WorldWideScience

Sample records for storage system buildings

  1. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results from the investigation on the measured system is presented.

  2. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-04-07

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research projectperformed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  3. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research project performed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site

  4. Optimal control of building storage systems using both ice storage and thermal mass – Part I: Simulation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A simulation environment is described to account for both passive and active thermal energy storage (TES) systems. ? Laboratory testing results have been used to validate the predictions from the simulation environment. ? Optimal control strategies for TES systems have been developed as part of the simulation environment. - Abstract: This paper presents a simulation environment that can evaluate the benefits of using simultaneously building thermal capacitance and ice storage system to reduce total operating costs including energy and demand charges while maintaining adequate occupant comfort conditions within commercial buildings. The building thermal storage is controlled through pre-cooling strategies by setting space indoor air temperatures. The ice storage system is controlled by charging the ice tank and operating the chiller during low electrical charge periods and melting the ice during on-peak periods. Optimal controls for both building thermal storage and ice storage are developed to minimize energy charges, demand charges, or combined energy and demand charges. The results obtained from the simulation environment are validated using laboratory testing for an optimal controller.

  5. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits of operating heat pumps flexibly. This includes prioritising heat pump operation for hours with low marginal electricity production costs, and peak load shaving resulting in a reduced need for peak and reserve capacity investments. - Highlights: • Model optimising heat pumps and heat storages in integration with the energy system. • Optimisation of both energy system investments and operation. • Heat storage in building structure and thermal storage tanks included. • Model well qualified for analysing system benefits of flexible heat pump operation. • Covers peak load shaving and operation prioritised for low electricity prices

  6. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Balyk, Olexandr

    2013-01-01

    Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits of operating heat pumps flexibly. This includes prioritising heat pump operation for hours with low marginal electricity production costs, and peak load shaving resulting in a reduced need for peak and reserve capacity investments.

  7. Heat of fusion storage systems for combined solar systems in low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, JØrgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Solar heating systems for combined domestic hot water and space heating has a large potential especially in low energy houses where it is possible to take full advantage of low temperature heating systems. If a building integrated heating system is used – e.g. floor heating - the supply temperature (and the the return temperature) would only be a few degrees above room temperature due to the very low heating demand and the large heat transfer surface area. One of the objectives in a newly started IEA Task 32 project is to investigate and develop improved thermal storages for combined solar systems through further improvement of water based storages and in parallel to investigate the potential of using storage designs with phase change materials, PCM. The advantage of phase change materials is that large amounts of energy can be stored without temperature increase when the material is going from solid to liquid form (Fig. 1). Keeping the temperature as low as possible is an efficient way to reduce the heat loss from the storage. Furthermore, the PCM storage might be smaller than the equivalent water storage as more energy can be stored per volume. If the PCM further has the possibility of a stable super cooling, i.e. the material is able to cool down below its freezing point (Tfusion) and still be liquid, the possibility exist for a storage with a very low heat loss. When energy is needed from the storage the solidification is activated and the temperature rises almost instantly to the melting point. The work within the IEA Task 32 project focuses on the phase change material Sodium Acetate with xanthan rubber. This material melts at 58 °C, which means that low temperature heating systems could make full use of such a storage system. Energy to a large extent can be withdrawn even when the storage is in its super cooled phase without activation of the phase change. This paper presents an initial simulation model of a PCM storage for implementation in TRNSYS 15 [1] as well as the first test results achieved with the model.

  8. Energy managemant through PCM based thermal storage system for building air-conditioning: Tidel Park, Chennai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many modern building are designed for air-conditioning and the amount of electrical energy required for providing air-conditioning can be very significant especially in the tropics. Conservation of energy is major concern to improve the overall efficiency of the system. Integration is energy storage with the conventional system gives a lot of potential for energy saving and long-term economics. Thermal energy storage systems can improve energy management and help in matching supply and demand patterns. In the present work, a detailed study has been done on the existing thermal energy storage system used in the air-conditioning system in Tidel Park, Chennai. The present study focuses on the cool energy storage system. The modes of operation and advantages of such a system for energy management are highlighted. The reason for the adoption of combined storage system and the size of the storage medium in the air-conditioning plant are analyzed. The possibility of using this concept in other cooling and heating applications, such as storage type solar water heating system, has been explored

  9. Performance evaluation of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with chilled water storage (CIESOL building)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We present a new solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s operation sequence. ? This mode considers the chilled water tanks action with variable-speed pump. ? It permits to save about 20% and 30% of energy and water consumption, respectively. ? It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. ? It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study presents the performance of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with two chilled water storage tanks installed in the Solar Energy Research Center building. The system consists mainly of solar collectors’ array, a hot-water driven absorption chiller, a cooling tower, two hot storage tanks, an auxiliary heater as well as two chilled storage tanks. The chilled water storage tank circuit was further investigated in order to find the optimum solar system’s operation sequence while providing the best energy performance. Firstly, we carried out a study about the dynamics of building’s cooling load and the necessity of the integration of chilled water storage tanks to solar system. Subsequently, the new system’s operation mode was proposed to reduce the energy consumption. The results demonstrate that we can save about 20% of the total energy consumption and about 30% of water consumption applying the new operation sequence, which takes into account the chilled water tanks action. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the integrarated that the integration of chilled water storage tanks allows to reduce the sudden absorption chiller on/off cycles, thereby improving the efficiency of the solar-assisted system.

  10. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Hugo; Radu Zmeureanu

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1) reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2) using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS softwar...

  11. Energy efficient hybrid nanocomposite-based cool thermal storage air conditioning system for sustainable buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest towards energy conservative building design is increasingly popular in recent years, which has triggered greater interests in developing energy efficient systems for space cooling in buildings. In this work, energy efficient silver–titania HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-based cool thermal energy storage) system combined with building A/C (air conditioning) system was experimentally investigated for summer and winter design conditions. HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposite particles embedded PCM) used as the heat storage material has exhibited 7.3–58.4% of improved thermal conductivity than at its purest state. The complete freezing time for HiNPCM was reduced by 15% which was attributed to its improved thermophysical characteristics. Experimental results suggest that the effective energy redistribution capability of HiTES system has contributed for reduction in the chiller nominal cooling capacity by 46.3% and 39.6% respectively, under part load and on-peak load operating conditions. The HiTES A/C system achieved 27.3% and 32.5% of on-peak energy savings potential in summer and winter respectively compared to the conventional A/C system. For the same operating conditions, this system yield 8.3%, 12.2% and 7.2% and 10.2% of per day average and yearly energy conservation respectively. This system can be applied for year-round space conditioning application without sacrificing energy efficiency in buildings. - Highlights: • Energy storage is acquired by HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-thermal storage) system. • Thermal conductivity of HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposites-PCM) was improved by 58.4%. • Freezing time of HiNPCM was reduced by 15% that enabled improved energy efficiency. • Chiller nominal capacity was reduced by 46.3% and 39.6% in on-peak and part load respectively. • HiTES A/C system achieved appreciable energy savings in the range of 8.3–12.2%

  12. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  13. Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahovac, Milica

    2012-11-29

    The thermal conditioning systems are responsible for almost half of the energy consump-tion by commercial buildings. In many European countries and in the USA, buildings account for around 40% of primary energy consumption and it is therefore vital to explore further ways to reduce the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system energy consumption. This thesis investigates the relationship between the energy genera-tion and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings (shorter: primary HVAC systems) and the conceptual building design. Certain building design decisions irreversibly influence a building's energy performance and, conversely, many generation and storage components impose restrictions on building design and, by their nature, cannot be introduced at a later design stage. The objective is, firstly, to develop a method to quantify this influence, in terms of primary HVAC system dimensions, its cost, emissions and energy consumption and, secondly, to enable the use of the developed method by architects during the conceptual design. In order to account for the non-stationary effects of the intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), thermal storage and for the component part load efficiencies, a time domain system simulation is required. An abstract system simulation method is proposed based on seven pre-configured primary HVAC system models, including components such as boil-ers, chillers and cooling towers, thermal storage, solar thermal collectors, and photovoltaic modules. A control strategy is developed for each of the models and their annual quasi-stationary simulation is performed. The performance profiles obtained are then used to calculate the energy consumption, carbon emissions and costs. The annuity method has been employed to calculate the cost. Optimization is used to automatically size the HVAC systems, based on their simulation performance. Its purpose is to identify the system component dimensions that provide minimal costs, emissions or consumption, while maintaining the quality of the supply and, where specified, achieving the targeted annual solar ratio. Two optimization algorithms, the global bounded Nelder Mead and the Exhaustive search are implemented. Simulation and optimization performance has been evaluated using building and weather data for four cities situated in four different climates. Finally a tool, entitled PROBA, has been proposed by adding a user interface to the mod-els. The major characteristic of the interface is its suitability for non-expert users. This is achieved by, firstly, reducing amount of input data by implementing preset values and, secondly, providing information support. Making this tool available to the architects repre-sents an effective way to consider the primary HVAC during the preliminary design, with-out causing additional cost. Although such a tool can never replace an HVAC engineer, its use can heighten the awareness of architects regarding the significance of building energy consumption and inspire further education in this field.

  14. Thermoeconomic analysis of a building energy system integrated with energy storage options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Combined sensible, latent and thermochemical thermal energy storage systems. • Thermoeconomic analysis of TES system. • Dead state temperature effects on thermoeconomics. - Abstract: This study deals with exergetic and thermoeconomic analyses of thermal energy storage (TES) systems, such as latent, sensible and thermochemical options coupled with different units for building heating applications under varying reference (dead-state) temperatures of 8 °C, 9 °C and 10 °C, respectively. It is found that the variation reference temperature affects the thermoeconomic parameters. The exergetic cost of the system becomes higher at the higher reference conditions, as directly proportional to the varying dead state conditions. It also becomes minimum at 8 °C reference temperature as 196.96 $/h while it is maximum at 10 °C dead-state temperature with 357.60 $/h. Furthermore, the maximum capital cost of the equipment is determined for the thermochemical TES as 4.612 $/h. So, the better optimization of this equipment may be considered

  15. Thermodynamic analyses and assessments of various thermal energy storage systems for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Proposing a novel latent (PCM), thermochemical and sensible (aquifer) TES combination for building heating. ? Performing comprehensive environmental, energy, exergy and sustainability analyses. ? Investigating the effect of varying dead state temperatures on the TESs. - Abstract: In this study, energetic, exergetic, environmental and sustainability analyses and their assessments are carried out for latent, thermochemical and sensible thermal energy storage (TES) systems for phase change material (PCM) supported building applications under varying environment (surrounding) temperatures. The present system consists of a floor heating system, System-I, System-II and System-III. The floor heating system stays at the building floor supported with a floor heating unit and pump. The System-I includes a latent TES system and a fan. The latent TES system is comprised of a PCM supported building envelope, in which from outside to inside; glass, transparent insulation material, PCM, air channel and insulation material are placed, respectively. Furthermore, System-II mainly has a solar-thermochemical TES while there are an aquifer TES and a heat pump in System-III. Among the TESs, the hot and cold wells of the aquifer TES have maximum exergetic efficiency values of 88.782% and 69.607% at 8 °C dead state temperature, respectively. According to the energy efficiency aspects of TESs, the discharging processes of the latent TES and the hot well of the aquifer TESand the hot well of the aquifer TES possess the minimum and maximum values of 5.782% and 94.118% at 8 °C dead state temperature, respectively. Also, the fan used with the latent TES is the most environmentally-benign system component among the devices. Furthermore, the most sustainable TES is found for the aquifer TES while the worst sustainable system is the latent TES.

  16. Airborne Effluent Monitoring System Certification for New Canister Storage Building Ventilation Exhaust Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted three of the six tests needed to verify that the effluent monitoring system for the new Canister Storage Building ventilation exhaust stack meets applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the location for the air-sampling probe and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering the location for the air-sampling probe ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample-transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in this report. The tests reported here cover the contaminant tracer uniformity and particle delivery performance criteria. These criteria were successfully met. The other three tests were conducted by the start-up staff of Duke Engineering and Services Hanford Inc. (DESH) and reported elsewhere. The Canister Storage Building is located in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The new air-exhaust system was built under the W379 Project. The air sampling system features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and a filter holder to collect the sample

  17. System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document implements the procedure for providing configuration control for the monitoring and control systems associated with the operation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). It identifies and defines the configuration items in the monitoring and control systems, provides configuration control of these items throughout the system life cycle, provides configuration status accounting, physical protection and control, and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items. It is written to comply with HNF-SD-SNF-CM-001, Spent Nuclear Fuel Configuration Management Plan (Forehand 1998), HNF-PRO-309, Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-2778, IRM Application Software System Life Cycle Standards, and applicable sections of administrative procedure AP-CM-6-037-00, SNF Project Process Automation Software and Equipment Configuration Management

  18. Modeling and simulation to determine the potential energy savings by implementing cold thermal energy storage system in office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simulating the CTES system behavior based on Malaysian climate. • Almost 65% of power is used for cooling for cooling the office buildings, every day. • The baseline shows an acceptable match with real data from the fieldwork. • Overall, the energy used for full load storage is much than the conventional system. • The load levelling storage strategy has 3.7% lower energy demand. - Abstract: In Malaysia, air conditioning (AC) systems are considered as the major energy consumers in office buildings with almost 57% share. During the past decade, cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems have been widely used for their significant economic benefits. However, there were always doubts about their energy saving possibilities. The main objective of the present work is to develop a computer model to determine the potential energy savings of implementing CTES systems in Malaysia. A case study building has been selected to determine the energy consumption pattern of an office building. In the first step the building baseline model was developed and validated with the recorded data from the fieldwork. Once the simulation results reach an acceptable accuracy, different CTES system configuration was added to the model to predict their energy consumption pattern. It was found that the overall energy used by the full load storage strategy is considerably more than the conventional system. However, by applying the load leveling storage strategy, and considering its benefits to reduce the air handling unit size and reducing the pumping power, the overall energy usage was almost 4% lower than the non-storage system. Although utilizing CTES systems cannot reduce the total energy consumption considerably, but it has several outstanding benefits such as cost saving, bringing balance in the grid system, reducing the overall fuel consumption in the power plants and consequently reducing to total carbon footprint

  19. Thermal energy storage - A review of concepts and systems for heating and cooling applications in buildings : Part 1-Seasonal storage in the ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in buildings in combination with space heating and/or space cooling has recently received much attention. A variety of TES techniques have developed over the past decades. TES systems can provide short-term storage for peak-load shaving as well as long-term (seasonal) storage for the introduction of natural and renewable energy sources. TES systems for heating or cooling are utilized in applications where there is a time mismatch between the demand and the most economically favorable supply of energy. The selection of a TES system mainly depends on the storage period required, economic viability, and operating conditions. One of the main issues impeding the utilization of the full potential of natural and renewable energy sources, e.g., solar and geothermal, for space heating and space cooling applications is the development of economically competitive and reliable means for seasonal storage of thermal energy. This is particularly true at locations where seasonal variations of solar radiation are significant and/or in climates where seasonally varying space heating and cooling loads dominate energy consumption. This article conducts a literature review of different seasonal thermal energy storage concepts in the ground. The aim is to provide the basis for development of new intelligent TES possibilities in buildings.

  20. Advanced storage concepts for solar thermal systems in low energy buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Andersen, Elsa; Schultz, Joergen M.

    2006-04-07

    The aim of Task 32 is to develop new and advanced heat storage systems which are economic and technical suitable as long-term heat storage systems for solar heating plants with a high degree of coverage. The project is international and Denmark's participation has focused on Subtask A, C, and D. In Subtask A Denmark has contributed to a status report about heat storage systems. In Subtask C Denmark has focused on liquid thermal storage tanks based on NaCH{sub 3}COO?3H{sub 2}O with a melting point of 58 deg. C. Theoretical and experimental tests have been conducted in order to establish optimum conditions for storage design. In Subtask D theoretical and experimental tests of optimum designs for advanced water tanks for solar heating plants for combined space heating and domestic hot water have been conducted. (BA)

  1. Investigation on Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating and due to storage. The storage affects the heat demand passively due to higher temperatures. Hence heat loss is reduced and passive heating is optioned. In theory, by running the system flow backwards, active heating can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations in detail. In another report R-007 the main results and recommendations aresummed up for non-technicians. The results of the project are among others: The system is rather simple. Much work can be self-made to keep the price down. The system is working, but heat exchange from plastic piping to sand is rather poor. The dimensioning of the volume is rather difficult based on common knowledge. Passive heating, hence reduction of heat demand, due to the storage and especially due to the oversized solar collector area of the system, was achieved. Active heating from the sand storage was not observed. The pay-back time for the system can be estimated to be similar to solar heated domestic hot water systems in general. A number of minor improvements on the system could be pointed out.

  2. Economics of dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  3. Modelling of solar thermo-chemical system for energy storage in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Skrylnyk, Alexandre; Courbon, Emilie; Frère, Marc; Hennaut, Samuel; Andre, Philippe; Sun, Philippe; Descy, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the demonstration of the methodological design principles within theoretical modelling of thermal heat storage apparatus and simulation of inter-seasonal heat storage system. The designing procedure starts from the modelling of thermal plant behaviour, based on the simplifications in the basic hypothesis. Afterwards, a more detailed modelling, involving dynamic aspects and additional features of plant components, is prese...

  4. Open systems storage platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kirby

    1992-01-01

    The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

  5. Initial findings: The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Johnson, B.K.; Wallin, R.P.; Chiu, S.A.; Crawley, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building System Integration Research Program. The goal of the program is to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving integrated decision-making during design and construction. Improved decision-making could significantly reduce buildings' energy use by the year 2010. The objectives of the Commercial Building System Integration Research Program are: to identify and quantify the most significant energy-related interactions among building subsystems; to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving energy related interactions in building subsystems; and to provide guidance to designers, owners, and builders for improving the integration of building subsystems for energy efficiency. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research, development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued. In this report, the interactions of a water loop heat pump system and building structural mass and their effect on whole-building energy performance is analyzed. 10 refs., 54 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The Role of Energy Storage in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.; Finley, C.; Koritarov, V. S.; Molburg, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Fuli; Brackney, L.; Florita, A. R.

    2010-09-30

    Motivation and Background of Study This project was motivated by the need to understand the full value of energy storage (thermal and electric energy storage) in commercial buildings, the opportunity of benefits for building operations and the potential interactions between a building and a smart grid infrastructure. On-site or local energy storage systems are not new to the commercial building sector; they have been in place in US buildings for decades. Most building-scale storage technologies are based on thermal or electrochemical storage mechanisms. Energy storage technologies are not designed to conserve energy, and losses associated with energy conversion are inevitable. Instead, storage provides flexibility to manage load in a building or to balance load and generation in the power grid. From the building owner's perspective, storage enables load shifting to optimize energy costs while maintaining comfort. From a grid operations perspective, building storage at scale could provide additional flexibility to grid operators in managing the generation variability from intermittent renewable energy resources (wind and solar). To characterize the set of benefits, technical opportunities and challenges, and potential economic values of storage in a commercial building from both the building operation's and the grid operation's view-points is the key point of this project. The research effort was initiated in early 2010 involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify these opportunities from a commercial buildings perspective. This report summarizes the early discussions, literature reviews, stakeholder engagements, and initial results of analyses related to the overall role of energy storage in commercial buildings. Beyond the summary of roughly eight months of effort by the laboratories, the report attempts to substantiate the importance of active DOE/BTP R&D activities in this space.

  7. Numerical study of thin layer ring on improving the ice formation of building thermal storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice thermal storage systems have been widely used in HVAC and R systems for improving energy efficiency and reducing energy costs around the world. In this paper, a numerical model is developed to simulate the ice formation in a typical ice thermal storage system. The first study is to investigate the effect of a cooled cylinder placed in a rectangular space filled with water on the ice formation process. The validated numerical model can predict temperature distribution associated with liquid fraction during the process. Based on the result obtained from the first study, further research is focused on the novel structure of thin layer ring. The computational solutions can demonstrate that the thin layer ring structure can successfully increase an ice generated area and shorten the ice formation period in a typical ice thermal storage system. Finally, a parametric study was carried out to investigate the effect of material, thickness, and arrangement of thin layer ring. It predicted that the heat transfer performance of the thin layer ring is dependent on its material, thickness, and arrangement. Ice formation with novel thin layer ring can be improved by increasing the thermal conductivity of a material. A copper ring has the best performance among aluminum, stainless steel, magnesium alloy. The results show that the ice formation rate can be increased by increasing the thickness of the ring from 0.25 mm to 1 mm, while slowed by increasing from 1 mm to 2 mm and has the best performance with 3 mm ring in this study. Finally, the staggered arrangement of ring shows the best results of the ice formation compared to one parallel and two parallel cases. - Highlights: •A thin layer ring structure is studied systematically to enhance ice formation. •Increasing thermal conductivity of thin layer ring can increase ice formation rate. •Ice formation rate is also dependent on the thickness of thin layer ring. •Increasing thin layer ring area can increase ice formation rate

  8. Dynamic Heat Storage and Cooling Capacity of a Concrete Deck with PCM and Thermally Activated Building System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a heat storage and cooling concept that utilizes a phase change material (PCM) and a thermally activated building system (TABS) implemented in a hollow core concrete deck. Numerical calculations of the dynamic heat storage capacity of the hollow core concrete deck element with and without microencapsulated PCM are presented. The new concrete deck with microencapsulated PCM is the standard deck on which an additional layer of the PCM concrete was added and, at the same time, the latent heat storage was introduced to the construction. The challenge of numerically simulating the performance of the new deck with PCM concrete is the thermal properties of such a new material, as the PCM concrete is yet to be well defined. The results presented in the paper include models in which the PCM concrete material properties, such as thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity were first calculated theoretically and subsequently the models were updated with the experimentally determined thermal properties of the PCM concrete. Then, the heat storage of the decks with theoretically and experimentally determined thermal properties were compared with each other. Finally, the results presented in the article highlight the potential of using TABS and PCM in a prefabricated concrete deck element.

  9. Effect of thermal energy storage in energy consumption required for air conditioning system in office building under the African Mediterranean climate

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulgalil Mohamed M.; Kosi Franc F.; Musbah Mohamed H.; Komatina Mirko S.

    2014-01-01

    In the African Mediterranean countries, cooling demand constitutes a large proportion of total electrical demand for office buildings during peak hours. The thermal energy storage systems can be an alternative method to be utilized to reduce and time shift the electrical load of air conditioning from on-peak to off-peak hours. In this study, the Hourly Analysis Program has been used to estimate the cooling load profile for an office building based in Tripol...

  10. Building Hierarchical Grid Storage Using the Gfarm Global File System and the JuxMem Grid Data-Sharing Service

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniu, Gabriel; Cudennec, Loïc; Ghareeb, Majd; Tatebe, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    As more and more large-scale applications need to generate and process very large volumes of data, the need for adequate storage facilities is growing. It becomes crucial to efficiently and reliably store and retrieve large sets of data that may be shared at the global scale. Based on previous systems for global data sharing (global file systems, grid data-sharing services), this paper proposes a hierarchical approach for grid storage, which combines the access efficiency of RAM storage with ...

  11. Effect of thermal energy storage in energy consumption required for air conditioning system in office building under the African Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulgalil Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the African Mediterranean countries, cooling demand constitutes a large proportion of total electrical demand for office buildings during peak hours. The thermal energy storage systems can be an alternative method to be utilized to reduce and time shift the electrical load of air conditioning from on-peak to off-peak hours. In this study, the Hourly Analysis Program has been used to estimate the cooling load profile for an office building based in Tripoli weather data conditions. Preliminary study was performed in order to define the most suitable operating strategies of ice thermal storage, including partial (load leveling and demand limiting, full storage and conventional A/C system. Then, the mathematical model of heat transfer for external ice storage would be based on the operating strategy which achieves the lowest energy consumption. Results indicate that the largest rate of energy consumption occurs when the conventional system is applied to the building, while the lowest rate of energy consumption is obtained when the partial storage (demand limiting 60% is applied. Analysis of results shows that the new layer of ice formed on the surface of the existing ice lead to an increase of thermal resistance of heat transfer, which in return decreased cooling capacity.

  12. Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

  13. Mass storage management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the application that the author developed during the time the author worked for Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, which creates an integrated storage environment. The application is built as a layer on top of the current storage manager (OSM), hiding details from the end user and manages access to all storage elements. A simple set of commands allows users to manipulate and move data between all storage elements of the system as well as to storage devices on remote machines

  14. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS, T.B.

    2000-03-16

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis to support the final CSB Safety Analysis Report and documents the results. This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis process identified hazardous conditions and material-at-risk, determined causes for potential accidents, identified preventive and mitigative features, and qualitatively estimated the frequencies and consequences of specific occurrences. The hazard analysis was performed by a team of cognizant CSB operations and design personnel, safety analysts familiar with the CSB, and technical experts in specialty areas. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process. Attachment A provides two lists of hazard analysis team members and describes the background and experience of each. The first list is a complete list of the hazard analysis team members that have been involved over the two-year long process. The second list is a subset of the first list and consists of those hazard analysis team members that reviewed and agreed to the final hazard analysis documentation. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process involving formal facilitated group sessions and independent hazard and accident analysis work. The hazard analysis process led to the selection of candidate accidents for further quantitative analysis. New information relative to the hazards, discovered during the accident analysis, was incorporated into the hazard analysis data in order to compile a complete profile of facility hazards. Through this process, the results of the hazard and accident analyses led directly to the identification of safety structures, systems, and components, technical safety requirements, and other controls required to protect the public, workers, and environment.

  15. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis to support the final CSB Safety Analysis Report and documents the results. This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis process identified hazardous conditions and material-at-risk, determined causes for potential accidents, identified preventive and mitigative features, and qualitatively estimated the frequencies and consequences of specific occurrences. The hazard analysis was performed by a team of cognizant CSB operations and design personnel, safety analysts familiar with the CSB, and technical experts in specialty areas. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process. Attachment A provides two lists of hazard analysis team members and describes the background and experience of each. The first list is a complete list of the hazard analysis team members that have been involved over the two-year long process. The second list is a subset of the first list and consists of those hazard analysis team members that reviewed and agreed to the final hazard analysis documentation. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process involving formal facilitated group sessions and independent hazard and accident analysis work. The hazard analysis process led to the selection of candidate accidents for further quantitative analysis. New information relative to the hazards, discovered during the accident analysis, was incorporated into the hazard analysis data in order to compile a complete profile of facility hazards. Through this process, the results of the hazard and accident analyses led directly to the identification of safety structures, systems, and components, technical safety requirements, and other controls required to protect the public, workers, and environment

  16. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  17. Dry storage developments in France build on CASCAD experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CASCAD dry store, located at CEA's research centre at Cadarache, stores spent fuel from the EL4 heavy water reactor and the Osiris research reactor. The design was based on the following criteria: Storage period. Interim storage is provided for 50 years. Containment. The fuel is contained by a multiple barrier system consisting of: the fuel canister (primary barrier); the sealed stainless steel storage well; and the storage building which includes a ventilation system to provide dynamic containment during handling operations. The fuel is loaded into canisters at the reactor site to avoid contamination in the storage building. The integrity of the primary barrier is periodically monitored by sampling of air from the storage well. Cooling. The storage wells are cooled by a natural convection system that maintains the temperature of the fuel below its stated limit and the temperature of the concrete below 80oC. Criticality. Criticality incidents are prevented by static design measures such as maintaining a minimum pitch between storage wells and providing sufficient storage well diameter. Radiation protection. Radiation shielding limits the maximum equivalent dose rate for operating personnel to less than 25?Sv/h at the handling cell floor and the wall adjoining the control room, and to less than 7.5?Sv/h at the outside walls of the storage building. Cannister design. The canister must resist corrosion caused by condensation as well as pressure due to randensation as well as pressure due to radiolytic gases. The canister must also withstand a drop of up to 10m without losing its integrity. The design has now been adapted to accommodate light reactor fuels and is known as CASCAD+. (Author)

  18. Spent nuclear fuel Canister Storage Building CDR Review Committee report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canister Storage Building (CSB) is a subproject under the Spent Nuclear Fuels Major System Acquisition. This subproject is necessary to design and construct a facility capable of providing dry storage of repackaged spent fuels received from K Basins. The CSB project completed a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) implementing current project requirements. A Design Review Committee was established to review the CDR. This document is the final report summarizing that review

  19. The Effects of Different Storage Buildings on Wheat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soner Ergin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of storage is to preserve properties of products and their freshness. If suitable storage conditions are not supplied consistency product variety, quality and quantity losses increase. Decreasing this losses is possible with providing suitable storage condition and storage management. In this study, wheat storage buildings in the Thrace region were examined. Influences of storage condition on product losses were investigated. The study was conducted in one of the Soil Products Offices (TMO reinforced concrete silo (RCSi in Tekirdag, Reinforced Concrete Store (RCSt and Masonry Stores (MS in Hayrabolu district within the border of Tekirdag. Temperature of the wheat mass in the stores and moisture content as storage conditions, effective on quality parameters such as hectoliter, gluten, gluten index, sedimentation and sunn pest were monitored during the storage. According to the results of experiments in selected stores, the worst storage conditions and the most quality losses were determined in the MS, on the other hand the most suitable conditions and the least losses were determined in RCSi and RCSt. Consequently, the MS should be improved and aeration systems should be built in this store. This store can be used for shortage storage period. In the RCSi and RCSt stores, the aeration systems should be run properly.

  20. Canister storage building trade study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ''Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report'' as the basis for development of the individual trade studies

  1. Canister storage building hazard analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahn, D.E.; Garvin, L.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the final CSB safety analysis report (SAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Report, and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  2. Canister storage building hazard analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the final CSB safety analysis report (SAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Report, and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  3. Solar Thermal Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun A. Abhyankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy consumption, shrinking resources and rising energy costs will have significant impact on our standard of living for future generations. In this situation, the development of alternative, cost effective sources of energy has to be a priority. This project presents the advanced technology and some of the unique features of a novel solar system that utilizes solar energy for space heating and water heating purpose in residential housing and commercial buildings. The improvements in solar technology offers a significant cost reduction, to a level where the solar system can compete with the energy costs from existing sources. The main goal of the project is to investigate new or advanced solutions for storing heat in systems providing heating. which can be achieved using phase change material(PCM.A phase change material with a melting/solidification temperature of 50ºC to 60ºC is used for solar heat storage. When the PCM undergoes the phase change, it can absorb or release a large amount of energy as latent heat. This heat can be used for further applications like water heating and space heating purposes. Thus solar thermal energy is widely use

  4. Modular interim waste storage building for low-level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-term disposition of low-level radioactive waste is a significant concern in the successful start-up and continued operation of nuclear plants. In response to the perceived utility need for interim storage facilities for low-level nuclear waste, Cygna Energy Services has developed a Modular Interim Wast Storage Building (IWSB) design which emphasizes low cost, design simplicity, commercial construction techniques, rapid construction time and licensability. The IWSB is modular and easily expanded. The base module includes a truck bay, storage bay with vaults, remote-control over-head bridge crane and a separate control room. The facility design basis and features are described. Waste storage and shielding requirements are optimized through the use of a computerized inventory control system. Cost of the Cygna Modular IWSB is on the order of $4 million for a five year capacity facility and a construction period of about 12 to 14 months

  5. Pulsed electrical energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The starting point of any pulsed power setup is the energy storage system. This article discusses the characteristics of various energy storage devices useful for high power pulse discharges. The energy storage systems discussed are capacitative storage such as capacitor and Marx bank, inductive storage systems and explosively driven flux compression generators. (author)

  6. Canister storage building hazard analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', and meets the intent of HNF-PRO-704, ''Hazard and Accident Analysis Process''. This hazard analysis implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''

  7. Building a Parallel Cloud Storage System using OpenStack’s Swift Object Store and Transformative Parallel I/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Andrew J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lora, Kaleb D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Esteban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shorter, Martel L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    Our project consists of bleeding-edge research into replacing the traditional storage archives with a parallel, cloud-based storage solution. It used OpenStack's Swift Object Store cloud software. It's Benchmarked Swift for write speed and scalability. Our project is unique because Swift is typically used for reads and we are mostly concerned with write speeds. Cloud Storage is a viable archive solution because: (1) Container management for larger parallel archives might ease the migration workload; (2) Many tools that are written for cloud storage could be utilized for local archive; and (3) Current large cloud storage practices in industry could be utilized to manage a scalable archive solution.

  8. Matching analysis for on-site building energy systems involving energy conversion, storage and hybrid grid connections

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Sunliang

    2014-01-01

    Under the background that all new buildings in EU should be nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) from the year of 2021, the energy and building industries are progressing towards the direction of decreased local building energy demand and enhanced on-site renewable energy production. This, on one hand, leads to the continuously decreased annual primary energy consumption/equivalent CO2 emission, whereas on the other hand it brings in the matching problem between the on-site generation and loca...

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998, a major change in the technical strategy for managing Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO) while stored within the Canister Storage Building (CSB) occurred. The technical strategy is documented in Baseline Change Request (BCR) No. SNF-98-006, Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing) (FDH 1998). This BCR deleted the hot conditioning process initially adopted for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) as documented in WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (WHC 199.5). In summary, MCOs containing Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from K Basins would be placed in interim storage following processing through the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility. With this change, the needs for the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) and inerting/pressure retaining capabilities of the CSB storage tubes and the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) were eliminated. Mechanical seals will be used on the MCOs prior to transport to the CSB. Covers will be welded on the MCOs for the final seal at the CSB. Approval of BCR No. SNF-98-006, imposed the need to review and update the CSB functions and requirements baseline documented herein including changing the document title to ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements.'' This revision aligns the functions and requirements baseline with the CSB Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing). This document represents the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Subproject technical baseline. It establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the CSB Subproject. The document is organized in eight sections. Sections 1.0 Introduction and 2.0 Overview provide brief introductions to the document and the CSB Subproject. Sections 3.0 Functions, 4.0 Requirements, 5.0 Architecture, and 6.0 Interfaces provide the data described by their titles. Section 7.0 Glossary lists the acronyms and defines the terms used in this document. Section 8.0 References lists the references used for this document

  10. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

  11. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

  12. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

  13. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-03-23

    This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  14. Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOPELIC, S.D.

    1999-02-25

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  15. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  16. ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA RADUCAN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper you will find an overview of systems and energy storage techniques and a comparison of the important characteristics of them. Delocalized electricity production and the introduction of variable, fluctuating sources (renewable energy: solar, wind turbines, etc. increase the difficulty of stabilizing the power network, mainly due to a supply-demand imbalance. It is therefore convenient to generate the energy, transmit it, convert it, and then store it if need be. More than ever then, the storage of electrical energy has become a necessity.

  17. ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA RADUCAN; LUMINITA MORARU

    2011-01-01

    In this paper you will find an overview of systems and energy storage techniques and a comparison of the important characteristics of them. Delocalized electricity production and the introduction of variable, fluctuating sources (renewable energy: solar, wind turbines, etc.) increase the difficulty of stabilizing the power network, mainly due to a supply-demand imbalance. It is therefore convenient to generate the energy, transmit it, convert it, and then store it if need be. More than ever t...

  18. STANDALONE “GREEN” COMMUNITY-CENTER BUILDINGS: HYDROGEN GENERATION/STORAGE/DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR WHEN PRIMARY ENERGY STORAGE IS AT CAPACITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, the implementation of a computer-controlled hydrogen generation system and subsequent conversion of small engine equipment for hydrogen use has been surprisingly straightforward from an engineering and technology standpoint. More testing is required to get a better gr...

  19. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE, R.D.

    1999-09-09

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

  20. Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Conceptual Design Report provides the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project, Canister Storage Building, and as amended by letter (correspondence number 9555700, M.E. Witherspoon to E.B. Sellers, ''Technical Baseline and Updated Cost Estimate for the Canister Storage Building'', dated October 24, 1995), includes the project cost baseline and Criteria to be used as the basis for starting detailed design in fiscal year 1995

  1. Solar Thermal Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Abhyankar, Arjun A.; Watkar, Kishor R.; Rinait, Rameshwar O.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing energy consumption, shrinking resources and rising energy costs will have significant impact on our standard of living for future generations. In this situation, the development of alternative, cost effective sources of energy has to be a priority. This project presents the advanced technology and some of the unique features of a novel solar system that utilizes solar energy for space heating and water heating purpose in residential housing and commercial buildings. The improvement...

  2. TEXT Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

  3. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR Site Layout, Safeguards and Security System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Site Electrical Power System, Site Compressed Air System, and Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System

  4. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR Site Layout, Safeguards and Security System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Site Electrical Power System, Site Compressed Air System, and Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System.

  5. Passive hygrothermal control of a museum storage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, JØrgen Erik; Janssen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    For optimal conservation of the stored objects, museum storage buildings require a very stable interior climate, with only minimal and slow variations in temperature and relative humidity. Often extensive HVAC is installed to provide such stable indoor conditions, which results in a great amout of C02 emission. The purpose for this paper is to show that it is possible to reach the goal of using renewable energy for museum storage buildings by rethinking the strategy for the dehumidification design and in this way contribute to a C02 neutral environment. The solution is to construct a very airtight building and use concentrated dehumidification.

  6. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  7. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled stornergy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  8. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D.M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  9. Data Storage Control System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Yurievich Shumilov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology for evaluating and improving the effectiveness of storage management during the development of automated control systems. The description of the storage management system in terms of queuing theory is proposed. The model of the system and the criteria for efficient processing of requests to read and write data are provided. The authors also propose the partitioning of stored data and the use of several software solutions to improve the system performance.

  10. Build a Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron Hipschman

    1997-01-01

    In this activity, learners make a scale model of the Solar System and learn the real definition of "space." Learners use the online calculator to create an appropriate scale to use as a basis for their model. Once learners have their scaled measurements (diameters and distances), then they can walk and "pace out" the solar system by marking sticks or flags in the ground. Learners can also build a solar system on a roll of toilet paper or receipt paper.

