a cefalosporina de terceira geração isoladamente.

Andrea Maciel de Oliveira Rossoni; Libera Maria Dalla Costa; Denize Bonato Berto; Sônia Santos Farah; Marilene Gelain; Maria Cristina de Cunto Brandileone; Vitor Hugo Mariano Ramos; Sergio Monteiro de Almeida

2008-01-01

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Acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to the antimicrobian agents and their serotypes/ Meningite bacteriana aguda por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente aos antimicrobianos e seus sorotipos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as taxas de resistência de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolados de pacientes com meningite, à penicilina G, ceftriaxona e vancomicina; avaliar possíveis fatores de risco para resistência antimicrobiana; descrever os sorotipos encontrados e sugerir a terapêutica empírica inicial para meningite. Foram isoladas 100 amostras de S. pneumoniae, encontrando-se 15% de resistência à penicilina, 1% à cefalosporina e 0% à vancomicina. O (more) s sorotipos mais encontrados foram 14 (19%), 3 e 23F (10% cada). Analisando-se os resistentes, o sorotipo 14 (44%) também foi o mais freqüente. Os fatores de risco para resistência de S. pneumoniae encontrados foram: idade menor que um ano (p=0,01) e o uso prévio de antibiótico (p=0,046). As taxas de resistência encontradas, moderada a penicilina, baixa para cefalosporina e nula para vancomicina, sugerem como terapêutica empírica inicial para tratamento da meningite bacteriana aguda de origem comunitária, a cefalosporina de terceira geração isoladamente. Abstract in english The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial empirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Centra (more) l Laboratory from April 2001 to august 2002 have been evaluated. One hundred S. pneumoniae have been isolated, of which 15% were resistant to penicillin, 1% to cephalosporin and 0% to vancomycin. The serotypes most found were 14 (19%), 3 and 23F (10% each). When only the resistant serotypes were analyzed, the most prevalent was the 14 with 44%. The risk factors found in relation to the S. pneumoniae resistance were: age under one year old (p=0.01) and previous use of antibiotic (p=0.046). The resistance rates found, which were moderate to penicillin, low to cephalosporin and neutral to vancomycin, suggest the isolated use of a 3rd generation cephalosporin as an initial empirical therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with a communitarian background.

Rossoni, Andrea Maciel de Oliveira; Dalla Costa, Libera Maria; Berto, Denize Bonato; Farah, Sônia Santos; Gelain, Marilene; Brandileone, Maria Cristina de Cunto; Ramos, Vitor Hugo Mariano; Almeida, Sergio Monteiro de

2008-09-01

33

Epidural abscess caused by Streptococcus milleri in a pregnant woman  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in the Streptococcus milleri group (S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius) are associated with bacteremia and abscess formation. While most reports of Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) infection occur in patients with underlying medical conditions, SMG infections during pregnancy have been documented. However, SMG infections in pregnant women are associated with either neonatal or maternal puerperal sepsis. Albeit rare, S. milleri spinal-epidural abscess in pregnancy has been reported, always as a complication of spinal-epidural anesthesia. We report a case of spinal-epidural abscess caused by SMG in a young, pregnant woman without an antecedent history of spinal epidural anesthesia and without any underlying risk factors for invasive streptococcal disease. Case presentation A 25 year old pregnant woman developed neurological symptoms consistent with spinal cord compression at 20 weeks gestation. She underwent emergency laminectomy for decompression and was treated with ceftriaxone 2 gm IV daily for 28 days. She was ambulatory at the time of discharge from the inpatient rehabilitation unit with residual lower extremity weakness. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a Streptococcus milleri epidural abscess in a healthy, pregnant woman with no history of epidural anesthesia or invasive procedures. This report adds to the body of literature on SMG invasive infections. Treatment of SMG spinal-epidural abscess with neurologic manifestations should include prompt and aggressive surgical decompression coupled with targeted anti-infective therapy.

Lampen Russell; Bearman Gonzalo

2005-01-01

34

[Morphological changes in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae after exposure to oral antibacterial agents].  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological changes in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) and beta-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (BLNAR) after exposure to oral antibacterial agents could be observed over time under a phase-contrast microscope. Morphological changes in BLNAR were also observed using a scanning electron microscope. The organisms used in this study were ME19F strain identified as genotypic(g) gPRSP (serotype: 19F) and JPH002 strain identified as gBLNAR (serotype: b). The antibacterial agents used were amoxicillin (AMPC), cefditoren (CDTR), tebipenem (TBPM), and tosufloxacin (TFLX). The concentration of each antibacterial agent to which the bacteria were exposed was set at the blood level one hour after Cmax when administered to children at the usual dose. Bacteriolysis of gPRSP cells started after exposure of only 20minutes to TBPM, and 90% of the cells were lysed within 2 hours. A high bactericidal action of TBPM on gPRSP was supported by these findings. When gBLNAR was exposed to AMPC and TBPM, lysis from spheroplasts and cells with vacuoles were sometimes observed. In contrast, after gBLNAR was exposed to CDTR, lysis occurred after marked filamentation in the cells, but after exposure to TFLX, cells deduced to be killed after mild filamentation without lysis. Time-dependent morphological changes that reflect the differences in bactericidal activity and PBP affinity among beta-lactams provide beneficial information to select antibacterial agents. PMID:23383434

Chiba, Naoko; Morozumi, Miyuki; Ubukata, Kimiko

2012-10-01

35

[Morphological changes in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae after exposure to oral antibacterial agents].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Morphological changes in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) and beta-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (BLNAR) after exposure to oral antibacterial agents could be observed over time under a phase-contrast microscope. Morphological changes in BLNAR were also observed using a scanning electron microscope. The organisms used in this study were ME19F strain identified as genotypic(g) gPRSP (serotype: 19F) and JPH002 strain identified as gBLNAR (serotype: b). The antibacterial agents used were amoxicillin (AMPC), cefditoren (CDTR), tebipenem (TBPM), and tosufloxacin (TFLX). The concentration of each antibacterial agent to which the bacteria were exposed was set at the blood level one hour after Cmax when administered to children at the usual dose. Bacteriolysis of gPRSP cells started after exposure of only 20minutes to TBPM, and 90% of the cells were lysed within 2 hours. A high bactericidal action of TBPM on gPRSP was supported by these findings. When gBLNAR was exposed to AMPC and TBPM, lysis from spheroplasts and cells with vacuoles were sometimes observed. In contrast, after gBLNAR was exposed to CDTR, lysis occurred after marked filamentation in the cells, but after exposure to TFLX, cells deduced to be killed after mild filamentation without lysis. Time-dependent morphological changes that reflect the differences in bactericidal activity and PBP affinity among beta-lactams provide beneficial information to select antibacterial agents.

Chiba N; Morozumi M; Ubukata K

2012-10-01

36

Caracterización clínica y microbiológica de las infecciones causadas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus grupo anginosus, y sus especies constellatus, anginosus e intermedius, causan infecciones supuradas. Su identificación microbiológica es compleja pues pueden ser beta-hemolíticos y comparten antígenos de Lancefield con otros estreptococos. Si bien morfológicamente son colonias pequeñas y presentan un olor característicos, si sólo se realiza test de látex para aglutinación del carbohidrato C pueden ser clasificados erróneamente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar un algoritmo que utiliza 3 pruebas bioquímicas, conocer su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos y describir las características clínicas de infecciones producidas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus. Se estudiaron cepas de Streptococcus grupo C, G y F, determinando sus características morfológicas de colonia, para identificar cepas de colonia pequeña que se incluyeron en el algoritmo de bajo costo propuesto (b-glucuronidasa y el test Voges-Proskauer) comparándose al método API Rapid ID 32 Strept®, establecido como estándar de oro. Se estudiaron 219 cepas, de las cuales 101 presentaron las características morfológicas compatibles con grupo anginosus, identificándose S. constellatus en 58% (59/101), S. anginosus en 37% (37/101) y S. intermedius en 5% (5/101). Las cepas aisladas procedían principalmente de infecciones piogénicas (61%, 62/101), en especial de foco abdominal. Se observó 98% de susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima y resistencia a eritromicina y clindamicina en 6,8 y 5%, respectivamente. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 30 años (2-85), con distribución similar por sexo y predominio de pacientes hospitalizados. Los resultados expuestos demuestra la efectividad del algoritmo de bajo costo para la detección de S. grupo anginosus. En nuestra experiencia este grupo bacteriano conserva su susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima, siendo necesario vigilar clindamicina y eritromicinaStreptococcus anginosus group and its species constellatus, anginosus and intermedius, produce suppurative infections. Its microbiological identification is complex because it can be beta-hemolytic and shares Lancefield antigens with other Streptococci. This group grows as small colonies and presents a characteristic smell, but if only latex test for carbohydrate C agglutination is used it can be erroneously classified. The aims of this publication were to evaluate an algorithm that includes three biochemical tests, and to describe in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics and clinical characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group. Streptoccoccal strains belonging to groups C, G and F were evaluated, determining its colony characteristics in order to select small colony strains that were included into the proposed low cost algorithm (beta-glucurosidase and Voges Proskauer tests) comparing them with API Rapid ID 32 Strept® method, considered the gold standard. Two hundred nineteen strains were studied, 101 had a morphological profile compatible with the anginosus group, identifying S. constellatus in 58% (59/101), S. anginosus in 37% (37/101) and S. intermedius in 5% (5/101). Strains were isolated mainly from pyogenic infections (61%, 62/101), specially from abdominal origin. High grade of penicillin and cefotaxime susceptibility (98%) and low grade resistance to erithromycin and clindamycin (6,8 and 5% respectively) were observed. Mean patient age was 30 years old (2-85), a similar sex distribution with predominance of inpatients. These results document the usefulness of the proposed low cost algorithm for detection of S. anginosus group. In our experience this bacterial group maintains good susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime, and we recommend a continous surveillance of clindamycin and erythromycin susceptibility

Gustavo Caro D.; Ingrid Riedel K.; Patricia García C.

2004-01-01

37

Caracterización clínica y microbiológica de las infecciones causadas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus/ Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Streptococcus grupo anginosus, y sus especies constellatus, anginosus e intermedius, causan infecciones supuradas. Su identificación microbiológica es compleja pues pueden ser beta-hemolíticos y comparten antígenos de Lancefield con otros estreptococos. Si bien morfológicamente son colonias pequeñas y presentan un olor característicos, si sólo se realiza test de látex para aglutinación del carbohidrato C pueden ser clasificados erróneamente. El objetivo de nues (more) tro trabajo fue evaluar un algoritmo que utiliza 3 pruebas bioquímicas, conocer su susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos y describir las características clínicas de infecciones producidas por Streptococcus grupo anginosus. Se estudiaron cepas de Streptococcus grupo C, G y F, determinando sus características morfológicas de colonia, para identificar cepas de colonia pequeña que se incluyeron en el algoritmo de bajo costo propuesto (b-glucuronidasa y el test Voges-Proskauer) comparándose al método API Rapid ID 32 Strept®, establecido como estándar de oro. Se estudiaron 219 cepas, de las cuales 101 presentaron las características morfológicas compatibles con grupo anginosus, identificándose S. constellatus en 58% (59/101), S. anginosus en 37% (37/101) y S. intermedius en 5% (5/101). Las cepas aisladas procedían principalmente de infecciones piogénicas (61%, 62/101), en especial de foco abdominal. Se observó 98% de susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima y resistencia a eritromicina y clindamicina en 6,8 y 5%, respectivamente. La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 30 años (2-85), con distribución similar por sexo y predominio de pacientes hospitalizados. Los resultados expuestos demuestra la efectividad del algoritmo de bajo costo para la detección de S. grupo anginosus. En nuestra experiencia este grupo bacteriano conserva su susceptibilidad a penicilina y cefotaxima, siendo necesario vigilar clindamicina y eritromicina Abstract in english Streptococcus anginosus group and its species constellatus, anginosus and intermedius, produce suppurative infections. Its microbiological identification is complex because it can be beta-hemolytic and shares Lancefield antigens with other Streptococci. This group grows as small colonies and presents a characteristic smell, but if only latex test for carbohydrate C agglutination is used it can be erroneously classified. The aims of this publication were to evaluate an alg (more) orithm that includes three biochemical tests, and to describe in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics and clinical characteristics of infections caused by Streptococcus anginosus group. Streptoccoccal strains belonging to groups C, G and F were evaluated, determining its colony characteristics in order to select small colony strains that were included into the proposed low cost algorithm (beta-glucurosidase and Voges Proskauer tests) comparing them with API Rapid ID 32 Strept® method, considered the gold standard. Two hundred nineteen strains were studied, 101 had a morphological profile compatible with the anginosus group, identifying S. constellatus in 58% (59/101), S. anginosus in 37% (37/101) and S. intermedius in 5% (5/101). Strains were isolated mainly from pyogenic infections (61%, 62/101), specially from abdominal origin. High grade of penicillin and cefotaxime susceptibility (98%) and low grade resistance to erithromycin and clindamycin (6,8 and 5% respectively) were observed. Mean patient age was 30 years old (2-85), a similar sex distribution with predominance of inpatients. These results document the usefulness of the proposed low cost algorithm for detection of S. anginosus group. In our experience this bacterial group maintains good susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime, and we recommend a continous surveillance of clindamycin and erythromycin susceptibility

Caro D., Gustavo; Riedel K., Ingrid; García C., Patricia

2004-01-01

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Identification, clinical aspects, susceptibility pattern, and molecular epidemiology of beta-haemolytic group G Streptococcus anginosus group isolates from central Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

No literature is available on the prevalence and clinical aspects of beta-haemolytic group G Streptococcus anginosus group in central Taiwan. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer sequencing (where necessary) as the gold standard for molecular identification. Twenty-seven S. anginosus group isolates were identified from 273 beta-haemolytic GGS isolates collected from patients in central Taiwan between February 2007 and August 2011. Of the 27 isolates, 22 were S. anginosus and 5 were Streptococcus constellatus. The 3 commercial methods, Rapid ID 32 Strep, API 20 Strep, and Vitek 2 GP card, identified 77.8%, 40.7%, and 37.0% of S. anginosus group isolates, respectively, with acceptable %ID or probability level. All the S. constellatus isolates possessed the lmb gene (encoding laminin-binding protein); however, none of the S. anginosus isolates possessed this gene. All the 27 isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Five S. anginosus group isolates (18.5%) were resistant to erythromycin. The resistance genes, ermB and mefA, were detected in 3 (2 S. anginosus and 1 S. constellatus) and 2 (2 S. anginosus) isolates, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed that most S. anginosus group isolates were genetically diverse. This is the first study to evaluate 3 commercial methods for the identification of beta-haemolytic group G S. anginosus group species, and only the Rapid ID 32 Strep system showed considerable ability. The clinical aspects, susceptibility pattern, and molecular epidemiology of beta-haemolytic group G S. anginosus group isolates from central Taiwan were also first presented.

Chang YC; Lo HH

2013-07-01

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Prevalence of macrolide resistance and in vitro activities of six antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from a multi-center surveillance in Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The in vitro activities of 6 antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) were investigated and the erythromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were correlated with the two major macrolide resistance determinants, mef(A) and erm(B). MICs of commonly used antibiotics as well as the presence of macrolide resistance determinant genes in all isolates were tested. Seventy one pneumococcal isolates collected at Institute for Medical Research (IMR) were included in this study. Phenotypic characterization, MIC determination using E-test strips and polymerase chain reactions for antibiotic resistance determination were included. Among the isolates, 25 (35.2%) isolates were erythromycin susceptible, 3 (4.2%) were intermediate and 42 (60.6%) were resistant. Fifty three isolates (74.7%) were found with mef(A) alone, 15 (21.1%) isolates with erm(B) + mef(A) combination and 3 (4.2%) isolates with none of the two genes. The in vitro activity of penicillin, amoxicillin clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime is superior to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. In conclusion, pneumococcal isolates in this study were highly susceptible to penicillin with very low MICs. However, a very high prevalence rate of erythromycin resistance was observed. Erythromycin resistant S. pneumoniae isolates with both mef(A) and erm(B) showed very high MICs ?256 ?g/mL.

J J; M T N; M D MN; M SN; M Y R; J F; S R S; K A

2013-04-01

40

Virulence Factors of Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans is believed to be the prime etiologic agent of coronal caries in both humans and animals. It has been suggested that the cariogenicity (virulence) of S. mutans is due to the ability of the organism to adhere to the tooth surface, then...

S. Rosen I. Shklair E. X. Beck F. M. Beck

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Resistance to Mercury and Antimicrobial Agents in Streptococcus mutans Isolates from Human Subjects in Relation to Exposure to Dental Amalgam Fillings  

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Resistance to cefuroxime, penicillin, tetracycline, and mercury is reported for 839 Streptococcus mutans isolates from 209 human study subjects. The MICs of these drugs did not differ for isolates from one dental amalgam group and two nonamalgam subsets: a group with no known exposure to amalgam and...

Leistevuo, Jorma; Järvinen, Helinä; Österblad, Monica; Leistevuo, Tiina; Huovinen, Pentti; Tenovuo, Jorma

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Bacterial meningitis by streptococcus agalactiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: bacterial meningitis is an infectious disease considered a medicalemergency. The timely management has an important impact on the evolution of thedisease. Streptococcus agalactiae, a major causative agent of severe infections innewborns can colonize different tissues, including the central nervous system.Case report: Male patient 47 years old from rural areas, with work activity as amilker of cattle, referred to tertiary care, with disorientation, neck stiffness, and grandmal seizure. CSF study indicates neuroinfection. ICU care with steroids, antibiotics andmechanical ventilation. Cerebrospinal fluid culture reports growth of Streptococcus agalactiae. In coexistencewith the central nervous system involvement appeared otomastoidea infection.Conclusion: Bacterial meningitis can be caused by Streptococcus agalactiae,germ infrequently involved in this pathology. Work activities in non-tech agribusiness,had to be considered risk.RESUMEN:Introducción: la meningitis bacteriana (MB) es una enfermedad infecciosa consideradauna emergencia médica. El manejo oportuno tiene importante impacto en la evoluciónde la entidad. El Streptococcus agalactiae, significativo agente causal de infeccionesseveras en recién nacidos, puede colonizar diferentes tejidos, entre ellos el sistemanervioso central.Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 47 años de edad, procedente de zona rural,con actividad laboral ordeñador de reses bovinas, remitido a tercer nivel de atención,con desorientación, rigidez de nuca y convulsión tónico-clónica. Estudio de líquidocefalorraquídeo indica neuroinfección. Manejo en UCI con esteroides, antibióticosy ventilación mecánica. Cultivo de líquido cefalorraquídeo, informa crecimiento deStreptococcus agalactiae. En coexistencia con el compromiso del sistema nerviosocentral se presentaba infección otomastoidea.Conclusión: la MB puede ser causada por el Streptococcus agalactiae, germeninfrecuentemente involucrado en este tipo de patología. Actividades laborales en laagroindustria no tecnificada, debiesen ser consideradas situaciones de riesgo.

Villarreal-Velásquez Tatiana Paola; Cortés-Daza César Camilo

2012-01-01

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Identification of ?-haemolysin-encoding genes in Streptococcus anginosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus anginosus is an emerging pathogen, but little is known about its virulence factors. To detect the genes responsible for ?-haemolysis we performed genomic mutagenesis of the ?-haemolytic S. anginosus type strain ATCC 12395 using the vector pGhost9:ISS1. Integration site analysis of 15 non-haemolytic mutants identified a gene cluster with high homology to the genes of the streptolysin S (SLS) encoding sag gene cluster of S. pyogenes. The gene cluster harbours 10 open reading frames displaying significant similarities to the S. pyogenes genes sagA-sagI, with the identities on protein level ranging from 38 to 87%. Complementation assays of S. anginosus sagB and sagD integration mutants with the respective genes confirmed their importance for ?-haemolysin production and suggest the presence of post-translational modifications in S. anginosus SLS similar to SLS of S. pyogenes. Characterization of the S. anginosus haemolysin in comparison to the S. pyogenes SLS showed that the haemolysin is surface bound, but in contrast to S. pyogenes neither fetal calf serum nor RNA was able to stabilize the haemolysin of S. anginosus in culture supernatants. Inhibition of ?-haemolysis by polyethylene glycol of different sizes was carried out, giving no evidence of a pore-forming haemolytic mechanism. Analysis of a whole genome shotgun sequence of Streptococcus constellatus, a closely related streptococcal species that belongs to the S. anginosus group, revealed a similar sag gene cluster. Employing a genomic mutagenesis strategy we were able to determine an SLS encoding gene cluster in S. anginosus and demonstrate its importance for ?-haemolysin production in S. anginosus. PMID:23594064

Asam, D; Mauerer, S; Walheim, E; Spellerberg, B

2013-04-18

44

[Prevention of infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent in outpatients pneumonia. Pneumococcal infections are often associated with high mortality risk in immunocompromised patients. An increasing resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to antibiotics is observed worldwide. This led to the official recommendation by the STIKO to use the vaccination in special risk groups. The commercially available 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine produces a reliable immune response against pneumococcal infection in children aged over 2 years and adults. The recommendation should be more realized in practice.

Randerath O; König D; Saalmann M; Jansen B; Pulverer G

2000-12-01

45

Streptococcus equi vaccine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to the use of live attenuated bacteria of the species Streptococcus equi for the manufacture of vaccines for systemic application for combating Streptococcus equi infection.

Jacobs Antonius Arnoldus Christiaan

46

Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virulence factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this species in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing), classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis.

Regianne Umeko Kamiya; Tiago Taiete; Reginaldo Bruno Gonçalves

2011-01-01

47

Mutacins of Streptococcus mutans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The colonization and accumulation of Streptococcus mutans are influenced by various factors in the oral cavity, such as nutrition and hygiene conditions of the host, salivary components, cleaning power and salivary flow and characteristics related with microbial virulence factors. Among these virulence factors, the ability to synthesize glucan of adhesion, glucan-binding proteins, lactic acid and bacteriocins could modify the infection process and pathogenesis of this spe (more) cies in the dental biofilm. This review will describe the role of mutacins in transmission, colonization, and/or establishment of S. mutans, the major etiological agent of human dental caries. In addition, we will describe the method for detecting the production of these inhibitory substances in vitro (mutacin typing), classification and diversity of mutacins and the regulatory mechanisms related to its synthesis.

Kamiya, Regianne Umeko; Taiete, Tiago; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno

2011-12-01

48

Update of the activity of cefditoren and comparator oral beta-lactam agents tested against community-acquired Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (USA, 2004-2006).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cefditoren and other orally administered cephalosporins are infrequently included in resistance surveillance studies. Here we evaluated 359 contemporary (2004-2006) strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-intermediate (12.0%) and -resistant (22.8%) subsets from United States patients by reference broth microdilution methods. Cefditoren was the most potent cephalosporin tested (MIC(50), 0.015 mg/L), including against penicillin-intermediate strains (MIC(50), 0.12 mg/L), and was two-, four- and eight-fold more active than cefuroxime, cefdinir and cefprozil, respectively. Penicillin-resistant strains were largely resistant to all tested ss-lactams. We confirm the continued spectrum and potency for cefditoren against S. pneumoniae that surpasses that of other orally administered cephalosporins. PMID:18467241

Fritsche, T R; Biedenbach, D J; Jones, R N

2008-04-01

49

[Prevention of infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae].  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent in outpatients pneumonia. Pneumococcal infections are often associated with high mortality risk in immunocompromised patients. An increasing resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to antibiotics is observed worldwide. This led to the official recommendation by the STIKO to use the vaccination in special risk groups. The commercially available 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine produces a reliable immune response against pneumococcal infection in children aged over 2 years and adults. The recommendation should be more realized in practice. PMID:11198555

Randerath, O; König, D; Saalmann, M; Jansen, B; Pulverer, G

2000-12-15

50

Streptococcus tigurinus, a novel member of the Streptococcus mitis group, causes invasive infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We recently described the novel species Streptococcus tigurinus sp. nov. belonging to the Streptococcus mitis group. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. According to its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, S. tigurinus is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. We retrospectively analyzed our 16S rRNA gene molecular database, which contains sequences of all clinical samples obtained in our institute since 2003. We detected 17 16S rRNA gene sequences which were assigned to S. tigurinus, including sequences from the 3 S. tigurinus strains described previously. S. tigurinus originated from normally sterile body sites, such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or heart valves, of 14 patients and was initially detected by culture or broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR, followed by sequencing. The 14 patients had serious invasive infections, i.e., infective endocarditis (n = 6), spondylodiscitis (n = 3), bacteremia (n = 2), meningitis (n = 1), prosthetic joint infection (n = 1), and thoracic empyema (n = 1). To evaluate the presence of Streptococcus tigurinus in the endogenous oral microbial flora, we screened saliva specimens of 31 volunteers. After selective growth, alpha-hemolytic growing colonies were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and subsequent molecular methods. S. tigurinus was not identified among 608 strains analyzed. These data indicate that S. tigurinus is not widely distributed in the oral cavity. In conclusion, S. tigurinus is a novel agent of invasive infections, particularly infective endocarditis.

Zbinden A; Mueller NJ; Tarr PE; Eich G; Schulthess B; Bahlmann AS; Keller PM; Bloemberg GV

2012-09-01

51

Streptococcus tigurinus, a novel member of the Streptococcus mitis group, causes invasive infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently described the novel species Streptococcus tigurinus sp. nov. belonging to the Streptococcus mitis group. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. According to its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, S. tigurinus is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. We retrospectively analyzed our 16S rRNA gene molecular database, which contains sequences of all clinical samples obtained in our institute since 2003. We detected 17 16S rRNA gene sequences which were assigned to S. tigurinus, including sequences from the 3 S. tigurinus strains described previously. S. tigurinus originated from normally sterile body sites, such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or heart valves, of 14 patients and was initially detected by culture or broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR, followed by sequencing. The 14 patients had serious invasive infections, i.e., infective endocarditis (n = 6), spondylodiscitis (n = 3), bacteremia (n = 2), meningitis (n = 1), prosthetic joint infection (n = 1), and thoracic empyema (n = 1). To evaluate the presence of Streptococcus tigurinus in the endogenous oral microbial flora, we screened saliva specimens of 31 volunteers. After selective growth, alpha-hemolytic growing colonies were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and subsequent molecular methods. S. tigurinus was not identified among 608 strains analyzed. These data indicate that S. tigurinus is not widely distributed in the oral cavity. In conclusion, S. tigurinus is a novel agent of invasive infections, particularly infective endocarditis. PMID:22760039

Zbinden, Andrea; Mueller, Nicolas J; Tarr, Philip E; Eich, Gerhard; Schulthess, Bettina; Bahlmann, Anna S; Keller, Peter M; Bloemberg, Guido V

2012-07-03

52

[Hemolytic group B streptococcus in cervico-vaginal secretions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The group B streptococcus can be an etiological agent of newborn's infections and vaginitis. Therefore, we evaluated the statistical incidence of this microorganism in vaginal swabs of 1403 non-selected subjects. We isolated this streptococcus in 12.3% samples and it was present in 26.3% of positive cultures. Our study confirms the elevate incidence of this microorganism and suggests the opportunity of this research in pregnancy monitoring and in gynaecological flogosis.

Savarino A; Mattei R; Barsotti A; Bechi R; Saisi F; Lenci F

1988-01-01

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Streptococcus gordonii septic arthritis : two cases and review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in antimicrobial and surgical therapy, septic arthritis remains a rheumatologic emergency that can lead to rapid joint destruction and irreversible loss of function. In adults, Staphylococcus aureus is the most common microorganism isolated from native joints. Streptococcus gordonii is a prominent member of the viridans group of oral bacteria and is among the bacteria most frequently identified as being primary agent of subacute bacterial endocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, Streptococcus gordonii has not yet been described as agent of septic arthritis. Case Presentation We describe here two cases of septic arthritis due to Streptococcus gordonii. It gives us an opportunity to review epidemiology, diagnosis criteria and management of septic arthritis. Conclusion Although implication of S. gordonii as aetiologic agent of subacute endocarditis is well known, this organism is a rare cause of septic arthritis. In this case, the exclusion of associated endocarditis is warranted.

Yombi Jean cyr; Belkhir Leila; Jonckheere Sylvie; Wilmes Dunja; Cornu Olivier; Vandercam Bernard; Rodriguez-Villalobos Hector

2012-01-01

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Antibiotic Resistances of Yogurt Starter Cultures Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twenty-nine strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 15 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for resistance to 35 antimicrobial agents by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Approximately 35% of the isolates had uncharacteristic resistance patterns.

Sozzi, Tommaso; Smiley, Martin B.

55

Streptococcus pneumoniae in urinary tracts of children with chronic kidney disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is not commonly considered an agent of urinary tract infections. We report 3 children with urinary tract abnormalities who had high numbers of S. pneumoniae in their urine (?10? CFU/mL) and varying clinical symptoms.

Burckhardt I; Zimmermann S

2011-01-01

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Streptococcus pasteurianus septicemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus pasteurianus is part of the normal flora of the intestine. It has also been isolated from various infection sites. However, to date it has not been reported as a cause of fulminant septicemia and death. We report the post-mortem findings in a splenectomized hemophiliac patient with cirrhosis and concurrent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections.

Alex D; Garvin DF; Peters SM

2013-07-01

57

Regulation of gbpC Expression in Streptococcus mutans?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus mutans, the principal causative agent of dental caries, produces four glucan-binding proteins (Gbp) that play major roles in bacterial adherence and pathogenesis. One of these proteins, GbpC, is an important cell surface protein involved in biofilm formation. GbpC is also important for...

Biswas, Indranil; Drake, Laura; Biswas, Saswati

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Multiple Streptococcus mutans Genes Are Involved in Biofilm Formation†  

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Streptococcus mutans has been strongly implicated as the principal etiological agent in dental caries. One of the important virulence properties of these organisms is their ability to form biofilms known as dental plaque on tooth surfaces. Since the roles of sucrose and glucosyltransferases in S. mu...

Yoshida, Akihiro; Kuramitsu, Howard K.

59

Ubericin A, a class IIa bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus uberis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus uberis, a causal agent of bovine mastitis, produces ubericin A, a 5.3-kDa class IIa (pediocin-like) bacteriocin, which was purified and characterized. The uba locus comprises two overlapping genes: ubaA (ubericin A precursor peptide) and ubaI (putative immunity protein). Ubericin A is the first streptococcal class IIa bacteriocin to be characterized. PMID:17933926

Heng, Nicholas C K; Burtenshaw, Grace A; Jack, Ralph W; Tagg, John R

2007-10-12

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Effects of Manganese on Streptococcus mutans Planktonic and Biofilm Growth  

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Streptococcus mutans, an agent of dental caries, was tested for growth in the presence or absence of manganese (Mn), since studies have linked Mn levels with cariogenic potential. Seven S. mutans serotype c strains were grown in chemically defined medium under different atmospheric conditions: 5% CO...

Arirachakaran, P.; Luengpailin, S.; Banas, J.A.; Mazurkiewicz, J.E.; Benjavongkulchai, E.

 
 
 
 
61

Molecular Identification of Streptococcus equi subsp. Equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Nasal Swabs Samples from Horses Suffering Respiratory Infections in Iran  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the existence of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus as probable agents associated with naturally occurring infection of the equine upper respiratory disease in Mashhad area. Nasal swabs samples from thirty horses with upper respiratory tract infections were collected. The bacteria isolated and identified were Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (1 isolate), Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (25 isolates), Pasteurella sp. (11 isolates), Staphylococcus sp. (17 isolates), Bacillus sp. (4 isolates), Pseudomonas sp. (4 isolates), Proteus sp. (1 isolate), Neisseria sp. (1 isolate) and E. coli (1 isolate). All 25 isolates of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and the isolate of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi were characterized by biochemical tests and molecular techniques. For molecular identification of the subspecies S. equi and S. zooepidemicus two genomic region SeM and sodA were amplified. This study is the first report of molecular identification of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Iran.

A.A. Jannatabadi; G.R. Mohammadi; M. Rad; M. Maleki

2008-01-01

62

Meningitis por Streptococcus suis/ Streptococcus suis meningitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La infección humana por Streptococcus suis (S. suis) es una zoonosis, con un riesgo ocupacional conocido y que suele presentarse como meningitis purulenta, que tiene baja mortalidad y frecuentes secuelas de hipoacusia y ataxia. Se han publicado menos de 150 casos humanos desde el informe original de hace 30 años. Hay una reconocida distribución geográfica viviendo la mayoría de los afectados en el norte de Europa y el sudeste Asiático. En España se han comunicado d (more) os pacientes con enfermedad por S. suis. Presentamos dos pacientes con meningitis por S. suis, que acudieron a nuestro hospital en el plazo de un mes. Ambos eran hombres con exposición laboral a cerdos. Presentaron hipoacusia neurosensorial y ataxia de la marcha. Un paciente tuvo parálisis facial periférica y diplopía por paresia del sexto par contralateral con resolución completa a los tres meses. Lo excepcional de la meningitis por S. suis en nuestro país, no debe hacernos olvidar la importancia de registrar el riesgo laboral en la anamnesis. Abstract in english Human infection by Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a zoonosis, with a known occupational risk and clinical presentation mainly as a purulent meningitis with low mortality and frequent hearing loss and ataxia sequela. Less than 150 human cases have been reported since original one thirty years ago. There is a geographical distribution most patients living in northen Europe and south Asia. S. suis disease in human has been reported in two patients in Spain the last years. W (more) e present two patients with S. suis meningitis, both were men with occupation related by pork meet, and good outcome. They come at our hospital in a lapse of one month. Both had neurosensorial hearing loss and walking ataxia. One patient had peripheral facial paralysis and diplopia because of paresia of contralateral sixth nerve, with complete resolution at three months.The rare presentation of S. suis meningitis in our country must not forget us to record the working risk at anamnesis.

Geffner Sclarsky, D. E.; Moreno Muñoz, R.; Campillo Alpera, Mª.S.; Pardo Serrano, F.J.; Gómez Gómez, A.; Martínez-Lozano, Mª.D.

2001-06-01

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STARCH HYDROLYSIS BY STREPTOCOCCUS EQUINUS  

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Dunican, Lawrence K. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.) and Harry W. Seeley. Starch hydrolysis by Streptococcus equinus. J. Bacteriol. 82:264–269. 1962.—In a study of starch hydrolysis by strains of Streptococcus equinus, 52 isolates were obtained and their amylolytic abilities determined. It was f...

Dunican, Lawrence K.; Seeley, Harry W.

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Streptococcus pneumoniae, mecanismos de resistencia antimicrobiana/ Streptococcus pneumoniae, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El Streptococcus pneumoniae, principal agente causal de la neumonía comunitaria, líder en la etiología de la otitis media y la meningitis, en las últimas 3 décadas ha incrementado, de manera importante, su resistencia a los agentes terapéuticos más utilizados, como los betalactámicos, macrólidos, azálidos y fluroquinolonas. La versatilidad adaptativa del microorganismo le ha permitido crear mecanismos capaces de sobreponerse a cualquiera de estas agresiones tera (more) péuticas con un grado variable de eficacia. Se realiza una revisión de los mecanismos más importantes implicados en la adquisición de resistencia antimicrobiana por S. pneumoniae, y se precisan algunos de los factores de riesgo implicados en infección por S. pneumoniae resistente. Abstract in english The Streptococcus pneumoniae, the main causal agent of community pneumonia, leader in the etiology of the otitis media and the meningitis, during the past three decades has increase in a significant way its resistance to the more used therapeutic agents including the beta-lactamase, macrolides, azalides and fluroquinolones. Adaptive versatility of the microorganism allows it to create mechanisms able to overcome to any of these therapeutical aggressions with a variable de (more) gree of effectiveness. Authors made a review of the more important mechanisms involved in acquisition of the antimicrobial resistance by S. pneumoniae and some of risk factors involved in the infection due to resistant S. pneumoniae are specified.

Noda Albelo, Amauri; Vidal Tallet, Lázaro Arturo; Vidal Tallet, Joan Iavier; Hernández Álvarez, Leanet

2011-09-01

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Sepsis neonatal por Streptococcus Grupo B Group B Streptococcus neonatal sepsis: up-to-date  

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Full Text Available El Streptococcus grupo B (SGB) es uno de los principales agentes causales de sepsis neonatal precoz, siendo un importante factor de morbimortalidad neonatal y de costos en salud pública. Se han implementado múltiples estrategias para evitar la transmisión vertical desde la madre colonizada a su recién nacido, de modo de prevenir la infección de éste último. La más usada en la actualidad es la profilaxis antibiótica administrada a la madre en el momento del parto dependiendo del resultado de un cultivo perineal realizado entre las semanas 35 y 37 de gestación. Mediante esta estrategia se ha logrado disminuir de manera importante la incidencia de la sepsis neonatal por este agente, pero existen aprehensiones acerca de la posible generación de resistencia antibiótica o reacciones adversas a fármacos por parte de la madre. Por esto último, nuevas técnicas de prevención se encuentran en estudio, como las vacunas contra el SGB. En los recién nacidos la infección por Streptococcus agalactiae puede manifestarse de diversas maneras, siendo la sepsis y la meningitis las más frecuentes y mortales. El porcentaje de secuelas entre los sobrevivientes es elevado, por lo que ante la sospecha precoz de infección debe iniciarse tratamiento antibiótico a la brevedad.Group B Streptococcus is one of the leading bacterias causing early onset neonatal sepsis. It constitutes an important factor of neonatal morbidity and mortality and high costs in health. Many strategies have been formulated to avoid vertical transmission from the colonized mother to the newborn, in an attempt to prevent infection of the infant. The most used nowadays is antibiotic prophylaxis given to the mother during labor, depending on the results of recto-vaginal culture taken during 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. This strategy has importantly diminished the prevalence of early onset neonatal sepsis by this agent, although there is still concern about the potential generation of antibiotic resistance and drug-induced adverse reactions in the mother. New techniques for prevention are being developed, such as vaccines against Streptococcus. In the newborn, infection caused by Streptococcus has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, like sepsis and meningitis which are the most frequent and lethal. Neurological sequelae are common among the survivors, so an early suspicion of disease must lead to a prompt antibiotic treatment.

MAGDALENA CRUZ O; ADRIANA DOREN V; JOSÉ LUIS TAPIA I; FERNANDO ABARZÚA C

2008-01-01

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An unexpected Streptococcus pneumoniaestrain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This clinical driven report describes the unexpected detection of a multidrug resistant (MDR)Streptococcus pneumoniae strain. Italy is usually considered a country characterized by a low prevalenceof MDR )S. pneumoniae. We describe the occurrence of bacterial meningitis sustained by a MDR S.pneumoniae strain in Italy. The first-line treatment was started with ceftriaxone and dexamethasone, butafter the identification of such a resistant strain a second-line regimen was needed. The new regimen waschosen on both susceptibility and pharmacokinetic criteria. Linezolid and levofloxacin were started and adramatic improvement was observed. A more sensitive anamnesis revealed some elements known to beassociated to a MDR S. pneumoniae occurrence (immunesuppression, former antibiotic therapy). So thiscase should pinpoint our attention on risk factors of MDR for a careful choice of antibiotic therapy in seriouspneumococcal infections.

Cenderello G; Pontali E; Torresin A; Milano G; Ansaldi F; Feasi M; Usiglio D; Mori M; Icardi G; Cassola G

2013-08-01

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Whole-Genome Sequences of Streptococcus tigurinus Type Strain AZ_3a and S. tigurinus 1366, a Strain Causing Prosthetic Joint Infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus tigurinus, a novel member of the Streptococcus mitis group, was recently identified as a causative agent of invasive infections. We report the complete genome sequences of the S. tigurinus type strain AZ_3a and S. tigurinus strain 1366. The genome sequences assist in the characterization of virulence determinants of S. tigurinus.

Gizard Y; Zbinden A; Schrenzel J; François P

2013-03-01

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Whole-Genome Sequences of Streptococcus tigurinus Type Strain AZ_3a and S. tigurinus 1366, a Strain Causing Prosthetic Joint Infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus tigurinus, a novel member of the Streptococcus mitis group, was recently identified as a causative agent of invasive infections. We report the complete genome sequences of the S. tigurinus type strain AZ_3a and S. tigurinus strain 1366. The genome sequences assist in the characterization of virulence determinants of S. tigurinus. PMID:23640198

Gizard, Yann; Zbinden, Andrea; Schrenzel, Jacques; François, Patrice

2013-05-02

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Resultados de la aplicación del protocolo basado en screening para la búsqueda de Streptococcus agalactiae en el tercer trimestre del embarazo: Posible impacto sobre la sepsis neonatal precoz por este agente/ PERFORMANCE OF A Streptococcus agalactiae UNIVERSAL SCREENING PROTOCOL DURING THE THIRD THRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY: IMPLICATIONS IN REDUCING NEONATAL GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL SEPSIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) es la principal causa de sepsis neonatal precoz (SNP). Recientemente el CDC ha planteado tratar sólo pacientes con factores de riesgo o detectar a las portadoras realizando cultivo vaginal-perianal en el 3º trimestre del embarazo (screening universal). En nuestro hospital hasta el año 1999 sólo se trataba a las pacientes con factores de riesgo, presentando en el bienio 1997/1998 una tasa de SNP por SGB de 1,84/1.000 nacidos vivos. Entre (more) octubre 1999 y noviembre 2000 se aplicó screening universal encontrándose 20% de portadoras. En el período de estudio hubo dos casos de SNP por SGB: un prematuro y un R.N. de término sin factor de riesgo a cuya madre no se le tomó cultivo. La incidencia del período fue de 0,73/1.000 R.N. vivos, lo que indica una disminución de 61% con respecto al período previo. Abstract in english Group B streptococcal infection is the most important cause of neonatal sepsis. The CDC has proposed two alternative strategies for its control: antibiotic treatment only of pregnant women with risk factors or antibiotic treatment of identified group B streptococcal carriers after culturing all pregnant women. At our institution until 1999 we only treated women with risk factors. The incidence of group B streptococcal sepsis in 1997/1998 was 1.84/1.000 per 1.000 live birt (more) hs. Between October 1999 and November 2000 we established universal screening. Maternal GBS carriage rate was 20%. Two newborn infants acquired group B streptococcal sepsis: one premature newborn and one on term newborn infant of a mother without screening. The successful implementation and manteinance of a screening protocol reduced neonatal group B streptococcal sepsis in a 61% rate with an incidence of 0.73/1.000 live births.

GUZMÁN D., ANA M.; ABARZÚA C., FERNANDO; BELMAR J., CRISTIAN; GARCÍA C., PATRICIA

2001-01-01

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A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin  

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Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Streptococcus pneumoniae é o mais freqüente agente etiológico de infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade e sua resistência aos antimicrobianos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A determinação da resistência é feita rotineiramente por método lento que depende do crescimento em cultura e determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM). A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) detecta os genes responsáveis pela resistência do Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina em cerca de 8 horas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a PCR com o método da CIM no diagnóstico da resistência da Streptococcus pneumoniae a penicilina. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 153 amostras de Streptococcus pneumoniae, isoladas de diferentes sítios anatômicos, usando-se para detecção de mutações nos genes que codificam as proteínas ligadoras de penicilina 1a, 2b e 2x, responsáveis pela resistência à penicilina. A ocorrência das mutações foi correlacionada com a CIM de penicilina, determinada pelo teste de difusão em ágar. RESULTADOS: A resistência global à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae foi de 22,8% (16,3% de resistência intermediária e 6,5% de resistência alta). Em proporções estatisticamente significativas, as amostras sensíveis à penicilina não tinham mutações, as intermediárias apenas uma, geralmente na proteína ligadora de penicilina 2x, e as altamente resistentes tinham mutações nas três proteínas investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A PCR é um método rápido para a detecção da resistência à penicilina do Streptococcus pneumoniae, que poderá vir a ser utilizado na prática clínica.BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detects the genes responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin within approximately 8 hours. OBJECTIVE: To compare the PCR and MIC methods in determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin. METHOD: A total of 153 Streptococcus pneumoniae samples, isolated from various anatomical sites, were evaluated in order to detect mutations in the genes encoding pbp1a, pbp2a and pbp2x, which are responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance. A correlation was found between mutations and penicillin MIP, as determined by the agar diffusion method. RESULTS: Overal Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was 22.8% (16.3% intermediate resistance and 6.5% high resistance). In a statistically significant finding, we observed no mutations in the penicillin-sensitive samples and only one mutation, typically in the gene encoding pbp2x, among the samples with intermediate resistance, whereas mutations in all three genes studied were observed in the high-resistance samples. CONCLUSION: For determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin, PCR is a rapid method of detection that could well be used in clinical practice.

