WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research project performed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site

2

Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research projectperformed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

2009-04-07

3

Integrated building energy systems design considering storage technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g. PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO{sub 2} emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO{sub 2} emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g. nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research project performed for the U.S. Dept. of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO{sub 2} minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)). e-mail: MStadler@lbl.gov; Siddiqui, Afzal (Dept. of Statistical Science at Univ. College London (United Kingdom))

2009-07-01

4

Optimal controls of building storage systems using both ice storage and thermal mass – Part II: Parametric analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A detailed analysis is presented to assess the performance of thermal energy storage (TES) systems. ? Utility rates have been found to be significant in assessing the operation of TES systems. ? Optimal control strategies for TES systems can save up to 40% of total energy cost of office buildings. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a series of parametric analysis to investigate the factors that affect the effectiveness of using simultaneously building thermal capacitance and ice storage system to reduce total operating costs (including energy and demand costs) while maintaining adequate occupant comfort conditions in buildings. The analysis is based on a validated model-based simulation environment and includes several parameters including the optimization cost function, base chiller size, and ice storage tank capacity, and weather conditions. It found that the combined use of building thermal mass and active thermal energy storage system can save up to 40% of the total energy costs when integrated optimal control are considered to operate commercial buildings.

5

Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits of operating heat pumps flexibly. This includes prioritising heat pump operation for hours with low marginal electricity production costs, and peak load shaving resulting in a reduced need for peak and reserve capacity investments.

Hedegaard, Karsten; Balyk, Olexandr

2013-01-01

6

Performance evaluation of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with chilled water storage (CIESOL building)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We present a new solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s operation sequence. ? This mode considers the chilled water tanks action with variable-speed pump. ? It permits to save about 20% and 30% of energy and water consumption, respectively. ? It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. ? It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study presents the performance of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with two chilled water storage tanks installed in the Solar Energy Research Center building. The system consists mainly of solar collectors’ array, a hot-water driven absorption chiller, a cooling tower, two hot storage tanks, an auxiliary heater as well as two chilled storage tanks. The chilled water storage tank circuit was further investigated in order to find the optimum solar system’s operation sequence while providing the best energy performance. Firstly, we carried out a study about the dynamics of building’s cooling load and the necessity of the integration of chilled water storage tanks to solar system. Subsequently, the new system’s operation mode was proposed to reduce the energy consumption. The results demonstrate that we can save about 20% of the total energy consumption and about 30% of water consumption applying the new operation sequence, which takes into account the chilled water tanks action. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the integration of chilled water storage tanks allows to reduce the sudden absorption chiller on/off cycles, thereby improving the efficiency of the solar-assisted system.

7

Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1) reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2) using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS softwar...

Alexandre Hugo; Radu Zmeureanu

2012-01-01

8

Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

Alexandre Hugo

2012-10-01

9

System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides configuration management for the Distributed Control System (DCS), the Gaseous Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS-100) System, the Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), the Canister Receiving Crane (CRC) CRN-001 PLC, and both North and South vestibule door interlock system PLCs at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This procedure identifies and defines software configuration items in the CSB control and monitoring systems, and defines configuration control throughout the system life cycle. Components of this control include: configuration status accounting; physical protection and control; and verification of the completeness and correctness of these items.

GARRISON, R.C.

2000-11-28

10

Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal conditioning systems are responsible for almost half of the energy consump-tion by commercial buildings. In many European countries and in the USA, buildings account for around 40% of primary energy consumption and it is therefore vital to explore further ways to reduce the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system energy consumption. This thesis investigates the relationship between the energy genera-tion and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings (shorter: primary HVAC systems) and the conceptual building design. Certain building design decisions irreversibly influence a building's energy performance and, conversely, many generation and storage components impose restrictions on building design and, by their nature, cannot be introduced at a later design stage. The objective is, firstly, to develop a method to quantify this influence, in terms of primary HVAC system dimensions, its cost, emissions and energy consumption and, secondly, to enable the use of the developed method by architects during the conceptual design. In order to account for the non-stationary effects of the intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), thermal storage and for the component part load efficiencies, a time domain system simulation is required. An abstract system simulation method is proposed based on seven pre-configured primary HVAC system models, including components such as boil-ers, chillers and cooling towers, thermal storage, solar thermal collectors, and photovoltaic modules. A control strategy is developed for each of the models and their annual quasi-stationary simulation is performed. The performance profiles obtained are then used to calculate the energy consumption, carbon emissions and costs. The annuity method has been employed to calculate the cost. Optimization is used to automatically size the HVAC systems, based on their simulation performance. Its purpose is to identify the system component dimensions that provide minimal costs, emissions or consumption, while maintaining the quality of the supply and, where specified, achieving the targeted annual solar ratio. Two optimization algorithms, the global bounded Nelder Mead and the Exhaustive search are implemented. Simulation and optimization performance has been evaluated using building and weather data for four cities situated in four different climates. Finally a tool, entitled PROBA, has been proposed by adding a user interface to the mod-els. The major characteristic of the interface is its suitability for non-expert users. This is achieved by, firstly, reducing amount of input data by implementing preset values and, secondly, providing information support. Making this tool available to the architects repre-sents an effective way to consider the primary HVAC during the preliminary design, with-out causing additional cost. Although such a tool can never replace an HVAC engineer, its use can heighten the awareness of architects regarding the significance of building energy consumption and inspire further education in this field.

Grahovac, Milica

2012-11-29

11

Thermodynamic analyses and assessments of various thermal energy storage systems for buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Proposing a novel latent (PCM), thermochemical and sensible (aquifer) TES combination for building heating. ? Performing comprehensive environmental, energy, exergy and sustainability analyses. ? Investigating the effect of varying dead state temperatures on the TESs. - Abstract: In this study, energetic, exergetic, environmental and sustainability analyses and their assessments are carried out for latent, thermochemical and sensible thermal energy storage (TES) systems for phase change material (PCM) supported building applications under varying environment (surrounding) temperatures. The present system consists of a floor heating system, System-I, System-II and System-III. The floor heating system stays at the building floor supported with a floor heating unit and pump. The System-I includes a latent TES system and a fan. The latent TES system is comprised of a PCM supported building envelope, in which from outside to inside; glass, transparent insulation material, PCM, air channel and insulation material are placed, respectively. Furthermore, System-II mainly has a solar-thermochemical TES while there are an aquifer TES and a heat pump in System-III. Among the TESs, the hot and cold wells of the aquifer TES have maximum exergetic efficiency values of 88.782% and 69.607% at 8 °C dead state temperature, respectively. According to the energy efficiency aspects of TESs, the discharging processes of the latent TES and the hot well of the aquifer TESand the hot well of the aquifer TES possess the minimum and maximum values of 5.782% and 94.118% at 8 °C dead state temperature, respectively. Also, the fan used with the latent TES is the most environmentally-benign system component among the devices. Furthermore, the most sustainable TES is found for the aquifer TES while the worst sustainable system is the latent TES.

12

Airborne Effluent Monitoring System Certification for New Canister Storage Building Ventilation Exhaust Stack  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted three of the six tests needed to verify that the effluent monitoring system for the new Canister Storage Building ventilation exhaust stack meets applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the location for the air-sampling probe and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering the location for the air-sampling probe ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample-transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in this report. The tests reported here cover the contaminant tracer uniformity and particle delivery performance criteria. These criteria were successfully met. The other three tests were conducted by the start-up staff of Duke Engineering and Services Hanford Inc. (DESH) and reported elsewhere. The Canister Storage Building is located in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The new air-exhaust system was built under the W379 Project. The air sampling system features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and a filter holder to collect the sample

13

System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document implements the procedure for providing configuration control for the monitoring and control systems associated with the operation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). It identifies and defines the configuration items in the monitoring and control systems, provides configuration control of these items throughout the system life cycle, provides configuration status accounting, physical protection and control, and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items. It is written to comply with HNF-SD-SNF-CM-001, Spent Nuclear Fuel Configuration Management Plan (Forehand 1998), HNF-PRO-309, Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-2778, IRM Application Software System Life Cycle Standards, and applicable sections of administrative procedure AP-CM-6-037-00, SNF Project Process Automation Software and Equipment Configuration Management.

GARRISON, R.C.

2000-09-22

14

System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document implements the procedure for providing configuration control for the monitoring and control systems associated with the operation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). It identifies and defines the configuration items in the monitoring and control systems, provides configuration control of these items throughout the system life cycle, provides configuration status accounting, physical protection and control, and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items. It is written to comply with HNF-SD-SNF-CM-001, Spent Nuclear Fuel Configuration Management Plan (Forehand 1998), HNF-PRO-309, Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-2778, IRM Application Software System Life Cycle Standards, and applicable sections of administrative procedure AP-CM-6-037-00, SNF Project Process Automation Software and Equipment Configuration Management

15

Modelling of a seasonal thermal storage system in a residential building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The residential sector accounts for 17 per cent of Canada's secondary energy use. More than 85 per cent of this contribution is allocated to space heating and domestic hot water heating. Systems that do not require any auxiliary energy may create significant end-use energy savings in the residential sector. However, this objective is not simple to achieve, especially in cold climates. Considerable savings can be had by upgrading the building's overall thermal performance and by using efficient renewable energy technologies. This paper presented an investigation into the performance analysis of a solar combisystem with a long-term thermal storage capacity. The system was designed to use only solar energy as a source to supply hot water for a radiant floor heating system and domestic hot water for one year. The model simulated a typical one-storey detached house located in Montreal to estimate the impact of a cold climate using the simulation environment TRNSYS. The paper provided a description of the study house as well as a description of the solar combisystem including the solar loop, space heating, domestic hot water, and storage tank. The simulation study was also presented followed by a discussion of results, including overall performance, solar collectors, storage tank, efficiency of collectors, and coefficient of performance. It was concluded that it is possible to cover all the heating and domestic hot water needs for a residential house located in Montreal, without using electricity for the storage tank. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

Hugo, A.; Zmeureanu, R. [Concordia Univ., Centre for Building Studies, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering; Rivard, H. [ETS, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Construction Engineering

2008-08-15

16

Thermal energy storage - A review of concepts and systems for heating and cooling applications in buildings : Part 1-Seasonal storage in the ground  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in buildings in combination with space heating and/or space cooling has recently received much attention. A variety of TES techniques have developed over the past decades. TES systems can provide short-term storage for peak-load shaving as well as long-term (seasonal) storage for the introduction of natural and renewable energy sources. TES systems for heating or cooling are utilized in applications where there is a time mismatch between the demand and the most economically favorable supply of energy. The selection of a TES system mainly depends on the storage period required, economic viability, and operating conditions. One of the main issues impeding the utilization of the full potential of natural and renewable energy sources, e.g., solar and geothermal, for space heating and space cooling applications is the development of economically competitive and reliable means for seasonal storage of thermal energy. This is particularly true at locations where seasonal variations of solar radiation are significant and/or in climates where seasonally varying space heating and cooling loads dominate energy consumption. This article conducts a literature review of different seasonal thermal energy storage concepts in the ground. The aim is to provide the basis for development of new intelligent TES possibilities in buildings.

Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

2012-01-01

17

Design and simulation for a solar house with building integrated photovoltaic-thermal system and thermal storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building integrated photovoltaic-thermal systems (BIPV/T) that pre-heat ambient air may be used in combination with ventilated concrete slabs for thermal storage purposes. This is one of many feasible ways to maximize solar energy utilization. This paper describes the design and simulation of a solar house with an innovative BIPV/T system and ventilated concrete slab. This house is to be built by a Canadian prefabricated-home manufacturer for Canada's EQuilibrium Housing demonstration initiative. The BIPV/T system can harvest a considerable amount of useful heat; however, some of this energy typically needs to be stored for later use with an appropriate thermal storage design. A concrete thermal storage system is utilized for this purpose. Simulation results are presented from a transient finite difference model for the house, including the BIPV/T system and ventilated concrete slab. (orig.)

Chen, YuXiang; Athienitis, A.K.; Galal, K.E. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of BCEE; Poissant, Y. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, Quebec (Canada). CETC Varennes - PV and Hybrid Systems Program

2008-07-01

18

High performance concrete applied to storage system buildings at low temperatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to some estimates, world's population growth is expected about 50% over the next 50 years. Thus, one of the greatest challenges faced by Engineering is to find effective options to food storage and conservation. Some researchers have investigated how to design durable buildings for storing and conserving food. Nowadays, developing concrete with mechanical resistance for room temperatures is a parameter that can be achieved easily. On the other hand, associating it to low temperature of approximately 35 °C negative requires less empiricism, being necessary a suitable dosage method and a careful selection of the material constituents. This ongoing study involves these parameters. The presented concrete was analyzed through non-destructive tests that examines the material properties periodically and verifies its physical integrity. Concrete with and without incorporated air were studied. The results demonstrated that both are resistant to freezing.

Sandra Maria de Lima

2008-06-01

19

Optimal design and operation of a thermal storage system for a chilled water plant serving pharmaceutical buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A group of buildings in the pharmaceutical industry located in Southern Germany is experiencing a trend of growing cooling loads to be met by the chilled water plant composed of 10 chillers of greatly varying cost effectiveness. With a capacity shortfall inevitable, the question arises whether to install an additional chiller or improve the utilization of the existing chillers, in particular those with low operating costs per unit cooling, through the addition of a chilled water thermal energy storage (TES) system. To provide decision support in this matter, an optimization environment was developed and validated that adopts mixed integer programming as the approach to optimizing the chiller dispatch for any load condition, while an overarching dynamic programming based optimization approach optimizes the charge/discharge strategy of the TES system. In this fashion, the chilled water plant optimization is decoupled but embedded in the TES control optimization. The approach was selected to allow for arbitrary constraints and optimization horizons, while ensuring a global optimum to the problem. Optimization scenarios have been defined that include current load conditions as well cooling loads that are elevated by 25% from current conditions in order to reflect the expected growth in cooling demand in the near future; both scenarios analyzed the impact of storage capacity by investigating several TES tank capacities. The annual optimization runs revealed that - based on the elevated cooling load scenario - the smallest TES system pays back the incremental investment necessary for the TES system in about three years; based on today's cooling loads the static payback is approximately six years. As the efficiency and cost of operating the existing chillers vary over a wide range, the TES system allows for a reduction in operating costs for the chilled water plant by avoiding the operation of inefficient chillers (such as the single-stage absorption type) and shifting the demand to more efficient ones (such as the electrically driven centrifugal chillers). The adoption of a TES system will not only provide economic benefits as measured in operating cost savings, but also operational merits such as the avoidance of numerous safety measures necessary for a cooling plant without storage (e.g., always operating at least two chillers), and a cost effective addition of supplemental cooling capacity. Moreover, the overall system reliability and availability will be significantly improved through the addition of a thermal energy storage system. Future work will address the development of near-optimal heuristics suitable for implementation in the actual pharmaceutical industry buildings. (author)

Henze, Gregor P. [University of Nebraska, Architectural Engineering, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Biffar, Bernd; Kohn, Dietmar [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co. KG, Biberach D-88400 (Germany); Becker, Martin P. [University of Applied Sciences Biberach, Architectural Engineering, Biberach D-88400 (Germany)

2008-07-01

20

The Role of Energy Storage in Commercial Building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motivation and Background of Study This project was motivated by the need to understand the full value of energy storage (thermal and electric energy storage) in commercial buildings, the opportunity of benefits for building operations and the potential interactions between a building and a smart grid infrastructure. On-site or local energy storage systems are not new to the commercial building sector; they have been in place in US buildings for decades. Most building-scale storage technologies are based on thermal or electrochemical storage mechanisms. Energy storage technologies are not designed to conserve energy, and losses associated with energy conversion are inevitable. Instead, storage provides flexibility to manage load in a building or to balance load and generation in the power grid. From the building owner's perspective, storage enables load shifting to optimize energy costs while maintaining comfort. From a grid operations perspective, building storage at scale could provide additional flexibility to grid operators in managing the generation variability from intermittent renewable energy resources (wind and solar). To characterize the set of benefits, technical opportunities and challenges, and potential economic values of storage in a commercial building from both the building operation's and the grid operation's view-points is the key point of this project. The research effort was initiated in early 2010 involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify these opportunities from a commercial buildings perspective. This report summarizes the early discussions, literature reviews, stakeholder engagements, and initial results of analyses related to the overall role of energy storage in commercial buildings. Beyond the summary of roughly eight months of effort by the laboratories, the report attempts to substantiate the importance of active DOE/BTP R&D activities in this space.

Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.; Finley, C.; Koritarov, V. S.; Molburg, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Fuli; Brackney, L.; Florita, A. R.

2010-09-30

 
 
 
 
21

SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) PROJECT CANISTER STORAGE BUILDING (CSB) MULTI CANISTER OVERPACK (MCO) SAMPLING SYSTEM VALIDATION (OCRWM)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 400 Multi-canister overpacks (MCO) containing spent nuclear fuel are to be interim stored at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Several MCOs (monitored MCOs) are designated to be gas sampled periodically at the CSB sampling/weld station (Bader 2002a). The monitoring program includes pressure, temperature and gas composition measurements of monitored MCOs during their first two years of interim storage at the CSB. The MCO sample cart (CART-001) is used at the sampling/weld station to measure the monitored MCO gas temperature and pressure, obtain gas samples for laboratory analysis and refill the monitored MCO with high purity helium as needed. The sample cart and support equipment were functionally and operationally tested and validated before sampling of the first monitored MCO (H-036). This report documents the results of validation testing using training MCO (TR-003) at the CSB. Another report (Bader 2002b) documents the sample results from gas sampling of the first monitored MCO (H-036). Validation testing of the MCO gas sampling system showed the equipment and procedure as originally constituted will satisfactorily sample the first monitored MCO. Subsequent system and procedural improvements will provide increased flexibility and reliability for future MCO gas sampling. The physical operation of the sampling equipment during testing provided evidence that theoretical correlation factors for extrapolating MCO gas composition from sample results are unnecessarily conservative. Empirically derived correlation factors showed adequate conservatism and support use of the sample system for ongoing monitored MCO sampling.

BLACK, D.M.; KLEM, M.J.

2003-11-17

22

Design and simulation of a building integrated photovoltaic-thermal system and thermal storage for a solar house  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design of a building integrated photovoltaic-thermal (BIPV-T) system with a heat recovery and storage system was presented. The house will be built by a prefabricated home manufacturer as part of a Canadian housing demonstration initiative. A hollow core concrete thermal storage system was used in addition to hot water and direct gain thermal mass. Simulation results were presented from a transient finite difference model for the house. The BIPV-T was placed on the south-facing facade and roof of the house. A HOT2000 simulation program was used to optimize the envelope. Mathcad software was used to optimize heat recovery from the PV as well as to avoid overheating due to solar gains. Insulation was increased gradually and triple-glazed low-e argon windows were used as the most cost-effective measure to utilize passive solar gains on the south-facing facade. The BIPV-T system was designed to cover a continuous south-facing roof surface. Outdoor air was used as the heat transfer fluid in an open loop system. Hot outlet air was used for domestic hot water heating, clothes drying, and thermal mass heating. The heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system consisted of a 2.2 ton 2-stage water-to-air geothermal heat pump with an electronically commutated motor. The domestic hot water (DHW) system consisted of two 60 gallon tanks. Cold well water was first heated by a drain water heat recovery system, where it was heated using a desuperheater from the geothermal pump and hot air from the BIPV-T system. A transient explicit finite difference thermal network model was used to simulate the thermal performance of the entire house, including the BIPV-T system and the ventilated concrete slab in the basement. Simulations of the house design showed that incoming solar radiation through the windows needed to be controlled, as solar radiation caused overheating inside the living space. 17 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

Chen, Y.; Athienitis, A.K.; Galal, K.E. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering; Berneche, B. [Alouette Homes, St-Alphonse-de-Granby, PQ (Canada); Poissant, Y. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

2007-07-01

23

Effect of thermal energy storage in energy consumption required for air conditioning system in office building under the African Mediterranean climate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the African Mediterranean countries, cooling demand constitutes a large proportion of total electrical demand for office buildings during peak hours. The thermal energy storage systems can be an alternative method to be utilized to reduce and time shift the electrical load of air conditioning from on-peak to off-peak hours. In this study, the Hourly Analysis Program has been used to estimate the cooling load profile for an office building based in Tripoli weather data conditions. Preliminary study was performed in order to define the most suitable operating strategies of ice thermal storage, including partial (load leveling and demand limiting, full storage and conventional A/C system. Then, the mathematical model of heat transfer for external ice storage would be based on the operating strategy which achieves the lowest energy consumption. Results indicate that the largest rate of energy consumption occurs when the conventional system is applied to the building, while the lowest rate of energy consumption is obtained when the partial storage (demand limiting 60% is applied. Analysis of results shows that the new layer of ice formed on the surface of the existing ice lead to an increase of thermal resistance of heat transfer, which in return decreased cooling capacity.