  11. Review of thermal energy storage technologies based on PCM application in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems (TES), using phase change material (PCM) in buildings, are widely investigated technologies and a fast developing research area. Therefore, there is a need for regular and consistent reviews of the published studies. This review is focused on PCM technologies developed to serve the building industry. Various PCM technologies tailored for building applications are studied with respect to technological potential to improve indoor environment, increase thermal inertia and decrease energy use for building operation. What is more, in this review special attention is paid to discussion and identification of proper methods to correctly determine the thermal properties of PCM materials and their composites and as well procedures to determine their energy storage and saving potential. The purpose of the paper is to highlight promising technologies for PCM application in buildings with focus on room application and to indicate in which applications the potential is less significant.

  12. Tribology of magnetic storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1992-01-01

    The construction and the materials used in different magnetic storage devices are defined. The theories of friction and adhesion, interface temperatures, wear, and solid-liquid lubrication relevant to magnetic storage systems are presented. Experimental data are presented wherever possible to support the relevant theories advanced.

  13. Building Web Reputation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Randy

    2010-01-01

    What do Amazon's product reviews, eBay's feedback score system, Slashdot's Karma System, and Xbox Live's Achievements have in common? They're all examples of successful reputation systems that enable consumer websites to manage and present user contributions most effectively. This book shows you how to design and develop reputation systems for your own sites or web applications, written by experts who have designed web communities for Yahoo! and other prominent sites. Building Web Reputation Systems helps you ask the hard questions about these underlying mechanisms, and why they're critical

  14. Air quality in low-ventilated museum storage buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Aasbjerg Jensen, Lars

    Modern low-energy museum storage buildings are often designed for a low air exchange rate, on the order of less than 1 exchange per day. We investigated how this affected the indoor air quality in six Danish museum storage buildings. The infiltration of ambient pollutants, and the level to which internally-generated pollutants accumulate, were measured by passive sampling of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and organic acids. The air exchange rates and the interchange of air between storage rooms were measured by the per-fluorocarbon tracer gas method. Ambient pollutants were reduced in concentration to a few ppb indoors. The presence of internally-generated pollutants depended on the amount of off-gassing materials inside the store, but more importantly, on the temperature. Enclosing objects in corrugated cardboard boxes did not cause any significant accumulation of pollutants. However, the box-board did provide a certain degree of protection against ambient pollutants, especially ozone.

  15. Advances in information storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1995-01-01

    The series Advances in Information Storage Systems covers a wide range of interdisciplinary technical areas, related to magnetic or optical storage systems. The following nonexhaustive list is indicative of the scope of the topics: Friction, Adhesion, Wear and Lubrications, Coatings, Solid Mechanics, Air Flow, Contamination, Instrumentation, Dynamics, Shock and Vibration, Controls, Head and Suspension Design, Actuators, Spindle and Actuator Motors and Bearings, Structure of Thin Films, Corrosion, Long-Term Reliability, Materials and Processing, Manufacturing and Automation, Economics.This volu

  16. Management of Data Replication for PC Cluster-based Cloud Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Myint, Julia; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Storage systems are essential building blocks for cloud computing infrastructures. Although high performance storage servers are the ultimate solution for cloud storage, the implementation of inexpensive storage system remains an open issue. To address this problem, the efficient cloud storage system is implemented with inexpensive and commodity computer nodes that are organized into PC cluster based datacenter. Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is an open source cloud b...

  17. Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yudong; Borrelli, Francesco; Hencey, Brandon; Coffey, Brian; Bengea, Sorin; Haves, Philip

    2010-06-29

    A model-based predictive control (MPC) is designed for optimal thermal energy storage in building cooling systems. We focus on buildings equipped with a water tank used for actively storing cold water produced by a series of chillers. Typically the chillers are operated at night to recharge the storage tank in order to meet the building demands on the following day. In this paper, we build on our previous work, improve the building load model, and present experimental results. The experiments show that MPC can achieve reduction in the central plant electricity cost and improvement of its efficiency.

  18. Measurement of storage ring floor displacement in the light source building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of synchrotron radiation facilities greatly upon how position-stable photon beams can be supplied for a long duration of time. Recently, the Light Source Building of Photon Factory was found to distort so much as to drift the orbit of photon beams of the storage ring. It was considered that the building was distorted by the variations of thermal stress such as solar irradiation and atmospheric temperature. To reduce such thermal stress, the rooftop of the building was insulated by polyethylene form. The building distortion was measured along the storage ring by using a hydrostatic levelling system (HLS). Result of the measurement were compared with a model simulation result based on finite element method. Comparison between measured and simulated result showed good agreement before and after insulation. Therefor, HLS used to measure the distortion was useful fore the floor displacement of the ring. (author)

  19. Measurement of Moisture Storage Parameters of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ji?i?ková

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The moisture storage parameters of three different building materials: calcium silicate, ceramic brick and autoclaved aerated concrete, are determined in the hygroscopic range and overhygroscopic range. Measured sorption isotherms and moisture retention curves are then combined into moisture storage functions using the Kelvin equation. A comparison of measured results with global characteristics of the pore space obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry shows a reasonable agreement; the median pore radii by volume are well within the interval given by the beginning and the end of the characteristic steep parts of the moisture retention curves.

  20. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  1. GPUs as Storage System Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Kiswany, Samer; Ripeanu, Matei

    2012-01-01

    Massively multicore processors, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), provide, at a comparable price, a one order of magnitude higher peak performance than traditional CPUs. This drop in the cost of computation, as any order-of-magnitude drop in the cost per unit of performance for a class of system components, triggers the opportunity to redesign systems and to explore new ways to engineer them to recalibrate the cost-to-performance relation. This project explores the feasibility of harnessing GPUs' computational power to improve the performance, reliability, or security of distributed storage systems. In this context, we present the design of a storage system prototype that uses GPU offloading to accelerate a number of computationally intensive primitives based on hashing, and introduce techniques to efficiently leverage the processing power of GPUs. We evaluate the performance of this prototype under two configurations: as a content addressable storage system that facilitates online similarity detectio...

  2. D5.4 – Energy management system : Coordinating and dispatching of generation, consumption, and storage devices connected to the local microgrid or to the building network.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz; Andersen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    This report will focus on strategies for energy management as well at the building level and at the microgrid level. The designed energy management controller will manage energy flow such that generated power in the microgrid is mainly consumed by local consumers and the power trade between the microgrid and the grid is shrunk to minimum. Buildings’ role is to provide flexibility to the energy management controller so that this controller can use this flexibility to enhance the local use of the local produced energy and by that mean lower the energy bill for each house in the microgrid. The Optimization of building loads are based on electricity price signal and shedding, shifting or rescheduling the power consumption pattern. The main shiftable loads are the HVAC systems. This system will be the primary controllable load for the energy management controller but also curtailable load and non-controllable loads will be taken into account when designing the controller. The flexibility, with respect to the HVAC system, is based on the heat capacity of the house and a thermal tolerance that users give permission for. The wider the thermal tolerance is, the more flexibility will be provided to the energy management controller. Load management strategies will be devised such that thermal comfort and other user-predefined preferences will be satisfied.

  3. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organotin halides back to th

  4. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organoti

  5. Passive hygrothermal control of a museum storage building in Vejle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, JØrgen Erik; Janssen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    For optimal conservation of the stored objects, museum storage buildings require a very stable interior climate, with only minimal and slow variations in temperature and relative humidity. Often extensive HVAC is installed to provide such stable indoor conditions. The resultantly significant energy and maintenance costs are currently motivating a paradigm change toward passive control. Passive control, via the thermal and hygric inertia of the building, is gaining a foothold in the museum conservation and building physical community. In this report we document the hygrothermal performance optimisation of a museum storage building, related to an existing storage centre in Vejle (Denmark). The current building design already incorporates passive control concepts: thermal inertia is provided by the thick walls, the ground floor and its underlying soil volume, while hygric inertia is provided by the thick walls of light-weight concrete. The design promise stated that a few years of dehumidification would bring down the moisture contained in the fresh constructions to a level corresponding with the desired interior climate. After this initial stage, the passive control would eliminate all further need for dehumidification. Four years after completing the construction however, continuous dehumidification remains necessary to maintain acceptable humidity levels. Analysis of the current situation: A thorough investigation of the current building design and management shows that the original design promise of ‘a fully passively conditioned storage building’ is an illusion. With the yearly average exterior temperature and vapour pressure in Denmark at 7.8 °C and 930 Pa, a fully passively conditioned building would reach a yearly average temperature and vapour pressure of 10.2 °C and 930 Pa. The interior temperature is somewhat higher than the exterior, due to interior heat sources (lights and humans); since no significant interior moisture sources are present, the interior vapour pressure is similar to the average exteriorvapour pressure. Such interior conditions translate to a yearly average relative humidity of 75 %, which is far above the desired levels. It should be finally stated that similar conclusions would be reached for many other European climates. Conservation heating or dehumidification are hence required, to maintain acceptable relative humidities in the storage. Conservation heating raises the temperature and lowers the relative humidity; dehumidification decreases the vapour pressure and thus the relative humidity. For the low air change rates of storage buildings, dehumidification is the most economical option. Moreover, it allows for lower temperature levels, beneficial to the conservation purposes. Reduction of dehumidification load: In an effort to reduce the necessary dehumidification, a number of thermal measures are investigated first. This primarily focuses on the influences of additional insulation in walls, roof and floor. Overall, the effects of extra insulation on the average temperature level arevery limited. The effects on the temperature variation differ for the floor and for the walls & roof: • walls & roof: more insulation gives less heat exchange with the exterior, and thus a lower interior temperature variation; • floor: more insulation in the floor breaks the connection with the thermal inertia of the ground and thus a higher temperature variation; For those reasons, more heavily insulated walls and roofs could be considered. Their effects on the interior climate and dehumidification load are however not that large. For the floor, no insulation should be added, and it could be considered to replace the leca layer with standard gravel. This will visibly reduce the temperature variations over the year. All in all however, none of these thermal measures have a great impact on the dehumidification load. To reduce the dehumidification load, only one strong solution exists: a more airtight building. The focus in the new design should therefore go to a construction method allowing for a very

  6. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, Tin Tin

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low cost PC cluster based storage server is configured to be activated for large amount of data to provide cloud users. Moreover, one of the contributions of this system is proposed an analytical model using M/M/1 queuing network model, which is modeled on intended architecture to provide better response time, utilization of storage as well as pending time when the system is running. According to the analytical result on experimental testing, the storage can be utilized more than 90% of storage space. In this paper, two parts...

  7. Peak load shifting control using different cold thermal energy storage facilities in commercial buildings: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Little study reviews the load shifting control using different facilities. • This study reviews load shifting control using building thermal mass. • This study reviews load shifting control using thermal energy storage systems. • This study reviews load shifting control using phase change material. • Efforts for developing more applicable load shifting control are addressed. - Abstract: For decades, load shifting control, one of most effective peak demand management methods, has attracted increasing attentions from both researchers and engineers. Different load shifting control strategies have been developed when diverse cold thermal energy storage facilities are used in commercial buildings. The facilities include building thermal mass (BTM), thermal energy storage system (TES) and phase change material (PCM). Little study has systematically reviewed these load shifting control strategies and therefore this study presents a comprehensive review of peak load shifting control strategies using these thermal energy storage facilities in commercial buildings. The research and applications of the load shifting control strategies are presented and discussed. The further efforts needed for developing more applicable load shifting control strategies using the facilities are also addressed

  8. Development of organic storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic Storage System is designed to absorb the massive data flow with low TCO. The system scales unlimitedly to store the data that keeps growing, and undergoes metabolic change to provide data longevity. Its high-data-mobility feature enables quick replication and migration for disaster recovery and self-healing. (author)

  9. Analysis of ice cool thermal storage for a clinic building in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Kuwait, air conditioning (AC) systems consume 61% and 40% of the peak electrical load and total electrical energy, respectively. This is due to a very high ambient temperature for the long summer period extended from April to October and the low energy cost. This paper gives an overview of the electrical peak and energy consumption in Kuwait, and it has been found that the average increase in the annual peak electrical demand and energy consumption for the year 1998-2002 was 6.2% and 6.4%, respectively. One method of reducing the peak electrical demand of AC systems during the day period is by incorporating an ice cool thermal storage (ICTS) with the AC system. A clinic building has been selected to study the effects of using an ICTS with different operation strategies such as partial (load levelling), partial (demand limiting) and full storage operations on chiller and storage sizes, reduction of peak electrical demand and energy consumption of the chiller for selected charging and discharging hours. It has been found that the full storage operation has the largest chiller and storage capacities, energy consumption and peak electrical reduction. However, partial storage (load levelling) has the smallest chiller and storage capacities and peak electrical reduction. This paper also provides a detailed comparison of using ICTS operating strategies with AC and AC systems without ICTS

  10. Optimization of a solar hydrogen storage system: Exergetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E.; Isorna, F.; Rosa, F. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Ctra. S. Juan-Matalascanas, km.34, 21130 Mazagon (Huelva) (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    From production to end-users, the choice of suitable hydrogen delivery and storage systems will be essential to assure the adequate introduction and development of these facilities. This article describes the main options for hydrogen storage when produced from renewable energy, and explains different criteria to be considered in the design and building-up of stationary hydrogen storage systems, with special attention to exergy issues. An example of exergy analysis is done using data from the solar hydrogen storage facility of the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA). As expected, the main conclusions of this analysis show the advantage of low pressure hydrogen in comparison with other available methods to store hydrogen. Another interesting option, from the exergy efficiency point of view, is the storage of hydrogen in metal hydride systems. The last option, and the most inefficient, is the high pressure hydrogen storage. (author)

  11. The vibration measurements at the photon factory storage ring building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Photon Factory is a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring and has been operating since 1982 as a dedicated SR source. At the Photon Factory, we have been pursuing the various sources of the beam instabilities which deteriorated the SR beam quality in the wide frequency range. Some of the sources were the vibrations of magnets and floor of the ring tunnel, temperature change of the cooling water and the elongation of the storage ring building roof due to sunshine that induced the diurnal motion of the SR beam axis. This article presents the results of the vibration measurements that have been performed at the Photon Factory storage ring building. (1) The vibrations of the ring tunnel floor and the experimental hall floor, comparing with the vibration of the ground surrounding the storage ring building, are same order in the 1 ? 5 Hz range, and 1/3 ? 1/5 in the 5 ? 100 Hz range, in the vertical and the horizontal direction. (2) The effects of the vibration arising from the operating eight air-conditioners can be seen in the Fourier spectrum of the vibration of the ring tunnel floor, experimental floor, Q-magnets and BPM vacuum duct. (3) The vibrations of the Q-magnet and girder at frequencies near their fundamental resonant frequencies have been amplified 100 limes in the lateral direction comparing to the floor vibration. (4) Correlation between the vibration of the BPM vacuum duct and the vibration of the electron beam motion is unknown for the lack of the precise data. (authors)

  12. Simulation of thermocline thermal energy storage system using C

    OpenAIRE

    Meseret Tesfay; Meyyappan Venkatesan

    2013-01-01

    Solar thermal power generation is a modern technology, which has already shown feasible results in the production of electricity. Thermal energy storage (TES) is a crucial element in solar energy applications, which includes the increase of building thermal capacity, solar water heating systems for domestic use, and Concentrated Solar Thermal power plants for electricity generation. Economic, efficient and reliable thermal energy storage systems are a key need of solar thermal power plants, i...

  13. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA); Crowell, Jeffrey A. W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  14. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies

  15. Large energy storage systems handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Frank S

    2011-01-01

    In the current push to convert to renewable sources of energy, many issues raised years ago on the economics and the difficulties of siting energy storage are once again being raised today. When large amounts of wind, solar, and other renewable energy sources are added to existing electrical grids, efficient and manageable energy storage becomes a crucial component to allowing a range of eco-friendly resources to play a significant role in our energy system. In order to fulfill our intended goal of diminishing dependence on non-renewable sources of energy and reducing our carbon footprint, we

  16. Sizing of packed bed storage for solar air heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packed bed units generally, represent the most suitable storage units for air heating solar systems. In these systems the storage units receives the heat form the collector during the collection period and discharges the heat building at the retrieval process. A method for sizing of packed bed storage in an air heating system is represented. The design is based on the K-S curves, which have been generated for the storage used in the C SU solar House II through simulation. The complete simple solar heating system is simulated numerically during both the heating and retrieval processes. The simulation, which utilizes the hourly meteorological data, takes into account consideration of the principle parameters such as pressure drop across the bed, particle diameter, and mean void age. The results are compared with the reported data from a real size of storage and also with the criteria of f-chart recommendation

  17. Final Safety Analysis Document for Building 693 Chemical Waste Storage Building at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Document (SAD) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 693, Chemical Waste Storage Building (desipated as Building 693 Container Storage Unit in the Laboratory's RCRA Part B permit application), provides the necessary information and analyses to conclude that Building 693 can be operated at low risk without unduly endangering the safety of the building operating personnel or adversely affecting the public or the environment. This Building 693 SAD consists of eight sections and supporting appendices. Section 1 presents a summary of the facility designs and operations and Section 2 summarizes the safety analysis method and results. Section 3 describes the site, the facility desip, operations and management structure. Sections 4 and 5 present the safety analysis and operational safety requirements (OSRs). Section 6 reviews Hazardous Waste Management's (HWM) Quality Assurance (QA) program. Section 7 lists the references and background material used in the preparation of this report Section 8 lists acronyms, abbreviations and symbols. Appendices contain supporting analyses, definitions, and descriptions that are referenced in the body of this report

  18. Building an organic block storage service at CERN with Ceph

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ster, Daniel; Wiebalck, Arne

    2014-06-01

    Emerging storage requirements, such as the need for block storage for both OpenStack VMs and file services like AFS and NFS, have motivated the development of a generic backend storage service for CERN IT. The goals for such a service include (a) vendor neutrality, (b) horizontal scalability with commodity hardware, (c) fault tolerance at the disk, host, and network levels, and (d) support for geo-replication. Ceph is an attractive option due to its native block device layer RBD which is built upon its scalable, reliable, and performant object storage system, RADOS. It can be considered an "organic" storage solution because of its ability to balance and heal itself while living on an ever-changing set of heterogeneous disk servers. This work will present the outcome of a petabyte-scale test deployment of Ceph by CERN IT. We will first present the architecture and configuration of our cluster, including a summary of best practices learned from the community and discovered internally. Next the results of various functionality and performance tests will be shown: the cluster has been used as a backend block storage system for AFS and NFS servers as well as a large OpenStack cluster at CERN. Finally, we will discuss the next steps and future possibilities for Ceph at CERN.

  19. Power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacitor bank for Nova was completed during the past year. At the beginning of 1984, the Nova capacitor bank was capable of supporting 8 of Nova's 10 arms. During the year, the Novette capacitor bank was moved to the Nova laser facility. In addition, the capacitor bank was expanded to accommodate the additional 31.5- and 46.0-cm amplifiers. The Nova power conditioning control system is divided into three major areas: pulsed-power, system-timing, and facility controls. The majority of all pulsed-power and system-timing controls were completed during the year and installed on Nova. Much of the facility monitoring hardware has been installed, and the software development has begun. The Nova oscillator controls front-end processor (FEP) was moved from the Nova MOR to the system interconnect room with other power conditioning FEPs. This allowed us to easily implement communications to the Nova VAXs through the multiport memory. This is a change from the planned Novanet connection. The decided to connect to the multiport to minimize software development and to meet time constraints

  20. Multi personal computer storage system. The solution of PACS storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: According to the characteristics of digital medicine and demand of digitized management in hospital, the authors establish a storage system which is cheap, highly expansible, and reliable. Methods: The multi personal computer storage system (MPCSS) was constructed by assembling the hardware and software. The image data were archived from major server to storage PC by using NEUSOFT-PACS archiving manage system and backup on storage PC. The authors simulated the situation that the data on storage PC was lost and restored the data. The authors also expanded the storage system to enlarge its capacity. Results: Average transfer rate from MPCSS was 27.7 Mbit/s(1 byte = 8 bit); average cost for this system was 74 RMB/G; six cases in the 187 repeated reading of 100 patients failed. MPCSS can store backup and restore the image data, and can expand the storage size. Conclusion: MPCSS is very cheap compared with other high capacity systems or devices. It is feasible and suitable for digital image storage

  1. Storage monitoring system - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them

  2. Storage monitoring system - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use 1 of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them. (author)

  3. Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Trintis, Ionut

    2011-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid. Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be opt...

  4. Techno-economic and social analysis of energy storage for commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Techno-economical and social analysis of energy storage is conducted for commercial buildings. • Methodologies for demand analysis, technical, economical and social evaluations are developed. • An illustrative example is analyzed for three kinds of energy storage systems. - Abstract: Techno-economical and social evaluation methodologies for energy storage systems applied for commercial buildings are presented in this paper. The demand analysis methodology is used to determine power rating and capacity. The technical and economical evaluations are described to analyze the techno-economic feasibility by the financial indices: net present value, internal rate of return, and initial investment payback period. Other benefits, including improved power quality/reliability, improved utilization of grid assets, and reduced greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions, are estimated in a social evaluation. Finally, an illustrative example combining the measured load data and the current economic parameters is analyzed for three scenarios: 6.5 kW/12.7 kW h lead–acid battery, 5.4 kW/12.4kW h sodium–sulfur battery and 5.15 kW/10.4kW h lithium ion battery for the same peak shaving demand 4.9 kW and a two-hour discharge. The results and discussion of the abovementioned examples show that all three typical battery energy storage technologies are technically feasible, however, investment in sodium–sulfur and lithium ion battery for commercial buildings energy storage should be done with caution, as lead–acid battery systems are the more economic choice at this time. However, systems with lithium ion batteries provide the maximum social benefits due to their high cycle efficiency. Lastly, the standard discount rate with the largest absolute value of sensitivity coefficient has the biggest influence on the net present value through the sensitivity analysis

  5. Analysis and sizing of thermal energy storage in combined heating, cooling and power plants for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Novel method to estimate the contribution of thermal energy storage in CHCP plants. ? Simple and accurate analysis of contributions of thermal storage. ? Application to the assessment and optimal sizing of thermal storage in CHCP plants. ? Thermal storage increases efficiency, coverage and economic benefit. ? Thermal storage allows increasing efficient operation of the plant. - Abstract: Thermal energy storage (TES) can lead to significant energy savings and economic benefits in combined heating, cooling and power plants (CHCPs) for buildings in the tertiary sector. However, their complex interactions with the rest of the CHCP system make their adequate sizing difficult without using extensive and detailed simulations. The authors have developed a new method to evaluate the thermal contribution of TES based on simple procedures. Comparisons with detailed simulations for a range of situations confirm the ability of this method to predict the effect of TES on CHCP systems with good approximation, as well as to find the optimal size in a relatively simple manner and with few required data. The case studies show a strong dependence of the TES contribution on the demands profile and the operation strategy. However, adequately sized TES are proven to bring relevant energy savings as well as economic profit to CHCP plants. In this paper, sizing procedures are provided to find the optimal volume both in terms of thermodynamic efficiency and of economic

  6. Parametric Study on the Dynamic Heat Storage Capacity of Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.

    2007-01-01

    In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning systems are often used even in moderate and cold climates. Particularly in this case, passive cooling by night-time ventilation seems to offer considerable potential. However, because heat gains and night ventilation periods do not coincide in time, a sufficient amount of thermal mass is needed in the building to store the heat. Assuming a 24 h-period harmonic oscillation of the indoor air temperature within a range of thermal comfort, the analytical solution of onedimensional heat conduction in a slab with convective boundary condition was applied to quantify the dynamic heat storage capacity of a particular building element. The impact of different parameters, such as slab thickness, material properties and the heat transfer coefficient was investigated, as well as their interrelation. The potential of increasing thermal mass by using phase change materials (PCM) was estimated assuming increased thermal capacity. The results show a significant impact of the heat transfer coefficient on heat storage capacity, especially for thick, thermally heavy elements. The storage capacity of a 100 mm thick concrete slab was found to increase with increasing heat transfer coefficients as high as 30 W/m2K. In contrast the heat storage capacity of a thin gypsum plaster board was found to be constant when the heat transfer coefficient exceeded 3 W/m2K. Additionally, the optimal thickness of an element depended greatly on the heat transfer coefficient. For thin, light elements a significant increase in heat capacity due to the use of PCMs was found to be possible. The present study shows the impact and interrelation of geometrical and physical parameters which appreciably influence the heat storage capacity of building elements.

  7. Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anita Lewis

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

  8. State of the art thermal energy storage solutions for high performance buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Sunliang

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the general thermal energy storage solutions for high performance buildings have been comprehensively reviewed. Based on the properties of storage material, the thermal storage solutions can be classified into sensible, latent and thermochemical heat storages. Their categories, characteristics and certain applications have been systematically introduced. Special emphases are put on the latent thermal storage technologies. Different classifications of phase change materials (PC...

  9. Advanced storage concepts for solar and low energy buildings, IEA-SHC Task 32. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.M.; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, S.

    2008-01-15

    This report reports on the results of the activities carried through in connection with the Danish part of the IEA SHC Task 32 project: Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar and Low Energy Buildings. The Danish involvement has focused on Subtask C: Storage Concepts Based on Phase Change Materials and Subtask D: Storage Concepts Based on Advanced Water Tanks and Special Devices. The report describes activities concerning heat-of-fusion storage and advanced water storage. (BA)

  10. Management of Data Replication for PC Cluster-based Cloud Storage System

    CERN Document Server

    Myint, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Storage systems are essential building blocks for cloud computing infrastructures. Although high performance storage servers are the ultimate solution for cloud storage, the implementation of inexpensive storage system remains an open issue. To address this problem, the efficient cloud storage system is implemented with inexpensive and commodity computer nodes that are organized into PC cluster based datacenter. Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is an open source cloud based storage platform and designed to be deployed in low-cost hardware. PC Cluster based Cloud Storage System is implemented with HDFS by enhancing replication management scheme. Data objects are distributed and replicated in a cluster of commodity nodes located in the cloud. This system provides optimum replica number as well as weighting and balancing among the storage server nodes. The experimental results show that storage can be balanced depending on the available disk space, expected availability and failure probability of each node ...

  11. Annual Collection and Storage of Solar Energy for the Heating of Buildings, Report No. 3. Semi-Annual Progress Report, August 1977 - January 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, J. Taylor; And Others

    This report is part of a series from the Department of Energy on the use of solar energy in heating buildings. Described here is a new system for year around collection and storage of solar energy. This system has been operated at the University of Virginia for over a year. Composed of an underground hot water storage system and solar collection,…

  12. Advances in information storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1996-01-01

    Advances in Information Storage Systems (AISS) series was initiated by ASME Press. New York with a first issue published in April 1991. ASME Press published a total of five volumes in 1991-93. In 1994, World Scientific Publishing Co. Private Limited took over the highly respected series and published volume number 6 in 1995. This volume number 7 is the second volume published by the World Scientific Publishing. The aim of the series remains to report the latest results from around the world in all the electromechanical, materials science, design, and manufacturing problems of information stora

  13. An energy self-sufficient public building using integrated renewable sources and hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of the use of fossil fuels, major cause of greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes, in present days represents one of Governments' main challenges; particularly, a significant energy consumption is observed in buildings and might be significantly reduced through sustainable design, increased energy efficiency and use of renewable sources. At the moment, the widespread use of renewable energy in buildings is limited by its intrinsic discontinuity: consequently integration of plants with energy storage systems could represent an efficient solution to the problem. Within this frame, hydrogen has shown to be particularly fit in order to be used as an energetic carrier. In this aim, in the paper an energetic, economic and environmental analysis of two different configurations of a self-sufficient system for energy production from renewable sources in buildings is presented. In particular, in the first configuration energy production is carried out by means of photovoltaic systems, whereas in the second one a combination of photovoltaic panels and wind generators is used. In both configurations, hydrogen is used as an energy carrier, in order to store energy, and fuel cells guarantee its energetic reconversion. The analysis carried out shows that, although dimensioned as a stand-alone configuration, the system can today be realized only taking advantage from the incentivizing fares applied to grid-connected systems, that are likely to be suspended in the next future. In such case, it represents an interesting investment, with capital returns in about 15 years. As concerns economic sustainability, in fact, the analysis shows that the cost of the energy unit stored in hydrogen volumes, due to the not very high efficiency of the process, presently results greater than that of directly used one. Moreover, also the starting fund of the system proves to be very high, showing an additional cost with respect to systems lacking of energy storage equal to about 50%. From the above, it can be deduced that, in the aim to obtain a quick, effective penetration of hydrogen into the market, it is at the moment indispensable to enact incentivizing policies, attributing to hydrogen production fares able to cover the additional costs due to its production, storage and reconversion. - Highlights: ? We present a self-sufficient system for renewable energy production in buildings. ? PV and eolic plants are integrated with electrolyzer, storage system and fuel cells. ? We analyze two configurations of the system: only PV panels or with wind generators. ? We compare wind generators with PV panels in relation to Italian Government fares. ? We carry out the energetic, economic and environmental analysis of the systems

  14. Fast multichannel analog storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Multichannel Analog Storage System based on a commercial 32-channel parallel in/serial out (PISO) analog shift register is described. The basic unit is a single width CAMAC module containing 512 analog cells and the associated logic for data storage and subsequent readout. At sampling rates of up to 30 MHz the signals are strobed directly into the PISO. At higher rates signals are strobed into a fast presampling stage and subsequently transferred in block form into an array of PISO's. Sampling rates of 300 MHz have been achieved with the present device and 1000 MHz are possible with improved signal drivers. The system is well suited for simultaneous handling of many signal channels with moderate numbers of samples in each channel. RMS noise over full scale signal has been measured as 1:3000 (approx. = 11 bit). However, nonlinearities in the response and differences in sensitivity of the analog cells require an elaborate calibration system in order to realize 11 bit accuracy for the analog information

  15. Electricity storage in island systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France's 'electric islands' are the overseas departments and Corsica that have small, isolated grids in zones which are not connected with the continental grid (ZNI). Renewable, intermittent forms of energy (especially photovoltaic) have grown exponentially on these islands since 2008, thanks to the backing of public policies for setting objectives, tax exemptions, and the rates for purchasing the electricity thus generated. However, the rapid and massive deployment of wind and solar energy may endanger the stability of the electric system: these productions are subject to rapid variations that are difficult to predict and that other local energy source are not able to compensate properly. As a consequence, a regulatory technical acceptability limit for intermittent energy has been defined to 30% above which it becomes difficult to balance the system. With controlled energy storage, it will be possible to maintain the stability and security of the electricity system. Owing to several experiments of storage of electricity, the ZNIs have become laboratories for anticipating the future difficulties that interconnected electricity grids will have to handle once the share of renewable, intermittent electricity will have risen significantly in the energy mix. (author)

  16. Characterization of the 309 building fuel transfer pit and storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document identifies radiological, chemical and physical conditions inside the Fuel Transfer Pit and Fuel Storage Basins. These spaces are located inside the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor structure (309 Building.) The fuel handling and storage feature of the PRTR were primarily located in these spaces. The conditions were assessed as part of overall 309 Building transition

  17. Advances in information storage systems, v.8

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1998-01-01

    This volume covers friction-induced vibration, the influence of actuator-bearing grease composition, wear measurements for proximity recording heads, characteristics of a suspension assembly, design and analysis of the HDD Servo System, reluctance torque reduction, etc. It is organized into three parts: Mechanics and Tribology for Data Storage Systems; Dynamics and Controls for Data Storage Systems; and Electric Motors for Data Storage Systems.

  18. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Joao [Centre of Mechatronics Engineering - CEM/Institut of Mechanical Engineering - IDMEC, University of Evora, R. Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal); Martins, Joao [Centre of Technology and Systems/Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-06-15

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the ''heart and soul'' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems. (author)

  19. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the 'heart and soul' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems.

  20. Vertical displacement of the storage ring floor due to building distortion in the Photon Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Light Source Building of the Photon Factory was found to distort so much as to induce the displacement of magnets in the storage ring. This resulted in drifting of the beam orbit. It was considered that the building was distorted by the variations of thermal stress, such as diurnal changes of the solar irradiation and atmospheric temperature. To reduce such thermal stress, the rooftop of the building was insulated with a layer of polyethylene foam. The building distortion was measured in terms of vertical floor displacements along the storage ring by using a hydrostatic level measuring system. Results of the measurement were compared with those of a model simulation based on the finite element method. Comparison between measured and simulated results showed good agreement before the insulation applied to the roof. After the insulation, the measured floor displacements reduced to about one half and were also comparable to the simulated results. A full description of the subject is given in T. Katsura, Ed., KEK Internal 90-32 (in Japanese) Jan. (1991)

  1. Vertical displacement of the storage ring floor due to building distortion in the Photon Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Tomotaro; Fujita, Yutaka

    1991-11-01

    The Light Source Building of the Photon Factory was found to distort so much as to induce the displacement of magnets in the storage ring. This resulted in drifting of the beam orbit. It was considered that the building was distorted by the variations of thermal stress, such as diurnal changes of the solar irradiation and atmospheric temperature. To reduce such thermal stress, the rooftop of the building was insulated with a layer of polyethylene foam. The building distortion was measured in terms of vertical floor displacements along the storage ring by using a hydrostatic level measuring system. Results of the measurement were compared with those of a model simulation based on the finite element method. Comparison between measured and simulated results showed good agreement before the insulation applied to the roof. After the insulation, the measured floor displacements reduced to about one half and were also comparable to the simulated results. A full description of the subject is given in T. Katsura, Ed., KEK Internal 90-32 (in Japanese) Jan. (1991).

  2. Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Rick E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Frederickson, James R. [AREVA, Avignon (France); Criddle, James [AREVA, Avignon (France); Hamilton, Dennis [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Mike W. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-10-18

    This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

  3. Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS)

  4. Hybrid Energy Storage System With A Special Battery Charger For Wind Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Dipu Varghese; George, Stany E.

    2014-01-01

    Generation systems including wind turbine generators, photovoltaic panels and storage batteries are used to build hybrid stand-alone generation systems that are reliable, economic and efficient. Battery energy storage is the current and typical means of smoothing wind or solar power generation fluctuations and improving the power quality. A new battery charger which is a buck-type power converter specially for the wind power system is developed. The converter provides pulsating charging curre...

  5. Criticality safety studies of Building 3019 Cell 4 and in-line storage wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New fissile material load limits for storage facilities located in Building 3019 are derived in a manner consistent with currently applicable Martin Marietta Energy Systems requirements. The limits for 233U loading are 2.00, 1.80, 1.45, and 0.19 kg/ft for hydrogen-to-233U atoms ratios of 3, 5, 10, and unrestricted, respectively. Limits were also found for 235U and 239Pu systems. The KENO-Va Monte Carlo Program and Hansen-Roach cross sections were used to derive these limits

  6. An application of conventional building technology in the storage of low level solid reactor wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro has been engaged in the interim storage of low and medium level solid reactor wastes since 1967. Over the past 14 years, engineered inground concrete trenches have provided safe, retrievable storage capacity for the bulk of the waste arising from Ontario Hydro's nuclear generation program. In addition to concrete trenches, inground concrete cylinders (tile holes) and above ground concrete vaults (Quadricells) have been designed and constructed to store disposable ion-exchange columns, spent filters and bulk ion-exchange resins. In 1978, Ontario Hydro initiated a conceptual design study on the future storage of solid reactor wastes. The objective of the study was to develop a bulk storage concept which would reduce both reactor waste storage costs and storage site land consumption. The study, completed in 1979, recommended a conventional pre-stressed, pre-fabricated, concrete storage building concept as Ontario Hydro's future bulk reactor waste storage facility. This new, low level storage building (LLSB) will be placed in service by September 1982, reducing bulk storage costs by a factor of three while reducing land consumption by a factor of 10 over present Ontario Hydro trench storage facilities. The storage building complements the capabilities of the other Ontario Hydro storage facility designs

  7. ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

  8. Energy storage and wind energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand imposed by the variability of wind power input have pushed the technical performance and cost requirements for energy storage to the forefront. In principle, wind turbine generators can be integrated with almost any kind of energy storage technology. However, the most appropriate energy storage system depends on the system size and the type of energy being delivered. Because most commercial wind turbines are designed to deliver electrical power, the vast majority of systems that do incorporate energy storage use batteries. Large systems using batteries have not been shown to be viable. Up to now, most efforts and success in reliably and economically integrating storage with wind turbine generators have been concerned with relatively small power plants, less than about 1 kW. Very small wind/storage systems, where the wind turbine is dedicated to charging conventional lead-acid batteries, currently dominate the market for wind power/energy storage hybrid power systems. These systems are well developed and proven. So-called 'village scale' hybrid power generating systems using energy storage (about 5 kW to 100 kW capacity) are now the subject of considerable product development and commercialization. The key technical problem for off-grid or stand-alone wind power systems of this size that must deliver well-regulated (i.e. high quality) AC power may well be to implement the most reliable and cost effective short term and highly responsive energy storage systemnd highly responsive energy storage systems (on the scale of 1 second to 10 minutes). Such storage schemes must respond effectively to the wind power fluctuations and the load demand fluctuations to maintain network stability. Pumped hydro and underground compressed air storage will probably find some applications in larger scale wind power plants where they can work with the wind power plant to deliver baseload power to the grid, however the number of applications for these systems is limited. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

  9. Demand-side management in office buildings in Kuwait through an ice-storage assisted HVAC system with model predictive control

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hadban, Yehya

    2005-01-01

    Examining methods for controlling the electricity demand in Kuwait was the main objective and motivation of this researchp roject. The extensiveu se of air-conditioning for indoor cooling in office and large commercial buildings in Kuwait and the Gulf States represents a major part of the power and electricity consumption in such countries. The rising electricity generation cost and growing rates of consumption continuously demand the construction new power plants. Devising and...