Eduardo Walker Zettler; Rosane M. Scheibe; Cícero A. G. Dias; Patrícia Santafé; José da Silva Moreira; Diógenes S. Santos; Carlos Cezar Fritscher

2004-01-01

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Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados de infecciones invasivas: serotipos y resistencia antimicrobiana/ Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive infections: serotypes and antimicrobial resistance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas constituyen una enfermedad invasiva importante, quizás no tanto por su frecuencia, como por la gravedad de su cuadro. Los cambios en la epidemiología de los síndromes neurológicos infecciosos en Cuba a partir de la vacunación contra meningococo BC y Haemophilus influenzae b han hecho que el Streptococcus pneumoniae constituya el agente causal más frecuente. Debido al incremento de la resistencia de este microorganismo a los antibi? (more) ?ticos habituales, se realizaron modificaciones al régimen terapéutico convencional, fundamentalmente en las meningitis pediátricas. Es necesario lograr el aislamiento en cultivo de este agente para conocer los serotipos más frecuentes en el país, y lograr una vacuna neumocócica conjugada, así como para la vigilancia de las cepas frente a los antimicrobianos. Abstract in english The bacterial meningoencephalitis is an important invasive disease, not only because of its frequency, but also because of the severity of its picture. The changes in the epidemiology of the neurological infectious syndromes in Cuba starting from the vaccination against meningococcus BC and Haemophilus infuenzae b have made that Streptococcus pneumoniae be the most frequent causal agent. Due to the increase of the resistance of this microorganism to habitual antibiotics, (more) modifications were made in the conventional therapeutic regimen, mainly in the pediatric meningitis. It is necessary to achieve the isolation in culture of this agent to know the most common serotypes in the country, to attain a conjugated pneumococcal vaccine, and to keep the surveillance of the strains against the antimicrobials.

Cueto Montoya, Gladys Antonia; Pérez Cueto, María del Carmen

2007-03-01

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Virulence of a spaP Mutant of Streptococcus mutans in a Gnotobiotic Rat Model  

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Streptococcus mutans, the principal etiologic agent of dental caries in humans, possesses a variety of virulence traits that enable it to establish itself in the oral cavity and initiate disease. A 185-kDa cell surface-localized protein known variously as antigen I/II, antigen B, PAc, and P1 has bee...

Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Michalek, Suzanne M.; Bleiweis, Arnold S.

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Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus mutans GS-5, a Serotype c Strain  

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Streptococcus mutans, a principal causative agent of dental caries, is considered to be the most cariogenic among all oral streptococci. Of the four S. mutans serotypes (c, e, f, and k), serotype c strains predominate in the oral cavity. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of S. mutans GS-...

Biswas, Saswati; Biswas, Indranil

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Cell Death Induction By Streptococcus Pyogenes in Four Types of Malignant Cell Llines  

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Background:The interest in using bacteria as anti- cancer therapeutic agents dates back to the end of the19th century. Some bacteria like Salmonella and Listeria replicate effectively inside malignant cell lines and suppress their growth. The bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes has become medically fam...

Zahra Eslami-Nejad; Noureddi Nematollahi-Mahanin; Fereshteh Saffari; Hamid Mollaii; S. Ali Mohammad Arabzadeh

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Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis in children: report of two cases and literature review  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis (SPM) occurs sporadically, even with the increase of invasive streptococcal disease observed in the past years. We reported two cases of SPM in infants to alert pediatricians for the possibility of this agent as a cause of meningitis in previously healthy children.

Mariana V. Arnoni; Eitan N. Berezin; Marco A.P. Sáfadi; Flávia J. Almeida; Cláudia R.C. Lopes

2007-01-01

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Streptococcus pneumoniae in urinary tracts of children with chronic kidney disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is not commonly considered an agent of urinary tract infections. We report 3 children with urinary tract abnormalities who had high numbers of S. pneumoniae in their urine (?10? CFU/mL) and varying clinical symptoms. PMID:21192871

Burckhardt, Irene; Zimmermann, Stefan

2011-01-01

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Use of Haemophilus test medium for broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

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A recently described medium (Haemophilus test medium [HTM]) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Haemophilus influenzae was evaluated in this study for broth microdilution testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. A total of 137 clinical isolates was tested against 11 antimicrobial agents, using M...

Jorgensen, J H; Maher, L A; Howell, A W

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Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient  

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Full Text Available Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C), vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2) y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La identificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias.A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles) were positive. The isolate was preliminary identified by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriaxone treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

A. Nagel; V. Manias; N. Busquets; S. Sniadowsky; J. Anzardi; E. De Los A. Méndez

2008-01-01

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Meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente/ Streptococcus suis meningitis in an immunocompetent patient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se describe un caso de meningitis por Streptococcus suis en un paciente inmunocompetente. Presentaba astenia, debilidad generalizada, fiebre (39 °C), vómitos, deterioro del sensorio y desorientación témporo-espacial. Los cultivos de sangre (2/2) y de líquido cefalorraquídeo fueron positivos. La identificación preliminar se realizó utilizando las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales y fue completada en el Servicio Bacteriología Especial del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G (more) . Malbrán". Se comenzó el tratamiento con ampicilina y ceftriaxona. El microorganismo aislado demostró sensibilidad a ampicilina, cefotaxima y vancomicina. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente, pero se comprobó leve hipoacusia. Reingresó a los 4 meses con marcha atáxica, anacusia en oído izquierdo e hipoacusia en oído derecho. Continúa con seguimiento neurológico y audiométrico. Retrospectivamente se constató el contacto del paciente con cerdos. Se destaca la importancia de la anamnesis para alertar la sospecha de este agente etiológico en meningitis y bacteriemias. Abstract in english A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis is described in an immunocompetent patient presenting asthenia, general weakness, fever, vomiting, sensory deterioration and temporospatial disorder. The cerebrospinal fluid and two blood cultures (2/2 bottles) were positive. The isolate was preliminary identified by conventional biochemical tests, and the identification was completed at the Special Bacteriology Service of INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Ampicillin and ceftriax (more) one treatment was initiated. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime and vancomycin. The patient experienced a good outcome but suffered hearing loss. However, after four months he returned with walking ataxia, deafness in his left ear, and hearing loss in the right ear. The patient’s retrospective exposure to pigs had been verified. It is important to evaluate predisposing and epidemiologic factors in order to alert about the possible presence of this etiological agent in cases of meningitis or bacteremia.

Nagel, A.; Manias, V.; Busquets, N.; Sniadowsky, S.; Anzardi, J.; Méndez, E. De Los A.

2008-09-01

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Acute meningitis by Streptococcus suis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a coccus Gram positive, anaerobic optional. Human infection by this microorganism is a zoonoticdisease that usually presents as purulent meningitis. Mortality is low but is common sequelae. A case of meningitis byS. suis secondary to contact with pigs is presented here. A 35-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital complainingof high fever, malaise, vomiting and headache. A physical examination revealed decreased level of consciousness,with adequate response to painful stimulus and his eyes with deconjugated gaze. S. suis was isolated in bloodculture. He was treated with cefotaxime, vancomycin and acyclovir in the intensive care unit. He experienced progressiveimprovement. He was discharged with severe deafness and a minimally unstable gait as sequellae. J Microbiol Infect Dis2012; 2(4): 160-162Key words: Streptococcus suis, meningitis, deafness.

Maria-Jesus Corrales-Arroyo; Maria Angeles Del Real-Francia; Amalia Hernandez-Gonzalez; Jose Manuel Morales Puebla; Gema Lopez-Gallardo; Juan Jose Caston-Osorio

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Antimicrobial activity of commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Many essential oils have been advocated for use in complementary medicine for bacterial and fungal infections. However, few of the many claims of therapeutic efficacy have been validated adequately by either in vitro testing or in vivo clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: To study the antibacterial activity of nine commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans in vitro and to compare the antibacterial activity between each material. METHODOLOGY: Nine pure essential oils; wintergreen oil, lime oil, cinnamon oil, spearmint oil, peppermint oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil were selected for the study. Streptococcus mutans was inoculated at 37ºC and seeded on blood agar medium. Agar well diffusion assay was used to measure antibacterial activity. Zone of inhibition was measured around the filter paper in millimeters with vernier caliper. Results: Cinnamon oil showed highest activity against Streptococcus mutans followed by lemongrass oil and cedarwood oil. Wintergreen oil, lime oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil showed no antibacterial activity. CONCLUSION: Cinnamon oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil exhibit antibacterial property against S. mutans. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The use of these essential oils against S. mutans can be a viable alternative to other antibacterial agents as these are an effective module used in the control of both bacteria and yeasts responsible for oral infections.

Chaudhari LK; Jawale BA; Sharma S; Sharma H; Kumar CD; Kulkarni PA

2012-01-01

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The molecular basis of Streptococcus equi infection and disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus equi is the aetiological agent of strangles, one of the most prevalent diseases of the horse. The animal suffering and economic burden associated with this disease necessitate effective treatment. Current antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and thus recent attention has focused on vaccine development. A systematic understanding of S. equi virulence, leading to the identification of targets to which protective immunity can be directed, is a prerequisite of the development of such a vaccine. Here, the virulence factors of S. equi are reviewed.

Harrington DJ; Sutcliffe IC; Chanter N

2002-04-01

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The molecular basis of Streptococcus equi infection and disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus equi is the aetiological agent of strangles, one of the most prevalent diseases of the horse. The animal suffering and economic burden associated with this disease necessitate effective treatment. Current antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and thus recent attention has focused on vaccine development. A systematic understanding of S. equi virulence, leading to the identification of targets to which protective immunity can be directed, is a prerequisite of the development of such a vaccine. Here, the virulence factors of S. equi are reviewed. PMID:11932201

Harrington, Dean J; Sutcliffe, Iain C; Chanter, Neil

2002-04-01

84

Effects of manganese on Streptococcus mutans planktonic and biofilm growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans, an agent of dental caries, was tested for growth in the presence or absence of manganese (Mn), since studies have linked Mn levels with cariogenic potential. Seven S. mutans serotype c strains were grown in chemically defined medium under different atmospheric conditions: 5% CO2, O2-enriched 5% CO2 (shaking) and anaerobic. There was significant strain variability with respect to Mn requirements under the various conditions tested. Both sucrose-dependent and sucrose-independent biofilm growth by strain UA159 were affected by the absence of Mn. S. mutans strains show highly variable responses to both high and low Mn concentrations. PMID:17992012

Arirachakaran, P; Luengpailin, S; Banas, J A; Mazurkiewicz, J E; Benjavongkulchai, E

2007-11-08

85

Streptococcus suis infection: Clinical manifestations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Streptococcus suis is a bacterium causing a disease in pigs and rarely in humans. This zoonosis is mostly found as a sporadic disease in individuals that were in contact with the affected or infected pigs: farmers, veterinarians and workers engaged in fresh pork processing. It is assumed that the bacterium enters the body through a cut abrasion in the skin. Initially, the condition resembles a flu, followed by signs of bacteriemia and sepsis. The most frequent clinical manifestation of Streptococcus suis infection is meningitis, leading to hearing loss in over 75% of patients, and subsequent arthritis, endophtalmitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Toxic shock syndrome with hemorhagic manifestations rarely develops. Material and methods This study included five male patients aged 22 to 63 years treated in the Intensive Care Unit of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade, due to Streptococcus suis infection. The aim of this study was to point to the existence of this bacteria in our environment, to describe clinical manifestations of the disease and to point out the importance of its prevention. Results All patients had epidemiological evidence of being in contact with pork meat. There were no data about diseased pigs. The estimated incubation period was 4 to 8 days. All patients had meningeal signs. Clinical symptoms included shivering, fever, vomiting, headache, malaise, vertigo and tinitus. Three patients presented with alerterd level of awareness. Four patients developed very severe bilateral hearing impairemnt, whereas one endophtalmtis and one developed endocarditis. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was opalescent in four patients, and only one patient presented with clear CSF. CSF examination showed typical changes characeteristic for bacterial meningitis. Streptoccocus suis was isolated in CSF in all patients, and in one patient the bacteria was isolated in blood as well. All patients underwent treatment with II and III generation cephalosporins and one with one aminoglycosides. All patients were cured, but 4 of them developed sequelae like permanent sensorineural deafness and mild ataxia. Conclusions Streptococcus suis infection is present as a zoonosis in pigs, while humans are contracted occasionally, most frequently related to occupational risk. In cases with bacterial meningitis with sepsis and hearing loss, Streptococcus suis infections must be suspected. Effective prevention requires collaboration between epidemiologists, veterinarians and human medicine physicians. .

Dragojlovi? Julijana; Miloševi? Branko; Šaši? Neda; Pelemiš Miomir; Šaši? Milan

2005-01-01

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Screening of binding activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus suis to berries and juices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antiadhesion therapy is a promising approach to the fight against pathogens. Antibiotic resistance and the lack of effective vaccines have increased the search for new methods to prevent infectious diseases. Previous studies have shown the antiadhesion activity of juice from cultivated cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) against bacteria, especially E. coli. In this study, the binding of two streptococcal strains, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus agalactiae, to molecular size fractions (FI, FII and FIII, <10 kDa, 10-100 kDa, and >100 kDa, respectively) of berries and berry and fruit juices from 12 plant species were studied using a microtiter well assay. For Streptococcus suis a hemagglutination inhibition assay was used. In general, binding activity was detected especially to wild cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos L.) and to other Vaccinium species. S. pneumoniae cells bound most to cranberry juice fraction FI and S. agalactiae cells to cranberry fraction FIII. Hemagglutination induced by S. suis was most effectively inhibited by cranberry fraction FII. NMR spectra of some characteristic active and non-active fractions were also measured. They indicate that fractions FII and FIII contained proanthocyanidins and/or other phenolic compounds. The results suggest Vaccinium berries as possible sources of antiadhesives against bacterial infections.

Toivanen M; Huttunen S; Duricová J; Soininen P; Laatikainen R; Loimaranta V; Haataja S; Finne J; Lapinjoki S; Tikkanen-Kaukanen C

2010-01-01

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PYRUVATE FERMENTATION BY STREPTOCOCCUS FAECALIS1  

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Deibel, R. H. (American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Ill.), and C. F. Niven, Jr. Pyruvate fermentation by Streptococcus faecalis. J. Bacteriol. 88:4–10. 1964.—Streptococcus faecalis, as opposed to S. faecium, utilizes pyruvate as an energy source for growth. The fermentation is adaptive, as d...

Deibel, R. H.; Niven, C. F.

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OXIDATION OF GLYCEROL BY STREPTOCOCCUS FAECALIS  

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Claridge, C. A. (Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, N.J.) and David Hendlin. Oxidation of glycerol by Streptococcus faecalis. J. Bacteriol. 84:1181–1186. 1962.—The nature of the factors in yeast autolysate essential for the oxidation of glycerol by Streptococcus faecalis F24 was exam...

Claridge, C. A.; Hendlin, David

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Streptococcus bovis-related cholecystitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acute cholecystitis is a common inflammatory condition of the gallbladder caused most commonly by Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella organisms. Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, anaerobic coccus found as a commensal inhabitant of the digestive system in 16% of healthy people. We report a rare case of acute cholecystitis caused by S bovis and discuss its implications with regard to the two known S bovis biotypes (I & II) both of which are associated with a number of other gastrointestinal diseases.

Deering EM; Muravec Z; Castineira CF; O'Donoghue G

2013-01-01

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Infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus gallolyticus associated with colonic displasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus gallolyticus is a microorganism belonging to the Streptococcus bovis I group isolated in humans, bovines and equines pigeons, among other animals. Streptococcus bovis is a Streptococcus strain found in the rumen, and has been isolated in the milk of animals with mastitis. The authors describe a case of an adult immunocompetent patient with underlying valvular heart disease, with bacteraemia and infective endocarditis by Streptococcus gallolyticus, in whom adenomatous colonic polyps with dysplasia were identified.

Quintas E; Pantarotto M; Moniz J; Pardal N; Pinheiro MD; Gomes MH; Sarmento A

2011-07-01

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Infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus gallolyticus associated with colonic displasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus gallolyticus is a microorganism belonging to the Streptococcus bovis I group isolated in humans, bovines and equines pigeons, among other animals. Streptococcus bovis is a Streptococcus strain found in the rumen, and has been isolated in the milk of animals with mastitis. The authors describe a case of an adult immunocompetent patient with underlying valvular heart disease, with bacteraemia and infective endocarditis by Streptococcus gallolyticus, in whom adenomatous colonic polyps with dysplasia were identified. PMID:22521029

Quintas, Edna; Pantarotto, Marcos; Moniz, João; Pardal, Nuno; Pinheiro, Maria Dolores; Gomes, Maria Helena; Sarmento, António

2011-12-12

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Anticariogenic activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) against Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of dental caries is mainly associated with oral pathogens, especially cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. Preliminary antibacterial screening revealed that the extract of Myristica fragrans, widely cultivated for the spice and flavor of foods, possessed strong inhibitory activity against S. mutans. The anticariogenic compound was successfully isolated from the methanol extract of M. fragrans by repeated silica gel chromatography, and its structure was identified as macelignan by instrumental analysis using 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and EI-MS. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of macelignan against S. mutans was 3.9 microg/ml, which was much lower than those of other natural anticariogenic agents such as 15.6 microg/ml of sanguinarine, 250 microg/ml of eucalyptol, 500 microg/ml of menthol and thymol, and 1000 microg/ml of methyl salicylate. Macelignan also possessed preferential activity against other oral microorganisms such as Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in the MIC range of 2-31.3 microg/ml. In particular, the bactericidal test showed that macelignan, at a concentration of 20 microg/ml, completely inactivated S. mutans in 1 min. The specific activity and fast-effectiveness of macelignan against oral bacteria strongly suggest that it could be employed as a natural antibacterial agent in functional foods or oral care products. PMID:16492529

Chung, J Y; Choo, J H; Lee, M H; Hwang, J K

2005-06-28

93

[Necrotizing subcutaneous infection by Streptococcus agalactiae  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Necrotizing soft tissue infections constitute some of the most potentially threatening infections that may be acquired in the community or in the hospital milieu as they are associated with a high mortality rate. In most cases they are produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. We report a case of a necrotizing soft tissue infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae (group B beta hemolytic streptococcus) that involved the leg of an elderly man with chronic lymphatic leukemia and diabetes mellitus. The lesions notably improved after initiating intravenous antibiotic treatment with amoxicillin-clavunate and clindamycin.

Martín JM; Molina I; Ramón D; Monteagudo C; Alonso V; Jordá E

2006-12-01

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[Necrotizing subcutaneous infection by Streptococcus agalactiae].  

Science.gov (United States)

Necrotizing soft tissue infections constitute some of the most potentially threatening infections that may be acquired in the community or in the hospital milieu as they are associated with a high mortality rate. In most cases they are produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. We report a case of a necrotizing soft tissue infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae (group B beta hemolytic streptococcus) that involved the leg of an elderly man with chronic lymphatic leukemia and diabetes mellitus. The lesions notably improved after initiating intravenous antibiotic treatment with amoxicillin-clavunate and clindamycin. PMID:17173826

Martín, J M; Molina, I; Ramón, D; Monteagudo, C; Alonso, V; Jordá, E

2006-12-01

95

Streptococcus mutans in denture stomatitis patients under antifungal therapy/ Streptococcus mutans em pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar o número de Streptococcus mutans em saliva de pacientes com estomatite protética antes e após a terapia antifúngica. METODOLOGIA: Após exame clínico de 93 pacientes, 47 foram selecionados para exame micológico e desta amostra foram selecionados trinta pacientes: 15 com diagnóstico positivo e 15 com diagnóstico negativo de candidose foram avaliados para contagem de S. mutans, determinação de fluxo salivar e capacidade tampão. Higiene bucal e (more) da prótese, tempo de confecção, tipo de lesão e dados salivares foram relacionados com características clínicas e laboratoriais de Candida. RESULTADOS: As lesões frequentes foram dos tipos I (43,5%) e II (53,5%). A quantidade de S. mutans foi seis vezes maior em pacientes com candidose e foi associada com baixo fluxo salivar e higiene oral deficiente. Após a terapia, a redução de S. mutans foi verificada particularmente em pacientes com fluxo salivar normal. Os valores variaram de 0,01 a 3,88 UFC/ml x 10(4). CONCLUSÃO: Os dados sugerem que os Streptococcus colaboram com Candida spp na etiopatogenia da estomatite protética. O uso de agentes antimicrobianos orais pode propiciar efeito benéfico para pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica e que apresentam higiene oral deficiente e parâmetros salivares desfavoráveis. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To assess the number of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of patients with denture stomatitis before and after antifungal therapy. METHODS: After examining 93 patients, 47 were selected for fungal test. Then, from this sample, thirty patients were selected: 15 with positive and 15 with negative diagnosis for candidiasis that were evaluated for S. mutans counting, salivary flow and buffer capacity evaluation. Oral hygiene and prosthesis hygiene, period using prosthes (more) is, lesion type and salivary data were related with clinical laboratorial characteristics of the patients with Candida. RESULTS: The most frequent lesions were type I (43.5%) and II (53.5%). The amount of S. mutans was six times higher in patients with candidiasis and it was associated with low salivary flow and poor oral hygiene. After therapy, a reduction of S. mutans was verified particularly in patients with normal salivary flow. The values ranged from 0.01 to 3.88 x 10(4) cfu/mL. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that Streptococcus spp collaborates with Candida spp in the etiology and pathogenesis of denture stomatitis. The use of oral antimicrobial agents may provide a beneficial effect for denture stomatitis patients that are under antifungal therapy and that have poor oral hygiene and unfavorable salivary parameters.

Vasconcelos, Laurylene César de S.; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Sampaio, Maria Carméli Correia; Pereira, Maria do Socorro Vieira; Peixoto, Maria Helena Pereira

2010-01-01

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Adsorption of Lysozyme from Human Whole Saliva by Streptococcus sanguis 903 and Other Oral Microorganisms  

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Several strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Actinomyces viscosus, and Actinomyces naeslundii plus fresh isolates of Streptococcus salivarius were surveyed for their abilities to deplete lysozyme from human-whole-saliva supernatant. Bacteria were incubated in ...

Laible, Nancy J.; Germaine, Greg R.

97

Preparation against Streptococcus Pneumoniae-Associated Diseases  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Design of Laboratory Sample of Complex Preparation Based on Specific Bacteriophages and their Lytic Enzymes for a Prophylaxis and Treatment of Human and Animals Streptococcus Pneumoniae-Assiciated Diseses

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Regulation of hexitol catabolism in Streptococcus mutans.  

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Regulation of hexitol catabolism was investigated in Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic human dental plaque bacterium. Induction of hexitol catabolic enzymes and phosphoenolpyruvate:hexitol phosphotransferase and hexitol phosphate dehydrogenase activities was regulated by an inducer exclusion mechan...

Dills, S S; Seno, S

99

Actividad antibacteriana de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér. sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis frente a clorhexidina Antibacterial activity of Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her. against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) es ampliamente utilizado en medicina natural para el tratamiento de enfermedades bucales, pero se desconocen aún sus propiedades farmacológicas, actividad antibacteriana y la composición de sus fitoconstituyentes. Objetivo: realizar un estudio comparativo de la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto acuoso obtenido de las hojas de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis, frente a la clorhexidina. Métodos: para el ensayo antibacteriano se empleó el método de difusión en agar. Se trabajó con 18 muestras de microorganismos de cada especie mencionada, aisladas de los pacientes de una clínica dental. Posteriormente, se prepararon 6 concentraciones diferentes del extracto acuoso, para comparar la actividad antibacteriana frente al colutorio de clorhexidina. El análisis fitoquímico preliminar se realizó mediante el ensayo a la gota. Los datos obtenidos se sometieron a análisis estadísticos como estimadores de media y dispersión, análisis de varianza unifactorial y prueba de Tukey. Resultados: la más alta actividad antibacteriana se obtuvo en la concentración de 400 mg/mL y la más baja en la de 25 mg/mL del extracto acuoso, sobre las tres especies de Streptococcus, en comparación con la clorhexidina; con efecto similar a la concentración de 200 mg/mL. El ensayo fitoquímico preliminar indicó la presencia de flavonoides, taninos, esteroides, antocianinas y saponinas. Conclusiones: el extracto acuoso de Pelargonium peltatum tiene actividad antibacteriana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus sanguis.Introduction: Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her (ivy geranium) is widely used in natural medicine for the treatment of oral disease, but its pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity and phytoconstituent composition are still unknown. Objective: carry out a comparative study of the in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract obtained from leaves of Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her (ivy geranium) against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine. Methods: the agar diffusion method was used for the antibacterial assay. A study was conducted of 18 samples of microorganisms from the above-mentioned species, isolated from patients cared for at a dental clinic. Six different concentrations were prepared of the aqueous extract to compare antibacterial activity versus the chlorhexidine gargle. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was conducted by drop assay. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses such as mean and dispersion estimators, unifactorial analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: the highest antibacterial activity against the three species of Streptococcus was obtained with the 400 mg/ml concentration, and the lowest with the 25 mg/ml concentration of the aqueous extract, in comparison with chlorhexidine, with a similar effect to the 200 mg/ml concentration. The preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, anthocyanins and saponins. Conclusions: the aqueous extract of Pelargonium peltatum has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis.

Juana del Carmen Guerrero Hurtado; Zoila Mercedes Ortiz Rubio; Luis Fernando Peralta Berrospi; Fredy Romel Pérez Azahuanche

2013-01-01

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Rapid Automated Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Use of the bioMerieux VITEK 2  

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The VITEK 2 is a new automated instrument for rapid organism identification and susceptibility testing. It has the capability of performing rapid susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae with specially configured cards that contain enriched growth medium and antimicrobial agents relevant f...

Jorgensen, James H.; Barry, Arthur L.; Traczewski, M. M.; Sahm, Daniel F.; McElmeel, M. Leticia; Crawford, Sharon A.

 
 
 
 
101

Population Diversity and Dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the Upper Respiratory Tracts of Adults, Determined by a Nonculture Strategy?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat....

Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, Hervé; Hance, Ioana; Nelson, Karen E.; Kilian, Mogens

102

Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion

Kilian, Mogens

2001-01-01

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The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries. Materials and Methods: The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4°C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Results: Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms. Interpretation and Conclusion: A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.

Prashant G; Chandu G; Murulikrishna K; Shafiulla M

2007-01-01

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Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Actinomyces viscosus in the Presence of Human Saliva  

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Glucose uptake was examined by using whole-cell suspensions of Streptococcus mutans (strains BHT, Ingbritt, and GS-5), Streptococcus mitis (strains 9811 and 72×41), and Actinomyces viscosus (strains T6 and WVU626) incubated for up to 90 min in 0 to 82% (vol/vol) human whole salivary supernatant. Glu...

Germaine, Greg, R.; Tellefson, Lois M.

105

Penicillin Therapy of Experimental Endocarditis Induced by Tolerant Streptococcus sanguis and Nontolerant Streptococcus mitis  

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The response of tolerant Streptococcus sanguis and nontolerant Streptococcus mitis infections to penicillin therapy was compared in the rabbit model of endocarditis. The minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of penicillin were 0.1 and 0.1 ?g/ml, respectively, for S. mitis and 0.05 and 6...

Lowy, Franklin D.; Neuhaus, Ellen G.; Chang, Daniel S.; Steigbigel, Neal H.

106

Streptococcus tigurinus, a Novel Member of the Streptococcus mitis Group, Causes Invasive Infections  

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We recently described the novel species Streptococcus tigurinus sp. nov. belonging to the Streptococcus mitis group. The type strain AZ_3aT of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. According to its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, S. tigurinus is m...

Zbinden, Andrea; Mueller, Nicolas J.; Tarr, Philip E.; Eich, Gerhard; Schulthess, Bettina; Bahlmann, Anna S.; Keller, Peter M.

107

Meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae/ Bacterial meningoencephalitis to Streptococcus pneumoniae: a health problem to solve  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Fundamento: el Streptococcus pneumoniae ocupa el primer lugar entre las bacterias causales de meningoencefalitis bacteriana desde el año 2000, la cual afecta a niños y adultos con alta letalidad. Objetivo: caracterizar algunos aspectos epidemiológicos y microbiológicos de la meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y observacional acerca de la meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae en el la (more) boratorio de microbiología del Centro Provincial de Higiene Epidemiología y Microbiología en el desde el 2000 al 2009. El universo fue de 209 pacientes con meningoencefalitis bacteriana y la muestra de 50 enfermos positivos a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Resultados: el 24,4 % de los pacientes tuvieron Streptococcus pneumoniae. Todas las edades fueron afectadas, especialmente los ancianos con letalidad del 80 %. Hubo 40 % de fallecimientos en niños y 60 % en adultos. El estudio bacteriológico del líquido cefaloraquidio resultó ser la prueba más importante para establecer el diagnóstico de meningoencefalitis bacteriana a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Se detectó el 84 % de cepas resistentes a la penicilina. Conclusiones: los resultados demuestran que se debe extremar la vigilancia de las meningoencefalitis a este germen en población vulnerable ante la elevada letalidad observada en los enfermos positivos a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Abstract in english Background: the Streptococcus pneumoniae occupies the first place among the causal bacteria of bacterial meningoencephalitis since the year 2000, which affects children and adults with great lethality. Objective: to characterize some epidemiological and microbiological aspects from the bacterial meningoencephalitis to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Method: a descriptive and observational study on bacterial meningoencephalitis to Streptococcus pneumoniae was performedin the mic (more) robiology lab at the Provincial Center of Hygiene Epidemiology and Microbiology from 2000 to 2009. The universe was constituted by 209 patients with bacterial meningoencephalitis and the sample was formed of 50 positive patients to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Results: the 24,4 % of patients had Streptococcus pneumoniae. All the ages were affected, especially the old men with lethality of 80 %. There was 40% of deaths in children and 60 % in adults. The bacteriological study of the cerebrospinal fluid turned out to be the most important test to establish the bacterial meningoencephalitis diagnostic to Streptococcus pneumoniae. The 84% of strains was detected to be resistant to penicillin. Conclusions: results demonstrate that an extreme surveillance should be carried to the meningoencephalitis to this germ in vulnerable population in the face of the great lethality observed in the positive patients to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Estévez Sierra, Ingrid; Sanchén Casas, Alexis; Rodríguez Heredia, Odalys; García González, Gloria

2011-06-01

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Proteomic biomarkers associated with Streptococcus agalactiae invasive genogroups.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) is a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis in newborns and an etiological agent of meningitis, endocarditis, osteoarticular and soft tissue infections in adults. GBS isolates are routinely clustered in serotypes and in genotypes. At present one GBS sequence type (i.e. ST17) is considered to be closely associated with bacterial invasiveness and novel proteomic biomarkers could make a valuable contribution to currently available GBS typing data. For that purpose we analyzed the protein profiles of 170 genotyped GBS isolates by Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI). Univariate statistical analysis of the SELDI profiles identified four protein biomarkers significantly discriminating ST17 isolates from those of the other sequence types. Two of these biomarkers (MW of 7878 Da and 12200 Da) were overexpressed and the other two (MW of 6258 Da and 10463 Da) were underexpressed in ST17. The four proteins were isolated by mass spectrometry-assisted purification and their tryptic peptides analyzed by LC-MS/MS. They were thereby identified as the small subunit of exodeoxyribonuclease VII, the 50S ribosomal protein L7/L12, a CsbD-like protein and thioredoxin, respectively. In conclusion, we identified four candidate biomarkers of ST17 by SELDI for high-throughput screening. These markers may serve as a basis for further studies on the pathophysiology of GBS infection, and for the development of novel vaccines.

Lanotte P; Perivier M; Haguenoer E; Mereghetti L; Burucoa C; Claverol S; Atanassov C

2013-01-01

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Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections with Involvement of Multiple Organs in Lambs  

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Full Text Available Respiratory diseases particularly lamb pneumonia is a multifactorial disease involving the interaction between host, etiological agent and environment. The present study was carried out to determine the causative agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in a sheep flock and to establish its pathogenicity and public health importance. The incidence occurred in sheep unit at Madhurikund farm of University (DUVASU), Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India. At the time of incidence, the population of sheep at the farm was 90. Affected animals were clinically examined and nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from live animals, while morbid materials were collected from dead animals after postmortem examination. The etiological agent was isolated and characterized with conventional microbiological and biochemical methods. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the bacteria isolated from blood, different organs and cerebrospinal fluid. The antibiotic sensitivity revealed resistant to multiple drugs viz., penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Pathological examination revealed multiple involvements of organs with different degrees of inflammation and haemorrhages of the lower respiratory tract, lungs, liver, heart and kidney. Further, its pathogenicity was established by histopathological examination. In conclusion, presence of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in weaning lambs with the involvement of multiple organs appears to be an emerging zoonotic threat to human particularly in shepherds. This seems to be the first report of isolation of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from outbreak in lambs with multiple organ involvement in India.

Amit Kumar; Amit Kumar Verma; Arvind Kumar Sharma; Anu Rahal

2013-01-01

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Prevalência de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico em crianças portadoras de necessidades especiais Prevalence of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus in children with special health care needs  

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Full Text Available Faringotonsilite causada por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico afeta principalmente crianças e imunocomprometidos, sendo Streptococcus pyogenes (Grupo A) o agente mais comum em faringotonsilites bacterianas. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho objetivou a busca por Streptococcus ?-hemolítico do Grupo A (SBHGA) e Não A (SBHGNA) na orofaringe de indivíduos com necessidades especiais da APAE (Maceió-AL). MÉTODO:Estudo prospectivo com amostras da orofaringe de pacientes com síndrome de Down e outras desordens mentais (teste) e estudantes de escola privada (controle) de 5-15 anos. Culturas em ágar sangue (5%) foram identificadas através dos testes de Gram/catalase e o método de disco difusão com bacitracina/sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, aplicando-se o teste Chi-quadrado em análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Um total de 222 colônias bacterianas foram isoladas em 74 indivíduos da APAE e 65 no grupo controle. No grupo teste, episódios prévios de faringotonsilites foram relatados por 36,49% (27/74) e 9,46% (7/74) foram diagnosticados com sintomas e/ou sinais sugestivos de infecção orofaríngea. Nenhuma amostra de S. pyogenes foi confirmada na APAE, sendo todas identificadas como SBHGNA, com cinco SBHGA no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO:A identificação precoce de Streptococcus ?-hemolítico é importante para o tratamento rápido de faringotonsilites e a ausência de S. pyogenes evita futuras sequelas supurativas ou não supurativas no grupo da APAE.Pharyngotonsillitis by ?-hemolytic Streptococcus mostly affects children and imunocompromissed, being Streptococcuspyogenes (Group A) the most common agent in bacterial pharyngotonsillitis. AIM:This work targeted the research of ?-hemolytic Streptococcus Group-A (SBHGA) and No-A (SBHGNA) in the oropharynx of individuals with special health needs from the APAE (Maceió-AL). METHOD: A prospective study with oropharynx samples from patients with Down syndrome and other mental disorders (test) and students from a private school (control) aged 5-15 years. Cultures in blood agar (5%) were identified through Gram/catalase tests and bacitracin/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole disk diffusion method, applying the chi-squared statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 222 bacterial colonies were isolated in 74 individuals from APAE and 65 in the control group. In the test group, previous episodes of pharyngotonsillitis were reported by 36.49% (27/74) and 9.46% (7/74) were diagnosed with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of oropharynx infection. No positive sample of S. pyogenes was confirmed at APAE, being all samples classified as SBHGNA, with 5 SBHGA in the control group. CONCLUSION: The early identification of ?-hemolytic Steptococcus is important for the fast treatment of pharyngotonsillitis and the absence of S. pyogenes avoid future suppurative or not-suppurative sequels in the group from APAE.

Viviane Martha Santos de Morais; Alice Ramos Orsi; Fernanda Cristina de Albuquerque Maranhão; Therezita Maria Peixoto Patury Galvão Castro; Karina Cavalcante Beltrão de Castro; Denise Maria Wanderlei Silva

2012-01-01

111

Actividad antibacteriana de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér. sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis frente a clorhexidina/ Antibacterial activity of Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her. against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) es ampliamente utilizado en medicina natural para el tratamiento de enfermedades bucales, pero se desconocen aún sus propiedades farmacológicas, actividad antibacteriana y la composición de sus fitoconstituyentes. Objetivo: realizar un estudio comparativo de la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto acuoso obtenido de las hojas de Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Hér (geranio hiedra) sobre Streptococc (more) us mutans, Streptococcus sanguis y Streptococcus mitis, frente a la clorhexidina. Métodos: para el ensayo antibacteriano se empleó el método de difusión en agar. Se trabajó con 18 muestras de microorganismos de cada especie mencionada, aisladas de los pacientes de una clínica dental. Posteriormente, se prepararon 6 concentraciones diferentes del extracto acuoso, para comparar la actividad antibacteriana frente al colutorio de clorhexidina. El análisis fitoquímico preliminar se realizó mediante el ensayo a la gota. Los datos obtenidos se sometieron a análisis estadísticos como estimadores de media y dispersión, análisis de varianza unifactorial y prueba de Tukey. Resultados: la más alta actividad antibacteriana se obtuvo en la concentración de 400 mg/mL y la más baja en la de 25 mg/mL del extracto acuoso, sobre las tres especies de Streptococcus, en comparación con la clorhexidina; con efecto similar a la concentración de 200 mg/mL. El ensayo fitoquímico preliminar indicó la presencia de flavonoides, taninos, esteroides, antocianinas y saponinas. Conclusiones: el extracto acuoso de Pelargonium peltatum tiene actividad antibacteriana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus sanguis. Abstract in english Introduction: Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her (ivy geranium) is widely used in natural medicine for the treatment of oral disease, but its pharmacological properties, antibacterial activity and phytoconstituent composition are still unknown. Objective: carry out a comparative study of the in vitro antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract obtained from leaves of Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her (ivy geranium) against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Stre (more) ptococcus mitis versus chlorhexidine. Methods: the agar diffusion method was used for the antibacterial assay. A study was conducted of 18 samples of microorganisms from the above-mentioned species, isolated from patients cared for at a dental clinic. Six different concentrations were prepared of the aqueous extract to compare antibacterial activity versus the chlorhexidine gargle. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was conducted by drop assay. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses such as mean and dispersion estimators, unifactorial analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: the highest antibacterial activity against the three species of Streptococcus was obtained with the 400 mg/ml concentration, and the lowest with the 25 mg/ml concentration of the aqueous extract, in comparison with chlorhexidine, with a similar effect to the 200 mg/ml concentration. The preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, anthocyanins and saponins. Conclusions: the aqueous extract of Pelargonium peltatum has antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis.

Guerrero Hurtado, Juana del Carmen; Ortiz Rubio, Zoila Mercedes; Peralta Berrospi, Luis Fernando; Pérez Azahuanche, Fredy Romel

2013-06-01

112

Streptococcus mutans in denture stomatitis patients under antifungal therapy =Streptococcus mutans em pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Verificar o número de Streptococcus mutans em saliva de pacientes com estomatite protética antes e após a terapia antifúngica. Metodologia: Após exame clínico de 93 pacientes, 47 foram selecionados para exame micológico e desta amostra foram selecionados trinta pacientes: 15 com diagnóstico positivo e 15 com diagnóstico negativo de candidose foram avaliados para contagem de S. mutans, determinação de fluxo salivar e capacidade tampão. Higiene bucal e da prótese, tempo de confecção, tipo de lesão e dados salivares foram relacionados com características clínicas e laboratoriais de Candida. Resultados: As lesões frequentes foram dos tipos I (43,5%) e II (53,5%). A quantidade de S. mutans foi seis vezes maior em pacientes com candidose e foi associada com baixo fluxo salivar e higiene oral deficiente. Após a terapia, a redução de S. mutans foi verificada particularmente em pacientes com fluxo salivar normal. Os valores variaram de 0,01 a 3,88 UFC/ml x 104. Conclusão: Os dados sugerem que os Streptococcus colaboram com Candida spp na etiopatogenia da estomatite protética. O uso de agentes antimicrobianos orais pode propiciar efeito benéfico para pacientes com estomatite protética submetidos à terapia antifúngica e que apresentam higiene oral deficiente e parâmetros salivares desfavoráveis.

Vasconcelos, Laurylene César de S. et al.

2010-01-01

113

Postpartum Group A Streptococcus Sepsis and Maternal Immunology  

Science.gov (United States)

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is an historically important agent of puerperal infections and sepsis. The inception of hand-washing and improved hospital hygiene drastically reduced the incidence of puerperal sepsis, but recently the incidence and severity of postpartum GAS infections has been rising for uncertain reasons. Several epidemiological, host, and microbial factors contribute to the risk for GAS infection and mortality in postpartum women. These include the mode of delivery (vaginal vs. caesarean section), the location where labor and delivery occurred, exposure to GAS carriers, the altered immune status associated with pregnancy, the genetic background of the host, the virulence of the infecting GAS strain, and highly specialized immune responses associated with female reproductive tract tissues and organs. This review will discuss the complicated factors that contribute to the increased susceptibility to GAS after delivery and potential reasons for the recent increase observed in morbidity and mortality.

Mason, Katie L.; Aronoff, David M.

2011-01-01

114

Gene elements that regulate Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence and immunity evasion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important aetiological agents of bacterial pneumonia and meningitis in the world. This bacterium can cause severe inflammation of lung tissue and disseminate to the central nervous system. Although B cell activation and antibody secretion is considered one of the most important events in the prevention or clearance of bacterial infection by the host, dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells play a fundamental role in the generation of the protective immunity required to prevent the pathogenesis caused by S. pneumoniae infection. Here we review recent studies that have evaluated the impact of DCs and T cells on S. pneumoniae infection and the gene elements encoding virulence factors used by this bacterium to interfere with the appropriate function of these immune cells. This knowledge could be relevant for generating new prophylactic and therapeutic tools and to prevent the severe infection caused by this pathogen.

Nieto PA; Riquelme SA; Riedel CA; Kalergis AM; Bueno SM

2013-02-01

115

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-04-11

116

Galactokinase activity in Streptococcus thermophilus  

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ATP-dependent phosphorylation of (/sup 14/C)galactose by 11 strains of streptococcus thermophilus indicated that these organisms possessed the Leloir enzyme, galactokinase (galK). Activities were 10 times higher in fully induced, galactose-fermenting (Gal/sup +/) strains than in galactose-nonfermenting (Gal/sup -/) strains. Lactose-grown, Gal/sup -/ cells released free galactose into the medium and were unable to utilize residual galactose or to induce galK above basal levels. Gal/sup +/ S. thermophilus 19258 also released galactose into the medium, but when lactose was depleted, growth on galactose commenced, and galK increased from 0.025 to 0.22 ..mu..mol of galactose phosphorylated per min per mg of protein. When lactose was added to galactose-grown cells of S. thermophilus 19258, galK activity rapidly decreased. These results suggest that galK in Gal/sup +/ S. thermophilus is subject to an induction-repression mechanism, but that galK cannot be induced in Gal/sup -/ strains.

Hutkins, R.; Morris, H.A.; McKay, L.L.

1985-10-01

117

The efficacy of neem extract on four microorganisms responsible for causing dental caries viz Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis: an in vitro study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: HISTORY AND OBJECTIVES: From the ancient time, neem used to be the traditional medicine for many diseases and was mainly used for cleaning the oral cavity. The incidence of dental caries was less a few decades ago but now the incidence of caries is very aggressive. This might be due to change in dietary habits, life style and more tendency toward processed food. The objective of this study is to find out the truth that if the neem is really efficacious against caries-inducing microorganisms, mainly Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dried neem sticks ground into a coarse powder and weighed into 5, 10 and 50 gm were added to 100 ml of deionized double distilled water. After soaking for 2 days, the water was filtered at 4 °C and the fine filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates contains individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37 °C for 2 days. RESULTS: At maximum concentrations, neem extract has shown the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans. At less concentration, the efficacy of neem has shown some inhibition of growth for all the four species of microorganisms. CONCLUSION: Neem chewing provides the maximum benefits. Hence, the use of chewing sticks of neem can be recommended.

Chava VR; Manjunath SM; Rajanikanth AV; Sridevi N

2012-11-01

118

Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of donkeys.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates that were obtained from donkey oral cavities formed two distinct clonal groups when characterized by phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. From the results of biochemical tests, the organisms were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two of the isolates were related most closely to Streptococcus ursoris with 95.6 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and to Streptococcus ratti with 92.0 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates, however, were related to Streptococcus criceti with 95.0 and 89.0 % similarities based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. From both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the four isolates formed two distinct clonal groups and are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus. The names proposed for these organisms are Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1801(T) = JCM 17942(T) = DSM 25193(T)) and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1808(T) = JCM 17943(T) = DSM 25137(T)). PMID:23291897

Takada, Kazuko; Saito, Masanori; Tsudukibashi, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika; Hirasawa, Masatomo

2013-01-04

119

Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of donkeys.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates that were obtained from donkey oral cavities formed two distinct clonal groups when characterized by phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. From the results of biochemical tests, the organisms were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two of the isolates were related most closely to Streptococcus ursoris with 95.6 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and to Streptococcus ratti with 92.0 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates, however, were related to Streptococcus criceti with 95.0 and 89.0 % similarities based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. From both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the four isolates formed two distinct clonal groups and are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus. The names proposed for these organisms are Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1801(T) = JCM 17942(T) = DSM 25193(T)) and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1808(T) = JCM 17943(T) = DSM 25137(T)).