Abdulgalil Mohamed M.

2014-01-01

24

Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

25

Mass storage management system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author describes the application that the author developed during the time the author worked for Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, which creates an integrated storage environment. The application is built as a layer on top of the current storage manager (OSM), hiding details from the end user and manages access to all storage elements. A simple set of commands allows users to manipulate and move data between all storage elements of the system as well as to storage devices on remote machines

26

Spent nuclear fuel Canister Storage Building CDR Review Committee report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canister Storage Building (CSB) is a subproject under the Spent Nuclear Fuels Major System Acquisition. This subproject is necessary to design and construct a facility capable of providing dry storage of repackaged spent fuels received from K Basins. The CSB project completed a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) implementing current project requirements. A Design Review Committee was established to review the CDR. This document is the final report summarizing that review

27

Fuel storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

1979-08-01

28

The Effects of Different Storage Buildings on Wheat Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of storage is to preserve properties of products and their freshness. If suitable storage conditions are not supplied consistency product variety, quality and quantity losses increase. Decreasing this losses is possible with providing suitable storage condition and storage management. In this study, wheat storage buildings in the Thrace region were examined. Influences of storage condition on product losses were investigated. The study was conducted in one of the Soil Products Offices (TMO reinforced concrete silo (RCSi in Tekirdag, Reinforced Concrete Store (RCSt and Masonry Stores (MS in Hayrabolu district within the border of Tekirdag. Temperature of the wheat mass in the stores and moisture content as storage conditions, effective on quality parameters such as hectoliter, gluten, gluten index, sedimentation and sunn pest were monitored during the storage. According to the results of experiments in selected stores, the worst storage conditions and the most quality losses were determined in the MS, on the other hand the most suitable conditions and the least losses were determined in RCSi and RCSt. Consequently, the MS should be improved and aeration systems should be built in this store. This store can be used for shortage storage period. In the RCSi and RCSt stores, the aeration systems should be run properly.

A. Soner Ergin

2011-01-01

29

Canister storage building trade study. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ``Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report`` as the basis for development of the individual trade studies.

Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-05-01

30

Canister storage building hazard analysis report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the final CSB safety analysis report (SAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Report, and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

31

Canister storage building hazard analysis report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the final CSB safety analysis report (SAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Report, and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

Krahn, D.E.; Garvin, L.J.

1997-07-01

32

Alternative design concept for the second Glass Waste Storage Building  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents an alternative design concept for storing canisters filled with vitrified waste produced at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) has the capacity to store 2,262 canisters and is projected to be completely filled by the year 2000. Current plans for glass waste storage are based on constructing a second Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB2) once the existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) is filled to capacity. The GWSB2 project (Project S-2045) is to provide additional storage capacity for 2,262 canisters. This project was initiated with the issue of a basic data report on March 6, 1989. In response to the basic data report Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) prepared a draft conceptual design report (CDR) for the GWSB2 project in April 1991. In May 1991 WSRC Systems Engineering issued a revised Functional Design Criteria (FDC), the Rev. I document has not yet been approved by DOE. This document proposes an alternative design for the conceptual design (CDR) completed in April 1991. In June 1992 Project Management Department authorized Systems Engineering to further develop the proposed alternative design. The proposed facility will have a storage capacity for 2,268 canisters and will meet DWPF interim storage requirements for a five-year period. This document contains: a description of the proposed facility; a cost estimate of the proposed design; a cost comparison between the proposed facility and the design outlined in the FDC/CDR; and an overall assessment of the alternative design as compared with the reference FDC/CDR design

33

Modular interim waste storage building for low-level radwaste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Near-term disposition of low-level radioactive waste is a significant concern in the successful start-up and continued operation of nuclear plants. In response to the perceived utility need for interim storage facilities for low-level nuclear waste, Cygna Energy Services has developed a Modular Interim Wast Storage Building (IWSB) design which emphasizes low cost, design simplicity, commercial construction techniques, rapid construction time and licensability. The IWSB is modular and easily expanded. The base module includes a truck bay, storage bay with vaults, remote-control over-head bridge crane and a separate control room. The facility design basis and features are described. Waste storage and shielding requirements are optimized through the use of a computerized inventory control system. Cost of the Cygna Modular IWSB is on the order of $4 million for a five year capacity facility and a construction period of about 12 to 14 months

34

Buildings | Special Issue : Building Automation Systems  

...Buildings | Special Issue : Building Automation Systems Submit to Buildings Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors For Librarians About Open Access Policy ...Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Buildings Buildings Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for Authors Publication ... 1 (2011) Special Issue \\

35

The Effects of Different Storage Buildings on Wheat Quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of storage is to preserve properties of products and their freshness. If suitable storage conditions are not supplied consistency product variety, quality and quantity losses increase. Decreasing this losses is possible with providing suitable storage condition and storage management. In this study, wheat storage buildings in the Thrace region were examined. Influences of storage condition on product losses were investigated. The study was conducted in one of the Soil Products Offices...

Soner Ergin, A.; Can Burak Sisman

2011-01-01

36

Building a Parallel Cloud Storage System using OpenStack’s Swift Object Store and Transformative Parallel I/O  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our project consists of bleeding-edge research into replacing the traditional storage archives with a parallel, cloud-based storage solution. It used OpenStack's Swift Object Store cloud software. It's Benchmarked Swift for write speed and scalability. Our project is unique because Swift is typically used for reads and we are mostly concerned with write speeds. Cloud Storage is a viable archive solution because: (1) Container management for larger parallel archives might ease the migration workload; (2) Many tools that are written for cloud storage could be utilized for local archive; and (3) Current large cloud storage practices in industry could be utilized to manage a scalable archive solution.

Burns, Andrew J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lora, Kaleb D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Esteban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shorter, Martel L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-30

37

Central unresolved issues in thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document explores the frontier of the rapidly expanding field of thermal energy storage, investigates unresolved issues, outlines research aimed at finding solutions, and suggests avenues meriting future research. Issues related to applications include value-based ranking of storage concepts, temperature constraints, consistency of assumptions, nomenclature and taxonomy, and screening criteria for materials. Issues related to technologies include assessing seasonal storage concepts, diurnal coolness storage, selection of hot-side storage concepts for cooling-only systems, phase-change storage in building materials, freeze protection for solar water heating systems, and justification of phase-change storage for active solar space heating.

Swet, C.J.; Baylin, F.

1980-07-01

38

Matching analysis for on-site building energy systems involving energy conversion, storage and hybrid grid connections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Under the background that all new buildings in EU should be nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) from the year of 2021, the energy and building industries are progressing towards the direction of decreased local building energy demand and enhanced on-site renewable energy production. This, on one hand, leads to the continuously decreased annual primary energy consumption/equivalent CO2 emission, whereas on the other hand it brings in the matching problem between the on-site generation and loca...

Cao, Sunliang

2014-01-01

39

Storage battery systems analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Storage Battery Systems Analysis supports the battery Exploratory Technology Development and Testing Project with technical and economic analysis of battery systems in various end-use applications. Computer modeling and simulation techniques are used in the analyses. Analysis objectives are achieved through both in-house efforts and outside contracts. In-house studies during FY82 included a study of the relationship between storage battery system reliability and cost, through cost-of-investment and cost-of-service interruption inputs; revision and update of the SOLSTOR computer code in standard FORTRAN 77 form; parametric studies of residential stand-alone photovoltaic systems using the SOLSTOR code; simulation of wind turbine collector/storage battery systems for the community of Kalaupapa, Molokai, Hawaii.

Murphy, K.D.

1982-01-01

40

Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

KOPELIC, S.D.

1999-02-25

 
 
 
 
41

Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

42

Radiological characterisation of waste in interim storage building of COVRA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At COVRA spatial dose rate distribution measurements were performed in December 2004 and December 2006 in the interim L/ILW storage building (LOG). This storage facility consists out of four large storage halls (height x width x depth 7 m x 40 m x 70 m) each with a volume of about 20000 m3. The scope of this study is to investigate the benefits of the waste storage strategy and procedures for minimization of the dose to the workers and the public. The main aim of the measurements in 2004 was: to validate the applied L/ILW storage strategy - to examine, if spatial collected data can be used to detect unforeseen differences in radiation level. The results of these measurements of spatial dose showed a number of unforeseen hotspots at different locations, so that it could be concluded that the applied storage strategy and procedures has to be improved. Further the dose rate at the height of 6 m, mainly responsible for the sky-shine dose rate, being an important part of the dose rate to the public at the site boundary, has to be reduced by more shielding. In December 2006 a second serial of spatial radiological and non-radiological data have been collected. The applied nondestructive INDSS-R (Indoor Survey System-Radiation ) method has been improved, so that the following 3-dimensional data could be collected between 0.5 m and 5.5 m: - dose rate (by pressurized ionisation chamber). nuclide depended gamma photon flux (3 x 3 NaI). - temperature and relative humidity. These last two non-radiological parameters were measured to verify the storage conditions of the waste. The main aim of these 3 dimensional collection was to verify the second stated aim of 2004. (authors)

43

STANDALONE “GREEN” COMMUNITY-CENTER BUILDINGS: HYDROGEN GENERATION/STORAGE/DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR WHEN PRIMARY ENERGY STORAGE IS AT CAPACITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Overall, the implementation of a computer-controlled hydrogen generation system and subsequent conversion of small engine equipment for hydrogen use has been surprisingly straightforward from an engineering and technology standpoint. More testing is required to get a better gr...

44

ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper you will find an overview of systems and energy storage techniques and a comparison of the important characteristics of them. Delocalized electricity production and the introduction of variable, fluctuating sources (renewable energy: solar, wind turbines, etc.) increase the difficulty of stabilizing the power network, mainly due to a supply-demand imbalance. It is therefore convenient to generate the energy, transmit it, convert it, and then store it if need be. More than ever t...

ELENA RADUCAN; LUMINITA MORARU

2011-01-01

45

Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Passive solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed. Design guidelines are given.

Balcomb, J.D.