  10. Pulsed Energy Storage System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biallis, G.; Cassel, R.L.; Fowler, W.; Livdahl, P.V.; Mills, F.E.; Palmer, M.L.; Reardon, P.J.; Snowden, S.C.; Strauss, B.P.; Teng, L.C.; Winje, R.A.; /Fermilab /Wisconsin U., Madison

    1974-07-01

    A superconductive energy storage magnet which is connected to the three phase power system could be designed, constructed, and placed in operation at Fermilab which would essentially eliminate the large repetitive power pulses now required from the power system. In addition to the power pulses, voltage flicker is also caused due to the reactive power pulsation. Specifically, a one megawatt hour superconductive energy storage magnet and a 2.00 megawatt thyristorized converter can achieve nullification of these power pulses up to 400 GEV synchrotron operation. Above 400 GEV, operation should be possible up to 500 GEV with appreciable less power pulsing requirements from the system than are now considered permissible. Carried to successful completion, this project would serve to advance applied superconductivity to a highly significant degree. The effect would be of world wide importance to both high energy physics and to the electric power industry. The preliminary magnet design is a 1 MWh dipole composed of cryogenically stable composite conductors connected in parallel with aluminum shield windings. The shield windings carry impressed pulsed currents while eliminating pulsed currents from the dc superconductive windings. Without pulsed currents or pulsed magnetic fields there are no ac losses in standard helium. The major radius of the dipole is 8.85 m; the minor radius is 0.69m; there are 188 turns at 80,000 A and each turn is 4 conductors wound in parallel. The 20,000 A TiNb-copper composite conductor is l0x 1.12 cm in cross section similar to but larger than the FNAL bubble chamber conductor. The shield is 188 turns (equal number of turns is a shielding condition) of hollow aluminum conductor cooled via circulated cold helium gas at 40K. The turns are spaced around the minor circumference according to a cosine distribution which produces zero internal field. In use the shield loss converted to room temperature power is about .8MW when 0.1 MWh is used from a 1 MWh storage dipole. The 0.1 MWh is sufficient to provide complete load leveling for 400 GEV pulses, and operation at 500 GEV with lower power transients than are presently experienced.

  11. Structural systems for highrise buildings

    OpenAIRE

    SOBEK, Werner

    1985-01-01

    The report was written in the United States under the first Fazlur R. Khan Fellowship in 1984 and it was completed in Germany afterwards. "Highrise Buildings" was selected by the author as the draft-title for the activities during the fellowship. Under this theme the author studied the single aspects of highrise buildings as for example planning methods, architectural considerations, structuraI systems. This was done by working at the offices of Skidmore, Owings and Herrill in Chicago and San...

  12. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PICKETT, W.W.

    2000-09-22

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. Because this sub-project is still in the construction/start-up phase, all verification activities have not yet been performed (e.g., canister cover cap and welding fixture system verification, MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment verification, and As-built verification.). The verification activities identified in this report that still are to be performed will be added to the start-up punchlist and tracked to closure.

  13. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. Because this sub-project is still in the construction/start-up phase, all verification activities have not yet been performed (e.g., canister cover cap and welding fixture system verification, MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment verification, and As-built verification.). The verification activities identified in this report that still are to be performed will be added to the start-up punchlist and tracked to closure

  14. Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Canister Storage Building (CSB) is the interim storage facility for the K-Basin SNF at the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SNF is packaged in multi-canister overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs are placed inside transport casks, then delivered to the service station inside the CSB. At the service station, the MCO handling machine (MHM) moves the MCO from the cask to a storage tube or one of two sample/weld stations. There are 220 standard storage tubes and six overpack storage tubes in a below grade reinforced concrete vault. Each storage tube can hold two MCOs

  15. ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, G.; Obreshkov, E.; Simmons, B.; Undrus, A.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nightly build results, and provides new tools for offline release shifters. We will also outline our long-term plans for distributed nightly releases builds and testing.

  16. Operating Experiences with an Advanced Fabric Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite their proven track record in the cold climate countries of northern Europe, there are no reports in the research literature of experiences using advanced fabric energy storage (FES) systems in countries where cooling rather than heating is the main priority. This paper reports some of the experiences with the first known advanced FES system in Australia made over the first full calendar year of operation. It is located in a three-storey building on a university campus in Victoria and ...

  17. 77 FR 14007 - Environmental Assessment for a Radiological Work and Storage Building at the Knolls Atomic Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...Radiological Work and Storage Building at the Knolls Atomic...radiological work and storage building at the Knolls Atomic...Saratoga Springs Public Library in Saratoga Springs...Schenectady County Public Library (Niskayuna Branch...radiological work and storage building at the Knolls...

  18. Modernization of the solid radwaste storage system at Beloyarsk NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently on Beloyarsk NPP works are carried out to bring up to date the solid radioactive waste (SRW) storage system: a facility is being created to enable the retrieval of SRW from compartments of the solid waste storage facility (SWSF) for the first stage of construction; a design package is being developed to arrange for containerized storage of SRW and to ensure that it is possible to place irrecoverable-shielding containers loaded with SRW into storage in the SWSF for the second stage of construction, improving the level of safety of temporary waste storage on the site and making the SRW available for handover to the national waste management operator; inside the internal circuit cleaning building a complex is being built for SRW management, including equipment for SRW processing and conditioning by incineration of combustible wastes, and decontamination and fragmentation of metallic SRW. The proposed design solutions will bring the SRW storage system at the plant up to date taking into account the regulatory requirements, extend operational lifetimes of storage facilities without any risks for personnel and the environment

  19. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

  20. Effects of adding heat storage capacity in geothermal systems; Impact de reservoirs de stockage thermique sur les systemes geothermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, Antoine; Bernier, Michel; Kummert, Michael [Departement de genie mecanique, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Lagace, Jacques [Bouthillette Parizeau et associes inc., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The use of geothermal energy to heat and air condition buildings is becoming more and more widespread throughout the world. However, the costs the drilling operations and heat pumps associated with geothermal systems are high. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of using thermal storage reservoirs in geothermal systems. The case of a 6000 m2 building in Montreal was studied using a basic system, without storage, and another system which had 2 buffer storage reservoirs; the system was modelled using TRNSYS. Results showed that adding two 120m3 storage reservoirs allowed the length of the wells and the capacity of the heat pumps to be reduced but did not achieve any reduction in energy consumption. The study demonstrated that the use of storage systems can lower the cost of geothermal installations; the possibility of using phase change materials for storage will be investigated in the future.

  1. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  2. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  3. Design of Micro Flywheel Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flywheel energy storage systems have advantages over other types of energy storage devices in such aspects as unlimited charge/discharge cycles and environmental friendliness. In this paper, we propose a millimeter scale flywheel energy storage device. The flywheel is supported by a pair of passive magnetic bearings and rotated by a toroidally wound electric motor/generator. The geometry of the bearings is optimized for the maximum dynamic performance

  4. Fuel assembly transfer and storage system for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer and storage system on a site comprising several reactors and at least one building housing the installations common to all these reactors. The system includes: transfer and storage modules for the fuel assemblies comprising a containment capable of containing several assemblies carried on a transport vehicle, a set of tracks for the modules between the reactors and the common installations, handling facilities associated with each reactor for moving the irradiated assemblies from the reactor to a transfer module placed in loading position on a track serving the reactor and conversely to move the new assemblies from the transfer module to the reactor, and at least one handling facility located in the common installation building for loading the modules with new assemblies

  5. Reliability Analysis of Data Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, Vinodh

    2012-01-01

    Modern data storage systems are extremely large and consist of several tens or hundreds of nodes. In such systems, node failures are daily events, and safeguarding data from them poses a serious design challenge. The focus of this thesis is on the data reliability analysis of storage systems and, in particular, on the effect of different design choices and parameters on the system reliability. Data redundancy, in the form of replication or advanced erasure codes, is used to protect data from ...

  6. Canister storage building (CSB) safety analysis report phase 3:safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) design criteria, the design's compliance with the applicable criteria, and the basis for authorization to proceed with construction of the CSB

  7. Middleware for building pervasive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Akkad, A.; Pramudianto, F.; Jahn, M.; Zimmermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pervasive software succeeds when it is leveraged permeable into the background of everyday life and work supporting users more properly to fulfill their tasks than they used to do it with pre-existing techniques. Hence, we hypothesize, that a particular pervasive system may comprise certain styles of intelligent networking embedded systems, secure communication patterns, context-aware assisting, novel techniques of interaction and many more sophisticated features. Building such highly flexibl...

  8. Dry storage systems with free convection air cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several design principles to remove heat from the spent fuel by free air convection are illustrated and described. The key safety considerations were felt to be: loss of coolant is impossible as the passive system uses air as a coolant; overheating is precluded because as the temperatures of the containers rises the coolant flow rate increases; mass of the storage building provides a large heat sink and therefore a rapid temperature rise is impossible; and lack of any active external support requirements makes the cooling process less likely to equipment or operator failures. An example of this type of storage already exists. The German HTGR is operated with spherical graphite fuel elements which are stored in canister and in storage cells. The concept is a double cooling system with free convection inside the cells and heat exchange via two side walls of the cell to the ambient air in the cooling ducts. Technical description of the TN 1300 cask is also presented

  9. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system...OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Lender Liability...

  10. Compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  11. A review on energy conservation in building applications with thermal storage by latent heat using phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy storage in the walls, ceiling and floor of buildings may be enhanced by encapsulating suitable phase change materials (PCMs) within these surfaces to capture solar energy directly and increase human comfort by decreasing the frequency of internal air temperature swings and maintaining the temperature closer to the desired temperature for a longer period of time. This paper summarizes the investigation and analysis of thermal energy storage systems incorporating PCMs for use in building applications. Researches on thermal storage in which the PCM is encapsulated in concrete, gypsum wallboard, ceiling and floor have been ongoing for some time and are discussed. The problems associated with the application of PCMs with regard to the selection of materials and the methods used to contain them are also discussed

  12. Design and management of energy-efficient hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Younghyun

    2014-01-01

    This book covers system-level design optimization and implementation of hybrid energy storage systems. The author introduces various techniques to improve the performance of hybrid energy storage systems, in the context of design optimization and automation. Various energy storage techniques are discussed, each with its own advantages and drawbacks, offering viable, hybrid approaches to building a high performance, low cost energy storage system. Novel design optimization techniques and energy-efficient operation schemes are introduced. The author also describes the technical details of an act

  13. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

  14. System Recovery in Large-Scale Distributed Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aga, Svein

    2008-01-01

    This report aims to describe and improve a system recovery process in large-scale storage systems. Inevitable, a recovery process results in the system being loaded with internal replication of data, and will extensively utilize several storage nodes. Such internal load can be categorized and generalized into a maintenance workload class. Obviously, a storage system will have external clients which also introduce load into the system. This can be users altering their data, uploading ne...

  15. Informed about possible building-up of electric power plant. The Ipel Pumped Storage Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the locality of the Ipel Pumped Storage Power Plant (Ipel PSPP) in beginning of the October 2005 the presentation about prospectus of building-up of this hydroelectric power plant was held. In this paper the energetic development in the Slovak Republic and necessity as well as profitability of building-up of the Ipel PSPP are discussed. (author)

  16. Energy storage system for a pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several designs have been proposed for the DEMO fusion reactor. Some of them are working in a non-steady state mode. Since a power plant should be able to deliver to the grid a constant power, this challenge must be solved. Energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWhe with the capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. A review of different technologies for energy storage is made. Thermal energy storage (TES), fuel cells and other hydrogen storage, compressed air storage, water pumping, batteries, flywheels and supercapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage. Each one is briefly described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. The conclusion of the review is that, based on existing technology, thermal energy storage using molten salts and a system based on hydrogen storage are the most promising candidates to meet the requirements of a pulsed DEMO. These systems are investigated in more detail together with an economic assessment of each

  17. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  18. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  19. Status of electrical energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the status of electrical storage systems in the light of the growing use of renewable energy sources and distributed generation (DG) in meeting emission targets and in the interest of the UK electricity supply industry. Examples of storage technologies, their applications and current status are examined along with technical issues and possible activities by UK industries. Details are given of development opportunities in the fields of flow cells, advanced batteries - lithium batteries, high temperature batteries, flywheels, and capacitors. Power conversion systems and system integration, the all-electric ship project, and compressed air energy storage are discussed. Opportunities for development and deployment, small scale systems, demonstration programmes, and research and development issues are considered. An outline of the US Department of Energy Storage programme is given in the Annex to the report.

  20. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  1. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its ability to counteract fluctuations in renewable power generation and thereby allow for longer reaction times for any controllable generation units. Capture and storage of excess renewable power in order to fully exploit the natural recourses is likely to become relevant for high penetration levels of renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system. When identifying the most relevant storage solutions it is necessary to include considerations on many relevant parameters which should be evaluated against the potential drawbacks and benefits of adding storage. Here, the most relevant technologies in relation to power systems with high penetration of renewable sources are identified and considerations with regard to cost, sizing and operation scheme are made.

  2. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to foreclosure. A holder, prior to...for the daily operation of the UST or UST system. (b) Operating an UST or UST system after...

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel project stage and store K basin SNF in canister storage building functions and requirements. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the Canister Storage Building Subproject. The mission allocated to the Canister Storage Building Subproject is to provide safe, environmentally sound staging and storage of K Basin SNF until a decision on the final disposition is reached and implemented

  4. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. The original version of this document was prepared by Vista Engineering for the SNF Project. The purpose of this revision is to document completion of verification actions that were pending at the time the initial report was prepared. Verification activities for the installed and operational SSCs have been completed. Verification of future additions to the CSB related to the canister cover cap and welding fixture system and MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment will be completed as appropriate for those components. The open items related to verification of those requirements are noted in section 3.1.5 and will be tracked as part of the CSB Facility action tracking system

  5. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. The original version of this document was prepared by Vista Engineering for the SNs prepared by Vista Engineering for the SNF Project. Revision 1 documented verification actions that were pending at the time the initial report was prepared. Verification activities for the installed and operational SSCs have been completed. Verification of future additions to the CSB related to the canister cover cap and welding fixture system and MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment will be completed as appropriate for those components. The open items related to verification of those requirements are noted in section 3.1.5 and will be tracked as part of the CSB Facility action tracking system

  6. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design

  7. Test report : Princeton power systems prototype energy storage system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Princeton Power Systems has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lithium ion phosphate batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Princeton Power Systems Prototype Energy Storage System.

  8. Dynamic-Type Ice Thermal Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Akiyoshi

    This paper deals with reviews for research and development of a dynamic-type ice thermal storage system. This system has three main features. First, the ice thermal storage tank and the ice generator are separate. Second, ice is transported to the tank from the ice generator by water or air. Third, the ice making and melting processes are operated at the same time. Outlet water temperature from the dynamic-type ice thermal storage tank remains low for a longer time. In this paper, dynamic-Type ice thermal storage systems are divided into three parts: the ice making part, the ice transport part, and the cold energy release part. Each part is reviewed separately.

  9. Combined solar collector and storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses reasons why fossil-fuelled water heating systems are included in new houses but solar systems are not. The technology and market potential for evacuated tube systems and integral collector storage systems (ICSS) are explained. The challenge for the designers of ICSSWH has been how to reduce heat loss without compromising solar energy collection. A new concept for enhanced energy storage is described in detail and input/output data are given for two versions of ICSSWH units. A table compares the costs of ICSSWH in houses compared with other (i.e. fossil fuel) water heating systems

  10. Integrated engineering system for nuclear facilities building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the construction of buildings for nuclear facilities in Japan, construction companies are generally in charge of the building engineering work, coordinating with plant engineering. An integrated system for buildings (PROMOTE: PROductive MOdeling system for Total nuclear Engineering) described here is a building engineering system including the entire life cycle of buildings for nuclear facilities. A Three-dimensional (3D) building model (PRO-model) is to be in the core of the system (PROMOTE). Data sharing in the PROMOTE is also done with plant engineering systems. By providing these basic technical foundations, PROMOTE is oriented toward offering rational, highquality engineering for the projects. The aim of the system is to provide a technical foundation in building engineering. This paper discusses the characteristics of buildings for nuclear facilities and the outline of the PROMOTE. (author)

  11. Building’s Refurbishment Computer Learning System with Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kaklauskas; M. Kutinis; L. Kovachev; Petkov, P.(University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria); I. Jackute; L. Bartkiene

    2013-01-01

    Since 1999 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University has already introduced three e-learning Master’s degree programmes. This paper proposes a way to integrate augmented reality and computer learning systems. In order to demonstrate the integration of the above systems in building refurbishment projects, the Building Refurbishment Computer Learning System with Augmented Reality (BR-CLS-AR) has been developed. The authors of this paper participated in the project “Learning Augmented Reality G...

  12. Thermo Active Building Systems Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany, Austria, Netherlands, etc.), this type of system has been installed in a significant number of new office buildings since the late 1990s. The trend is spreading to other parts of the world (the rest of Europe, North America and Asia).

  13. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  14. RTDS modelling of battery energy storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Lova

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a simplified model of a battery energy storage. The battery energy storage is part of the ABB energy storage system DynaPeaQ®. The model has been built to be run in RTDS, a real time digital simulator. Batteries can be represented by equivalent electric circuits, built up of e.g voltage sources and resistances. The magnitude of the components in an equivalent circuit varies with a number of parameters, e.g. state of charge of the battery and current f...

  15. Review of Magnetic Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Owusu-Ansah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study studies an overview of magnetic flywheel energy storage system. Energy storage is an integral part of any critical power system, as this stored energy is used to offset interruptions in the power delivered system from either a utility or an on-site generator. Magnetic flywheel as mechanical batteries using composite rotor, magnetic support bearings as well as power electronics to store electrical energy to replace stone wheel and chemical batteries has resulted in high power and energy densities. Traditionally, capacitors are used for short term storage (µs-ms and filtering, chemical batteries are used for intermediate storage (min-h and diesel fuel is used for long-term storage (h-days. Electricity generated from renewable sources, which has shown remarkable growth worldwide, can rarely provide immediate response to demand as these sources do not deliver regular supply easily adjustable to consumption needs. Thus, the growth of this decentralization production means greater network load stability problems and requires energy storage, generally using lead acid batteries as a potential solution. Finally the integration of all subsystems optimally of the magnetic flywheel system has resulted in a mechanical battery which can supply more efficient, reliable and uninterrupted power to meet the ever increasing demand of industrial machinery and automobiles.

  16. Data Acquisition and Storage in Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Liviu CERVINSCHI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Data storage represents a sensitive subject when it comes to a software system or a software application. Referring to engineering systems, data storage becomes even more challenging, since multiple functions must be accomplished and various tasks need real time response and high accuracy. While gathering information through data acquisition is relatively simple, with hardware and software equipment providing wide and complex documentation, data storage raises a set of issues, mainly due to communication channels, storage devices or software algorithms. In this context, the paper will focus on presenting some of the mostly used hardware devices and data transmission protocols in engineering applications, creating an overview over data manipulation and providing an implementation method, together with proposed solutions and a model of implementation regarding the topic.

  17. Force balanced magnetic energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel scheme of constructing coils suited for inductive storage system is described. By means of a force-compensating method, the reinforcement structure can be made considerably smaller than that needed for conventional coils. The economics of this system is shown to be capable of achieving savings of upwards of 40% when compared to a conventional system

  18. Laser beam modeling in optical storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treptau, J. P.; Milster, T. D.; Flagello, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model has been developed that simulates light propagating through an optical data storage system. A model of a laser beam that originates at a laser diode, propagates through an optical system, interacts with a optical disk, reflects back from the optical disk into the system, and propagates to data and servo detectors is discussed.

  19. ALARA Analysis for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Fuel Storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assembly storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) will increase the total cumulative CSB personnel exposure from receipt and handling activities. The loaded Shippingport Spent Fuel Canisters (SSFCs) used for the Shippingport fuel have a higher external dose rate. Assuming an MCO handling rate of 170 per year (K East and K West concurrent operation), 24-hr CSB operation, and nominal SSFC loading, all work crew personnel will have a cumulative annual exposure of less than the 1,000 mrem limit

  20. ALARA Analysis for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Fuel Storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, M E

    2000-01-01

    The addition of Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assembly storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) will increase the total cumulative CSB personnel exposure from receipt and handling activities. The loaded Shippingport Spent Fuel Canisters (SSFCs) used for the Shippingport fuel have a higher external dose rate. Assuming an MCO handling rate of 170 per year (K East and K West concurrent operation), 24-hr CSB operation, and nominal SSFC loading, all work crew personnel will have a cumulative annual exposure of less than the 1,000 mrem limit.

  1. Conceptual Design of Fuel Storage and Handling System for Integral Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel storage and handling system means the integral system including relevant equipment, tools and corresponding processes from reception of fresh fuel channels to shipping out of spent fuel channels within spent fuel shipping cask from the plant. Fuel storage and handling system consists of fresh fuel storage and handling system, spent fuel storage and handling system, reactor refueling system, and fuel transfer mechanism. In commercial nuclear power plant with loop type reactor, spent fuel channels are extracted from the reactor core in the refueling pool and delivered to the spent fuel storage rack through fuel transfer mechanism in the water. Fresh fuel channels are transferred from the composite building to the reactor for refueling via fuel transfer mechanism. All the processes are accomplished in the water pools and water canals. Fresh fuel channels are stored and inspected in the air before refueling. To handle the fuel channels in the water, there are refueling pool in the reactor building, fuel transfer mechanism between the reactor building and the compound building, and refueling canals and storage pool in the compound building. Recently small-to-medium size multi-purpose advanced reactor draws major attention because of its space advantages, adaptive nature, diversity of application, simplicity of reactor system, and passive safety approach. The fuel storage and handling system for this integral reactor also needs to be developed to enlarge its merits and to be developed to enlarge its merits and to increase nuclear safety. The design concepts of fuel storage and handling system for the integral reactor are presented in this paper

  2. OPTIMUM HEAT STORAGE DESIGN FOR SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral. The other model is especially designed for low flow SDHW systems based on a mantle tank.The tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the SDHW systems has been investigated in a way where only one tank parameter has been changed at a time in the calculations. In this way a direct analysis of the tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the systems is possible. By means of the calculations design rules for the two heat storage types are proposed.

  3. Security for cloud storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

  4. Considerations for Disposition of Dry Cask Storage System Materials at End of Storage System Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry cask storage systems are deployed at nuclear power plants for used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage when spent fuel pools reach their storage capacity and/or the plants are decommissioned. An important waste and materials disposition consideration arising from the increasing use of these systems is the management of the dry cask storage systems' materials after the UNF proceeds to disposition. Thermal analyses of repository design concepts currently under consideration internationally indicate that waste package sizes for the geologic media under consideration may be significantly smaller than the canisters being used for on-site dry storage by the nuclear utilities. Therefore, at some point along the UNF disposition pathway, there could be a need to repackage fuel assemblies already loaded into the dry storage canisters currently in use. In the United States, there are already over 1650 of these dry storage canisters deployed and approximately 200 canisters per year are being loaded at the current fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. There is about 10 cubic meters of material from each dry storage canister system that will need to be dispositioned. The concrete horizontal storage modules or vertical storage overpacks will need to be reused, re-purposed, recycled, or disposed of in some manner. The empty metal storage canister/cask would also have to be cleaned, and decontaminated for possible reuse or recycling or disposed of, likely as low-level radioactive waste. These material disposition options can have impacts of the overall used fuel management system costs. This paper will identify and explore some of the technical and interface considerations associated with managing the dry cask storage system materials. (authors)

  5. Building for flexibility and safety in spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of work to be carried out at Sellafield as part of the $2000 million investment programme of British Nuclear Fuels for the 1980s. 'Project B' involves Pound360 million of work on two main facilities. Pond 5 consists of receipt, storage, decanning, remote maintenance and decontamination facilities for Magnox and CAGR spent fuel. Sixep, the site ion exchange effluent plant, will treat the effluent from Sellafield works and be used for storage of solids and fission products from pond water. (U.K.)

  6. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  7. Latent heat thermal energy storage tanks for space heating of buildings: Comparison between calculations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latent heat thermal energy storage tanks, where carbon fiber brushes are inserted to improve the heat transfer rates in the phase change materials, are installed in an air conditioning system of a building as a space heating resource. The measured outlet fluid temperatures are compared with the numerical ones predicted by a previously developed three dimensional heat transfer model. The preliminary numerical results had unallowable prediction errors, which probably resulted from poor contact between the brushes and the heat transfer tubes due to an installation problem of the brushes. However, the numerical results predicted by a corrected model agree well with the experimental ones under various operating conditions. The effect of the brushes on the thermal outputs of the tanks is then investigated using the corrected model. The result shows that the brushes contribute to saving space and reducing the cost of the tanks

  8. Dry storage system for spent nuclear fuel DSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DSS is a Dry Storage System manufactured by INVAP for spent nuclear fuel. Spent fuel removed from the reactor of nuclear plants is usually stored in water pools where water acts as radiological shielding and as coolant. Pool water and pool building air require regular monitoring and maintenance. The DSS offers a more economical and safe alternative to store spent fuel which has had partial decay of its activity in the plant storage pool. The DSS alternative uses above ground concrete silos. With the DSS system spent fuel is loaded in steel baskets before fuel is removed from the storage pool of the power plant. Each basket holds several fuel bundles. Each basket is taken from the pool and dried in a shielded transfer cell. The basket loaded with dry fuel is then covered and seal welded. Each basket is transported inside a shielded container to its storage place in the concrete silo. The silo is a steel cylinder with capacity to store several baskets and surrounded by a thick reinforced concrete shielding. Baskets are housed inside the steel cylinder on top of each other. The silos are closed with a plug made of steel-lined reinforced concrete. When a silo is full the steel lining of the plug is seal welded to the steel cylinder. The system has been designed for a minimum of 50 years

  9. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  10. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  11. New kinds of energy-storing building composite PCMs for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this work, 10 new kinds of BCPCMs were prepared by blending of liquid xylitol pentalaurate (XPL) and xylitol pentamyristate (XPM) esters into gypsum, cement, diatomite, perlite and vermiculite. DSC results showed that the melting temperatures and energy storage capacities of the prepared BCPCMs are in range of about 40–55 °C and 31–126 J/g, respectively. TG investigations and thermal cycling test showed that the BCPCMs had good thermal endurance and thermal reliability. It can be also concluded that among the prepared 10 kinds materials, especially the BCPCMs including perlite, vermiculite, diatomite were found to better candidates for thermal energy storage applications in buildings due to the fact that they have relatively high heat storage ability. Highlights: ? New kinds BCPCMs were prepared by blending of liquid XPL and XPM esters with some building materials. ? The BCPCMs had suitable melting temperatures and energy storage capacities. ? Especially, the BCPCMs including perlite, vermiculite, diatomite were found to better candidates for thermal energy storage. - Abstract: Energy storing-composite phase change materials (PCMs) are significant means of thermal energy storage in buildings. Although several building composite PCMs (BCPCMs) have been developed in recent years, the additional investigations are still required to enrich the diversity of BCPCMs for solar heating and energy conservation applications in buildings. For this purpose, the present work is focused the preparation, characterization and determination of 10 new kinds of BCPCMs. The BCPCMs were prepared by blending of liquid xylitol pentalaurate (XPL) and xylitol pentamyristate (XPM) esters with gypsum, cement, diatomite, perlite and vermiculite as supporting matrices. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis showed that the ester compounds were adsorbed uniformly into the building materials due to capillary forces. The highest adsorption ratio of XPL ester into gypsum, cement, perlite, diatomite, and vermiculite were found to be 20, 19, 71, 52 and 40 wt.%, respectively while it was found to be 22, 25, 66, 50 and 41 wt.% for XPM ester, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicated that the melting temperatures and latent heat energy storage capacities of the prepared BCPCMs are in range of about 40–55 °C and 31–126 J/g, respectively. Thermogravimetric (TG) investigations showed that the BCPCMs had good thermal endurance even above their phase change temperatures. The BCPCMs exhibited almost same chemical and phase change characteristics after 1000 thermal cycling test. It can be also concluded that especially the BCPCMs perlite, vermiculite, diatomite content were found to better candidates for thermal energy storage applications in buildings due to the fact that they have relatively higher heat storage capacity

  12. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacitiesric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  13. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  14. Energy Storage System for a Pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several designs have been proposed for DEMO, some of which will operate in pulsed mode. Since a fusion power plant will be required to deliver continuous output, this challenge must be solved. For the reference DEMO, energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWhe with a capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. Although DEMO is scheduled to be built in about 30 years, the design of the energy storage system must be based on current technology, focusing on commercially available products and on their expected future trends. From a thorough review of the different technologies available, thermal energy storage, compressed air energy storage, water pumping, fuel cells, batteries, flywheels and ultracapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage for a pulsed DEMO. An outline of each of these technologies is described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. Following this review, the most suitable methods capable of storing the required energy are examined. Fuel cells are not suitable due to the power requirement. Compressed air energy storage has a lower efficiency than the required one. Thermal energy storage, based on molten salts, so more energy can be stored with a better efficiency, and water pumping are shown as the main solutions, based on existing technology. However, those are not the only solutions capable of solving our challenge. Hydrogen production, using water electrolysis, hydrogen storage and combustion in a combined cycle can achieve our energy and power requirements with an acceptable efficiency. All these solutions are studied in detail and described, evaluating their current cost and efficiency in order to compare them all. (author)

  15. Generalized storage-reliability-yield relationships for rainwater harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, L. S.; Vogel, R. M.

    2014-07-01

    Sizing storage for rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems is often a difficult design consideration, as the system must be designed specifically for the local rainfall pattern. We introduce a generally applicable method for estimating the required storage by using regional regression equations to account for climatic differences in the behavior of RWH systems across the entire continental United States. A series of simulations for 231 locations with continuous daily precipitation records enable the development of storage-reliability-yield (SRY) relations at four useful reliabilities, 0.8, 0.9, 0.95, and 0.98. Multivariate, log-linear regression results in storage equations that include demand, collection area and local precipitation statistics. The continental regression equations demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit (R2 0.96-0.99) using only two precipitation parameters, and fits improved when three geographic regions with more homogeneous rainfall characteristics were considered. The SRY models can be used to obtain a preliminary estimate of how large to build a storage tank almost anywhere in the United States based on desired yield and reliability, collection area, and local rainfall statistics. Our methodology could be extended to other regions of world, and the equations presented herein could be used to investigate how RWH systems would respond to changes in climatic variability. The resulting model may also prove useful in regional planning studies to evaluate the net benefits which result from the broad use of RWH to meet water supply requirements. We outline numerous other possible extensions to our work, which when taken together, illustrate the value of our initial generalized SRY model for RWH systems.

  16. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

  17. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-09-27

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

  18. Thermo Active Building Systems – Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany, Austria, Netherlands, etc.), this type of system has been installed in a significant number of new office buildings since the late 1990s. The trend is spreading to other parts of the world (the rest of Europe, North America and Asia). Thermo active building systems (TABS) are primarily used for cooling multistory buildings. By activating the building mass, there is a direct heating-cooling effect. Also, because of the thermal mass, the peak load will be reduced and some of the cooling load will be transferred beyond the time of occupancy. Because these systems for cooling operate at water temperatures close to room temperature, they increase the efficiency of heat pumps, ground heat exchangers and other systems using renewable energy sources.

  19. Mass storage system by using broadcast technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many similarities between data recording systems for high energy physics and broadcast systems; the data flow is almost one-way, requires real-time recording; requires large-scale automated libraries for 24-hours operation, etc. In addition to these functional similarities, the required data-transfer and data-recording speeds are also close to those for near future experiments. For these reasons, we have collaborated with SONY Broadcast Company to study the usability of broadcast devices for our data storage system. Our new data storage system consists of high-speed data recorders and tape-robots which are originally based on the digital video-tape recorder and the tape-robot for broadcast systems. We are also studying the possibility to use these technologies for the online data-recording system for B-physics experiment at KEK. (author)

  20. Multi-purpose canister storage of spent nuclear fuel in modular vault system. Technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original Modular Vault Dry Storage (MVDS) technology was developed in the early 1980s leading on from the experience gained with the magnox fuel dry storage facilities at the Wylfa power station in Wales (UK). The Wylfa dry fuel stores were commissioned in 1969 and the MVDS can, therefore, rightly claim to be the only dry fuel storage technology that has an operational and technological background of over thirty years. The MVDS system was originally designed to store individual fuel assemblies within a Storage Canister. This system ensures minimum fuel storage temperatures and provides maximum flexibility for future off-site transportation. Individual fuel assemblies can be removed from their storage locations and placed into a transportation cask for either road or rail off-site shipment. However, this requires each fuel assembly to be re-handled and transferred into the transportation cask. A vault storage system based on the proven MVDS technology using a large Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC), is now being developed to provide a cost-effective interim spent fuel storage system. Integrating the MVDS technology with a MPC and adapting the cooling, shielding and handling systems, allows the new vault storage system to provide high storage efficiency in compact storage buildings suitable for a large spent fuel interim storage facility. It has been possible to reconfigure the vault storage array from individual fuel assembly storage canisters to large diameter canisterorage canisters to large diameter canisters, and to re-configure the handling equipment to transfer large canisters. By modifying the design of the MVDS to accept large, multiple fuel assembly, multi-purpose canisters, it has been possible to maintain the technical and operational benefits of the original MVDS design, with the additional benefits of multi-purpose canisters. (author)

  1. Flywheel energy storage for electromechanical actuation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L.; Goldie, James H.; Kirtley, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe a flywheel energy storage system designed specifically to provide load-leveling for a thrust vector control (TVC) system using electromechanical actuators (EMAs). One of the major advantages of an EMA system over a hydraulic system is the significant reduction in total energy consumed during the launch profile. Realization of this energy reduction will, however, require localized energy storage capable of delivering the peak power required by the EMAs. A combined flywheel-motor/generator unit which interfaces directly to the 20-kHz power bus represents an ideal candidate for this load leveling. The overall objective is the definition of a flywheel energy storage system for this application. The authors discuss progress on four technical objectives: (1) definition of the specifications for the flywheel-motor/generator system, including system-level trade-off analysis; (2) design of the flywheel rotor; (3) design of the motor/generator; and (4) determination of the configuration for the power management system.

  2. Evaluation of existing Hanford buildings for the storage of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing storage space at the Hanford Site for solid low-level mixed waste (LLMW) will be filled up by 1997. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has initiated the project funding cycle for additional storage space to assure that new facilities are available when needed. In the course of considering the funding request, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked WHC to identify and review any existing Hanford Site facilities that could be modified and used as an alternative to constructing the proposed W-112 Project. This report documents the results of that review. In summary, no buildings exist at the Hanford Site that can be utilized for storage of solid LLMW on a cost-effective basis when compared to new construction. The nearest approach to an economically sensible conversion would involve upgrade of 100,000 ft2 of space in the 2101-M Building in the 200 East Area. Here, modified storage space is estimated to cost about $106 per ft2 while new construction will cost about $50 per ft2. Construction costs for the waste storage portion of the W-112 Project are comparable with W-016 Project actual costs, with escalation considered. Details of the cost evaluation for this building and for other selected candidate facilities are presented in this report. All comparisons presented address the potential decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) cost avoidances realized by using existing facilities

  3. Management information systems - storage security

    OpenAIRE

    El Hallag, Ahmed Yousef

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor work is a research based document. It elaborates briefly on management information systems, their establishment and implementation. It later focuses on their security measures using the support of IS/IT.

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869

  5. Quality Assurance Program Plan for Project W-379: Spent Nuclear Fuels Canister Storage Building Projec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Canister Storage Building (CSB) Project. The purpose of this QAPP is to control project activities ensuring achievement of the project mission in a safe, consistent and reliable manner

  6. Mass Storage Performance Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop a data warehouse to enable system administrators and their managers to gather information by querying the data logs of the MDSDS. Currently detailed logs capture the activity of the MDSDS internal to the different systems. The elements to be included in the data warehouse are requirements analysis, data cleansing, database design, database population, hardware/software acquisition, data transformation, query and report generation, and data mining.

  7. Heat of Fusion Storage with High Solar Fraction for Solar Low Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, JØrgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical investigation on a concept for a seasonal thermal storage based on the phase change material sodium acetate trihydrate with active use of supercooling as a measure to achieve a partly heat loss free thermal storage. The effect of supercooling allows a melted part of the storage to cool down below the melting point without solidification preserving the heat of fusion energy. If the supercooled storage reaches the surrounding temperature no heat loss will take place until the supercooled salt is activated. The investigation shows that this concept makes it possible to achieve 100% coverage of space heating and domestic hot water in a low energy house in a Danish climate with a solar heating system with 36 m² flat plate solar collector and approximately 10 m³ storage with sodium acetate. A traditional water storage solution aiming at 100% coverage will require a storage volume several times larger.

  8. Storage monitoring systems for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1993, President Clinton stated the US would ensure that its fissile material meet the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability. Frequent human inspection of the material could be used to ensure these standards. However, it may be more effective and less expensive to replace these manual inspections with virtual inspections via remote monitoring technologies. To prepare for this future, Sandia National Laboratories has developed several monitoring systems, including the Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) and Project Straight-Line. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Sandia effort that merges remote monitoring technologies into a comprehensive storage monitoring system that will meet the near-term as well as the long-term requirements for these types of systems. Topics discussed include: motivations for storage monitoring systems to include remote monitoring; an overview of the needs and challenges of providing a storage monitoring system for the year 2000; an overview of how the MIMS and Straight-Line can be enhanced so that together they create an integrated and synergistic information system by the end of 1997; and suggested milestones for 1998 and 1999 to assure steady progress in preparing for the needs of 2000

  9. APS storage ring vacuum system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs

  10. Didactic model of the high storage system

    OpenAIRE

    J.?wider; G. Wszo?ek; D. Recik

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The continuous progress in Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) field with automatic storing systems is broadening the range of education process for engineers in future. This document describes the newest didactic station integrated witch a Modular Production System (MPS) model [1, 2, 3]. It is a module of high storage. This arrangement is the perfect didactic item for students.Design/methodology/approach: The main reason, why the laboratory position, we have mentioned, has been ...