Takada K; Saito M; Tsudukibashi O; Hiroi T; Hirasawa M

2013-08-01

120

Distribution of Streptococcus troglodytae and Streptococcus dentirousetti in chimpanzee oral cavities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and phenotypic properties of the indigenous streptococci in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) oral cavities. Eleven chimpanzees (aged from 9 to 44 years, mean?±?SD, 26.9?±?12.6 years) in the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University were enrolled in this research and brushing bacterial samples collected from them. Streptococci were isolated from the oral cavities of all chimpanzees. The isolates (n?=?46) were identified as thirteen species by 16S rRNA genes analysis. The predominant species was Streptococcus sanguinis of mitis streptococci from five chimpanzees (45%). Mutans streptococci were isolated from six chimpanzees (55%). The predominant species in the mutans streptococci were Streptococcus troglodytae from four chimpanzees (36%), this species having been proposed as a novel species by us, and Streptococcus dentirousetti from three chimpanzees (27%). Streptococcus mutans was isolated from one chimpanzee (9%). However, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus macacae and Streptococcus downei, which are indigenous to human and monkey (Macaca fasciclaris) oral habitats, were not isolated. Of the mutans streptococci, S. troglodytae, S. dentirousetti, and S. mutans possessed strong adherence activity to glass surface. PMID:23668608

Miyanohara, Mayu; Imai, Susumu; Okamoto, Masaaki; Saito, Wataru; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Momoi, Yasuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

EXPERIMENTAL FOCALIZED MYOCARDIAL LESIONS PRODUCED WITH STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS  

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1. By the intravenous injection into rabbits of Streptococcus mitis, we have produced focalized myocardial lesions which are identical with those caused by the injection of Streptococcus rheumaticus, and with those produced by Bracht and Wächter with Streptococcus viridans. 2. The lesions differ fr...

Thalhimer, William; Rothschild, M. A.

122

Amino acid requirements of Streptococcus mutans and other oral streptococci.  

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The amino acid requirements of Streptococcus mutans strains AHT, OMZ-61, FA-1, BHT, GS-5, JC-2, Ingbritt, At6T, OMZ-176, 6715, Streptococcus salivarius HHT, Streptococcus sanguis OMZ-9, and strain 72x46 were determined in a chemically defined medium. When grown anaerobically in the presence of sodiu...

Terleckyj, B; Shockman, G D

123

Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30%) de los cuales 26 (44.8%) correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5%) a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6%) a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1%) a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4%) a Streptococcus bovis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7%) a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania) dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción") para el Streptococcus morbillorum.We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30%) of these cultures, 26 (44.8%) corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%), to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%), to Enterococcus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 %) to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%), to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7%) to Streptococcus salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germany)provides a typical pattern ("good identification") for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

J.M. F. Egido; J.R. Maestre; M.Y. Pena Izquierdo

1995-01-01

124

Consideraciones sobre elaislamiento en exudados vaginales de Streptococcus morbillorum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish De el estúdio de 195 exudados vaginales enviados por el Servicio de Ginecologia de este hospital, durante el período 1988-1990, hemos seleccionado aquellos en los que el cultivo fue positivo para estreptococos, 58 (30%) de los cuales 26 (44.8%) correspondia a Streptococcus morbillorum, 9 (15.5%) a Gardnerella vaginalis, 5 (8.6%) a Enterococcus faecalis-durans, y a Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1%) a Streptococcus mitis y Streptococcus mitis, 2 (3-4%) a Streptococcus bo (more) vis y Streptococcus cremoris y 1 (1.7%) a Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus equinus y Strptococcus sanguis II respectivamente. En todos los casos se observo antecedentes de actuacción medico- quirurjica en el tracto genital, y en el 52.8% de los casos fuô concomitante con el diagnostico clinico-micologico de candidiasis vaginal. La ideittificaccion bacteriologica se realizo mediante el sistema API 20 STREP (sistema api bioMêríeux GmbH, Nütingen, Alemania) dando un patron tipico ("excelente identificacción") para el Streptococcus morbillorum. Abstract in english We have tested 195 vaginal secretions sent by Gynecology Service of this hospital between the years 1988 - 1990. We achieved positive culture for streptococci in 58 (30%) of these cultures, 26 (44.8%) corresponding to Streptococcus morbillorum 9 (15.5%), to Gardnerella vaginalis 5 (8.6%), to Enterococcus faecalis-durans and to Streptococcus agalactiae, 3 (5.1 %) to Streptococcus mitis and milleri 2 (3-4%), to Streptococcus bovis and cremoris, and 1 (1.7%) to Streptococcus (more) salivarius, equinus and sanguis II respectively. We previously found that 52.8% of these patients were positive for vaginal candidiasis. The bacteriological identification done by the API 20 STREP System (bioMerieux GmbH, Nútingen, Germany)provides a typical pattern ("good identification") for the Streptococcus morbillorum.

Egido, J.M. F.; Maestre, J.R.; Pena Izquierdo, M.Y.

1995-06-01

125

Disseminated viridians streptococcus (Streptococcus mitis) infection presenting with toxic shock-like syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a case of a 35-year-old man with no known underlying disease who presented with fever, cellulitis with hemorrhagic blebs on the left leg, monoarthricular left knee arthritis, multiple organ failure and septic shock. His clinical syndrome was compatible with toxic shock syndrome and his blood grew alpha hemolytic (viridians) Streptococcus mitis. To our knowledge, there are few reported cases of toxic shock syndrome cause by Streptococcus mitis in immune-competent adults. PMID:23682535

Intalapaporn, Poj; Wongcharoen, Sunee; Chinapha, Anongnart; Jariyasethpong, Tavatchai

2013-03-01

126

Disseminated viridians streptococcus (Streptococcus mitis) infection presenting with toxic shock-like syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors report a case of a 35-year-old man with no known underlying disease who presented with fever, cellulitis with hemorrhagic blebs on the left leg, monoarthricular left knee arthritis, multiple organ failure and septic shock. His clinical syndrome was compatible with toxic shock syndrome and his blood grew alpha hemolytic (viridians) Streptococcus mitis. To our knowledge, there are few reported cases of toxic shock syndrome cause by Streptococcus mitis in immune-competent adults.

Intalapaporn P; Wongcharoen S; Chinapha A; Jariyasethpong T

2013-03-01

127

Streptococcus agalactiae vaginitis: nonhemolytic variant on the Liofilchem® Chromatic StreptoB.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) vaginal pathogenicity is not uniformly acknowledged throughout the literature; accordingly, in women, genital itching and burning, along with leukorrhea are commonly and almost exclusively referred to bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Conversely, GBS virulence for vagina was recognized in the past, as the organism has been observed to potentially cause local inflammation and discharge, as well as lactobacilli rarefaction. We depict here a case where a nonhemolytic (?-hemolytic) GBS strain was found to be the etiologic agent of vaginal infection. Such uncommon S. agalactiae phenotypes are hard to be recognized and may be therefore responsible for misdiagnosing and underestimation of GBS vaginitis prevalence; here, we had the support of the Liofilchem(®) Chromatic StreptoB medium, that successfully detected such an atypical variant.

Savini V; Marrollo R; D'Antonio M; D'Amario C; Fazii P; D'Antonio D

2013-01-01

128

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus meningitis in Peru.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 59-year-old man with a history of fever, unsteadiness, hemiparesis, motor aphasia and consciousness disturbance was hospitalized for Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus meningitis. He denied contact with farm animals, but had a practice of consuming unpasteurized goats' cheese from an uncertain source.

Mori N; Guevara JM; Tilley DH; Briceno JA; Zunt JR; Montano SM

2013-02-01

129

Ferrous iron transport in Streptococcus mutans.  

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Radioiron uptake from 59FeCl3 by Streptococcus mutans OMZ176 was increased by anaerobiosis, sodium ascorbate, and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), although there was a 10-min lag before PMS stimulation was evident. The reductant ascorbate may have provided ferrous iron. The PMS was reduced by the cells...

Evans, S L; Arceneaux, J E; Byers, B R; Martin, M E; Aranha, H

130

Streptococcus sinensis endocarditis outside Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus sinensis has been described as a causative organism for infective endocarditis in 3 Chinese patients from Hong Kong. We describe a closely related strain in an Italian patient with chronic rheumatic heart disease. The case illustrates that S. sinensis is a worldwide emerging pathogen. PMID:17953105

Uçkay, Ilker; Rohner, Peter; Bolivar, Ignacio; Ninet, Béatrice; Djordjevic, Marina; Nobre, Vandack; Garzoni, Christian; Schrenzel, Jacques

2007-08-01

131

Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing.

Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael

2008-01-01

132

Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis admitted to the pediatric hospital of San Miguel del Padron, City of Havana in this period were assessed. RESULTS: Children under one year are the most frequently affected. Septic shock and brain edema were the most severe complications. Three patients died, implying that this disease has a serious course. Early treatment of brain edema is very important to reduce mortality. The elective drugs for treatment of these cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were vancomycin combined with cephalosporin, cefotaxime or ceftriaxone type. CONCLUSION: Patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis show clinical characteristics, complications, and sequels that are different to other bacterial meningoencephalitis, meaning that they could be helpful for physicians considering the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis.

Bu-Coifiu Fanego R; Dorta-Contreras AJ; Padilla-Docal B; O'Farril-Sanchez M; Lopez-Hernandez I

2009-12-01

133

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection  

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Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a group of disorders recently recognized as a clinical entity. A case of PANDAS is described here, which remitted after 1 month of treatment. Recent Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection shou...

Maini, Baljeet; Bathla, Manish; Dhanjal, Gurdeep S.; Sharma, Prem D.

134

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a group of disorders recently recognized as a clinical entity. A case of PANDAS is described here, which remitted after 1 month of treatment. Recent Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection should be considered in a child who presents with a sudden explosive onset of tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms. PMID:23372243

Maini, Baljeet; Bathla, Manish; Dhanjal, Gurdeep S; Sharma, Prem D

2012-10-01

135

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a group of disorders recently recognized as a clinical entity. A case of PANDAS is described here, which remitted after 1 month of treatment. Recent Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection should be considered in a child who presents with a sudden explosive onset of tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms.

Maini B; Bathla M; Dhanjal GS; Sharma PD

2012-10-01

136

Cardiac device infection due to Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cardiac device infections (CDIs) are recognized complications of device implantation. Most CDIs are caused by skin flora but can also result from hematogenous seeding of the device. A case involving Streptococcus pneumoniae CDI, which is rare, potentially vaccine preventable and may not be associated with overt antecedent pneumococcal infection, is reported.

Liu TT; Nery PB; Birnie D; Jessamine P; Suh KN

2012-01-01

137

Regulation of neuraminidase expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid; NeuNAc) is one of the most important carbohydrates for Streptococcus pneumoniae due of its role as a carbon and energy source, receptor for adhesion and invasion and molecular signal for promotion of biofilm formation, nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion of the lung. Results In this work, NeuNAc and its metabolic derivative N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc) were used to analyze regulatory mechanisms of the neuraminidase locus expression. Genomic and metabolic comparison to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis elucidates the metabolic association of the two amino sugars to different parts of the locus coding for the two main pneumococcal neuraminidases and confirms the substrate specificity of the respective ABC transporters. Quantitative gene expression analysis shows repression of the locus by glucose and induction of all predicted transcriptional units by ManNAc and NeuNAc, each inducing with higher efficiency the operon encoding for the transporter with higher specificity for the respective amino sugar. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated enhanced surface exposure of NanA on pneumococci grown in NeuNAc and ManNAc and an activity assay allowed to quantify approximately twelve times as much neuraminidase activity on induced cells as opposed to glucose grown cells. Conclusions The present data increase the understanding of metabolic regulation of the nanAB locus and indicate that experiments aimed at the elucidation of the relevance of neuraminidases in pneumococcal virulence should possibly not be carried out on bacteria grown in glucose containing media.

Gualdi Luciana; Hayre Jasvinder; Gerlini Alice; Bidossi Alessandro; Colomba Leonarda; Trappetti Claudia; Pozzi Gianni; Docquier Jean-Denis; Andrew Peter; Ricci Susanna; Oggioni Marco R

2012-01-01

138

Regulation of neuraminidase expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid; NeuNAc) is one of the most important carbohydrates for Streptococcus pneumoniae due of its role as a carbon and energy source, receptor for adhesion and invasion and molecular signal for promotion of biofilm formation, nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion of the lung. RESULTS: In this work, NeuNAc and its metabolic derivative N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc) were used to analyze regulatory mechanisms of the neuraminidase locus expression. Genomic and metabolic comparison to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis elucidates the metabolic association of the two amino sugars to different parts of the locus coding for the two main pneumococcal neuraminidases and confirms the substrate specificity of the respective ABC transporters. Quantitative gene expression analysis shows repression of the locus by glucose and induction of all predicted transcriptional units by ManNAc and NeuNAc, each inducing with higher efficiency the operon encoding for the transporter with higher specificity for the respective amino sugar. Cytofluorimetric analysis demonstrated enhanced surface exposure of NanA on pneumococci grown in NeuNAc and ManNAc and an activity assay allowed to quantify approximately twelve times as much neuraminidase activity on induced cells as opposed to glucose grown cells. CONCLUSIONS: The present data increase the understanding of metabolic regulation of the nanAB locus and indicate that experiments aimed at the elucidation of the relevance of neuraminidases in pneumococcal virulence should possibly not be carried out on bacteria grown in glucose containing media.

Gualdi L; Hayre JK; Gerlini A; Bidossi A; Colomba L; Trappetti C; Pozzi G; Docquier JD; Andrew P; Ricci S; Oggioni MR

2012-01-01

139

Protective salivary immunoglobulin A responses against Streptococcus mutans infection after intranasal immunization with S. mutans antigen I/II coupled to the B subunit of cholera toxin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) has been shown to augment mucosal responses to microbial virulence antigens, including those of Streptococcus mutans, which is the principal etiologic agent of dental caries. In the present study, the surface fibrillar protein antigen of S. mutans, antigen I/II (...

Katz, J; Harmon, C C; Buckner, G P; Richardson, G J; Russell, M W; Michalek, S M

140

Infecciones por Streptococcus anginosusen otorrinolaringología: Revisión de 9 casos clínicos/ Infections caused by Streptococcus anginosusin otolaryngology: Review of 9 clinical cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: El Streptococcus anginosus (SA) es un habitante común de la cavidad oral y tracto gastrointestinal, y puede ser un patógeno agresivo causante de abscesos en varios sitios del cuerpo. Aparentemente, su rol en infecciones de cabeza y cuello está adquiriendo cierta notoriedad y no está claramente reportado en la literatura. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las implicancias clínicas de estas infecciones en otorrinolaringología. Mater (more) ial y método: Estudio retrospectivo de todos los pacientes diagnosticados microbiológicamente con infecciones causadas por Streptococcus anginosus, tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau entre los años 2007 a 2012. Se describen las características clínicas, microbiológicas y el manejo de los pacientes. Resultados: La muestra estuvo constituida por 9 casos, 3 hombres y 6 mujeres, con una mediana de edad de 52 años (rango 6-70). Los sitios de infección fueron: absceso periamigdalino (2 casos), un absceso peritraqueostoma, un absceso submandibular, un absceso submentoniano, un absceso parafaríngeo con extensión retrofaríngea y mediastino, un caso de absceso cerebral frontal secundario a sinusitis frontal complicada, un caso de otitis media crónica activa, y un caso de sinusitis maxilar crónica. Discusión: El SA ha sido reportado como un agente causal de infecciones potencialmente graves en cabeza y cuello. Su identificación requiere de consideraciones especiales para el cultivo, y al ser un microorganismo común puede ser confundido e informado como S viridans o Streptococcus anaeróbico. Es importante reconocer al SA como un patógeno a considerar en infecciones de cabeza y cuello. Abstract in english Introduction: Streptococcus anginosus (SA) is a common inhabitant of the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract, and can be an aggressive pathogen causing abscesses in various body sites. Apparently, its role in head and neck infections is gaining some notoriety that it is not clearly reported in the literature. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical implications of this infections in otolaryngology. Material and method: A retrospective case series study (more) of all patients diagnosed microbiologically with Streptococcus anginosus infections treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, HospitalBarros Luco-Trudeau from 2007 to 2012. We describe the clinical and microbiological features, and treatment of each patient. Results: The sample consisted of 9 patients, 3 men and 6 women, with a median age of 52 years (range 6-70). The sites of infection were: peritonsillar abscess (2 cases), peritracheostomy abscess, submandibular abscess, submental abscess, parapharyngeal abscess with retropharyngeal and mediastinal extension, a case of frontal brain abscess secondary to frontal sinusitis, a case of otitis chronic active half, and one case of chronic maxillary sinusitis. Discussion: SA has been reported as a causative agent ofpotentially serious infections in the head and neck region. Their identification requires special considerations for growing, and because of being a common microorganism may be confused and informed as Streptococcus viridans or anaerobic streptococcus. It is important to recognize SA as a relevant pathogen in head and neck infections.

Cardemil M, Felipe; Muñoz S, Daniel; Rahal E, Maritza; Osorio M, Jaime; Sepúlveda S, René; Urzúa B, Rodrigo

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov., isolated from the human throat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Novel, Gram-positive, ovoid lactic acid bacterial isolates LMG 27205, LMG 27206, LMG 27207T and MRI-F 18 were obtained from throat samples of healthy humans. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that these isolates belong to the genus Streptococcus, specifically the Streptococcus mitis group, with Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus mitis as nearest neighbours (99.45% and 98.56% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). Genotypic fingerprinting by AFLP and PFGE, DNA-DNA hybridisations, comparative sequence analysis of pheS, rpoA, atpA and physiological and biochemical tests revealed that these bacteria formed a taxon well-separated from its nearest neighbours and other established Streptococcus species and therefore represent a new species, for which the name Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov. is proposed (with LMG 27207T = DSM 26920T) as type strain.

Huch M; De Bruyne K; Cleenwerck I; Bub A; Cho GS; Watzl B; Snauwaert I; Franz CM; Vandamme P

2013-06-01

142

Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov., isolated from the human throat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel, Gram-positive, ovoid lactic acid bacterial isolates LMG 27205, LMG 27206, LMG 27207T and MRI-F 18 were obtained from throat samples of healthy humans. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that these isolates belong to the genus Streptococcus, specifically the Streptococcus mitis group, with Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus mitis as nearest neighbours (99.45% and 98.56% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). Genotypic fingerprinting by AFLP and PFGE, DNA-DNA hybridisations, comparative sequence analysis of pheS, rpoA, atpA and physiological and biochemical tests revealed that these bacteria formed a taxon well-separated from its nearest neighbours and other established Streptococcus species and therefore represent a new species, for which the name Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov. is proposed (with LMG 27207T = DSM 26920T) as type strain. PMID:23749274

Huch, Melanie; De Bruyne, Katrien; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Bub, Achim; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Watzl, Bernhard; Snauwaert, Isabel; Franz, Charles M A P; Vandamme, Peter

2013-06-01

143

[Neonatal cellulitis caused by group B Streptococcus].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dermohypodermitis (cellulitis) in newborn infants and in infants aged up to 3 months is uncommon and often not typical. Because group B Streptococcus is known to induce rapid life-threatening complications, early diagnosis leading to emergency treatment is of utmost importance. We report on the case of a 14-day-old girl, initially admitted for viral bronchiolitis with suspected bacterial pulmonary infection, in the absence of any cutaneous injury. The disease actually was cellulitis of the face, caused by group B Streptococcus. The baby presented with a severe septic clinical condition. Early treatment with antibiotics (intravenous amoxicillin for 10 days) allowed a favorable course, with rapid control of the sepsis and regression of the submandibular tumefaction.

Breinig S; Roques-Gineste M; Marcoux MO; Bloom MC

2012-10-01

144

Detection of Streptococcus macedonicus in Greek cheeses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present work was the detection and enumeration of Streptococcus macedonicus in Greek traditional cheeses. A total of 68 traditional cheese samples have been examined. Enumeration was performed by plating on the S. macedonicus differential medium Bromothymol Blue Streptococcus macedonicus (BBSM). Detection of S. macedonicus was confirmed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using as template either cheese DNA or DNA from colonies isolated from the BBSM medium. Counts of S. macedonicus on BBSM medium ranged from less than 1 to 6.84logcfug^-^1. S. macedonicus has been detected in 15 samples out of the 68 tested, corresponding to 13 out of the 20 different cheese varieties examined, originating from various geographical areas in Greece. This indicates that S. macedonicus is widespread in Greek cheeses. However, its presence could not be correlated either with the cheese variety or the cheese manufacturing procedures.

Georgalaki Marina; Manolopoulou Eugenia; Anastasiou Rania; Papadelli Marina; Tsakalidou Effie

2009-02-01

145

Streptococcus dysgalactiae endocarditis presenting as acute endophthalmitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. The identification of Group C and G streptococci such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae is comparatively uncommon and has only been reported in a few case reports or series. We therefore report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae first presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis, the most likely source being bilateral feet osteomyelitis in a patient with type I diabetes. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous benzylpenicillin, intravitreal antibiotics, bilateral below knee amputations and mitral valve replacement. She survived all surgical procedures and regained partial visual acuity in the affected eye.

Angelina Su-Min Yong; Su Yin Lau; Tsung Han Woo; Jordan Yuanzhi Li; Tuck Yean Yong

2012-01-01

146

Prevalência de Streptococcus suis sorotipo 2: discussão da literatura brasileira/ Prevalence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: discussion of the Brazilian literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Streptococcus suis é mundialmente considerado um dos patógenos de maior impacto sanitário e econômico na indústria suinícola. Dentre os sorotipos descritos como zoonóticos, o sorotipo 2 é o mais frequentemente isolado de animais e humanos doentes na maioria dos países. O estudo da epidemiologia das infecções por S. suis no Brasil é importante para a implantação de medidas efetivas de controle. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma revisão cr? (more) ?tica da literatura brasileira, com suporte da literatura mundial, abordando o diagnóstico do agente e sua prevalência em animais clinicamente doentes e portadores sadios, com destaque para a prevalência do sorotipo 2 no país. Abstract in english Streptococcus suis is considered worldwide as one of the pathogens of biggest health and economic impact in the swine industry. Among the serotypes described as zoonotic, serotype 2 is the most frequently isolated from diseased animals and humans in most countries. The study of the epidemiology of S. suis infections in Brazil is important and may help in the development of effective control measures. The aim of this study was to conduct a critical review of Brazilian lite (more) rature, with support of the world literature, addressing the diagnosis of the agent and its prevalence in clinically ill animals and healthy carriers, especially regarding to the prevalence of the serotype 2 in the country.

Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos

2013-09-01

147

PROTECTIVE ANTIGENS FOR GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS HYPERVIRULENT STRAINS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides protective antigens for Group B streptococcus hypervirulent strains. The fragments are useful in vaccine compositions to induce protection against S. agalactiae, particularly against hypervirulent strains.

DORO FRANCESCO; NORAIS NATHALIE; MAIONE DOMENICO; LIBERATORI SABRINA; GRANDI GUIDO

148

Primary psoas abscess due to Streptococcus milleri  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Primary Psoas abscess (PPA) is an infrequent clinical entity with obscure pathogenesis and vague clinical presentation. High index of clinical suspicion is required for the diagnosis of psoas abscess. We also emphasises the importance of bacteriological confirmation of microorganism involved, although Staphylococcus aureus remains the commonest pathogen. We report an extremely rare case of PPA caused by Streptococcus milleri. Only one case has been reported in literature so far.

Bagul Nitin B; Abeysekara Abeywardana MS; Jacob Sabu

2008-01-01

149

MASSAGE AGENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: medicine cosmetic, in particular agent for treatment of cripple infant suffering from infantile cerebral paralysis. ^ SUBSTANCE: claimed agent contains cameline oil, dogrose oil, and mint oil. Said agent is uniformly distributed on skin, has good absorption, provides good sliding effect, increases blood circulation, relives muscle stress. ^ EFFECT: agent with increased feeding, anti-inflammation and immunostimulating action. ^ 1 ex

ROGOV ARTEM VALER EVICH

150

AGENT ADMINISTRATION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An intra-ruminal bolus and method of manufacture is described that releases a therapeutically effective amount of at least one beneficial agent to a ruminant animal over a time period of less than approximately 21 days. The bolus includes at least one beneficial agent, at least one densifier material, at least one binding agent, and at least one releasing agent. The bolus is manufactured using a ratio of binding agent to releasing agent that is tailored to achieve the desired rate of release and timing of delivery. This ratio is in the order of approximately 1 part binding agent to between approximately 0.01 and approximately 2 parts releasing agent and may be varied within this range in order to obtain the preferred release length of time. The bolus is particularly useful for delivery of anti-parasitic compounds but may also be used for delivery of other active agents such as trace elements including selenium and cobalt.

MUNDAY REX

151

NUTRITION OF STREPTOCOCCUS BOVIS IN RELATION TO DEXTRAN FORMATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Barnes, Isabel J. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.), H. W. Seeley, and P. J. VanDeMark. Nutrition of Streptococcus bovis in relation to dextran formation. J. Bacteriol. 82:85–93. 1961.—Three nutritional types of Streptococcus bovis were encountered. Minimal media for their growth are described. Tr...

Barnes, Isabel J.; Seeley, H. W.; VanDemark, P. J.

152

EXPERIMENTAL ARTHRITIS IN THE RABBIT, PRODUCED WITH STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. We have produced arthritis in 50 per cent. of the rabbits injected with Streptococcus mitis. 2. The character of the arthritis is identical with that produced by Micrococcus rheumaticus. 3. The exudate in and about the joints partakes of the same nature as that caused by Streptococcus rheumaticu...

Rothschild, M. A.; Thalhimer, William

153

Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus Strain ND03?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus thermophilus strain ND03 is a Chinese commercial dairy starter used for the manufacture of yogurt. It was isolated from naturally fermented yak milk in Qinghai, China. We present here the complete genome sequence of ND03 and compare it to three other published genomes of Streptococcus ...

Sun, Zhihong; Chen, Xia; Wang, Jicheng; Zhao, Wenjing; Shao, Yuyu; Wu, Lan; Zhou, Zhemin; Sun, Tiansong; Wang, Lei; Meng, He

154

Sympathetic empyema arising from streptococcus anginosus splenic abscess  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a 52 year old male with a history splenic infarction, abdominal pain and shortness of breath. CT scanning revealed a splenic abcess and empyema. Cultures from both sites grew Streptococcus anginosus. These resolved with drainage and antibiotics. Physicians should consider Streptococcus species when confronted with a patient with splenic infarction.

Wissa E; Mathew M; Mathew M

2012-01-01

155

The mutacins of Streptococcus mutans: regulation and ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans is generally recognized as a causative agent of human dental caries. The production of mutacins (bacteriocins) by S. mutans is considered to be an important factor in the colonization and establishment of S. mutans in the dental biofilm. Two types of mutacins have been characterized: the lantibiotics and the non-lantibiotics. The lantibiotics generally have a wider spectrum of activity than the non-lantibiotics, which make them attractive targets for development into new antimicrobial modalities. The non-lantibiotics are much more prevalent among strains of S. mutans and play a significant role in both community-level and population-level interactions in the dental biofilm. These interactions are directly mediated through the ComCDE two-component system and the newly characterized LytTR Regulation Systems HdrRM and BrsRM. These systems coordinate natural competence development and mutacin production as a means to acquire transforming DNA either by killing closely related streptococcal species in the vicinity of S. mutans, or through an altruistic suicide mechanism among a subpopulation of competent cells within the S. mutans community. As more S. mutans strains are sequenced, it is anticipated that additional mutacins with novel functions will be discovered, which may yield further insights into the ecological role of mutacins within the oral biofilm. PMID:22394465

Merritt, J; Qi, F

2011-12-23

156

Antibacterial substances from Albizia myriophylla wood against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Albizia myriophylla has been used for long by Thai traditional healers as an important ingredient herb in Thai herbal formulas for caries. In this study, three flavonoids lupinifolin (6), 8-methoxy-7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (7), and 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (8), a triterpenoid lupeol (3) as well as four sterols ?-sitosterone (1), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-one (2), ?-sitosterol (4), and stigmasterol (5) were isolated from A. myriophylla wood. The antibacterial activity of these compounds against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 was performed using broth microdilution method. All compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against S. mutans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 1-256 and 2-256 ?g/ml, respectively. Among the isolated compounds, lupinifolin (6) was found to be the most potent with MIC and MBC of 1 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively. Lupinifolin (6) also showed a strong activity against ten clinical isolates of S. mutans with MIC and MBC ranging from 0.25-2 and 0.5-8 ?g/ml, respectively. These results reported the bioactive ingredients of A. myriophylla which support its ethnomedical claims as well. Lupinifolin (6) may have a potential to be a natural anticariogenic agent.

Joycharat N; Thammavong S; Limsuwan S; Homlaead S; Voravuthikunchai SP; Yingyongnarongkul BE; Dej-Adisai S; Subhadhirasakul S

2013-06-01

157

Streptococcus anginosus group and osteomyelitis: a single centre clinical experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The Streptococcus anginosus group comprises three species of bacteria classified within the viridans streptococci. This group is known for abscess formation and endocarditis. While a variety of sites in the body claim anginosus streptococci as an agent of infection, osteomyelitis is unusual. The objective of this study was to describe a series of patients with osteomyelitis due to S anginosus group pathogens in terms of demographics, comorbidities, presentation and outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed our database for cases of osteomyelitis caused by S anginosus organisms. Data described included demographics, comorbidities, site of infection, route of infection (haematogenous versus contiguous), laboratory data and course. RESULTS: 11 patients with S anginosus group osteomyelitis were identified. All cases arose from a contiguous anatomical site, with the exception of one haematogenous case. Five instances were related to foot osteomyelitis while three, two and one case, respectively, were related to mandibular, cranial and vertebral osteomyelitis. Seventy-five per cent of patients had associated abscesses. The mean length of antibiotic treatment was 10.9 weeks. One patient failed therapy while four others relapsed. CONCLUSIONS: Osteomyelitis due to the S anginosus group is uncommonly reported. Our case series illustrates the virulence of these organisms in the context of osteomyelitis and the importance of aggressive management.

Griffin AT; Timbrook T; Harting J; Christensen D

2013-05-01

158

Antibacterial substances from Albizia myriophylla wood against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Albizia myriophylla has been used for long by Thai traditional healers as an important ingredient herb in Thai herbal formulas for caries. In this study, three flavonoids lupinifolin (6), 8-methoxy-7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (7), and 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (8), a triterpenoid lupeol (3) as well as four sterols ?-sitosterone (1), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-one (2), ?-sitosterol (4), and stigmasterol (5) were isolated from A. myriophylla wood. The antibacterial activity of these compounds against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 was performed using broth microdilution method. All compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against S. mutans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 1-256 and 2-256 ?g/ml, respectively. Among the isolated compounds, lupinifolin (6) was found to be the most potent with MIC and MBC of 1 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively. Lupinifolin (6) also showed a strong activity against ten clinical isolates of S. mutans with MIC and MBC ranging from 0.25-2 and 0.5-8 ?g/ml, respectively. These results reported the bioactive ingredients of A. myriophylla which support its ethnomedical claims as well. Lupinifolin (6) may have a potential to be a natural anticariogenic agent. PMID:23479194

Joycharat, Nantiya; Thammavong, Sonesay; Limsuwan, Surasak; Homlaead, Sirilux; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek; Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan

2013-03-12

159

Extracellular polysaccharides of smooth and rough variants of Streptococcus salivarius.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some, but not all strains of Streptococcus salivarius were demonstrated to occur in smooth (S) and rough (R) variants, growing in distinctly different colonies on sucrose-containing agar plates. Sucrose-derived extracellular polysaccharides (EP) of NCTC 8606, ATCC 9759 S and R, ATCC 13419 S and R, 1A S and R, and Tove S and R were isolated, purified, and chemically studied. Extracellular enzymes of R variants yielded more water-insoluble than soluble material, while the opposite was true for S variants. The insoluble material consisted mainly of glucan, the soluble mainly of levan. Enzymatic hydrolysis suggested a predominance of alpha-1,3-linkages in the water-insoluble glucan. Cell-associated enzymes gave rise to cell-associated and -free EP. The cell-associated EP of S variants was insoluble, while that of R variants contained water-insoluble glucan and water-soluble fructan. Cells coated with cell-associated EP flocculated due to interaction of the EP, mainly by hydrogen bonding, in part by divalent cation bridging. The sucrose-derived EP gave rise to plaque deposit formation in sucrose broth cultures, S variant deposits being thin and firmly adherent to glass, R variant deposits being thick, rough, coherent, but only weakly adherent. The variant types were not altered by the curing agents ethidium bromide and acridine orange.

Kelstrup J

1981-10-01

160

Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas: Prevalencia en el Hospital Nacional Alejandro Posadas/ Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: Prevalence at the Posadas Hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Streptococcus agalactiae (estreptococo grupo B de Lancefield) es el microorganismo más frecuentemente involucrado en infección neonatal por transmisión vertical madre-feto. También es responsable de infecciones en mujeres embarazadas y adultos con enfermedades de base. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de portación de S. agalactiae en mujeres embarazadas que concurrieron al Hospital Posadas y determinar la sensibilidad a penicilina, eritromicina (more) y clindamicina de los aislamientos. De las 1203 gestantes estudiadas, se aisló S. agalactiae en 113 muestras, con una prevalencia de 9,39%. Se realizaron las pruebas de sensibilidad a 87 de los 113 aislamientos. Todos ellos resultaron sensibles a penicilina y únicamente 2 cepas fueron resistentes a eritromicina y clindamicina (mecanismo MLS constitutivo). Resaltamos la importancia de conocer la resistencia a estos dos últimos agentes, en el caso de mujeres alérgicas a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos. Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus), is the most frequently microorganism involved in neonatal infections through the mother-fetus vertical transmission. It is also responsible for infections in pregnant women, and adults with underlying diseases. The objective of this work was to know the S. agalactiae carrier prevalence in pregnant women who attended to Posadas Hospital, and to study the susceptibility pattern of the isolates to penicillin, eryth (more) romycin and clindamycin. From 1203 pregnant women studied, S. agalactiae was recovered in 113, which means a prevalence of 9.39%. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested to 87 isolates. All of them were susceptible to penicillin, and only 2 isolates were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (constitutive MLS mechanism). We emphasize the importance of knowing these last resistance, in the case of beta-lactam antibiotics allergic women.

Di Bartolomeo, S.; Gentile, M.; Priore, G.; Valle, S.; Di Bella, A.

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Streptococcus agalactiae en embarazadas: Prevalencia en el Hospital Nacional Alejandro Posadas Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women: Prevalence at the Posadas Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (estreptococo grupo B de Lancefield) es el microorganismo más frecuentemente involucrado en infección neonatal por transmisión vertical madre-feto. También es responsable de infecciones en mujeres embarazadas y adultos con enfermedades de base. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de portación de S. agalactiae en mujeres embarazadas que concurrieron al Hospital Posadas y determinar la sensibilidad a penicilina, eritromicina y clindamicina de los aislamientos. De las 1203 gestantes estudiadas, se aisló S. agalactiae en 113 muestras, con una prevalencia de 9,39%. Se realizaron las pruebas de sensibilidad a 87 de los 113 aislamientos. Todos ellos resultaron sensibles a penicilina y únicamente 2 cepas fueron resistentes a eritromicina y clindamicina (mecanismo MLS constitutivo). Resaltamos la importancia de conocer la resistencia a estos dos últimos agentes, en el caso de mujeres alérgicas a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos.Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus), is the most frequently microorganism involved in neonatal infections through the mother-fetus vertical transmission. It is also responsible for infections in pregnant women, and adults with underlying diseases. The objective of this work was to know the S. agalactiae carrier prevalence in pregnant women who attended to Posadas Hospital, and to study the susceptibility pattern of the isolates to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. From 1203 pregnant women studied, S. agalactiae was recovered in 113, which means a prevalence of 9.39%. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested to 87 isolates. All of them were susceptible to penicillin, and only 2 isolates were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (constitutive MLS mechanism). We emphasize the importance of knowing these last resistance, in the case of beta-lactam antibiotics allergic women.

S. Di Bartolomeo; M. Gentile; G. Priore; S. Valle; A. Di Bella

2005-01-01

162

Effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque of caries-free children using dentocult SM strip mutans test: A randomized controlled triple blind study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and although of multifactorial origin, Streptococcus mutans is considered the chief pathogen in its development. Fluoride is one of the most effective agents used for the reduction of dental caries apart from oral hygiene maintenance. Aims: The aim of this study was to estimate the counts of Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate the effect of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish on these counts in the plaque of caries-free children using Dentocult SM Strip Mutans. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free subjects were selected for the study based on the information obtained from a questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the control group consisting of ten subjects and the study group consisting of twenty subjects. Plaque samples were collected on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and after incubation, the presence of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the manufacturer?s chart. The study group was subjected to a Fluor Protector fluoride varnish application following which the samples were collected again after 24 hours. Results: The average Streptococcus mutan s counts in the primary dentition of caries-free children before and after the application of Fluor Protector fluoride varnish were 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units (CFU)/ml and 4 CFU/ml respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the study group had a statistically significant reduction in the plaque Streptococcus mutans counts than the control group.

Jeevarathan J; Deepti A; Muthu M; Rathna Prabhu V; Chamundeeswari G

2007-01-01

163

In Vitro Activities of Tigecycline against Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae: Mechanisms of Macrolide and Tetracycline Resistance  

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The activity of tigecycline was tested against erythromycin-resistant streptococci (107 Streptococcus pyogenes and 98 Streptococcus agalactiae strains). The presence of erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes was determined by PCR. Among S. pyogenes strains the most prevalent gene was mef(A) ...

Betriu, C.; Culebras, E.; Rodríguez-Avial, I.; Gómez, M.; Sánchez, B. A.; Picazo, J. J.

164

Geno- and Phenotypic Diversity of Avian Isolates of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis) and Associated Diagnostic Problems?  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, strains of Streptococcus bovis were reclassified as Streptococcus gallolyticus. In the present study we describe for the first time an outbreak of S. gallolyticus in a broiler flock. Mortality during the first week was normal (tannase activity, identified for the first time avian isolates belonging to S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. However, these investigations also demonstrated a clear heterogeneity with pigeon isolates.

Chadfield, M. S.; Christensen, J. P.; Decostere, A.; Christensen, H.; Bisgaard, M.

2007-01-01

165

Geno- and phenotypic diversity of avian isolates of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis) and associated diagnostic problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, strains of Streptococcus bovis were reclassified as Streptococcus gallolyticus. In the present study we describe for the first time an outbreak of S. gallolyticus in a broiler flock. Mortality during the first week was normal (tannase activity, identified for the first time avian isolates belonging to S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. However, these investigations also demonstrated a clear heterogeneity with pigeon isolates. PMID:17166965

Chadfield, M S; Christensen, J P; Decostere, A; Christensen, H; Bisgaard, M

2006-12-13

166

Characterization of a rat salivary sialoglycoprotein complex which agglutinates Streptococcus mutans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rat saliva agglutinated Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt and NCTC 10449 and Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 7864 but not S. mutans NCTC 10921, GS 5, or LM 7, Streptococcus sobrinus 6715-13 or OMZ 65, or Streptococcus cricetus HS 6, as measured turbidometrically. The specificity of agglutination by rat saliv...

Brack, C M; Reynolds, E C

167

Streptococcus milleri causing infection in man.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe the microbiological and morphological characteristics of 151 strains of Streptococcus milleri isolated during the course of routine bacteriological investigations. Although these strains formed a fairly heterogeneous group, several constant features were identified which typify the species. Strept. milleri emerged as a major cause of pyogenic infection, clinical disease being characterized by localized collections of pus in almost every organ system. Bacteraemia due to Strept. milleri was a significant indicator of the presence of an occult abscess. Endocarditis was rare. The penicillins or erythromycin remain the drugs of choice for treating infections caused by this organism.

Miller SD; Mauff AC; Koornhof HJ

1983-04-01

168

Ferrous iron transport in Streptococcus mutans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioiron uptake from /sup 59/FeCl/sub 3/ by Streptococcus mutans OMZ176 was increased by anaerobiosis, sodium ascorbate, and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), although there was a 10-min lag before PMS stimulation was evident. The reductant ascorbate may have provided ferrous iron. The PMS was reduced by the cells, and the reduced PMS then may have generated ferrous iron for transport; reduced PMS also may have depleted dissolved oxygen. It was concluded that S. mutans transports only ferrous iron, utilizing reductants furnished by glucose metabolism to reduce iron prior to its uptake.

Evans, S.L.; Arcenaeux, J.E.L.; Byers, B.R.; Martin, M.E.; Aranha, H.

1986-12-01

169

Streptococcus bovis causing perforating corneal ulcer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the first case of Streptococcus bovis causing a perforating corneal ulcer in a healthy adult. METHODS: Observational case report. RESULTS: A healthy 77-year-old man presented with rapidly progressing corneal ulcer, resulting in perforation within 4 days. Preoperative and operative cultures isolated the same organism, S. bovis, susceptible only to vancomycin and ceftriaxone. The patient underwent a successful corneal transplantation, with histopathology revealing full-thickness necrosis and scattered bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Although a rare pathogen in ocular infections, we report a case of devastating corneal infection caused by S. bovis and highlight consideration of this pathogen in rapidly progressing corneal ulcers.

Jain A; Desai RU; Jain R; Rachakonda L

2009-01-01

170

Streptococcus mutans, caries and simulation models.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dental caries and dental plaque are among the most common diseases worldwide, and are caused by a mixture of microorganisms and food debris. Specific types of acid-producing bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, colonize the dental surface and cause damage to the hard tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates e.g., sucrose and fructose. This paper reviews the link between S. mutans and caries, as well as different simulation models that are available for studying caries. These models offer a valuable approach to study cariogenicity of different substrates as well as colonization of S. mutans.

Forssten SD; Björklund M; Ouwehand AC

2010-03-01

171

Group B streptococcus infection: risk and prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Group B Streptococcus (group B Strep or GBS) is the UK's commonest cause of severe early-onset (up to six days) infection in babies. GBS is a normal body commensal, colonising the gut and vagina. GBS may pass to babies around childbirth; although most are unaffected, some develop severe infection. GBS is also a recognised cause of stillbirth and puerperal sepsis. Most GBS infection in babies is of early onset and most of these infections are highly preventable with the targeted use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. This article reviews current UK guidelines and prevention strategies.

Plumb J; Clayton G

2013-07-01

172

[Septic arthritis caused by Streptococcus suis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus suis is a global endemic swine pathogen. S. suis can cause meningitis, endocarditis and severe sepsis in humans, who are exposed to swine. Human infection with S. suis was first reported in 1968, since then, human infections have been sporadic although an outbreak in China counted 215 cases. In a rare case of disseminated arthritis we found that correct clinical diagnosis was difficult due to unspecific symptomatology and slow growing bacterial culture. However, conducting thorough examinations is crucial, and if treated correctly the outcome is favourable.

Hedegaard SS; Zaccarin M; Lindberg J

2013-05-01

173

Uberolysin: a novel cyclic bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus uberis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus uberis is commonly found in the environment and in association with various bovine body sites and is a major cause of bovine mastitis. Moreover, S. uberis is known to produce a variety of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, antimicrobial agents that generally inhibit closely related bacterial species. In this respect, S. uberis strain 42 has previously been shown to produce a novel nisin variant named nisin U. This paper reports that, in addition to nisin U, S. uberis strain 42 produces a second bacteriocin that induces the lysis of metabolically active, susceptible target bacteria and which has therefore been named uberolysin. Isolation of the native active antimicrobial agent revealed that uberolysin is a 7048 Da peptide that is refractory to sequence analysis by Edman degradation. Transposon mutagenesis was used to generate a uberolysin-negative mutant of S. uberis 42 and sequencing of DNA flanking the insertion site revealed, in addition to the structural gene (ublA), several open reading frames likely to be involved in post-translational modification, transport and producer self-protection (immunity), and possibly in regulation of the biosynthetic gene cluster. In addition, a pair of direct repeats that may be involved in bacteriocin acquisition were identified; indeed, ublA could be identified in 18 % of tested S. uberis strains. Enzymic hydrolysis of uberolysin was used to confirm that ublA does indeed encode the precursor of uberolysin, that an unusually short leader sequence of only six amino acids is cleaved during processing of the mature peptide and that uberolysin is post-translationally covalently modified to form a head-to-tail monocycle. Thus, uberolysin is a unique cyclic bacteriocin, belonging to the same family of bacteriocins as enterocin AS-48 and circularin A.