1983-05-01

46

Energy conservation in honey storage building using Trombe wall  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates energy conservation, mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions and economics of retrofitting for a honey storage building with Trombe wall for winter heating application. The passive heating potential of Trombe wall for a honey storage building was estimated using TRNSYS building simulation software. This honey storage building is located at Gwalior (latitude: 26 14'N) in India. During winter months, the room air temperature of building falls below the required temperature range of 18-27 C which is suitable for honey storage. So, the room air temperature range is maintained in the building using a 2.3 kW capacity electrical oil filled radiator (or room air heater) which accounts for the major energy consumption of the building on an annual basis. On account of which there are significant CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere from the honey storage building. Hence, this case study was conducted to recommend the passive heating concept to the stakeholders of the building so as to conserve the energy requirement for room air heating. The investigation showed that the room air temperature can be easily maintained in the range suitable for honey storage using a vented Trombe wall. The experimental work was carried out for the existing building on a typical clear day of harsh winter month of January to validate the results of TRNSYS model of the present building. The statistical error analysis showed a good agreement between model and experimental results. This investigation concludes that there is potential of energy conservation up to 3312 kWh/year and associated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions ({proportional_to}33 tonne/year) using a Trombe wall. Also, the retrofitting of building is economically viable as the simple payback period is only about 7 months. (author)

Chel, Arvind [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Block-V, Hauzkhas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Energy Systems Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Nayak, J.K. [Energy Systems Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Kaushik, Geetanjali [Centre for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

2008-07-01

47

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR Site Layout, Safeguards and Security System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Site Electrical Power System, Site Compressed Air System, and Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System.

F. Habashi

2000-06-22

48

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR Site Layout, Safeguards and Security System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Site Electrical Power System, Site Compressed Air System, and Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System

49

Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Conceptual Design Report provides the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project, Canister Storage Building, and as amended by letter (correspondence number 9555700, M.E. Witherspoon to E.B. Sellers, ''Technical Baseline and Updated Cost Estimate for the Canister Storage Building'', dated October 24, 1995), includes the project cost baseline and Criteria to be used as the basis for starting detailed design in fiscal year 1995

50

Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

CROWE, R.D.

1999-09-09

51

Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Conceptual Design Report provides the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project, Canister Storage Building, and as amended by letter (correspondence number 9555700, M.E. Witherspoon to E.B. Sellers, ``Technical Baseline and Updated Cost Estimate for the Canister Storage Building``, dated October 24, 1995), includes the project cost baseline and Criteria to be used as the basis for starting detailed design in fiscal year 1995.

Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-01-01

52

Passive hygrothermal control of a museum storage building  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For optimal conservation of the stored objects, museum storage buildings require a very stable interior climate, with only minimal and slow variations in temperature and relative humidity. Often extensive HVAC is installed to provide such stable indoor conditions, which results in a great amout of C02 emission. The purpose for this paper is to show that it is possible to reach the goal of using renewable energy for museum storage buildings by rethinking the strategy for the dehumidification design and in this way contribute to a C02 neutral environment. The solution is to construct a very airtight building and use concentrated dehumidification.

Christensen, JØrgen Erik

2011-01-01

53

Build a Solar System  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners make a scale model of the Solar System and learn the real definition of "space." Learners use the online calculator to create an appropriate scale to use as a basis for their model. Once learners have their scaled measurements (diameters and distances), then they can walk and "pace out" the solar system by marking sticks or flags in the ground. Learners can also build a solar system on a roll of toilet paper or receipt paper.

Hipschman, Ron

1997-01-01

54

Wind turbine storage systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled stornergy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

55

Building Web Reputation Systems  

CERN Document Server

What do Amazon's product reviews, eBay's feedback score system, Slashdot's Karma System, and Xbox Live's Achievements have in common? They're all examples of successful reputation systems that enable consumer websites to manage and present user contributions most effectively. This book shows you how to design and develop reputation systems for your own sites or web applications, written by experts who have designed web communities for Yahoo! and other prominent sites. Building Web Reputation Systems helps you ask the hard questions about these underlying mechanisms, and why they're critical

Farmer, Randy

2010-01-01

56

PCM thermal storage in buildings: A state of art  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive review of various possible methods for heating and cooling in buildings are discussed in this paper. The thermal performance of various types of systems like PCM trombe wall, PCM wallboards, PCM shutters, PCM building blocks, air-based heating systems, floor heating, ceiling boards, etc., is presented in this paper. All systems have good potential for heating and cooling in building through phase change materials and also very beneficial to reduce the energy demand of the buildings. (author)

Tyagi, Vineet Veer; Buddhi, D. [Thermal Energy Storage Laboratory, School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Engineering Science, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452017 (India)

2007-08-15

57

Thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The ORNL program in thermal energy storage (TES) over the past year is reported. The program consists of developing sensible and latent heat technologies to meet the single goal of reduction in oil and gas consumption for residential and space conditioning. Three specific application elements were addressed: utility load management, solar energy applications; and conservation. Programs (both completed and ongoing) are summarized, and their relationship to the specific implementation plan are given. The program completed a transition from low temperature storage development including seasonal storage in natural aquifers to TES development for building heating and cooling applications.

Martin, J. F.; Hoffman, H. W.

1980-06-01

58

Air quality in low-ventilated museum storage buildings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modern low-energy museum storage buildings are often designed for a low air exchange rate, on the order of less than 1 exchange per day. We investigated how this affected the indoor air quality in six Danish museum storage buildings. The infiltration of ambient pollutants, and the level to which internally-generated pollutants accumulate, were measured by passive sampling of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and organic acids. The air exchange rates and the interchange of air between storage rooms were measured by the per-fluorocarbon tracer gas method. Ambient pollutants were reduced in concentration to a few ppb indoors. The presence of internally-generated pollutants depended on the amount of off-gassing materials inside the store, but more importantly, on the temperature. Enclosing objects in corrugated cardboard boxes did not cause any significant accumulation of pollutants. However, the box-board did provide a certain degree of protection against ambient pollutants, especially ozone.

Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Aasbjerg Jensen, Lars

59

Tribology of magnetic storage systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The construction and the materials used in different magnetic storage devices are defined. The theories of friction and adhesion, interface temperatures, wear, and solid-liquid lubrication relevant to magnetic storage systems are presented. Experimental data are presented wherever possible to support the relevant theories advanced.

Bhushan, Bharat

1992-01-01

60

Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model-based predictive control (MPC) is designed for optimal thermal energy storage in building cooling systems. We focus on buildings equipped with a water tank used for actively storing cold water produced by a series of chillers. Typically the chillers are operated at night to recharge the storage tank in order to meet the building demands on the following day. In this paper, we build on our previous work, improve the building load model, and present experimental results. The experiments show that MPC can achieve reduction in the central plant electricity cost and improvement of its efficiency.

Ma, Yudong; Borrelli, Francesco; Hencey, Brandon; Coffey, Brian; Bengea, Sorin; Haves, Philip

2010-06-29

 
 
 
 
61

D5.4 – Energy management system : Coordinating and dispatching of generation, consumption, and storage devices connected to the local microgrid or to the building network.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report will focus on strategies for energy management as well at the building level and at the microgrid level. The designed energy management controller will manage energy flow such that generated power in the microgrid is mainly consumed by local consumers and the power trade between the microgrid and the grid is shrunk to minimum. Buildings’ role is to provide flexibility to the energy management controller so that this controller can use this flexibility to enhance the local use of the local produced energy and by that mean lower the energy bill for each house in the microgrid. The Optimization of building loads are based on electricity price signal and shedding, shifting or rescheduling the power consumption pattern. The main shiftable loads are the HVAC systems. This system will be the primary controllable load for the energy management controller but also curtailable load and non-controllable loads will be taken into account when designing the controller. The flexibility, with respect to the HVAC system, is based on the heat capacity of the house and a thermal tolerance that users give permission for. The wider the thermal tolerance is, the more flexibility will be provided to the energy management controller. Load management strategies will be devised such that thermal comfort and other user-predefined preferences will be satisfied.

Madsen, Per Printz; Andersen, Palle

2014-01-01

62

Photovoltaic power systems energy storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

63

Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigated the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. To pursue the analysis, modeling, and simulation research of Phase 1, two separate simulation environments were developed. Based on the new dynamic building simulation program EnergyPlus, a utility rate module, two thermal energy storage models were added. Also, a sequential optimization approach to the cost minimization problem using direct search, gradient-based, and dynamic programming methods was incorporated. The objective function was the total utility bill including the cost of reheat and a time-of-use electricity rate either with or without demand charges. An alternative simulation environment based on TRNSYS and Matlab was developed to allow for comparison and cross-validation with EnergyPlus. The initial evaluation of the theoretical potential of the combined optimal control assumed perfect weather prediction and match between the building model and the actual building counterpart. The analysis showed that the combined utilization leads to cost savings that is significantly greater than either storage but less than the sum of the individual savings. The findings reveal that the cooling-related on-peak electrical demand of commercial buildings can be considerably reduced. A subsequent analysis of the impact of forecasting uncertainty in the required short-term weather forecasts determined that it takes only very simple short-term prediction models to realize almost all of the theoretical potential of this control strategy. Further work evaluated the impact of modeling accuracy on the model-based closed-loop predictive optimal controller to minimize utility cost. The following guidelines have been derived: For an internal heat gain dominated commercial building, reasonable geometry simplifications are acceptable without a loss of cost savings potential. In fact, zoning simplification may improve optimizer performance and save computation time. The mass of the internal structure did not show a strong effect on the optimization. Building construction characteristics were found to impact building passive thermal storage capacity. It is thus advisable to make sure the construction material is well modeled. Zone temperature setpoint profiles and TES performance are strongly affected by mismatches in internal heat gains, especially when they are underestimated. Since they are a key factor in determining the building cooling load, efforts should be made to keep the internal gain mismatch as small as possible. Efficiencies of the building energy systems affect both zone temperature setpoints and active TES operation because of the coupling of the base chiller for building precooling and the icemaking TES chiller. Relative efficiencies of the base and TES chillers will determine the balance of operation of the two chillers. The impact of mismatch in this category may be significant. Next, a parametric analysis was conducted to assess the effects of building mass, utility rate, building location and season, thermal comfort, central plant capacities, and an economizer on the cost saving performance of optimal control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory. The key findings are: (1) Heavy-mass buildings, strong-incentive time-of-use electrical utility rates, and large on-peak cooling loads will likely lead to attractive savings resulting from optimal combined thermal storage control. (2) By using economizer to take advantage of the cool fresh air during the night, t

Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

2005-09-30

64

Passive hygrothermal control of a museum storage building in Vejle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For optimal conservation of the stored objects, museum storage buildings require a very stable interior climate, with only minimal and slow variations in temperature and relative humidity. Often extensive HVAC is installed to provide such stable indoor conditions. The resultantly significant energy and maintenance costs are currently motivating a paradigm change toward passive control. Passive control, via the thermal and hygric inertia of the building, is gaining a foothold in the museum conservation and building physical community. In this report we document the hygrothermal performance optimisation of a museum storage building, related to an existing storage centre in Vejle (Denmark). The current building design already incorporates passive control concepts: thermal inertia is provided by the thick walls, the ground floor and its underlying soil volume, while hygric inertia is provided by the thick walls of light-weight concrete. The design promise stated that a few years of dehumidification would bring down the moisture contained in the fresh constructions to a level corresponding with the desired interior climate. After this initial stage, the passive control would eliminate all further need for dehumidification. Four years after completing the construction however, continuous dehumidification remains necessary to maintain acceptable humidity levels. Analysis of the current situation: A thorough investigation of the current building design and management shows that the original design promise of ‘a fully passively conditioned storage building’ is an illusion. With the yearly average exterior temperature and vapour pressure in Denmark at 7.8 °C and 930 Pa, a fully passively conditioned building would reach a yearly average temperature and vapour pressure of 10.2 °C and 930 Pa. The interior temperature is somewhat higher than the exterior, due to interior heat sources (lights and humans); since no significant interior moisture sources are present, the interior vapour pressure is similar to the average exteriorvapour pressure. Such interior conditions translate to a yearly average relative humidity of 75 %, which is far above the desired levels. It should be finally stated that similar conclusions would be reached for many other European climates. Conservation heating or dehumidification are hence required, to maintain acceptable relative humidities in the storage. Conservation heating raises the temperature and lowers the relative humidity; dehumidification decreases the vapour pressure and thus the relative humidity. For the low air change rates of storage buildings, dehumidification is the most economical option. Moreover, it allows for lower temperature levels, beneficial to the conservation purposes. Reduction of dehumidification load: In an effort to reduce the necessary dehumidification, a number of thermal measures are investigated first. This primarily focuses on the influences of additional insulation in walls, roof and floor. Overall, the effects of extra insulation on the average temperature level arevery limited. The effects on the temperature variation differ for the floor and for the walls & roof: • walls & roof: more insulation gives less heat exchange with the exterior, and thus a lower interior temperature variation; • floor: more insulation in the floor breaks the connection with the thermal inertia of the ground and thus a higher temperature variation; For those reasons, more heavily insulated walls and roofs could be considered. Their effects on the interior climate and dehumidification load are however not that large. For the floor, no insulation should be added, and it could be considered to replace the leca layer with standard gravel. This will visibly reduce the temperature variations over the year. All in all however, none of these thermal measures have a great impact on the dehumidification load. To reduce the dehumidification load, only one strong solution exists: a more airtight building. The focus in the new design should therefore go to a construction method allowing for a very

Christensen, JØrgen Erik; Janssen, Hans

2010-01-01

65

Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organoti

Dr. Digby Macdonald

2010-08-09

66

GPUs as Storage System Accelerators  

CERN Document Server

Massively multicore processors, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), provide, at a comparable price, a one order of magnitude higher peak performance than traditional CPUs. This drop in the cost of computation, as any order-of-magnitude drop in the cost per unit of performance for a class of system components, triggers the opportunity to redesign systems and to explore new ways to engineer them to recalibrate the cost-to-performance relation. This project explores the feasibility of harnessing GPUs' computational power to improve the performance, reliability, or security of distributed storage systems. In this context, we present the design of a storage system prototype that uses GPU offloading to accelerate a number of computationally intensive primitives based on hashing, and introduce techniques to efficiently leverage the processing power of GPUs. We evaluate the performance of this prototype under two configurations: as a content addressable storage system that facilitates online similarity detectio...

Al-Kiswany, Samer; Ripeanu, Matei

2012-01-01

67

Management of Data Replication for PC Cluster-based Cloud Storage System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Storage systems are essential building blocks for cloud computing infrastructures. Although high performance storage servers are the ultimate solution for cloud storage, the implementation of inexpensive storage system remains an open issue. To address this problem, the efficient cloud storage system is implemented with inexpensive and commodity computer nodes that are organized into PC cluster based datacenter. Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is an open source cloud b...

Myint, Julia; Naing, Thinn Thu

2011-01-01

68

77 FR 14007 - Environmental Assessment for a Radiological Work and Storage Building at the Knolls Atomic Power...  

Science.gov (United States)

...modernized facility is needed to streamline radioactive material handling and storage operations...machine shops, waste storage facilities, oil storage facilities, training facilities...and storage building would streamline radioactive material handling and storage...

2012-03-08

69

Analysis of ice cool thermal storage for a clinic building in Kuwait  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Kuwait, air conditioning (Ac) systems consume 61% and 40% of the peak electrical load and total electrical energy, respectively. This is due to a very high ambient temperature for the long summer period extended from April to October and the low energy cost. This paper gives an overview of the electrical peak and energy consumption in Kuwait, and it has been found that the average increase in the annual peak electrical demand and energy consumption for the year 1998-2002 was 6.2% and 6.4%, respectively. One method of reducing the peak electrical demand of AC systems during the day period is by incorporating an ice cool thermal storage (ICTS) with the AC system. A clinic building has been selected to study the effects of using an ICTS with different operation strategies such as partial (load levelling), partial (demand limiting) and full storage operations on chiller and storage sizes, reduction of peak electrical demand and energy consumption of the chiller for selected charging and discharging hours. It has been found that the full storage operation has the largest chiller and storage capacities, energy consumption and peak electrical reduction. However, partial storage (load levelling) has the smallest chiller and storage capacities and peak electrical reduction. This paper also provides a detailed comparison of using ICTS operating strategies with AC and AC systems without ICTS. (author)

Sebzali, M.J.; Rubini, P.A. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

2006-11-15

70

PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage  

CERN Document Server

Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low cost PC cluster based storage server is configured to be activated for large amount of data to provide cloud users. Moreover, one of the contributions of this system is proposed an analytical model using M/M/1 queuing network model, which is modeled on intended architecture to provide better response time, utilization of storage as well as pending time when the system is running. According to the analytical result on experimental testing, the storage can be utilized more than 90% of storage space. In this paper, two parts...

Yee, Tin Tin

2011-01-01

71

Building systems: selecting a system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The success of a building management system (BMS) depends on reliability, ease of use, and ability to perform. If one of these attributes is missing then there is every likelihood that it will cease to be a useful tool and will become an executive ornament. Achieving success depends on making the correct choices during the design process and basing them on available products. The difficult conceptual decisions need to be taken at detailed design stage, and at a time when the design requirements are not fully developed. The designer's problem is relating the needs of the services design to each attribute of the BMS and appreciating how the overall BMS performance will be affected. To understand the problem in more detail it must be recognised that a BMS is in itself a computer system. Fully developed it comprises three main elements, outstations (or field computers), a communications network and a central computer. Each of these is considered in turn, looking at the factors that influence the designer's choice. (author).

Wilkie, Andrew (Oscar Faber Consulting Engineers (GB))

1989-09-01

72

Hydrogen storage and generation system  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA); Crowell, Jeffrey A. W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2010-08-24

73

Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

Anita Lewis

2012-07-01

74

A Checkpoint Storage System for Desktop Grid Computing  

CERN Document Server

Checkpointing is an indispensable technique to provide fault tolerance for long-running high-throughput applications like those running on desktop grids. In these environments, a checkpoint storage system can offer multiple benefits: reduce the load on a traditional file system, offer high-performance through specialization, and, finally, optimize checkpoint data management by taking into account application semantics. Such a storage system can present a unifying abstraction to checkpoint operations, while hiding the fact that there are no dedicated resources to store the checkpoint data. This paper presents a dedicated checkpoint storage system for desktop grid environments. Our solution uses scavenged disk space from participating desktops to build an inexpensive storage space, offering a traditional file system interface for easy integration with checkpointing applications. This paper presents the architecture of our checkpoint storage system, key write optimizations for high-speed I/O, support for increme...

Kiswany, Samer Al; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

2007-01-01

75

Safety evaluation of the Mixed Waste Storage Building (Building 643-43E)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A safety evaluation has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Storage Building (MWSB) at the Savannah River Site. The results of this evaluation are compared with those contained in the Burial Ground Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The MWSB will function as an interim storage facility for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated mixed waste. It will meet all applicable standards set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the South Carolina Department of Health and Environment Control (SCDHEC), and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders.

Pareizs, J.M.

1992-01-27

76

Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies

77

Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies.

Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

2008-05-15

78

Hydrogen Trailer Storage Facility (Building 878). Consequence analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This consequence analysis documents the impact that a hydrogen accident could have to employees, the general public, and nearby facilities. The computer model ARCHIE was utilized to determine discharge rates, toxic vapor dispersion analyses, flammable vapor cloud hazards, explosion hazards, and flame jets for the Hydrogen Trailer Storage Facility located at Building 878. To determine over pressurization effects, hand calculations derived from the Department of the Air Force Manual, ``Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions,`` were utilized. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce the Lower Flammability and the Lower Detonation Levels are 1,721 feet and 882 feet, respectively. The greatest distance at which 10.0 psi overpressure (i.e., total building destruction) is reached is 153 feet.

Banda, Z.; Wood, C.L.

1994-12-01

79

Storage monitoring system - 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them

80

Simulation of thermocline thermal energy storage system using C  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solar thermal power generation is a modern technology, which has already shown feasible results in the production of electricity. Thermal energy storage (TES) is a crucial element in solar energy applications, which includes the increase of building thermal capacity, solar water heating systems for domestic use, and Concentrated Solar Thermal power plants for electricity generation. Economic, efficient and reliable thermal energy storage systems are a key need of solar thermal power plants, i...

Meseret Tesfay; Meyyappan Venkatesan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Storage systems for solar thermal power  

Science.gov (United States)

The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

1978-01-01

82

30 CFR 57.4531 - Surface flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. 57.4531...Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4531 Surface...combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a...work station is in the building. (c) Flammable...for day-to-day maintenance and operational...

2010-07-01

83

30 CFR 56.4531 - Flammable or combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. 56.4531...Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4531 Flammable...combustible liquid storage buildings or rooms. (a...work station is in the building. (c) Flammable...for day-to-day maintenance and operational...