  11. Energy Efficiency through Thermal Energy Storage - Evaluation of the Possibilities for the Swedish Building Stock, Phase 1

    OpenAIRE

    Heier, Johan; Bales, Chris; Martin, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    As a first step in assessing the potential of thermal energy storage in Swedish buildings, the current situation of the Swedish building stock and different storage methods are discussed in this paper. Overall, many buildings are from the 1960’s or earlier having a relatively high energy demand, creating opportunities for large energy savings. The major means of heating are electricity for detached houses and district heating for multi dwelling houses and premises. Cooling needs are relativ...

  12. Transport system for AR and AFR spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to develop concepts of transport system of spent fuel of which results are necessary to propose an optimum storage method in Japan. Conceptual designs of the transport system from reactor to reprocessing plant were made for cask storage method, vault storage method and pool storage method in cases of AR and AFR storage conditions. In addition, costs for the transport system were estimated. As the results, economy of transport systems of those methods are good in the following orders vault storage approximately equal to pool storage > cask storage. However, the above results are for the case that costs for casks are included in the transport cost. Unless otherwise, economy of the transport system of the cask storage is the best. (author)

  13. A New Nightly Build System for LHCb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

    2014-06-01

    The nightly build system used so far by LHCb has been implemented as an extension of the system developed by CERN PH/SFT group (as presented at CHEP2010). Although this version has been working for many years, it has several limitations in terms of extensibility, management and ease of use, so that it was decided to develop a new version based on a continuous integration system. In this paper we describe a new implementation of the LHCb Nightly Build System based on the open source continuous integration system Jenkins and report on the experience of configuring a complex build workflow in Jenkins.

  14. Balloon borne optical disk mass storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, M. D.; Jennings, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    An on-board data recording system for balloon-borne interferometer using a vacuum operable, ruggedized WORM optical drive is presented. This system, as presently under development, provides 320 Mbytes of data storage (or approximately 11 hrs at the 64 kbits/sec telemetry rate of the experiment). It has the capability of recording the unmodified telemetry bit system as transmitted or doing some preprocessing of the data onboard. The system is compact and requires less than 28 watts of battery power to operate.

  15. Changing Dashboard build system to Bamboo

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project is to change Cosmic custom build system to an Automated build system used Bamboo CI System services. The goal is when a developer performs some changes on the source code, the system builds installation packages for different architectures and runs tests automatically on the software modules as soon as possible. The Bamboo build system polls the git repository which is a commonly used source code repository by the developers of the IT department. Bamboo CI System is a widely used system by the department. Thus the project uses widely accepted tools by the department which makes the Cosmic project even more standardized. Project also aims to create packages for every versions of Cosmic modules for different architectures (SLC5/SLC6) which can be accessed by different package repositories on AFS file system. The created package repositories can be used for automated deploy environment such as puppet.

  16. Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLLENBECK, R.G.

    2000-05-08

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Canister Storage Building (CSB) is the interim storage facility for the K-Basin SNF at the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SNF is packaged in multi-canister overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs are placed inside transport casks, then delivered to the service station inside the CSB. At the service station, the MCO handling machine (MHM) moves the MCO from the cask to a storage tube or one of two sample/weld stations. There are 220 standard storage tubes and six overpack storage tubes in a below grade reinforced concrete vault. Each storage tube can hold two MCOs.

  17. An Ice Storage System using Supercooled Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Mitsuru; Tanino, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Sakae; Hayashi, Toshio; Okonogi, Tokio; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki

    The storage and melting characteristics of slurry-ice mixtures in several tanks were investigated exprimentally. For ice storage processes, three different kinds ofice-feeding methods were tested in connection with the fluidizable water-ice two-phase mixture produced in the system. It was confirmed that the achievable bulk IPF in any tank and using any of these methods was 30-40% under stable operational conditions. For ice melting processes, two different kinds of methods were considered and tested. Both were advantageous in that almost all ice stored in a tank could be consumed, thereby maintaining high system performance. By a modeling analysis of ice melting processes in the tank, it was possible to predict accurately the time history of tank outlet water temperatures.

  18. Evaluation of battery/microturbine hybrid energy storage technologies at the University of Maryland :a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Anda, Mindi Farber (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

    2005-03-01

    This study describes the technical and economic benefits derived from adding an energy storage component to an existing building cooling, heating, and power system that uses microturbine generation to augment utility-provided power. Three different types of battery energy storage were evaluated: flooded lead-acid, valve-regulated lead-acid, and zinc/bromine. Additionally, the economic advantages of hybrid generation/storage systems were evaluated for a representative range of utility tariffs. The analysis was done using the Distributed Energy Technology Simulator developed for the Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories by Energetics, Inc. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Energy Engineering.

  19. Ultra Capacitor: Alternative Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Kumar, Kriti Singh

    2013-01-01

    Today, ultracapacitors are a viable component for production aim designs in the power electronics world. The need for highly reliable back-up and emergency power are creating significant markets for energy storage and power delivery. Electrical wind turbine pitch systems, uninterruptible power supplies and electronic products such as wireless communication devices and digital cameras are some of the many applications where ultracapacitors have been designed in....

  20. Resonance parameter storage and retrieval system REPSTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resolved resonance parameter storage and retrieval system, REPSTOR, was developed to assist nuclear data evaluators in doing evaluation work of resonance parameters. By using REPSTOR, one can do compilation and comparison of experimental and/or evaluated data of resolved resonance parameters, making a data file in the ENDF format, and so on. REPSTOR was written in FORTRAN for main frame computers at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report provides a users' manual of REPSTOR. (author)

  1. The ALS Storage Ring RF System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS Storage Ring RF System is characterized by the use of the following features: (1) High power loading of two single cell cavities. (2) The use of a tubular ceramic input window employing aperture coupling. (3) The use of waveguide filters and matchers designed for HOM absorption. (4) A comprehensive HOM monitoring system. (5) The use of waveguide water-wedge loads for the magic tee and circulator loads. The results of cavity measurements and high power tests are reported together with the performance of the system during the commissioning and operation phases of the ALS project. Plans for future window development are discussed

  2. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  3. CNAAA spent fuel complementary storage building (UFC) construction and licensing: an overview of current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of nuclear fuel assemblies could be a valuable solution in order to make available additional energy resources and also to decrease the volume of discarded materials. After the burning of nuclear fuel assemblies to produce electrical energy, these components have to be stored in the spent fuel pools of each unit, for at least 10 years, in order to decrease their residual heat. Even after this initial 10 year-period, these spent fuel assemblies still have a great amount of energy, which can be reused. Nowadays, the spent fuel materials can be reprocessed in order to produce electrical energy, or be stored to provide, in the future, an opportunity to decide how these materials will be treated. At the present moment, Brazil does not plan to reprocess these spent fuels assemblies, as performed by some other countries. Thus, Brazil intends to build a spent fuel long term intermediate storage facility to allow the chance to make a decision in the future, taking into account the available technology at that time. Considering the three CNAAA units (Angra 1, 2 and 3 of Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto, the Brazilian nuclear power plant, located at Angra dos Reis county, Rio de Janeiro state) have a life time estimated in 60 years, and the intrinsical spent fuel pools storage capacity of these units, a Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building - UFC has to be foreseen in order to increase the storage capacity of CNAAA. Therefore, the Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building shall be in operation in 2018, capable to receive the first spent fuel assemblies from Angra 2 and, in the next year, from Angra 1. The same procedure will be applied for the spent fuel assemblies of Angra 3, currently in construction. The Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building will be constructed and operated by Eletrobras Eletronuclear - the CNAAA owner - and will be located at the same site of the plant. Conceptually, the UFC will be built as a wet storage modality, representing a similar solution used in all the three CNAAA units to store the spent fuel assemblies. Taking into account the above described aspects, this paper aims to compare the licensing requirements included in the safety analysis report prepared for external spent fuel wet storage facilities in USA (NRC Regulatory Guide) and Switzerland (ENSI - Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate), considering that the standard formats applied by CNEN - the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Authority - are based on USNRC recommendations and Eletrobras Eletronuclear plans, as a preliminary idea, to take the Goesgen NPP - KKG (Switzerland) spent fuel facility as a reference one for of the UFC. (author)

  4. CNAAA spent fuel complementary storage building (UFC) construction and licensing: an overview of current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Neto, Bertino do Carmo; Pacifi, Cicero Durval, E-mail: bertino@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: cicero@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The reprocessing of nuclear fuel assemblies could be a valuable solution in order to make available additional energy resources and also to decrease the volume of discarded materials. After the burning of nuclear fuel assemblies to produce electrical energy, these components have to be stored in the spent fuel pools of each unit, for at least 10 years, in order to decrease their residual heat. Even after this initial 10 year-period, these spent fuel assemblies still have a great amount of energy, which can be reused. Nowadays, the spent fuel materials can be reprocessed in order to produce electrical energy, or be stored to provide, in the future, an opportunity to decide how these materials will be treated. At the present moment, Brazil does not plan to reprocess these spent fuels assemblies, as performed by some other countries. Thus, Brazil intends to build a spent fuel long term intermediate storage facility to allow the chance to make a decision in the future, taking into account the available technology at that time. Considering the three CNAAA units (Angra 1, 2 and 3 of Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto, the Brazilian nuclear power plant, located at Angra dos Reis county, Rio de Janeiro state) have a life time estimated in 60 years, and the intrinsical spent fuel pools storage capacity of these units, a Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building - UFC has to be foreseen in order to increase the storage capacity of CNAAA. Therefore, the Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building shall be in operation in 2018, capable to receive the first spent fuel assemblies from Angra 2 and, in the next year, from Angra 1. The same procedure will be applied for the spent fuel assemblies of Angra 3, currently in construction. The Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building will be constructed and operated by Eletrobras Eletronuclear - the CNAAA owner - and will be located at the same site of the plant. Conceptually, the UFC will be built as a wet storage modality, representing a similar solution used in all the three CNAAA units to store the spent fuel assemblies. Taking into account the above described aspects, this paper aims to compare the licensing requirements included in the safety analysis report prepared for external spent fuel wet storage facilities in USA (NRC Regulatory Guide) and Switzerland (ENSI - Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate), considering that the standard formats applied by CNEN - the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Authority - are based on USNRC recommendations and Eletrobras Eletronuclear plans, as a preliminary idea, to take the Goesgen NPP - KKG (Switzerland) spent fuel facility as a reference one for of the UFC. (author)

  5. Network Coding for Distributed Storage Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dimakis, Alexandros G; Wu, Yunnan; Wainwright, Martin J; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2008-01-01

    Distributed storage systems provide reliable access to data through redundancy spread over individually unreliable nodes. Application scenarios include data centers, peer-to-peer storage systems, and storage in wireless networks. Storing data using an erasure code, in fragments spread across nodes, requires less redundancy than simple replication for the same level of reliability. However, since fragments must be periodically replaced as nodes fail, a key question is how to generate encoded fragments in a distributed way while transferring as little data as possible across the network. For an erasure coded system, a common practice to repair from a node failure is for a new node to download subsets of data stored at a number of surviving nodes, reconstruct a lost coded block using the downloaded data, and store it at the new node. We show that this procedure is sub-optimal. We introduce the notion of regenerating codes, which allow a new node to download \\emph{functions} of the stored data from the surviving ...

  6. Failure Analysis of Storage Data Magnetic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz–Prado A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the conclusions about the corrosion mechanics in storage data magnetic systems (hard disk. It was done from the inspection of 198 units that were in service in nine different climatic regions characteristic for Mexico. The results allow to define trends about the failure forms and the factors that affect them. In turn, this study has analyzed the causes that led to mechanical failure and those due to deterioration by atmospheric corrosion. On the basis of the results obtained from the field sampling, demonstrates that the hard disk failure is fundamentally by mechanical effects. The deterioration by environmental effects were found in read-write heads, integrated circuits, printed circuit boards and in some of the electronic components of the controller card of the device, but not in magnetic storage surfaces. There fore, you can discard corrosion on the surface of the disk as the main kind of failure due to environmental deterioration. To avoid any inconvenience in the magnetic data storage system it is necessary to ensure sealing of the system.

  7. Re-Encryption Scheme to Provide Secure Data Forwarding in Cloud Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hema Latha*,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A cloud storage system is considered as a large scale distributed storage system which consists of several independent storage servers. In Cloud computing the resources on the Internet are considered and managed as a combined entity called cloud. Data stored in the third party cloud system might create serious concern on data confidentiality. To provide strong confidentiality for messages and information in storage servers, the user can encrypt messages by a cryptographic method. Most conventional encryption schemes protect data confidentiality but also limit the functionality of the storage system as only few operations are supported over encrypted data. In this paper, the authors discussed about the problem of forwarding data to another user by storage servers directly under the command of data owner. To provide a secured data forwarding, we propose a proxy re-encryption scheme and integrate it with a secured decentralized code to form secure distributed storage system. The constricted integration of encoding, encryption and data forwarding build the storage system efficiently and effectively meet the specifications of data robustness, data confidentiality, and data forwarding.

  8. Using Expert Systems To Build Cognitive Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive simulations are runnable computer programs for modeling human cognitive activities. A case study is reported where expert systems were used as a formalism for modeling metacognitive processes in a seminar. Building cognitive simulations engages intensive introspection, ownership and meaning making in learners who build them. (Author/AEF)

  9. Spent fuel consolidation in the 105KW Building fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is one element of a larger engineering study effort by WHC to examine the feasibility of irradiated fuel and sludge consolidation in the KW Basin in response to TPA Milestone (target date) M-34-00-T03. The study concludes that up to 11,500 fuel storage canisters could be accommodated in the KW Basin with modifications. These modifications would include provisions for multi-tiered canister storage involving the fabrication and installation of new storage racks and installation of additional decay heat removal systems for control of basin water temperature. The ability of existing systems to control radionuclide concentrations in the basin water is examined. The study discusses requirements for spent nuclear fuel inventory given the proposed multi-tiered storage arrangement, the impact of the consolidated mass on the KW Basin structure, and criticality issues associated with multi-tiered storage

  10. Nuclear Hybrid energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Without growing concerns in reliable energy supply, the next generation in reliable power generation via hybrid energy systems is being developed. A hybrid energy system incorporates multiple energy input source sand multiple energy outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these combined systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilization because stored excess energy is used later to meet peak energy demands. With high thermal energy production the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct thermal properties. This paper discusses the criteria for efficient energy storage and molten salt energy storage system options for hybrid systems. (Author)

  11. Beam position monitor system for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam position monitors (BPM) for synchrotron light storage rings usually consist of beam pickup electrodes, coaxial relays and a narrowband receiver. While accurate, these systems are slow and of limited use in the commissioning of an accelerator. A beam position monitor is described which is intended to be a principal diagnostic during debug and routine running of a storage ring. It is capable of measuring the position of a single bunch on the first or nth orbit to an accuracy of a few percent. Stored beam position is more accurately measured with averaging techniques. Beam position changes can be studied in a bandwidth from DC to a few MHz. The beam monitor electronics consist of a separate amplification, detection, and sampling channel for each beam pickup electrode. Fast switches in each channel permit selection of the nth turn for measurement (single bunch mode). A calibration pulse is injected into each channel after beam measurement to permit gain offsets to be measured and removed from the final data. While initially more costly than the usual beam position monitor system, this sytem will pay for itself in reduced storage ring debug and trouble shooting time. 5 refs., 5 figs

  12. General considerations on thermal energy storage with closed adsorption systems

    OpenAIRE

    Füldner, G.; Henning, H.-M.; Schossig, P.; Schmidt, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Heat supply for buildings accounts for about 40% of primary energy consumption in Europe. The main obstacle to a sustainable energy supply for buildings is the time gap between energy availability (solar heat in summer) and heating demand in winter. Storage of thermal energy may allow to bridge this gap and to reach high solar coverage rates for the heating supply of buildings. Within a study of a reference house in three climatic regions, with three insulation standards, two collector types,...

  13. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  14. Ultra Capacitor: Alternative Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar, Kriti Singh, Dr. Debmalya Bhattacharya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, ultracapacitors are a viable component for production aim designs in the power electronics world. The need for highly reliable back-up and emergency power are creating significant markets for energy storage and power delivery. Electrical wind turbine pitch systems, uninterruptible power supplies and electronic products such as wireless communication devices and digital cameras are some of the many applications where ultracapacitors have been designed in. Ultracapacitors are components which have properties of a complexe capacitor system which is sensitive to voltage, temperature and frequency. The understanding of their behavior is primordial to characterize and operate them.

  15. Impact of Storage Technologies upon Power System Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULAU Lucian Ioan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main characteristics of storage technologies. The most important storage technologies are the batteries, hydrogen, pumped hydro, flywheels, compressed air, super-capacitors and superconducting magnetic devices. The storage technologies can be classified based on the function principle into electrochemical, mechanical and electromagnetic devices. The storage systems can also be classified based on their capacity to store power into short and long term devices. A power flow analysis is performed for the situation with and without a storage unit. The storage unit is inserted into the IEEE 14 bus test system.

  16. Building’s Refurbishment Computer Learning System with Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kaklauskas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University has already introduced three e-learning Master’s degree programmes. This paper proposes a way to integrate augmented reality and computer learning systems. In order to demonstrate the integration of the above systems in building refurbishment projects, the Building Refurbishment Computer Learning System with Augmented Reality (BR-CLS-AR has been developed. The authors of this paper participated in the project “Learning Augmented Reality Global Environment” (LARGE, part of the Lifelong Learning Programme. One of LARGE’s goals (on the part of Lithuania was to integrate augmented reality and computer learning systems (i.e. to develop the BR-CLS-AR. To check the accuracy of the system, its entire solution process was reproduced manually. The results of the manual calculations matched those produced by the computer. Moreover, each individual phase in the system and its subsystems was checked with experts in this field, i.e. the underlying calculations were found to be in conformity with the experts’ logical reasoning. Owing to the suggestions from these experts, some useful changes have been introduced in the system. The BR-CLS-AR consists of a computer learning subsystem and an augmented reality subsystem.

  17. Nuclear power reactors and hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among conclusions and results come by, a nuclear-electric-hydrogen integrated power system was suggested as a way to prevent the energy crisis. It was shown that the hydrogen power system using nuclear power as a leading energy resource would hold an advantage in the current international situation as well as for the long-term future. Results reported provide designers of integrated nuclear-electric-hydrogen systems with computation models and routines which will allow them to explore the optimal solution in coupling power reactors to hydrogen producing systems, taking into account the specific characters of hydrogen storage systems. The models were meant for average computers of a type easily available in developing countries. (author)

  18. Pulsed rf systems for large storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we consider the possibility that by using a pulsed rf system, perhaps a system which operates at a somewhat higher frequency, a substantial reduction can be made in the rf power requirement for the next generation of large storage rings. A large effort over a period of many years has been expended in the attempt to increase the shunt impedance of rf structures for cw systems. Without turning to superconductivity only modest gains in the shunt impedance remain to be made by further detailed adjustments in cell shape. On the other hand, very little effort has as yet gone into the optimization of structures for pulsed systems. The structure parameters to be quoted in this report do not therefore necessarily represent values close to those for an optimum design. It is expected that the system designs set out here can be improved upon with further experimental and theoretical work. 11 refs., 3 figs

  19. Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut

    2011-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid. Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be optimized for dierent kind of grid services. As an energy storage solution with timing for few seconds to hours, rated at MW and MWh, battery energy storage systems are suitable and ecient solutions. Grid connection of the storage system can be done at dierent voltage levels, depending on the location and application scenario. For high power and energy ratings, increase in the battery and converter voltage ratings can enhance the overall system eciency. This work is divided in two parts, "Control of DC-AC Grid Converters" and "Medium Voltage Grid Converters for Energy Storage". The rst part starts with a brief review of control strategies applied to grid connected DC-AC converters. A control implementation was realized for a 100 kW active rectier to be used in a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. In the second part, dierent solutions for power converters to interface energy storage units to medium voltage grid are given. A new modular multilevel converter concept is introduced, where the energy storage units are integrated in each converter cell. The control of DC-AC grid converters has been a research subject for more than a century, and there is still place for improvements. A review of the main control principles is given in the rst part. The stationary frame control was implemented for a low-voltage 100 kW bidirectional grid converter, to be used in a high voltage battery energy storage test bench. The control structure proved to be stable without damping. The converter was tested in the test bench and the experimental results are presented. Multilevel converters are replacing the classical two-level converters more and more, on a large variety of applications. For medium voltage applications, multilevel converters are a necessity. The second part presents a review of hard-switched and soft-switched multilevel converter topologies for medium voltage. Four converter topologies were chosen as potential solutions for direct connection of battery energy storage systems to the grid. An evaluation is done, in terms of semiconductors requirements and losses, output voltage quality and common mode voltage. The main advantage of batteries direct connection to the grid is the high efficiency potential. However, this solution is suitable only for battery technologies with low voltage variation. It is also necessary to build a battery system with high amount of serial connected cells, and the knowledge in this eld is still limited nowadays. Therefore, twostage converters solutions were introduced to overcome these disadvantages. Modular multilevel converters can make use of battery voltage technologies where the maturity and reliability is well proven in industry. Cascaded H-bridge topology with bidirectional boost converters is proposed to interface low voltage batteries to the medium voltage grid. A control structure based on single phase control is proposed. It balances the capacitor voltages and the state of charge of batteries from dierent cells. A semiconductor loss analysis is performed and it shows the loss distribution in the converter cell and the eciency over a wide battery voltage variation. A new modular multilevel converter structure with integrated energy storage is introduced. This converter structure is suitable to interface low and medium voltage energy storage units to medium and high voltage grids. It can also interconnect a DC and AC grid with bidirectional power ow, were both can be backed-up for the distributed energy storage units installed in each converter cell. The converter operation and control methods are pres

  20. Canister Storage Building (CSB) safety analysis report, phase 3: Safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy established the K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel Project to address safety and environmental concerns associated with deteriorating spent nuclear fuel presently stored under water in the Hanford Site's K Basins, which are located near the Columbia River. Recommendations for a series of aggressive projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to manage the safe removal of K Basins fuel were made in WHC-EP-0830, Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Recommended Path Forward, and its subsequent update, WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Fuel. The integrated process strategy recommendations include the following steps: Fuel preparation activities at the K Basins, including removing the fuel elements from their K Basin canisters, separating fuel particulate from fuel elements and fuel fragments greater than 0.6 cm (0.25 in.) in any dimension, removing excess sludge from the fuel and fuel fragments by means of flushing, as necessary, and packaging the fuel into multicanister overpacks (MCOs); Removal of free water by draining and vacuum drying at a cold vacuum drying facility ES-122; Dry shipment of fuel from the Cold Vacuum Drying to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), a new facility in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

  1. Eutectic mixtures of capric acid and lauric acid applied in building wallboards for heat energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Shilei; Zhu Neng [Tianjin University (China). School of Environmental Science and Technology; Feng Guohui [Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang (China)

    2006-06-15

    Capric acid (CA) and lauric acid (LA), as phase change materials (PCM), can be applied for energy storage in low temperature. The phase transitions temperature and values of latent heat of eutectic mixtures of CA and LA are suitable for being incorporated with building materials to form phase change wallboards used for building energy storage. 120, 240 and 360 accelerated thermal cycle tests were conducted to study the changes in latent heat of fusion and melting temperature of phase change wallboards combined with the eutectic mixtures of CA and LA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tested the transition temperature and latent heat. The results showed that the melting temperature and latent heat of these phase change wallboards with eutectic mixtures have not obvious variations after repeated 360 thermal cycles, which proved that these phase change wallboards have good thermal stability for melting temperature and variations in latent heat of fusion for long time application. Therefore, they can be used for latent heat storage in the field of building energy conservation. (author)

  2. Eutectic mixtures of capric acid and lauric acid applied in building wallboards for heat energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilei, L.; Neng, Z. [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Guohui, F. [Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang (China)

    2006-07-01

    Capric acid (CA) and lauric acid (LA), as phase change materials (PCM), can be applied for energy storage in low temperature. The phase transition temperature and values of latent heat of eutectic mixtures of CA and LA are suitable for being incorporated with building materials to form phase change wallboards used for building energy storage. 120, 240 and 360 accelerated thermal cycle tests were conducted to study the changes in latent heat of fusion and melting temperature of phase change wallboards combined with the eutectic mixtures of CA and LA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tested the transition temperature and latent heat. The results showed that the melting temperature and latent heat of these phase change wallboards with eutectic mixtures have no obvious variations after repeated 360 thermal cycles, which proved that these phase change wallboards have good thermal stability for melting temperature and variations in latent heat of fusion for long time application. Therefore, they can be used for latent heat storage in the field of building energy conservation. (author)

  3. Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with ``conventional`` HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

  4. Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with conventional'' HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

  5. Energy study of heat pumps and energy storage at Cisco Systems International; Energiestudie warmtepompen en energieopslag Cisco Systems International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-23

    Cisco Systems International considers the use of energy storage in combination with heat pumps for the new office building in Amsterdam South-East, Netherlands. This office building has a floor space of 35,000 m{sup 2}. In a later phase this can be enlarged to 45,000 m{sup 2} (phase 1b) or 90,000 m{sup 2} (phase 2). This study is based on phase 1b. The mounting heat capacity is 2,760 kW and the cooling capacity is 7,045 kW. The annually cooling demand is estimated to be 30,400 MWh/a. The computer cooling forms a greater part of the cooling request (28,300 MWh/a). This study is a pilot study to the applicability of subsurface energy storage where heat pumps in the new office building are involved. However, nearby the Cisco location IKEA (furniture warehouse) has also planned an energy storage system. Therefore, the interaction between the two storage systems was examined. Cost effectiveness was analysed by comparison of the storage system with an energy system using conventional cooling machines and gas boilers. 5 refs.

  6. Compartmentalized storage tank for electrochemical cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Benjamin Michael (Inventor); Dalton, Luke Thomas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A compartmentalized storage tank is disclosed. The compartmentalized storage tank includes a housing, a first fluid storage section disposed within the housing, a second fluid storage section disposed within the housing, the first and second fluid storage sections being separated by a movable divider, and a constant force spring. The constant force spring is disposed between the housing and the movable divider to exert a constant force on the movable divider to cause a pressure P1 in the first fluid storage section to be greater than a pressure P2 in the second fluid storage section, thereby defining a pressure differential.

  7. Investigation of heat of fusion storage for solar low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, JØrgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical investigation by means of TRNSYS simulations of a partly heat loss free phase change material (PCM) storage solution for solar heating systems. The partly heat loss free storage is obtained by controlled used of super cooling in a mixture of sodium acetate and xanthane rubber. The storage can cool down to surrounding temperature preserving the latent heat in form of the heat of fusion energy. The basis for the calculations is a super low energy house with a space heating demand of 2010 kWh/year and a domestic hot water demand of 2530 kWh/year. For storage volumes in the range of 500 – 3000 litres the heat loss free state is seldom reached and the effect of super cooling is limited. For larger volumes the heat loss free state may be reached. The benefit of using a PCM storage compared to a traditional water storage is limited with respect to energy savings for storage sizes up to 1 m3, but if the same amount of net utilised solar energy should be reached it would require a water storage that is 2 – 3 times larger.

  8. Ventilation system in the RA reactor building - design specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective role of the ventilation system of nuclear facilities involve construction of ventilation barriers which prevent release of radioactive particulates or gases, elimination od radioactive particulates and gases from the air which is released from contaminated zones into the reactor environment. Ventilation barriers are created by dividing the building into a number of ventilation zones with different sub pressure compared to the atmospheric pressure. The RA reactor building is divided into four ventilation zones. First zone is the zone of highest risk. It includes reactor core with horizontal experimental channels, underground rooms of the primary coolant system (D2O), helium system, hot cells and the space above the the reactor core. Second zone is the reactor hall and the room for irradiated fuel storage. The third zone includes corridors in the basement, ground floor and first floor where the probability of contamination is small. The fourth zone includes the annex where the contamination risk is low. There is no have natural air circulation in the reactor building. Ventilators for air input and outlet maintain the sub pressure in the building (pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure). This prevents release of radioactivity into the atmosphere

  9. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  10. ADVANCEMENT FOR INVOLUNTARY RECONFIGURATION FOR AMPLE RESPONSIBLE STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velikanti Kiran Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we are more dependent on Internet services, which gives a significant functionality and store serious state. These services are often executed on a group of machines inhabit at several geographic locations such as a set of company data centers. Byzantine-fault-tolerant duplication gets better the accessibility and reliability of Internet services that build up significant state and defend it in spite of attacks or software errors. However, an inactive set of replica, or have restrictions in how they hold reconfigurations is assumed by the accessible Byzantine-fault-tolerant storage systems. During the system lifetime in long-lived and large-scale systems this can be problematic where system membership is likely to change. A large-scale Byzantine-fault-tolerant system is a complete solution for dynamically changing system membership which is presented here. A service that tracks system membership and periodically notifies other system nodes of membership changes is presented in this paper. To avoid human configuration errors the membership service runs mostly automatically and provides applications with a sequence of consistent views of the system membership is itself by Byzantine fault- tolerant and reconfigurable. By using it in a new dispersed hash table called dBQS that provides atomic semantics even across changes in imitation sets as the utility of this membership service is demonstrated. To handle changes in the replica set dBQS is interesting in its own right because its storage algorithms extend existing Byzantine quorum protocols, and because it differs from previous distributed hash tables (DHTs by providing Byzantine fault tolerance and offering strong semantics.

  11. An energy storage and regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SchrØder, Niels Roskilde University,

      The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet the higher level of energy demand.

  12. Thermal energy storage systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    The ability of thermal energy storage (TES) systems to facilitate energy savings, renewable energy use and reduce environmental impact has led to a recent resurgence in their interest. The second edition of this book offers up-to-date coverage of recent energy efficient and sustainable technological methods and solutions, covering analysis, design and performance improvement as well as life-cycle costing and assessment. As well as having significantly revised the book for use as a graduate text, the authors address real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an un

  13. Simulation of Flywheel Energy Storage System Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long V.; Wolff, Frederick J.; Dravid, Narayan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the progress made in the controller design and operation of a flywheel energy storage system. The switching logic for the converter bridge circuit has been redefined to reduce line current harmonics, even at the highest operating speed of the permanent magnet motor-generator. An electromechanical machine model is utilized to simulate charge and discharge operation of the inertial energy in the flywheel. Controlling the magnitude of phase currents regulates the rate of charge and discharge. The resulting improvements are demonstrated by simulation.

  14. Data storage and retrieval system abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Barbara

    1992-09-01

    The STX mass storage system design is intended for environments requiring high speed access to large volumes of data (terabyte and greater). Prior to commitment to a product design plan, STX conducted an exhaustive study of the commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and software. STX also conducted research into the area of emerging technologies in networks and storage media so that the design could easily accommodate new interfaces and peripherals as they came on the market. All the selected system elements were brought together in a demo suite sponsored jointly by STX and ALLIANT where the system elements were evaluated based on actual operation using a client-server mirror image configuration. Testing was conducted to assess the various component overheads and results were compared against vendor data claims. The resultant system, while adequate to meet our capacity requirements, fell short of transfer speed expectations. A product team lead by STX was assembled and chartered with solving the bottleneck issues. Optimization efforts yielded a 60 percent improvement in throughput performance. The ALLIANT computer platform provided the I/O flexibility needed to accommodate a multitude of peripheral interfaces including the following: up to twelve 25MB/s VME I/O channels; up to five HiPPI I/O full duplex channels; IPI-s, SCSI, SMD, and RAID disk array support; standard networking software support for TCP/IP, NFS, and FTP; open architecture based on standard RISC processors; and V.4/POSIX-based operating system (Concentrix). All components including the software are modular in design and can be reconfigured as needs and system uses change. Users can begin with a small system and add modules as needed in the field. Most add-ons can be accomplished seamlessly without revision, recompilation or re-linking of software.

  15. Economic analysis of using above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinchao; Zhang, Xinjing; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Zongyan; Chen, Haisheng; Tan, Chunqing

    2014-12-01

    Above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage (CAES) have three types: air storage tanks, gas cylinders, and gas storage pipelines. A cost model of these gas storage devices is established on the basis of whole life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. The optimum parameters of the three types are determined by calculating the theoretical metallic raw material consumption of these three devices and considering the difficulties in manufacture and the influence of gas storage device number. The LCCs of the three types are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The result reveal that the cost of the gas storage pipeline type is lower than that of the other two types. This study may serve as a reference for designing large-scale CAES systems.

  16. Specification requirements for inter-seasonal heat storage systems in a low energy residential house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quick evaluation of heating needs and maximal power of a low-energy residential house. • Detailed tools are provided for the design of a thermal energy storage system. • Heating needs are calculated for full seasonal storage or for shorter autonomies. • Design power is estimated as a function of the desired time coverage of the system. • Heating needs and deliverable power may be linked together for system optimization. - Abstract: This paper aims at providing sizing information concerning a thermal storage system in the case of a low energy consumption building (2 y). Numerical simulations for a reference individual building were run for 23 different cities in Europe. Results show a clear correlation between annual heat demand Qy and annual heating degree-day (HDD): Qy = f1(HDD). There is also a good correlation between power demand and HDD. But as heat coverage of the entire heating period may be too ambitious, the analysis goes further. It presents a correlation between heating demand Q and HDD as a function of the storage system autonomy t of the form Q=(1-exp((-t)/(?) ))×Qy with ? = f2(HDD). It also gives the absolute distribution of sorted power demand values as a function of HDD in the form of a power sizing chart. The purpose of this chart is to provide specifications for the sizing of a thermal storage system intended to partially cover energy needs and power demand of a low energy residential house

  17. Hybrid Energy Storage System With A Special Battery Charger For Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipu Varghese

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Generation systems including wind turbine generators, photovoltaic panels and storage batteries are used to build hybrid stand-alone generation systems that are reliable, economic and efficient. Battery energy storage is the current and typical means of smoothing wind or solar power generation fluctuations and improving the power quality. A new battery charger which is a buck-type power converter specially for the wind power system is developed. The converter provides pulsating charging current and extracts maximum power. The maximum power point tracking function is obtained by the wind turbine characteristics and the proper circuit parameter design of the power converter. Over speed protection of the wind turbine can be naturally achieved.

  18. The electricity system, energy storage and hydropower: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the electricity system, energy storage and hydropower. Typically, electricity is consumed as it is needed and generated to match consumption. Interest and development work in energy storage are increasingly driven by its contributions in several areas of concern: reliability and the rise of renewables. A full range of energy storage technologies is needed and with its many advantages hydropower will continue to fill a need for large scale bulk storage

  19. An Overview on Energy Storage Options for Renewable Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Ajay Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Developing technology to store electrical energy so it can be available to meet demand whenever needed would represent a major breakthrough in electricity distribution. Helping to try and meet this goal, electricity storage devices can manage the amount of power required to supply customers at times when need is greatest, which is during peak load. This paper focuses on four storage technologies that can be used as storage for wind energy conversion system. For each storage te...

  20. A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

  1. Energy Storage System Scheduling in Wind-Diesel Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael

    This thesis proposes a knowledge based expert system tool that can be used as an online controller for the charging/discharging of an energy storage system in a wind-diesel microgrid. The wind-diesel microgrid is modelled, and a typical energy storage system is implemented to test the functionality of the controller using hourly-discrete power values. The results are compared against an offline optimization that was provided 24-hour lookahead wind values, as well as a controller that was implemented using artificial neural networks. The knowledge based expert system is then used to analyze the cost of energy, by means of a parametric analysis, consisting of varying the wind penetration, energy storage system power rating and energy rating to determine for which wind penetration values a storage system implementation would be technically and economically viable. Different storage technologies are tested in a one-year time frame to determine which would be best suited for this particular application. The energy storage systems are implemented as single-layer and dual-layer, in which the knowledge based expert system is modified for the latter analysis, in order to determine whether or not there are advantages to having a dual-layer storage system. Throughout these analyses, the flexibility of the knowledge based expert system controller to various energy storage systems and microgrid models is verified. It also demonstrates that, in a context of high base generation costs, energy storage can be a viable solution to managing wind power variations.

  2. Ultrasonic identity data storage and archival system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic seals are being used to determine if an underwater stored spent fuel container has been compromised and can be used to determine if a nuclear material container has been compromised. The Seal Pattern Reader (SPAR) is a microprocessor controlled instrument which interrogates an ultrasonic seal to obtain its identity. The SPAR can compare the present identity with a previous identity, which it obtains from a magnetic bubble cassette memory. A system has been developed which allows an IAEA inspector to transfer seal information obtained at a facility by the SPAR to an IAEA-based data storage and retrieval system, using the bubble cassette memory. Likewise, magnetic bubbles can be loaded at the IAEA with seal signature data needed at a facility for comparison purposes. The archived signatures can be retrieved from the data base for relevant statistical manipulation and for plotting

  3. Diagnosis System for Building Management Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Al-Makhadmee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the author used multi-criteria decision-making design to provide optimal structure of the developed and modified modern Building Management Systems (BMS. While modern BMS is used to provide effective and securable activity of enterprises solving complex tasks of their operability. However a lot of problems such as system structure flexibility in an ever changing market of the BMS and industrial network hardware can be solved by means of the hardware structure development automation. Problems of optimal hardware structure composition solving all the necessary building management task support providing reliable and effective system operation have to be solved.