Wirawan RE; Swanson KM; Kleffmann T; Jack RW; Tagg JR

2007-05-01

174

Uberolysin: a novel cyclic bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus uberis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus uberis is commonly found in the environment and in association with various bovine body sites and is a major cause of bovine mastitis. Moreover, S. uberis is known to produce a variety of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, antimicrobial agents that generally inhibit closely related bacterial species. In this respect, S. uberis strain 42 has previously been shown to produce a novel nisin variant named nisin U. This paper reports that, in addition to nisin U, S. uberis strain 42 produces a second bacteriocin that induces the lysis of metabolically active, susceptible target bacteria and which has therefore been named uberolysin. Isolation of the native active antimicrobial agent revealed that uberolysin is a 7048 Da peptide that is refractory to sequence analysis by Edman degradation. Transposon mutagenesis was used to generate a uberolysin-negative mutant of S. uberis 42 and sequencing of DNA flanking the insertion site revealed, in addition to the structural gene (ublA), several open reading frames likely to be involved in post-translational modification, transport and producer self-protection (immunity), and possibly in regulation of the biosynthetic gene cluster. In addition, a pair of direct repeats that may be involved in bacteriocin acquisition were identified; indeed, ublA could be identified in 18 % of tested S. uberis strains. Enzymic hydrolysis of uberolysin was used to confirm that ublA does indeed encode the precursor of uberolysin, that an unusually short leader sequence of only six amino acids is cleaved during processing of the mature peptide and that uberolysin is post-translationally covalently modified to form a head-to-tail monocycle. Thus, uberolysin is a unique cyclic bacteriocin, belonging to the same family of bacteriocins as enterocin AS-48 and circularin A. PMID:17464077

Wirawan, Ruth E; Swanson, Kara M; Kleffmann, Torsten; Jack, Ralph W; Tagg, John R

2007-05-01

175

Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avaliou a atividade inibitória do óleo de copaíba (Copaifera officinalis contra o microrganismo cariogênico, Streptococcus mutans. Para isso, foi realizado um teste de concentração mínima inibitória do óleo de copaíba contra S. mutans, utilizando a técnica de diluição seriada em caldo, com um controle negativo, um controle positivo (clorexidina a 0,12%) e uma solução de óleo de copaíba 10% como teste. Também foi conduzido um teste de concentr (more) ação mínima bactericida com os tubos que apresentaram inibição microbiana. No teste de concentração inibitória mínima, o óleo de copaíba mostrou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em todas as concentrações testadas até 0,78 µL/mL da solução a 10% do óleo de copaíba no caldo. Além disso, o controle negativo não teve nenhuma inibição, e a solução de clorexidina 0,12% foi eficaz até 6,25 µL/mL no caldo. O óleo de copaíba mostrou uma atividade bacteriostática contra S. mutans em baixas concentrações, apresentando-se assim como uma opção de fitoterápico a ser utilizado contra bactérias cariogênicas na prevenção de cáries. Abstract in english This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis against the cariogenic microorganism, Streptococcus mutans. For such purpose, a minimum inhibition concentration test of copaiba oil against S. mutans was performed, using the serial dilution in broth technique, with a negative control, a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine) and a 10% copaíba oil solution as a test. A minimum bactericidal concentration test with tubes presenting microbia (more) l inhibition was also conduced. In the minimum inhibitory concentration test, copaiba oil showed inhibition of bacterial growth at all concentrations tested up to 0.78 µL/mL of the 10% copaiba oil solution in the broth. In addition, the negative control had no inhibition, and the 0.12% chlorhexidine solution was effective up to 6.25 µL/mL in the broth. Copaiba oil showed a bacteriostatic activity against S. mutans at low concentrations, and could be a an option of phytotherapic agent to be used against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention of caries disease.

Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Mussi, Maria Carolina Martins; Fiorini, João Evangelista; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo; Schneedorf, José Mauricio

2012-01-01

176

Solithromycin inhibition of protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The continuing increase in antibiotic-resistant microorganisms is driving the search for new antibiotic targets and improved antimicrobial agents. Ketolides are semisynthetic derivatives of macrolide antibiotics, which are effective against certain resistant organisms. Solithromycin (CEM-101) is a novel fluoroketolide with improved antimicrobial effectiveness. This compound binds to the large 50S subunit of the ribosome and inhibits protein biosynthesis. Like other ketolides, it should impair bacterial ribosomal subunit formation. This mechanism of action was examined in strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae. The mean 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for solithromycin inhibition of cell viability, protein synthesis, and growth rate were 7.5, 40, and 125 ng/ml for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae, respectively. The net formation of the 50S subunit was reduced in all three organisms, with IC50s similar to those given above. The rates of 50S subunit formation measured by a pulse-chase labeling procedure were reduced by 75% in cells growing at the IC50 of solithromycin. Turnover of 23S rRNA was stimulated by solithromycin as well. Solithromycin was found to be a particularly effective antimicrobial agent, with IC50s comparable to those of telithromycin and significantly better than those of azithromycin and clarithromycin in these three microorganisms.

Rodgers W; Frazier AD; Champney WS

2013-04-01

177

Antimicrobial traits of tea- and cranberry-derived polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are over 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the human oral cavity, but only a small fraction of those are attributed to causing plaque-related diseases such as caries. Streptococcus mutans is accepted as the main cariogenic agent and there is substantial knowledge regarding the specific virulence factors that render the organism a pathogen. There has been rising interest in alternative, target-specific treatment options as opposed to nonspecific mechanical plaque removal or application of broad-spectrum antibacterials that are currently in use. The impact of diet on oral health is undeniable, and this is directly observable in populations that consume high quantities of polyphenol-rich foods or beverages. Such populations have low caries incidence and better overall oral health. Camellia sinensis, the plant from which various forms of tea are derived, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (American cranberry fruit) have received notable attention both for their prevalence in the human diet as well as for their unique composition of polyphenols. The biologically active constituents of these plants have demonstrated potent enzyme-inhibitory properties without being bactericidal, a key quality that is important in developing therapies that will not cause microorganisms to develop resistance. The aim of this review is to consider studies that have investigated the feasibility of tea, cranberry, and other select plant derivatives as a potential basis for alternative therapeutic agents against Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate their current and future clinical relevance.

Yoo S; Murata RM; Duarte S

2011-01-01

178

Antimicrobial Traits of Tea- and Cranberry-Derived Polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans  

Science.gov (United States)

There are over 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the human oral cavity, but only a small fraction of those are attributed to causing plaque-related diseases such as caries. Streptococcus mutans is accepted as the main cariogenic agent and there is substantial knowledge regarding the specific virulence factors that render the organism a pathogen. There has been rising interest in alternative, target-specific treatment options as opposed to nonspecific mechanical plaque removal or application of broad-spectrum antibacterials that are currently in use. The impact of diet on oral health is undeniable, and this is directly observable in populations that consume high quantities of polyphenol-rich foods or beverages. Such populations have low caries incidence and better overall oral health. Camellia sinensis, the plant from which various forms of tea are derived, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (American cranberry fruit) have received notable attention both for their prevalence in the human diet as well as for their unique composition of polyphenols. The biologically active constituents of these plants have demonstrated potent enzyme-inhibitory properties without being bactericidal, a key quality that is important in developing therapies that will not cause microorganisms to develop resistance. The aim of this review is to consider studies that have investigated the feasibility of tea, cranberry, and other select plant derivatives as a potential basis for alternative therapeutic agents against Streptococcus mutans and to evaluate their current and future clinical relevance.

Yoo, S.; Murata, R.M.; Duarte, S.

2011-01-01

179

Production method for streptococcus specific bacteriophage lyase  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides a producing method of streptococcus specific phage lyase. The lyase is composed of a heavy chain (about 50kDa/per chain) )PlyCA and a light chain (about 8kDa/per chain) according to the ratio of 1:8, its gene name is PlyC, having following nucleotide sequences: DNA sequences of PlyCA(sequence 1) and PlyCB(sequence 3) in sequence table code amino acid sequence (sequence 2) of PlyCA and amino acid sequence (sequence 4) of PlyCB in the sequence table. The invention adopts coli expression system, constructing recombinant plasmids containing lyase heavy chain gene PlyCA and light chain PlyCB respectively, transforming to BL21(DE3) cell, fermenting culture engineering bacteria, making PlyCA and PlyCB highly express. Streptococcus phage lyase PlyC is obtained by purifying and renaturing expression production. Compared with the conventional method, the method of the invention has low production cost, high product renaturation yield, strength product activity, safety production method, meeting mass production.

WEIQING CHEN; DEYONG ZHANG; YIN LU; HONG CHEN; WEI KE; JIANFEN ZHANG; WENLANG HU; CHENGGANG ZHU

180

Starch hydrolysis by Strepto-coccus equinus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dunican, Lawrence K. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.) and Harry W. Seeley. Starch hydrolysis by Streptococcus equinus. J. Bacteriol. 82:264-269. 1962.-In a study of starch hydrolysis by strains of Streptococcus equinus, 52 isolates were obtained and their amylolytic abilities determined. It was found that all the strains could hydrolyze starch to some extent when grown in the presence of an easily fermentable carbohydrate, viz., glucose. Without this carbohydrate the organisms did not hydrolyze starch. The hydrolysis of starch was inhibited when the organisms were grown in an atmosphere of 5% CO(2) and 95% N(2), even if grown in the presence of a fermentable monosaccharide. S. bovis, which was used as a reference organism, readily hydrolyzed starch in the absence of monosaccharides and in atmospheres containing CO(2). In no instance did S. equinus hydrolyze the starch to the level of reducing sugars. Negligible amounts of reducing sugars were recovered when the cell-free filtrates of S. equinus were incubated with starch. With S. bovis, the yield of reducing sugars under such conditions was almost quantitative. These facts extend further the differences between these related organisms. The ability to synthesize an internal starchlike polysaccharide was noted in most of the strains of S. equinus. Synthesis was found when the organisms were grown on maltose or on a starch medium containing a small amount of fermentable monosaccharide.

DUNICAN LK; SEELEY HW

1962-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Otogenic meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meningitis/ meningoencephalitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae are with severe course and high mortality rate. Acase of severe meningoencephalitis by S. pneumoniae secondary to chronic bilateral otitis and mastoiditis is presentedhere. A 37-year-old male patient was admitted with fever, excitation, somnolence and meningeal irritation. Investigationof cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed increased protein level (11.3 g/L), leucocytes count 59,790/?L (93% neutrophils),extremely decreased glucose level (0.1 mmol/L). S. pneumoniae was confirmed by latex test and culture of CSF.Otitis media and mastoiditis were found bilaterally by computerized tomography. Bilateral cortical mastoidectomy wasperformed together with antibacterial treatment by consequently ceftazidime and cefepime and corticosteroids wereadministered. He experienced progressive improvement and was discharged with normal laboratory parameters andwithout sequels after 17 days hospital treatment. In conclusion, both surgical and conservative treatments are crucialfor outcome of meningitis/ meningoencephalitis by S. pneumoniae secondary to chronic mastoiditis. J Microbiol InfectDis 2013; 3(2): 86-88Key words: Streptococcus pneumoniae, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, mastoiditis

Tsetsa Georgieva Doichinova; Galya Ivanova Gancheva; Stefan Ivanov Mirchev; Nachko Iliev Totsev

2013-01-01

182

Pathogenicity of Streptococcus ictaluri to channel catfish.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathogenicity of a Streptococcus ictaluri isolate in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus at the fry (0.5 g), fingerling (15 g), and juvenile (55 g) stages was determined by experimental bath immersion and injection experiments. Channel catfish were exposed in 1-L immersion baths containing 10(8), 10(9), 10(10), 10(11) or 10(12) colony-forming units (cfu) of S. ictaluri. Fish were also injected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of bacterial solution for final doses of 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) cfu of S. ictaluri per fish. Streptococcus ictaluri caused mortality in fry, fingerling, and juvenile channel catfish within 21 d postinfection. When mortalities were calculated based on size and challenge route, the cumulative percent mortalities were 11% for fry and 0% for fingerlings by the bath immersion route and 14% for fingerlings and 6% for juveniles by the injection route. Isolation of S. ictaluri from moribund and dead catfish was confirmed by the newly established BIOLOG profile (MicroLog3 system). The results indicate that channel catfish were only susceptible to high concentrations of S. ictaluri and that juvenile channel catfish were less susceptible, possibly explaining why little mortality has been attributed to S. ictaluri infection in catfish aquaculture. PMID:20043405

Pasnik, David J; Evans, Joyce J; Klesius, Phillip H; Shoemaker, Craig A; Yeh, Hung-Yueh

2009-09-01

183

Pathogenicity of Streptococcus ictaluri to channel catfish.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pathogenicity of a Streptococcus ictaluri isolate in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus at the fry (0.5 g), fingerling (15 g), and juvenile (55 g) stages was determined by experimental bath immersion and injection experiments. Channel catfish were exposed in 1-L immersion baths containing 10(8), 10(9), 10(10), 10(11) or 10(12) colony-forming units (cfu) of S. ictaluri. Fish were also injected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of bacterial solution for final doses of 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) cfu of S. ictaluri per fish. Streptococcus ictaluri caused mortality in fry, fingerling, and juvenile channel catfish within 21 d postinfection. When mortalities were calculated based on size and challenge route, the cumulative percent mortalities were 11% for fry and 0% for fingerlings by the bath immersion route and 14% for fingerlings and 6% for juveniles by the injection route. Isolation of S. ictaluri from moribund and dead catfish was confirmed by the newly established BIOLOG profile (MicroLog3 system). The results indicate that channel catfish were only susceptible to high concentrations of S. ictaluri and that juvenile channel catfish were less susceptible, possibly explaining why little mortality has been attributed to S. ictaluri infection in catfish aquaculture.

Pasnik DJ; Evans JJ; Klesius PH; Shoemaker CA; Yeh HY

2009-09-01

184

Erythromycine resistance in streptococcus pyogenes group a throat isolates in sukkur city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine and evaluate the predominant and common etiologic agent(s) of pharyngitis in Sukkur city and to determine their current antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends. Out of 257 throat samples, 149 positive for Streptococcus pyogenes Group A between November 2001 and May 2003 from adult population of Sukkur city were tested for their susceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin and clairithromycin. The throat samples (swabs) were examined by Gram-stain, API system, and for presence of a hemolysis. Samples were further cultured on Muller Hinton agar for determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The sensitivity was performed on only those samples which were positive for S. pyogenes. Of all throat isolates, 95% were predominantly resistant to erythromycin. Their sensitivity towards clindamycin was 30%, azithromycin 44% and clairithromycin 76% respectively. The current pharyngeal isolates of S. pyogenes exhibited frequent and alarmingly high erythromycin resistance which may be due to both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms. (author)

2007-01-01

185

Morin Inhibits Sortase A and Subsequent Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the main etiological agent of dental caries, and adheres to the tooth surface through the sortase A (SrtA)-mediated cell wall-anchored protein Pac. Inhibition of SrtA activity results in a marked reduction in the adhesion potential of S. mutans, and the frequency of dental caries. Morin is a natural plant extract that was previously reported to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus SrtA activity. Here, we demonstrate that morin has an inhibitory effect against S. mutans UA159 SrtA, with an IC50 of 27.2 ± 2.6 ?M. Western blotting demonstrated that 30 ?M morin induced the partial release of the Pac protein into the supernatant. The biofilm mass of S. mutans was reduced in the presence of 30 ?M morin, which was not caused by a decrease in S. mutans viability. These results indicate that morin might be important as a new agent to prevent caries.

Huang P; Hu P; Zhou SY; Li Q; Chen WM

2013-08-01

186

Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica y Streptococcus suis EN EL COMPLEJO RESPIRATORIO PORCINO/ Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica AND Streptococcus suis IN THE PORCINE RESPIRATORY COMPLEX  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El complejo respiratorio porcino (CRP) es un proceso dinámico que involucra una variedad de factores e incluye las condiciones ambientales, el hospedero y las diferentes interacciones microbianas que se establecen entre los microorganismos primarios como Mycoplasma hyoneumoniae o el virus del síndrome respiratorio-reproductivo porcino y bacterias secundarias como Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica o Streptococcus suis. La mayoría de estas entidades corres (more) ponden a géneros y especies que pueden formar parte de la microbiota normal del tracto respiratorio, pero la capacidad patógena de las cepas reside fundamentalmente en la presencia y expresión de genes asociados a la virulencia, que en muchos casos se adquieren por transferencia horizontal, por lo que existen diferentes genotipos y es necesario el monitoreo mediante pruebas sensibles. El propósito de esta revisión es ampliar el conocimiento sobre los atributos de virulencia de las bacterias que actúan como agentes secundarios en el CRP. Al considerar la complejidad del mismo el mejor método de control radica en la prevención, en este sentido los programas vacunales priorizan a los agentes primarios, pero es necesario disponer de ensayos de monitoreo que permitan vigilar la presencia y potencialidades patógenas de las bacterias que incrementan la severidad de los procesos respiratorios actuando como agentes secundarios. Abstract in english The porcine respiratory complex is the denomination for multiple changes and lesions that result in a decreased respiratory capacity of affected pigs. It is a dynamic process which involves different factors such as environment, host and different microbial interactions between primary agents like Mycoplasma hypneumoniae or the porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus with Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica or Streptococcus suis which act as secondary (more) pathogens and increase the severity of the disease. These entities correspond to genera and species being part of the normal flora and the pathogenic capacity lies on different genes which are acquired by horizontal transfer, thus there are different genotypes associated or not to the pathogen. The aim of this article is to make an analysis about bacteria virulence attributes which act as secondary pathogens in the respiratory disease in pigs. It is important to consider the management and control of the farm based on biosecurity and it is necessary to have different diagnostic methods for testing bacteria virulence attributes that act as secondary agents, because nowadays vaccination program are directed to primary agents.

Espinosa, Ivette; Martínez, Siomara

2008-12-01

187

Humoral Immunity to Commensal Oral Bacteria in Human Infants: Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Antibodies Reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the First Two Years of Life  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to ...

Cole, Michael F.; Bryan, Stacey; Evans, Mishell K.; Pearce, Cheryl L.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Sura, Patricia A.

188

Agentes de información/ Information Agents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental. Abstract in english This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

López Yepes, Alfonso; Sánchez Jiménez, Rodrigo; Pérez Agüera, José Ramón

2005-12-01

189

Liver abscess associated with an oral flora bacterium Streptococcus anginosus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Viridans group Streptococcus, a bacterium of the oral flora has a low-virulence and rarely causes liver abscess. A 40-yearoldmale patient was admitted to the hospital complaining of high fever and malaise. A physical examination revealedpoor oral hygiene; there were caries on many teeth, and he had hepatomegaly. A hepatic abscess was identified inhis abdominal tomography. Streptococcus anginosus was isolated from the drainage material, and the bile ducts werenormal in his MRI cholangiography. An immunocompetent case of liver abscess caused by Streptococcus anginosusoriginated most probably from oral flora is presented here. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(1):33-35

Hava Y?lmaz; Esmeray Mutlu Y?lmaz; Adil Karadag; Saban Esen; Mustafa Sunbul; Hakan Leblebicioglu

2012-01-01

190

Effects of Two Fluoride Varnishes and One Fluoride/Chlorhexidine Varnish on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus Biofilm Formation in Vitro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the effect of two fluoride varnishes and one fluoride/chlorhexidine varnish on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus biofilm formation, in vitro.

Pinar Erdem, Arzu; Sepet, Elif; Kulekci, Güven; Trosola, Sule Can; Guven, Yegane

191

AGENT ADMINISTRATION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An intra-ruminal bolus and method of manufacture is described that releases a therapeutically effective amount of at least one beneficial agent to a ruminant animal over a time period of less than approximately 21 days. The bolus includes at least one beneficial agent, at least one densifier material, at least one binding agent, and at least one releasing agent. The bolus is manufactured using a ratio of binding agent to releasing agent that is tailored to achieve the desired rate of reléase and timing of delivery. This ratio is in the order of approximately 1 part binding agent to between approximately 0.01 and approximately 2 parts releasing agent and may be varied within this range in order to obtain the preferred reléase length of time. The bolus is particularly useful for delivery of anti-parasitic compounds but may also be used for delivery of other active agents such as trace elements including selenium and cobalt.

MUNDAY Rex

192

Detection of Streptococcus pyogenes Using illumigene(R) Group A Streptococcus Assay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performance of illumigene® Group A Streptococcus assay was evaluated by comparing to culture using 437 consecutive throat swabs. The illumigene® assay was also directly compared to PCR on 161 samples. This illumigene® assay is rapid and easy to perform. The assay also has high sensitivity (100%) compared to culture or PCR, and high specificity (99.2%) compared to PCR. 8.8% isolates were erythromycin resistant and 6.9% were clindamycin resistant.

Henson AM; Carter D; Todd K; Shulman ST; Zheng X

2013-09-01

193

Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, its subspecies, and its clinical and phylogenetic relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The close phylogenetic relationship of the important pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and several species of commensal streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, and the recently demonstrated sharing of genes and phenotypic traits previously considered specific for S. pneumoniae hamper the exact identification of S. pneumoniae. Based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes of a collection of 634 streptococcal strains, identified by multilocus sequence analysis, we detected a cytosine at position 203 present in all 440 strains of S. pneumoniae but replaced by an adenosine residue in all strains representing other species of mitis group streptococci. The S. pneumoniae-specific sequence signature could be demonstrated by sequence analysis or indirectly by restriction endonuclease digestion of a PCR amplicon covering the site. The S. pneumoniae-specific signature offers an inexpensive means for validation of the identity of clinical isolates and should be used as an integrated marker in the annotation procedure employed in 16S rRNA-based molecular studies of complex human microbiotas. This may avoid frequent misidentifications such as those we demonstrate to have occurred in previous reports and in reference sequence databases.

Jensen, Anders; Kilian, Mogens

2011-01-01

194

ANTIMYCOTIC AGENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: medicine. ^ SUBSTANCE: antimycotic agent inhibiting yeast-like fungi growth represents sulphur mineral water of the Ust-Kachka resort from hole 3,5,7/80, of mineralisation 76 g/dm3. ^ EFFECT: improved antimycotic properties of the agent, extended range of the antimycotic products. ^ 2 ex

SIDOROV VLADIMIR VASIL EVICH; KORJUKINA IRINA PETROVNA; TUEV ALEKSANDR VASIL EVICH; MASLOV JURIJ NIKOLAEVICH; CHERNYSHOVA LJUBOV EVGEN EVNA; KRASINA JULIJA JUVIL EVNA; KURANOV GRIGORIJ VLADIMIROVICH; ZAVRAZHNYKH LJUBOV ARKAD EVNA

195

CLEANING AGENTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to machine dishwashing agents containing specific polycarbonate-, polyurethane-, and/or polyurea-polyorganosiloxane compounds or precursor compounds thereof of the reactive cyclic carbonate and urea type which help to avoid the formation of water spots and filming after the use of the agents and accelerate the drying of dishes.

WARKOTSCH NADINE; SCHIEDEL MARC-STEFFEN; ZIPFEL JOHANNES; KESSLER ARND

196

Some Atypical Features of 'Streptococcus sanguis' ATCC 10557.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus sanguis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strain 10557 showed atypical reactions in dextran formation, streptocin activity, and response to mitomycin C when compared with other S. sanguis strains. Therefore, ATCC 10557 must be consider...

J. S. Cole R. A. Kolstad

1974-01-01

197

Purification and preliminary crystallization of alanine racemase from Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Over the past fifteen years, antibiotic resistance in the Gram-positive opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae has significantly increased. Clinical isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia or otitis media often display res...

Strych Ulrich; Davlieva Milya; Longtin Joseph P; Murphy Eileen L; Im Hookang; Benedik Michael J; Krause Kurt L

198

Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal injection using 101 -108 CFU/ fish showed 20-90% mortality within 10 days and the LD50 was 3.60x101 - 1.72x107 CFU. Haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and blood cell values of infected and moribund fish were significantly decreased. Histopathological findings included the occurrence of inflammation, cells necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and the formation of granulomas in the infected organs.

Suanyuk, N.; Kanghear, H.; Khongpradit, R.; Supamattaya, K.

2005-01-01

199

An inhibitor typing scheme for Streptococcus uberis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A typing scheme was used to test 15 strains of Streptococcus uberis according to their production of (P-type) and sensitivity to (S-type) bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. Twelve of the strains were inhibitor producers and nine different P-types were detected. All of the strains were typable according to inhibitor sensitivity, ten different S-types being distinguished. Both the P-type and S-type designations of the strains were reproducible on repeated testing. By combination of P-typing and S-typing, highly discriminatory inhibitor 'fingerprints' of the strains could be obtained. This scheme would appear to have considerable potential for typing isolates of Str. uberis as an aid to investigations into the epidemiology of Str. uberis mastitis in dairy cattle.

Tagg JR; Vugler LG

1986-08-01

200

An inhibitor typing scheme for Streptococcus uberis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A typing scheme was used to test 15 strains of Streptococcus uberis according to their production of (P-type) and sensitivity to (S-type) bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances. Twelve of the strains were inhibitor producers and nine different P-types were detected. All of the strains were typable according to inhibitor sensitivity, ten different S-types being distinguished. Both the P-type and S-type designations of the strains were reproducible on repeated testing. By combination of P-typing and S-typing, highly discriminatory inhibitor 'fingerprints' of the strains could be obtained. This scheme would appear to have considerable potential for typing isolates of Str. uberis as an aid to investigations into the epidemiology of Str. uberis mastitis in dairy cattle. PMID:3760296

Tagg, J R; Vugler, L G

1986-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis/ Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Existe un incremento de la meningoencefalitis producida por Streptococcus pneumoniae, después de las campañas exitosas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las caracteristicas clinicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio, las complicaciones y el manejo terapéutico de los pacientes que sufrieron esta enfermedad desde 1993 a 2006. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron doce niños con meningoencefalitis por S (more) treptococcus pneumoniae ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón, Ciudad de La Habana en este periodo. RESULTADOS: Los niños menores de un año son los más frecuentemente afectados. El shock séptico y el edema cerebral las mayores complicaciones. Tres pacientes fallecieron. Esta enfermedad ha tenido un curso serio. El tratamiento temprano del edema cerebral es muy importante para reducir la mortalidad. Los medicamentos de elección para tratar la meningoencefalitis por Strepcococcus pneumoniae en los casos estudiados fueron la vancomicina combinada con cefalosporina del tipo de la cefatoxima o la ceftriaxona. CONCLUSION: Los pacientes con meningoencefalitis por Streptoccocus pneumoniae exhibieron características clínica, complicaciones y secuelas las cuales se diferencian de otras meningoencefalitis bacterianas. Por eso estos elementos pueden ayudar a los médicos en el diagnóstico diferencial Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumo (more) niae meningoencephalitis admitted to the pediatric hospital of San Miguel del Padron, City of Havana in this period were assessed. RESULTS: Children under one year are the most frequently affected. Septic shock and brain edema were the most severe complications. Three patients died, implying that this disease has a serious course. Early treatment of brain edema is very important to reduce mortality. The elective drugs for treatment of these cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis were vancomycin combined with cephalosporin, cefotaxime or ceftriaxone type. CONCLUSION: Patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis show clinical characteristics, complications, and sequels that are different to other bacterial meningoencephalitis, meaning that they could be helpful for physicians considering the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis.

Bu-Coifiu Fanego, Raisa; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J.; Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; O' Farril-Sanchez, Martha; Lopez-Hernandez, Isabel

2009-12-01

202

Effect of the antimicrobial decapeptide KSL on the growth of oral pathogens and Streptococcus mutans biofilm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dental caries and periodontitis are common oral bacterial infectious diseases. Their prevention and treatment requires control of the causative pathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, that exist within dental plaque. As one of the attractive future substitutes for conventional antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), both natural and synthetic, have been widely tested and used for controlling bacterial infections. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of KSL (KKVVFKVKFK-NH(2)), a novel AMP, against several major cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria as well as Candida albicans in vitro. Streptococcus mutans, the causative agent of dental caries, was chosen for in-depth testing. Bacterial susceptibility and time-kill assays were performed to investigate the sensitivity of S. mutans to KSL. The effect of KSL on biofilm formation and on pre-formed biofilm was also examined. For biofilm studies, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to observe and analyse bacterial biofilm. The results showed that KSL had antimicrobial activity against a variety of oral bacteria and fungi. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus were the most susceptible strains to KSL peptide [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.0625 mg/mL] compared with other species tested (MICs of 0.125-1mg/mL). KSL also inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation, with a minimum biofilm inhibition concentration of 0.0625-0.125 mg/mL, and reduced 1-day-old developed S. mutans biofilm, with a minimum biofilm reduction concentration of 0.25-0.5mg/mL. CLSM images showed that KSL significantly reduced the viability of biofilm cells. This study suggests that KSL may have a potential clinical application in treating dental caries by killing S. mutans within dental plaque.

Liu Y; Wang L; Zhou X; Hu S; Zhang S; Wu H

2011-01-01

203

Azithromycin and survival in Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia: a retrospective study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) represents a major pathogen in pneumonia. The impact of azithromycin on mortality in SP pneumonia remains unclear. Recent safety concerns regarding azithromycin have raised alarm about this agent's role with pneumonia. We sought to clarify the relationship between survival and azithromycin use in SP pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Urban academic hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with a diagnosis of SP pneumonia (January-December 2010). The diagnosis of pneumonia required a compatible clinical syndrome and radiographic evidence of an infiltrate. INTERVENTION: None. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospital mortality served as the primary endpoint, and we compared patients given azithromycin with those not treated with this. Covariates of interest included demographics, severity of illness, comorbidities and infection-related characteristics (eg, appropriateness of initial treatment, bacteraemia). We employed logistic regression to assess the independent impact of azithromycin on hospital mortality. RESULTS: The cohort included 187 patients (mean age: 67.0±8.2 years, 50.3% men, 5.9% admitted to the intensive care unit). The most frequently utilised non-macrolide antibiotics included: ceftriaxone (n=111), cefepime (n=31) and moxifloxacin (n=22). Approximately two-thirds of the cohort received azithromycin. Crude mortality was lower in persons given azithromycin (5.6% vs 23.6%, p<0.01). The final survival model included four variables: age, need for mechanical ventilation, initial appropriate therapy and azithromycin use. The adjusted OR for mortality associated with azithromycin equalled 0.26 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.80, p=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: SP pneumonia generally remains associated with substantial mortality while azithromycin treatment is associated with significantly higher survival rates. The impact of azithromycin is independent of multiple potential confounders.

Shorr AF; Zilberberg MD; Kan J; Hoffman J; Micek ST; Kollef MH

2013-01-01

204

Phenotypical characteristics of group B streptococcus in parturients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Colonization by Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is highly prevalent among pregnant women, with prevalence rates ranging between 4% and 30%. The infection may be transmitted vertically and may result in serious neonatal consequences. In the period from November 2003 to May 2004, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 316 parturients at the Jundiaí Teaching Hospital to establish the prevalence of genital GBS colonization, to identify the factors associated with colonization and the characteristic phenotypes of these streptococci. Samples from rectal and vaginal areas were collected for selective culture in Todd-Hewitt broth. Susceptibility to 7 antimicrobial agents was tested using the antibiotic diffusion disk technique, and the isolated strains were classified using specific antisera. The prevalence of GBS colonization was 14.6%. No strain was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin or nitrofurantoin. The majority of strains were sensitive to cephalothin. Greatest resistance was to gentamicin (76.1%), followed by clindamycin (17.4%). The most frequent serotype was Ib (23.9%), followed by serotypes II and Ia (19.6% and 17.4%, respectively). There was no correlation between serotype and greater antimicrobial resistance. In conclusion, the prevalence of GBS in parturients was high and penicillin continues to be the drug of choice for intrapartum prophylaxis. The most frequent serotype (Ib) found in this study differs from those found in the majority of studies carried out in other countries, revealing the need to identify prevalent serotypes in each region so that specific vaccines can be designed.

Jose Antonio Simoes; Valeria Moraes Neder Alves; Sergio Eduardo Longo Fracalanzza; Rodrigo Pauperio Soares de Camargo; Lenir Mathias; Helaine Maria Besteti Pires Milanez; Eliane Melo Brolazo

2007-01-01

205

Phenotypical characteristics of group B streptococcus in parturients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Colonization by Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is highly prevalent among pregnant women, with prevalence rates ranging between 4% and 30%. The infection may be transmitted vertically and may result in serious neonatal consequences. In the period from November 2003 to May 2004, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 316 parturients at the Jundiaí Teaching Hospital to establish the prevalence of genital GBS colonization, to identify the factors associated with coloniza (more) tion and the characteristic phenotypes of these streptococci. Samples from rectal and vaginal areas were collected for selective culture in Todd-Hewitt broth. Susceptibility to 7 antimicrobial agents was tested using the antibiotic diffusion disk technique, and the isolated strains were classified using specific antisera. The prevalence of GBS colonization was 14.6%. No strain was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin or nitrofurantoin. The majority of strains were sensitive to cephalothin. Greatest resistance was to gentamicin (76.1%), followed by clindamycin (17.4%). The most frequent serotype was Ib (23.9%), followed by serotypes II and Ia (19.6% and 17.4%, respectively). There was no correlation between serotype and greater antimicrobial resistance. In conclusion, the prevalence of GBS in parturients was high and penicillin continues to be the drug of choice for intrapartum prophylaxis. The most frequent serotype (Ib) found in this study differs from those found in the majority of studies carried out in other countries, revealing the need to identify prevalent serotypes in each region so that specific vaccines can be designed.

Simoes, Jose Antonio; Alves, Valeria Moraes Neder; Fracalanzza, Sergio Eduardo Longo; Camargo, Rodrigo Pauperio Soares de; Mathias, Lenir; Milanez, Helaine Maria Besteti Pires; Brolazo, Eliane Melo

2007-04-01

206

Transportable Agents  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As network information resources grow in size, it is often most efficient to process queriesand updates at the site where the data is located. This processing can be accomplished by using atraditional client-server network interface, which constrains the client to the set of queriessupported by the server, or requires the server to send all data to the client for processing. Theformer is inflexible; the latter is inefficient. Transportable agents, which support the movementof the client computation to the location of the remote resource, have the potential to be moreflexible and more efficient. Transportable agents are capable of suspending their execution,transporting themselves to another host on a network, and resuming execution from the point atwhich they were suspended. Transportable agents consume fewer network resources and cansupport systems that do not have permanent network connections, such as mobile computers andpersonal digital assistants. We describe a prototype transportable-agent implementation thatfacilitates research in this area. Agents are written in a script language that supports agentrelocation, and the language is processed at each host by an agent interpreter. Electronic mailand UNIX remote shell (rsh) are the two current transport mechanisms and we plan to exploreothers. We present a technical-report searching agent as a demonstration of the capabilities ofour prototype implementation.1

Keith D. Kotay; David Kotz

207

DISINFECTING AGENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: medicine. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a disinfecting agent involving ethyl alcohol and an active additive that comprises additionally acetaldehyde, diethyl phthalate and glycerol and/or propylene glycol in the following ratio of components, wt.-%: ethyl alcohol, 69-94 active additive as measured for the main substance 0.0004-0.12 acetaldehyde, 0.5-1.0 diethyl phthalate, 0.08-0.20 glycerol, 0.00-0.15, and/or propylene glycol, 0.00-0.0001, and water, the balance. The disinfecting agent comprises catamine AB or biopag D as an active additive as measure for the main substance in the amount 0.025-0.12, or benzyl benzoate (3-5 mg/l) and menthol (1-3 mg/l). The disinfecting agent can be used as a cutaneous antiseptic agent (in the presence of glycerol and/or propylene glycol as components) and disinfecting agent for treatment of surfaces. Invention provides the effective treatment of surfaces in infectious of bacterial, viral and fungal etiology. Agent doesn't irritate hand skin. ^ EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of agent. ^ 4 ex

MAKAROV V V; PETRYKIN A A; PUTINTSEVA L S; STRELETS I P; FORSJUK A A; SHAMONINA A V

208

ANTIOXIDANT AGENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is an antioxidant agent which can exhibit a higher antioxidative ability than those of existing antioxidant peptides. The antioxidant agent comprises mimosine or a mimosine-containing peptide. The mimosine-containing peptide is a peptide which contains at least one mimosine residue in the amino acid sequence thereof. Mimosine has a higher antioxidative activity than those of known antioxidant tripeptides when used singly, and is therefore useful as an antioxidant agent. The antioxidative activity of the peptide can be increased by introducing mimosine to the peptide, and a peptide having a higher antioxidative activity than that of the original form thereof can be provided.

NOKIHARA KIYOSHI; MIYAZATO NAEKO

209

Prevention of streptococcal pharyngitis by anti-Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) produced by Streptococcus salivarius.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Streptococcus salivarius is a numerically prominent member of the human oral microbiota that produces a variety of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) having in vitro inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes. Our previous studies of S. salivarius isolates from children using a deferred antagonism BLIS production (P)-typing scheme showed that the 9 per cent of children having large populations of P-type 677 S. salivarius experienced fewer S. pyogenes acquisitions than either the 11 per cent of children having predominant P-type 226 populations or the 60 per cent of children with largely non-inhibitory (P-type 000) S. salivarius. Amongst the other BLIS P-types detected were a number of strongly-inhibitory (P-type 777) S. salivarius. In the present study the inhibitory agents produced by prototype strains of P-types 226, 677 and 777 S. salivarius are compared. METHODS: The prototype BLIS-producing S. salivarius strains SN, 20P3, and K12 were isolated from tongue swabbings. BLIS P-typing was done using standard procedures. The BLIS molecules were purified and characterized. RESULTS: S. salivarius SN (P-type 226) produces a heat-labile muramidase. S. salivarius 20P3 (P-type 677) produces the 2315 Da lantibiotic salivaricin A and S. salivarius K12 (P-type 777) produces two lantibiotics; salivaricin A2 (2368 Da) and salivaricin B (2733 Da). INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The P-type 777 S. salivarius strain produced salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B. The combined production of two anti-S. pyogenes BLIS activities by this strain indicates that it could be adopted as a colonizing strain in bacterial interference trials.

Tagg JR

2004-05-01

210

Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic diversity of Streptococcus agalactiae recovered from newborns and pregnant women in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Background: Streptococcus agalactiae is known to be the major cause of neonatal infections and also causes complications during pregnancy. Methods: One hundred and six strains of Streptococcus agalactiae recovered from clinical specimens of newborns (n = 18) and pregnant women (n = 88) were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and investigation of genetic determinants of macrolide resistance, capsular type, and virulence factors. Genetic diversity was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Results: Strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G, and vancomycin and resistant to tetracycline (85.8%) and erythromycin (4.7%). Erythromycin-resistant strains presented iMLSB phenotype, harbored the ermA gene, and were closely related by PFGE. Both bac and bca genes were found in low frequencies. PFGE analysis yielded 11 DNA restriction profiles among 35 selected isolates. The major clonal group, designated as A, was composed predominantly of strains belonging to capsular type Ia. Clonal group B was composed predominantly of strains with capsular type V, including all erythromycin-resistant isolates. Conclusions: Although low levels of erythromycin resistance have been observed, this is a fact of concern because this phenotype also confers resistance to clindamycin, an alternative agent for intrapartum prophylaxis. Despite the diversity of capsular types, Ia and V were among the most common and were significantly associated with distinct clonal groups. In a few cases, different capsular types were clustered into a single clonal group, which may be related to capsular switching.

Souza VC; Kegele FC; Souza SR; Neves FP; de Paula GR; Barros RR

2013-10-01

211

Benevolent Agents  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Philosophers, sociologists, psychologists, and biologists have studied the conceptof benevolence for many years. Recently, researchers in Artificial Intelligence (AI) havebegun considering it, but they have chosen a definition based only on the mathematicalutility for an individual agent. This definition is incomplete. As a result, many AIresearchers criticize benevolence, thinking it contradicts both autonomy and rationaltheory. In this dissertation, I argue that benevolence should also have a classical basisthat recognizes the moral goodness of an agent and includes social awareness. I describeand analyze benevolent agents in multiagent systems (MAS). First, I present a completedefinition and motivations for benevolence that is appropriate for MAS. Then, I describerequirements for the structure and behavior of benevolent agents and construct asimulator, called Mattress In the Road (MIR), that can analyze and verify suchrequirements. Using MIR, simulations of benevolence ar...

Abdulla M. Mohamed

212

Aging Agents  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We are adopting Brooks and Wiley's (1988) view of evolution as an irreversible processcapable of producing increasingly greater complexity at higher organizational levels. We depart fromthe hypothesis that the evolutionary force is intrinsic in the living system and is in reality a continuoussenescence function leading gradually and unavoidably to death. We are therefore seeking a senescencefunction that favors social rather than solitary agents in terms of longevity without prespecifying indetail the agents' life span. We show that a senescence function relying on negative (destructive)feedback links from metabolism to program is in conformity with these specifications. We also showthat senescence should affect all the regulation parameters of the agent and that the system remains nonmanipulableand unpredictable as far as its life span is concerned. This senescence function favors themore "cognitive" agent models (the ones having additional regulation loops) and thus the em...

Elpida Tzafestas

213

Imaging Agent  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a conjugate comprising an iron containing colloidal particle, the particle being conjugated to one or more sugar targeting moieties. The conjugate is useful as a contrast agent in medical imaging, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The agents of the present invention may cross the blood brain barrier and so may be particularly useful in the monitoring or diagnosis of conditions affecting the brain.

DAVIS BENJAMIN GUY; VAN KASTEREN SANDER IZAAK; ANTHONY DANIEL; SIBSON NICOLA

214

Bacterial agents causing chronic suppurative otitis media.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ear swabs from 350 patients with chronic otitis media attending different orthorhinolaryngological clinics at different hospitals and health centres in Benin City and Ekpoma in Edo State were screened for the presence of bacterial agents of chronic otitis media. Results revealed the presence of 19 different species indicating polymicrobial infections. Species isolated comprised Staphylococcus aureus (33.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.3%), Proteus mirabilis (17%), Alcaligenes faecalis (6.2%) and Klebsiella aerogenes (4.3%). Others included Escherichia coli (3.3%), Proteus rettgeri (2.8%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (2.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter spp, Proteus morgani, Haemophilus influenzae, Providencia spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus faecalis, non-haemolytic streptococci and Diphotheroids, each accounted for less than 2% of isolates. The study also showed a higher prevalence of chronic otitis media among males (55.7%) than females (44.3%). Cases of chronic otitis media were highest among the age groups (0-5 years) with a prevalence rate of 50% and least among the 6-10 year age group with a prevalence rate of 14.9%. Antibiogram of isolates revealed marked sensitivities (over 90% of the isolates) to ciproxin, tarivid, rocephin and fortum whereas over 70% were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Results have indicated that Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis are leading bacterial agents of otitis media and highlights the high risk involved in the use of penicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, cloxacillin and septrin in the management of chronic otitis media in our locality. PMID:7498006

Obi, C L; Enweani, I B; Giwa, J O

1995-06-01

215

Bacterial agents causing chronic suppurative otitis media.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ear swabs from 350 patients with chronic otitis media attending different orthorhinolaryngological clinics at different hospitals and health centres in Benin City and Ekpoma in Edo State were screened for the presence of bacterial agents of chronic otitis media. Results revealed the presence of 19 different species indicating polymicrobial infections. Species isolated comprised Staphylococcus aureus (33.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.3%), Proteus mirabilis (17%), Alcaligenes faecalis (6.2%) and Klebsiella aerogenes (4.3%). Others included Escherichia coli (3.3%), Proteus rettgeri (2.8%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (2.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter spp, Proteus morgani, Haemophilus influenzae, Providencia spp, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus faecalis, non-haemolytic streptococci and Diphotheroids, each accounted for less than 2% of isolates. The study also showed a higher prevalence of chronic otitis media among males (55.7%) than females (44.3%). Cases of chronic otitis media were highest among the age groups (0-5 years) with a prevalence rate of 50% and least among the 6-10 year age group with a prevalence rate of 14.9%. Antibiogram of isolates revealed marked sensitivities (over 90% of the isolates) to ciproxin, tarivid, rocephin and fortum whereas over 70% were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Results have indicated that Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis are leading bacterial agents of otitis media and highlights the high risk involved in the use of penicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, cloxacillin and septrin in the management of chronic otitis media in our locality.

Obi CL; Enweani IB; Giwa JO

1995-06-01

216

In vitro biofilm forming potential of Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine in China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of bio?lms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrob (more) ial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.