2010-07-01

84

Sizing of packed bed storage for solar air heating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Packed bed units generally, represent the most suitable storage units for air heating solar systems. In these systems the storage units receives the heat form the collector during the collection period and discharges the heat building at the retrieval process. A method for sizing of packed bed storage in an air heating system is represented. The design is based on the K-S curves, which have been generated for the storage used in the C SU solar House II through simulation. The complete simple solar heating system is simulated numerically during both the heating and retrieval processes. The simulation, which utilizes the hourly meteorological data, takes into account consideration of the principle parameters such as pressure drop across the bed, particle diameter, and mean void age. The results are compared with the reported data from a real size of storage and also with the criteria of f-chart recommendation

85

Multi personal computer storage system. The solution of PACS storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: According to the characteristics of digital medicine and demand of digitized management in hospital, the authors establish a storage system which is cheap, highly expansible, and reliable. Methods: The multi personal computer storage system (MPCSS) was constructed by assembling the hardware and software. The image data were archived from major server to storage PC by using NEUSOFT-PACS archiving manage system and backup on storage PC. The authors simulated the situation that the data on storage PC was lost and restored the data. The authors also expanded the storage system to enlarge its capacity. Results: Average transfer rate from MPCSS was 27.7 Mbit/s(1 byte = 8 bit); average cost for this system was 74 RMB/G; six cases in the 187 repeated reading of 100 patients failed. MPCSS can store backup and restore the image data, and can expand the storage size. Conclusion: MPCSS is very cheap compared with other high capacity systems or devices. It is feasible and suitable for digital image storage

86

APS storage ring vacuum system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

87

Combined solar collector and energy storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

Jensen, R. N. (inventor)

1980-01-01

88

NASA Langley Research Center's distributed mass storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a trend in institutions with high performance computing and data management requirements to explore mass storage systems with peripherals directly attached to a high speed network. The Distributed Mass Storage System (DMSS) Project at NASA LaRC is building such a system and expects to put it into production use by the end of 1993. This paper presents the design of the DMSS, some experiences in its development and use, and a performance analysis of its capabilities. The special features of this system are: (1) workstation class file servers running UniTree software; (2) third party I/O; (3) HIPPI network; (4) HIPPI/IPI3 disk array systems; (5) Storage Technology Corporation (STK) ACS 4400 automatic cartridge system; (6) CRAY Research Incorporated (CRI) CRAY Y-MP and CRAY-2 clients; (7) file server redundancy provision; and (8) a transition mechanism from the existent mass storage system to the DMSS.

Pao, Juliet Z.; Humes, D. Creig

1993-01-01

89

Internationally monitored retrievable storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed internationally monitored retrievable storage system (IMRSS) is intended to provide an orderly and secure alternative to continuation of the current individualistic spent-fuel management trends in nuclear-power countries. The IMRSS concept, in its broadest terms, proposes that an international entity undertake the management responsibility for spent fuel after its discharge from power plant cooling ponds. The IMRSS envisages international management of a small number of surface (or near-surface) storage facilities distributed globally (in major nuclear countries and elsewhere) and a transportation system between nuclear plants and the storage facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) would maintain responsibility for adherence to safeguards criteria. The IMRSS operation would be similar to that of an international bank, with each nation maintaining title to its spent fuel and able to withdraw it for peaceful purposes. The system would provide transparency, accountability, and security. The IMRSS would be a step to establishing an inter- national regime for the prudent management of spent fuel and excess civilian plutonium. The IMRSS concept has been studied in three international workshops. Among the major issues that have been addressed are the global distribution of spent fuel if current trends continue, the need for international criteria and management to ensure public health and nonproliferation, the value of spent-fuel retrievability, the future role of a plutonium resource in the fuel cycle, the operating format of a practical IMRSS, and the integration of an IMRSS with existing geopolitical agreements and arrangements

90

Parametric Study on the Dynamic Heat Storage Capacity of Building Elements  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning systems are often used even in moderate and cold climates. Particularly in this case, passive cooling by night-time ventilation seems to offer considerable potential. However, because heat gains and night ventilation periods do not coincide in time, a sufficient amount of thermal mass is needed in the building to store the heat. Assuming a 24 h-period harmonic oscillation of the indoor air temperature within a range of thermal comfort, the analytical solution of onedimensional heat conduction in a slab with convective boundary condition was applied to quantify the dynamic heat storage capacity of a particular building element. The impact of different parameters, such as slab thickness, material properties and the heat transfer coefficient was investigated, as well as their interrelation. The potential of increasing thermal mass by using phase change materials (PCM) was estimated assuming increased thermal capacity. The results show a significant impact of the heat transfer coefficient on heat storage capacity, especially for thick, thermally heavy elements. The storage capacity of a 100 mm thick concrete slab was found to increase with increasing heat transfer coefficients as high as 30 W/m2K. In contrast the heat storage capacity of a thin gypsum plaster board was found to be constant when the heat transfer coefficient exceeded 3 W/m2K. Additionally, the optimal thickness of an element depended greatly on the heat transfer coefficient. For thin, light elements a significant increase in heat capacity due to the use of PCMs was found to be possible. The present study shows the impact and interrelation of geometrical and physical parameters which appreciably influence the heat storage capacity of building elements.

Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.

2007-01-01

91

Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid. Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be opt...

Trintis, Ionut

2012-01-01

92

Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid. Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be opt...

Trintis, Ionut

2011-01-01

93

ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

2013-01-01

94

Work to begin on largest ice storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction has begun at Chicago's Merchandise Mart on what may be the world's largest ice building thermal storage system. The completed system will use water from the Chicago River to freeze 2.2 million pounds of ice each night for daytime air conditioning. Despite the large quantity of freon used, the project will not violate the city's building code because it uses an indirect refrigerant system. Another system in the State of Illinois Building does violate the code because it uses direct refrigeration. The new ice storage system should save $200,000 in its first year by shifting three MW of demand from day to night consumption and by lowering overall pump horsepower.

1986-03-10

95

Building Hydroponic Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Welcome!  "Buildling Hydroponic Systems"  in an educational project being developed by the Waters Lab at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Dr. Brian Waters has developed a system that can be used by researchers and educators to experiment with the uses of hydroponic systems. Please join this community for updates as new learning materials become available.  This site has been developed through grant funding provided by the National Science Foundation (NSF). 

96

Heat of Fusion Storage with High Solar Fraction for Solar Low Energy Buildings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper presents the results of a theoretical investigation of use of phase change materials (PCM’s) with active use of super cooling as a measure for obtaining partly heat loss free seasonal storages for solar combi-systems with 100% coverage of the energy demand of both space heating and domestic hot water. The work is part of the IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme Task 32 “Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar Buildings”. The investigations are based on a newly developed TRNSYS type for simulation of a PCM-storage with controlled super-cooling. The super-cooling makes it possible to let storage parts already melted to cool down to surrounding temperature without solidification in which state that part of the storage will be heat loss free but still will hold the latent heat in form of the heat of fusion. At the time of energy demand the solidification of the super-cooled storage part is activated and the temperature rises to the melting point. In order to maximise the thermal performance of the storageit can be subdivided into several subsections individually controllable. A mixture of sodium acetate and xanthane rubber has been chosen for the PCM-storage. Sodium acetate has a melting point of 58°C and a heat of fusion capacity of 265 kJ/kg. The added xanthane rubber (approx. 2 weight-%) makes the sodium acetate super-cool in a stable way. The starting point for the investigations is an ideal heat storage with perfect heat transfer between charge/discharge fluid and PCM as well as a perfect control system resulting in the best possible energy utilisation. Solidification of the super cooled PCM can be activated on demand. The results of the ideal situation will form the background for further work towards a physical system. The paper will present the PCM-storage model as well as the theoretical results obtained for a solar combi system with the PCM-storage installed in a low energy house in a Danish climate. Parametric studies of collector area, storage volume and solar fraction for the PCM-system willbe presented as well as an outline for a system with 100% coverage of the space heating and domestic hot water demand.

Schultz, JØrgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

97

ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nightly build results, and provides new tools for offline release shifters. We will also outline our long-term plans for distributed nightly releases builds and testing.

Dimitrov, G.; Obreshkov, E.; Simmons, B.; Undrus, A.; Atlas Collaboration

2014-06-01

98

Pumped storage in systems with very high wind penetration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the operation of the Irish power system with very high levels of wind energy, with and without pumped storage. A unit commitment model which accounts for the uncertainty in wind power is used. It is shown that as wind penetration increases, the optimal operation of storage depends on wind output as well as load. The main benefit from storage is shown to be a decrease in wind curtailment. The economics of the system are examined to find the level at which storage justifies its capital costs and inefficiencies. It is shown that the uncertainty of wind makes the option of storage more attractive. The size of the energy store has an impact on results. At lower levels of installed wind (up to approximately 50% of energy from wind in Ireland), the reduction in curtailment is insufficient to justify building storage. At greater levels of wind, storage reduces curtailment sufficiently to justify the additional capital costs. It can be seen that if storage replaces OCGTs in the plant mix instead of CCGTs, then the level at which it justifies itself is lower. Storage increases the level of carbon emissions at wind penetration below 60%. - Research highlights: ? Examines operation of pumped storage unit in a system with levels of wind from 34%-68% of energy. ? High capital cost of storage is not justified until system has high (approx. 45%) wind penetration. ? Results are driven by the amount of wind curtailment avoided and plant mix of system. ? Otheed and plant mix of system. ? Other flexible options (e.g. interconnection) offer many of the same benefits as storage.

99

Fiberglass underground petroleum storage systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) products have been in use for many years in a wide variety of products and markets. The automotive, marine, military, chemical, and petroleum markets have made extensive use of FRP. Today, over 300,000 FRP tanks and over 40,000,000 feet of FRP pipe are in service in petroleum marketing as well as industrial and commercial storage applications. In the early 1960's the American Petroleum Institute invited the FRP industry to design FRP underground tanks to solve their corrosion caused underground leaker problems. The challenge was accepted and in 1965 FRP tanks were introduced to the petroleum storage marketplace. FRP pipe, specifically designed for underground petroleum use, was Underwriter's Laboratories tested and listed and introduced in 1968. These fiberglass tanks and pipe have a 25 year perfect record against both internal and external corrosion. The FRP tank and pipe performance record has been outstanding. Less than 1/2 of 1% have ever been involved in an in-ground failure. When first introduced, FRP tanks carried an initial cost premium of 50 to 100% over unprotected steel. Since all Underground Storage Tank (UST) systems must be corrosion protected, initial FRP costs are now competitive with corrosion protected steel

100

Advanced storage concepts for solar and low energy buildings, IEA-SHC Task 32. Slutrapport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reports on the results of the activities carried through in connection with the Danish part of the IEA SHC Task 32 project: Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar and Low Energy Buildings. The Danish involvement has focused on Subtask C: Storage Concepts Based on Phase Change Materials and Subtask D: Storage Concepts Based on Advanced Water Tanks and Special Devices. The report describes activities concerning heat-of-fusion storage and advanced water storage. (BA)

Schultz, J.M.; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, S.