  4. Final Hazard Classification and Auditable Safety Analysis for the 105-F Building Interim Safe Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The auditable safety analysis (ASA) documents the authorization basis for the partial decommissioning and facility modifications to place the 105-F Building into interim safe storage (ISS). Placement into the ISS is consistent with the preferred alternative identified in the Record of Decision (58 FR). Modifications will reduce the potential for release and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials, as well as lower surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) costs. This analysis includes the following: A description of the activities to be performed in the course of the 105-F Building ISS Project. An assessment of the inventory of radioactive and other hazardous materials within the 105-F Building. Identification of the hazards associated with the activities of the 105-F Building ISS Project. Identification of internally and externally initiated accident scenarios with the potential to produce significant local or offsite consequences during the 105-F Building ISS Project. Bounding evaluation of the consequences of the potentially significant accident scenarios. Hazard classification based on the bounding consequence evaluation. Associated safety function and controls, including commitments. Radiological and other employee safety and health considerations

  5. Energy storage systems program report for FY1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1997-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

  6. Pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system are extremely compact and lightweight in comparison with those using a capacitive energy storage system. The reliable and repetitively operated opening switch is necessary to realize the inductive pulsed power generator. Here, the pulsed power generators using the inductive energy storage system, which have been developed in Kumamoto University, are summarized. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  8. Seismic upgrading of the spent fuel storage building at Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Fuel Storage Building at Kozloduy NPP site has been analysed for new review level earthquake with 0.2 g peak ground acceleration (compared to the initial design basis earthquake with 0.1 g PGA). The preliminary seismic analysis of the existing building structure using the 5% site specific response spectrum showed the need of seismic structural upgrading. Two upgrading concepts were evaluated on the basis of several factors. The main factor considered was preventing the collapse of the hall structure and the travelling cranes on the fuel storage area during and after a SSE. A three dimensional finite element model was created for the investigation of the seismic response of the existing structure and for the design of the building upgrading. The modelling of the heavy travelling crane and its sub-crane structure was one of the key points. Different configurations of the new upgrading and strengthening structures were investigated. Some interesting conclusions have been drawn from the experience in analysing and upgrading of such a complex industrial structure, comprised of elements with substantial differences in material, rigidity, construction and general behaviour. (author)

  9. The relation of collector and storage tank size in solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A storage tank is used in many solar water heating systems for the storage of hot water. ? Using larger storage tanks decrease the efficiency and increases the cost of the system. ? The optimum tank size for the collector area is very important for economic solar heating systems. ? The optimum sizes of the collectors and the storage tank are determined. - Abstract: The most popular method to benefit from the solar energy is to use solar water heating systems since it is one of the cheapest way to benefit from the solar energy. The investment cost of a solar water heating system is very low, and the maintenance costs are nearly zero. Using the solar energy for solar water heating (SWH) technology has been greatly improved during the past century. A storage tank is used in many solar water heating systems for the conservation of heat energy or hot water for use when some need it. In addition, domestic hot water consumption is strongly variable in many buildings. It depends on the geographical situation, also on the country customs, and of course on the type of building usage. Above all, it depends on the inhabitants’ specific lifestyle. For that reason, to provide the hot water for consumption at the desirable temperature whenever inhabitants require it, there must be a good relevance between the collectors and storage tank. In this paper, the optimum sizes of the collectors and the storage tank are determined to design more economic and efficienesign more economic and efficient solar water heating systems. A program has been developed and validated with the experimental study and environmental data. The environmental data were obtained through a whole year of operation for Erzurum, Turkey.

  10. High-performance commercial building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to building owners and health and performance benefits to occupants. At the same time this program can strengthen the growing energy efficiency industry in California by providing new jobs and growth opportunities for companies providing the technology, systems, software, design, and building services to the commercial sector. The broad objectives across all five program elements were: (1) To develop and deploy an integrated set of tools and techniques to support the design and operation of energy-efficient commercial buildings; (2) To develop open software specifications for a building data model that will support the interoperability of these tools throughout the building life-cycle; (3) To create new technology options (hardware and controls) for substantially reducing controllable lighting, envelope, and cooling loads in buildings; (4) To create and implement a new generation of diagnostic techniques so that commissioning and efficient building operations can be accomplished reliably and cost effectively and provide sustained energy savings; (5) To enhance the health, comfort and performance of building occupants. (6) To provide the information technology infrastructure for owners to minimize their energy costs and manage their energy information in a manner that creates added value for their buildings as the commercial sector transitions to an era of deregulated utility markets, distributed generation, and changing business practices. Our ultimate goal is for our R&D effort to have measurable market impact. This requires that the research tasks be carried out with a variety of connections to key market actors or trends so that they are recognized as relevant and useful and can be adopted by expected users. While some of this activity is directly integrated into our research tasks, the handoff from ''market-connected R&D'' to ''field deployment'' is still an art as well as a science and in many areas requires resources and a timeframe well beyond the scope of this PIER research program. The TAGs, PAC

  11. Test report : Raytheon / KTech RK30 energy storage system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

  12. A strategy for load balancing in distributed storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Distributed storage systems are critical to the operation of the WLCG. These systems are not limited to fulfilling the long term storage requirements. They also serve data for computational analysis and other computational jobs. Distributed storage systems provide the ability to aggregate the storage and IO capacity of disks and tapes, but at the end of the day IO rate is still bound by the capabilities of the hardware, in particular the hard drives. Throughput of hard drives has increased dramatically over the decades, however for computational analysis IOPS is typically the limiting factor. To maximize return of investment, balancing IO load over available hardware is crucial. The task is made complicated by the common use of heterogeneous hardware and software environments that results from combining new and old hardware into a single storage system. This paper describes recent advances made in load balancing in the dCache distributed storage system. We describe a set of common requirements for load balan...

  13. Key-value Storage Systems (and Beyond with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web application developers often use RDBMS systems such as MySql or PostgreSql but there are many other types of databases out there. Key-value storage, schema and schema-less document storage, and column-oriented DBMS systems abound. These kind of database systems are becoming more popular when developing scalable web applications but many developers are unsure how to integrate them into their projects. This talk will focus on the key-value class of data storage systems, weigh the strengths and drawbacks of each and discuss typical use cases for key value storage.

  14. Energetic and Exergy Efficiency of a Heat Storage Unit for Building Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with a numerical and experimental investigation of a daily solar storage system conceived and built in Laboratoire de Maitrise des Technologies de l Energie (LMTE, Borj Cedria). This system consists mainly of the storage unit connected to a solar collector unit. The storage unit consists of a wooden case with dimension of 5 m3 (5 m x 1m x 1m) filed with fin sand. Inside the wooden case was buried a network of a polypropylene capillary heat exchanger with an aperture area equal to 5 m2. The heat collection unit consisted of 5 m2 of south-facing solar collector mounted at a 37 degree tilt angle. In order to evaluate the system efficiency during the charging period (during the day) and discharging period (during the night) an energy and exergy analyses were applied. Outdoor experiments were also carried out under varied environmental conditions for several consecutive days. Results showed that during the charging period, the average daily rates of thermal energy and exergy stored in the heat storage unit were 400 and 2.6 W, respectively. It was found that the net energy and exergy efficiencies in the charging period were 32 pour cent and 22 pour cent, respectively. During the discharging period, the average daily rates of the thermal energy and exergy recovered from the heat storage unit were 2 kW and 2.5 kW, respectively. The recovered heat from the heat storage unit was used for the air-heating of a tested room (4 m x 3 m x 3 m). The results showed that 30 pour cent of the total heating requirement of the tested room was obtained from the heat storage system during the whole night in cold seasons

  15. Thermally activated building systems in context of increasing building energy efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovi? Branislav V.; Janevski Jelena N.; Mitkovi? Petar B.; Stojanovi? Milica B.; Ignjatovi? Marko G.

    2014-01-01

    One of the possible ways to provide heating to the building is to use thermally activated building systems. This type of heating, besides providing significant increase in building energy efficiency, allows using low-temperature heating sources. In this paper, special attention is given to opaque part of the building façade with integrated thermally activated building systems. Due to fact that this type of system strongly depends on temperature of this con...

  16. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    CERN Document Server

    Undrus, A

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Builds and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, test...

  17. Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Beni

    2011-01-01

    What is the limit of information storage capacity of discrete spin systems? To answer this question, we study classical error-correcting codes which can be physically realized as the energy ground space of gapped local Hamiltonians. For discrete spin systems on a D-dimensional lattice governed by local frustration-free Hamiltonians, the following bound is known to hold; $kd^{1/D}\\leq O(n)$ where k is the number of encodable logical bits, d is the code distance, and n is the total number of spins in the system. Yet, previously found codes were far below this bound and it remained open whether there exists an error-correcting code which saturates the bound or not. Here, we give a construction of local spin systems which saturate the bound asymptotically with $k \\sim O(L^{D-1})$ and $d \\sim O(L^{D-\\epsilon})$ for an arbitrary small $\\epsilon> 0$ where L is the linear length of the system. Our model borrows an idea from a fractal geometry arising in Sierpinski triangle.

  18. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The penetration of renewable sources (particularly wind power) in to the power system network has been increasing in the recent years. As a result of this, there have been serious concerns over reliable and satisfactory operation of the power systems. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage devices into the power system network. Further, in the present deregulated markets these storage devices could also be used to increase the profit margins of wind farm owners and even provide arbitrage. This paper discusses the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications.

  19. Battery energy storage technology for power systems - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of renewable sources (particularly wind power) in to the power system network has been increasing in the recent years. As a result of this, there have been serious concerns over reliable and satisfactory operation of the power systems. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage devices into the power system network. Further, in the present deregulated markets these storage devices could also be used to increase the profit margins of wind farm owners and even provide arbitrage. This paper discusses the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications. (author)

  20. On Building Secure Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the Guided System Development (GSD) framework, which aims at supporting the development of secure communication systems. A communication system is specified in a language similar to the Alice and Bob notation, a simple and intuitive language used to describe the global perspective of the communications between different principals. The notation used in the GSD framework extends that notation with constructs that allow the security requirements of the messages to be described. From that specification, the developer is guided through a semi-automatic translation that enables the verification and implementation of the system. The translation is semi-automatic because the developer has the option of choosing which implementation to use in order to achieve the specified security requirements. The implementation options are given by plugins defined in the framework. The framework’s flexibility allows for the addition of constructs that model new security properties as well as new plugins that implement the security properties. In order to provide higher security assurances, the system specification can be verified by formal methods tools such as the Beliefs and Knowledge (BAK) tool — developed specifically for the GSD framework —, LySatool and OFMC. The framework’s flexibility and the existence of the system model in different perspectives — an overall global perspective and an endpoint perspective —allow the connection to new formal methods tools. The modeled system is also translated into code that implements the communication skeleton of the system and can then be used by the system designer. New output languages can also easily be added to the GSD framework. Additionally, a prototype of the GSD framework was implemented and an ex-ample of using the GSD framework in a real world system is presented.

  1. Criticality safety analysis of the fissile material storage arrays in the east end of building 6592

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A criticality safety analysis of nine concrete storage holes that have been formed in the floor of the Materials Balance Area (MBA) in Building 6592 is reported. Unit cell dimensions and unit mass limits are defined for the most likely plutonium and uranium fuel types that will be stored there. Two tables of mass limits are derived. The first table is to be used for short units that can be stacked with fixed separation in the same hole. The second table will permit units greater than one foot in length providing that the appropriate linear mass density limit (in kg/ft) is not exceeded

  2. Canister storage building (CSB) safety analysis report phase 3: Safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canister Storage Building (CSB) will be constructed in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The CSB will be used to stage and store spent nuclear fuel (SNF) removed from the Hanford Site K Basins. The objective of this chapter is to describe the characteristics of the site on which the CSB will be located. This description will support the hazard analysis and accident analyses in Chapter 3.0. The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the CSB design criteria, the design's compliance with the applicable criteria, and the basis for authorization to proceed with construction of the CSB

  3. Design and building of a new experimental setup for testing hydrogen storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreasen, Anders

    2005-09-01

    For hydrogen to become the future energy carrier a suitable way of storing hydrogen is needed, especially if hydrogen is to be used in mobile applications such as cars. To test potential hydrogen storage materials with respect to capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics the Materials Research Department has a high pressure balance. However, the drawback of this equipment is, that in order to load samples, exposure towards air is inevitable. This has prompted the design and building of a new experimental setup with a detachable reactor allowing samples to be loaded under protective atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to serve as documentation of the new setup. (au)

  4. As-Built Verification Plan Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building MCO Handling Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This as-built verification plan outlines the methodology and responsibilities that will be implemented during the as-built field verification activity for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) MCO HANDLING MACHINE (MHM). This as-built verification plan covers THE ELECTRICAL PORTION of the CONSTRUCTION PERFORMED BY POWER CITY UNDER CONTRACT TO MOWAT. The as-built verifications will be performed in accordance Administrative Procedure AP 6-012-00, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project As-Built Verification Plan Development Process, revision I. The results of the verification walkdown will be documented in a verification walkdown completion package, approved by the Design Authority (DA), and maintained in the CSB project files

  5. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  6. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R.; Cho, K. J.; Ferraris, John; Balkus, Ken; Chabal, Yves; Gnade, Bruce; Rotea, Mario; Vasselli, John

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. Significant accomplishments are detailed in each section. Those particularly noteworthy include: • Transition metal silicate cathodes with 2x higher storage capacity than commercial cobalt oxide cathodes were demonstrated. • MnO? nanowires, which are a promising replacement for RuO?, were synthesized • PAN-based carbon nanofibers were prepared and characterized with an energy density 30-times higher than current ultracapacitors on the market and comparable to lead-acid batteries • An optimization-based control strategy for real-time power management of battery storage in wind farms was developed and demonstrated. • PVDF films were developed with breakdown strengths of > 600MVm?¹, a maximum energy density of approximately 15 Jcm?³, and an average dielectric constant of 9.8 (±1.2). Capacitors made from these films can support a 10-year lifetime operating at an electric field of 200 MV m?¹. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  7. Horizontal movement of the storage ring floor at the light source building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Light Source Building, the storage ring with an elliptic shape varies its size due to heat launched from many accelerator components and beamline instruments as well as due to heat by solar irradiation and atmospheric temperature. To be clear for holizontal movement, major axis length of the ring has been measured with a laser interferometer continuously. At the same time, it also has been measured temperature at the building roof, floor of the ring tunnel and experimental hall. It was found that there was strong relation between major axis length of the ring and these temperature. We tried to reproduce variation of major axis length by using thermal weighting factor that is calculated by computer simulation. (author)

  8. The Role of Thermal Storage and Natural Gas in a Smart Energy System

    OpenAIRE

    VANDEWALLE, Jeroen; KEYAERTS, Nico; D'Haeseleer, William

    2012-01-01

    Smart grids are considered important building blocks of a future energy system that facilitates integration of massive distributed energy resources like gas-fired cogeneration (CHP). The latter produces thermal and electric power together and as such reinforces the interaction between the gas and electricity-distribution systems. Thermal storage makes up the key-source of flexibility that allows decoupling the electricity production from the heat demand. However, smart grids focus on electric...

  9. Numerical analysis of a medium scale latent energy storage unit for districtheating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Colella, Francesco; Sciacovelli, Adriano; Verda, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes the application of computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) to the design and characterization of a medium scale energy storage unit for district heating systems. The shell-and-tube LHTES unit contains a technical grade paraffin (RT100) as phase change material (PCM) and uses water as heat transfer fluid (HTF). The system has been designed to transfer heat from the district to the building heating networks. After an initial description of the LHTES unit and a wide litera...

  10. Improving Throughput in Cloud Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanho Choi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Because the cloud serves many workloads concurrently, its disk access pattern is highly random and heterogeneous. In addition, because various virtual machines access to files respectively, meta data utilization and small write requests are increased. In order to build a system for these patters, we should analyze the modern techniques used at cloud system. First, we show that a SATA controller hasenough processing capability to serve six disks without performance degradation. Motivated by this experiment, we compare three disk configurations by executing benchmark applications. From the result,we observe that accessing independent disks directly provides better performance than RAID-0 and RAID-5. Lastly, we performed experiment about comparing frequently used protocols (NFS, iSCSI[8]and got the result that iSCSI[10] showed better performance than NFS[11

  11. Optimization of a seasonal storage solar system using Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Durão, Bruno; Joyce, António; Mendes, J. Farinha

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal storage solar systems are capable of storing thermal energy, from one season to another (typically a few months). In the present paper solar thermal energy generated during summer time, is stored for use in winter time (typically 120 days). The analyzed system consists of solar thermal collectors and a sensible heat storage device using water as storing media. The area of solar collector and the capacity of the storage tank are the basic sizing parameters, which have to meet the requ...

  12. Toxicity of systems for energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on assessment of health and environmental effects of electric storage systems, and the metabolism and toxicity of metal compounds associated with energy production and storage. The first project relates to the production and use of electric storage battery systems. The second project deals with the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the gastrointestinal absorption, tissue distribution, and toxic effects of metals (Cd). Also included in this study is work on the absorption of actinides (239Pu)

  13. Impact of energy storage in buildings on electricity demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Phase change material (PCM) application for space heating has been implemented and assessed for built environment. ? Real-Time Pricing (RTP) is assessed as tool to implement Demand Side Management programs effectively. ? Two buildings, with and without PCM, have been compared for space heating using RTP in functional electricity market. ? PCM found to offer peak load shifting, energy conservation, and reduction in price of electricity. -- Abstract: This paper assesses impact of using phase change materials (PCM) in buildings to leverage its thermal energy storage capability. The emphasis is from an electricity demand side perspective with case studies that incorporates wholesale electricity market data of New Zealand. The results presented in this paper show that for space heating application significant advantages could be obtained using PCM built structures. These positive impacts include peak load shifting, energy conservation and reduction in peak demand for network line companies and potential reduction in electricity consumption and savings for residential customers. This paper uses a testing facility that consists of two identically designed and shaped offices built at Tamaki Campus location of the University of Auckland, New Zealand. The walls and ceilings of one office are finished with ordinary gypsum boards while the interior of the other office is finished with PCM impregnated gypsum boards. Controlled heating facility is proControlled heating facility is provided in both the offices for maintaining temperature within the range of human comfort. This facility is equipped with advanced data acquisition equipment for data monitoring and archiving both locally within the offices and also remotely. Through actual observations and analysis this paper demonstrates two major impacts of DSM. First, the application of phase change material (PCM) in building environment enabling efficient thermal storage to achieve some reduction in the overall electrical energy consumption. Second, assessment of peak load shifting achieved for space heating in a PCM building during a typical winter period in New Zealand.

  14. Approaching Sentient Building Performance Simulation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer; Perkov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Sentient BPS systems can combine one or more high precision BPS and provide near instantaneous performance feedback directly in the design tool, thus providing speed and precision of building performance in the early design stages. Sentient BPS systems are essentially combining: 1) design tools, 2) parametric tools, 3) BPS tools, 4) dynamic databases 5) interpolation techniques and 6) prediction techniques as a fast and valid simulation system, in the early design stage.

  15. Green Roofs and Green Building Rating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental benefits for green building from the Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED and Ecology, Energy, Waste, and Health (EEWH rating systems have been extensively investigated; however, the effect of green roofs on the credit-earning mechanisms is relatively unexplored. This study is concerned with the environmental benefits of green roofs with respect to sustainability, stormwater control, energy savings, and water resources. We focused on the relationship between green coverage and the credits of the rating systems, evaluated the credits efficiency, and performed cost analysis. As an example, we used a university building in Keelung, Northern Taiwan. The findings suggest that with EEWH, the proposed green coverage is 50–75%, whereas with LEED, the proposed green coverage is 100%. These findings have implications for the application of green roofs in green building.

  16. An Overview of Video Allocation Algorithms for Flash-based SSD Storage Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Sabateen, Jaafer; Sumari, Putra

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that Solid State Disk (SSD) data storage media had offered a revolutionary property storages community, but the unavailability of a comprehensive allocation strategy in SSDs storage media, leads to consuming the available space, random writing processes, time-consuming reading processes, and system resources consumption. In order to overcome these challenges, an efficient allocation algorithm is a desirable option. In this paper, we had executed an intensive investigation on the SSD-based allocation algorithms that had been proposed by the knowledge community. An explanatory comparison had been made between these algorithms. We reviewed these algorithms in order to building advanced knowledge armature that would help in inventing new allocation algorithms for this type of storage media.

  17. Electromechanical Storage Systems for Application to Isolated Wind Energy Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantial technology advances have occurred during the last decade that have had and appreciated impact on performance and feasibility of the Electromechanical Storage Systems. Improvements in magnetic bearings, composite materials, power conversion systems, microelectronic control systems and computer simulation models have increased flywheel reliability, and energy storage capacity, while decreasing overall system size, weight and cost. These improvements have brought flywheels to the forefront in the quest for alternate systems. The result of the study carried out under the scope of the SEDUCTOR, about the state of art of the Electromechanical Storage Systems is presented in this report. (Author) 15 refs

  18. Building Intelligent Learning Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xindong

    2000-01-01

    Induction and deduction are two opposite operations in data-mining applications. Induction extracts knowledge in the form of, say, rules or decision trees from existing data, and deduction applies induction results to interpret new data. An intelligent learning database (ILDB) system integrates machine-learning techniques with database and knowledge base technology. It starts with existing database technology and performs both induction and deduction. The integration of database technology, i...

  19. Preliminary Study of Passive Cooling Strategy Using a Combination of PCM and Copper Foam to Increase Thermal Heat Storage in Building Facade

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Yoshino; Xudong Zhao; Mohd Hafizal Mohd Isa

    2010-01-01

    The innovation of phase change material (PCM) for thermal heat storage is one sustainable passive strategy that can be integrated into building designs. This research was conducted to study and evaluate the performance of the existing materials integrated with PCM and to propose a design strategy that would improve the system. This research suggested copper foam as a medium to be integrated with microencapsulated PCM. Applications of these combined materials will benefit the industry by impro...

  20. Fuel cell systems for first lunar outpost: Reactant storage options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P. A.

    A Lunar Surface Power Working Group was formed to review candidate systems for providing power to the First Lunar Outpost habitat. The working group met for five days in the fall of 1992 and concluded that the most attractive candidate included a photovoltaic unit, a fuel cell, a regenerator to recycle the reactants, and storage of oxygen and hydrogen gases. Most of the volume (97%) and weight (64%) are taken up by the reactants and their storage tanks. The large volume is difficult to accommodate, and therefore, the working group explored ways of reducing the volume. An alternative approach to providing separate high pressure storage tanks is to use two of the descent stage propellant storage tanks, which would have to be wrapped with graphite fibers to increase their pressure capability. This saves 90% of the volume required for storage of fuel cell reactants. Another approach is to use the descent storage propellant tanks for storage of the fuel cell reactants as cryogenic liquids, but this requires a gas liquefaction system, increases the solar array by 40%, and increases the heat rejection rate by 170% compared with storage of reactants as high pressure gases. For a high power system (greater than 20 kW) the larger energy storage requirement would probably favor the cryogenic storage option.

  1. Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y., E-mail: y.huang@ulster.ac.u [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Wang, Y.D. [The Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Rezvani, S.; McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Anderson, M.; Hewitt, N.J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. {yields} It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. {yields} The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. {yields} The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO{sub 2} neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

  2. Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. ? It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. ? The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. ? The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO2 neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial bg and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

  3. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1994-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

  4. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-12-27

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository.

  5. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

  6. Parametric Study on the Dynamic Heat Storage Capacity of Building Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning systems are often used even in moderate and cold climates. Particularly in this case, passive cooling by night-time ventilation seems to offer considerable potential. However, because heat gains and night ventilation periods do not coincide in time, a sufficient amount of thermal mass is needed in the building to store the heat. Assuming a 24 h-period harmo...

  7. Southern company energy storage study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL; Jenkins, Kip [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  8. Storage and capsulation system of spent fuel in the Egyptian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Egypt, the first research reactor (ET-RR-1) has been used for a long time in conducting research work in the fields of reactor physics, heat transfer and thermohydraulics. Also, it is used in the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes and chemical researches. Due to the operation of the reactor for about 40 years, the need for larger and modern spent fuel storage arises. The defects appearing in the fuel elements imply an investigation of the reactor fuel and the design of a new system of capsulation of the defective fuel elements for long-term storage. The new spent fuel storage facility is a structure containing the storage and a so-called receiving and fuel handling area arranged in a separate building. The fuel storage is a stainless steel tank filled with water and located in a concrete pit under the ground level. The tank is covered by slabs made of steel and concrete. Aluminium storage tubes are fixed in the tank for vertical storage of the fuel assemblies in a rectangular matrix arrangement. The capacity of the storage tank is up to 176 fuel assemblies. In the design of the storage, both of the thermal and physical aspects are taken into consideration. The temperature, conductivity and the pH value of the water are measured. The water supply and air-ventilation of the reactor are used also for the storage. The storage ventilation depression as well as the water level is always maintained at the design values for the safety of the persondesign values for the safety of the personnel and the facility. Also, the water is filtered regularly using two mechanical filters, one of them is operating and the other is spare. The capsulation system is so designed to prevent the leakage of fission fragments from the defective assemblies to the water of the storage. The defective fuel assembly is capsulated in a tightly closed aluminium tube filled with nitrogen containing 5% of helium as an innert gas to prevent the corrosion of fuel rods. The capsulation tube is provided with a non-return valve to avoid escape of nitrogen. The capsulation system includes two casks, one for the fuel transport and the other for capsulation process. The system contains a drying unit, nitrogen charging unit and a welding mechanism to weld a special cap containing the non-return valve. The leakage of nitrogen gas is tested by an apparatus, which is very sensitive to the helium gas molecules. The capsulated assembly is located again in the storage for long time storage. (author)

  9. Building Low Cost Cloud Computing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Antunes; Ricardo Vardasca

    2013-01-01

    The actual models of cloud computing are based in megalomaniac hardware solutions, being its implementation and maintenance unaffordable to the majority of service providers. The use of jail services is an alternative to current models of cloud computing based on virtualization. Models based in utilization of jail environments instead of the used virtualization systems will provide huge gains in terms of optimization of hardware resources at computation level and in terms of storage and energ...

  10. Field testing of a high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, R.L.; Hoyer, M.C. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The University of Minnesota Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) System has been operated as a field test facility for the past six years. Four short-term and two long-term cycles have been completed to data providing a greatly increased understanding of the efficiency and geochemical effects of high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage. A third long-term cycle is currently being planned to operate the ATES system in conjunction with a real heating load and to further study the geochemical impact on the aquifer from heated waste storage cycles. The most critical activities in the preparation for the next cycle have proved to be the applications for the various permits and variances necessary to conduct the third cycle and the matching of the characteristics of the ATES system during heat recovery with a suitable adjacent building thermal load.

  11. The Assured Storage Integrated Management System: What is it and what will it cost?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Assured Storage Integrated Management System for low-level radioactive waste as an alternative to traditional disposal is attracting favorable attention from many states, regulators, processors, and low-level radioactive waste generators. open-quotes Assured storageclose quotes is defined as a management system for safely isolating waste, while preserving options for its long-term management, through: robust, accessible facilities; planned preventive maintenance; and sureties adequate to address contingencies or implement future alternatives. Following introduction of the concept in RADWASTE Magazine, the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service (among several others) requested a briefing on the idea. The Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service then requested that the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory evaluate the life cycle costs of the Assured Storage Integrated Management System versus traditional disposal. Building on some of that work, this paper discusses the concept of an Assured Storage Integrated Management System for low-level radioactive waste as well as examines cost elements of the Assured Storage Integrated Management System in comparison to traditional disposal facilities. Further analyses conducted for the Connecticut study will more clearly define and quantify potential differences in life-cycle costs between the Assured Storage Integrated Management System and traditional disposa Management System and traditional disposal

  12. Intelligent systems for conveyance and storage infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Thomas M.; Meegoda, Jay N.

    2002-02-01

    The objectives of this research project are to identify, demonstrate, and validate intelligent systems for conveyance and storage infrastructure that will enable effective, affordable, real-time, remote measurement, analysis, and reporting of their structural health. Specifically, the project involves testing and validating smart pipes, which could indicate locations of structurally weak areas, i.e., where leaks are likely to occur, and the location of existing leaks for corrective action. During the initial phase of this project an extensive literature search was conducted to identify technologies that could potentially be used in intelligent systems. Although the search was primarily focused on new emerging smart technologies, consideration was also given to innovative uses of established structural monitoring or testing technologies. Four emerging technologies that can potentially locate structurally weak areas and predict incipient leaks were identified: electrically conducting composite pipes, electrochemistry-based corrosion sensors, instrumented cathodic protection, and distributed piezoelectric sensors. Also identified was an innovative use of acoustic emission techniques to track deterioration in pre-stressed concrete pipes by monitoring energy releases from breaking corroded pre-stressing wires. A review of each of these technologies is presented. During the next phase of the program one or more of these technologies will be tested and evaluated further.

  13. Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage and Photovoltaic Power Systems for Demand Charge Mitigation (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

    2013-10-01

    Commercial facility utility bills are often a strong function of demand charges -- a fee proportional to peak power demand rather than total energy consumed. In some instances, demand charges can constitute more than 50% of a commercial customer's monthly electricity cost. While installation of behind-the-meter solar power generation decreases energy costs, its variability makes it likely to leave the peak load -- and thereby demand charges -- unaffected. This then makes demand charges an even larger fraction of remaining electricity costs. Adding controllable behind-the-meter energy storage can more predictably affect building peak demand, thus reducing electricity costs. Due to the high cost of energy storage technology, the size and operation of an energy storage system providing demand charge management (DCM) service must be optimized to yield a positive return on investment (ROI). The peak demand reduction achievable with an energy storage system depends heavily on a facility's load profile, so the optimal configuration will be specific to both the customer and the amount of installed solar power capacity. We explore the sensitivity of DCM value to the power and energy levels of installed solar power and energy storage systems. An optimal peak load reduction control algorithm for energy storage systems will be introduced and applied to historic solar power data and meter load data from multiple facilities for a broad range of energy storage system configurations. For each scenario, the peak load reduction and electricity cost savings will be computed. From this, we will identify a favorable energy storage system configuration that maximizes ROI.

  14. Diagnosis System for Building Management Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zafer Al-Makhadmee

    2013-01-01

    In this study the author used multi-criteria decision-making design to provide optimal structure of the developed and modified modern Building Management Systems (BMS). While modern BMS is used to provide effective and securable activity of enterprises solving complex tasks of their operability. However a lot of problems such as system structure flexibility in an ever changing market of the BMS and industrial network hardware can be solved by means of the hardware structure development automa...

  15. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is designed to be used on Class 8 trucks with CWI ISX G HPDI engines. Extensive test cart and engineering truck tests of the pump demonstrated good durability and the high-pressure performance needed for HPDI application. The LNG tanks manufactured by Taylor-Wharton passed SAE J2343 Recommended Practice drop tests and accelerated road-load vibration tests. NER and hold-time tests produced highly consistent results. Additional tests confirmed the design adequacy of the liquid level sensor, vaporizer, ullage volume, and other fuel system components. While the testing work performed under this program focused on a high-pressure pumped LNG fuel system design, the results also validate the feasibility of a low-pressure pumped fuel system. A low-pressure pumped fuel system could incorporate various design refinements including a simpler and lighter-weight pump, which would decrease costs somewhat relative to a high-pressure system.

  16. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  17. WEB-GIS Decision Support System for CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Leonard, Anghel; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Le Guen, Yvi; Scradeanu, Daniel; Pagnejer, Mihaela

    2013-04-01

    Environmental decision support systems (DSS) paradigm evolves and changes as more knowledge and technology become available to the environmental community. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to extract, assess and disseminate some types of information, which are otherwise difficult to access by traditional methods. In the same time, with the help of the Internet and accompanying tools, creating and publishing online interactive maps has become easier and rich with options. The Decision Support System (MDSS) developed for the MUSTANG (A MUltiple Space and Time scale Approach for the quaNtification of deep saline formations for CO2 storaGe) project is a user friendly web based application that uses the GIS capabilities. MDSS can be exploited by the experts for CO2 injection and storage in deep saline aquifers. The main objective of the MDSS is to help the experts to take decisions based large structured types of data and information. In order to achieve this objective the MDSS has a geospatial objected-orientated database structure for a wide variety of data and information. The entire application is based on several principles leading to a series of capabilities and specific characteristics: (i) Open-Source - the entire platform (MDSS) is based on open-source technologies - (1) database engine, (2) application server, (3) geospatial server, (4) user interfaces, (5) add-ons, etc. (ii) Multiple database connections - MDSS is capable to connect to different databases that are located on different server machines. (iii)Desktop user experience - MDSS architecture and design follows the structure of a desktop software. (iv)Communication - the server side and the desktop are bound together by series functions that allows the user to upload, use, modify and download data within the application. The architecture of the system involves one database and a modular application composed by: (1) a visualization module, (2) an analysis module, (3) a guidelines module, and (4) a risk assessment module. The Database component is build by using the PostgreSQL and PostGIS open source technology. The visualization module allows the user to view data of CO2 injection sites in different ways: (1) geospatial visualization, (2) table view, (3) 3D visualization. The analysis module will allow the user to perform certain analysis like Injectivity, Containment and Capacity analysis. The Risk Assessment module focus on the site risk matrix approach. The Guidelines module contains the methodologies of CO2 injection and storage into deep saline aquifers guidelines.

  18. Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system.

  19. Scheduling of Pumped Storage Hydrothermal System with Evolutionary Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Khandualo, S. K.; Barisal, A. K.; Hota, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the ever proved evolutionary programming techniques for solving the generation/ pumping scheduling problem of hydro thermal system with pumped storage plants. Pumped storage hydro plant is used to save fuel cost by serving the peak load with hydro energy and then pumping the water back up into the reservoir at light load periods. Therefore, a pumped storage unit can be operated any one mode out of three states such as generation, pumping and idle states. It can smooth peak...

  20. Distributed Energy Systems with Wind Power and Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Korpås, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how loca...

  1. Technical design and economic evaluation of a stand-alone PEFC system for buildings in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmark, Cecilia; Alvfors, Per

    This paper deals with the prerequisites for a stand-alone fuel cell system installed to avoid replacing or upgrading an ageing, distant power grid connection which only supplies a few buildings with their power demands. The importance of sizing the included components in the energy system is presented in economic terms. The size of the fuel cell system and the energy storage system (battery, hot-water storage and hydrogen storage) are discussed in relation to the yearly distribution of the buildings' power demand. The main design idea is to decrease the size of the fuel cell system without making the battery too expensive and that the power requirements are fulfilled over test periods with decided length and power output. The fuel cell system installation is not economically viable for the presented conditions, but in the paper future feasible scenarios are presented. The calculated incomes are shown as a function of the size of the fuel cell system and energy storage, the electricity costs, the fuel costs including transportation, the prices of electricity and heat, and the fuel cell system costs and efficiencies. The main factor in the system's economic performance is the fuel price, which contributes more than half the costs for the fuel cell system-based energy system. The cost of the power grid is also determining for the result, where the distance to the main power grid is the important factor. The evaluation is performed from the utility company's point of view.

  2. Integrated safeguards systems applicable to long term storage of irradiated fuel in wet and dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiated fuel, principally LWR fuel, is stored in large quantities, in wet and dry storage. In wet storage, the fuel is in racks or containers, while in dry storage, the fuel is in massive containers required to provide radiation shielding. Safeguarding such storage configurations requires measures which, because of the relative, if not total, inaccessibility for verification by measurements, must rely on redundant/independent Containment and Surveillance (C/S). The extension of conventional C/S (cameras and seals) to Integrated Safeguards Systems, or, as recently termed, Integrated Safeguards Verification Systems (ISVS), offers the potential of achieving this goal. Combinations of current and future safeguards equipment into integrated systems are described and discussed

  3. Development of a direct contact ice storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, R. [Chicago Bridge & Iron Company, Plainfield, IL (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The program described involves the design, construction, and performance testing of a Direct Freeze Thermal Energy Storage System. Task 1 (Design) has been completed; and Task 2 (construction) is in progress, with equipment procurements presently underway. Once constructed, the system will undergo extensive laboratory performance testing and analysis, followed by an assessment of the system`s cost effectiveness. This study will advance the understanding and development of the direct freeze concept, which offers inherent benefits for thermal energy storage.

  4. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  5. Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be routinely handled at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) during fuel movement operations in the SNF Project. This analysis was performed to investigate the potential for damage from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack tube, service station, or sample/weld station. Appendix D was added to the FDNW document to include the peer Review Comment Record and transmittal record

  6. Building Extraction Using Multi Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastikli, N.; Uzar, M.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the automatic building extraction is aimed using object-based image analysis method with multi sensor system includes LiDAR, digital camera and GPS/IMU. The image processing techniques, segmentation and classification methods were used for automatic object extraction with defined rule set. The proposed method based on object based classification to overcome the limitation of traditional pixel based classification such as confusion of classes. The generated Digital Surface Model (DSM) from LiDAR point cloud was used to separate building and vegetation classes. The morphologic filters were utilized also optimization of mixed classes. In our proposed approach for building extraction, multi-resolution, contrast-difference and chessboard segmentations were applied. The object-based classification method was preferred in classification process with defined fuzzy rules. First, vegetation and ground classes were generated than building regions were derived with using the results of the classification and segmentation. The data set was obtained from the project of "NABUCCO Gas Pipeline Project". The data set actually was collected for corridor mapping of pipeline which will link the Eastern border of Turkey, to Baumgarten in Austria via Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. The study area is a suburban neighborhood located in the city of Sivas, Turkey. The Leica ALS60 LiDAR system, DiMAC, Dalsa Area Bayer RGB Charge Coupled (CCD) Camera and GPS and CUS6 IMU system were used for data collection. The additional data sets were generated with point cloud collected by LiDAR and RGB images from digital camera. The rule sets for automatic building extraction were developed in Definiens e-Cognition Developer 8.64 program system. To evaluate the performance of proposed automatic building extraction approach, reference data set was generated with digitizing of extracted building over the orthoimage. The accuracy assessment was performed with completeness and correctness analyses. Based on the completeness and accuracy analysis, the success rates of 83.08% for completeness and 85.51% for correctness were achieved.