Dawei, Guo; Liping, Wang; Chengping, Lu

2012-09-01

217

In vitro biofilm forming potential of Streptococcus suis isolated from human and swine in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and also a zoonotic agent. The formation of bio?lms allows S. suis to become persistent colonizers and resist clearance by the host immune system and antibiotics. In this study, biofilm forming potentials of various S. suis strains were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tissue culture plates stained with crystal violet. In addition, the effects of five antimicrobial agents on biofilm formation were assayed in this study. S. suis produced biofilms on smooth and rough surface. The nutritional contents including glucose and NaCl in the growth medium modulated biofilm formation. There was a significant difference in their biofilm-forming ability among all 46 S. suis strains. The biofilm-forming potential of S. suis serotype 9 was stronger than type 2 and all other types. However, biofilm formation was inhibited by five commonly used antimicrobial agents, penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin at subinhibitory concentrations, among which inhibition of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was stronger than that of other three antimicrobial agents.Our study provides a detailed analysis of biofilm formation potential in S. suis, which is a step towards understanding its role in pathogenesis, and eventually lead to a better understanding of how to eradicate S. suis growing as biofilms with antibiotic therapy.

Guo Dawei; Wang Liping; Lu Chengping

2012-01-01

218

Salivary proteins promote proteolytic activity in Streptococcus mitis biovar 2 and Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A major function of the salivary pellicle on oral surfaces is to promote colonization of the commensal microbiota by providing binding sites for adherence. Streptococcus mitis is an early colonizer of the oral cavity whereas Streptococcus mutans represents a later colonizer. To survive and grow, oral bacteria produce enzymes, proteases and glycosidases, which allow them to exploit salivary proteins as a nutrient source. In this study, adherence and proteolytic activity of S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans were investigated in a flow-cell model in the presence of different populations of surface-associated salivary proteins. Streptococcus mitis biovar 2 adhered well to surfaces coated with both a MUC5B-enriched fraction and a pool of low-density proteins containing MUC7, amylase, cystatin, gp340, immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme and statherin, whereas adherence of S. mutans to these proteins was poor. In environments of MUC5B or the low-density proteins, both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans showed high levels of proteolytic activity. For S. mitis in the MUC5B environment, most of this activity may be attributable to contact with the molecules in the fluid phase although activity was also enhanced by adherence to surface-associated MUC5B. These data suggest that although they differ in their capacity to adhere to surface-associated salivary proteins, in the natural environment exploitation of saliva as a nutrient source can contribute to survival and colonization of the oral cavity by both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans.

Kindblom C; Davies JR; Herzberg MC; Svensäter G; Wickström C

2012-10-01

219

Salivary proteins promote proteolytic activity in Streptococcus mitis biovar 2 and Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major function of the salivary pellicle on oral surfaces is to promote colonization of the commensal microbiota by providing binding sites for adherence. Streptococcus mitis is an early colonizer of the oral cavity whereas Streptococcus mutans represents a later colonizer. To survive and grow, oral bacteria produce enzymes, proteases and glycosidases, which allow them to exploit salivary proteins as a nutrient source. In this study, adherence and proteolytic activity of S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans were investigated in a flow-cell model in the presence of different populations of surface-associated salivary proteins. Streptococcus mitis biovar 2 adhered well to surfaces coated with both a MUC5B-enriched fraction and a pool of low-density proteins containing MUC7, amylase, cystatin, gp340, immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme and statherin, whereas adherence of S. mutans to these proteins was poor. In environments of MUC5B or the low-density proteins, both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans showed high levels of proteolytic activity. For S. mitis in the MUC5B environment, most of this activity may be attributable to contact with the molecules in the fluid phase although activity was also enhanced by adherence to surface-associated MUC5B. These data suggest that although they differ in their capacity to adhere to surface-associated salivary proteins, in the natural environment exploitation of saliva as a nutrient source can contribute to survival and colonization of the oral cavity by both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans. PMID:22958385

Kindblom, C; Davies, J R; Herzberg, M C; Svensäter, G; Wickström, C

2012-05-25

220

ESTUDIO DE SENSIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE 183 CEPAS DE STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE AISLADAS EN REGION VAGINO-PERINEAL DE EMBARAZADAS EN EL TERCER TRIMESTRE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available fluctúa entre 1 y 3 por 1000 recién nacidos vivos. Se han entregado pautas dirigidas a reducir las tasas de sepsis precoz con la administración de antibióticos intraparto. Se ha propuesto como antibiótico de primera elección la Penicilina o Ampicilina, y Clindamicina para pacientes alérgicos a las primeras, pero también se ha planteado el uso de Eritromicina o Cefazolina. Se estudia la sensibilidad a estas drogas, en 183 cepas de Streptococcus Grupo B, aisladas en 917 embarazadas, al final del tercer trimestre, en región vaginal y pStreptococcus agalactiae (Grupo B Streptococcus) is the main bacterial agent involved in neonatal sepsis of early onset (1 to 3/1000 live newborns). Has been given standards for reducing the rates of neonatal sepsis of early onset using antibiotics during labor. Has been proposed as the first choice Penicilin or Ampicilin and Clindamicin for allergic patients. Erythromycin and Cefazolin has been proposed to treat this patients. This report study sensibilities for this drugs in 183 Group B Streptococcus strains from vaginal and perianal region of 917 pregnant women during the last trimester

Cristián Belmar J.; Fernando Abarzúa C.; Jorge Beker V.; Ana María Guzmán; Patricia García C.; Enrique Oyarzún E.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Molecular and mathematical epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis mastitis in dairy herds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mastitis is the most common and costly production disease affecting dairy cows. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis are two major mastitis-causing pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus is traditionally classified as contagious pathogen, while Streptococcus uberis is classified as environmental...

Zadoks, Ruth Nicolet

222

Significance of Gram's Stain in Rapid Intrapartum Screening for Maternal Carriership ofGroup B Streptococcus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) is an important cause of neonatal sepsis. Prevention is possible by intrapartum screening for maternal GBS carriership and antimicrobial treatment of colonized women with risk factors during labor. The conflicting results of diagnostic...

Adriaanse, Albert H.; Muytjens, Harry L.; Kollée, Louis A. A.; Nijhuis, Jan G.; Hoogkamp-Korstanje, Jacomina A. A.

223

ANTHELMINTHIC AGENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical-pharmaceutical industry. A herbal anthelminthic agent contains a watermelon skin powder in the amount of 0.1 g and 10.0 g and dry raw plants or dry plant extract selected from a group: wild camomile, lime blossom, acacia blossom, oak bark, St. John's wort herb and blossom, wild strawberry leaves, pot marigold blossom, nettle leaves, raspberry leaves and fruits, peppermint leaves, European walnut leaves, tansy blossom, plantain leaves, aronia fruits, common licorice root, common birch leaves, common wormwood herb, everlasting blossom, linseed, yarrow blossom, common rue leaves, Saint-Mary-thistle fruits, great burnet in the amount of 0.1 g to 2.0 g. The anthelminthic agent is non-toxic and shows advanced therapeutic properties as follows: antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, detoxification, haemostatic and antiallergic. The anthelminthic agent can be presented in the form of powder, capsules, tablets. No side effects from visceral organs and intolerant responses are recognised. The agent can be used both as monotherapy, and in complex therapy. ^ EFFECT: development of the herbal agent showing anthelminthic action. ^ 2 cl, 15 ex

KANTEMIROVA BEHLA ISMAILOVNA; GALIMZJANOV KHALIL MINGALIEVICH; RUBAL SKIJ OLEG VASIL EVICH

224

Curcumin Inhibits the Sortase A Activity of the Streptococcus mutans UA159.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) forms part of the commensal microflora and is deemed to be the major pathogen responsible for the generation of dental caries. The enzyme, sortase A enzyme, modulates the surface properties and cariogenicity of S. mutans. Curcumin has been reported to be an inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus sortase A. In this study, inhibition of a purified S. mutans UA159 sortase A by curcumin was evaluated. Curcumin exerted strong inhibitory activity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 10.2?±?0.7 ?M which was lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration of 175 ?M and the minimum bactericidal concentration of 350 ?M. These results indicated that curcumin is a S. mutans UA159 sortase A inhibitor and therefore represents as a promising anticaries agent. PMID:23842671

Hu, Ping; Huang, Ping; Chen, Wei Min

2013-07-11

225

Curcumin Inhibits the Sortase A Activity of the Streptococcus mutans UA159.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) forms part of the commensal microflora and is deemed to be the major pathogen responsible for the generation of dental caries. The enzyme, sortase A enzyme, modulates the surface properties and cariogenicity of S. mutans. Curcumin has been reported to be an inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus sortase A. In this study, inhibition of a purified S. mutans UA159 sortase A by curcumin was evaluated. Curcumin exerted strong inhibitory activity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 10.2?±?0.7 ?M which was lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration of 175 ?M and the minimum bactericidal concentration of 350 ?M. These results indicated that curcumin is a S. mutans UA159 sortase A inhibitor and therefore represents as a promising anticaries agent.

Hu P; Huang P; Chen WM

2013-07-01

226

Study of the effects of chitosan upon Streptococcus mutans adherence and biofilm formation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main aim of this work was to access the potential use of high and low molecular weight chitosans as potential oral antimicrobials, particularly as antibiofilm agents. Chitosan's interference with Streptococcus mutans capability to adhere and form biofilms was assessed. Additionally the effect upon mature and polymicrobial biofilms was also evaluated. The results obtained showed that chitosan was capable of interfering with S. mutans adhesion and primary biofilm formation. This action was observed up to a week with little to none decrease in efficiency. In addition chitosan was capable of inhibiting biofilms formed by two microorganisms and was capable of acting upon mature biofilms leading to significant reductions (94%) in biofilm survival. However clear statistical differences (p < 0.05) were registered in all assays with, in most assays, HMw chitosan presenting higher efficiency than LMw chitosan. Considering this results chitosan's potential as a valid alternative to traditional antimicrobials in oral health it's evident.

Costa EM; Silva S; Tavaria FK; Pintado MM

2013-04-01

227

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Streptococcus bovis: case report and review of the literature  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent and severe complication that occurs in patient with cirrhosis and ascites. It occurs in 10% to 30% of patients admitted to hospital. The organisms that cause SBP are predominantly enteric. Escherichia coli is the most frequent recovered pathogen, and Gram-positive bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus spp., are being considered an emerging causative agent of SBP. Streptococcus bovis that may be found as part of the commensal (more) bowel flora in about 10% of healthy adults constitute an uncommon cause of peritonitis that was first reported in 1994. We describe the first case of SBP at the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM) caused by S. bovis, resistant to the antibiotics erythromycin and clindamycin (inducible clindamycin resistance detected by disk diffusion test using the D-zone test).

Hörner, Rosmari; Salla, Adenilde; Oliveira, Loiva Otonelli de; Forno, Nara Lucia Frasson Dal; Righi, Roselene Alves; Domingues, Vanessa Oliveira; Rigatti, Fabiane; Mayer, Letícia Eichstaedt

2010-06-01

228

[Therapy of neonatal infection caused by group B beta-hemolytic Streptococcus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Expectant therapy for early Group B Streptococcus onset septicemia must provide coverage against other microorganism, such as L. Monocytogenes, H. Influenzae and S. Pneumoniae. It is possible to administer a combination of antimicrobial agents with activity against all or the most likely pathogens. Thus initial expectant therapy includes a broad spectrum semisynthetic penicillin (e.g. ampicillin) and an aminoglycoside (e.g. netilmicin). Vancomicin, teicoplanin and cefotaxime may also be used. Supportive therapy consists on temperature control, i.v. administration of fluids, acid-base balance and electrolytes monitoring, seizures control and ventilation. IV immunoglobulins, granulocyte and serum transfusion are also used. The G-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF, filgastrim) usage is also reported.

Aabas A; Berzioli M; Brisotto P; Caliandro P; Chirico G; Colonna F; Currò V; De Mitri B; de Vonderweid U; Del Prete A

1995-07-01

229

Ornithine transport and exchange in Streptococcus lactis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 appeared to accumulate [14C]ornithine to a high concentration in the absence of an exogenous energy source. However, analysis of intracellular amino acid pool constituents and results of transport experiments revealed that the accumulation of ornithine represented a homoexchange between extracellular [14C]ornithine and unlabeled ornithine in the cell. The energy-independent exchange of ornithine was not inhibited by proton-conducting uncouplers or by metabolic inhibitors. Intracellular [14C]ornithine was retained by resting cells after suspension in a buffered medium. However, addition of unlabeled ornithine to the suspension elicited rapid exit of labeled amino acid. The initial rate of exist of [14C]ornithine was dependent on the concentration of unlabeled ornithine in the medium, but this accelerative exchange diffusion process caused no net loss of amino acid. By contrast, the presence of a fermentable energy source caused a rapid expulsion of and new decrease in the concentration of intracellular ornithine. Kinetic analyses of amino acid transport demonstrated competitive inhibition between lysine and ornithine, and data obtained by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography established the heteroexchange of these basic amino acids. The effects of amino acids and of ornithine analogs on both entry and exit of [14C]ornithine have been examined. The data suggest that common carrier mediates the entry and exchange of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in cells of S. lactis

1987-01-01

230

Ornithine transport and exchange in Streptococcus lactis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 appeared to accumulate (/sup 14/C)ornithine to a high concentration in the absence of an exogenous energy source. However, analysis of intracellular amino acid pool constituents and results of transport experiments revealed that the accumulation of ornithine represented a homoexchange between extracellular (/sup 14/C)ornithine and unlabeled ornithine in the cell. The energy-independent exchange of ornithine was not inhibited by proton-conducting uncouplers or by metabolic inhibitors. Intracellular (/sup 14/C)ornithine was retained by resting cells after suspension in a buffered medium. However, addition of unlabeled ornithine to the suspension elicited rapid exit of labeled amino acid. The initial rate of exist of (/sup 14/C)ornithine was dependent on the concentration of unlabeled ornithine in the medium, but this accelerative exchange diffusion process caused no net loss of amino acid. By contrast, the presence of a fermentable energy source caused a rapid expulsion of and new decrease in the concentration of intracellular ornithine. Kinetic analyses of amino acid transport demonstrated competitive inhibition between lysine and ornithine, and data obtained by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography established the heteroexchange of these basic amino acids. The effects of amino acids and of ornithine analogs on both entry and exit of (/sup 14/C)ornithine have been examined. The data suggest that common carrier mediates the entry and exchange of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in cells of S. lactis.

Thompson, J.

1987-09-01

231

Disinfection of toothbrushes contaminated with Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine the most effective method to kill Streptococcus mutans on contaminated toothbrushes. METHODS: Seven toothbrushes (one for each treatment and the control) were contaminated with S. mutans. Toothbrushes were then rinsed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and treated as follows: (1) control without treatment; (2) air dry for 4 hours; (3) Crest Pro-Health mouthwash for 20 minutes; (4) Listerine mouthwash for 20 minutes; (5) normal cleaning cycle in a dishwasher; (6) microwave on high power for 5 minutes; and (7) ultraviolet light using the DenTek Toothbrush Sanitizer for 10 minutes. All toothbrushes were rinsed again with PBS. The bristles were cut and vortexed in PBS. Serial dilutions were performed and the number of colonies enumerated after incubation. The experiment was independently repeated seven times. RESULTS: The Crest Pro-Health mouthwash and the dishwasher almost completely eliminated S. mutans. The second most effective treatment was the microwave. The Listerine mouthwash and the air dry groups were not significantly different from each other and ranked third. Although UV light significantly decreased the number of bacteria compared to the control, reduction in the number of S. mutans CFU was significantly lower than that of all the other treatments evaluated. Crest Pro-Health mouthwash for 20 minutes and a normal dishwasher cycle are the most effective methods to eradicate S. mutans from contaminated toothbrushes. Dent

Bélanger-Giguère K; Giguère S; Bélanger M

2011-06-01

232

Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Cook LC; Federle MJ

2013-10-01

233

Cloning of chromosomal genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for molecular cloning in Streptococcus pneumoniae was developed. The multicopy plasmids pMV158 (5.4 kilobases) and pLS1 (4.3 kilobases), which confer tetracycline resistance, were used as vectors to clone chromosomal genes of S. pneumoniae in host cells of this species. A 3.3-kilobase restriction fragment containing the malM gene, which codes for amylomaltase, was cloned in a deletion mutant lacking chromosomal homology with the fragment. The recombinant plasmid, pLS70, could transform over 50% of a recipient population to maltose utilization. Amylomaltase constituted up to 10% of the protein of cells containing pLS70. A derivative with a deletion, pLS69, appeared to gain a selective advantage by producing less enzyme. A 10-kilobase restriction fragment containing the sul-d gene for sulfonamide resistance was cloned in the presence of the homologous chromosomal gene. De novo establishment of a recombinant plasmid was just as frequent as transformation in an endogenous plasmid. Despite the processing of DNA during uptake in the transformation of S. pneumoniae, recombinant plasmids can be introduced. Models for the reconstruction of recombinant DNA in cells of S. pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis are considered and compared.

Stassi, D.L.; Lopez, P.; Espinosa, M.; Lacks, S.A.

1981-11-01

234

Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in remote African Pygmies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: African Pygmies have many risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), such as low socioeconomic status and low quality of health care. We characterized Streptococcus pneumoniae from Gabonese Pygmies and analyzed risk factors for S. pneumoniae carriage to improve prophylaxis and therapy of IPD in this neglected, remotely living African community. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae, susceptibility, serotypes and risk factors for IPD were assessed in 103 Pygmies in a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: The carriage rate was 37% (n = 38), with the highest proportion (79%, n = 11) in children between two and four years (n = 14). The predominant serotypes were 15A (24%, n = 9), 11A (16%, n = 6) and 6A (13%, n = 5). Non-susceptibility was detected against penicillin (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; CLSI) meningitis breakpoints; (18%, n = 7), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (61%, n = 23), tetracycline (55%, n = 21) and chloramphenicol (3%, n = 1). Among adult participants (n = 51), 69% (n = 35) regularly consumed alcohol and 75% (n = 38) reported to smoke cigarettes. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of nicotine and drug abuse might increase the risk of IPD. The unusual serotypes challenge a broad coverage by currently marketed vaccines; the broad antibiotic resistance limits the choice of therapy for S. pneumoniae infection.

Schaumburg F; Alabi A; von Eiff C; Flamen A; Traore H; Grobusch MP; Peters G; Kremsner PG; van der Linden M

2013-02-01

235

Sorption of streptococcus faecium to glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method has been developed by which to study the sorption of Streptococcus faecium to soda-lime cover glasses. Conditions were chosen to minimize the influence on sorption of bacterial polymer production, passive sorption being studied rather than attachment mediated by metabolic activities. Sorption of S. faecium increased with increasing temperature (to 50degC), time, and cell concentration, but equilibrium apparently was not reached even after incubation for 8 hours or at a cell concentration of 3 x 1010 per ml. Sorption increased with solute molarity up to 0.1 M concentration of NaCl and KCl, indicating an effect of the electrical double layers on the apposition of cells to the glass surface. Desorption of bacteria could be obtained after multiple washings of the glasses in buffer or by the action of Tween 80, but not if sorbed bacteria were left in distilled water, various salt solutions, urea, or in suspensions of unlabelled bacteria. It was concluded that sorption occurred as a result of chemical interactions between the glass and the cell surface. Tween 80 at a concentration of 1 per cent inhibited sorption to 26 per cent of buffer controls, 2 M urea was less effective, and 1 M NaCl was without effect. It is suggested that hydrophobic interactions may be of importance in the binding of S. faecium to glass. (author).

1977-01-01

236

Transportable Agents  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As network information resources grow in size, it is often most efficient to process queriesand updates at the site where the data is located. This processing can be accomplished by using atraditional client-server network interface, which constrains the client to the set of queriessupported by the server, or requires the server to send all data to the client for processing. Theformer is inflexible; the latter is inefficient. Transportable agents, which support the movementof the client computation to the location of the remote resource, have the potential to be moreflexible and more efficient. Transportable agents are capable of suspending their execution,transporting themselves to another host on a network, and resuming execution from the point atwhich they were suspended. Transportable agents consume fewer network resources and cansupport systems that do not have permanent network connections, such as mobile computers andpersonal digital assistants. We describe a prototype...

Keith D. Kotay; David Kotz

237

Vasoactive Agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is a short review of vasoactive drugs which are in use in todays clinical practice. In the past century, development of vasoactive drugs went through several phases. All of these drugs are today divided into several groups, depending on their place of action, pharmacological pathways and/or effects on target organ or organ system. Hence, many different agents are today in clinical practice, we have shown comparison between them. These agents provide new directions in the treatment of cardiovascular compromise, suggesting that the primary goal of therapy is to produce a vasodilatory effect of the circulation rather than to reverse hemodynamic failure by using inotropic agents, with their inherent risks and side effects.

Husedzinovic, Ino; Bradic, Nikola; Goranovic, Tanja

2006-01-01

238

Differential Agar Medium for Separating Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris1  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristic ability of Streptococcus lactis and inability of Streptococcus cremoris to hydrolyze arginine formed the basis for the development of a differential agar medium to separate these species in pure and mixed cultures. Ammonia liberated from arginine was detected by the pH changes occurring in the medium. The agar contained milk as the sole source of carbohydrate, arginine as the specific substrate, diffusible (K2HPO4) and nondiffusible (CaCO3) buffer systems, and a suitable pH indicator in addition to other ingredients. The nondiffusible buffer system afforded the localization of pH changes, and, hence, the indicator color changes immediately around individual colonies appearing on the medium. S. cremoris produced yellow colonies surrounded by yellow zones on this purple medium because of their ability to produce acid from lactose in the milk. S. lactis, on the other hand, first produced colonies similar to S. cremoris, but subsequent color reversal of pH indicator with the liberation of NH3 resulted in the discharge of the yellow color. Hence, S. lactis colonies were white and devoid of zones. The difference in their colony color allowed the identification of the species in a mixture of S. cremoris and S. lactis strains. The medium was found suitable for both qualitative and quantitative differentiation. Images

Reddy, M. Srinivasulu; Vedamuthu, E. R.; Washam, C. J.; Reinbold, G. W.

1969-01-01

239

Peroxidase reaction as a parameter for discrimination of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

425 strains of mutans streptococci and 12 reference strains were investigated by membrane fatty acid spectra (MFAS) and peroxidase reaction (PR) after aerobic and anaerobic incubation. 423 strains were identified as Streptococcus mutans. The remaining 2 strains were identified as Streptococcus sobrinus. The PR of 29 strains was doubtful; immediately after anaerobic incubation a negative PR changed into a slightly positive PR. To test the diagnostic value of PR the strains were additionally investigated by means of species-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR). The species-specific PCRs were developed on the basis of the respective genes of 16S rRNA of the pathogens S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Specificity and sensitivity were tested on reference strains (n = 17) and negative control strains (n = 39). The results of this investigation showed that an anaerobic incubation regime could lead to false-positive (S. mutans) or false-negative (S. sobrinus) PR. The 425 MS strains were classified as either S. mutans (n = 420) or S. sobrinus (n = 5). The findings on the reference strains required a reclassification of S. mutans V 100 into S. sobrinus V 100. Summarising, it is possible now to differentiate strains of mutans streptococci by MFAS and PR after aerobic incubation. PMID:11423721

Rupf, S; Merte, K; Eschrich, K; Stösser, L; Kneist, S

240

Peroxidase reaction as a parameter for discrimination of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

425 strains of mutans streptococci and 12 reference strains were investigated by membrane fatty acid spectra (MFAS) and peroxidase reaction (PR) after aerobic and anaerobic incubation. 423 strains were identified as Streptococcus mutans. The remaining 2 strains were identified as Streptococcus sobrinus. The PR of 29 strains was doubtful; immediately after anaerobic incubation a negative PR changed into a slightly positive PR. To test the diagnostic value of PR the strains were additionally investigated by means of species-specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR). The species-specific PCRs were developed on the basis of the respective genes of 16S rRNA of the pathogens S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Specificity and sensitivity were tested on reference strains (n = 17) and negative control strains (n = 39). The results of this investigation showed that an anaerobic incubation regime could lead to false-positive (S. mutans) or false-negative (S. sobrinus) PR. The 425 MS strains were classified as either S. mutans (n = 420) or S. sobrinus (n = 5). The findings on the reference strains required a reclassification of S. mutans V 100 into S. sobrinus V 100. Summarising, it is possible now to differentiate strains of mutans streptococci by MFAS and PR after aerobic incubation.

Rupf S; Merte K; Eschrich K; Stösser L; Kneist S

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina/ Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do (more) trato respiratório e de amostras de sangue não relacionadas a infecções meníngeas e foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretações categóricas de CIM foram baseadas em padrões atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetíveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treated, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil (more) . The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC

Rossi, Flávia; Franco, Maria Renata Gomes; Rodrigues, Heleni Mota de Pina; Andreazzi, Denise

2012-02-01

242

Caracterización molecular en aislados chilenos de Streptococcus agalactiae Molecular characterization of Chilean isolates of streptococcus agalactiae  

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Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is the main causing organism of invasive infections such as sepsis and meningitis in the newborn. Aim: To perform a genotype characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae strains coming form invasive infections of newborns and colonized pregnant women. Material and methods: A group of 58 strains not related epidemiologically isolated from colonized pregnant women and invasive infections in newborns, were studied. Pulsed field electrophoresis (PFGE) and polymerase chain reaction amplification of hylB and IS 1548 genes, as possible virulence markers, were performed. Results: Among the studied strains, 37 genetic subtypes were observed. There were nine groups of identical PFGE patterns. Three corresponded to serotype la and six to serotype III. An erythromycin and clindamycin resistant clone was identified in three colonized women and a newborn with sepsis, which were not epidemiologically related. The hylB gene was equally present in cases of neonatal meningitis or colonized pregnant women. Conclusions: There was a great degree of polymorphism among the studied strains. The ample presence of hylB gene and the absence of the insertion element IS1548 in the hylB gene in invasive and colonizing strains, indicates that both groups of strains are potentially pathogenic

Patricia Rojo; Pamela Araya; M Angélica Martínez T; Juan Carlos Hormazábal; Aurora Maldonado; Jorge Fernández

2008-01-01

243

Characterization of hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA release by Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is produced by several bacterial species and appears to contribute to biofilm development and cell-cell adhesion. We present data showing that the oral commensals Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii release DNA in a process induced by pyruvate oxidase-dependent production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Surprisingly, S. sanguinis and S. gordonii cell integrity appears unaffected by conditions that cause autolysis in other eDNA-producing bacteria. Exogenous H(2)O(2) causes release of DNA from S. sanguinis and S. gordonii but does not result in obvious lysis of cells. Under DNA-releasing conditions, cell walls appear functionally intact and ribosomes are retained over time. During DNA release, intracellular RNA and ATP are not coreleased. Hence, the release mechanism appears to be highly specific for DNA. Release of DNA without detectable autolysis is suggested to be an adaptation to the competitive oral biofilm environment, where autolysis could create open spaces for competitors to invade. Since eDNA promotes cell-to-cell adhesion, release appears to support oral biofilm formation and facilitates exchange of genetic material among competent strains.

Kreth J; Vu H; Zhang Y; Herzberg MC

2009-10-01

244

Characterization of hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA release by Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is produced by several bacterial species and appears to contribute to biofilm development and cell-cell adhesion. We present data showing that the oral commensals Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii release DNA in a process induced by pyruvate oxidase-dependent production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Surprisingly, S. sanguinis and S. gordonii cell integrity appears unaffected by conditions that cause autolysis in other eDNA-producing bacteria. Exogenous H(2)O(2) causes release of DNA from S. sanguinis and S. gordonii but does not result in obvious lysis of cells. Under DNA-releasing conditions, cell walls appear functionally intact and ribosomes are retained over time. During DNA release, intracellular RNA and ATP are not coreleased. Hence, the release mechanism appears to be highly specific for DNA. Release of DNA without detectable autolysis is suggested to be an adaptation to the competitive oral biofilm environment, where autolysis could create open spaces for competitors to invade. Since eDNA promotes cell-to-cell adhesion, release appears to support oral biofilm formation and facilitates exchange of genetic material among competent strains. PMID:19684131

Kreth, Jens; Vu, Hung; Zhang, Yongshu; Herzberg, Mark C

2009-08-14

245

Streptococcus mutans glucan-binding protein-A affects Streptococcus gordonii biofilm architecture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The glucan-binding protein-A (GbpA) of Streptococcus mutans has been shown to contribute to the architecture of glucan-dependent biofilms formed by this species and influence virulence in a rat model. As S. mutans synthesizes multiple glucosyltransferases and nonglucosyltransferase glucan-binding proteins (GBPs), it is possible that there is functional redundancy that overshadows the full extent of GbpA contributions to S. mutans biology. Glucan-associated properties such as adhesion, aggregation, and biofilm formation were examined independently of other S. mutans GBPs by cloning the gbpA gene into a heterologous host, Streptococcus gordonii, and derivatives with altered or diminished glucosyltransferase activity. The presence of GbpA did not alter dextran-dependent aggregation nor the initial sucrose-dependent adhesion of S. gordonii. However, expression of GbpA altered the biofilm formed by wild-type S. gordonii as well as the biofilm formed by strain CH107 that produced primarily alpha-1,6-linked glucan. Expression of gbpA did not alter the biofilm formed by strain DS512, which produced significantly lower quantities of parental glucan. These data are consistent with a role for GbpA in facilitating the development of biofilms that harbor taller microcolonies via binding to alpha-1,6-linkages within glucan. The magnitude of the GbpA effect appears to be dependent on the quantity and linkage of available glucan. PMID:17166223

Banas, Jeffrey A; Fountain, Tracey L; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E; Sun, Keer; Vickerman, M Margaret

2006-12-08

246

SWEETENING AGENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a sweetening agent for use in various ready-to-eat/drink and instant foods and beverages. Said agent comprises: 1. from about 90 to about 99.5 % sucrose, fructose, lactose, glucose, or any mixtures thereof; 2. from about 0.001 to about 5 % aspartame; and 3. from about 0.001 to about 5 % acesulfame K. The sweetening agent of the present invention can be used in medicinal, as well as food and beverage products. It is particularly preferred in those food compositions where a high content of solid materials (e.g. generally greater than 12 %) have been conventionally used. The sweetening agent is suitable for use in instant and ready-to-serve beverages (flavored and unflavored coffees and teas, hot chocolate, juice-containing beverages, nutritional drinks in the form of shakes, malts, and the like (e.g. Ensure®; puddings; sauces; gravies; dressings; mousses; ice cream; yogurt; cream cheese; cheese dips and/or spreads; sour cream; vegetable dips and/or spreads; icings; whipped toppings; frozen confections; milk; coffee whitener; coffee lighteners; and dips and spreads. The blend of sugar (sucrose, fructose, lactose, glucose or any mixture thereof) and alternative sweeteners (aspartame and acesulfame K) allows for the reduction of solids (quantity of powder) needed to prepare a many food or beverage products (e.g. soft drink, gelatin dessert, frozen desserts and the like). The blend of sugar and sweeteners show a higher increase in sweetness than would be expected from adding the three together. The sweetening agent of the present invention also imparts increase in flavor and richness of the beverage or food prepared; alternative sweeteners act as flavor enhancers. Additionally, the sweetening agent of the present invention does not produce the typical aftertaste associated with the alternative sweeteners, generally attributed to be a bitter aftertaste of aspartame.

VILLAGRAN Francisco Valentino; SMALL Leonard Edwin

247

The inhibitory effect of Plectranthus barbatus and Plectranthus ecklonii leaves on the viability, glucosyltransferase activity and biofilm formation of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aqueous extracts of Plectranthus barbatus and Plectranthus ecklonii are traditionally used as anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal agents. The effect of these extracts and of its main component, rosmarinic acid, on the viability of the cariogenic bacteria, Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans, was determined by MIC and MBC. The influence of these extracts on the biofilm formation as well as on the inhibition of glucosyltransferase enzyme, produced by these species, was also analysed. Aqueous extracts of P. barbatus and P. ecklonii were stronger inhibitors than rosmarinic acid. MIC values of 3.8 and 4.7mg/ml for S. sobrinus and 2.9 and 5.0 for S. mutans were obtained, while rosmarinic acid presented MIC values of 8.4 and 7.3mg/ml. P. barbartus, P. ecklonii and rosmarinic acid presented MBC values of 9.5, 9.0 and 12.0mg/ml for S. sobrinus, and 9.5, 10.0 and 12.5mg/ml for S. mutans. The inhibition of biofilm formation by P. barbatus, P. ecklonii and rosmarinic acid presented IC?? values of, respectively, 0.6, 1.0 and 3.1mg/ml for S. sobrinus and 1.4 and 2.7 and 1.3mg/ml for S. mutans. The glucosyltransferase inhibition activity by theses extracts and rosmarinic acid was calculated and IC?? values presented were, respectively, 1.1, ca 1.2 and 2.1mg/ml for S. sobrinus and 3.1, 1.6 and 3.9mg/ml for S. mutans were obtained. These extracts may be useful in the prevention of dental carie.

Figueiredo NeusaL; de Aguiar SaraRaquelMM; Falé PedroLuis; Ascensão Lia; Serralheiro MariaLuisaM; Lino AnaRosaL

2010-03-01

248

ANTIALLERGIC AGENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: medicine. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutical industry, particularly an agent able to inhibit immune response underlying immunoglobulin-E-dependent allergic diseases. Application of water-soluble polysaccharides made of Acorns calamus L. root, as an agent able to inhibit immune response underlying immunoglobulin-E-dependent allergic diseases. ^ EFFECT: said polysaccharides made of Acorns calamus L root are able to inhibit the first-stage development of immunoglobulin-E-dependent allergies that cause reduced synthesis of immunoglobulins classes E and G1 that ensures inhibition of further events related to development and release of biologically active substances taking a damaging action on cells and tissues. ^ 3 tbl, 2 ex

DANILETS MARINA GRIGOR EVNA; GUR EV ARTEM MIKHAJLOVICH; BEL SKAJA NATALIJA VITAL EVNA; BELOUSOV MIKHAIL VALER EVICH; BEL SKIJ JURIJ PAVLOVICH; JUSUBOV MEKHMAN SULEJMANOVICH; TROFIMOVA EVGENIJA SERGEEVNA; UCHASOVA EVGENIJA GENNAD EVNA; LIGACHEVA ANASTASIJA ALEKSANDROVNA; AGAFONOV VLADIMIR IVANOVICH; AKHMEDZHANOV RAFIK RAVIL EVICH

249

Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae  

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The 2,160,267 bp genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae, the leading cause of bacterial sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis in neonates in the U.S. and Europe, is predicted to encode 2,175 genes. Genome comparisons among S. agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and the oth...

Tettelin, Hervé; Masignani, Vega; Cieslewicz, Michael J.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Peterson, Scott; Wessels, Michael R.

250

Respiratory agents  

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If toxicants are inhaled, then from a military point of view, the fighting unit may cease to function and we may also have a very serious logistics problem. Casualties will present with a range of pulmonary signs and symptoms, in many cases unknown cause needing treatment. From a medical research point of view there is a need to address the following questions. (1) What are the respiratory agents of concern and what are their properties; (2) What toxic signs do they produce; (3) What do we know of their mechanism of action to develop better medical protection; (4) What pretreatment/treatment is available to reduce their effects; Figure 1 lists the agents discussed with their toxicities and vapor pressures. Respiratory agents: Phosgene was first used a Ypres in December 1915 and responsible for 85% of all deaths due to chemical agents. Its estimated human LCt(50) is 3200 mg min m(-3) and most fatal cases succumb within the first 14 to 48h.

Upshall, D.G.

1993-05-13

251

ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: medicine. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention discloses an antibacterial agent inhibiting bacterial growth represents sulphur mineral water of the Ust-Kachka resort from hole 3,5,7/80, of mineralisation 76 g/dm3. ^ EFFECT: higher antibacterial properties, extended range of the antibacterial products. ^ 3 ex

SIDOROV VLADIMIR VASIL EVICH; KORJUKINA IRINA PETROVNA; TUEV ALEKSANDR VASIL EVICH; MASLOV JURIJ NIKOLAEVICH; CHERNYSHOVA LJUBOV EVGEN EVNA; KRASINA JULIJA JUVIL EVNA; KURANOV GRIGORIJ VLADIMIROVICH; ZAVRAZHNYKH LJUBOV ARKAD EVNA

252

ANTISEPTIC AGENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an antiseptic agent comprising Bertholet's salt (potassium chlorate KCIO3), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water (H2O), wherein the boiling point is at 100 C to 105 C, in particular at approximately 103.3 C, and to a method for the production thereof and to the use thereof.

POPOV ALEXANDER YULIANOVICH

253

The streptococcal inhibitor of complement (SIC) protects Streptococcus pyogenes from bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from Streptococcus salivarius.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus salivarius inhibits the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes in vitro. Streptococcus pyogenes has various virulence factors, including the streptococcus inhibitor of complement (SIC). Although SIC inhibits the activity of the peptides LL-37 and NAP1, the relationship between SIC and the bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) has not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated whether S. salivarius BLIS affects S. pyogenes SIC. We created three deltasic mutant strains from three S. pyogenes strains and performed deferred antagonism assays. The test strains were BLIS-positive S. salivarius JCM5707 and BLIS-negative S. salivarius NCU12. Deferred antagonism assays with JCM5707 showed that the inhibitory zones in the three deltasic mutant strains were wider than those in the three wild-type strains. Streptococcus pyogenes was cultured in BLIS-containing broth and the change in SIC in the supernatant was assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The 2-DE analysis of S. pyogenes exoproteins with the JCM5707 supernatant showed reduced SIC compared with those without the JCM5707 supernatant. Changes in sic mRNA levels affected by S. salivarius BLIS were evaluated by a reverse transcriptase-PCR. The sic mRNA level was affected more by the BLIS-positive S. salivarius than by the BLIS-negative strain. Our result indicates that SIC plays a role in the inhibition of S. salivarius BLIS.

Minami M; Ohmori D; Tatsuno I; Isaka M; Kawamura Y; Ohta M; Hasegawa T

2009-09-01

254

Group B streptococcal neonatal infections in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil  

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Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus is the most common pathogen found in neonatal sepsis in North America. OBJECTIVES: We describe 15 cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public and teaching hospital. METHODS: We conducted a study at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from January 1st, 1996 to June 30, 1999. Diagnosis of neonatal infection was established according to the findings of Group B Streptococcus in blood culture associated with alterations resembling sepsis on the basis of clinical picture and laboratory findings. RESULTS: Fifteen cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus were detected. Eleven cases consisted of early-onset sepsis, 2 cases of occult bacteremia and 2 cases of late-onset sepsis. Eight cases had septic shock (53%), 8 cases had pneumonia (53%), and 4 cases had meningitis (27%). Fourteen cases were diagnosed from a positive blood culture, and 1 case from evidence of these bacteria in pulmonary anatomopathological examination. Thirteen cases (87%) were diagnosed before 72 hours of life. We had 3 deaths (20%), and 3 cases of meningitis developing neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus Group B is one of the most important pathogens in the etiology of early-onset neonatal sepsis at our hospital, with high mortality and morbidity. However, we do not know the incidence of GBS neonatal infections at other hospitals. More data are needed to establish a basis for trials of different strategies to reduce these infections.FUNDAMENTOS: Streptococcus do grupo B é o principal agente etiológico responsável pela sepse neonatal na América do Norte. OBJETIVOS: Relatar 15 casos de infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B (Streptococus agalactiae) ocorridos na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal de um hospital público e universitário. MÉTODO: O estudo foi realizado no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre no período de 1º de janeiro de 1996 a 30 de junho de 1999. O diagnóstico de infecção neonatal foi feito a partir do isolamento e identificação de Streptococcus do grupo B em hemocultura combinado com alterações clínicas e laboratoriais sugestivas de sepse. RESULTADOS: Foram detectados quinze casos de infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B, sendo onze casos de sepse de origem precoce, dois casos de bacteremia oculta e dois casos de sepse de origem tardia. Oito casos tiveram choque séptico (53%), oito casos com pneumonia (53%) e quatro casos com meningite (27%). Quatorze casos foram diagnosticados a partir da hemocultura e um caso através da presença desta bactéria no exame anátomo-patológico do pulmão. Treze casos (87%) foram diagnosticados antes de três dias de vida. Ocorreram três óbitos (20%) e três pacientes com meningite ficaram com seqüelas neurológicas. CONCLUSÃO: O Streptococcus do Grupo B é uma das bactérias mais importantes na etiologia da sepse neonatal de início precoce em nosso hospital com elevada mortalidade e também com elevada morbidade. Entretanto, não se conhece sua incidência em outros hospitais. São necesssários outros estudos para determinar seu papel na sepse neonatal e assim estabelecer diferentes estratégias para sua redução.

Ernani MIURA; Maria Cristina MARTIN

2001-01-01

255

Gene cloning and characterization of MdeA, a novel multidrug efflux pump in Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multidrug resistance, especially multidrug efflux mechanisms that extrude structurally unrelated cytotoxic compounds from the cell by multidrug transporters, is a serious problem and one of the main reasons for the failure of therapeutic treatment of infections by pathogenic microorganisms as well as of cancer cells. Streptococcus mutans is considered one of the primary causative agents of dental caries and periodontal disease, which comprise the most common oral diseases. A fragment of chromosomal DNA from S. mutans KCTC3065 was cloned using Escherichia coli KAM32 as host cells lacking major multidrug efflux pumps. Although E. coli KAM32 cells were very sensitive to many antimicrobial agents, the transformed cells harboring a recombinant plasmid became resistant to several structurally unrelated antimicrobial agents such as tetracycline, kanamycin, rhodamin 6G, ampicillin, acriflavine, ethidium bromide, and tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. This suggested that the cloned DNA fragment carries a gene encoding a multidrug efflux pump. Among 49 of the multidrug-resistant transformants, we report the functional gene cloning and characterization of the function of one multidrug efflux pump, namely MdeA from S. mutans, which was expressed in E. coli KAM32. Judging from the structural and biochemical properties, we concluded that MdeA is the first cloned and characterized multidrug efflux pump using the proton motive force as the energy for efflux drugs.

Kim do K; Kim KH; Cho EJ; Joo SJ; Chung JM; Son BY; Yum JH; Kim YM; Kwon HJ; Kim BW; Kim TH; Lee EW

2013-03-01

256

Effect of irradiation on the streptococcus mutans  

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To observe direct effect of irradiation on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans GS5 was exposed to irradiation with a single absorbed dose of 10, 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Viability and changes in antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, transcription of virulence factors, and protein profile of bacterium after irradiation were examined by pour plate, disc diffusion method, Transmission electron microscopy. RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE, respectively. After irradiation with 10 and 20 Gy, viability of S. mutans was reduced. Further increase in irradiation dose, however, did not affect the viability of the remaining cells of S. mutans. Irradiated S. mutans was found to have become sensitive to antibiotics. In particular, the bacterium irradiated with 40 Gy increased its susceptibility to cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline. Under the transmission electron microscope, number of morphologically abnormal cells was increased as the irradiation dose was increased. S. mutans irradiated with 10 Gy revealed a change in the cell wall and cell membrane. As irradiation dose was increased. a higher number of cells showed thickened cell wall and cell membrane and lysis, and appearance of ghost cells was noticeable. In RT-PCR, no difference was detected in expression of gtfB and spaP between cells with and without irradiation of 40 Gy. In SDS-PAGE, proteins with higher molecular masses were gradually diminished as irradiation dose was increased. These results suggest that irradiation affects the cell integrity of S. mutans, as observed by SDS-PAGE, and as manifested by the change in cell morphology, antibiotic sensitivity, and eventually viability of the bacterium.

Ahn, Ki Dong; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2007-03-15

257

Functional amyloid formation by Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dental caries is a common infectious disease associated with acidogenic and aciduric bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans. Organisms that cause cavities form recalcitrant biofilms, generate acids from dietary sugars and tolerate acid end products. It has recently been recognized that micro-organisms can produce functional amyloids that are integral to biofilm development. We now show that the S. mutans cell-surface-localized adhesin P1 (antigen I/II, PAc) is an amyloid-forming protein. This conclusion is based on the defining properties of amyloids, including binding by the amyloidophilic dyes Congo red (CR) and Thioflavin T (ThT), visualization of amyloid fibres by transmission electron microscopy and the green birefringent properties of CR-stained protein aggregates when viewed under cross-polarized light. We provide evidence that amyloid is present in human dental plaque and is produced by both laboratory strains and clinical isolates of S. mutans. We provide further evidence that amyloid formation is not limited to P1, since bacterial colonies without this adhesin demonstrate residual green birefringence. However, S. mutans lacking sortase, the transpeptidase enzyme that mediates the covalent linkage of its substrates to the cell-wall peptidoglycan, including P1 and five other proteins, is not birefringent when stained with CR and does not form biofilms. Biofilm formation is inhibited when S. mutans is cultured in the presence of known inhibitors of amyloid fibrillization, including CR, Thioflavin S and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which also inhibited ThT uptake by S. mutans extracellular proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that S. mutans is an amyloid-forming organism and suggest that amyloidogenesis contributes to biofilm formation by this oral microbe.