2008-01-15

 
 
 
 
101

Embedded Systems Building Blocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stand-alone modules or blocks for use in creating low-power sensor-based monitor/control systems. Each module performs a pre-defined function, and when included in a monitor/control network operates as a node on the network and automatically communicates ...

F. Vahid, S. Lysecky

2005-01-01

102

Electricity storage in island systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

France's 'electric islands' are the overseas departments and Corsica that have small, isolated grids in zones which are not connected with the continental grid (ZNI). Renewable, intermittent forms of energy (especially photovoltaic) have grown exponentially on these islands since 2008, thanks to the backing of public policies for setting objectives, tax exemptions, and the rates for purchasing the electricity thus generated. However, the rapid and massive deployment of wind and solar energy may endanger the stability of the electric system: these productions are subject to rapid variations that are difficult to predict and that other local energy source are not able to compensate properly. As a consequence, a regulatory technical acceptability limit for intermittent energy has been defined to 30% above which it becomes difficult to balance the system. With controlled energy storage, it will be possible to maintain the stability and security of the electricity system. Owing to several experiments of storage of electricity, the ZNIs have become laboratories for anticipating the future difficulties that interconnected electricity grids will have to handle once the share of renewable, intermittent electricity will have risen significantly in the energy mix. (author)

103

Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the 'heart and soul' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems.

104

Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the ''heart and soul'' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems. (author)

Figueiredo, Joao [Centre of Mechatronics Engineering - CEM/Institut of Mechanical Engineering - IDMEC, University of Evora, R. Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal); Martins, Joao [Centre of Technology and Systems/Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2010-06-15

105

Technical and economic assessment of storage systems for spent fuel from commercial LWRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the study was to examine the technical and economic aspects of the cask storage system for storing spent fuel in transport/storage casks in Japan, and to compare them with those of the pool storage system. The scenarios for the transport and storage of spent fuel, and the main characteristics of spent fuel, were established as the basic conditions for the present study. On the basis of these conditions, conceptual designs, safety analyses and cost estimations of the spent fuel transport/storage casks and the storage facilities were carried out. Data were prepared for the pool storage system based on the same conditions. The cask storage system was then examined from the technical and economic viewpoint and a comparison made with the pool storage system. It was assumed that the transport/storage casks which had been developed and licensed in Europe and the United States of America would be applicable to Japan. In the present study, conceptual designs of the transport/storage casks were made on the basis of the capacity of the existing cranes at the reactor building. With regard to the safety (in particular, shielding) and economic aspects, conceptual designs of a trench system using truck cranes and an individual shielding type storage system were made for AR storage. For AFR storage, a conceptual design of a simple concrete building was made. The major results of a shielding analysis and seismic safety analyses are given. An economic assessment of the spent fuel management costs for the cask storage system and the pool storage system for AR storage of 500 t U and AFR storage of 3000 t U revealed that the costs for the cask storage system were lower than those for the pool storage system. (author). 3 figs, 3 tabs

106

Characterization of the 309 building fuel transfer pit and storage basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document identifies radiological, chemical and physical conditions inside the Fuel Transfer Pit and Fuel Storage Basins. These spaces are located inside the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor structure (309 Building.) The fuel handling and storage feature of the PRTR were primarily located in these spaces. The conditions were assessed as part of overall 309 Building transition

107

Characterization of the 309 building fuel transfer pit and storage basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document identifies radiological, chemical and physical conditions inside the Fuel Transfer Pit and Fuel Storage Basins. These spaces are located inside the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor structure (309 Building.) The fuel handling and storage feature of the PRTR were primarily located in these spaces. The conditions were assessed as part of overall 309 Building transition.

Hale, N.S.

1998-03-19

108

Didactic model of the high storage system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The continuous progress in Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM field with automatic storing systems is broadening the range of education process for engineers in future. This document describes the newest didactic station integrated witch a Modular Production System (MPS model [1, 2, 3]. It is a module of high storage. This arrangement is the perfect didactic item for students.Design/methodology/approach: The main reason, why the laboratory position, we have mentioned, has been created is brodening the students knowlegde’s range. To achive this task the warehouse has been made from really industrial elements. All manipulator’s axis were building from different types of transmissions. Findings: During the work with warehouse there has been prepared the new algorithm which controlls the linear drive. Besides that there has been created brand new standards in engineers education, which are based on the described warehouse. Research limitations/implications: The main target of the didactic activity of Institute of Engineering Processes Automation and Integrated Manufacturing Systems is broden the loboratory base. That’s the reason why now there already has been building another laboratory position, which is based on Fanuc manipulator.Practical implications: The algorithm of Pneu-Stat steering hasn’t been finished yet, but when it has been done it can be used in industrial aplicationsOriginality/value: This paper describes the new didactic station with innovational steering algorithm [4, 5].

J. ?wider

2006-04-01

109

Systems analysis of thermal storage  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include estimates of both the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, an in-depth study evaluated thermal storage concepts for water/steam, organic fluid, and gas/Brayton solar thermal receivers. Promising and nonpromising concepts were identified. Thermal storage concepts were evaluated for a liquid metal receiver. The value of thermal storage in a solar thermal industrial process heat application was analyzed. Several advanced concepts studied, include ground-mounted thermal storage for parabolic dishes with Stirling engines.

Copeland, R. J.

1981-08-01

110

Annual Collection and Storage of Solar Energy for the Heating of Buildings, Report No. 3. Semi-Annual Progress Report, August 1977 - January 1978.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is part of a series from the Department of Energy on the use of solar energy in heating buildings. Described here is a new system for year around collection and storage of solar energy. This system has been operated at the University of Virginia for over a year. Composed of an underground hot water storage system and solar collection,…

Beard, J. Taylor; And Others

111

Vertical displacement of the storage ring floor due to building distortion in the Photon Factory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Light Source Building of the Photon Factory was found to distort so much as to induce the displacement of magnets in the storage ring. This resulted in drifting of the beam orbit. It was considered that the building was distorted by the variations of thermal stress, such as diurnal changes of the solar irradiation and atmospheric temperature. To reduce such thermal stress, the rooftop of the building was insulated with a layer of polyethylene foam. The building distortion was measured in terms of vertical floor displacements along the storage ring by using a hydrostatic level measuring system. Results of the measurement were compared with those of a model simulation based on the finite element method. Comparison between measured and simulated results showed good agreement before the insulation applied to the roof. After the insulation, the measured floor displacements reduced to about one half and were also comparable to the simulated results. A full description of the subject is given in T. Katsura, Ed., KEK Internal 90-32 (in Japanese) Jan. (1991)

112

Management of Data Replication for PC Cluster-based Cloud Storage System  

CERN Document Server

Storage systems are essential building blocks for cloud computing infrastructures. Although high performance storage servers are the ultimate solution for cloud storage, the implementation of inexpensive storage system remains an open issue. To address this problem, the efficient cloud storage system is implemented with inexpensive and commodity computer nodes that are organized into PC cluster based datacenter. Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is an open source cloud based storage platform and designed to be deployed in low-cost hardware. PC Cluster based Cloud Storage System is implemented with HDFS by enhancing replication management scheme. Data objects are distributed and replicated in a cluster of commodity nodes located in the cloud. This system provides optimum replica number as well as weighting and balancing among the storage server nodes. The experimental results show that storage can be balanced depending on the available disk space, expected availability and failure probability of each node ...

Myint, Julia

2011-01-01

113

Middleware for building pervasive systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pervasive software succeeds when it is leveraged permeable into the background of everyday life and work supporting users more properly to fulfill their tasks than they used to do it with pre-existing techniques. Hence, we hypothesize, that a particular pervasive system may comprise certain styles of intelligent networking embedded systems, secure communication patterns, context-aware assisting, novel techniques of interaction and many more sophisticated features. Building such highly flexibl...

Al-akkad, A.; Pramudianto, F.; Jahn, M.; Zimmermann, A.

2009-01-01

114

Building a parallel file system simulator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parallel file systems are gaining in popularity in high-end computing centers as well as commercial data centers. High-end computing systems are expected to scale exponentially and to pose new challenges to their storage scalability in terms of cost and power. To address these challenges scientists and file system designers will need a thorough understanding of the design space of parallel file systems. Yet there exist few systematic studies of parallel file system behavior at petabyte- and exabyte scale. An important reason is the significant cost of getting access to large-scale hardware to test parallel file systems. To contribute to this understanding we are building a parallel file system simulator that can simulate parallel file systems at very large scale. Our goal is to simulate petabyte-scale parallel file systems on a small cluster or even a single machine in reasonable time and fidelity. With this simulator, file system experts will be able to tune existing file systems for specific workloads, scientists and file system deployment engineers will be able to better communicate workload requirements, file system designers and researchers will be able to try out design alternatives and innovations at scale, and instructors will be able to study very large-scale parallel file system behavior in the class room. In this paper we describe our approach and provide preliminary results that are encouraging both in terms of fidelity and simulation scalability.elity and simulation scalability.