  7. Numerical Modeling of a Shallow Borehole Thermal Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catolico, N.; Ge, S.; Lu, N.; McCartney, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) combined with solar thermal energy harvesting is an economic technological system to garner and store energy as well as an environmentally-sustainable alternative for the heating of buildings. The first community-scale BTES system in North America was installed in 2007 in the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC), about 35 miles south of Calgary, Canada. The BTES system involves direct circulation of water heated from solar thermal panels in the summer into a storage tank, after which it is circulate within an array of 144 closed-loop geothermal heat exchangers having a depth of 35 m and a spacing of 2.5 m. In the winter the circulation direction is reversed to supply heat to houses. Data collection over a six year period indicates that this system can supply more than 90% of the winter heating energy needs for 52 houses in the community. One major challenge facing the BTES system technology is the relatively low annual efficiency, i.e., the ratio of energy input and output is in the range of 15% to 40% for the system in Drake Landing. To better understand the working principles of BTES and to improve BTES performance for future applications at larger scales, a three-dimensional transient coupled fluid and heat transfer model is established using TOUGH2. The time-dependent injection temperatures and circulation rate measured over the six years of monitoring are used as model input. The simulations are calibrated using soil temperature data measured at different locations over time. The time-dependent temperature distributions within the borehole region agree well with the measured temperatures for soil with an intrinsic permeability of 10e-19 m2, an apparent thermal conductivity of 2.03 W/m°C, and a volumetric heat capacity of 2.31 MJ/m-3°C. The calibrated model serves as the basis for a sensitivity analysis of soil and operational parameters on BTES system efficiency preformed with TOUGH2. Preliminary results suggest 1) BTES efficiency increases with increased in-pipe circulation rates; 2) BTES efficiency increases with decreasing soil thermal conductivity due to lateral heat loss from the system; and 3) BTES efficiency increases only slightly with decreasing soil permeability.

  8. Efficiency improvement for wind energy pumped storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcos, A.; Marinescu, C.

    2011-01-01

    Integrating wind energy into the grid may raise stability problems. Solutions for avoiding these situations are studied and energy storage methods are suitable for balancing the energy between the wind turbine and grid. In this paper, an autonomous wind turbine pumped storage system is presented. The focus of this paper is to improve the efficiency of this system, which is small at low power levels. The driving motorpump group of the storage system is the key point presented in this paper for efficiency improving. Two control methods, experimentally implemented for induction machine are presented, and the comparison of the system efficiencies highlights the improvement of the proposed control method.

  9. The CMS event builder and storage system

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Biery, Kurt; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Fortes Rodrigues, Fabiana; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Klute, Markus; Laurens, Jean-François; Loizides, Constantin; Lopez Perez, Juan Antonio; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Zanetti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The CMS event builder assembles events accepted by the first level trigger and makes them available to the high-level trigger. The event builder needs to handle a maximum input rate of 100\\,kHz and an aggregated throughput of 100\\,GB/s originating from approximately 500 sources. This paper presents the chosen hardware and software architecture. The system consists of 2 stages: an initial pre-assembly reducing the number of fragments by one order of magnitude and a final assembly by several independent readout builder (RU-builder) slices. The RU-builder is based on 3 separate services: the buffering of event fragments during the assembly, the event assembly, and the data flow manager. A further component is responsible for handling events accepted by the high-level trigger: the storage manager (SM) temporarily stores the events on disk at a peak rate of 2\\,GB/s until they are permanently archived offline. In addition, events and data-quality histograms are served by the SM to online monitoring clients. We disc...

  10. Performance Analysis and Improvement of Storage Virtualization in an OS-Online System

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Gao; Yaoxue Zhang; Yuezhi Zhou

    2012-01-01

    An OS-online system called TransCom is based on a virtual storage system that supports heterogeneous services of the operating system and applications online. In TransCom, OS and software which run in the client are stored on the centralized servers, while computing tasks are carried out by the clients, so the server is the bottleneck of the system performance. This paper firstly analyzes the characteristics of its real usage workload and builds a queuing model to locate the system bottleneck...

  11. Research and design of high speed mass image storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-feng; Xue, Rong-kun; Liang, Fei

    2009-07-01

    The design of the high mass image storage system is introduced using DSP, FPGA and Flash structure. Texas Instruments Corporation DSP chip (TMS320VC5509APEG) is used as the main controller, Samsung's Flash chips (K9F2G08U0M) used as the main storage medium, and the Xilinx Corporation FPGA chip (XCV600E) used as logic control modules. In this system, Storage module consists of 32 Flash memory chips, which are divided into 8 groups that correspond to 8-level pipeline. The 4-Flash memory chip forms a basic 32-bit memory module. The entire system storage space is 64 G bit. Through simulation and verification, the storage speed is up to 352Mbps and readout speed is up to 290Mbps, it can meet the demand to the high-speed access, and which has strong environmental adaptability.

  12. Unconventional systems for lunar base power generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in thin film solar photovoltaic converters (PV's) can furnish multimegawatt power levels during lunar daylight periods with only modest mass requirements. The extended duration of lunar night (ca. 354 hr) and the high specific mass of earth-imported energy storage systems (regenerative fuel cells, batteries, etc.) render PV plus import storage power systems non-competitive with nuclear power plants for lunar bases. However, power storage or generation methods which can be constructed using primarily lunar materials, used either alone or with lightweight PV's, can be attractive alternatives to nuclear power. Three separate generic systems which can provide favorable low import mass goals have been identified and studied. These are: gravitational energy generation using lunar soil, thermal energy storage using basalt rock or glass, and electrochemical storage using lunar derived electrodes or fuels. Design, structural and operational features of these methods are described

  13. Control system design for robotic underground storage tank inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control and data acquisition systems for robotic inspection and surveillance systems used in nuclear waste applications must be capable, versatile, and adaptable to changing conditions. The nuclear waste remediation application is dynamic -- requirements change as public policy is constantly re-examined and refocused, and as technology in this area advances. Control and data acquisition systems must adapt to these changing conditions and be able to accommodate future missions, both predictable and unexpected. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System that is being developed for remote surveillance and inspection of underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. It is a high-performance system which has been designed for future growth. The priority mission at the Hanford site is to retrieve the waste generated by 50 years of production from its present storage and process it for final disposal. The LDUA will help to gather information about the waste and the tanks it is stored in to better plan and execute the cleanup mission

  14. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ...Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation AGENCY...Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation...water systems, atmospheric storage tanks, and corrosion under...

  15. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  16. The renaissance of simultaneous tomography with a storage screen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The handling, technical and exposure details of digital simultaneous tomography are explained, while particular emphasis is placed on image quality. Selected case reports demonstrate the application of this technique by using the digital storage fluorescent system (Fa. Siemens, Erlangen). Simultaneous tomography with storage fluorescent screens is particularly suitable to demonstrate or exclude osseous findings at the skull, the column and large joints. (orig.)

  17. Distributed mass storage and management systems at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DESY is on the way of massive change in connecting and accessing Mass Storage systems. The main goal is to have full network connected storage devices combined with central network services which should be connected in case of store or retrieve of data

  18. Wind Energy to Thermal and Cold Storage – A Systems Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    In this paper wind energy to thermal and cold storage scenarios were examined to enable high wind integration through converting renewable electricity excess into thermal or cooling energy, saving part of the energy used in an area and eliminating the need to possibly build a new coal fired plant. Case studies in Crete Island (not interconnected to the power grid of Greek mainland) with onshore wind power installed were investigated. The aim of this work was to review the options for greater integration of renewables into the grid and the main idea was to analyze the wind to thermal and to cold storage according to the needs of two small municipalities.

  19. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    CERN Document Server

    Undrus, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    For over 10 years of development the ATLAS Nightly Build System has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The numerous branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains ~2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by ~1000 developers. The nightly releases lead up to stable releases used for data processing and analysis worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on the ATLAS Build Farm. The ATN testing framework runs unit and integration tests for the nightly releases.

  20. Systems Engineering of Chemical Hydrogen Storage, Pressure Vessel and Balance of Plant for Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done with cryo-sorbent based and chemical-based hydrogen storage materials. Balance of plant components were developed, proof-of-concept testing performed, system costs estimated, and transient models validated as part of this work.

  1. Numerical modelling and experimental studies of thermal behaviour of building integrated thermal energy storage unit in a form of a ceiling panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new concept of heat storage in ventilation ducts is described. • Ceiling panel as a part of ventilation system is made of a composite with PCM. • A set-up for experimental investigation of heat storage unit was built. • Numerical model of heat transfer in the storage unit was developed. • Numerical code was validated on the base of experimental measurements. - Abstract: Objective: The paper presents a new concept of building integrated thermal energy storage unit and novel mathematical and numerical models of its operation. This building element is made of gypsum based composite with microencapsulated PCM. The proposed heat storage unit has a form of a ceiling panel with internal channels and is, by assumption, incorporated in a ventilation system. Its task is to reduce daily variations of ambient air temperature through the absorption (and subsequent release) of heat in PCM, without additional consumption of energy. Methods: The operation of the ceiling panel was investigated experimentally on a special set-up equipped with temperature sensors, air flow meter and air temperature control system. Mathematical and numerical models of heat transfer and fluid flow in the panel account for air flow in the panel as well as real thermal properties of the PCM composite, i.e.: thermal conductivity variation with temperature and hysteresis of enthalpy vs. temperature curves for heating and cooling. Proposed novel numerical simulator consists of two strongly coupled sub models: the first one – 1D – which deals with air flowing through the U-shaped channel and the second one – 3D – which deals with heat transfer in the body of the panel. Results: Spatial and temporal air temperature variations, measured on the experimental set-up, were used to validate numerical model as well as to get knowledge of thermal performance of the panel operating in different conditions. Conclusion: Preliminary results of experimental tests confirmed the ability of the proposed heat storage unit to effectively control the air temperature inside the building. However, detailed measurement of the temperature of PCM composite have shown some disadvantages of the panel used in the study, e.g. thickness of the walls and distribution of PCM should be optimized. This can be achieved with the aid of the numerical simulator developed in this research. Practical implications: The proposed ceiling panel, optimised from the point of view of thermal performance in a given environmental conditions, can be used as a part of ventilation systems in residential and office buildings

  2. Organizations redesign and building of information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Duarte Paulo Braza?o

    2014-01-01

    Develop software is still a risky business. After 60 years of experience, this community is still not able to consistently build Information Systems (IS) for organizations with predictable quality, within previously agreed budget and time constraints. Although software is changeable we are still unable to cope with the amount and complexity of change that organizations demand for their IS. To improve results, developers followed two alternatives: Frameworks that increase produc...

  3. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  4. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  5. Energy management system of hybrid microgrid with energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Marzband, Mousa; Sumper, Andreas; Chindris, Mircea; Tomoiaga, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    The economic scheduling of the generation units is playing a significant role in the energy management of the hybrid stand alone microgrid. Energy storage is an increasingly important part of the renewable energy sector because of the need to store power during peak production times for use in off-peak periods. This paper describes an energy management system (EMS) for an islanded microgrid (MG) comprising wind energy conversion system (WECS),photovoltaic (PV), energy storage (ES) system, ...

  6. Novel approach for decentralized energy supply and energy storage of tall buildings in Latin America based on renewable energy sources: Case study – Informal vertical community Torre David, Caracas – Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the concept of a decentralized power system based on wind energy and a pumped hydro storage system in a tall building. The system reacts to the current paradigm of power outage in Latin American countries caused by infrastructure limitations and climate change, while it fosters the penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) for a more diversified and secure electricity supply. An explicit methodology describes the assessment of technical, operational and economic potentials in a specific urban setting in Caracas/Venezuela. The suitability, applicability and the impacts generated by such power system are furthermore discussed at economic, social and technical level. - Highlights: ? We have modeled an innovative pico pumped hydro-storage system and wind power system for tall buildings. ? We conducted technical, economic and social analysis on these energy supply and storage alternatives. ? The energy storage system can achieve efficiencies within 30% and 35%. ? The energy storage is realistic and economic sensible in comparison to other solutions. ? The impacts of such a system in the current living conditions and safety issues of the building are minimum

  7. Energy storage systems program report for FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1997. 46 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES,JOHN D.

    2000-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to develop cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications in collaboration with academia and industry. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1999.

  9. Development of a transportable storage system for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancho Seco shut down permanently in June 1989. An integral part of the decommissioning strategy is what to do with the spent fuel. It was concluded that dry storage was the best option. Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) contracted with VECTRA to develop a transportable storage system. The licensing status and impact limiter testing program are described here. Also DOE's demonstration programs for the transportable storage system and dry transfer system are discussed. Finally, the author addresses melt refining as a viable means of volume reduction for low-level wastes

  10. The liquid helium storage system for the Large Hadron Collider.

    CERN Document Server

    Benda, V; Fathallah, M; Goiffon, T; Parente, C; Perez-Duenas, E; Perret, Ph; Pirotte, O; Serio, L; Vullierme, B

    2011-01-01

    The cryogenic system of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under operation at CERN has a total helium inventory of 140 t. Up to 50 t can be stored in gas storage tanks. The remaining inventory will be stored in a liquid helium storage system consisting of six 15-t liquid helium tanks in 4 locations. The two liquid helium tanks of specific low heat inleak design and the required infrastructure of the first location were recently commissioned. Four additional tanks shall be operational end 2010. The paper describes the features and characteristics of the liquid helium storage system and presents the measurement of the thermal performance of the two first tanks.

  11. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1999-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1998.

  12. Canister storage building (CSB) safety analysis report phase 3: Safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1997-04-28

    The Canister Storage Building (CSB) will be constructed in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The CSB will be used to stage and store spent nuclear fuel (SNF) removed from the Hanford Site K Basins. The objective of this chapter is to describe the characteristics of the site on which the CSB will be located. This description will support the hazard analysis and accident analyses in Chapter 3.0. The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the CSB design criteria, the design's compliance with the applicable criteria, and the basis for authorization to proceed with construction of the CSB.

  13. Silo storage/transportation system for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a horizontal silo storage/transportation system for spent fuels capable of coping with various needs in future. That is, the system of the present invention comprises the following means. Spent fuels are contained in a horizontal silo storing canister, and they are contained in a transporting cask and put to marine transportation to a storage site out of the site of a nuclear power plant. The canister/transporting cask transported to the storage site are received and refilled into a loading cask. The refilled canister/loading cask is moved to a storage silo to store the canister into the silo. After a storage period, the canister is returned to the refilling facility and contained again in the transportating cask capable of marine transportation to the outside of the site and transported to a place for processing and disposal. (I.S.)

  14. Performance of a large building rainwater harvesting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S; Memon, F A; Butler, D

    2012-10-15

    Rainwater harvesting is increasingly becoming an integral part of the sustainable water management toolkit. Despite a plethora of studies modelling the feasibility of the utilisation of rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in particular contexts, there remains a significant gap in knowledge in relation to detailed empirical assessments of performance. Domestic systems have been investigated to a limited degree in the literature, including in the UK, but there are few recent longitudinal studies of larger non-domestic systems. Additionally, there are few studies comparing estimated and actual performance. This paper presents the results of a longitudinal empirical performance assessment of a non-domestic RWH system located in an office building in the UK. Furthermore, it compares actual performance with the estimated performance based on two methods recommended by the British Standards Institute - the Intermediate (simple calculations) and Detailed (simulation-based) Approaches. Results highlight that the average measured water saving efficiency (amount of mains water saved) of the office-based RWH system was 87% across an 8-month period, due to the system being over-sized for the actual occupancy level. Consequently, a similar level of performance could have been achieved using a smaller-sized tank. Estimated cost savings resulted in capital payback periods of 11 and 6 years for the actual over-sized tank and the smaller optimised tank, respectively. However, more detailed cost data on maintenance and operation is required to perform whole life cost analyses. These findings indicate that office-scale RWH systems potentially offer significant water and cost savings. They also emphasise the importance of monitoring data and that a transition to the use of Detailed Approaches (particularly in the UK) is required to (a) minimise over-sizing of storage tanks and (b) build confidence in RWH system performance. PMID:22840659

  15. Adapting the NUHOMS Interim Storage System for international spent fuel storage needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUHOMS systems are well established in USA and Europe as a reliable, safe and well proven option for dry storage of spent fuel. These systems can be used for either on-site storage or away from reactor storage because the canisters cab be transported in a B9U0 packaging. The proven NUHOMS flexibility can readily be adapted to meet new consumer needs in terms of handling limitations (size and weight), fuel characteristics, local regulation ect. As a licensee for the NUHOMS technology, Framatome - ANP has supplied a NUHOMS systems for storing WWER fuel assemblies at Metzamor in Armenia and also for storing RBMK fuel at Chernobyl in Ukraine. Discussion with potential clients are in progress and new design concepts are in preparation, including a vertical version of the NUHOMS system. (authors)

  16. Fatty acid esters-based composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, fatty acid esters-based composite phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage were prepared by blending erythritol tetrapalmitate (ETP) and erythritol tetrastearate (ETS) with diatomite and expanded perlite (EP). The maximum incorporation percentage for ETP and ETS into diatomite and EP was found to be 57 wt% and 62 wt%, respectively without melted PCM seepage from the composites. The morphologies and compatibilities of the composite PCMs were structurally characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT–IR) analysis techniques. Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The DSC analyses results indicated that the composite PCMs were good candidates for building applications in terms of their large latent heat values and suitable phase change temperatures. The thermal cycling test including 1000 melting and freezing cycling showed that composite PCMs had good thermal reliability and chemical stability. TG analysis revealed that the composite PCMs had good thermal durability above their working temperature ranges. Moreover, in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the composite PCMs, the expanded graphite (EG) was added to them at different mass fractions (2%, 5%, and 10%). The best results were obtained for the composite PCMs including 5wt% EG content in terms of the increase in thermal conductivity values increase in thermal conductivity values and the decrease amount in latent heat capacity. The improvement in thermal conductivity values of ETP/Diatomite, ETS/Diatomite, ETP/EP and ETS/EP were found to be about 68%, 57%, 73% and 75%, respectively. Highlights: ? Fatty acid esters-based composite PCMs were prepared by blending ETP and ETS with diatomite and expanded perlite. ? The composite PCMs were characterized by using SEM, FT–IR, DSC and TG analysis methods. ? The DSC results indicated that the composites PCMs had good thermal energy storage properties. ? TG analysis revealed that they had good thermal durability above their working temperature ranges.

  17. QA in building and civil engineering work with reference to THORP receipt and storage complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Receipt and Storage Complex of the Thermal Oxide Processing Plant at Sellafield is concerned with receiving spent fuel in flasks and storing them in ponds. The concern for safety is shown in the extent of the drainage system to accommodate any possible leakage of water from the Inlet Pond, Storage Pond or Transfer Channel between them. These details are described. In addition to the design of the drainage system, the Contract was controlled, in respect of these and other important aspects, by a Quality Assurance System. Over 31/2 years approximately 30,000m3 of concrete have been placed. Most of this has been produced at the batching plant on site under strict control. 7,500 m3 of water retaining concrete are placed in the Storage Pond. The documentation of procedures to control the work is described. This includes the writing of 31 No. procedures and the establishment of 93 No. forms to be used, with varying degrees of frequency. The use of quality plans, audits and reviews are discussed. (author)

  18. Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2004-12-01

    This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

  19. HybridPlan: A Capacity Planning Technique for Projecting Storage Requirements in Hybrid Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gupta, Aayush [IBM Corporation, Almaden Research Center; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan [Pennsylvania State University; Piotr, Berman [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Sivasubramaniam, Anand [Pennsylvania State University

    2014-01-01

    Economic forces, driven by the desire to introduce flash into the high-end storage market without changing existing software-base, have resulted in the emergence of solid-state drives (SSDs), flash packaged in HDD form factors and capable of working with device drivers and I/O buses designed for HDDs. Unlike the use of DRAM for caching or buffering, however, certain idiosyncrasies of NAND Flash-based solid-state drives (SSDs) make their integration into hard disk drive (HDD)-based storage systems nontrivial. Flash memory suffers from limits on its reliability, is an order of magnitude more expensive than the magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs), and can sometimes be as slow as the HDD (due to excessive garbage collection (GC) induced by high intensity of random writes). Given the complementary properties of HDDs and SSDs in terms of cost, performance, and lifetime, the current consensus among several storage experts is to view SSDs not as a replacement for HDD, but rather as a complementary device within the high-performance storage hierarchy. Thus, we design and evaluate such a hybrid storage system with HybridPlan that is an improved capacity planning technique to administrators with the overall goal of operating within cost-budgets. HybridPlan is able to find the most cost-effective hybrid storage configuration with different types of SSDs and HDDs

  20. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-01

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode. PMID:25629631

  1. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undrus, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

  2. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain softwar place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

  3. Mutlifunctional Fibers for Energy Storage in Advanced EVA Systems Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase II effort is to demonstrate prototype multifunctional EVA system power patches that integrate energy storage into advanced space...

  4. A storage coil adapted to a power pulse system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with a new structure of storage coil which is particularly adapted to a power pulse system. Authors present the results of a numerical study which allows to precisely calculate the better dimensions of such a coil. (author)

  5. Fabrication and properties of microencapsulated-paraffin/gypsum-matrix building materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: DSC curves of microPCMs/gypsum composite samples before and after a thermal cycling treatment. Highlights: ? Microcapsules containing paraffin was fabricated by in-situ polymerization. ? Methanol-modified melamine–formaldehyde (MMF) was used as shell material. ? MicroPCMs/gypsum-matrix building materials were applied for solar energy storage. ? The structure and thermal conductivity of composites had been investigated. - Abstract: Microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) have been widely applied in solid matrix as thermal-storage or temperature-controlling functional composites. The aim of this work was to prepare and investigate the properties of microPCMs/gypsum-matrix building materials for thermal energy storage. MicroPCMs contain paraffin was fabricated by in situ polymerization using methanol-modified melamine–formaldehyde (MMF) as shell material. A series of microPCMs samples were prepared under emulsion stirring rates in range of 1000–3000 r min?1 with core/shell weight ratios of 3/1, 2/1, 1/1, 1/2 and 1/3, respectively. The shell of microPCMs was smooth and compact with global shape, its thickness was not greatly affected by the core/shell ratio and emulsion stirring rate. DSC tests showed that the shell of microPCMs did not influence the phase change behavior of pure paraffin. It was found from TGA analysis that microPCMs samples containing paraffin lost their weight at the temperature of nearly 250 temperature of nearly 250 °C, which indicated that the PCM had been protected by shell. More shell material in microPCMs could enhance the thermal stability and provide higher compact condition for core material. After a 100-times thermal cycling treatment, the microPCMs contain paraffin also nearly did not change the phase change behaviors of PCM. With the increasing of weight contents of microPCMs in gypsum board, the thermal conductivity (?) values of composites had decreased. The simulation of temperature tests proved that the microPCMs/gypsum composite could store the time-dependent and intermittent solar energy, which did not necessarily meet the energy needs for space heating at all times.

  6. Energy storage systems: a strategic road-book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dealing with the development and deployment of thermal and electric energy storage systems, this report first identifies four main challenges: to take environmental challenges into account during all the storage system life (design, production, use, end of life), to integrate the issue of economic valorization of the device into its design phase, to promote the development of standards, to make an institutional and legal framework emerge. It defines the geographical scope and the time horizon for the development of these systems. It evokes research and development programs in the United States, Japan, China, Germany and the European Union. These programs concern: mobile electric storage systems, electric storage systems in support of energy networks and renewable energies, heat storage systems. The authors outline that business models are now favourable to the deployment of storage systems. They discuss some key technological and economical parameters. They propose some prospective visions by 2050 with different possible orientations for this sector. They also identify and discuss the possible technological and socio-economical obstacles, research priorities, and stress the importance of implementing experimental platforms and research demonstrators

  7. Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in a two story office building at a utilities company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World, is described. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled water. Performance to date has equaled or exceeded design criteria.

  8. Scheduling of Pumped Storage Hydrothermal System with Evolutionary Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Khandualo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the ever proved evolutionary programming techniques for solving the generation/ pumping scheduling problem of hydro thermal system with pumped storage plants. Pumped storage hydro plant is used to save fuel cost by serving the peak load with hydro energy and then pumping the water back up into the reservoir at light load periods. Therefore, a pumped storage unit can be operated any one mode out of three states such as generation, pumping and idle states. It can smooth peak loads and provide reserves and plays a vital role in reducing the total generation cost in a hybrid power system.

  9. Criticality safety studies for the storage of waste from nuclear fuel service in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides computational evaluation results demonstrating that mixed oxide waste can be safely stored in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Existing, verified computational techniques are validated with applicable critical experiments and tolerance limits for safety analyses are derived. Multiplication factors for normal and credible abnormal configurations are calculated and found to be far subcritical when compared to derived safety limits

  10. Assessing health impacts of CO2 leakage from a geological storage site into buildings: Role of attenuation in the unsaturated zone and building foundation

    OpenAIRE

    De Lary, Louis; Loschetter, Annick; Bouc, Olivier; Rohmer, Jérémy; Oldenburg, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Geological storage of the greenhouse gas CO2 has the potential to be a widespread and effective option to mitigate climate change. As any industrial activity, CO2 storage may lead to adverse impact on human health and the environment in the case of unexpected leakage from the reservoir. These potential impacts should be considered in a risk assessment process. We present an approach to assess the impacts on human health in case of CO2 leakage emerging in the unsaturated zone under a building....

  11. Seawater pumping as an electricity storage solution for photovoltaic energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stochastic nature of several renewable energy sources has raised the problem of designing and building storage facilities, which can help the electricity grid to sustain larger and larger contribution of renewable energy. Seawater pumped electricity storage is proposed as a good option for PV (Photovoltaic) or solar thermal power plants, located in suitable places close to the coast line. Solar radiation has a natural daily cycle, and storage reservoirs of limited capacity can substantially reduce the load to the electricity grid. Different modes of pump operation (fixed or variable speed) are considered, the preliminary sizing of the PV field and seawater reservoir is performed, and the results are comparatively assessed over a year-long simulated operation. The results show that PV pumped storage, even if not profitable in the present situation of the renewable energy Italian electricity market, is effective in decreasing the load on the transmission grid, and would possibly be attractive in the future, also in the light of developing off-grid applications. - Highlights: • A grid-connected seawater pumping system using photovoltaic power is proposed and its performance analyzed. • Year-round simulations are run with different sizes of photovoltaic field and reservoir. • An analysis is run about the profitability of the storage system, examining performance indexes and the cost of plant. • The system proposed appears near to attract the interest of the market

  12. Optimal scheduling for dynamic ice storage system with perfectly predicted cooling loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an optimal scheduling for ice slurry systems for energy cost saving. The optimization technique applied in the study is the dynamic programming method, for which the state variable is the storage in the ice storage tank and the control variable is the state of chiller's on-off switching. Though the costs during charge period is included in optimization by taking the average cost of ice per hour for slurry making, the time horizon for the simulation is limited building cooling period because accurate charge rate from the ice maker into the ice storage tank cannot be estimated during the charge period. In the operating simulation after optimizing procedure, energy consumption and operating cost for the optimal control are calculated and compared with them for a conventional control with one case of cooling load profile

  13. Anonymity and trust in large-scale distributed storage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, José; Felber, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Large-Scale Distributed Storage Systems (LS-DSSs) are at the core of several Cloud services. These externalized services may run atop multiple administrative domains. While a client may trust the organization that provides a given Web service, a single server may belong to another organization that the client does not trust. The design of a Distributed Storage System is itself a challenging task, in particular when scalability, availability and consistency are required. This thesis explores ...

  14. P2P Storage Systems: Study of Different Placement Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Ste?phane; Giroire, Fre?de?ric; Mazauric, Dorian; Monteiro, Julian; Pe?rennes, Ste?phane

    2013-01-01

    In a P2P storage system using erasure codes, a data block is en- coded in many redundancy fragments. These fragments are then sent to distinct peers of the network. In this work, we study the impact of different placement policies of these fragments on the performance of storage systems. Several practical factors (easier control, software reuse, latency) tend to favor data placement strategies that preserve some degree of locality. We compare three policies: two of them are local, in which th...

  15. A new compressed air energy storage refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a new compressed air energy storage (CAES) refrigeration system is proposed for electrical power load shifting application. It is a combination of a gas refrigeration cycle and a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Thermodynamic calculations are conducted to investigate the performance of this system. Economic analysis is performed to study the operating cost of the system, and comparison is made with a vapor compression refrigeration system and an ice storage refrigeration system. The results indicate that the CAES refrigeration system has the advantages of simple structure, high efficiency and low operating cost

  16. Energy Storage Management in Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya M.E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of renewable sources in the power system network in the power system has been increasing in the recent years. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage device into the power system network. This paper discusses the modeling of photo voltaic and status of the storage device such as lead acid battery for better energy management in the system. The energy management for the grid connected system was performed by the dynamic switching process.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Thin Films for Active Noise Cancellation, Solar Energy Harvesting, and Energy Storage in Building Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shan

    This research explores the application of carbon nanotube (CNT) films for active noise cancellation, solar energy harvesting and energy storage in building windows. The CNT-based components developed herein can be integrated into a solar-powered active noise control system for a building window. First, the use of a transparent acoustic transducer as both an invisible speaker for auxiliary audio playback and for active noise cancellation is accomplished in this work. Several challenges related to active noise cancellation in the window are addressed. These include secondary path estimation and directional cancellation of noise so as to preserve auxiliary audio and internal sounds while preventing transmission of external noise into the building. Solar energy can be harvested at a low rate of power over long durations while acoustic sound cancellation requires short durations of high power. A supercapacitor based energy storage system is therefore considered for the window. Using CNTs as electrode materials, two generations of flexible, thin, and fully solid-state supercapacitors are developed that can be integrated into the window frame. Both generations consist of carbon nanotube films coated on supporting substrates as electrodes and a solid-state polymer gel layer for the electrolyte. The first generation is a single-cell parallel-plate supercapacitor with a working voltage of 3 Volts. Its energy density is competitive with commercially available supercapacitors (which use liquid electrolyte). For many applications that will require higher working voltage, the second-generation multi-cell supercapacitor is developed. A six-cell device with a working voltage as high as 12 Volts is demonstrated here. Unlike the first generation's 3D structure, the second generation has a novel planar (2D) architecture, which makes it easy to integrate multiple cells into a thin and flexible supercapacitor. The multi-cell planar supercapacitor has energy density exceeding that of other planar supercapacitors in literature by more than one order of magnitude. All-solution fabrication processes were developed for both generations to achieve economical and scalable production. In addition to carbon nanotubes, nickel/nickel oxide core-shell nanowires were also studied as electrode materials for supercapacitors, for which high specific capacitance but low working voltage were obtained. Semi-transparent solar cells with carbon nanotube counter electrodes are developed to power the active noise cancellation system. They can be directly mounted on the glass panes and become part of the home window. The 2.67% efficiency achieved is higher than the 1.8% efficiency required for harvesting adequate energy to cancel noise of 70dB Day-Night-Level, which impacts on a north-facing window. In summary, this project develops several fundamental technologies that together can contribute to a solar-powered active noise cancellation system for a building window. At the same time, since the component technologies being developed are fundamental, it is also likely that they will have wider applications in other domains beyond building windows.

  18. CFD Simulation of Spent Fuel in a Dry Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel pool is expected to be full in few years. It is a serious problem one should not ignore. The dry storage type is considered as the interim storage system in Korea. The system stores spent fuel in a storage canister filled with an inert gas and the canister is cooled by a natural convection system using air or helium, radiation, and conduction. The spent fuel is heated by decay heat. The spent fuel is allowed to cool under a limiting temperature to avoid a fuel failure. Recently, the thermal hydraulic characteristics for a single bundle of the spent fuel were investigated through a CFD simulation. It would be of great interest to investigate the maximum fuel temperature in a dry storage system. The present paper deals with the thermal hydraulic characteristics of spent fuel for a dry storage system using the CFD method. A 3-D thermal flow simulation was carried out to predict the temperature of spent fuel. A dry storage system composed of 32 fuel bundles was modeled. The inlet temperature of the outer bundle is higher and that of inner bundle, however, is higher at the outlet. In a single fuel assembly, a center temperature of the fuel assembly was higher than elsewhere

  19. Future proof construction-Future building and systems design for energy and fuel flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buildings of the future must be designed and constructed to reduce energy demand. From a thermal point of view, technologies to minimise heating needs already exist. But in order to reduce future cooling requirements, more positive action will be required. This applies both in commercial buildings, where cooling demand is already significant, and in the domestic sector, where air conditioning is gaining a foothold. A further problem in the housing sector is the rising electrical demand from appliances, which has increased significantly in recent years. In addition to changes in construction practice, such as using means to mitigate the effects of warming climates, better, more sophisticated control systems must be more fully utilised, such as the automatic switching off of appliances, and advanced controls and metering. A range of alternative energy sources should be integrated in and around single buildings and groups of buildings. Group scale allows more flexibility and will provide higher efficiencies and better control, and is thus the favoured option. Most renewable energy technologies are already understood and the majority are technically proven, though costs are still high in some cases. A combination of renewable energy and storage mechanisms will be needed to decouple energy supply from energy demand. Buildings must be constructed in flexible ways so that they can adapt to allow new technologies to be used. A crucial issue is space for energy storage mechani issue is space for energy storage mechanisms and for alternative fuels

  20. Modelling the Size of Seasonal Thermal Storage in the Solar District Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedr? Streckien?

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The integration of a thermal storage system into the solar heating system enables to increase the use of solar thermal energy in buildings and allows avoiding the mismatch between consumers’ demand and heat production in time. The paper presents modelling a seasonal thermal storage tank various sizes of which have been analyzed in the district solar heating system that could cover a part of heat demand for the district of individual houses in Vilnius. A biomass boiler house, as an additional heat source, should allow covering the remaining heat demand. energyPRO software is used for system modelling. The paper evaluates heat demand, climate conditions and technical characteristics.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Building Energy Management through a Distributed Fuzzy Inference System

    OpenAIRE

    Pervez Hameed Shaikh; Nursyarizal Bin Mohd. Nor; Perumal Nallagownden; Irraivan Elamvazuthi

    2013-01-01

    Buildings consume significant world’s energy resources, approximately 32% of the total primary energy. The rapid depletion of energy resources, has imparted researchers to focus on energy conservation and wastage. The next generation of smart buildings is becoming a trend to cope with the needs of energy and environmental ease in buildings. This advances the intelligent control of building to fulfill the occupants’ need. Intelligent system control for sustainable buildings is dynamic and ...

  2. Energy Management System Audit and Implementation in Educational Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, J.; Karbasi, A. R.; Borgheipour, R.; Taheri, A.

    2006-01-01

    Concerning the high energy consumption of educational buildings in available study; it is conducted to estimate the energy consumption at the Faculty of Humanities (Building No. 2), Science and Research Campus (SRC) of the Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran. Auditing and implementing the energy management system in the implied building, efforts are finally made to propose managerial solutions towards reducing energy consumption in this building. After gathering data of the building, ...

  3. Use of compressed-air storage systems; Einsatz von Druckluftspeichersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyphely, I.; Rufer, A.; Brueckmann, Ph.; Menhardt, W.; Reller, A.

    2004-07-01

    This final report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) looks at the use of compressed air as a means of storing energy. Historical aspects are listed and compressed-air storage as an alternative to current ideas that use electrolysis and hydrogen storage is discussed. The storage efficiency advantages of compressed-air storage is stressed and the possibilities it offers for compensating the stochastic nature of electricity production from renewable energy sources are discussed. The so-called BOP (Battery with Oil-hydraulics and Pneumatics) principle for the storage of electricity is discussed and its function is described. The advantages offered by such a system are listed and the development focus necessary is discussed.

  4. NV energy electricity storage valuation : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA; Jin, Chunlian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (%22BA%22) as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 (%22Pay-for-performance%22). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

  5. Comparison of cask and drywell storage concepts for a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy, through its Richland Operations Office is evaluating the feasibility, timing, and cost of providing a federal capability for storing the spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes that DOE may be obligated by law to manage until permanent waste disposal facilities are available. Three concepts utilizing a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facility have been developed and analyzed. The first concept, co-location with a reprocessing plant, has been developed by staff of Allied General Nuclear Services. the second concept, a stand-alone facility, has been developed by staff of the General Atomic Company. The third concept, co-location with a deep geologic repository, has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory with the assistance of the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Kaiser Engineers. The objectives of this study are: to develop preconceptual designs for MRS/IS facilities: to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facilities, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such facilities; and to estimate the life-cycle costs of the facilities when operated in response to a set of scenarios that define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, generally spanning the years 1989 to 2037. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life-cycle costs for the MRS/IS facilities. In the first scenario, the reprocessing plant is placed in service in 1989 and HLW canisters are stored until a repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at intervals as needed to meet the demand. In the second scenario, the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule

  6. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  7. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  8. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  9. A Prototype Steam Storage System for Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawira M. , Kinyua R. , Kamau J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of solar energy on a large scale is mainly limited to the sun duration hours, weather conditions and adequate solar thermal storage technology. A means of addressing this problem using local materials is provided. A prototype pressure storage system was designed using auto cad 2010 and fabricated using locally available materials. The steam storage system was tested using ASME 2000b guidelines for boiler and pressure vessels at a small scale. The maximum continuous rating for the storage system was 60 kg maximum instantaneous demand 40 kg , storage capacity 50 kg and mean off peak load of 100 W was realized. The maximum test temperatures of operation obtained using seamless galvanized iron pipe was 264.7 o C and 140 o C using polypropylene pipes. The steam storage system operated between 1.0 Pa and 1.0 Pa. Its charging duration was twenty minutes and would discharge at the rate of 50 l continuously after full charge with solar irradiance between 800 W/ and 1020 W/ . The length of complete discharge for the heat transfer fluids was found to range between 4.4 hours. and 6.9 hours. The power output for the heat transfer fluids were in the range of 251.8 W and 486.9W. The steam storage system was found to have an efficiency of 93.5 % and a thermal capacity of 4.54 k J. This system presents a means of storing solar energy in form of steam during low energy demand and its conversion to power during high peak demand twenty four hours a day depending on the size of the storage and application and hence addressing the problem of variability and low density of solar energy.