Oli MW; Otoo HN; Crowley PJ; Heim KP; Nascimento MM; Ramsook CB; Lipke PN; Brady LJ

2012-12-01

258

Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias siendo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria (more) que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño). Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente. Abstract in english The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children?s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pne (more) umoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution in Costa Rica, the predicted vaccine protection is calculated in 74%.

Sierra- Fernandez, Hernán; Schultz- Faingezicht, Malka; Soley-Gutiérrez, Carolina; Guevara- Jiménez, Silvia; Arguedas- Mohs, Adriano

2006-06-01

259

Biostimulating agent  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a biostimulatinq agent comprising natural minerals having ion-exchanges and sorption properties, and also a biologically active vegetable stock, the natural minerals including a clinoptylolite-heulandite zeolite containing not less than 92 wt % of clinoptylolite, and/or montmorillonite clay containing not less than 92 wt % of montmorillonite, and as the biologically active vegetable stock comprises wheat bran, rye bran, oats, Japanese laminaria, madder, birch fungus, and the like.The biostimulating agent of the present invention normalizes the mineral balance of the body, produces higher therapeutical effect, for example, in using it in case of intestinal tract diseases, aterosclerosis, urinary calculosis, produces an immune-modulating and tonic effect.

BGATOV VASILY IVANOVICH; BLAGITKO EVGENY MIKHAILOVICH; MEZENTSEVA NATALYA GEORGIEVNA; NOVOSELOVA TATYANA IVANOVNA; NOVOSELOV BORIS YAKOVLEVICH; SURNIN ALEXEI IVANOVICH

260

Serotipos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus agalactiae Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae  

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Full Text Available Background : Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus, GBS, is the leading cause of neonatal and maternal infections and an opportunistic pathogen in adults with underlying disease. In the last decade, a dramatic increase in the resistance of this microorganism to erythromycin and clindamycin has been observed. Aim: To determine the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of S agalactiae collected from infections and colonization and to assess the genetic mechanisms of macrolide and clindamycin resistance. Material and methods: A total of 100 GBS isolates were collected between 1998 and 2002, in Santiago, Chile. They were isolated from the amniotic fluid from patients with premature rupture of membranes (7 isolates), blood from neonatal sepsis (10 isolates), neonate colonizations (2 strains), skin and soft tissue infections (7 isolates), urinary tract infections (5 isolates), genital infections (3 isolates), articular fluid (one isolate), and 65 strains were recovered from vaginal colonization55. Results: Serotypes Ia, II and III were the predominant serotypes identified in our study, accounting for 90 (90%) of the strains. Five isolates belonged to serotypes Ib (5%) and two (2%) to serotype V respectively; no strains belonging to serotype IV were found. All strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and four isolates (4%) were resistant to both erythromycin (MIC >64 µg/ml) and clindamycin (MIC >64 µg/ml). The strains had a constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (cMLSB) resistance phenotype and the erm(A) gene was present in the four isolates. Conclusions: Serotypes Ia, II and III were the predominant serotypes in this study. All strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and four (4%) strains were resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin. The cMLSB resistance phenotype, and the erm(A) gene was detected in resistant strains (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 549-55).

María Angélica Martínez T; Alfredo Ovalle S; Claudia Durán T; Iván Reid S; Gabriela Urriola J; Beatriz Garay G; Marcela Cifuentes D

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA?  

Science.gov (United States)

The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation were purified from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9759 and HT9R culture supernatants using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis was performed, and the results were compared to databases. The S. salivarius HT9R genome sequence was determined and used to indentify candidate proteins for inhibition. The candidates inhibiting biofilms were identified as S. salivarius fructosyltransferase (FTF) and exo-beta-d-fructosidase (FruA). The activity of the inhibitors was elevated in the presence of sucrose, and the inhibitory effects were dependent on the sucrose concentration in the biofilm formation assay medium. Purified and commercial FruA from Aspergillus niger (31.6% identity and 59.6% similarity to the amino acid sequence of FruA from S. salivarius HT9R) completely inhibited S. mutans GS-5 biofilm formation on saliva-coated polystyrene and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Inhibition was induced by decreasing polysaccharide production, which is dependent on sucrose digestion rather than fructan digestion. The data indicate that S. salivarius produces large quantities of FruA and that FruA alone may play an important role in multispecies microbial interactions for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in the oral cavity.

Ogawa, Ayako; Furukawa, Soichi; Fujita, Shuhei; Mitobe, Jiro; Kawarai, Taketo; Narisawa, Naoki; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kosono, Saori; Yoneda, Saori; Watanabe, Haruo; Morinaga, Yasushi; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Senpuku, Hidenobu

2011-01-01

262

Photodynamic inactivation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis biofilms in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate specific effects of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using erythrosine (ER) and Rose Bengal (RB) photosensitizers and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) on the viability of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis biofilms. Biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth to production of biofilms, inoculated with microbial suspension (10(6) cells/mL) and incubated for 48 h. After the formation of biofilms, the effects of the photosensitizers ER and RB at a concentration of 5 ?M for 5 min and blue LED (455 ± 20 nm) for 180 s, photosensitizers alone and conjugated were evaluated. Next, the disks were placed in tubes with sterile physiological solution (0.9 % sodium chloride) and sonicated for to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were carried and aliquots seeded in brain heart infusion agar which were then incubated for 48 h. Then the numbers colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL; log10) were counted and analyzed statistically (ANOVA, Tukey test, P ? 0.05). Significant decreases in the viability of all microorganisms were observed for biofilms exposed to PDI mediated by both photosensitizers. The reductions with RB and ER were, 0.62 and 0.52 log10 CFU mL(-1) for S. mutans biofilms (p=0.001), and 0.95 and 0.88 log10 CFU mL(-1) for S. sanguinis biofilms (p=0.001), respectively. The results showed that biofilms formed in vitro by S. mutans and S. sanguinis, were sensitive to PDI using a blue LED associated with photosensitizers ER or RB, indicating its use in the control of caries and periodontal diseases. PMID:22847685

Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Costa, Anna Carolina Borges Pereira; Carreira, Claudia Moura; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

2012-07-31

263

Photodynamic inactivation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis biofilms in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate specific effects of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using erythrosine (ER) and Rose Bengal (RB) photosensitizers and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) on the viability of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis biofilms. Biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth to production of biofilms, inoculated with microbial suspension (10(6) cells/mL) and incubated for 48 h. After the formation of biofilms, the effects of the photosensitizers ER and RB at a concentration of 5 ?M for 5 min and blue LED (455 ± 20 nm) for 180 s, photosensitizers alone and conjugated were evaluated. Next, the disks were placed in tubes with sterile physiological solution (0.9 % sodium chloride) and sonicated for to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were carried and aliquots seeded in brain heart infusion agar which were then incubated for 48 h. Then the numbers colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL; log10) were counted and analyzed statistically (ANOVA, Tukey test, P ? 0.05). Significant decreases in the viability of all microorganisms were observed for biofilms exposed to PDI mediated by both photosensitizers. The reductions with RB and ER were, 0.62 and 0.52 log10 CFU mL(-1) for S. mutans biofilms (p=0.001), and 0.95 and 0.88 log10 CFU mL(-1) for S. sanguinis biofilms (p=0.001), respectively. The results showed that biofilms formed in vitro by S. mutans and S. sanguinis, were sensitive to PDI using a blue LED associated with photosensitizers ER or RB, indicating its use in the control of caries and periodontal diseases.

Pereira CA; Costa AC; Carreira CM; Junqueira JC; Jorge AO

2013-05-01

264

Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation were purified from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9759 and HT9R culture supernatants using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis was performed, and the results were compared to databases. The S. salivarius HT9R genome sequence was determined and used to indentify candidate proteins for inhibition. The candidates inhibiting biofilms were identified as S. salivarius fructosyltransferase (FTF) and exo-beta-d-fructosidase (FruA). The activity of the inhibitors was elevated in the presence of sucrose, and the inhibitory effects were dependent on the sucrose concentration in the biofilm formation assay medium. Purified and commercial FruA from Aspergillus niger (31.6% identity and 59.6% similarity to the amino acid sequence of FruA from S. salivarius HT9R) completely inhibited S. mutans GS-5 biofilm formation on saliva-coated polystyrene and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Inhibition was induced by decreasing polysaccharide production, which is dependent on sucrose digestion rather than fructan digestion. The data indicate that S. salivarius produces large quantities of FruA and that FruA alone may play an important role in multispecies microbial interactions for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in the oral cavity. PMID:21239559

Ogawa, Ayako; Furukawa, Soichi; Fujita, Shuhei; Mitobe, Jiro; Kawarai, Taketo; Narisawa, Naoki; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kosono, Saori; Yoneda, Saori; Watanabe, Haruo; Morinaga, Yasushi; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Senpuku, Hidenobu

2011-01-14

265

Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation were purified from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9759 and HT9R culture supernatants using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis was performed, and the results were compared to databases. The S. salivarius HT9R genome sequence was determined and used to indentify candidate proteins for inhibition. The candidates inhibiting biofilms were identified as S. salivarius fructosyltransferase (FTF) and exo-beta-d-fructosidase (FruA). The activity of the inhibitors was elevated in the presence of sucrose, and the inhibitory effects were dependent on the sucrose concentration in the biofilm formation assay medium. Purified and commercial FruA from Aspergillus niger (31.6% identity and 59.6% similarity to the amino acid sequence of FruA from S. salivarius HT9R) completely inhibited S. mutans GS-5 biofilm formation on saliva-coated polystyrene and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Inhibition was induced by decreasing polysaccharide production, which is dependent on sucrose digestion rather than fructan digestion. The data indicate that S. salivarius produces large quantities of FruA and that FruA alone may play an important role in multispecies microbial interactions for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in the oral cavity.

Ogawa A; Furukawa S; Fujita S; Mitobe J; Kawarai T; Narisawa N; Sekizuka T; Kuroda M; Ochiai K; Ogihara H; Kosono S; Yoneda S; Watanabe H; Morinaga Y; Uematsu H; Senpuku H

2011-03-01

266

Serotipos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus agalactiae/ Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background : Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus, GBS, is the leading cause of neonatal and maternal infections and an opportunistic pathogen in adults with underlying disease. In the last decade, a dramatic increase in the resistance of this microorganism to erythromycin and clindamycin has been observed. Aim: To determine the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of S agalactiae collected from infections and colonization and to (more) assess the genetic mechanisms of macrolide and clindamycin resistance. Material and methods: A total of 100 GBS isolates were collected between 1998 and 2002, in Santiago, Chile. They were isolated from the amniotic fluid from patients with premature rupture of membranes (7 isolates), blood from neonatal sepsis (10 isolates), neonate colonizations (2 strains), skin and soft tissue infections (7 isolates), urinary tract infections (5 isolates), genital infections (3 isolates), articular fluid (one isolate), and 65 strains were recovered from vaginal colonization55. Results: Serotypes Ia, II and III were the predominant serotypes identified in our study, accounting for 90 (90%) of the strains. Five isolates belonged to serotypes Ib (5%) and two (2%) to serotype V respectively; no strains belonging to serotype IV were found. All strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and four isolates (4%) were resistant to both erythromycin (MIC >64 µg/ml) and clindamycin (MIC >64 µg/ml). The strains had a constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (cMLSB) resistance phenotype and the erm(A) gene was present in the four isolates. Conclusions: Serotypes Ia, II and III were the predominant serotypes in this study. All strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin and cefotaxime, and four (4%) strains were resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin. The cMLSB resistance phenotype, and the erm(A) gene was detected in resistant strains (Rev Méd Chile 2004; 132: 549-55).

Martínez T, María Angélica; Ovalle S, Alfredo; Durán T, Claudia; Reid S, Iván; Urriola J, Gabriela; Garay G, Beatriz; Cifuentes D, Marcela

2004-05-01

267

Effect of the Antimicrobial Peptide D-Nal-Pac-525 on the Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Its Biofilm Formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries. The antimicrobial peptide D-Nal-Pac-525 was designed by replacing the tryptophans of the Trp-rich peptide Pac-525 with D-?-naphthyalanines. To assess the effect of D-Nal-Pac-525 on cariogenic bacteria, the activity of D-Nal-Pac-525 on the growth of S. mutans and its biofilm formation were examined. D-Nal- Pac-525 showed robust antimicrobial activity against S. mutans (minimum inhibitory concentration of 4 ?g/ml). Using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, it was shown that D-Nal-Pac-525 caused morphological changes and damaged the cell membrane of S. mutans. D-Nal-Pac-525 inhibited biofilm formation of S. mutans at 2 ?g/ml. The results of this study suggest that D-Nal-Pac-525 has great potential for clinical application as a dental caries-preventing agent. PMID:23711527

Li, Huajun; Cheng, Jya-Wei; Yu, Hui-Yuan; Xin, Yi; Tang, Li; Ma, Yufang

2013-08-28

268

Effect of the Antimicrobial Peptide D-Nal-Pac-525 on the Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Its Biofilm Formation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries. The antimicrobial peptide D-Nal-Pac-525 was designed by replacing the tryptophans of the Trp-rich peptide Pac-525 with D-?-naphthyalanines. To assess the effect of D-Nal-Pac-525 on cariogenic bacteria, the activity of D-Nal-Pac-525 on the growth of S. mutans and its biofilm formation were examined. D-Nal- Pac-525 showed robust antimicrobial activity against S. mutans (minimum inhibitory concentration of 4 ?g/ml). Using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, it was shown that D-Nal-Pac-525 caused morphological changes and damaged the cell membrane of S. mutans. D-Nal-Pac-525 inhibited biofilm formation of S. mutans at 2 ?g/ml. The results of this study suggest that D-Nal-Pac-525 has great potential for clinical application as a dental caries-preventing agent.

Li H; Cheng JW; Yu HY; Xin Y; Tang L; Ma Y

2013-08-01

269

Miscellaneous agents--cytotoxics and hormonal agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among the 19 presentations of miscellaneous new agents at this year's meeting, several described novel cytotoxics and hormonal agents. The cytotoxic agents included microtubule inhibitors (eribulin, nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel, peptide-bound paclitaxel), a topoisomerase inhibitor (nanoirinotecan), and an alkylating agent (palifosfamide). Hormonal agents included an aromatase inhibitor (anastrazole), an estrogen receptor antagonist (fulvestrant), and a selective androgen receptor modulator (GTx-024).

Gerber DE

2012-12-01

270

Toxic shock syndrome related to Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a documented streptococcal toxic shock syndrome linked to horse-to-man transmission of Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus. The patient was treated successfully with respiratory and haemodynamic support in conjunction with antibiotic treatment associated with polyvalent human immunoglobulin and high-volume venovenous haemofiltration.

Saleh M; Vialette V

2013-01-01

271

Antimicrobial drug use and macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes, Belgium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Belgium, decreasing macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramins B, and tetracycline use during 1997-2007 correlated significantly with decreasing macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes during 1999-2009. Maintaining drug use below a critical threshold corresponded with low-level macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes and an increased number of erm(A)-harboring emm77 S. pyogenes with low fitness costs.

Van Heirstraeten L; Coenen S; Lammens C; Hens N; Goossens H; Malhotra-Kumar S

2012-09-01

272

Antimicrobial drug use and macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes, Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Belgium, decreasing macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramins B, and tetracycline use during 1997-2007 correlated significantly with decreasing macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes during 1999-2009. Maintaining drug use below a critical threshold corresponded with low-level macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes and an increased number of erm(A)-harboring emm77 S. pyogenes with low fitness costs. PMID:22932671

Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel; Lammens, Christine; Hens, Niel; Goossens, Herman; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi

2012-09-01

273

Streptococcus troglodytae sp. nov., from the chimpanzee oral cavity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six strains, TKU 25, TKU 28, TKU 30, TKU 31(T), TKU 33 and TKU 34, were isolated from the oral cavity of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Colonies of strains grown on Mitis-Salivarius agar were similar in morphology to that of Streptococcus mutans. The novel strains were Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci that lacked catalase activity. Analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates showed that the most closely related strain was the type strain of S. mutans (96.4?%). The next closely related strains to the isolates were the type strains of Streptococcus devriesei (94.5?%) and Streptococcus downei (93.9?%). These isolates could be distinguished from S. mutans by inulin fermentation and alkaline phosphatase activity (API ZYM system). The peptidoglycan type of the novel isolates was Glu-Lys-Ala(3). Strains were not susceptible to bacitracin. On the basis of phenotypic characterization, partial 16S rRNA gene and two housekeeping gene (groEL and sodA) sequence data, we propose a novel taxon, Streptococcus troglodytae sp. nov.; the type strain is TKU 31(T) (?=?JCM 18038(T)?=?DSM 25324(T)).

Okamoto M; Imai S; Miyanohara M; Saito W; Momoi Y; Abo T; Nomura Y; Ikawa T; Ogawa T; Miyabe-Nishiwaki T; Kaneko A; Watanabe A; Watanabe S; Hayashi M; Tomonaga M; Hanada N

2013-02-01

274

Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The methanol extracts of five tropical plants, Baeckea frutescens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Kaempferia pandurata, Physalis angulata and Quercus infectoria, exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. In particular, G. glabra, K. pandurata and P. angulata conferred fast killing bactericidal effect against S. mutans in 2 min at 50 microg/ml of extract concentration.

Hwang JK; Shim JS; Chung JY

2004-09-01

275

Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The methanol extracts of five tropical plants, Baeckea frutescens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Kaempferia pandurata, Physalis angulata and Quercus infectoria, exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. In particular, G. glabra, K. pandurata and P. angulata conferred fast killing bactericidal effect against S. mutans in 2 min at 50 microg/ml of extract concentration. PMID:15351117

Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Shim, Jae-Seok; Chung, Jae-Youn

2004-09-01

276

Streptococcus Gallolyticus Bacteraemia associated with colonic adenomatous polyps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus is frequently associated with colorectal carcinoma, making evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract by colonoscopy obligatory in such cases. Bacterial endocarditis and purulent arthritis are also common in patients with these bacteraemias. Intestinal bacteria could behave as promoters of aberrant hyperproliferative behaviour in preneoplastic colorectal lesions, apparently due to chronic inflammatory processes and production of carcinogenic metabolites. The authors treated a patient with several tubular adenomatous polyps of the right colon, two of which showed areas of high-grade dysplasia adjacent to areas of infectious bacterial colitis associated with Streptococcus gallolyticus bacteraemia and unilateral ankle arthritis.A bacteriémia por Streptococcus gallolyticus associa-se frequentemente ao carcinoma colorrectal, tornando obrigatória a colonoscopia nestas situações. A endocardite bacteriana e a artrite séptica são também comuns neste tipo de bacteriémias. Tem sido levantada a hipótese das bactérias intestinais poderem ter um papel promotor de hiperproliferação celular aberrante em lesões cólicas pré-neoplásicas, aparentemente devido a processos inflamatórios crónicos e produção de metabolitos carcinogénicos. Os autores apresentam o caso dum doente com vários pólipos adenomatosos tubulares do cólon direito, em dois dos quais se demonstrou uma área de displasia de alto grau adjacente a zona de colite infecciosa bacteriana, associados a quadro clínico de infecção sistémica por Streptococcus gallolyticus e artrite do tornozelo.

A. Murinello; P. Mendonça; C. Ho; P. Tavares; H. Peres; R. Rio Tinto; A. Morbey; C. Campos; A. Lázaro; A. Milheiro; M. J. Arias; J. Oliveira; S. Braz

2006-01-01

277

Streptococcus Gallolyticus Bacteraemia associated with colonic adenomatous polyps  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A bacteriémia por Streptococcus gallolyticus associa-se frequentemente ao carcinoma colorrectal, tornando obrigatória a colonoscopia nestas situações. A endocardite bacteriana e a artrite séptica são também comuns neste tipo de bacteriémias. Tem sido levantada a hipótese das bactérias intestinais poderem ter um papel promotor de hiperproliferação celular aberrante em lesões cólicas pré-neoplásicas, aparentemente devido a processos inflamatórios crónicos (more) e produção de metabolitos carcinogénicos. Os autores apresentam o caso dum doente com vários pólipos adenomatosos tubulares do cólon direito, em dois dos quais se demonstrou uma área de displasia de alto grau adjacente a zona de colite infecciosa bacteriana, associados a quadro clínico de infecção sistémica por Streptococcus gallolyticus e artrite do tornozelo. Abstract in english Bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus is frequently associated with colorectal carcinoma, making evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract by colonoscopy obligatory in such cases. Bacterial endocarditis and purulent arthritis are also common in patients with these bacteraemias. Intestinal bacteria could behave as promoters of aberrant hyperproliferative behaviour in preneoplastic colorectal lesions, apparently due to chronic inflammatory processes and production of (more) carcinogenic metabolites. The authors treated a patient with several tubular adenomatous polyps of the right colon, two of which showed areas of high-grade dysplasia adjacent to areas of infectious bacterial colitis associated with Streptococcus gallolyticus bacteraemia and unilateral ankle arthritis.

Murinello, A.; Mendonça, P.; Ho, C.; Tavares, P.; Peres, H.; Tinto, R. Rio; Morbey, A.; Campos, C.; Lázaro, A.; Milheiro, A.; Arias, M. J.; Oliveira, J.; Braz, S.

2006-05-01

278

rpoB Mutation Conferring Rifampin Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus pyogenes BM4478 and Staphylococcus aureus BM4479 were isolated from a patient undergoing rifampin therapy. High-level resistance to rifampin was due to the following mutations in the rpoB gene: Ser522Leu in strain BM4478 and His526Asn and Ser574Leu in strain BM4479.

Aubry-Damon, Hélène; Galimand, Marc; Gerbaud, Guy; Courvalin, Patrice

279

Chromosomally mediated high-level gentamicin resistance in Streptococcus mitis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four blood culture isolates of Streptococcus mitis were found to be resistant to penicillin (MIC, 16 to 32 micrograms/ml) and gentamicin (MIC, 128 or 1,000 micrograms/ml), and the two antibiotics demonstrated a lack of in vitro synergy. As shown by polymerase chain reaction assays, the structural ge...

Kaufhold, A; Potgieter, E

280

Protoplast formation and localization of enzymes in Streptococcus mitis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cells of Streptococcus mitis ATCC 903 were converted to stable protoplasts by the cell wall-degrading M-1 enzyme of the mutanolysin complex isolated from Streptomyces globisporus. Over 90% of total glucokinase (EC 2.7.1.2), aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.1), and dextranglucosidase (EC 3.2.1.70) was recov...

Linder, L; Andersson, C; Sund, M L; Shockman, G D

 
 
 
 
281

Population Dynamics of Streptococcus mitis in Its Natural Habitat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic structure of the typical commensal Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 in its natural habitat in the human oral cavity and pharynx and to investigate the role that selected microbial properties and host, spatial, and temporal factors play in determining ...

Hohwy, Jesper; Reinholdt, Jesper; Kilian, Mogens

282

Molecular Characterization of Multidrug Resistance in Streptococcus mitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antimicrobial resistance was characterized for 14 strains of Streptococcus mitis. HinfI restriction fragment length mapping of gyrA PCR amplicons from three ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates correlated with mutations associated with such resistance in other organisms. By using PCR, seven erythromycin...

Poutanen, Susan M.; de Azavedo, Joyce; Willey, Barbara M.; Low, Donald E.; MacDonald, Kelly S.

283

Streptococcus troglodytae sp. nov., from the chimpanzee oral cavity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six strains, TKU 25, TKU 28, TKU 30, TKU 31(T), TKU 33 and TKU 34, were isolated from the oral cavity of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Colonies of strains grown on Mitis-Salivarius agar were similar in morphology to that of Streptococcus mutans. The novel strains were Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci that lacked catalase activity. Analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates showed that the most closely related strain was the type strain of S. mutans (96.4?%). The next closely related strains to the isolates were the type strains of Streptococcus devriesei (94.5?%) and Streptococcus downei (93.9?%). These isolates could be distinguished from S. mutans by inulin fermentation and alkaline phosphatase activity (API ZYM system). The peptidoglycan type of the novel isolates was Glu-Lys-Ala(3). Strains were not susceptible to bacitracin. On the basis of phenotypic characterization, partial 16S rRNA gene and two housekeeping gene (groEL and sodA) sequence data, we propose a novel taxon, Streptococcus troglodytae sp. nov.; the type strain is TKU 31(T) (?=?JCM 18038(T)?=?DSM 25324(T)). PMID:22447699

Okamoto, Masaaki; Imai, Susumu; Miyanohara, Mayu; Saito, Wataru; Momoi, Yasuko; Abo, Tomoko; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Ikawa, Tomoko; Ogawa, Takumi; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Kaneko, Akihisa; Watanabe, Akino; Watanabe, Shohei; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

2012-03-23

284

Erythromycin and Clindamycin Resistance and Telithromycin Susceptibility in Streptococcus agalactiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rates of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin among Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated in our hospital increased from 4.2 and 0.8% in 1993 to 17.4 and 12.1%, respectively, in 2001. Erythromycin resistance was mainly due to the presence of an Erm(B) methylase, while the M phenotype w...

Betriu, C.; Culebras, E.; Gómez, M.; Rodríguez-Avial, I.; Sánchez, B. A.; Ágreda, M. C.; Picazo, J. J.

285

Oxygen toxicity in Streptococcus mutans: manganese, iron, and superoxide dismutase.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When cultured anaerobically in a chemically defined medium that was treated with Chelex-100 to lower its trace metal content, Streptococcus mutans OMZ176 had no apparent requirement for manganese or iron. Manganese or iron was necessary for aerobic cultivation in deep static cultures. During continu...

Martin, M E; Strachan, R C; Aranha, H; Evans, S L; Salin, M L; Welch, B; Arceneaux, J E; Byers, B R

286

Nature of the fructan of Streptococcus mutans OMZ 176.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fructan of Streptococcus mutans OMZ 176 was shown to have a levan structure by comparing the chromatographic mobilities of the saccharides produced by partial acid hydrolysis of ghe fructan and known levan and inulin. This was confirmed by using concanavalin A as a lectin in a double-diffusion gel technique.

Corrigan AJ; Robyt JF

1979-10-01

287

Nature of the fructan of Streptococcus mutans OMZ 176.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fructan of Streptococcus mutans OMZ 176 was shown to have a levan structure by comparing the chromatographic mobilities of the saccharides produced by partial acid hydrolysis of ghe fructan and known levan and inulin. This was confirmed by using concanavalin A as a lectin in a double-diffusion g...

Corrigan, A J; Robyt, J F

288

Effect of Tween 80 on glucosyltransferase production in Streptococcus mutans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glucan production from sucrose by Streptococcus mutans OMZ 176 was stimulated approximately threefold in the presence of 0.1% Tween 80. When OMZ 176 was grown in a medium containing glucose, the glucosyltransferase level in the medium was also increased about fivefold in the presence of 0.1% Tween 8...

Umesaki, Y; Kawai, Y; Mutai, M

289

cadDX Operon of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A CadDX system that confers resistance to Cd2+ and Zn2+ was identified in Streptococcus salivarius 57.I. Unlike with other CadDX systems, the expression of the cad promoter was negatively regulated by CadX, and the repression was inducible by Cd2+ and Zn2+, similar to what was found for CadCA system...

Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Feng, C. W.; Chiu, C. F.; Burne, Robert A.

290

Outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Psychiatric Unit  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Katherine Fleming-Dutra, an epidemiologist at CDC, discusses her investigation of a Streptococcus pneumoniae outbreak in a pediatric psychiatric unit.  Created: 11/2/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/5/2012.

2012-11-02

291

Sequence analysis of the Streptococcus mutans scrB gene.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The complete nucleotide sequence of the Streptococcus mutans GS-5 scrB gene coding for sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase activity was determined. A potential ribosome-binding site as well as promoter sequences were identified upstream from the gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme suggeste...

Sato, Y; Kuramitsu, H K

292

Insights from Streptococcus pneumoniae glucose kinase structural model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus pneumonia is the common cause of sepsis and meningitis. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistant strains in the community?acquired bacterium is catastrophic. Glucose kinase (GLK) is a regulatory enzyme capable of adding phosphate group to glucose in the first step of streptomyc...

Mulakayala, Chaitanya; Banaganapalli, Babajan Nawaz; Anuradha, CM; Chitta, Suresh Kumar

293

Stability and Assembly of Pilus Subunits of Streptococcus pneumoniae*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pili are surface-exposed virulence factors involved in bacterial adhesion to host cells. The Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus is composed of three structural proteins, RrgA, RrgB, and RrgC and three transpeptidase enzymes, sortases SrtC-1, SrtC-2, and SrtC-3. To gain insights into the mechanism of pil...

El Mortaji, Lamya; Terrasse, Remi; Dessen, Andrea; Vernet, Thierry; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie

294

Transformation of fluoride resistance genes in Streptococcus mutans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To study the nature of fluoride resistance in Streptococcus mutans, we transformed DNA extracted from fluoride-resistant mutants of S. mutans GS-5 into fluoride-sensitive cells of the same strain. Transformation with DNA from first-step mutants produced transformants with resistance to either 600 or...

Chansley, P E; Kral, T A

295

Effects of quaternary ammonium chain length on antibacterial bonding agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to synthesize new quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with systematically varied alkyl chain lengths (CL) and to investigate, for the first time, the CL effects on antibacterial efficacy, cytotoxicity, and dentin bond strength of bonding agents. QAMs were synthesized with CL of 3 to 18 and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent. The cured resins were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Bacterial early attachment was investigated at 4 hrs. Biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured after 2 days. With CL increasing from 3 to 16, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were decreased by 5 orders of magnitude. Incorporating QAMs into SBMP reduced bacterial early attachment, with the least colonization at CL = 16. Biofilm CFU for CL = 16 was 4 log lower than SBMP control (p .1). The new antibacterial materials had fibroblast/odontoblast viability similar to that of commercial controls. In conclusion, increasing the chain length of new QAMs in bonding agents greatly increased the antibacterial efficacy. A reduction in Streptococcus mutans biofilm CFU by 4 log could be achieved, without compromising bond strength and cytotoxicity. New QAM-containing bonding agents are promising for a wide range of restorations to inhibit biofilms. PMID:23958761

Li, F; Weir, M D; Xu, H H K

2013-08-19

296

Effects of quaternary ammonium chain length on antibacterial bonding agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to synthesize new quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with systematically varied alkyl chain lengths (CL) and to investigate, for the first time, the CL effects on antibacterial efficacy, cytotoxicity, and dentin bond strength of bonding agents. QAMs were synthesized with CL of 3 to 18 and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent. The cured resins were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Bacterial early attachment was investigated at 4 hrs. Biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured after 2 days. With CL increasing from 3 to 16, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were decreased by 5 orders of magnitude. Incorporating QAMs into SBMP reduced bacterial early attachment, with the least colonization at CL = 16. Biofilm CFU for CL = 16 was 4 log lower than SBMP control (p < .05). All groups had similar dentin bond strengths (p > .1). The new antibacterial materials had fibroblast/odontoblast viability similar to that of commercial controls. In conclusion, increasing the chain length of new QAMs in bonding agents greatly increased the antibacterial efficacy. A reduction in Streptococcus mutans biofilm CFU by 4 log could be achieved, without compromising bond strength and cytotoxicity. New QAM-containing bonding agents are promising for a wide range of restorations to inhibit biofilms.

Li F; Weir MD; Xu HH

2013-10-01

297

Population diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis in the upper respiratory tracts of adults, determined by a nonculture strategy.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We reinvestigated the clonal diversity and dynamics of Streptococcus mitis and two other abundant members of the commensal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus infantis, to obtain information about the origin of frequently emerging clones in this habitat. A culture-independent method was used, based on cloning and sequencing of PCR amplicons of the housekeeping gene gdh, which shows remarkable, yet species-specific, genetic polymorphism. Samples were collected from all potential ecological niches in the oral cavity and pharynx of two adults on two occasions separated by 2 years. Based on analysis of close to 10,000 sequences, significant diversity was observed in populations of all three species. Fluctuations in the relative proportions of individual clones and species were observed over time. While a few clones dominated, the proportions of most clones were very small. The results show that the frequent turnover of S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. infantis clones observed by cultivation can be explained by fluctuations in the relative proportions of clones, most of which are below the level of detection by the traditional culture technique, possibly combined with loss and acquisition from contacts. These findings provide a platform for understanding the mechanisms that govern the balance within the complex microbiota at mucosal sites and between the microbiota and the mucosal immune system of the host.

Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Tettelin, H

2008-01-01

298

Trading Agents  

CERN Multimedia

Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

Wellman, Michael

2011-01-01

299

Conventional use of honey as antibacterial agent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Honey has since been found to possess antibacterial property and is therefore employed for wound therapy. The current problems with conventional antibacterial agents, led to the choice of honey as well as other natural products by the populace, in the treatment of bacterial infections. The present study evaluates the antibacterial spectrum and efficacy of honey and compared same with tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Methods : Different concentrations (12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100.0 %) of honey were studied in - vitro using Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella sp., Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Results :The data obtained showed a dose dependent inhibitory action of honey, except with Streptococcus faecalis where there was no growth inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of honey presented Staphylococcus albus as the most susceptible organism and Escherichia coli, the least. While ciprofloxacin (2.0 mg/ml) exerted a greater potency than honey, tetracycline was found to be less potent than 100% concentration of honey, except with Escherichia coli. Conclusion :The antibacterial action of honey was observed with 50% as well as the neat concentration. However, ciprofloxacin exhibited a greater potency and efficacy as well as a broader spectrum than honey, which shows that where a broad spectrum antibacterial is required, the conventional drugs, especially the newer ones are preferred to honey.

Agbaje E; Ogunsanya T; Aiwerioba O

2006-01-01

300

Group B streptococcal neonatal infections in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil/ Infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: Streptococcus do grupo B é o principal agente etiológico responsável pela sepse neonatal na América do Norte. OBJETIVOS: Relatar 15 casos de infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B (Streptococus agalactiae) ocorridos na Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo Neonatal de um hospital público e universitário. MÉTODO: O estudo foi realizado no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre no período de 1º de janeiro de 1996 a 30 de junho de 1999. O diagnóstic (more) o de infecção neonatal foi feito a partir do isolamento e identificação de Streptococcus do grupo B em hemocultura combinado com alterações clínicas e laboratoriais sugestivas de sepse. RESULTADOS: Foram detectados quinze casos de infecção neonatal por Streptococcus do grupo B, sendo onze casos de sepse de origem precoce, dois casos de bacteremia oculta e dois casos de sepse de origem tardia. Oito casos tiveram choque séptico (53%), oito casos com pneumonia (53%) e quatro casos com meningite (27%). Quatorze casos foram diagnosticados a partir da hemocultura e um caso através da presença desta bactéria no exame anátomo-patológico do pulmão. Treze casos (87%) foram diagnosticados antes de três dias de vida. Ocorreram três óbitos (20%) e três pacientes com meningite ficaram com seqüelas neurológicas. CONCLUSÃO: O Streptococcus do Grupo B é uma das bactérias mais importantes na etiologia da sepse neonatal de início precoce em nosso hospital com elevada mortalidade e também com elevada morbidade. Entretanto, não se conhece sua incidência em outros hospitais. São necesssários outros estudos para determinar seu papel na sepse neonatal e assim estabelecer diferentes estratégias para sua redução. Abstract in english Group B Streptococcus is the most common pathogen found in neonatal sepsis in North America. OBJECTIVES: We describe 15 cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public and teaching hospital. METHODS: We conducted a study at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from January 1st, 1996 to June 30, 1999. Diagnosis of neonatal infection was established according to the findings of Group B Streptoc (more) occus in blood culture associated with alterations resembling sepsis on the basis of clinical picture and laboratory findings. RESULTS: Fifteen cases of neonatal infections by Group B Streptococcus were detected. Eleven cases consisted of early-onset sepsis, 2 cases of occult bacteremia and 2 cases of late-onset sepsis. Eight cases had septic shock (53%), 8 cases had pneumonia (53%), and 4 cases had meningitis (27%). Fourteen cases were diagnosed from a positive blood culture, and 1 case from evidence of these bacteria in pulmonary anatomopathological examination. Thirteen cases (87%) were diagnosed before 72 hours of life. We had 3 deaths (20%), and 3 cases of meningitis developing neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus Group B is one of the most important pathogens in the etiology of early-onset neonatal sepsis at our hospital, with high mortality and morbidity. However, we do not know the incidence of GBS neonatal infections at other hospitals. More data are needed to establish a basis for trials of different strategies to reduce these infections.

MIURA, Ernani; MARTIN, Maria Cristina

2001-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

DIURETIC AGENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: medicine. ^ SUBSTANCE: the invention relates to chemistry and pharmaceutics, in particular, to methods for production of a herbal-based medication with diuretic effect. The said medication contains powdered watermelon skin in amount of 0,1 to 20,0 g and dry grinded materials or dry extracts from plant of the following group: wild camomile, licorice roots, linden flowers, raspberry leaves, wild strawberry leaves, peppermint leaves, common plantain leaves, pears in amount of 0,1 g to 2,0 g. The diuretic agent can be in the form of powder, capsules, pills, granules or sachet powder. ^ EFFECT: the diuretic agent is non-toxic and has additional medical properties: spasmolitic, anti-bacterial, detoxing and antiallergic effects, it can be used to treat children, pregnant women, elderly patients, patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia, infenctious and non-infectuous renal irritation, and may also be a part of complex therapy in treating metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disease, and may be a part of complex treatment or an independent medication. ^ 2 cl, 7 ex

KANTEMIROVA BEHLA ISMAILOVNA; GALIMZJANOV KHALIL MINGALIEVICH; RUBAL SKIJ OLEG VASIL EVICH

302

Interactions between endocarditis-derived Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates and human endothelial cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infective endocarditis (IE) but the knowledge on virulence factors is limited and the pathogenesis of the infection is poorly understood. In the present study, we established an experimental in vitro IE cell culture model using EA.hy926 and HUVEC cells to investigate the adhesion and invasion characteristics of 23 Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strains from different origins (human IE-derived isolates, other human clinical isolates, animal isolates). Adhesion to eight components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the ability to form biofilms in vitro was examined in order to reveal features of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus endothelial infection. In addition, the strains were analyzed for the presence of the three virulence factors gtf, pilB, and fimB by PCR. Results The adherence to and invasion characteristics of the examined S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strains to the endothelial cell line EA.hy926 differ significantly among themselves. In contrast, the usage of three different in vitro models (EA.hy926 cells, primary endothelial cells (HUVECs), mechanical stretched cells) revealed no differences regarding the adherence to and invasion characteristics of different strains. Adherence to the ECM proteins collagen I, II and IV revealed the highest values, followed by fibrinogen, tenascin and laminin. Moreover, a strong correlation was observed in binding to these proteins by the analyzed strains. All strains show the capability to adhere to polystyrole surfaces and form biofilms. We further confirmed the presence of the genes of two known virulence factors (fimB: all strains, gtf: 19 of 23 strains) and demonstrated the presence of the gene of one new putative virulence factor (pilB: 9 of 23 strains) by PCR. Conclusion Our study provides the first description of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus adhesion and invasion of human endothelial cells, revealing important initial information of strain variability, behaviour and characteristics of this as yet barely analyzed pathogen.

Vollmer Tanja; Hinse Dennis; Kleesiek Knut; Dreier Jens

2010-01-01

303

Genetic polymorphism of Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members Polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans em membros de famílias brasileiras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether random amplified polymorphic DNA (AP-PCR) analysis is able to differentiate genetically different clones of mutans streptococci, in 22 Brazilian family members. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from fathers, mothers and infants. For 5-18 months babies with erupting primary dentition, plaque samples were collected using sterile tooth pick tips. From these samples, mutans streptococci were isolated on SB-20 agar plates. After growth, representative colonies were identified by biochemical methods on the basis of carbohydrate fermentation. Streptococcus mutans isolates were obtained from all family members and AP-PCR typed separately with a random primer (OPA-13). Bacterial cell lysates were used as template in PCR reactions and the amplified DNA fragments obtained were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results demonstrated that the father shared the baby's genotype in three families and the mother shared the baby's genotype in 12 families seven babies harbored Streptococcus mutans strains similar to those of their siblings. The technique was able to demonstrate the genetic Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar, através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR) a capacidade de diferenciar clones geneticamente distintos de Streptococcus mutans e estabelecer o grau de similaridade intrafamilial para os isolados. Para o presente estudo, foram selecionadas 22 famílias brasileiras. Amostras de saliva foram coletadas de todos os membros das famílias. Das crianças com idade entre 5-18 meses obteve-se amostras de placa dental. Após o isolamento das colônias com características morfológicas, realizou-se a identificação bioquímica com base na fermentação de carboidratos. O polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans foi pesquisado através da técnica de AP-PCR utilizando-se o primer OPA-13. Os fragmentos de DNA obtidos foram amplificados e comparados através de eletroforese em gel de agarose. Dentre as espécies identificadas nas 22 famílias analisadas, o pai apresentou cepas com similaridade genética aos dos bebês em três das famílias analisadas; em 12 famílias a mãe apresentou cepas com similaridade com as cepas de Streptococcus mutans do bebê e 7 bebês apresentaram cepas de S. mutans com similaridade genética das cepas do irmão mais velho. A técnica de AP-PCR foi eficaz em demonstrar a heterogeneidade genética de Streptococcus mutans entre os membros das famílias brasileiras analisadas.

Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio; José Francisco Höfling; Antônio Carlos Pizzolitto; Edvaldo Antonio Rosa; Thaís de Cássia Negrini; Luís Carlos Spolidorio

2003-01-01

304

Genetic polymorphism of Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members/ Polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans em membros de famílias brasileiras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar, através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR) a capacidade de diferenciar clones geneticamente distintos de Streptococcus mutans e estabelecer o grau de similaridade intrafamilial para os isolados. Para o presente estudo, foram selecionadas 22 famílias brasileiras. Amostras de saliva foram coletadas de todos os membros das famílias. Das crianças com idade entre 5-18 meses obteve-se amo (more) stras de placa dental. Após o isolamento das colônias com características morfológicas, realizou-se a identificação bioquímica com base na fermentação de carboidratos. O polimorfismo genético de Streptococcus mutans foi pesquisado através da técnica de AP-PCR utilizando-se o primer OPA-13. Os fragmentos de DNA obtidos foram amplificados e comparados através de eletroforese em gel de agarose. Dentre as espécies identificadas nas 22 famílias analisadas, o pai apresentou cepas com similaridade genética aos dos bebês em três das famílias analisadas; em 12 famílias a mãe apresentou cepas com similaridade com as cepas de Streptococcus mutans do bebê e 7 bebês apresentaram cepas de S. mutans com similaridade genética das cepas do irmão mais velho. A técnica de AP-PCR foi eficaz em demonstrar a heterogeneidade genética de Streptococcus mutans entre os membros das famílias brasileiras analisadas. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine whether random amplified polymorphic DNA (AP-PCR) analysis is able to differentiate genetically different clones of mutans streptococci, in 22 Brazilian family members. Stimulated saliva samples were collected from fathers, mothers and infants. For 5-18 months babies with erupting primary dentition, plaque samples were collected using sterile tooth pick tips. From these samples, mutans streptococci were isolated on SB-20 agar plates. (more) After growth, representative colonies were identified by biochemical methods on the basis of carbohydrate fermentation. Streptococcus mutans isolates were obtained from all family members and AP-PCR typed separately with a random primer (OPA-13). Bacterial cell lysates were used as template in PCR reactions and the amplified DNA fragments obtained were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results demonstrated that the father shared the baby's genotype in three families and the mother shared the baby's genotype in 12 families seven babies harbored Streptococcus mutans strains similar to those of their siblings. The technique was able to demonstrate the genetic Streptococcus mutans in Brazilian family members.

Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Höfling, José Francisco; Pizzolitto, Antônio Carlos; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio; Negrini, Thaís de Cássia; Spolidorio, Luís Carlos

2003-07-01

305

The chromosomal 3',5"-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase in Streptococcus pneumoniae is closely related to its plasmid-coded homologs in Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The apparently chromosomally encoded 3',5"-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (type III), from the high-level aminoglycoside-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae BM4200, was compared with homologous enzymes coded for by the plasmids pJH1 and pSH2, originally isolated from Streptococcus faecalis and Sta...

Collatz, E; Carlier, C; Courvalin, P

306

Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de penicilina parenteral e moxifloxacina contra cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae isoladas em um centro hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo in vitro prospectivo de 100 isolados de S. pneumoniae coletados de pacientes tratados entre outubro de 2008 e julho de 2010 no complexo do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Os isolados foram obtidos de culturas do trato respiratório e de amostras de sangue não relacionadas a infecções meníngeas e foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina por E test. As interpretações categóricas de CIM foram baseadas em padrões atualizados. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados foram suscetíveis a penicilina parenteral (CIM OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. METHODS: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treated, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. RESULTS: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC < 2 µg/mL), and, consequently, they were also susceptible to amoxicillin, ampicillin, third/fourth generation cephalosporins, and ertapenem. Of the S. pneumoniae strains, 99% were also susceptible to moxifloxacin, and only one strain showed an MIC = 1.5 µg/mL (intermediate). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed high susceptibility rates to parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin among S. pneumoniae isolates unrelated to meningitis, which differs from international reports. Reports on penicillin resistance should be based on updated breakpoints for non-meningitis isolates in order to guide the selection of an antimicrobial therapy and to improve the prediction of the clinical outcomes.