  10. A Prototype Steam Storage System for Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawira M. , Kinyua R., Kamau J.N

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available — Use of solar energy on a large scale is mainly limited to the sun duration hours, weather conditions and adequate solar thermal storage technology. A means of addressing this problem using local materials is provided. A prototype pressure storage system was designed using auto cad 2010 and fabricated using locally available materials. The steam storage system was tested using ASME 2000b guidelines for boiler and pressure vessels at a small scale. The maximum continuous rating for the storage system was 60 kg maximum instantaneous demand 40 kg , storage capacity 50 kg and mean off peak load of 100 W was realized. The maximum test temperatures of operation obtained using seamless galvanized iron pipe was 264.7 o C and 140 o C using polypropylene pipes. The steam storage system operated between 1.0 Pa and 1.0 Pa. Its charging duration was twenty minutes and would discharge at the rate of 50 l continuously after full charge with solar irradiance between 800 W/ and 1020 W/ . The length of complete discharge for the heat transfer fluids was found to range between 4.4 hours. and 6.9 hours. The power output for the heat transfer fluids were in the range of 251.8 W and 486.9W. The steam storage system was found to have an efficiency of 93.5 % and a thermal capacity of 4.54 k J. This system presents a means of storing solar energy in form of steam during low energy demand and its conversion to power during high peak demand twenty four hours a day depending on the size of the storage and application and hence addressing the problem of variability and low density of solar energy.

  11. Building machine learning systems with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Richert, Willi

    2013-01-01

    This is a tutorial-driven and practical, but well-grounded book showcasing good Machine Learning practices. There will be an emphasis on using existing technologies instead of showing how to write your own implementations of algorithms. This book is a scenario-based, example-driven tutorial. By the end of the book you will have learnt critical aspects of Machine Learning Python projects and experienced the power of ML-based systems by actually working on them.This book primarily targets Python developers who want to learn about and build Machine Learning into their projects, or who want to pro

  12. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status

  13. Numerical dynamic simulation and analysis of a lithium bromide/water long-term solar heat storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view towards better efficiency in renewable energy utilisation, particularly solar energy, the authors study a long-term solar thermal energy storage based on water absorption by a lithium bromide aqueous solution. After a description of the process, the system dynamic simulation model is detailed and used to investigate the influence of certain parameters (heat exchanger size, solution flow rate, absorption percentage) and operating conditions (heat supply temperature to the building, crystallisation ratio, heat need) on the system performance (storage density, thermal efficiency, etc.). The analysis of simulations made for a low-consumption building in Chambéry shows that the solution flow rate is a critical parameter in the process performance. It also appears that crystallisation in the solution storage tank increases the storage density more than three times. The simulation results are used in the design of a prototype that is under experimentation for validation of the model. -- Highlights: ? Long term solar thermal storage based on LiBr/H2O absorption couple presentation. ? The system dynamic simulation model is detailed for parametric simulations. ? Storage density: 300–400 kWh·t?1 of LiBr for a mean heat supply temperature of 30 °C. ? Crystallisation is necessary for the competiveness of the process. ? Several parameters and operating conditions affect the system performance.

  14. Energy Efficient Building Ventilation Systems: Innovative Building-Integrated Enthalpy Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-15

    BEETIT Project: A2 is developing a building moisture and heat exchange technology that leverages a new material and design to create healthy buildings with lower energy use. Commercial building owners/operators are demanding buildings with greater energy efficiency and healthier indoor environments. A2 is developing a membrane-based heat and moisture exchanger that controls humidity by transferring the water vapor in the incoming fresh air to the drier air leaving the building. Unlike conventional systems, A2 locates the heat and moisture exchanger within the depths of the building’s wall to slow down the air flow and increase the surface area that captures humidity, but with less fan power. The system’s integration into the wall reduces the size and demand on the air conditioning equipment and increases liable floor area flexibility.

  15. Primary energy savings using heat storage for biomass heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrovi? Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available District heating is an efficient way to provide heat to residential, tertiary and industrial users. The heat storage unit is an insulated water tank that absorbs surplus heat from the boiler. The stored heat in the heat storage unit makes it possible to heat even when the boiler is not working, thus increasing the heating efficiency. In order to save primary energy (fuel, the boiler operates on nominal load every time it is in operation (for the purpose of this research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the water temperature variation in the heat storage, depending on the heat load and the heat storage volume. Heat load is calculated for three reference days, with average daily temperatures from -5 to 5°C. The primary energy savings are also calculated for those days in the case of using heat storage in district heating.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  16. Underground gas storage Uelsen: Findings from planning, building and commissioning. Part 1: Deposit; Untertagegasspeicher Uelsen: Erkenntnisse aus Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme. Teil 1: Lagerstaette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbrecht, J.; Beckmann, H.; Reiser, H.; Wilhelm, R. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The underground gas storage at Uelsen which was built as a H-gas storage in a former variegated sandstone gasfield in Western Lower Saxony close to the town of Nordhorn has added to the gas supply system of the BEB Erdgas and Erdoel GmbH. The underground storage is connected to the Bunde-Rheine transport pipeline BEB-grid gas system by a 27 km pipeline and is a consequent expansion of BEB`s underground storage/transport system. Planning, building and commissioning were handled by BEB. Findings to date are described. [Deutsch] Der Untertagegasspeicher (UGS) Uelsen, der in einem ehemaligen Buntsandstein Gasfeld im westlichen Niedersachsen in der Naehe der Stadt Nordhorn als H-Gasspeicher eingerichtet wurde, hat die BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH eine weitere Staerkung ihres Gasversorgungssystems erreicht. Der UGS Uelsen ist ueber eine 27 km lange Anbindungsleitung mit der zum BEB - Ferngasleitungssystems gehoerenden Bunde-Rheine Transportleitung verbunden und stellt eine konsequente Erweiterung des BEB Untertagegasspeicher-/Transportsystems dar. Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme erfolgten durch BEB im Rahmen einer integrierten bereichsuebergreifenden Projektbearbeitung. Die hierbei gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden im Folgenden fuer den Untertagebereich dargestellt. (orig.)

  17. DNA and microfluidics: Building molecular electronics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of molecular electronics using DNA molecules as the building blocks and using microfluidics to build nanowire arrays is reviewed. Applications of DNA conductivity to build sensors and nanowire arrays, and DNA conjugation with other nanostructures, offers an exciting opportunity to build extremely small analytical devices that are suitable for single-molecule detection and also target screening

  18. Multi-purpose canister storage of spent nuclear fuel in modular vault system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The original Modular Vault Dry Storage (MVDS) technology was developed in the early 1980s leading on from the experience gained with the Magnox fuel dry storage facilities at the Wylfa power station in Wales (UK). The Wylfa dry stores were commissioned in 1969 and the MVDS can, therefore, rightly claim to be the only dry storage technology that has an operational and technological background of over thirty years. The MVDS is a very flexible design approach and is suitable for the storage of all types of spent nuclear fuel or high level waste streams. The MVDS design has continued to be updated since the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission granted the Topical Report license approval in 1988. The MVDS Topical Report covers the interim storage of Light Water Reactor fuels, including both PWR and BWR, at any reactor site in the USA. The first MVDS constructed in the United States was built at the Fort St Vrain high temperature gas reactor site in 1990, and the MVDS technology has also been applied to the storage of WWER fuel at the Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary. A MVDS facility is currently being licensed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for storage of United States Department of Energy owned fuels at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site in Idaho, USA. The MVDS system was originally designed to store individual fuel assemblies within a Storage Tube or Canister. This system provides maximum flexibility This system provides maximum flexibility for future off-site transportation as the individual fuel assemblies can be removed from their storage locations and placed into a transportation cask for either road or rail off-site shipment. A vault storage system based on the proven MVDS technology using a large Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC), is being developed to provide cost-effective interim spent fuel storage system. Integrating the MVDS technology with a large MPC and adapting the cooling, shielding and handling system, allows the new vault storage system to provide high storage efficiency in compact storage buildings suitable for a large spent fuel interim storage facility. The MVDS vault passive cooling system is capable of rejecting approximately 450kw of heat from each vault module, before either the bulk air temperature causes the vault concrete temperature or the fuel temperature to reach an acceptable temperature limit. It has been possible to re-configure the vault storage array from individual storage tubes to large diameter canisters, and to re-configure the handling equipment transfer larger canisters. By modifying the design of the MVDS to accept large, multiple assembly, multi-purpose canisters, it has been possible to maintain the technical and operational benefits of the original MVDS, with the additional benefits of multi-purpose canisters. A storage tube is typically 0.2 to 0.4 metre diameter, whereas a multiple assembly canister is typically 1.6 to 1.8 metres outside diameter. In recognizing the difference between the two size of storage vessel, the new MVDS system has been named: Mega-Vault Dry Store. The Mega-Vault storage facility consists of three main systems: 1. The Storage Vault Modules, where canistered spent fuel is stored. 2. The Canister Handling Machine, which raises and transfers canisters from the cask in the Transfer Tunnel to the storage position in the Storage Vault. 3. The Cask Reception Bay and Transfer Tunnel, where canistered spent fuel is received and transferred to a port under the vault where it can collected by the Canister Handling Machine. The Transfer Tunnel and Cask Bay are also used to despatch fuel at the end of storage life. The Mega-Vault MPC has a 1.8m outer diameter and stores up to 76 BWR or 24 PWR fuel assemblies. The MPC is cooled by passive horizontal airflow during storage. The height of the storage vault has been modified to suit the large MPC, structures have been simplified in the storage area, and earthquake protection of canisters has been achieved. The radiation dose at the site boundary is reduce

  19. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  20. Ceph, a distributed storage system for scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Ceph is a distributed storage system designed to providing high performance and reliability at scales of up to thousands of storage nodes. The system is based on a distributed object storage layer call RADOS that provides durability, availability, efficient data distribution, and rich object semantics. This storage can be consumed directly via an object-based interface, or via file, block, or REST-based object services that are built on top of it. Clusters are composed of commodity components to provide a reliable storage service serving multiple use-cases. This seminar will cover the basic architecture of Ceph, with a focus on how each service can be consumed in a research and infrastructure environment. About the speaker Sage Weil, Founder and current CTO of Inktank Inc, is the creator of the Ceph project. He originally designed it as part of his PhD research in Storage Systems at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Since graduating, he has continued to refine the system with the goal of providi...

  1. Configuration design of collective housing building structure - IFD systems configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Residential buildings are still based on conventional construction process where components and subsystems are parts of closed-static systems, based on fixed connections and mixed functions. Uncontrolled overlapping of different functions in the building structure creates a strong dependency conditions between building layout and technical systems. Labyrinth of interfaces and fixed joints create complex relations between elements, and don't support transformations. The design of building stru...

  2. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  3. Tools to use heterogeneous Grid schedulers and storage system

    CERN Document Server

    Cinquilli, Mattia

    2010-01-01

    The Grid approach provides an uniform access to a set of geographically distributed heterogeneous resources and services, enabling projects that would be impossible without massive computing power. Different storage projects have been developed and a few protocols are being used to interact with them such as GsiFtp and SRM (Storage Resource Manager). Moreover, during last few years different Grid projects have developed different middleware such as EGEE, OSG, NorduGrid and each one typically implements its own interface and workflow. For a user community which needs to work through the Grid, interoperability is a key concept. To handle different Grid interfaces, the resource heterogeneity and different workflows, in a really transparent way, we have developed two modular tools: BossLite and Storage Element API. These deal with different Grid schedulers and storage systems respectively, by providing a uniform standard interface that hides the differences between the systems they interact with. BossLite transpa...

  4. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 open-quotes Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Caskclose quotes contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed

  5. Measurements over distributed high performance computing and storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Myers, Tom

    1993-01-01

    A strawman proposal is given for a framework for presenting a common set of metrics for supercomputers, workstations, file servers, mass storage systems, and the networks that interconnect them. Production control and database systems are also included. Though other applications and third part software systems are not addressed, it is important to measure them as well.

  6. Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-03-22

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  7. Efficient Support of Big Data Storage Systems on the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Ms, Akshay; Mohan, Suhas; Kuri, Vincent; Sitaram, Dinkar; Phalachandra, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Due to its advantages over traditional data centers, there has been a rapid growth in the usage of cloud infrastructures. These include public clouds (e.g., Amazon EC2), or private clouds, such as clouds deployed using OpenStack. A common factor in many of the well known infrastructures, for example OpenStack and CloudStack, is that networked storage is used for storage of persistent data. However, traditional Big Data systems, including Hadoop, store data in commodity local...

  8. Design of the Storage Battery Online Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Tian; Cheng Wang; Xixue Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Storage battery is the integrant back power supply in the communication system, and its using life and security reliability are specially concerned by users. To avoid the accidents induced by the individual battery failure in the long-term using process, the running status of the storage battery must be maintained and monitored periodically. A new and advanced capacity measurement technology, i.e. the whole-online discharge monitoring technology is proposed in this article. Comparing with oth...

  9. Repairable Replication-based Storage Systems Using Resolvable Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Olmez, Oktay; Ramamoorthy, Aditya

    2012-01-01

    We consider the design of regenerating codes for distributed storage systems at the minimum bandwidth regeneration (MBR) point. The codes allow for a repair process that is exact and uncoded, but table-based. These codes were introduced in prior work and consist of an outer MDS code followed by an inner fractional repetition (FR) code where copies of the coded symbols are placed on the storage nodes. The main challenge in this domain is the design of the inner FR code. ...

  10. A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).

  11. Integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddy, E.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary

    1987-01-01

    An integrated thermal energy storage (TES) system, developed as a part of an organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic power system is described, and the results of the performance verification tests of this TES system are presented. The integrated system consists of potassium heat-pipe elements that incorporate TES canisters within the vapor space, along with an organic fluid heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. The heat pipe assembly was operated through the range of design conditions from the nominal design input of 4.8 kW to a maximum of 5.7 kW. The performance verification tests show that the system meets the functional requirements of absorbing the solar energy reflected by the concentrator, transporting the energy to the organic Rankine heater, providing thermal storage for the eclipse phase, and allowing uniform discharge from the thermal storage to the heater.

  12. Integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddy, E.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary

    An integrated thermal energy storage (TES) system, developed as a part of an organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic power system is described, and the results of the performance verification tests of this TES system are presented. The integrated system consists of potassium heat-pipe elements that incorporate TES canisters within the vapor space, along with an organic fluid heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. The heat pipe assembly was operated through the range of design conditions from the nominal design input of 4.8 kW to a maximum of 5.7 kW. The performance verification tests show that the system meets the functional requirements of absorbing the solar energy reflected by the concentrator, transporting the energy to the organic Rankine heater, providing thermal storage for the eclipse phase, and allowing uniform discharge from the thermal storage to the heater.

  13. Fermilab's multi-petabyte scalable mass storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab provides a multi-Petabyte scale mass storage system for High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments and other scientific endeavors. We describe the scalability aspects of the hardware and software architecture that were designed into the Mass Storage System to permit us to scale to multiple petabytes of storage capacity, manage tens of terabytes per day in data transfers, support hundreds of users, and maintain data integrity. We discuss in detail how we scale the system over time to meet the ever-increasing needs of the scientific community, and relate our experiences with many of the technical and economic issues related to scaling the system. Since the 2003 MSST conference, the experiments at Fermilab have generated more than 1.9 PB of additional data. We present results on how this system has scaled and performed for the Fermilab CDF and D0 Run II experiments as well as other HEP experiments and scientific endeavors

  14. Thermal energy storage with liquid-liquid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, E.A.; Stiel, L.I. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The use of liquid-liquid mixtures for heat and cool storage applications has been investigated. Suitable mixtures exhibit large changes in the heat of mixing above and below the critical solution temperature of the system. Analytical procedures have been utilized to determine potential energy storage capabilities of systems with upper or lower critical solution temperatures. It has been found that aqueous systems with lower critical solution temperatures in a suitable range can result in large increases in the effective heat capacity in the critical region. For cool storage with a system of this type, the cooling process results in a transformation from two liquid phases to a single phase. Heats of mixing have been measured with a flow calorimeter system for a number of potential mixtures, and the results are summarized.

  15. Advanced designs and systems for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interim storage is required, whatever the approach taken to spent nuclear fuel management: direct or deferred reprocessing, or final disposal. Several interim storage methods have been developed, including dry storage in casks, vaults or wells and wet underwater storage in pools. The advanced designs and systems developed in France for dry vault storage and wet pool storage are presented, and a brief comparison is made of the advantages and drawbacks of these two methods and dry cask storage. (author). 4 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Electron trapping optical data storage system and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Daniel; Earman, Allen; Chaffin, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    A new technology developed at Optex Corporation out-performs all other existing data storage technologies. The Electron Trapping Optical Memory (ETOM) media stores 14 gigabytes of uncompressed data on a single, double-sided 130 mm disk with a data transfer rate of up to 120 megabits per second. The disk is removable, compact, lightweight, environmentally stable, and robust. Since the Write/Read/Erase (W/R/E) processes are carried out photonically, no heating of the recording media is required. Therefore, the storage media suffers no deleterious effects from repeated W/R/E cycling. This rewritable data storage technology has been developed for use as a basis for numerous data storage products. Industries that can benefit from the ETOM data storage technologies include: satellite data and information systems, broadcasting, video distribution, image processing and enhancement, and telecommunications. Products developed for these industries are well suited for the demanding store-and-forward buffer systems, data storage, and digital video systems needed for these applications.

  17. Advanced Technology of Automated Storage and Retrieval System Using PLC Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashna Joy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an highly developed fully automatic ASRS (automatic storage and retrieval system. This main material management support system is generally used for storing and retrieving the unprocessed materials in the manufacturing unit. The necessities of ASRS are increasingly of a more dynamic nature for which new models will need to be developed to overcome the time consumption. ASRS consists of a range of controlled systems for automatically retrieving and storing loads from preferred storage spaces. It is usually used in applications where there is a very high quantity of loads being moved into and out of storage. This system is mainly used for storing and retrieving the unprocessed materials in a manufacturing unit. The main aim of this paper is to build up an automatic system from the present system. The original idea of the article is to help public those who work as operators by designing a system where it is capable of managing the drawer without interference of an operator. The performance of the present system is enhanced by using PLC integration where it coordinates the operation and control of ASRS.

  18. Design of a Flywheel Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storing mechanical kinetic energy for short time with flywheels has been known for centuries. However the applications of flywheels for longer storage times like electrochemical batteries is recent. Advanced flywheels have been possible thanks to the development from materials science with high tensile strength composite materials, and bearing technology with magnetic bearing, which suspend rotating shaft or rotor by magnetic forces. This summary report provides a study of the mechanics of flywheel, design considerations, material for advance flywheels, and magnetic bearing. Finally a brief description of a conventional flywheel prototype is given. (Author)

  19. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pez, Guido Peter (Allentown, PA); Cooper, Alan Charles (Macungie, PA); Scott, Aaron Raymond (Allentown, PA)

    2011-08-23

    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

  20. Thermally activated building systems in context of increasing building energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovi? Branislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible ways to provide heating to the building is to use thermally activated building systems. This type of heating, besides providing significant increase in building energy efficiency, allows using low-temperature heating sources. In this paper, special attention is given to opaque part of the building façade with integrated thermally activated building systems. Due to fact that this type of system strongly depends on temperature of this construction-thermal element and type and thickness of other materials of the façade, influence of these parameters on energy efficiency was analyzed in this paper. Since the simplest and most promising way of using geothermal energy is to use it directly, for our analysis this source of energy was selected. Building energy needs for heating were obtained for real residential multi-family building in Serbia by using EnergyPlus software. The building with all necessary input for simulation was modeled in Google SketchUp with aid of Open Studio Plug-in. Obtained results were compared with measured heating energy consumption. The results show that thermally activated building systems represent good way to increase building energy efficiency and that applying certain temperatures within this element, low-energy house standard can be achieved.

  1. Technical Support Document: The Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Warehouse and Self-Storage Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing; Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan

    2007-12-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Warehouse and Self-storage Buildings (AEDG-WH or the Guide), a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 30% energy savings in small warehouses over levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. The AEDG-WH is the fourth in a series of guides being developed by a partnership of organizations, including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), the United States Green Buildings Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  2. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. These are the math service, navigational service, naming and location service and the storage service in addition to two communication protocols (TCP/IP and JAVA RMI).

  3. An examination of criticality accident alarm coverage of the X-710, X-760 Buildings and the north half of the X-7745-R storage pad at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of an evaluation of Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) coverage of the X-710 and X-760 buildings and the north half of the X-7745-R storage lot located east of the X-7725 building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. In order to evaluate coverage, the facilities were modeled using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer Code (MCNP). MCNP was then used to simulate criticality accidents at various locations in the X-710 and X-760 buildings and the north half of the X-7745-R storage lot. The associated neutron flux at current detector locations was calculated. The neutron flux was then converted to an absorbed dose rate (in tissue) and compared with the Portsmouth criticality accident alarm set-point of 5mrad/hr. The parameters defining the simulated criticality accidents have been calculated as ''the minimum accident of concern'' as defined in ANSI Standard ANS 8.3-1986. These calculations are documented in Portsmouth report POEF-SH-31. The results of this evaluation indicate that the X-710 and X-760 buildings and surrounding roads are adequately covered by the CAAS systems that are currently in place in those buildings. The X-7745-R storage pad is also adequately covered by the CAAS in the X-7725 building

  4. Vacuum system for the SPring-8 storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kowashi; Hara, Toru; Ohkuma, Haruo [JAERI-RIKEN SPring-8 Project Team, Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The large synchrotron radiation facilities ``SPring-8`` boasts the largest scale in the world of the stored electron energy 8 GeV, and it starts the experiment using synchrotron radiation on full scale in October, 1997. The accelerators for the SPring-8 are the linear accelerator of 1 GeV and 140 m total length, the synchrotron that accelerates from 1 GeV to 8 GeV and 396 m circumferential length, and the storage ring, to which 61 beamlines for utilizing synchrotron radiation can be installed. At present, at 20 mA of the storage current, the life more than 30 hours has been obtained. The important problem of the vacuum system for the storage ring is the gas emission by light-stimulated desorption and electron impact desorption. The vacuum chamber and the exhaust system, the vacuum control system, baking, the vacuum during the operation of the storage ring, and the vacuum system for the vacuum-sealed undulator and its attained pressure of 3x10{sup -9} Pa are reported. It was confirmed that the vacuum system for the SPring-8 storage ring has attained the target basic performance before the start of operation. Also after the start of operation, there was no problem in the change of dynamic vacuum due to synchrotron radiation. As for the vacuum in the undulator, the sufficient performance was confirmed. (K.I.)

  5. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Gas Storage-Radiator Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupta, Ian

    2005-01-01

    High-energy-density regenerative fuel cell systems that are used for energy storage require novel approaches to integrating components in order to preserve mass and volume. A lightweight unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) energy storage system concept is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This URFC system minimizes mass by using the surface area of the hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks as radiating heat surfaces for overall thermal control of the system. The waste heat generated by the URFC stack during charging and discharging is transferred from the cell stack to the surface of each tank by loop heat pipes, which are coiled around each tank and covered with a thin layer of thermally conductive carbon composite. The thin layer of carbon composite acts as a fin structure that spreads the heat away from the heat pipe and across the entire tank surface. Two different-sized commercial-grade composite tanks were constructed with integral heat pipes and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber to examine the feasibility of using the storage tanks as system radiators. The storage tank-radiators were subjected to different steady-state heat loads and varying heat load profiles. The surface emissivity and specific heat capacity of each tank were calculated. In the future, the results will be incorporated into a model that simulates the performance of similar radiators using lightweight, spacerated carbon composite tanks.

  6. The ALICE DAQ Online transient data storage system

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, F; Chapel, S; Divià, R; Fuchs, U; Makhlyueva, I; Schossmaier, K; Soós, C; Vyvre, P V

    2008-01-01

    ALICE is a dedicated heavy-ion detector to exploit the physics potential of nucleus-nucleus (lead-lead) interactions at LHC energies. Running in heavy-ion mode the data rate from event building to permanent storage is expected to be around 1.25 GB/s. To continue data recording even in the event of hardware failure or connection problems, a large disk pool has been installed at the experiment's site as buffering layer between the DAQ and the remote (~5km) tape facility in the CERN Computing Centre. This Transient Data Storage (TDS) disk pool has to provide the bandwidth to be able to simultaneously absorb data from the event building machines and to move data to the tape facility. The aggregated bandwidth of the TDS is expected to exceed 3 GB/s in mixed I/O traffic. Extensive tests have been carried out on various hardware and software solutions with the goal to build a common file space shared by ~60 clients, whilst still providing maximum bandwidth per client (~400MB/s, 4Gbps Fibre Channel), fail-over safety...

  7. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  8. Phase change thermal storage for a solar total energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is being conducted on a one-tenth scale model of a high-temperature (584 K) phase-change thermal energy storage system for installation in a solar total energy test facility at Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. The thermal storage medium is anhydrous sodium hydroxide with 8% sodium nitrate. The program will produce data on the dynamic response of the system to repeated cycles of charging and discharging simulating those of the test facility. Data will be correlated with a mathematical model which will then be used in the design of the full-scale system.

  9. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  10. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-10-26

    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  11. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  12. A Cassette Based System for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Wayne E.

    2006-11-29

    A hydrogen storage system is described and evaluated. This is based upon a cassette, that is a container for managing hydrogen storage materials. The container is designed to be safe, modular, adaptable to different chemistries, inexpensive, and transportable. A second module receives the cassette and provides the necessary infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from the cassette according to enduser requirements. The modular concept has a number of advantages over approaches that are all in one stand alone systems. The advantages of a cassette based system are discussed, along with results from model and laboratory testing.

  13. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project's mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS)

  14. Analysis of beta exposure in the spent fuel storage building of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhruva is 100 MW (Th) natural uranium fuelled vertical tank type research reactor. The reactor is moderated, cooled and reflected by heavy water. Irradiated rods, after required burn up are removed from the reactor using fuelling machine and are transferred to the adjacent Spent Fuel Storage Building (SFSB) for cooling. Bay water activity is attributed to the release of fission products from the spent fuels stored in SFSB and accumulation of long-lived activation and fission products, over a period of timer. SFSB water is purified using cation and anion resin bed, to maintain water chemistry and to keep a watch on water activity level. Most of the jobs like rod transfer, cutting, loading in cask etc. are carried out under water. The tools used are coming in contact with active bay water during work and will be kept at the bay side for further decontamination, which can be the major source of exposure, if not decontaminated. This paper describes the characterization of the main radionuclides contributing to the activity in bay water using HP Ge, and analysis of beta exposures in SFSB based on TLD dose records for last ten years and methods undertaken to minimize external and internal exposures in SFSB

  15. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB): Results and Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  16. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-09-20

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  17. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report. Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553, Annex A, Chapter A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  18. Comprehensive monitoring report for underground storage Tank 0134-U at Building 9204-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to present potentiometric, groundwater quality, and vapor monitoring data required for Comprehensive Monitoring of underground storage tank (UST) 0134-U at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Building 9204-2 Site. Comprehensive monitoring has been conducted at the site as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) based on review and approval of Site Ranking (Site Ranking Form approved March 9, 1995). Site Status Monitoring will be conducted semiannually. Comprehensive monitoring and preparation of this report have been conducted in accordance with the requirements of TDEC Rule 1200-1-15 and the TDEC UST Reference Handbook, Second Edition (TDEC 1994) Technical Guidance Document (TGD) 007. In addition, soil and groundwater sampling results that were used to support site ranking are included as part of this report. This document is organized into four sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site including the regulatory initiative and a site description. Section 2 includes the results of water level measurements and sampling of monitoring wells GW-204, GW-656, GW-805, GW-806, and GW-807. Section 3 presents data from vapor monitoring conducted subsurface utilities present at the site. Section 4 presents the results of soil sampling perform in support of site ranking

  19. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  20. Preliminary Study of Passive Cooling Strategy Using a Combination of PCM and Copper Foam to Increase Thermal Heat Storage in Building Facade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yoshino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The innovation of phase change material (PCM for thermal heat storage is one sustainable passive strategy that can be integrated into building designs. This research was conducted to study and evaluate the performance of the existing materials integrated with PCM and to propose a design strategy that would improve the system. This research suggested copper foam as a medium to be integrated with microencapsulated PCM. Applications of these combined materials will benefit the industry by improving indoor environments and by delivering sufficient thermal comfort for residents as in the case study of the existing 1.6 million terrace houses in Malaysia.

  1. Surface-enhanced raman optical data storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage (SERODS) System is disclosed. A medium which exhibits the Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) phenomenon has data written onto its surface of microenvironment by means of a write-on procedure which disturbs the surface or microenvironment of the medium and results in the medium having a changed SERS emission when excited. The write-on procedure is controlled by a signal that corresponds to the data to be stored so that the disturbed regions on the storage device (e.g., disk) represent the data. After the data is written onto the storage device it is read by exciting the surface of the storage device with an appropriate radiation source and detecting changes in the SERS emission to produce a detection signal. The data is then reproduced from the detection signal.

  2. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to demonstrate our operational-planning framework and economic justification for different storage applications. A new reliability model is proposed for security and adequacy assessment of power networks containing renewable resources and energy storage systems. The proposed model is used in combination with the operational-planning framework to enhance the reliability and operability of wind integration. The proposed framework optimally utilizes the storage capacity for reliability applications of wind integration. This is essential for justification of storage deployment within regulated utilities where the absence of market opportunities limits the economic advantage of storage technologies over gas-fired generators. A control strategy is also proposed to achieve the maximum reliability using energy storage systems. A cost-benefit analysis compares storage technologies and conventional alternatives to reliably and efficiently integrate different wind penetrations and determines the most economical design. Our simulation results demonstrate the necessity of optimal storage placement for different wind applications. This dissertation also proposes a new stochastic framework to optimally charge and discharge electric vehicles (EVs) to mitigate the effects of wind power uncertainties. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) service for hedging against wind power imbalances is introduced as a novel application for EVs. This application enhances the predictability of wind power and reduces the power imbalances between the scheduled output and actual power. An Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) wind speed model is developed to forecast the wind power output. Driving patterns of EVs are stochastically modeled and the EVs are clustered in the fleets of similar daily driving patterns. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) simulates the system behavior by generating samples of system states using the wind ARMA model and EVs driving patterns. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used in combination with MCS to optimally coordinate the EV fleets for their V2G services and minimize the penalty cost associated wit

  3. Arising technical issues in the development of a transportation and storage system of spent nuclear fuel in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, although the concept of dry storage system for PWR spent fuels first emerged in the early 1990s, wet storage inside nuclear reactor buildings remains the dominant storage paradigm. Furthermore, as the amount of discharged fuel from nuclear power plants increases, nuclear power plants are confronted with the problem of meeting storage capacity demand. Various measures have been taken to resolve this problem. Dry storage systems along with transportation of spent fuel either on-site or off-site are regarded as the most feasible measure. In order to develop dry storage and transportation system safety analyses, development of design techniques, full scale performance tests, and research on key material degradation should be conducted. This paper deals with two topics, structural analysis methodology to assess cumulative damage to transportation packages and the effects of an aircraft engine crash on a dual purpose cask. These newly emerging issues are selected from among the many technical issues related to the development of transportation and storage systems of spent fuels. In the design process, appropriate analytical methods, procedures, and tools are used in conjunction with a suitably selected test procedure and assumptions such as jet engine simulation for postulated design events and a beyond design basis accident

  4. Revised corrective action plan for underground storage tank 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents the Corrective Action Plan for underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U, previously located at Building 9201-1, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2331-U, a 560-gallon UST, was removed on December 14, 1988. This document presents a comprehensive summary of all environmental assessment investigations conducted at the Building 9201-1 Site and the corrective action measures proposed for remediation of subsurface petroleum product contamination identified at the site. This document is written in accordance with the regulatory requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-15-.06(7)

  5. Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station thermal loading conditions represent an order of magnitude increase over current and previous spacecraft such as Skylab, Apollo, Pegasus III, Lunar Rover Vehicle, and Lockheed TRIDENT missiles. Thermal storage units (TSU's) were successfully used on these as well as many applications for ground based solar energy storage applications. It is desirable to store thermal energy during peak loading conditions as an alternative to providing increased radiator surface area which adds to the weight of the system. Basically, TSU's store heat by melting a phase change material (PCM) such as a paraffin. The physical property data for the PCM's used in the design of these TSU's is well defined in the literature. Design techniques are generally well established for the TSU's. However, the Space Station provides a new challenge in the application of these data and techniques because of three factors: the large size of the TSU required, the integration of the TSU for the Space Station thermal management concept with its diverse opportunities for storage application, and the TSU's interface with a two-phase (liquid/vapor) thermal bus/central heat rejection system. The objective in the thermal storage research and development task was to design, fabricate, and test a demonstration unit. One test article was to be a passive thermal storage unit capable of storing frozen food at -20 F for a minimum of 90 days. A second unit was to be capable of storing frozen biological samples at -94 F, again for a minimum of 90 days. The articles developed were compatible with shuttle mission conditions, including safety and handling by astronauts. Further, storage rack concepts were presented so that these units can be integrated into Space Station logistics module storage racks. The extreme sensitivity of spacecraft radiator systems design-to-heat rejection temperature requirements is well known. A large radiator area penalty is incurred if low temperatures are accommodated via a single centralized radiator system. As per the scope of work of this task, the applicability of refrigeration system tailored to meet the specialized requirements of storage of food and biological samples was investigated. The issues addressed were the anticipated power consumption and feasible designs and cycles for meeting specific storage requirements. Further, development issues were assessed related to the operation of vapor compression systems in micro-gravity addressing separation of vapor and liquid phases (via capillary systems).

  6. STAIRS: A Storage and Retrieval System Applied in Online Cataloging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, William

    1982-01-01

    Describes the use of IBM's Storage and Information Retrieval System (STAIRS) in the development of an online catalog for the Business and Technical Library of the Cummins Engine Company. The functions, advantages, and disadvantages of the system are outlined. A reference list and three sample searches are attached. (JL)

  7. Pulsed power generation from inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed experiments of pulsed-power generation using inductive energy storage were done by using three kinds of systems: one wire, two wires and the energy transfer between two condensers. Here ''wire'' refers to a thin copper wire that was used as an opening switch in the system. (author)

  8. Proton storage ring (PSR) diagnostics and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When any new accelerator or storage ring is built that advances the state of the art, the diagnostic system becomes extremely important in tuning the facility to full specification. This paper will discuss the various diagnostic devices planned or under construction for the PSR and their connection into the control system

  9. Optical Disk for Digital Storage and Retrieval Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Denis A.

    1983-01-01

    Availability of low-cost digital optical disks will revolutionize storage and retrieval systems over next decade. Three major factors will effect this change: availability of disks and controllers at low-cost and in plentiful supply; availability of low-cost and better output means for system users; and more flexible, less expensive communication…

  10. Interactive Optical Disc Systems: Part 1: Analog Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Details distinction between digital and analog data, advantages of analog storage, and optical disc use to store analog data. Configuration and potential of three levels of laser disc systems are explained. Selection of display devices for use with laser disc systems and accessing audio data are addressed. (Continued in next issue.) (EJS)

  11. Energy: Systems for Control, Maintenance, and Storage. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald, Comp.; McKane, Irving, Comp.

    This publication is a bibliography of available periodical literature on specific aspects of energy and today's technology. The Applied Science and Technology Indexes were searched for articles that related to these specific areas: (1) Energy control systems; (2) Maintenance of Energy Systems; and (3) Energy storage. The articles and papers…

  12. A Distributed System for a Multi-Agent Systems Building

    OpenAIRE

    R. El Bejjet; H. Medromi

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to define and implement an evolutionary and generic platform for multi agents systems (MAS) simulation by an agent-based approach. This paper describes an architecture designed and developed in this area. Its principle consists of dividing and modelling a multi agent system to as many agents as necessary, an organisation and an environment. A designer or a programmer builds its application by making a choice of the necessary agents, by coding their processing around a proces...

  13. Dry spent fuel storage with the MACSTOR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and Transnuclear Inc. (TNI) began in 1989 the development of the concrete spent fuel storage system, called MACSTOR (Modular Air-Cooled Canister STORage) for use with LWR spent fuel assemblies. It is a hybrid system which combines the operational economies of metal cask technology with the capital economies of concrete technology. The MACSTOR Module is a monolithic, shielded concrete vault structure that can accommodate up to 20 spent fuel canisters. Each canister typically holds up to 21 PWR or 44 BWR spent fuel assemblies with a nominal fuel burn up rate of 40,000 MWD/MTU and a 7 year minimum cooling period. The structure is passively cooled by natural convection through an array of inlet and outlet gratings and galleries serving a central plenum where the (vertically) stored canisters are located. The canisters are continuously monitored by means of a pressure monitoring system developed by TNI. Thus, the utility can be assured of both positive cooling of the fuel and verification of the integrity of the fuel confinement boundary. The structure is seismically designed and is capable of withstanding site design basis accident events. The MACSTOR system includes the storage module(s), an overhead gantry system for cask handling, a transfer cask for moving fuel from wet to dry storage and a cask transporter. The canister and transfer cask designs are based on Transnuclear transport cask designs and proven hot cell transfer cask designs and proven hot cell transfer cask technology, adapted to requirements for on-site spent fuel storage. The MACSTOR system can economically address a wide range of storage capacity requirements. The modular concept allows for flexibility in determining each module's capacity. Starting with 8 canisters, the capacity can be increased by increments of 4 up to 20 canisters. The MACSTOR system is also flexible in accommodating the various spent fuel types from such reactors as VVER-440, VVER-1000 and RBMK 1500. (J.P.N.)