Flávia Rossi; Maria Renata Gomes Franco; Heleni Mota de Pina Rodrigues; Denise Andreazzi

2012-01-01

307

Generation of human antibody fragments against Streptococcus mutans using a phage display chain shuffling approach  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Common oral diseases and dental caries can be prevented effectively by passive immunization. In humans, passive immunotherapy may require the use of humanized or human antibodies to prevent adverse immune responses against murine epitopes. Therefore we generated human single chain and diabody antibody derivatives based on the binding characteristics of the murine monoclonal antibody Guy's 13. The murine form of this antibody has been used successfully to prevent Streptococcus mutans colonization and the development of dental caries in non-human primates, and to prevent bacterial colonization in human clinical trials. Results The antibody derivatives were generated using a chain-shuffling approach based on human antibody variable gene phage-display libraries. Like the parent antibody, these derivatives bound specifically to SAI/II, the surface adhesin of the oral pathogen S. mutans. Conclusions Humanization of murine antibodies can be easily achieved using phage display libraries. The human antibody fragments bind the antigen as well as the causative agent of dental caries. In addition the human diabody derivative is capable of aggregating S. mutans in vitro, making it a useful candidate passive immunotherapeutic agent for oral diseases.

Kupper Michael B; Huhn Michael; Spiegel Holger; Ma Julian KC; Barth Stefan; Fischer Rainer; Finnern Ricarda

2005-01-01

308

Effects of ginkgoneolic acid on the growth, acidogenicity, adherence, and biofilm of Streptococcus mutans in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ginkgo biloba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, ginkgoneolic acid, a kind of compound extracted from G. biloba, was investigated for its effects on growth, acid production, adherence, biofilm formation, and biofilm morphology of Streptococcus mutans. The results showed that ginkgoneolic acid inhibited not only the growth of S. mutans planktonic cells at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 ?g/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 8 ?g/mL but also the acid production and adherence to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite of S. mutans at sub-MIC concentration. In addition, this agent was effective in inhibiting the biofilm formation of S. mutans (MBIC(50)?=?4 ?g/mL), and it reduced 1-day-developed biofilm of S. mutans by 50 % or more at low concentration (MBRC(50)?=?32 ?g/mL). Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that ginkgoneolic acid disrupted biofilm integrity effectively. These findings suggest that ginkgoneolic acid is a natural anticariogenic agent in that it exhibits antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and suppresses the specific virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity. PMID:22956463

He, Jinzhi; Wang, Shida; Wu, Tingxi; Cao, Yangpei; Xu, Xin; Zhou, Xuedong

2012-09-06

309

Effects of ginkgoneolic acid on the growth, acidogenicity, adherence, and biofilm of Streptococcus mutans in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ginkgo biloba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, ginkgoneolic acid, a kind of compound extracted from G. biloba, was investigated for its effects on growth, acid production, adherence, biofilm formation, and biofilm morphology of Streptococcus mutans. The results showed that ginkgoneolic acid inhibited not only the growth of S. mutans planktonic cells at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 ?g/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 8 ?g/mL but also the acid production and adherence to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite of S. mutans at sub-MIC concentration. In addition, this agent was effective in inhibiting the biofilm formation of S. mutans (MBIC(50)?=?4 ?g/mL), and it reduced 1-day-developed biofilm of S. mutans by 50 % or more at low concentration (MBRC(50)?=?32 ?g/mL). Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that ginkgoneolic acid disrupted biofilm integrity effectively. These findings suggest that ginkgoneolic acid is a natural anticariogenic agent in that it exhibits antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and suppresses the specific virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity.

He J; Wang S; Wu T; Cao Y; Xu X; Zhou X

2013-03-01

310

Thrombolytic agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombolytic agents are plasminogen activators that convert the zymogen plasminogen to the active enzyme plasmin, which degrades fibrin. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism of physiological fibrinolysis opened up a new era of fibrin-specific thrombolysis. Fibrin-specific plasminogen activators, including tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) and staphylokinase (Sak), preferentially activate fibrin-associated plasminogen. Generated plasmin remains associated with fibrin, where it is protected from rapid inhibition and can efficiently degrade fibrin, avoiding systemic activation of the fibrinolytic system. Following a decade of clinical investigation t-PA and variants thereof are routinely used for treatment of patients with thromboembolic disease. PMID:15841305

Collen, Désiré; Lijnen, H Roger

2005-04-01

311

Radioprotective Agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

Ilker Kelle

2008-01-01

312

Biofilm formation and virulence expression by Streptococcus mutans are altered when grown in dual-species model  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial cell-cell interactions in the oral flora are believed to play an integral role in the development of dental plaque and ultimately, its pathogenicity. The effects of other species of oral bacteria on biofilm formation and virulence gene expression by Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, were evaluated using a dual-species biofilm model and RealTime-PCR analysis. Results As compared to mono-species biofilms, biofilm formation by S. mutans was significantly decreased when grown with Streptococcus sanguinis, but was modestly increased when co-cultivated with Lactobacillus casei. Co-cultivation with S. mutans significantly enhanced biofilm formation by Streptococcus oralis and L. casei, as compared to the respective mono-species biofilms. RealTime-PCR analysis showed that expression of spaP (for multi-functional adhesin SpaP, a surface-associated protein that S. mutans uses to bind to the tooth surface in the absence of sucrose), gtfB (for glucosyltransferase B that synthesizes ?1,6-linked glucan polymers from sucrose and starch carbohydrates) and gbpB (for surface-associated protein GbpB, which binds to the glucan polymers) was decreased significantly when S. mutans were co-cultivated with L. casei. Similar results were also found with expression of spaP and gbpB, but not gtfB, when S. mutans was grown in biofilms with S. oralis. Compared to mono-species biofilms, the expression of luxS in S. mutans co-cultivated with S. oralis or L. casei was also significantly decreased. No significant differences were observed in expression of the selected genes when S. mutans was co-cultivated with S. sanguinis. Conclusions These results suggest that the presence of specific oral bacteria differentially affects biofilm formation and virulence gene expression by S. mutans.

Wen Zezhang T; Yates David; Ahn Sang-Joon; Burne Robert A

2010-01-01

313

Endocarditis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina en niños: Report of a case due to penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumococcal endocarditis in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente de infección bacteriana invasora en niños; sin embargo, es extremadamente infrecuente como causa de endocarditis. Esta entidad clínica se manifiesta generalmente como una enfermedad aguda y grave con alta mortalidad, que requiere tratamiento médico-quirúrgico precoz, afectando con mayor frecuencia la válvula mitral. Presentamos el caso de una niña de 6 años 4 meses, de extrema ruralidad, que presentó endocarditis infecciosa (EI) de válvula mitral asociada a meningitis, aislándose en hemocultivos S. pneumoniae resistente a penicilina y se discute las estrategias terapéuticasDespite S. pneumoniae is one of main etiologies of invasive bacterial infection in children, it rarely causes infectious endocarditis in children. Pneumococcal endocarditis is a serious condition that affects mainly the mitral valve, with a rapidly destructive nature and a high fatality rate, demanding prompt medical and surgical treatment. We report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a school girl coming from extreme rurality who presented both meningitis and endocarditis, and whose blood cultures isolated penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae

M. Soledad Wenzel A; Marlis Täger F; Roberto Burgos L; M. Teresa Bilbao M

2006-01-01

314

Agent combinations  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Active substance combination comprises herbicides such as glyphosate, glufosinate or glufosinate-ammonium and at least an active substance from e.g. strobilurin, triazoles, sulfenamide, carboxamide, dithiocarbamate, anilinopyrimidine, benzimidazole, carbamate, dicarboximide, guandine, imidazole, morpholine, pyrrole, fungicides, thio(urea) derivatives or triazolopyrimidine. Active substance combination (I) comprises herbicides such as glyphosate, glufosinate or glufosinate-ammonium and at least an active substance from strobilurin e.g. azoxystrobin, fluoxastrobin, (2E)2-(2-{[6-(3-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-5-fluoro-4-pyrimidinyl]oxy}ph enyl)-2(methoxyimino)-N-methylethanamide, trifloxystrobin, orysastrobin, dimoxystrobin, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, metominostrobin and enestroburin triazoles e.g. azaconazole, etaconazole, propiconazole, difenoconazole, bromuconazole, cyproconazole, hexaconazole, penconazole and myclobutanil sulfenamide e.g. dichlofluanide and tolylfluanide carboxamide e.g. N-[2-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)phenyl]-1,3-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxami de, N-(4'-chloro-3'-fluoro-1,1'-biphenyl-2-yl)-2-methyl-4 (difluoromethyl)-1,3-thiazole-5-carboxamide, ethaboxam, fenhexamide, carpropamide, 2-chloro-4-(2-fluoro-2-methylpropionylamino)- N,N-dimethyl-benzamide, fluopicolide, zoxamide, 3,4-dichloro-N-(2-cyanophenyl)-isothiazole-5-carboxamide, carboxin, tiadinil, silthiofam, N-[2-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)phenyl]-1-methyl-4-(tri fluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide and N-{2-[3-chloro-5-(trifluor omethyl)pyridin-2-yl]ethyl}-2-(trifluoromethyl)-benzamide dithiocarbamate e.g. mancozeb, maneb, metiram, propineb, thiram, zineb and ziram anilinopyrimidine e.g. cyprodinil, mepanipyrim and pyrimethanil benzimidazole e.g. benomyl, carbendazim, chlorfenazole, fuberidazole and thiabendazole carbamate e.g. diethofencarb dicarboximide e.g. captafol, captan, folpet, iprodione, procymidone and vinclozolin guanidine e.g. dodine, guazatine, iminoctadine triacetate and iminoctadine trichloroethylene tris(albesilate) imidazole e.g. cyazofamide and pefurazoate morpholine e.g. aldimorph, tridemorph, dodemorph and fenpropimorph pyrrole e.g. fenpiclonil, fludioxonil and pyrrolnitrine fungicides e.g. acibenzolar-S-methyl, chlorothalonil, cymoxanil, edifenphos, famoxadone, fluazinam, copperoxychloride, spiroxamine, dithianon and 2,3-dibutyl-6-chloro-thieno-[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-4 (3H)on (thio)urea derivatives e.g. thiophanate methyl and thiophanate-ethyl or triazolopyrimidine e.g. 5-chloro-N-[(1S)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-methylethy l]-6-(2,4,6-trifluorophenyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-7-amine and 5-chloro-6-(2,4,6-trifluorophenyl)-7-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)[1,2 ,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine. Independent claims are included for: (1) a method for combating unwanted phytopathogenic fungus comprising, applying (I) to the rust fungus and/or their habitat and/or seeds (2) the preparation of a fungicidal agent comprising mixing (I) with a diluting agent and/or surface-active materials (3) a pickling agent comprising (I) and (4) methods for pickling (transgenic) seeds, comprising applying (I) on the (transgenic) seeds. - ACTIVITY : Fungicide. - MECHANISM OF ACTION : None given.

STENZEL KLAUS; DOLLINGER MARKUS; DAHMEN PETER; WACHENDORFF-NEUMANN ULRIKE; HAEUSER-HAHN ISOLDE; GROSJEAN-COURNOYER MARIE-CLAIRE; LEROUX BERNAND; SAWADA HARUKO; HADANO HIROYUKI; GOUOT JEAN-MARIE; SCHERB CHRISTIAN

315

IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Immunosuppressive drugs play an important role in preventing the rejection of organ or tissue grafts and in the treatment of certain diseases that arise from dysregulation of the immune response. In recent years, many new immunosuppressive drugs have been discovered and developed for clinical use. The wide array of new drugs offers the opportunity to use combinations that block different pathways of immune activation. In transplantation, the major classes of immunosuppressive drugs used are: Glucocorticoids, calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative/antimetabolic agents, and biologics (antibodies). Newer drugs like Mizoribine, RS61443, Brequinar sodium are inhibitors of DNA synthesis and inhibitors of cell activation/maturation like (Deoxyspergualin, CP 17193) have also showed promising results. Tacrolimus (FK 506) and Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) have already replaced immunosuppressive maintenance protocols. The other two drugs, Leflunomide and Sirolimus (SRL), are still under investigation for use in solid organ transplantation. Anti-interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor antibodies, anti-CD25 [interleukin (IL)-2 receptor] antibodies (basiliximab, daclizumab) target growth factor pathways, have shown promising results in phase III trials. These drugs have met with a high degree of clinical success in treating conditions such as acute immune rejection of organ transplants and severe autoimmune diseases. This article reviews the pharmacodynamics, adverse effects and uses of the major classes of immunosuppressive drugs.

Dr Pramila Yadav

2010-01-01

316

A proteomic approach for exploring biofilm in Streptococcus mutans  

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Full Text Available Biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans is considered as its principal virulence factor, causing dental caries. Mutants of S. mutans defective in biofilm formation were generated and analyzed to study the collective role of proteins in its formation. Mutants were characterized on the basis of adherence to saliva-coated surface, and biofilm formation. The confocal laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images showed that the control biofilms had cluster of cells covered by layer of exo-polysaccharide while the biofilms of mutants were thin and spaced. Two-dimensional protein electrophoresis data analysis identfied 57 proteins that are either up (44 proteins) or down (13 proteins) regulated. These data points to the importance of up and down regulated proteins in the formation of biofilm in Streptococcus mutans.

Asad Ullah Khan; Shahper N Khan; Mohammad Akram; Barira Islam

2011-01-01

317

Nutrition of Streptococcus bovis in relation to dextran formation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Barnes, Isabel J. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.), H. W. Seeley, and P. J. VanDeMark. Nutrition of Streptococcus bovis in relation to dextran formation. J. Bacteriol. 82:85-93. 1961.-Three nutritional types of Streptococcus bovis were encountered. Minimal media for their growth are described. Transferable growth in defined media was always accompanied by dextran production and the nutrition for dextran production could not be distinguished from the minimal nutritional requirements of the organism for growth. Measurable, free CO(2) was evolved from a complex medium during the growth of S. bovis. Several compounds were found to replace partially the CO(2) requirement of the species. When fractured cell preparations containing S. bovis dextran were employed as antigens, rabbits failed to yield sera which would precipitate S. bovis or leuconostoc dextrans.

BARNES IJ; SEELEY HW; VANDEMARK PJ

1961-07-01

318

Significant variation in transformation frequency in Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The naturally transformable bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is able to take up extracellular DNA and incorporate it into its genome. Maintaining natural transformation within a species requires that the benefits of transformation outweigh its costs. Although much is known about the distribution of natural transformation among bacterial species, little is known about the degree to which transformation frequencies vary within species. Here we find that there is significant variation in transformation frequency between strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from asymptomatic carriage, and that this variation is not concordant with isolate genetic relatedness. Polymorphism in the signalling system regulating competence is also not causally related to differences in transformation frequency, although this polymorphism does influence the degree of genetic admixture experienced by bacterial strains. These data suggest that bacteria can evolve new transformation frequencies over short evolutionary timescales. This facility may permit cells to balance the potential costs and benefits of transformation by regulating transformation frequency in response to environmental conditions.

Evans BA; Rozen DE

2013-04-01

319

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus in identical siblings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS), these cases of childhood-onset obsessive compulsive disorder and tic disorders resemble the presentation of Sydenham chorea, in that they have an acute onset following a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection (group A Streptococcus), with accompanying neurological signs, and an episodic or sawtooth course. Familial associations of this subgroup of patients remain understudied. This report provides phenotypic descriptions of three youth with PANDAS as well as their genetically identical siblings (in two cases of twins and one case of triplets). These cases highlight the potential for environmental influences for discordant presentations in genetically identical siblings. Despite identical genetics, presentations showed marked variation across siblings (from a full PANDAS presentation to asymptomatic). Further research into environmentally driven influences such as postinfectious molecular mimicry and epigenetic factors that may influence the manifestation of these pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders will promote our understanding of their prevention and treatment. PMID:21486169

Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K

2011-04-12

320

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus in identical siblings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS), these cases of childhood-onset obsessive compulsive disorder and tic disorders resemble the presentation of Sydenham chorea, in that they have an acute onset following a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection (group A Streptococcus), with accompanying neurological signs, and an episodic or sawtooth course. Familial associations of this subgroup of patients remain understudied. This report provides phenotypic descriptions of three youth with PANDAS as well as their genetically identical siblings (in two cases of twins and one case of triplets). These cases highlight the potential for environmental influences for discordant presentations in genetically identical siblings. Despite identical genetics, presentations showed marked variation across siblings (from a full PANDAS presentation to asymptomatic). Further research into environmentally driven influences such as postinfectious molecular mimicry and epigenetic factors that may influence the manifestation of these pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders will promote our understanding of their prevention and treatment.

Lewin AB; Storch EA; Murphy TK

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

A galactose-specific sugar: phosphotransferase permease is prevalent in the non-core genome of Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three genes predicted to encode the A, B and C domains of a sugar : phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease specific for galactose\\(EII(Gal) ) were identified in the genomes of 35 of 57 recently sequenced isolates of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. Mutants defective in the EII(Gal) complex were constructed in six of the isolates and showed markedly reduced growth rates on galactose-based medium relative to the parental strains. An EII(Gal) -deficient strain constructed using the invasive serotype f strain OMZ175 (OMZ/IIGal) expressed significantly lower PTS activity when galactose was present as the substrate. Galactose was shown to be an effective inducer of catabolite repression in OMZ175, but not in the EII(Gal) -deficient strain. In a mixed-species competition assay with galactose as the sole carbohydrate source, OMZ/IIGal was less effective than the parental strain at competing with the oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii, which has a high-affinity galactose transporter. Hence, a significant proportion of S. mutans strains encode a galactose PTS permease that could enhance the ability of these isolates to compete more effectively with commensal streptococci for galactose in salivary constituents and the diet.

Zeng L; Xue P; Stanhope MJ; Burne RA

2013-08-01

322

A galactose-specific sugar: phosphotransferase permease is prevalent in the non-core genome of Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three genes predicted to encode the A, B and C domains of a sugar : phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease specific for galactose\\(EII(Gal) ) were identified in the genomes of 35 of 57 recently sequenced isolates of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. Mutants defective in the EII(Gal) complex were constructed in six of the isolates and showed markedly reduced growth rates on galactose-based medium relative to the parental strains. An EII(Gal) -deficient strain constructed using the invasive serotype f strain OMZ175 (OMZ/IIGal) expressed significantly lower PTS activity when galactose was present as the substrate. Galactose was shown to be an effective inducer of catabolite repression in OMZ175, but not in the EII(Gal) -deficient strain. In a mixed-species competition assay with galactose as the sole carbohydrate source, OMZ/IIGal was less effective than the parental strain at competing with the oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii, which has a high-affinity galactose transporter. Hence, a significant proportion of S. mutans strains encode a galactose PTS permease that could enhance the ability of these isolates to compete more effectively with commensal streptococci for galactose in salivary constituents and the diet. PMID:23421335

Zeng, L; Xue, P; Stanhope, M J; Burne, R A

2013-02-20

323

Discovery of new inhibitors of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin binding protein (PBP) 2x by structure-based virtual screening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) are involved in the biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan layer constitutive of the bacterial envelope. They have been targeted for more than half a century by extensively derived molecular scaffolds of penicillins and cephalosporins. Streptococcus pneumoniae resists the antibiotic pressure by inducing highly mutated PBPs that can no longer bind the beta-lactam containing agents. To find inhibitors of PBP2x from Streptococcus pneumoniae (spPBP2x) with novel chemical scaffold so as to circumvent the resistance problems, a hierarchical virtual screening procedure was performed on the NCI database containing approximately 260000 compounds. The calculations involved ligand-based pharmacophore mapping studies and molecular docking simulations in a homology model of spPBP2x from the highly resistant strain 5204. A total of 160 hits were found, and 55 were available for experimental tests. Three compounds harboring two novel chemical scaffolds were identified as inhibitors of the resistant strain 5204-spPBP2x at the micromolar range.

Miguet L; Zervosen A; Gerards T; Pasha FA; Luxen A; Distèche-Nguyen M; Thomas A

2009-10-01

324

Group B Streptococcus detection: comparison of PCR assay and culture as a screening method for pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most important causal agents of serious neonatal infections. Numerous assays have been evaluated for GBS screening in order to validate a fast and efficient method. The aim of this study was to compare the culture technique (established as the gold standard) with the molecular method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers (atr gene). Two hundred and sixty-three samples were analyzed. V (more) aginal samples were collected, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations, from women over 35 weeks of pregnancy at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA). Two different extraction methods were tested in all samples collected. PCR technique yielded 71 (26.99%) positive results. Sensitivity and specificity for PCR were 100% and 86.88%, respectively. PCR demonstrated a shorter turnaround time than the culture. The molecular methodology proved to be a useful screening for GBS, allowing effective treatment to be initiated in shorter time to prevent newborn infection.

de-Paris, Fernanda; Machado, Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro; Gheno, Tailise Conte; Ascoli, Bruna Maria; Oliveira, Kátia Ruschel Pilger de; Barth, Afonso Luis

2011-08-01

325

Emergence of Streptococcus pyogenes strains resistant to erythromycin in Gipuzkoa, Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of resistance to macrolides and other antibiotics in strains of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated in the province of Gipuzkoa, Spain. During the period 1984-1996, all 2561 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes studied showed full susceptibility to penicillin. Until 1990, only 1.2% of Streptococcus pyogenes isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Since then, resistance to erythromycin increased every year until 1995, when 34.8% (87/250) of Streptococcus pyogenes strains were found to be resistant. In 1996 the rate of resistance to erythromycin was 17.8% (75/422). During the study period, 96.1% (246/256) of the Streptococcus pyogenes isolates resistant to erythromycin were susceptible to clindamycin. Of the remaining erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes strains, resistance to clindamycin was constitutive in seven strains and inducible in three. When investigated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), all Streptococcus pyogenes strains resistant to erythromycin and susceptible to clindamycin showed the 1.4 kb fragment of the mefA gene, recently described as the novel macrolide-efflux-resistance determinant. The most frequent T-agglutination patterns among Streptococcus pyogenes resistant to erythromycin were T4 and T8,25. The emergence and rapid spread of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes in Gipuzkoa and its relationship to the presence of the mefA gene are described.

Perez-Trallero E; Urbieta M; Montes M; Ayestaran I; Marimon JM

1998-01-01

326

Antibody microarray typing, a novel technique for Streptococcus pneumoniae serotyping.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of antibody-based miniaturized devices for microbiological applications is a field poorly investigated in the era of more developed molecular amplification techniques. A novel antibody microarray for Streptococcus pneumoniae serotyping was developed, by printing nanolitre volumes of pneumococcal serotype-specific antibodies on multi-well slides. This microarray, which showed high specificity when tested against reference and clinical S. pneumoniae isolates, can be applicable as a faster, cost-effective and accurate serotyping technique for pneumococcal epidemiological studies.

Marimon JM; Monasterio A; Ercibengoa M; Pascual J; Prieto I; Simón L; Perez-Trallero E

2010-03-01

327

Infectious aortitis with multiple mycotic aneurysms caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of a 66-year-old man with multiple thoracoabdominal mycotic aortic aneurysms caused by Streptococcus agalactiae (S agalactiae). The infectious aortitis (IA) was diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography and confirmed by positive blood cultures. The patient was treated with antibiotics, but, after worsening of the aortitis, a successful surgical procedure was performed. A review of the literature is presented together with a series of 7 other cases of IA caused by S agalactiae.

Cozijnsen L; Marsaoui B; Braam RL; Groenemeijer BE; van Hees BC; Kardux JJ; Vogtländer NP; Schepens MA

2013-10-01

328

Complications associated with Streptococcus equi infection on a horse farm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Complications associated with Streptococcus equi infection developed in 15 (20.3%) of 74 horses on one farm included death, guttural pouch empyema, purpura hemorrhagica, upper respiratory tract obstruction, pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, agalactia, mesenteric lymph node abscessation, and periorbital abscessation. Death was attributed to pneumonia in 3 horses and to upper respiratory tract obstruction in 2 horses. One horse was euthanatized because of severe purpura hemorrhagica.

Sweeney CR; Whitlock RH; Meirs DA; Whitehead SC; Barningham SO

1987-12-01

329

Complications associated with Streptococcus equi infection on a horse farm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complications associated with Streptococcus equi infection developed in 15 (20.3%) of 74 horses on one farm included death, guttural pouch empyema, purpura hemorrhagica, upper respiratory tract obstruction, pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, agalactia, mesenteric lymph node abscessation, and periorbital abscessation. Death was attributed to pneumonia in 3 horses and to upper respiratory tract obstruction in 2 horses. One horse was euthanatized because of severe purpura hemorrhagica. PMID:3692991

Sweeney, C R; Whitlock, R H; Meirs, D A; Whitehead, S C; Barningham, S O

1987-12-01

330

Streptococcus sanguinis meningitis following endoscopic ligation for oesophageal variceal haemorrhage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of acute purulent meningitis caused by Streptococcus sanguinis after endoscopic ligation for oesophageal variceal haemorrhage in a cirrhotic patient without preceding symptoms of meningitis. Initial treatment with flomoxef failed. The patient was cured after 20 days of intravenous penicillin G. This uncommon infection due to S. sanguinis adds to the long list of infectious complications among patients with oesophageal variceal haemorrhage.

Liu YT; Lin CF; Lee YL

2013-05-01

331

Infectious aortitis with multiple mycotic aneurysms caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of a 66-year-old man with multiple thoracoabdominal mycotic aortic aneurysms caused by Streptococcus agalactiae (S agalactiae). The infectious aortitis (IA) was diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography and confirmed by positive blood cultures. The patient was treated with antibiotics, but, after worsening of the aortitis, a successful surgical procedure was performed. A review of the literature is presented together with a series of 7 other cases of IA caused by S agalactiae. PMID:23891254

Cozijnsen, Luc; Marsaoui, Badyr; Braam, Richard L; Groenemeijer, Björn E; van Hees, Babette C; Kardux, Joost J; Vogtländer, Nils P J; Schepens, Marc A A M

2013-07-26

332

Genomic analysis of dairy starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5461.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus is widely used as a starter culture for the production of dairy products. Whole-genome sequencing is expected to utilize the genetic basis behind the metabolic functioning of lactic acid bacterium (LAB), for development of their use in biotechnological and probiotic applications. We sequenced the whole genome of Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5461, the strain isolated from a curd source, by 454 GS-FLX titanium and Ion Torrent PGM. We performed comparative genome analysis using the local BLAST and RDP for 16S rDNA comparison and by the RAST server for functional comparison against the published genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ 1066. The whole genome size of S. thermophilus MTCC 5461 is of 1.73Mb size with a GC content of 39.3%. Streptococcal virulence-related genes are either inactivated or absent in the strain. The genome possesses coding sequences for features important for a probiotic organism such as adhesion, acid tolerance, bacteriocin production, and lactose utilization, which was found to be conserved among the strains MTCC 5461 and CNRZ 1066. Biochemical analysis revealed the utilization of 17 sugars by the bacterium, where the presence of genes encoding enzymes involved in metabolism for 16 of these 17 sugars were confirmed in the genome. This study supports the facts that the strain MTCC 5461 is nonpathogenic and harbors essential features that can be exploited for its probiotic potential. PMID:23568199

Prajapati, Jashbhai B; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Amrutlal K; Senan, Suja; Joshi, Chaitanya G

2013-04-01

333

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125I-labeled HSMSL or 125I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [125I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

1989-01-01

334

Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

1989-09-01

335

Amino acid requirements of Streptococcus mutans and other oral streptococci.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The amino acid requirements of Streptococcus mutans strains AHT, OMZ-61, FA-1, BHT, GS-5, JC-2, Ingbritt, At6T, OMZ-176, 6715, Streptococcus salivarius HHT, Streptococcus sanguis OMZ-9, and strain 72x46 were determined in a chemically defined medium. When grown anaerobically in the presence of sodium carbonate (or bicarbonate for a few strains), few amino acids were required. All strains tested required cystine (or cystine) as a nutrient. Three strains (S. mutans OMZ-176, FA-1, and BHT) required glutamate (and/or glutamine). A third amino acid (lysine for S. mutans FA-1 and histidine for S. mutans OMZ-176) was required by two of the three strains which required glutamate. The amino acids mentioned above were required for all conditions of incubation (and inoculum) tested. The requirements for several other amino acids were conditional, that is, dependent on the incubation conditions and inoculum used. For example, when carbonate was not added, glutamate was required by S. mutans GS-5. Aerobic incubations, with carbonate or bicarbonate added, resluted in requirements for glutamate and leucine by several strains. With these incubation conditions, one strain required isoleucine (S. mutans FA-1), another valine (S. mutans AHT), and a third tyrosine (72x46). Aerobic incubations in the absence of carbonate or bicarbonate further increased the number of amino acids required by several strains. Furthermore, when stationary-phase cultures replaced exponentially growing cultures as an inoculum, several strains required additional amino acids, presumably for the initiation of growth.

Terleckyj B; Shockman GD

1975-04-01

336

Aspectos Clínicos y neuroinmunológicos de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Después de exitosas campañas de vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae hubo unaumento de casos de meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae. Con el objetivo de describir las característicasclínicas, los hallazgos de laboratorio y las complicaciones encontradas a un grupo de pacientes que sufrieron de estaenfermedad entre 1993 y 2006, evaluar el estado de la barrera sangre-líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) y el patrón derespuesta de síntesis intratecal de inmunoglobulinas a través del reibergrama, se estudiaron 12 niños conmeningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae que ingresaron en el Hospital Pediátrico de San Miguel del Padrón,Ciudad de La Habana, en ese periodo. Se dosificaron albúmina IgA, IgM e IgG y sus subclases por inmunodifusión radial en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. La edad más frecuente resultó la menor de un año. Las mayores complicaciones fueron: shock séptico y edema cerebral. Hubo tres pacientes fallecidos. Los patrones de las tres clases mayores de inmunoglobulinas aparecieron en el 33% del total. Los dos patrones de subclases de IgG más IgM tuvieron en común la disfunción de la barrera sangre-líquido cefalorraquídeo. La respuesta inmune intratecal en los pacientes con meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae tiene características distintivas que lo diferencian de otras meningoencefalitis de origen bacteriano por lo que en su conjunto podrían ser elementos a ser tomados en cuenta para auxiliar al médico en su diagnóstico diferencial y en la táctica para una vacuna cubana.

Raisa Bu-Coifiu; Alberto J. Dorta; Elena Noris; Bárbara Padilla; Marlén González

2007-01-01

337

The Tea Catechin Epigallocatechin Gallate Suppresses Cariogenic Virulence Factors of Streptococcus mutans?  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, possesses a series of virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity. Alternatives to traditional antimicrobial treatment, agents selectively inhibiting the virulence factors without necessarily suppressing the resident oral species, are promising. The anticariogenic properties of tea have been suggested in experimental animals and humans. Tea polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), have been shown to inhibit the growth and glucosyltransferases activity of S. mutans. However, their effects on biofilm and cariogenic virulence factors of oral streptococci other than glucosyltransferases have not been well documented. In this study, we investigated the biological effect of EGCg on the virulence factors of S. mutans associated with its acidogenicity and acidurity. The antimicrobial effects of EGCg on S. mutans biofilm grown in chemically defined medium were also examined. EGCg inhibited growth of S. mutans planktonic cells at an MIC of 31.25 ?g/ml and a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 62.5 ?g/ml. EGCg also inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation at 15.6 ?g/ml (minimum concentration that showed at least 90% inhibition of biofilm formation) and reduced viability of the preformed biofilm at 625 ?g/ml (sessile MIC80). EGCg at sub-MIC levels inhibited acidogenicity and acidurity of S. mutans cells. Analysis of the data obtained from real-time PCR showed that EGCg significantly suppressed the ldh, eno, atpD, and aguD genes of S. mutans UA159. Inhibition of the enzymatic activity of F1Fo-ATPase and lactate dehydrogenase was also noted (50% inhibitory concentration between 15.6 and 31.25 ?g/ml). These findings suggest that EGCg is a natural anticariogenic agent in that it exhibits antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and suppresses the specific virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity.

Xu, Xin; Zhou, Xue D.; Wu, Christine D.

2011-01-01

338

Six-month multicenter study on invasive infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

During a 6-month period, 95 invasive infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes and group C or group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis were recorded from 40 centers of 16 cities in Argentina. We describe here epidemiologic data available for 55 and 19 patients, respectively, associated with invasive infections due to S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. The associated isolates and 58 additional pharyngeal isolates were genotyped and subjected to serologic and/or antibiotic susceptibility testing. Group A streptococcal emm type distribution and strain association with toxic shock appeared to differ somewhat from results found within the United States; however, serologic characterization and sof sequence typing suggested that emm types found in both countries are reflective of shared clonal types. PMID:15695683

Lopardo, Horacio A; Vidal, Patricia; Sparo, Monica; Jeric, Paola; Centron, Daniela; Facklam, Richard R; Paganini, Hugo; Pagniez, N Gaston; Lovgren, Marguerite; Beall, Bernard

2005-02-01

339

Six-month multicenter study on invasive infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During a 6-month period, 95 invasive infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes and group C or group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis were recorded from 40 centers of 16 cities in Argentina. We describe here epidemiologic data available for 55 and 19 patients, respectively, associated with invasive infections due to S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. The associated isolates and 58 additional pharyngeal isolates were genotyped and subjected to serologic and/or antibiotic susceptibility testing. Group A streptococcal emm type distribution and strain association with toxic shock appeared to differ somewhat from results found within the United States; however, serologic characterization and sof sequence typing suggested that emm types found in both countries are reflective of shared clonal types.

Lopardo HA; Vidal P; Sparo M; Jeric P; Centron D; Facklam RR; Paganini H; Pagniez NG; Lovgren M; Beall B

2005-02-01

340

Autolisis de Streptococcus pneumoniae en hemocultivos Autolysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures  

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Full Text Available El proceso de autolisis de Streptococcus pneumoniae en medios líquidos puede ocasionar problemas en muestras de hemocultivos impidiendo su recuperación y, por lo tanto, el diagnóstico microbiológico, así como el estudio de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la frecuencia de este fenómeno en muestras clínicas y determinar las mejores condiciones de detección para este germen en los sistemas automatizados. Fueron incluidos todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de neumonía y hemocultivos positivos por S. pneumoniae y pacientes con diagnóstico de neumonía, botellas positivas y subcultivos negativos. Se evaluó el tipo de botella empleada, tiempo de detección, tiempo de demora en subcultivar las botellas y recuperación del germen. El procesamiento de las botellas, identificación del microorganismo y el estudio de sensibilidad a los antibióticos se realizaron según el protocolo habitual del laboratorio. Se evaluaron 110 botellas distribuidas de la siguiente manera: 104 FAN aerobias y 6 FAN anaerobias pertenecientes a 51 pacientes. Se obtuvo señal de positividad en 96 FAN aerobias (92,3%) y en 2 FAN anaerobias (33,3%). Todas las botellas positivas fueron detectadas en las primeras 26 h de incubación con una media de 11 h. En 38 de 51 pacientes (74,5%) se recuperó S. pneumoniae en los subcultivos, mientras que en 13 (25,5%) no se obtuvo desarrollo. La pérdida de viabilidad en estos casos se correlacionó con la demora en subcultivar las botellas positivas. La recuperación del germen fue del 100, 78,9 y 25% cuando la demora en subcultivar fue 14 h respectivamente. Se concluye que la utilización de botellas FAN aerobias permitió una adecuada recuperación de S. pneumoniae. Aquellos laboratorios que no poseen un servicio de guardia de Bacteriología podrían perder un porcentaje significativo de aislamientos de S. pneumoniae debido a fenómenos de autolisis. A fin de evitar este problema se recomienda implementar un sistema de vigilancia cada 7 h con descarga y subcultivo de botellas positivas.Spontaneous autolysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures causes a serious problem. Clinically relevant microorganisms are not detected and antimicrobial susceptibility testing cannot be performed. The aim of this study was to review the frequency of spontaneous autolysis in blood cultures and to analyze the detection and isolation of S. pneumoniae from blood cultures. Patients with clinically diagnosed pneumonia and positive blood cultures were included. Another group of patients with pneumonia, positive blood culture but negative subcultures was also included. Type of bottle, time of detection and recovery of S. pneumoniae in subcultures were recorded. All bottles were processed according to the manufacturer´s instructions. A total of 110 bottles from 51 patients were evaluated. Out of 104 FAN aerobic bottles, 96 (92.3%) were positive. Out of 6 FAN anaerobic bottles only 2 (33.3%) were positive. Mean time detection was 11 hours and all positive bottles were detected after 26 hours of incubation. S. pneumoniae was recovered in subcultures in 38 of 51 patients (74.5%). Loss of viability associated to autolysis was detected in 13 patients (25.5%). Loss of viability was related to delay in removal of positive bottles from incubator. The recovery of microorganisms was 100, 78.9 and 25% when the time of delay was 14 h respectively. Detection of S. pneumoniae was more frequent in FAN aerobic bottles. Isolates clinically significative of S. pneumoniae cannot be recovered if positive bottles remain inside incubator more than 7 hs. Microbiology laboratories should have personnel to remove positive bottles during the night and at weekends.

Hugo Edgardo Villar; Liliana María Longo; Gustavo Jorge Laurino; Adriana Vicente; Marisa Estela Gutiérrez; Marta Hoffman

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Autolisis de Streptococcus pneumoniae en hemocultivos/ Autolysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El proceso de autolisis de Streptococcus pneumoniae en medios líquidos puede ocasionar problemas en muestras de hemocultivos impidiendo su recuperación y, por lo tanto, el diagnóstico microbiológico, así como el estudio de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la frecuencia de este fenómeno en muestras clínicas y determinar las mejores condiciones de detección para este germen en los sistemas automatizados. Fueron incluidos to (more) dos los pacientes con diagnóstico de neumonía y hemocultivos positivos por S. pneumoniae y pacientes con diagnóstico de neumonía, botellas positivas y subcultivos negativos. Se evaluó el tipo de botella empleada, tiempo de detección, tiempo de demora en subcultivar las botellas y recuperación del germen. El procesamiento de las botellas, identificación del microorganismo y el estudio de sensibilidad a los antibióticos se realizaron según el protocolo habitual del laboratorio. Se evaluaron 110 botellas distribuidas de la siguiente manera: 104 FAN aerobias y 6 FAN anaerobias pertenecientes a 51 pacientes. Se obtuvo señal de positividad en 96 FAN aerobias (92,3%) y en 2 FAN anaerobias (33,3%). Todas las botellas positivas fueron detectadas en las primeras 26 h de incubación con una media de 11 h. En 38 de 51 pacientes (74,5%) se recuperó S. pneumoniae en los subcultivos, mientras que en 13 (25,5%) no se obtuvo desarrollo. La pérdida de viabilidad en estos casos se correlacionó con la demora en subcultivar las botellas positivas. La recuperación del germen fue del 100, 78,9 y 25% cuando la demora en subcultivar fue 14 h respectivamente. Se concluye que la utilización de botellas FAN aerobias permitió una adecuada recuperación de S. pneumoniae. Aquellos laboratorios que no poseen un servicio de guardia de Bacteriología podrían perder un porcentaje significativo de aislamientos de S. pneumoniae debido a fenómenos de autolisis. A fin de evitar este problema se recomienda implementar un sistema de vigilancia cada 7 h con descarga y subcultivo de botellas positivas. Abstract in english Spontaneous autolysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood cultures causes a serious problem. Clinically relevant microorganisms are not detected and antimicrobial susceptibility testing cannot be performed. The aim of this study was to review the frequency of spontaneous autolysis in blood cultures and to analyze the detection and isolation of S. pneumoniae from blood cultures. Patients with clinically diagnosed pneumonia and positive blood cultures were included. Anothe (more) r group of patients with pneumonia, positive blood culture but negative subcultures was also included. Type of bottle, time of detection and recovery of S. pneumoniae in subcultures were recorded. All bottles were processed according to the manufacturer´s instructions. A total of 110 bottles from 51 patients were evaluated. Out of 104 FAN aerobic bottles, 96 (92.3%) were positive. Out of 6 FAN anaerobic bottles only 2 (33.3%) were positive. Mean time detection was 11 hours and all positive bottles were detected after 26 hours of incubation. S. pneumoniae was recovered in subcultures in 38 of 51 patients (74.5%). Loss of viability associated to autolysis was detected in 13 patients (25.5%). Loss of viability was related to delay in removal of positive bottles from incubator. The recovery of microorganisms was 100, 78.9 and 25% when the time of delay was 14 h respectively. Detection of S. pneumoniae was more frequent in FAN aerobic bottles. Isolates clinically significative of S. pneumoniae cannot be recovered if positive bottles remain inside incubator more than 7 hs. Microbiology laboratories should have personnel to remove positive bottles during the night and at weekends.

Villar, Hugo Edgardo; Longo, Liliana María; Laurino, Gustavo Jorge; Vicente, Adriana; Gutiérrez, Marisa Estela; Hoffman, Marta

2005-06-01

342

Discrimination between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis based on sorting of their MALDI mass spectra.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate species-level identification of alpha-hemolytic (viridans) streptococci (VGS) is very important for understanding their pathogenicity and virulence. However, an extremely high level of similarity between VGS within the mitis group (S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, S. oralis and S. pseudopneumoniae) often results in misidentification of these organisms. Earlier, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been suggested as a tool for the rapid identification of S. pneumoniae. However, by using Biotyper 3.0 (Bruker) or Vitek MS (bioMérieux) databases, Streptococcus mitis/oralis species can be erroneously identified as S. pneumoniae. ClinProTools 2.1 software was used for the discrimination of MALDI-TOF mass spectra of 25 S. pneumoniae isolates, 34 S. mitis and three S. oralis. Phenotypical tests and multilocus gene typing schemes for the S. pneumoniae (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/) and viridans streptococci (http://viridans.emlsa.net/) were used for the identification of isolates included in the study. The classifying model was generated based on different algorithms (Genetic Algorithm, Supervised Neural Network and QuickClassifier). In all cases, values of sensitivity and specificity were found to be equal or close to 100%, allowing discrimination of mass spectra of different species. Three peaks (6949, 9876 and 9975 m/z) were determined conferring the maximal statistical weight onto each model built. We find this approach to be promising for viridans streptococci discrimination. PMID:23331578

Ikryannikova, L N; Filimonova, A V; Malakhova, M V; Savinova, T; Filimonova, O; Ilina, E N; Dubovickaya, V A; Sidorenko, S V; Govorun, V M

2012-11-27

343

Discrimination between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis based on sorting of their MALDI mass spectra.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accurate species-level identification of alpha-hemolytic (viridans) streptococci (VGS) is very important for understanding their pathogenicity and virulence. However, an extremely high level of similarity between VGS within the mitis group (S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, S. oralis and S. pseudopneumoniae) often results in misidentification of these organisms. Earlier, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been suggested as a tool for the rapid identification of S. pneumoniae. However, by using Biotyper 3.0 (Bruker) or Vitek MS (bioMérieux) databases, Streptococcus mitis/oralis species can be erroneously identified as S. pneumoniae. ClinProTools 2.1 software was used for the discrimination of MALDI-TOF mass spectra of 25 S. pneumoniae isolates, 34 S. mitis and three S. oralis. Phenotypical tests and multilocus gene typing schemes for the S. pneumoniae (http://spneumoniae.mlst.net/) and viridans streptococci (http://viridans.emlsa.net/) were used for the identification of isolates included in the study. The classifying model was generated based on different algorithms (Genetic Algorithm, Supervised Neural Network and QuickClassifier). In all cases, values of sensitivity and specificity were found to be equal or close to 100%, allowing discrimination of mass spectra of different species. Three peaks (6949, 9876 and 9975 m/z) were determined conferring the maximal statistical weight onto each model built. We find this approach to be promising for viridans streptococci discrimination.