  14. Analysis of Geothermal Heating System for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Pal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One-third of the world energy utilization is for space heating and cooling. Steady increase in the prices of sources of energy and electricity has resulted in more and more use of alternate sources of energy such as geothermal energy for heating and cooling. Maximum heat loss from the building and water flow rate are for the month of January. The value of maximum heat loss is 3.41 kW and that for water flow rate is 0.84 m3/hrespectively. The maximum savings in terms of value and energy by using the geothermal heating system are again for the month of January in terms of energy 1038 units of electricity and in terms of value Rs. 5191 respectively. Total savings for the winter season in terms of energy are 2983 units of electricity and in terms of value are Rs. 14915.

  15. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of a preliminary design study of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. The high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. In addition to providing energy storage, the system can provide hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. During the daylight portion of the orbit the electrolysis module uses power provided by the solar array to generate H2 and O2 from the product water produced by the fuel cell module. The fuel cell module supplies electrical power during the dark period of the orbit.

  16. Security Requirements for Spent Fuel Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Commission or NRC) requires high assurance of adequate protection of public health and safety and the common defense and security for the storage of spent nuclear fuel. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the NRC has achieved this requisite high assurance for all independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) through a combination of existing security regulations and the issuance of new security orders to individual licensees. However, the NRC's current security regulations for ISFSIs are quite complex and pose challenges both to NRC staff and to the regulated industry. This regulatory complexity is due to multiple factors, including: two different types of ISFSI licenses (general licenses and specific licenses) and varying applicability of regulations based upon whether the ISFSI is collocated with an operating power reactor, collocated with a decommissioning power reactor, or is located away from any power reactors. The NRC's ISFSI security regulations were last comprehensively updated in the early 1990's. Moreover, the nature and characteristics of the threat environment have evolved significantly since that time. The Commission has directed the NRC staff to begin development of a risk-informed and performance-based update to the ISFSI security regulations which will enhance the ISFSI security regulations, while continuing to ensure the common defense and security and public health and safety are adeurity and public health and safety are adequately protected under the current threat environment. The NRC staff is developing the technical bases supporting this ISFSI security rulemaking. The NRC's specific goals for this rulemaking are to update ISFSI security requirements to apply consistently to both types of ISFSI licensees, to improve the clarity of NRC regulations, to generically incorporate the provisions of the post-9/11 security orders, and to incorporate the Commission's direction on several specific policy issues. The Commission has directed the NRC staff to accomplish this effort in a manner to strongly encourage public and stakeholder input. (authors)

  17. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

  18. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual reconfiguration when making parametric analysis. A test case featuring an office located in Copenhagen, Denmark, indicates that the method has a potential to save energy and improve thermal comfort compared to more conventional systems control. Further investigations of this potential and the general performance of the method are, however, needed before implementing it in a real building design.

  19. The Proposed Heating and Cooling System in the CH2 Building and Its Impact on Occupant Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Aye

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Melbourne's climatic conditions demand that its buildings require both heating and cooling systems. In a multi-storey office building , however, cooling requirements will dominate. How the internal space is cooled and ventilation air is delivered will significantly impact on occupant comfort. This paper discusses the heating and cooling systems proposed for the CH2building. The paper critiques the proposed systems against previous experience, both internationally and in Australia. While the heating system employs proven technologies, less established techniques are proposed for the cooling system. Air movement in the shower towers, for example, is to be naturally induced and this has not always been successful elsewhere. Phase change material for storage of "coolth" does not appear to have been demonstrated previously in a commercial building, so the effectiveness of the proposed system is uncertain. A conventional absorption chiller backs up the untried elements of the cooling system, so that ultimately occupant comfort should not be compromised .

  20. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Edward C. (Woodinville, WA); Huxtable, Douglas D. (Bothell, WA)

    1985-08-06

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  1. Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

    2003-04-16

    The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

  2. Commercial building demand-side management tools: Requirements for dispatchable photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaic arrays with some form of storage or combined with direct load control can play a role in the utility market. It is essential for the technology to be able to service customer demands during the periods when utilities experience peak loads. The authors examine the potential for dispatchable, peak shaving PV arrays using storage, in terms of economic benefit, system requirements and potential for success. They conclude that use of the system as a dispatchable peak shaving tool provides much more value than PV systems built to maximize energy output only. Reductions of 30% in major systems components will enable the introduction of dispatchable peak shaving PV systems as a cost effective option for commercial buildings. Finally, the eventual inclusion of tax effects and environmental and fuel risk factors in the analysis will make these applications more cost effective for a wider range of applications

  3. Comprehensive work plan for Building 3001 storage canal at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Comprehensive Work Plan describes the method of accomplishment to replace the shielding protection of the water in the canal with a controlled low strength material (CLSM) 4. The canal was used during the operation of the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor in the 1940s and 1950s to transport spent fuel slugs and irradiated test materials from the reactor, under water to the hot cell in Building 3019 for further processing, packaging, and handling. After the reactor was shut down, the canal was used until 1990 to store some irradiated materials until they could be transferred to a Solid Waste Storage Area. This task has the following objectives and components: (1) minimize potential future risk to human health and the environment; (2) reduce surveillance and maintenance cost of the canal; (3) perform site preparation activities; (4) replace the water in the canal with a solid CLSM; (5) pump the water to the Process Waste Treatment System (PWTS) for further processing at the same rate that the CLSM is pumped under the water; (6) remove the water using a process that will protect the workers and the public in the visitors area from contamination while the CLSM is being pumped underneath the water; (7) painting a protective coating material over the CLSM after the CLSM has cured

  4. Analysis of multipass laser amplifier systems for storage laser media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance characteristics of single pass and multipass storage laser amplifiers are presented and compared. The effects of the multipass amplifier parameters on the extraction characteristics are examined. For a wide range of conditions the multipass amplifier is found to provide high energy gain and high efficiency simultaneously. This is a significant advantage over the single pass laser amplifier. Finally, three specific storage laser amplifier systems, flashlamp pumped V:MgF2, XeF laser pumped Tm:Glass, and photolytically pumped Selenium, are examined. The performance characteristics for each of the three systems are calculated and compared

  5. Optimal study of a solar air heating system with pebble bed energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Use two kinds of circulation media in the solar collector. ? Air heating and pebble bed heat storage are applied with different operating modes. ? Design parameters of the system are optimized by simulation program. ? It is found that the system can meet 32.8% of the thermal energy demand in heating season. ? Annual solar fraction aims to be 53.04%. -- Abstract: The application of solar air collectors for space heating has attracted extensive attention due to its unique advantages. In this study, a solar air heating system was modeled through TRNSYS for a 3319 m2 building area. This air heating system, which has the potential to be applied for space heating in the heating season (from November to March) and hot water supply all year around in North China, uses pebble bed and water storage tank as heat storage. Five different working modes were designed based on different working conditions: (1) heat storage mode, (2) heating by solar collector, (3) heating by storage bed, (4) heating at night and (5) heating by an auxiliary source. These modes can be operated through the on/off control of fan and auxiliary heater, and through the operation of air dampers manually. The design, optimization and modification of this system are described in this paper. The solar fraction of the system was used as the optimization parameter. Design parameters of the system were optimized by using the TRNSYS program, which include the solar collector area,nclude the solar collector area, installation angle of solar collector, mass flow rate through the system, volume of pebble bed, heat transfer coefficient of the insulation layer of the pebble bed and water storage tank, height and volume of the water storage tank. The TRNSYS model has been verified by data from the literature. Results showed that the designed solar system can meet 32.8% of the thermal energy demand in the heating season and 84.6% of the energy consumption in non-heating season, with a yearly average solar fraction of 53.04%.

  6. FPSO - floating production storage and off loading -conversion or new build; FPSO - conversao ou construcao nova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernando Sampaio; Mitidieri, Jorge Luiz

    2004-07-01

    The FPSO technology over the past years has rapidly evolved from tanker based units with classical mooring system to purpose built vessels equipped with dynamic positioning assistance, sophisticated permanent turrets or disconnectable mooring systems. The growth in the number of FPSO's in the 1980's was largely based converted tankers but new-builds now represent 40% of the FPSO fleet. This paper intends to discuss the main technical and economical aspects to be considered when selecting the project for a FPSO construction, including, among others, general and structural conditions for the takers to be converted, safety considerations, systems to be installed and general analysis of engineering design. The study compares construction schedule and the time schedule influence on project conclusion. The evaluation of the designed life time of each vessel an its implications on the project cost and the importance on the decision is also evaluated. (author)

  7. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  8. Decommissioning of four small nuclear waste storage buildings and an evaporation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small-scale decommissioning concept was applied with staff from an earlier project wish strong knowledge of radiation protection, minimized radiation doses and environmental pollution. The project was therefore initiated with less than 10 people involved using standard hand held equipment. The aim of the decommissioning project was to set free as much material as possible, i.e. remove waste from the regulatory control regime and also free the remaining structures and buildings for conventional demolition and subsequent reuse of the property. Complete decommissioning will be concluded at the end of 2008 when all waste is taken case of. This is the fourth in a series of important decommissioning projects in Studsvik since the 1980s. Some of the conclusions are: 1) Obtain a group with well-known personnel that have been working together before for the entire project For a project larger than this, project management assistant would have made follow-up more efficient. Experts in instrumentation and statistics are also important. Also important is knowledge about practical decisions that would make the project more efficient in terms of time. Interviews and historical facts are important when choosing which nuclides are of most interest for measurements (but be critic). 2) Be sure all authoritative requirements are followed, like setting up a work environment plan at the entrance to the site and placing a fence around the work site. 3) Check all individual radiation expote. 3) Check all individual radiation exposures before project start and do whole body measurements both before and after the project. Urine samples should be taken if alpha contamination is a risk. 4) Calculate for unwanted and 'not what you expected' situations in the time schedule. 5) Be aware of contaminations and radiation sources outside the actual area. They might have to be moved. 6) Calculate and order bins and containers for waste storage well in advance. Stay informed of the updated amount of waste and keep it in locked storage. 7) Analyze what instrumentation you need and calibrate it in advance. 8) Order the equipment you need in time. Have one person responsible for materials. 9) Establish an updated plan for the last few weeks of work to motivate the team. Place this plan in a location very visible to the staff and update it daily (author)(tk)

  9. A Shaftless Magnetically Levitated Multifunctional Spacecraft Flywheel Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ken; Thornton, Richard; Clark, Tracy; Beaman, Bob G.; Dennehy, Neil; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Presently many types of spacecraft use a Spacecraft Attitude Control System (ACS) with momentum wheels for steering and electrochemical batteries to provide electrical power for the eclipse period of the spacecraft orbit. Future spacecraft will use Flywheels for combined use in ACS and Energy Storage. This can be done by using multiple wheels and varying the differential speed for ACS and varying the average speed for energy storage and recovery. Technology in these areas has improved since the 1990s so it is now feasible for flywheel systems to emerge from the laboratory for spacecraft use. This paper describes a new flywheel system that can be used for both ACS and energy storage. Some of the possible advantages of a flywheel system are: lower total mass and volume, higher efficiency, less thermal impact, improved satellite integration schedule and complexity, simplified satellite orbital operations, longer life with lower risk, less pointing jitter, and greater capability for high-rate slews. In short, they have the potential to enable new types of missions and provide lower cost. Two basic types of flywheel configurations are the Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) and the Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS).

  10. Circuit description of inductive energy storage pulsed power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development of fast opening switch technology has led to this circuit study of the inductive energy pulsed power systems. In this paper, a comprehensive circuit analysis of basic inductive energy pulsed power systems has been carried out. It is noted that the circuit of system with inductive energy storage is the dual of that with capacitive energy storage. In the most of practical systems, the inductive energy is stored in a lumped inductor by a slow current charging and then rapidly released to a load by means of an opening switch. Such a system may be practical for generation of relatively slow output pulse. It is shown that as in the capacitive systems, a fast square pulse can be produced by using a transmission line as an energy storage in lieu of the lumped inductor, resulting in a high power multiplication. In addition, the authors propose other inductive energy circuits which may be useful for practical applications. These are the duals of well known capacitive energy circuits such as the LC generator and the Blumlein line. The output pulse waveforms, with relevant circuit parameters, are derived for a number of basic inductive energy storage circuits

  11. A Grid storage accounting system based on DGAS and HLRmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accounting in a production-level Grid infrastructure is of paramount importance in order to measure the utilization of the available resources. While several CPU accounting systems are deployed within the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI), storage accounting systems, stable enough to be adopted in a production environment are not yet available. As a consequence, there is a growing interest in storage accounting and work on this is being carried out in the Open Grid Forum (OGF) where a Usage Record (UR) definition suitable for storage resources has been proposed for standardization. In this paper we present a storage accounting system which is composed of three parts: a sensor layer, a data repository with a transport layer (Distributed Grid Accounting System - DGAS) and a web portal providing graphical and tabular reports (HLRmon). The sensor layer is responsible for the creation of URs according to the schema (described in this paper) that is currently being discussed within OGF. DGAS is one of the CPU accounting systems used within EGI, in particular by the Italian Grid Infrastructure (IGI) and some other National Grid Initiatives (NGIs) and projects. DGAS architecture is evolving in order to collect Usage Records for different types of resources. This improvement allows DGAS to be used as a ‘general’ data repository and transport layer. HLRmon is the web portal acting as an interface to DGAS. It has been improved to retrieve storage accounting data from the DGve storage accounting data from the DGAS repository and create reports in an easy way. This is very useful not only for the Grid users and administrators but also for the stakeholders.

  12. Annex I.H. Option for the temporary replacement of the Goesgen NPP stack to accommodate construction of the wet storage building for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goesgen NPP in Switzerland decided to construct a separate building on the site of the NPP to house a pool for the storage of spent MOX and high burnup fuel. The construction area adjacent to the auxiliary building offers limited space in a triangular shape, owing to the location of the plant ventilation exhaust stack relative to the plant fence. It was anticipated that these geometric conditions could complicate foundation work for the new storage building. Vibrations arising from insertion of in-ground steel slit walls (required to stabilize the excavation for the new building foundation) were expected to impact the stack foundations

  13. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to compare different storage solutions. In chapter 5, energy storage is evaluated as an alternative for increasing the value of wind power in a market-based power system. A method for optimal short-term scheduling of wind power with energy storage has been developed. The basic model employs a dynamic programming algorithm for the scheduling problem. Moreover, different variants of the scheduling problem based on linear programming are presented. During on-line operation, the energy storage is operated to minimize the deviation between the generation schedule and the actual power output of the wind-storage system. It is shown how stochastic dynamic programming can be applied for the on-line operation problem by explicitly taking into account wind forecast uncertainty. The model presented in chapter 6 extends and improves the linear programming model described in chapter 5. An operation strategy based on model predictive control is developed for effective management of uncertainties. The method is applied in a simulation model of a wind-hydrogen system that supplies the local demand for electricity and hydrogen. Utilization of fuel cell heat and electrolytic oxygen as by-products is also considered. Computer simulations show that the developed operation method is beneficial for grid-connected as well as for isolated systems. For isolated systems, the method makes it possible to minimize the usage of backup power and to ensure a secure supply of hydrogen fuel. For grid-connected wind-hydrogen systems, the method could be applied for maximizing the profit from operating in an electricity market. Comprehensive simulation studies of different example systems have been carried out to obtain knowledge about the benefits and limitations of using energy storage in conjunction with wind power. In order to exploit the opportunities for energy storage in electricity markets, it is crucial that the electrical efficiency of the storage is as high as possible. Energy storage combined with wind power prediction tools makes it possible to take advantage of varying electricity price

  14. Key technical issues relating to safety of spent fuel dry storage in vaults: CASCAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating CASCAD Facility at the Cadarashe site (FR) was commissioned in May 1990. Fuel is received in tight canisters which are transferred to storage pits in the vault and scheduled to be stored for up to 50 years. Canistering operations are performed in a cell of the reactor building.The paper describes the main functions of the facility as: cask receipt and shipping; fuel unloading; fuel conditioning; canisters emplacements in storage location; fuel storage; fuel retrieving and shipping at the end of the storage period; operation system and operation organization. Safety characteristics of the facility discussed are: fuel decay heat removal; subcriticality control and radiological protection. The fuel decay heat removal has two main purposes: 1) maintaining rod cladding temperature below a set limit in order to keep the fuel in its as received condition; 2) maintaining structures and equipment performing a safety function below the design temperature. The features of the sub-criticality control in the storage vault are such that sub-criticality in normal and accidental conditions is provided by the arrangement of pits in the vault. Radiological protection is based on limiting collective and individual annual dose equivalent to ALARA levels ensuring that they remain in any case below the set limits. Radiological protection system described consists in: confinement of radioactive materials for protection against its dissemination; radiation shielding for protection against irradiation. It is pointed out that all technical solutions presented are based on or adapted from proven technologies used in operating facilities in France or in other countries. The solution not only benefits from the experience of SGN in the design, construction and start-up of facilities for fuel or high level waste handling and storage, but also from the experience of the CEA and COGEMA groups in operating such facilities. 2 figs., 1 ref

  15. MANAGEMENT METHODS IN SLA-AWARE DISTRIBUTED STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Nikolow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional data storage systems provide access to user’s data on the “besteffort” basis. While this paradigm is sufficient in many use cases it becomesan obstacle for applications with Quality of Service (QoS constraints. ServiceLevel Agreement (SLA is a part of the contract agreed between the serviceprovider and the client and contains a set of well defined QoS requirementsregarding the provided service and the penalties applied in case of violations.In the paper we propose a set of SLA parameters and QoS metrics relevantto data storage processes and the management methods necessary for avoidingSLA violations. A key assumption in the proposed approach is that the underlyingdistributed storage system does not provide functionality for resource orbandwidth reservation for a given client request.

  16. Design of a high temperature subsurface thermal energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qi

    Solar thermal energy is taking up increasing proportions of future power generation worldwide. Thermal energy storage technology is a key method for compensating for the inherent intermittency of solar resources and solving the time mismatch between solar energy supply and electricity demand. However, there is currently no cost-effective high-capacity compact storage technology available (Bakker et al., 2008). The goal of this work is to propose a high temperature subsurface thermal energy storage (HSTES) technology and demonstrate its potential energy storage capability by developing a solar-HSTES-electricity generation system. In this work, main elements of the proposed system and their related state-of-art technologies are reviewed. A conceptual model is built to illustrate the concept, design, operating procedure and application of such a system. A numerical base model is built within the TOUGH2-EOS1 multiphase flow simulator for the evaluation of system performance. Additional models are constructed and simulations are done to identify the effect of different operational and geological influential factors on the system performance. Our work shows that when the base model is run with ten years operation of alternate injection and production processes - each for a month - with a thermal power input of 10.85 MW, about 83% of the injected thermal energy could be recovered within each working cycle from a stabilized HSTES system. After the final conversion into electrical energy, a relative (compared with the direct use of hot water) electricity generation efficiency of 73% is obtained. In a typical daily storage scenario, the simulated thermal storage efficiency could exceed 78% and the relative electricity generation efficiency is over 66% in the long run. In a seasonal storage scenario, these two efficiencies reach 69% and 53% respectively by the end of the simulation period of 10 years. Additional simulations reveal a thinner storage aquifer with a higher horizontal-to-vertical permeability ratio is favored by the storage system. A basin-shape reservoir is more favored than a flat reservoir, while a flat reservoir is better than a dome-shape reservoir. The effect of aquifer stratification is variable: it depends on the relative position of the well screen and the impermeable lenses within the reservoir. From the operational aspect, the well screen position is crucial and properly shortening the screen length can help heat recovery. The proportion of the injection/storage/recovery processes within a cycle, rather than their exact lengths, affects the storage efficiency. Reservoir preheating helps improve the energy storage efficiency for the first several cycles. However, it does not contribute much to the system performance in the long run. Simulations also indicate that buoyancy effect is of significant importance in heat distribution and the plume migration. Reducing the gravity override effect of the heat plume could be an important consideration in efficiency optimization.

  17. Beam vacuum system of Brookhaven's muon storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A storage ring with a circumference of 45 m is being built at Brookhaven to measure the g-2 value of the muons to an accuracy of 0.35 ppm.. The beam vacuum system of the storage ring will operate at 10-7 Torr and has to be completely non-magnetic. It consists of twelve sector chambers. The chambers are constructed of aluminum and are approximately 3.5 m in length with a rectangular cross-section of 16.5 cm high by 45 cm at the widest point. The design features, fabrication techniques and cleaning methods for these chambers are described. The beam vacuum system will be pumped by forty eight non-magnetic distributed ion pumps with a total pumping speed of over 2000 ell/sec. Monte Carlo simulations of the pressure distribution in the muon storage region are presented

  18. Beam vacuum system of Brookhaven`s muon storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hseuth, H.C.; Snydstrup, L.; Mapes, M.

    1995-11-01

    A storage ring with a circumference of 45 m is being built at Brookhaven to measure the g-2 value of the muons to an accuracy of 0.35 ppm.. The beam vacuum system of the storage ring will operate at 10{sup -7} Torr and has to be completely non-magnetic. It consists of twelve sector chambers. The chambers are constructed of aluminum and are approximately 3.5 m in length with a rectangular cross-section of 16.5 cm high by 45 cm at the widest point. The design features, fabrication techniques and cleaning methods for these chambers are described. The beam vacuum system will be pumped by forty eight non-magnetic distributed ion pumps with a total pumping speed of over 2000 {ell}/sec. Monte Carlo simulations of the pressure distribution in the muon storage region are presented.

  19. Efficient energy storage in liquid desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hublitz, Astrid

    2008-07-18

    Liquid Desiccant Cooling Systems (LDCS) are open loop sorption systems for air conditioning that use a liquid desiccant such as a concentrated salt solution to dehumidify the outside air and cool it by evaporative cooling. Thermochemical energy storage in the concentrated liquid desiccant can bridge power mismatches between demand and supply. Low-flow LDCS provide high energy storage capacities but are not a state-of-the-art technology yet. The key challenge remains the uniform distribution of the liquid desiccant on the heat and mass transfer surfaces. The present research analyzes the factors of influence on the energy storage capacity by simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes and specifies performance goals for the distribution of the process media. Consequently, a distribution device for the liquid desiccant is developed that reliably meets the performance goals. (orig.)

  20. Model calibration and beam control systems for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam storage rings and linear accelerators are rapidly gaining worldwide popularity as scientific devices for the production of high-brightness synchrotron radiation. Today, everybody agrees that there is a premium on calibrating the storage ring model and determining errors in the machine as soon as possible after the beam is injected. In addition, the accurate optics model enables machine operators to predictably adjust key performance parameters, and allows reliable identification of new errors that occur during operation of the machine. Since the need for model calibration and beam control systems is common to all storage rings, software packages should be made that are portable between different machines. In this paper, we report on work directed toward achieving in-situ calibration of the optics model, detection of alignment errors, and orbit control techniques, with an emphasis on developing a portable system incorporating these tools

  1. Assessment of flywheel energy storage for spacecraft power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G. E.; Studer, P. A.; Baer, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension, and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, which evolved at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides a potential alternative configurations that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions. Critical technologies identified are those pertaining to the energy storage element and are prioritized as composite wheel development, magnetic suspension, motor/generator, containment, and momentum control. Comparison with a 3-kW, 250-Vdc power system using either NiCd or NiH2 for energy storage results in a system in which inertial energy storage offers potential advantages in lifetime, operating temperature, voltage regulation, energy density, charge control, and overall system weight reduction.

  2. Seasonal heat storage in cogeneration systems; Saesongvaermelager i kraftvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinko, Heimo; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu

    2007-07-01

    There is a rising interest in Sweden for the use of cogeneration power plants in district heating networks, generating both electricity and heat in a coupled operation. This type of cogeneration needs, however, the existence of suitable heat loads. In this study we investigate the use of large long-term heat storages for the cases that the DH-load is not sufficient. For this purpose, the technology of long-term storages is also reviewed based on the know-how developed for solar heating plants at the end of 20th century. Long-term storages have been developed around the 1980s and 1990s. The storages have been built as pits in the ground or as caverns for the storage of hot water or as borehole storages and aquifers for heat storages in rock or ground material. In this report, the different techniques are described and operational experiences from Sweden and Germany are summarised. Furthermore, the storage costs for the different techniques are presented. In order to be of interest for application in cogeneration systems, it is necessary that the storage allows charging and discharging with high heat capacities. The most suitable storage type for that purpose is a rock cavern, which can be constructed in volumes up to millions of m3 water with reasonable costs, as demonstrated in the 1970s with strategic oil storages. Another interesting storage type is the borehole ground storage, as used in solar heating plants. However, in the application for cogeneration, this storage type must be further developed towards higher heat transfer rates. For the analysis of storage applications in cogeneration systems, a number of operational cases from real cogeneration systems in Enkoeping and in Linkoeping have been studied. Models have been developed for calculation in Excel and operational years have been simulated and economically evaluated with different storage sizes. The following basic systems have been analysed: a) System with biofuel-fired cogeneration and biofuel top-load plants (ENA Energi AB Enkoeping). b) Cogeneration based on municipality wastes, oil and biomass fuels with oil and biomass-fired top-load plants (Tekniska Verken i Linkoeping AB - (TVAB)) c) Cogeneration based on municipality wastes and natural gas with oil fired top-load plant (fictive system at TVAB). As a result from these calculations we can state that good economy can be found in systems using oil in top-load plants and in cogeneration operation. The best economy was found for replacing the topping oil heating plants used in wintertime (60 MW) by heat from the cogeneration generated in summer time and stored in the storage until the winter. In Linkoeping, this can be reached with a rock cavern of 200 000 m3, resulting in an amortisation time of 8 years. The system will also be of interest in case that the oil price decreases by 30 %. Another possibility is to replace the use of the total oil in Linkoeping (top load plants and cogeneration plant). In this case, a cavern with a volume of 3 000 000 m3 would be needed. The economy will be worse, however, the investment is still paid back in less than 20 years. Better economy is received in the case when cogeneration is based on natural gas and oil is used for the top-load. In principal all storage sizes up to 4 000 000 m3 will give amortisation times around 6-7 years. If on the other hand, biomass such as wood chips or pellets is used as top-load fuel as in Enkoeping, the situation is not so clear. The analysis shows that based on the (high) electricity prizes of 2006, a storage size up to 400 000 m3 will give a positive payback within 10 years. On the other hand, for the much lower price level of 2005, the payback was negative. Hence, we have to wait and see how the future trends for the energy prices develop, before we can make a final decision about the investment in a long-term storage in such a system. In a last example, we investigated the cases were a suburb at a distance of 5 km from the central network should be connected to the main DH net, as in the village of Linghem. The idea is to use cheap sum

  3. EESAT 98: Electrical energy storage systems applications and technologies international conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Topics discussed in this volume of conference papers include:- progress in energy storage in Japan, the Netherlands and the USA; battery storage systems including lead-acid, lithium secondary, zinc-bromine, nickel-cadmium and sodium-sulphur batteries; energy storage with chemically bound hydrogen; flywheel energy storage; superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES); opportunities for SMES in voltage sags smoothing and flicker mitigation; unified power conditioning system; hybrid systems; energy storage for renewable energy; the roles of energy storage in future electric power delivery systems; and marketing aspects. (UK)

  4. dCache, a distributed storage data caching system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is about a piece of middle ware, allowing to convert a dump tape based Tertiary Storage System into a multi petabyte random access device with thousands of channels. Using typical caching mechanisms, the software optimizes the access to the underlying Storage System and makes better use of possibly expensive drives and robots or allows to integrate cheap and slow devices without introducing unacceptable performance degradation. In addition, using the standard NFS2 protocol, the dCache provides a unique view into the storage repository, hiding the physical location of the file data, cached or tape only. Bulk data transfer is supported through the kerberized FTP protocol and a C-API, providing the posix file access semantics. Dataset staging and disk space management is performed invisibly to the data clients. The project is a DESY, Fermilab joint effort to overcome limitations in the usage of tertiary storage resources common to many HEP labs. The distributed cache nodes may range from high performance SGI machines to commodity CERN Linux-IDE like file server models. Different cache nodes are assumed to have different affinities to particular storage groups or file sets. Affinities may be defined manually or are calculated by the dCache based on topology considerations. Cache nodes may have different disk space management policies to match the large variety of applications from raw data to user analysis data pools

  5. Fair-share scheduling algorithm for a tertiary storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any experiment facing Peta bytes scale problems is in need for a highly scalable mass storage system (MSS) to keep a permanent copy of their valuable data. But beyond the permanent storage aspects, the sheer amount of data makes complete data-set availability onto live storage (centralized or aggregated space such as the one provided by Scalla/Xrootd) cost prohibitive implying that a dynamic population from MSS to faster storage is needed. One of the most challenging aspects of dealing with MSS is the robotic tape component. If a robotic system is used as the primary storage solution, the intrinsically long access times (latencies) can dramatically affect the overall performance. To speed the retrieval of such data, one could organize the requests according to criterion with an aim to deliver maximal data throughput. However, such approaches are often orthogonal to fair resource allocation and a trade-off between quality of service, responsiveness and throughput is necessary for achieving an optimal and practical implementation of a truly faire-share oriented file restore policy. Starting from an explanation of the key criterion of such a policy, we will present evaluations and comparisons of three different MSS file restoration algorithms which meet fair-share requirements, and discuss their respective merits. We will quantify their impact on a typical file restoration cycle for the RHIC/STAR experimental setup and this, within a development, analysis and production in a development, analysis and production environment relying on a shared MSS service [1].

  6. Fair-share scheduling algorithm for a tertiary storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakl, Pavel; Sumbera, Michal [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, Prague, CZ 18086 (Czech Republic); Lauret, Jerome, E-mail: pjakl@bnl.go [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Any experiment facing Peta bytes scale problems is in need for a highly scalable mass storage system (MSS) to keep a permanent copy of their valuable data. But beyond the permanent storage aspects, the sheer amount of data makes complete data-set availability onto live storage (centralized or aggregated space such as the one provided by Scalla/Xrootd) cost prohibitive implying that a dynamic population from MSS to faster storage is needed. One of the most challenging aspects of dealing with MSS is the robotic tape component. If a robotic system is used as the primary storage solution, the intrinsically long access times (latencies) can dramatically affect the overall performance. To speed the retrieval of such data, one could organize the requests according to criterion with an aim to deliver maximal data throughput. However, such approaches are often orthogonal to fair resource allocation and a trade-off between quality of service, responsiveness and throughput is necessary for achieving an optimal and practical implementation of a truly faire-share oriented file restore policy. Starting from an explanation of the key criterion of such a policy, we will present evaluations and comparisons of three different MSS file restoration algorithms which meet fair-share requirements, and discuss their respective merits. We will quantify their impact on a typical file restoration cycle for the RHIC/STAR experimental setup and this, within a development, analysis and production environment relying on a shared MSS service [1].

  7. "Method, system and storage medium for generating virtual brick models"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Thomas LEGO Systems A/S

    An exemplary embodiment is a method for generating a virtual brick model. The virtual brick models are generated by users and uploaded to a centralized host system. Users can build virtual models themselves or download and edit another user's virtual brick models while retaining the identity of the original virtual brick model. Routines are provided for both storing user created building steps in and generating automated building instructions for virtual brick models, generating a bill of materials for a virtual brick model and ordering physical bricks corresponding to a virtual brick model.

  8. A model of BES data storage management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors will introduce the system structure of a model built for BES data management and storage as well as the basic methods on how to establish the system. Additionally the analysis of the data structure, the data process, the selection of experimental program, the image manipulation and the key techniques will be discussed in detail. The model implements the setup of the system environment and all those functions from data loading, database creating, data accessing, remote data process to data figuring

  9. Technical analysis of photovoltaic/wind systems with hydrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Baki? Vukman V.; Pezo Milada L.; Jovanovi? Marina P.; Turanjanin Valentina M.; Vu?i?evi? Biljana S.

    2012-01-01

    The technical analysis of a hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy system with hydrogen gas storage was studied. The market for the distributed power generation based on renewable energy is increasing, particularly for the standalone mini-grid applications. The main design components of PV/Wind hybrid system are the PV panels, the wind turbine and an alkaline electrolyzer with tank. The technical analysis is based on the transient system simulation program TRNSYS 16. The study is realized usin...

  10. Energy Storage System Sizing for Peak Hour Utility Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bayram, I. Safak; Abdallah, Mohamed; Tajer, Ali; Qaraqe, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Energy Storage Systems (ESS) are expected to play a critical role in future energy grids. ESS technologies are primarily employed for reducing the stress on grid and the use of hydrocarbons for electricity generation. However, in order for ESS option to become economically viable, proper sizing is highly desired to recover the high capital cost. In this paper we propose a system architecture that enables us to optimally size the ESS system according to the number of users. W...

  11. Thermally activated building systems using phase-change-materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kalz, D.; Pfafferott, J.; Schossig, P.; Herkel, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the effects, the potential and the performance of thermally activated building systems (TABS), as well as an evaluating comparison with an all-air conditioning system by means of a validated building and plant model in ESP-r. Preliminary experiments in a commonly operated room of a low-energy office building facilitate the calibration of the simulation model. In particular, the simulation study was carried out for (i) concrete core conditioning, (ii) grid conditioning with...

  12. Design and Analysis of Phase Change Material based thermal energy storage for active building cooling: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin .D. Patil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Phase Change Materials (PCMs are "latent" thermal storage materials. They use chemical bonds to store and release heat. The thermal energy transfer occurs when a material changes from a solid to a liquid orfrom a liquid to a solid form. This is called a change in state or "phase." Initially, these solid-liquid PCMs perform like conventional storage materials; their temperature rises as they absorb solar heat. Unlike conventional heat storage materials, when PCMs reach the temperature at which they change phase (their melting point, they absorb large amounts of heat without getting hotter. When the ambient temperature in the space around the PCM material drops, the Phase Change Material solidifies, releasing its stored latent heat. PCMs absorb and emit heat while maintaining a nearly constant temperature. Within the human comfort and electronic-equipment tolerance range of 20°C to 35°C, latent thermal storage materials are very effective.They can be used for equalization of day & night temperature and for transport of refrigerated products. In the proposed project heat of fusion of Cacl2. 6H2o as PCM is used for cooling water during night and this cooled water is used as circulating medium trough fan coil unit, air trough FCU will get cooled by transferring heat to water and fresh & cool air will be thrown in a room. In the proposed project FREE COOLING & ACTIVE BUILDING COOLING concepts of Thermal Energy Storage are used in combine

  13. A Novel Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Erren Yao; Xinbing Wang; Liqin Wang; Huanran Wang

    2013-01-01

    A novel pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage (PHCA) system is proposed in this paper to resolve the problems of bulk energy storage in the wind power generation industry over an area in China, which is characterised by drought and water shortages. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy storage system, which focuses on the pre-set pressure, storage volume capacity, water air volume ratio, pump performance, and water turbine performance of the storage system, is also presented...

  14. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, M.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  15. A new power supply for superconductive magnetic energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a new power supply for a superconductive magnetic energy storage system, which permits a fast independent regulation of the active and reactive power, is presented. The power supply is built with several units connected in parallel. Each unit consists of a 24-pulse bridge converter, thyristor-switched tap-changing transformer, and thyristor-switched capacitor bank. Its system operation is analyzed by computer simulation and a feasible system realization is shown. A superconductive magnetic energy storage system with the proposed power supply has the capability of leveling the load variation, damping the low-frequency oscillation, and improving the transient stability in the power system. This power supply can be built with commercially available components using well-proven technologies

  16. Experimental Results of Integrated Refrigeration and Storage System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Jumper, K.

    2009-01-01

    Launch operations engineers at the Kennedy Space Center have identified an Integrated Refrigeration and Storage system as a promising technology to reduce launch costs and enable advanced cryogenic operations. This system uses a close cycle Brayton refrigerator to remove energy from the stored cryogenic propellant. This allows for the potential of a zero loss storage and transfer system, as well and control of the state of the propellant through densification or re-liquefaction. However, the behavior of the fluid in this type of system is different than typical cryogenic behavior, and there will be a learning curve associated with its use. A 400 liter research cryostat has been designed, fabricated and delivered to KSC to test the thermo fluid behavior of liquid oxygen as energy is removed from the cryogen by a simulated DC cycle cryocooler. Results of the initial testing phase focusing on heat exchanger characterization and zero loss storage operations using liquid oxygen are presented in this paper. Future plans for testing of oxygen densification tests and oxygen liquefaction tests will also be discussed. KEYWORDS: Liquid Oxygen, Refrigeration, Storage

  17. Autonomous system has renewable energies with hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Hydrogen Research is developing hydrogen storage systems integrated with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. It has to store the surplus electricity by the production of hydrogen. If need be the electricity is regenerated by a fuel cell

  18. Precipitation Storage Efficiency During Fallow in Wheat-Fallow Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously published values of average fallow precipitation storage efficiency (PSE) for Great Plains wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow production systems have ranged widely (10-53%). The objectives of this study were to compare PSE in conventionally tilled (CT) and no-till (NT) wheat-fallow syste...

  19. Borazine-boron nitride hybrid hydrogen storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Simonson, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Maya, Leon (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Paine, Robert T. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-04-22

    A hybrid hydrogen storage composition includes a first phase and a second phase adsorbed on the first phase, the first phase including BN for storing hydrogen by physisorption and the second phase including a borazane-borazine system for storing hydrogen in combined form as a hydride.

  20. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating on cooling system is described which is designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1,596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glyco water solution through the collectors into a hot water system exchanger. The water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2,300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described.