Ikryannikova LN; Filimonova AV; Malakhova MV; Savinova T; Filimonova O; Ilina EN; Dubovickaya VA; Sidorenko SV; Govorun VM

2012-11-01

344

Group B Streptococcus Colonization of Breast Milk of Group B Streptococcus Positive Mothers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background:Breast milk is occasionally considered as a potential source of neonatal infection. Only a few cases of transmission of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) through breast milk have been published. The incidence of GBS in breast milk varies among studies. The incidence of GBS in breast milk in mothers with positive prenatal vaginal swabs for GBS is not known.Objective:The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of GBS in the breast milk of women colonized with GBS before delivery (GBS vaginal swabs positive) and women non-colonized with GBS (GBS negative) during the first week after term delivery.Methods:Breast milk from our sample of women was checked for the presence of GBS. A sample of 5 ml of breast milk was collected from each woman between days 3 and 7 after term delivery. Statistical analysis was carried out to test the relationship between bacterial content and GBS status of the women.Results:We identified only 2 of 243 (0.82%) GBS positive breast milk cultures during the study, both in the GBS negative group. There was found to be no GBS positive breast milk in women with positive prenatal vaginal swabs for GBS.Conclusion:The incidence of GBS positive cultures in breast milk in the study was low. When comparing the incidence of GBS positive breast milk cultures between women colonized with GBS before delivery and women non-colonized with GBS, we identified only 2 GBS positive breast milk cultures, both in GBS non-colonized women.

Burianová I; Paulová M; Cermák P; Janota J

2013-03-01

345

The thioredoxin system in the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans and the food-industry bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Streptococcus genus includes the pathogenic species Streptococcus mutans, the main responsible of dental caries, and the safe microorganism Streptococcus thermophilus, used for the manufacture of dairy products. These facultative anaerobes control the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and indeed, both S. mutans and S. thermophilus possess a cambialistic superoxide dismutase, the key enzyme for a preventive action against ROS. To evaluate the properties of a crucial mechanism for repairing ROS damages, the molecular and functional characterization of the thioredoxin system in these streptococci was investigated. The putative genes encoding its protein components in S. mutans and S. thermophilus were analysed and the corresponding recombinant proteins were purified. A single thioredoxin reductase was obtained from either S. mutans (SmTrxB) or S. thermophilus (StTrxB1), whereas two thioredoxins were prepared from either S. mutans (SmTrxA and SmTrxH1) or S. thermophilus (StTrxA1 and StTrxA2). Both SmTrxB and StTrxB1 reduced the synthetic substrate DTNB in the presence of NADPH, whereas only SmTrxA and StTrxA1 accelerated the insulin reduction in the presence of DTT. To reconstitute an in vitro streptococcal thioredoxin system, the combined activity of the thioredoxin components was tested through the insulin precipitation in the absence of DTT. The assay functions with a combination of SmTrxB or StTrxB1 with either SmTrxA or StTrxA1. These results suggest that the streptococcal members of the thioredoxin system display a direct functional interaction between them and that these protein components are interchangeable within the Streptococcus genus. In conclusion, our data prove the existence of a functioning thioredoxin system even in these microaerophiles. PMID:23954859

Marco, Salvatore; Rullo, Rosario; Albino, Antonella; Masullo, Mariorosario; De Vendittis, Emmanuele; Amato, Massimo

2013-08-15

346

Meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente: reporte de un caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: Streptococcus pneumoniae es una bacteria que reside en el aparato respiratorio superior de las personas saludables, pero resulta una infección cuando alcanza localizaciones normalmente estériles, tales como el aparato respiratorio inferior, sistema circulatorio, y sistema nervioso central. Esto ocurre en personas inmunodeprimidas, por diferentes causas. Objetivo: destacar la virulencia de Streptococcus pneumoniae drogo resistente. Caso clínico: niña que (more) llega al hospital por presentar un proceso respiratorio, de varios días de evolución, con fiebre y rinorrea. Ingresó en la sala de Infecciones Respiratorias. Comenzó con deshidratación y somnolencia, por lo que se le realizó una segunda punción lumbar, que resultó con salida de líquido cefalorraquídeo, purulento y presencia de 202 células a predominio de polimorfonucleares, glucosa disminuida, aumento de las proteínas, y Pandy xxxx. La niña se agrava y presenta signos de intenso edema cerebral, con fontanela abombada. Se trató con antimicrobianos como la vancomicina y el ceftriaxone, por varios días. En el laboratorio de Microbiología se confirmó el crecimiento de Streptococccus pneumoniae sensible al meronem que pasa a reemplazar al ceftriaxone. La paciente salió paulatinamente de su gravedad hasta que fue dada de alta con seguimiento y rehabilitación, por presentar secuelas. Conclusiones: este patógeno tan peligroso con sus atributos de virulencia y su elevada resistencia a los antimicrobianos, constituye un fenómeno emergente. Abstract in english Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterium that resides in the upper respiratory system of healthy people, but turns into infection, when it reaches usually sterile locations such as the lower respiratory system, the circulatory, and the central nervous systems. This occurs in immunocompromised persons, for different reasons. Objective: to point out the Streptococcus pneumoniae's virulence resistant to drugs. Clinical case: it is presented a girl who arrived at (more) the hospital with a respiratory process, of several days of evolution with fever and rhinorrhea, the girl was admitted in the respiratory ward. She started with dehydratation and sleepiness; a second lumbar puncture was made, a purulent cerebrospinal fluid and the presence of 202 cells, most of them polymorphonuclear, with decreased glucose and a protein augmentation, with Pandy xxxx, was observed. The girl gets worse and presented an intense cerebral edema, with enlarged fontanel, she was treated with antimicrobials such as vancomycin and ceftriaxone for several days. The microbiology laboratory confirmed the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae sensitive to meronem and replaces ceftriaxone. Result: the patient gradually left his gravity until that she was discharged from hospital with follow-up and rehabilitation, by sequels. Conclusions: this dangerous pathogen with their attributes of virulence and its high resistance to antimicrobials is an emerging phenomenon.

Rodríguez Fernández, Olga María; Ferrer Morell, Odalis; Pérez Morales, Yuneixy; Sanchén Casas, Alexis

2011-12-01

347

Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de las infecciones por Streptococcus pyogenes en el período neonatal Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in the neonatal period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la infección por Estreptococo del grupo A en los recién nacidos egresados de hospitales maternos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, que incluyó a recién nacidos consecutivos, quienes tuvieron infecciones por estreptococos del grupo A y que estuvieron ingresados en el servicio de neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan M. Márquez» entre 1992 y el 2005. Se procesaron y analizaron distintas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas con cálculo de tasas de incidencia y letalidad. RESULTADOS. Se registraron 20 recién nacidos con infección por estreptococos del grupo A, lo cual representó una tasa promedio anual de 0,2 cada 100 ingresos. Esta infección muestra una incidencia con tendencia significativa a disminuir en los últimos años. Según la clasificación utilizada, todas las infecciones fueron de inicio tardío y, de acuerdo al origen, predominaron las adquiridas en la comunidad (95,0 %). La infección de tejidos blandos fue la forma clínica más frecuente (10 de 20; 50 %) y cursó con bacteriemia. Los aislamientos de estreptococos del grupo A tuvieron un 100 % de sensibilidad ante los betalactámicos. Hubo un solo paciente fallecido, afecto de meningitis, lo cual significó una tasa de letalidad del 5,0 %. CONCLUSIONES. El estreptococo del grupo A es un agente causal de infecciones que afectan al recién nacido, fundamentalmente en el ambiente comunitario. Estas infecciones pueden ser letales en algunos pacientes con infección del sistema nervioso central, a pesar del patrón de elevada susceptibilidad a los betalactámicos.INTRODUCTION. The objective of the present investigation was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infection caused by group A Streptococcus in the newborn infants discharged from maternal hospitals. METHODS. A descriptive study that included consecutive newborn infants who had infections caused by group A Streptococcus and that were admitted in the neonatology service of "Juan M. Márquez" Pediatric Teaching Hospital between 1992 and 2005 was carried out. Different clinical and epidemiological variables were processed and analyzed by calculating the incidence and lethality rates. RESULTS. 20 newborn infants with infection caused by group A Streptococcus were registered, accounting for an annual average rate of 0.2 per 100 admissions. This infection shows an incidence with a significant trend to decrease in the last years. According to the classification used, all the infections had a late onset, and regarding their origin those acquired in the community prevailed (95.0 %). The infection of the soft tissues was the most common clinical form (10 of 20; 50 %) and evolved with bacteremia. The isolations of group A Streptococcus has 100 % of sensitivity to betalactamics. Only one patient affected with meningitis died, which represented a lethality rate of 5.0 %. CONCLUSIONS. The group A Streptococcus is an agent causing infections that affect the newborn infant, mainly in the community environment. These infections may be lethal in some patients with infection of the central nervous system, in spite of the pattern of elevated susceptibility to betalactamics.

Manuel Díaz Alvarez; Bárbara Acosta Batista; Daniel Claver Isás; María Teresa Fernández de la Paz; Alicia Martínez Izquierdo

2008-01-01

348

The effect of eugenol on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries development in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eugenol has been widely used in medicine due to its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and analgesic properties. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of eugenol on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries development in rats. Eugenol demonstrated significant inhibitory effects against acid production by S. mutans. The synthesis of water-insoluble glucans by glucosyltransferases was reduced by eugenol. Eugenol also markedly suppressed the adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. Furthermore, topical application of eugenol reduced the incidence and severity of carious lesions in rats. These results suggest that the natural compound eugenol may be a useful therapeutic agent for dental caries.

Xu JS; Li Y; Cao X; Cui Y

2013-06-01

349

Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain SA20-06, a fish pathogen associated to meningoencephalitis outbreaks  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is the causative agent of meningoencephalitis in fish, mastitis in cows, and neonatal sepsis in humans. Meningoencephalitis is a major health problem for tilapia farming and is responsible for high economic losses worldwide. Despite its importance, the genomic characteristics and the main molecular mechanisms involved in virulence of S. agalactiae isolated from fish are still poorly understood. Here, we present the genomic features of the 1,820,886 bp long complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SA20-06 isolated from a meningoencephalitis outbreak in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil, and its annotation, consisting of 1,710 protein-coding genes (excluding pseudogenes), 7 rRNA operons, 79 tRNA genes and 62 pseudogenes.

Pereira, Ulisses de Padua; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Aburjaile, Flavia Figueira; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Juca; Carneiro, Adriana Ribeiro; Guimaraes, Luis Carlos; Silva de Almeida, Sintia; Diniz, Carlos Augusto Almeida; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira; Gomes de Sa, Pablo; Ali, Amjad; Bakhtiar, Syeda Marriam; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Araujo, Flavio Marcos Gomes; Leite, Laura Rabelo; Oliveira, Guilherme; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco; Figueiredo, Henrique Cesar Pereira

2013-01-01

350

[A case report of Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome: appropriate transfusional management by T-antigen determination].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pediatric hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare complication of infections usually caused by Escherichia coli; Streptococcus pneumoniae may be a causative agent in 5% of cases and is often more serious in terms of morbidity and mortality. We report a case of pediatric HUS following an infection by a serotype of S. pneumoniae not included in the vaccine administered to the child. Bacterial neuraminidase revealed a T-antigen and a Tk-antigen and red blood cells polyagglutinability in the laboratory test. Transfusion has been reoriented by an indication of secondary preparations: deplasmatisation of red blood cells and platelets and abstention of therapeutic plasma administration. HUS evolved favorably in a few days but the child retains consequences of meningitis cerebral anoxia.

Rinaudo-Gaujous M; Talagrand E; Verhoeven PO; Garraud O; Flourié F

2013-03-01

351

Sustainable inhibition efficacy of liposome-encapsulated nisin on insoluble glucan-biofilm synthesis by Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Dental caries are an infectious oral bacterial disease caused by cariogenic streptococci. These streptococci inhabit dental biofilms which comprise insoluble glucans. OBJECTIVE: To prevent dental caries, nisin, a suitable agent active against Gram-positive bacteria, was examined in vitro for its ability to suppress insoluble glucan-biofilm synthesis by cariogenic streptococci. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate glucan-biofilm synthesis by a typical cariogenic streptococcus, Streptococcus mutans 10449, the naked form of nisin was loaded onto a 96-well microplate in vitro model. To prolong the efficacy of nisin as a preventive agent, liposome-encapsulated nisin (nisin-liposome) was examined for its ability to inhibit the synthesis of glucan-biofilms on microplates. RESULTS: Naked nisin (100 pmol) completely suppressed insoluble glucan-biofilm synthesis by S. mutans 10449 following 1 h cultivation in 96-well microplates. The concentration of nisin-liposome required for the efficacious inhibition of glucan-biofilm synthesis was four times lower than that of naked nisin following 2 h cultivation. In particular, nisin-liposome (30 pmol nisin equivalent) prolonged the inhibitory activity of nisin against glucan-biofilm synthesis by S. mutans 10449 for up to 6 h, while naked nisin (30 pmol) gradually lost this inhibitory activity over the same period. In vitro release assay of nisin from the liposome showed that 76% nisin was released within 6 h. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The findings indicate the usefulness of nisin-liposome for the sustained release of nisin. Thus, nisin-liposome could play a potential role in preventive medicine as an inhibitor of the glucan-biofilm synthesis.

Yamakami K; Tsumori H; Sakurai Y; Shimizu Y; Nagatoshi K; Sonomoto K

2013-02-01

352

AGENT OF HERBICIDAL EFFECT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An agent of herbicidal effect contains quizalofop-p-ethyl as an active ingredient, sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate as a surface-active agent, a mineral oil as a solvent of the active ingredient and a carrier of the herbicidal agent.

ILCHENKO LARYSA PETRIVNA

353

Effect of Partially Purified Streptococcal M Protein on the In Vitro Phagocytosis of Streptococcus pyogenes1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Domingue, Gerald J. (Tulane University, New Orleans, La.), and William A. Pierce, Jr. Effect of partially purified streptococcal M protein on the in vitro phagocytosis of Streptococcus pyogenes. J. Bacteriol. 89:583–588. 1965.—M protein from Streptococcus pyogenes strain Bailey type 12 was adsorbed ...

Domingue, Gerald J.; Pierce, William A.

354

ELECTROPHORETIC SEPARATION OF CONSTITUENTS OF PARTIALLY PURIFIED M PROTEIN OF STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pierce, William A., Jr. (Tulane University, New Orleans, La.). Electrophoretic separation of constituents of partially purified M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes. J. Bacteriol. 88:912–921. 1964.—Partially purified M protein of a group A, type 12 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes was studied by use ...

Pierce, William A.

355

Preparation of a sialic acid-binding protein from Streptococcus mitis KS32AR.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A recent report has identified a lectin on the surfaces of several strains of Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis with specificity for an N-acetylneuraminic acid alpha 2,3-galactose-beta 1,3-N-acetylgalactosamine sequence (P.A. Murray, M.J. Levine, L.A. Tabak, and M.S. Reddy, Biochem. Biop...

Murray, P A; Levine, M J; Reddy, M S; Tabak, L A; Bergey, E J

356

The Genome of Streptococcus mitis B6 - What Is a Commensal?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streptococcus mitis is the closest relative of the major human pathogen S. pneumoniae. The 2,15 Mb sequence of the Streptococcus mitis B6 chromosome, an unusually high-level beta-lactam resistant and multiple antibiotic resistant strain, has now been determined to encode 2100 genes. The accessory ge...

Denapaite, Dalia; Brückner, Reinhold; Nuhn, Michael; Reichmann, Peter; Henrich, Bernhard; Maurer, Patrick; Schähle, Yvonne

357

Identification of a pheA Gene Associated with Streptococcus mitis by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We performed suppression subtractive hybridization to identify genomic differences between Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on the pheA gene, a primer set specific to S. mitis detection was found in 18 out of 103 S. mitis-specific clones. Our findings would be useful for discr...

Park, Hee Kuk; Dang, Hien Thanh; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Wonyong

358

Identification of a pheA gene associated with Streptococcus mitis by using suppression subtractive hybridization.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed suppression subtractive hybridization to identify genomic differences between Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on the pheA gene, a primer set specific to S. mitis detection was found in 18 out of 103 S. mitis-specific clones. Our findings would be useful for discrimination of S. mitis from other closely related cocci in the oral environment. PMID:22307284

Park, Hee Kuk; Dang, Hien Thanh; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Wonyong

2012-02-03

359

Identification of a pheA gene associated with Streptococcus mitis by using suppression subtractive hybridization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We performed suppression subtractive hybridization to identify genomic differences between Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on the pheA gene, a primer set specific to S. mitis detection was found in 18 out of 103 S. mitis-specific clones. Our findings would be useful for discrimination of S. mitis from other closely related cocci in the oral environment.

Park HK; Dang HT; Myung SC; Kim W

2012-04-01

360

Complete Genome Sequence of an Oral Commensal, Streptococcus oligofermentans Strain AS 1.3089.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus oligofermentans, an oral commensal, inhibits the growth of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans by producing large amounts of hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, it can be a potential probiotic for oral health. Here we report the complete genome sequence of S. oligofermentans strain AS 1.3089.

Tong H; Shang N; Liu L; Wang X; Cai J; Dong X

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Perfil fermentativo e valor nutritivo de silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis/ Fermentation and nutritive value of elephant grass silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi desenvolvido objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da inoculação de estirpes de Streptococcus bovis (HC5 e JB1) sobre o pH, a produção de amônia e o valor nutricional em silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - capimelefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis HC5 e T3 - capim-elefante inoculado com Streptococcus bovis JB1, utilizando (more) cinco repetições por tratamento. A menor concentração de amônia foi observada na silagem tratada com inoculante à base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5,90 p.100 N-total). A inoculação aumentou os teores de ácido láctico e diminuiu os teores de ácidos acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo que as silagens inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 e HC5 foram os que apresentaram os maiores valores de ácido láctico. Não houve diferença estatística para os teores de MS e PB. Para os valores das fibras, a silagem de capim-elefante inoculada com Streptococcus bovis JB1 apresentou o menor valor de FDN (59,77 p.100) e HEM (26,71 p.100). O maior valor da DIVMS foi observado na silagem com Streptococcus bovis JB1, mostrando superioridade de quatro pontos percentuais (64,23 p.100) em relação ao tratamento sem inoculante bacteriano (60,35 p.100). O uso Streptococcus bovis JB1 melhora o processo fermentativo além de promover melhorarias na qualidade da fibra e na DIVMS da silagem estudada. Abstract in english The experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of strains of Streptococcus bovis (HC5 and JB1) on pH, ammonia production and nutritional value in elephant-grass silages (Pennisetum purpureum Schum). The experimental design was entirely randomized, with three treatments: T1 elephant- grass, T2 - grass-elephant inoculated with Streptococcus bovis HC5, T3 - elephant grass inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, totaling five replicates per treatment. The smallest value (more) of ammonia was observed in the silage treated with inoculante the base Streptococcus bovis JB1 (5.90% N-total). Inoculation increased the levels of lactic acid and decreased levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids, and the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5 were those with the highest values of lactic acid. There were not statistical differences for the tenors of dry matter (MS) and crude protein (PB). For the values of the fibers, the grass-elephant silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1, it presented the smallest value of neutral detergent fiber (59.77 %) and Hemicellulose (26.71 %). The largest value of in vitro dry matter digestibility (DIVMS) was observed in the silage with Streptococcus bovis JB1, showing superiority of four percentile points (64.23 %) in relation to the treatment without bacterial inoculante (60.35 %). The use Streptococcus bovis JB1 was efficient in the process fermentativo besides promoting would get better in the quality of the fiber and DIVMS in the studied silage.

Ferreira, D.J.; Zanine, A.M.; Santos, E.M.; Lana, R.P.; Silva, W.L.; Souza, A.L.; Pereira, O.G.

2011-12-01

362

Antimicrobial activity of Rheedia brasiliensis and 7-epiclusianone against Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This in vitro study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Rheedia brasiliensis fruit (bacupari) and its bioactive compound against Streptococcus mutans. Hexane, ethyl-acetate and ethanolic extracts obtained (concentrations ranging from 6.25 to 800 microg/ml) were tested against S. mutans UA159 through MIC/MBC assays. S. mutans 5-days-old biofilms were treated with the active extracts (100 x MIC) for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4h (time-kill) and plated for colony counting (CFU/ml). Active extracts were submitted to exploratory chemical analyses so as to isolate and identify the bioactive compound using spectroscopic methods. The bioactive compound (concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 80 microg/ml) was then tested through MIC/MBC assays. Peel and seed hexane extracts showed antimicrobial activity against planktonic cells at low concentrations and were thus selected for the time kill test. These hexane extracts reduced S. mutans biofilm viability after 4h, certifying of the bioactive compound presence. The bioactive compound identified was the polyprenylated benzophenone 7-epiclusianone, which showed a good antimicrobial activity at low concentrations (MIC: 1.25-2.5 microg/ml; MBC: 10-20 microg/ml). The results indicated that 7-epiclusianone may be used as a new agent to control S. mutans biofilms; however, more studies are needed to further elucidate the mechanisms of action and the anticariogenic potential of such compound found in R. brasiliensis.

Almeida LS; Murata RM; Yatsuda R; Dos Santos MH; Nagem TJ; Alencar SM; Koo H; Rosalen PL

2008-10-01

363

Susceptibility and emm type of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from children with severe infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of various antimicrobial agents were measured against 12 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from children with invasive infections between 2003 and 2012. The patients ranged in age from 1 day to 15 years, with patients younger than 5 years, including three neonates, accounting for a half of the patients. The disease was sepsis in four patients, skin and soft tissue infection in three patients, retropharyngeal abscess in two patients, pneumonia plus sepsis in one patient, empyema in one patient, and pyogenic arthritis in one patient. One patient with sepsis died, while cure without sequelae was achieved in all the remaining patients. When classified by type, emm1 (six strains) was the most prevalent type, followed by emm12 (two strains). The MIC90/MBC90 values were 0.015/0.015 ?g/mL for penicillin G, 0.03/0.03 ?g/mL for ampicillin, 0.015/0.03 ?g/mL for cefotaxime, 0.03/0.03 ?g/mL for ceftriaxone, 0.008/0.008 ?g/mL for panipenem, 0.008/0.008 ?g/mL for meropenem, and ?0.004/?0.004 ?g/mL for doripenem, indicating the superior antimicrobial activities of carbapenem. PMID:23703641

Sakata, Hiroshi

2013-05-24

364

[Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in Cuba and progression of resistance to penicillin].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: since 2006 in Cuba, there has been difficult to determine the actual incidente of bacterial meningitis and other invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, as a result of the low percentage of isolation and identification of this agent in the domestic microbiology lab network. OBJECTIVE: to warn of the need of revitalizing the active surveillance of invasive, epidemiological and microbiological pneumoccocic diseases, mainly meningitis and pneumoniae in the phase prior to vaccination. METHODS: a comparison was made on the circulation of capsulary serogroups/serotypes and the invasive infection-causing S. pneumoniae isolates susceptibility to penicilline in two periods: 1994-2006 and 2007-2009. RESULTS: the most frequent serogroups were 3, 6, 7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 23; however, in the second period, it was observed that others not contained in the available conjugate vaccines (serogrup 15) and associated to antimicrobial resistance (serotype 5) were circulating. On the other hand, increased resistance to penicilline was evident. CONCLUSIONS: it is required to study a more representative number of isolates in order to assure high effectiveness with the incorporation of some S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccines in the Cuban infant vaccination schedule. This will also allow duly assessing increased resistance to penicilline and adopting therapeutical guidelines suited to the Cuban setting.

Toraño Peraza GT; Llanes Caballero R; Pías Solis LM; Abreu Capote M; Valcárcel Sánchez M

2010-05-01

365

Potential involvement of collagen-binding proteins of Streptococcus mutans in infective endocarditis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, is considered to be one of the causative agents of infective endocarditis (IE). Two types of cell surface collagen-binding proteins, Cnm and Cbm, have been identified in the organism. The aim of the present study was to analyze these proteins as possible etiologic factors for IE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The binding activities of S. mutans strains to collagen types I, III, and IV were analyzed relative to the presence of Cnm and Cbm, as were their adhesion and invasion properties with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). In addition, distributions of the genes encoding Cnm and Cbm in S. mutans-positive heart valve specimens extirpated from IE and non-IE patients were analyzed by PCR. RESULTS: Most of the Cbm-positive strains showed higher levels of binding to type I collagen as well as higher rates of adhesion and invasion with HUVEC as compared to the Cnm-positive strains. Furthermore, the gene encoding Cbm was detected significantly more frequently in heart valve specimens from IE patients than from non-IE patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the collagen-binding protein Cbm of S. mutans may be one of the potential important factor associated with the pathogenesis of IE.

Nomura R; Naka S; Nemoto H; Inagaki S; Taniguchi K; Ooshima T; Nakano K

2013-05-01

366

Phenotypic characterization of the foldase homologue PrsA in Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus mutans is generally considered to be the principal etiological agent for dental caries. Many of the proteins necessary for its colonization of the oral cavity and pathogenesis are exported to the cell surface or the extracellular matrix, a process that requires the assistance of the export machineries. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the S. mutans genome contains a prsA gene, whose counterparts in other gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus and Lactococcus, encode functions involved in protein post-export. In this study, we constructed a PrsA-deficient derivative of S. mutans and demonstrated that the prsA mutant displayed an altered cell wall/membrane protein profile as well as cell-surface-related phenotypes, including auto-aggregation, increased surface hydrophobicity and abnormal biofilm formation. Further analysis revealed that the disruption of the prsA gene resulted in reduced insoluble glucan production by cell surface localized glucosyltransferases, and mutacin as well as cell surface-display of a heterologous expressed GFP fusion to the cell surface protein SpaP. Our study suggested that PrsA in S. mutans encodes functions similar to those identified in Bacillus, and so is likely to be involved in protein post-export. PMID:23241367

Guo, L; Wu, T; Hu, W; He, X; Sharma, S; Webster, P; Gimzewski, J K; Zhou, X; Lux, R; Shi, W

2012-12-13

367

Effect of citrus lemon oil on growth and adherence of Streptococcus mutans.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to exploit novel anticaries agents, we investigated the effects of citrus lemon oil (CLO), a type of natural product, on growth and adherence of the primary oral cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The growth inhibitory effect was explored with a micro-dilution assay. Adherence was analyzed by colony counts on the respective surfaces and the adherence inhibition rate (AIR). Real time-PCR was used to investigate the effects of CLO on transcription of glucosyltransferase (Gtf) encoding genes, gtfB, C and D. Neson-Somogyi method was used to measure the effects of CLO on Gtf activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of CLO against S. mutans was 4.5 mg/ml. The CLO effectively reduced the adherence of S. mutans on glass surface (the AIR were from 98.3 to 100 %, P > 0.05) and saliva-coated enamel surface (the AIR were from 54.8 to 79.2 %, P S. mutans. It can also inhibit the transcription of gtfs, as well as the Gtf enzyme activity. PMID:23381618

Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Feifei; Yu, Zhifen; Wang, Li; Chen, Shuanglu; Guo, Maoding

2013-02-05

368

A novel observation of pubic osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus viridans after dental extraction: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pubic osteomyelitis should be suspected in athletic individuals with sudden groin pain, painful restriction of hip movements and fever. It is an infrequent and confusing disorder, which is often heralded by atypical gait disturbance and diffuse pain in the pelvic girdle. The most common pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus but, on occasions, efforts to identify infectious agents sometimes prove negative. Pubic osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus viridans has not been reported previously in the literature. Case presentation We describe the case of a fit 24-year-old athlete, who had a wisdom tooth extracted 2 weeks prior to the presentation, which could have served as a port of entry and predisposed the patient to transient bacteraemia. Conclusion S. viridans is well known for causing infective endocarditis of native damaged heart valves, but to the best of the authors' knowledge it has not been reported previously as a cause of pubic osteomyelitis. We believe that this case should alert physicians to the association between dental procedures and osteomyelitis of the pubis secondary to S. viridans.

Naqvi Naseem; Naqvi Rizwana; Wong Christopher; Pearce Sushmita

2008-01-01

369

Gene content differences across strains of Streptococcus uberis identified using oligonucleotide microarray comparative genomic hybridization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus uberis is one of the principal causative agents of bovine mastitis. The organism is typically considered an environmental pathogen. In this study, two multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes and whole genome DNA microarrays were used to evaluate the degree and nature of genome flexibility between S. uberis strains. The 21 isolates examined in this study arise from a collection of 232 international isolates for which previous epidemiological and preliminary genotyping data existed. The microarray analysis resulted in an estimate of the core genome for S. uberis, consisting of 1530 ORFs, among 1855 tested, representing 82.5% of the S. uberis 0140J genome. The remaining ORFs were variable in gene content across the 21 tested strains. A total of 26 regions of difference (RDs), consisting of three or more contiguous ORFs, were identified among the variable genes. Core genes mainly encoded housekeeping functions, while the variable genes primarily fell within categories such as protection responses, degradation of small molecules, laterally acquired elements, and two component systems. Recombination detection procedures involving the MLST loci suggested S. uberis is a highly recombinant species, precluding accurate phylogenetic reconstructions involving these data. On the other hand, the microarray data did provide limited support for an association of gene content with strains found in multiple cows and/or multiple herds, suggesting the possibility of genes related to bovine transmissibility or host-adaptation.

Lang P; Lefébure T; Wang W; Zadoks RN; Schukken Y; Stanhope MJ

2009-03-01

370

Gene content differences across strains of Streptococcus uberis identified using oligonucleotide microarray comparative genomic hybridization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus uberis is one of the principal causative agents of bovine mastitis. The organism is typically considered an environmental pathogen. In this study, two multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes and whole genome DNA microarrays were used to evaluate the degree and nature of genome flexibility between S. uberis strains. The 21 isolates examined in this study arise from a collection of 232 international isolates for which previous epidemiological and preliminary genotyping data existed. The microarray analysis resulted in an estimate of the core genome for S. uberis, consisting of 1530 ORFs, among 1855 tested, representing 82.5% of the S. uberis 0140J genome. The remaining ORFs were variable in gene content across the 21 tested strains. A total of 26 regions of difference (RDs), consisting of three or more contiguous ORFs, were identified among the variable genes. Core genes mainly encoded housekeeping functions, while the variable genes primarily fell within categories such as protection responses, degradation of small molecules, laterally acquired elements, and two component systems. Recombination detection procedures involving the MLST loci suggested S. uberis is a highly recombinant species, precluding accurate phylogenetic reconstructions involving these data. On the other hand, the microarray data did provide limited support for an association of gene content with strains found in multiple cows and/or multiple herds, suggesting the possibility of genes related to bovine transmissibility or host-adaptation. PMID:19056519

Lang, Ping; Lefébure, Tristan; Wang, Wei; Zadoks, Ruth N; Schukken, Ynte; Stanhope, Michael J

2008-11-14

371

Influences of Dryopteris crassirhizoma Extract on the Viability, Growth and Virulence Properties of Streptococcus mutans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dryopteris crassirhizoma is traditionally used as an herbal remedy for various diseases, and has been identified in a previous study as a potential anti-caries agent. In this study, the effect of a methanol extract of D. crassirhizoma on the viability, growth and virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic dental pathogen, was investigated. In addition, the phytochemical composition of the extract was analyzed. The extract showed bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity against oral bacteria (MIC and MBC of S. mutans: 62.5 and 250 ?g/mL, respectively). At two times the MBC, the extract significantly eliminated S. mutans up to 99.9% after 1 h incubation. The extract also dose-dependently reduced growth rates of S. mutans at sub-MIC levels. Furthermore, at sub-MIC levels, virulence properties (acid production, acid tolerance, glucosyltransferase activity and sucrose-dependent adherence) of S. mutans were also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of mono and disaccharides (44.9%), fatty acids (12.3%) and sugar alcohols (6.8%) in the extract. These data indicate that the extract might be useful for the control of dental caries.

Suk-Ho Ban; Jeong-Eun Kim; Santosh Pandit; Jae-Gyu Jeon

2012-01-01

372

Tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate inhibits Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by suppressing gtf genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The anti-cariogenic properties of tea have been suggested for decades. Tea polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), have been shown to inhibit dental plaque accumulation, but the exact mechanisms are not clear at present. We hypothesise that EGCG suppresses gtf genes in Streptococcus mutans at the transcriptional level disrupting the initial attachment of S. mutans and thus the formation of mature biofilms. DESIGN: In this study, the effect of EGCG on the sucrose-dependent initial attachment of S. mutans UA159 in a chemically defined medium was monitored over 4 h using a chamber slide model. The effects of EGCG on the aggregation and gtf B, C, D gene expression of S. mutans UA159 were also examined. RESULTS: It was found that EGCG (7.8-31.25 ?g/ml) exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of the initial attachment of S. mutans UA159. EGCG did not induce cellular aggregation of S. mutans UA159 at concentrations less than 78.125 ?g/ml. Analysis of data obtained from real-time PCR showed that EGCG at sub-MIC level (15.6 ?g/ml) significantly suppressed the gtf B, C, D genes of S. mutans UA159 compared with the non-treated control (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that EGCG may represent a novel, natural anti-plaque agent that inhibits the specific genes associated with bacterial biofilm formation without necessarily affecting the growth of oral bacteria.

Xu X; Zhou XD; Wu CD

2012-06-01

373

The Pst system of Streptococcus mutans is important for phosphate transport and adhesion to abiotic surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pst system is a high-affinity inorganic phosphate transporter found in many bacterial species. Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of tooth decay, carries a single copy of the pst operon composed of six cistrons (pstS, pstC1, pstC, pstB, smu.1134 and phoU). Here, we show that deletion of pstS, encoding the phosphate-binding protein, reduces phosphate uptake and impairs cell growth, which can be restored upon enrichment of the medium with high concentrations of inorganic phosphate. The relevance of Pst for growth was also demonstrated in the wild-type strain treated with an anti-PstS antibody. Nevertheless, a reduced ability to bind to saliva-coated surfaces was observed, along with the reduction of extracellular polysaccharide production, although no difference on pH acidification was observed between mutant and wild-type strains. Taken together, the present data indicate that the S. mutans Pst system participates in phosphate uptake, cell growth and expression of virulence-associated traits. PMID:22520387

Luz, D E; Nepomuceno, R S L; Spira, B; Ferreira, R C C

2012-02-18

374

The Pst system of Streptococcus mutans is important for phosphate transport and adhesion to abiotic surfaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Pst system is a high-affinity inorganic phosphate transporter found in many bacterial species. Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of tooth decay, carries a single copy of the pst operon composed of six cistrons (pstS, pstC1, pstC, pstB, smu.1134 and phoU). Here, we show that deletion of pstS, encoding the phosphate-binding protein, reduces phosphate uptake and impairs cell growth, which can be restored upon enrichment of the medium with high concentrations of inorganic phosphate. The relevance of Pst for growth was also demonstrated in the wild-type strain treated with an anti-PstS antibody. Nevertheless, a reduced ability to bind to saliva-coated surfaces was observed, along with the reduction of extracellular polysaccharide production, although no difference on pH acidification was observed between mutant and wild-type strains. Taken together, the present data indicate that the S. mutans Pst system participates in phosphate uptake, cell growth and expression of virulence-associated traits.

Luz DE; Nepomuceno RS; Spira B; Ferreira RC

2012-06-01

375

Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Supplemented-Chewing Candy Against Streptococcus mutans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans is considered to play a major etiological role in development of human dental plaque believed to related to dental caries, the most prevalent disease of the human oral cavity. The objectives of the present study were to formulate and produce propolis supplemented-chewing candy and to investigate its antibacterial activity against S. mutans. Propolis is a natural resinous bee-hive product thought to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating activities. Propolis was extracted from hives of bees of Trigona spp. using ethanol. The extract was coated with maltodextrine and homogenized to generate propolis microparticles. The particles were introduced into chewing candy preparations for the production of propolis supplemented-chewing candy. The candy was then subjected to in vitro antibacterial assays to test its activity against S. mutans isolated from human dental plaque. Results showed that the ethanol extracted propolis of Trigona spp. bee-hives can be homogenized to form propolis microparticles. The propolis microparticles could be used as a supplement in the formulation of chewing candy preparations. The propolis supplemented-chewing candy showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans. The candy, therefore, has the potential to be used as an antiplaque agent for prevention of dental caries.

I MADE ARTIKA; HARYANTO SUSILO; ADINDA VIRGINIA DWI SETYO; AHMAD ENDANG ZAINAL HASAN

2011-01-01

376

Changes in biochemical and phenotypic properties of Streptococcus mutans during growth with aeration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oxygen has a potent influence on the expression of genes and the activity of physiological and biochemical pathways in bacteria. We have found that oxygen significantly altered virulence-related phenotypic properties of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. Transport of glucose, fructose, or mannose by the sugar:phosphotransferase system was significantly enhanced by growth under aerobic conditions, whereas aeration caused an extended lag phase and slower growth of S. mutans in medium containing glucose, fructose, or mannose as the carbohydrate source. Aeration resulted in a decrease in the glycolytic rate and enhanced the production of intracellular storage polysaccharides. Although aeration decreased the acid tolerance of S. mutans, aerobically grown cells had higher F-ATPase activity. Aeration altered biofilm architecture but did not change the ability of S. mutans to interact with salivary agglutinin. Growth in air resulted in enhanced cell-associated glucosyltransferase (Gtf) activity at the expense of cell-free Gtf activity. These results demonstrate that S. mutans can dramatically alter its pathogenic potential in response to exposure to oxygen, suggesting that the phenotype of the organism may be highly variable in the human oral cavity depending on the maturity of the dental plaque biofilm.

Ahn SJ; Ahn SJ; Browngardt CM; Burne RA

2009-04-01

377

Diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the gene for pneumolysin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis has long been based on classical methods of Gram stain, serological tests, and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of these methods, especially culture and direct smear, is thwarted by failure to detect bacteria following administration of antimicrobial agents and reluctance to performance lumbar punctures at admission. Indeed, patients with meningitis frequently receive antibiotics orally or by injection before the diagnosis is suspected or established. Thus an alternative method has become necessary to help clinicians and epidemiologists to management and control of bacterial meningitis. We evaluate the application of a polymerase chain reaction-based (PCR) assay for amplification of pneumolysin gene (ply) to diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. The PCR assay sensitivity for CSF was 96% (95% confidence interval, CI, 90-99%) compared to a sensitivity of 59% for culture (95% CI 49-69%), 66% for Gram stain (95% CI 56-74%), and 78% for latex agglutination test (95% CI 69-86%); PCR specificity was 100% (95% CI 83-100%). PCR results were available within 4 h of the start of the assay. This molecular approach proved to be reliable and useful to identify this bacterium compared with other classical laboratory methods for identification of bacterial meningitis pathogens.

Juliana de A Matos; Danielle J Madureira; Maria C Rebelo; Cristina B Hofer; David E Barroso

2006-01-01

378

Diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the gene for pneumolysin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis has long been based on classical methods of Gram stain, serological tests, and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of these methods, especially culture and direct smear, is thwarted by failure to detect bacteria following administration of antimicrobial agents and reluctance to performance lumbar punctures at admission. Indeed, patients with meningitis frequently receive antibiotics orally or by injection before the diag (more) nosis is suspected or established. Thus an alternative method has become necessary to help clinicians and epidemiologists to management and control of bacterial meningitis. We evaluate the application of a polymerase chain reaction-based (PCR) assay for amplification of pneumolysin gene (ply) to diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. The PCR assay sensitivity for CSF was 96% (95% confidence interval, CI, 90-99%) compared to a sensitivity of 59% for culture (95% CI 49-69%), 66% for Gram stain (95% CI 56-74%), and 78% for latex agglutination test (95% CI 69-86%); PCR specificity was 100% (95% CI 83-100%). PCR results were available within 4 h of the start of the assay. This molecular approach proved to be reliable and useful to identify this bacterium compared with other classical laboratory methods for identification of bacterial meningitis pathogens.

Matos, Juliana de A; Madureira, Danielle J; Rebelo, Maria C; Hofer, Cristina B; Barroso, David E

2006-08-01

379

Establishment of a model of Streptococcus iniae meningoencephalitis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus iniae is an invasive pathogen causing meningitis and other lesions in various fish species. Furthermore, S. iniae is an emerging zoonotic agent that causes cellulitis in man. The aims of this study were to establish an intraperitoneal infection model for S. iniae in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to develop a new histopathological scoring system to reflect the degree and extent of inflammation as well as the presence of necrosis in the brain and eye. Intraperitoneal administration of 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) led to 80% mortality and numerous fish developing clinical signs of central nervous system dysfunction. Microscopical examination of four regions of the brain (olfactory bulb, cerebellum, cerebrum and optical lobe) and the eye revealed the presence of lymphohistiocytic leptomeningitis, meningoencephalitis and endophthalmitis. Lesions were dominated by macrophages that often contained intracellular bacteria. Necrosis was recorded in some cases. Bacteriological screening revealed that multiple organs, including brain and eye, were infected with S. iniae and S. iniae colonized the scales and gills in high number. S. iniae was detected in tank water during the first week post infection, suggesting that infected tilapia might shed up to 3 × 10(7) CFU of S. iniae within 24 h. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction allowed confirmation of the challenge strain by detection of the virulence factors simA, scpI, cpsD, pgi, pgm and sagA. PMID:23218409

Baums, C G; Hermeyer, K; Leimbach, S; Adamek, M; Czerny, C-P; Hörstgen-Schwark, G; Valentin-Weigand, P; Baumgärtner, W; Steinhagen, D

2012-12-04

380

Establishment of a model of Streptococcus iniae meningoencephalitis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus iniae is an invasive pathogen causing meningitis and other lesions in various fish species. Furthermore, S. iniae is an emerging zoonotic agent that causes cellulitis in man. The aims of this study were to establish an intraperitoneal infection model for S. iniae in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to develop a new histopathological scoring system to reflect the degree and extent of inflammation as well as the presence of necrosis in the brain and eye. Intraperitoneal administration of 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) led to 80% mortality and numerous fish developing clinical signs of central nervous system dysfunction. Microscopical examination of four regions of the brain (olfactory bulb, cerebellum, cerebrum and optical lobe) and the eye revealed the presence of lymphohistiocytic leptomeningitis, meningoencephalitis and endophthalmitis. Lesions were dominated by macrophages that often contained intracellular bacteria. Necrosis was recorded in some cases. Bacteriological screening revealed that multiple organs, including brain and eye, were infected with S. iniae and S. iniae colonized the scales and gills in high number. S. iniae was detected in tank water during the first week post infection, suggesting that infected tilapia might shed up to 3 × 10(7) CFU of S. iniae within 24 h. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction allowed confirmation of the challenge strain by detection of the virulence factors simA, scpI, cpsD, pgi, pgm and sagA.

Baums CG; Hermeyer K; Leimbach S; Adamek M; Czerny CP; Hörstgen-Schwark G; Valentin-Weigand P; Baumgärtner W; Steinhagen D

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Effect of citrus lemon oil on growth and adherence of Streptococcus mutans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to exploit novel anticaries agents, we investigated the effects of citrus lemon oil (CLO), a type of natural product, on growth and adherence of the primary oral cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The growth inhibitory effect was explored with a micro-dilution assay. Adherence was analyzed by colony counts on the respective surfaces and the adherence inhibition rate (AIR). Real time-PCR was used to investigate the effects of CLO on transcription of glucosyltransferase (Gtf) encoding genes, gtfB, C and D. Neson-Somogyi method was used to measure the effects of CLO on Gtf activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of CLO against S. mutans was 4.5 mg/ml. The CLO effectively reduced the adherence of S. mutans on glass surface (the AIR were from 98.3 to 100 %, P > 0.05) and saliva-coated enamel surface (the AIR were from 54.8 to 79.2 %, P < 0.05). CLO effectively reduced the activity of Gtf and the transcription of gtfs in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CLO can effectively inhibit the growth and the adherence to glass and saliva-coated enamel surfaces of S. mutans. It can also inhibit the transcription of gtfs, as well as the Gtf enzyme activity.

Liu Y; Zhang X; Wang Y; Chen F; Yu Z; Wang L; Chen S; Guo M

2013-07-01

382

Resistance to freezing and frozen storage of Streptococcus thermophilus is related to membrane fatty acid composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The resistance to freezing and frozen storage of Streptococcus thermophilus was related to the fatty acid composition of the cell membrane. The effects of four experimental factors were investigated on the fatty acid concentrations and on the recovery of acidification activity of S. thermophilus stored at -20 degrees C by using a complete experimental design: incorporating oleic acid in the culture medium, fermentation pH, addition of glycerol as cryoprotective agent and duration of storage. The acidification activity decreased during the freezing and the frozen storage of S. thermophilus. The storage time slightly enhanced the unsaturated fatty acid concentrations. The addition of glycerol did not modify the fatty acid composition but increased the resistance to frozen storage. The addition of oleic acid and the decrease of the fermentation pH enhanced the ratio unsaturated:saturated fatty acids and improved the recovery of the acidification activity. These results indicate that the resistance to frozen storage was closely related to the membrane fatty acid composition. We interpreted this as an adaptation of S. thermophilus to the addition of oleic acid and the unfavorable growth conditions that corresponded to a low fermentation pH.

Beal C; Fonseca F; Corrieu G

2001-11-01

383

Evaluation of genotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans using distinct arbitrary primers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with arbitrary primers, several primers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identif (more) ication among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11) presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.

Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Sousa, Maria Clara K.; Arthur, Rodrigo Alex; Mattos-Graner, Renata Oliveira; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

2008-12-01