115

An application of conventional building technology in the storage of low level solid reactor wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ontario Hydro has been engaged in the interim storage of low and medium level solid reactor wastes since 1967. Over the past 14 years, engineered inground concrete trenches have provided safe, retrievable storage capacity for the bulk of the waste arising from Ontario Hydro's nuclear generation program. In addition to concrete trenches, inground concrete cylinders (tile holes) and above ground concrete vaults (Quadricells) have been designed and constructed to store disposable ion-exchange columns, spent filters and bulk ion-exchange resins. In 1978, Ontario Hydro initiated a conceptual design study on the future storage of solid reactor wastes. The objective of the study was to develop a bulk storage concept which would reduce both reactor waste storage costs and storage site land consumption. The study, completed in 1979, recommended a conventional pre-stressed, pre-fabricated, concrete storage building concept as Ontario Hydro's future bulk reactor waste storage facility. This new, low level storage building (LLSB) will be placed in service by September 1982, reducing bulk storage costs by a factor of three while reducing land consumption by a factor of 10 over present Ontario Hydro trench storage facilities. The storage building complements the capabilities of the other Ontario Hydro storage facility designs

116

Systems analysis techniques for annual cycle thermal energy storage solar systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Community-scale annual cycle thermal energy storage (ACTES) solar systems are promising options for building heat and cooling. A variety of approaches are feasible in modeling ACTES solar systems. The key parameter in such efforts, average collector efficiency, is first examined, followed by several approaches for simple and effective modeling. Methods are also examined for modeling building loads for structures based on both conventional and passive architectural designs. Two simulation models for sizing solar heating systems with annual storage are presented next. Validation is presented by comparison with the results of a study of seasonal storage systems based on SOLANSIM, an hour-by-hour simulation. These models are presently being used to examine the economic trade-off between collector field area and storage capacity. Finally, programs in the US Department of Energy directed toward developing either other system components such as improved tanks and solar ponds or design tools for ACTES solar systems are examined.

Baylin, F.; Sillman, S.

1980-07-01

117

Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. Because this sub-project is still in the construction/start-up phase, all verification activities have not yet been performed (e.g., canister cover cap and welding fixture system verification, MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment verification, and As-built verification.). The verification activities identified in this report that still are to be performed will be added to the start-up punchlist and tracked to closure.

PICKETT, W.W.

2000-09-22

118

Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. Because this sub-project is still in the construction/start-up phase, all verification activities have not yet been performed (e.g., canister cover cap and welding fixture system verification, MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment verification, and As-built verification.). The verification activities identified in this report that still are to be performed will be added to the start-up punchlist and tracked to closure

119

Simulation of the APS storage-ring rf system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simulation model for the APS storage ring rf system has been developed that includes the effects of cavity impedances, longitudinal beam dynamics, and generator klystrons. The model predicts multiple-bunch longitudinal beam behavior and is used for feedback system design and stability analysis

120

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Canister Storage Building (CSB) is the interim storage facility for the K-Basin SNF at the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SNF is packaged in multi-canister overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs are placed inside transport casks, then delivered to the service station inside the CSB. At the service station, the MCO handling machine (MHM) moves the MCO from the cask to a storage tube or one of two sample/weld stations. There are 220 standard storage tubes and six overpack storage tubes in a below grade reinforced concrete vault. Each storage tube can hold two MCOs

 
 
 
 
121

Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

Raymond, Rick E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Frederickson, James R. [AREVA, Avignon (France); Criddle, James [AREVA, Avignon (France); Hamilton, Dennis [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Mike W. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

2012-10-18

122

Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS)

123

Energy storage and wind energy conversion systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The demand imposed by the variability of wind power input have pushed the technical performance and cost requirements for energy storage to the forefront. In principle, wind turbine generators can be integrated with almost any kind of energy storage technology. However, the most appropriate energy storage system depends on the system size and the type of energy being delivered. Because most commercial wind turbines are designed to deliver electrical power, the vast majority of systems that do incorporate energy storage use batteries. Large systems using batteries have not been shown to be viable. Up to now, most efforts and success in reliably and economically integrating storage with wind turbine generators have been concerned with relatively small power plants, less than about 1 kW. Very small wind/storage systems, where the wind turbine is dedicated to charging conventional lead-acid batteries, currently dominate the market for wind power/energy storage hybrid power systems. These systems are well developed and proven. So-called 'village scale' hybrid power generating systems using energy storage (about 5 kW to 100 kW capacity) are now the subject of considerable product development and commercialization. The key technical problem for off-grid or stand-alone wind power systems of this size that must deliver well-regulated (i.e. high quality) AC power may well be to implement the most reliable and cost effective short term and highly responsive energy storage systems (on the scale of 1 second to 10 minutes). Such storage schemes must respond effectively to the wind power fluctuations and the load demand fluctuations to maintain network stability. Pumped hydro and underground compressed air storage will probably find some applications in larger scale wind power plants where they can work with the wind power plant to deliver baseload power to the grid, however the number of applications for these systems is limited. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

124

Preoperational test, vent building ventilation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preoperational Test Procedure for Vent Building Ventilation System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The Vent Building ventilation system provides ventilation, heating, cooling, and zone confinement control for the W-030 Project Vent Building. The tests verify correct System operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control system.

Clifton, F.T., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-20

125

Operating Experiences with an Advanced Fabric Energy Storage System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite their proven track record in the cold climate countries of northern Europe, there are no reports in the research literature of experiences using advanced fabric energy storage (FES) systems in countries where cooling rather than heating is the main priority. This paper reports some of the experiences with the first known advanced FES system in Australia made over the first full calendar year of operation. It is located in a three-storey building on a university campus in Victoria a...

Fuller, R. J.

2012-01-01

126

Management issues for high performance storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01

127

Hydrogen storage and delivery system development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

128

A system approach to archival storage  

Science.gov (United States)

The introduction and viewgraphs of a discussion on a system approach to archival storage presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. The use of D-2 iron particles for archival storage is discussed along with how acceleration factors relating short-term tests to archival life times can be justified. Ampex Recording Systems is transferring D-2 video technology to data storage applications, and encountering concerns about corrosion. To protect the D-2 standard, Battelle tests were done on all four tapes in the Class 2 environment. Error rates were measured before and after the test on both exposed and control groups.

Corcoran, John W.

1991-01-01

129

Central building automation system reduces operating costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brown Boveri's central building automation system, known as AREA-DAT GA 2000, enables service installations in large building complexes to be operated economically by minimizing the personnel required and reducing the electrical power used. The firm installed the central building automation system for Kodak AG in Stuttgart, Germany; this example is used to explain the benefits of such a system.

Aue, E.; Kristen, W.

1985-10-01

130

Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

1998-10-01

131

Canister storage building (CSB) safety analysis report phase 3:safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) design criteria, the design's compliance with the applicable criteria, and the basis for authorization to proceed with construction of the CSB

132

Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

1999-09-01

133

Design of Micro Flywheel Energy Storage System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flywheel energy storage systems have advantages over other types of energy storage devices in such aspects as unlimited charge/discharge cycles and environmental friendliness. In this paper, we propose a millimeter scale flywheel energy storage device. The flywheel is supported by a pair of passive magnetic bearings and rotated by a toroidally wound electric motor/generator. The geometry of the bearings is optimized for the maximum dynamic performance

134

Compressed air energy storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1981-01-01

135

Geotechnical investigations of closing systems in a final storage mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Asse saltmine of the GFS Research Centre for the Environment and Health GmbH, which is now being used as a research mine, two large underground experiments on closing systems are at present being carried out. In the first large experiment ('Dam building in rock salt'), the mechanical and hydraulic functioning of a dam construction as final storage of waste materials is being explored. In the second of these large experiments 'Thermal simulation of underground roadway storage - TSS', the mechanical and hydraulic reaction of a roadway made of fine salt with roadway convergence accelerated by heating of the stored substance is the object of the exploration programme. (orig./HS)

136

Reliability Analysis of Data Storage Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modern data storage systems are extremely large and consist of several tens or hundreds of nodes. In such systems, node failures are daily events, and safeguarding data from them poses a serious design challenge. The focus of this thesis is on the data reliability analysis of storage systems and, in particular, on the effect of different design choices and parameters on the system reliability. Data redundancy, in the form of replication or advanced erasure codes, is used to protect data from ...

Venkatesan, Vinodh

2012-01-01

137

Fluid management system for a zero gravity cryogenic storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

The fluid management system comprises a mixing/recirculation system including an external recirculation pump for receiving fluid from a zero gravity storage system and returning an output flow of the fluid to the storage system. An internal axial spray injection system is provided for receiving a portion of the output flow from the recirculation pump. The spray injection system thermally de-stratifies liquid and gaseous cryogenic fluid stored in the storage system.

Lak, Tibor I. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

138

Geothermal storage heating and cooling system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An indoor space environment heating and cooling system in which a massive thermal storage unit is interposed between a geothermal heat energy storage capacity-the earth-and a heat pump heating and/or cooling apparatus for controlling and maintaining the environment in an indoor living space. A fluid circulation apparatus is provided to circulate a working fluid from the massive thermal storage unit directly to a heat exchanger in the indoor space environment conditioning apparatus, to provide cooling when the temperature of the thermal storage unit is less than the temperature in the living space.

Downing, J.E.

1983-03-08

139

Kinetic Storage as an Energy Management System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility of storing energy is increasingly important and necessary. The reason is that storage modifies the basic equation of the energy production balance which states that the power produced should equal the power consumed. When there is a storage device in the grid, this equation is modified such that, in the new balance, the energy produced should equal the algebraic sum of the energy consumed and the energy stored (positive in storage phase and negative when released). This means that the generation profile can be uncoupled from the consumption profile, with the resulting improvement of efficiency. Even small-sized storage systems can be very effective. (Author) 10 refs

140

Search content via Cloud Storage System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With cloud computing growing in IT Enterprise. the importance of storing and searching files on the cloud increase. cloud storage is defined as a set of scalable data servers or chunk servers that provide computing and storage services to clients. Our research concern with searching in the file content throw cloud storage system Our research using ontology approach that can be store and retrieve files in the cloud based on its content to resolves the weaknesses that existed in Google File System that depends on metadata and searching only using file name Our new architecture was tested on Cloud Storage Simulator and the result shows that the new architecture has better scalability, fault tolerance and performance for searching for file content in cloud storage system.

Haytham Al-Feel

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Monitoring the energy systems of sustainable buildings  

Science.gov (United States)

The complexity of sustainable energy systems for buildings services calls for more transparency of the processes which provide energy for the buildings heating, cooling and power needs. In the frame of applied scientific research at University of Applied Sciences Offenburg, different systems and even buildings in total have been monitored over years to analyse their performance and to optimize the system installations and operations. New EU regulations like EN 16001 require an effective monitoring and a continuous commissioning of the energy relevant systems to certificate sustainable processes. On the other hand, new operation tools are necessary to handle the volatility of renewable energy sources and the buildings demand. Predictive building automation has shown good results when applied for energy systems with high inertia. Operating large-scale solar thermal systems and sustainable buildings over long-term periods the University of Applied Sciences provided evidence that monitoring is an essential system tool for an energy and cost efficient operation of sustainable buildings.

Bollin, Elmar

2011-05-01

142

Dry storage systems with free convection air cooling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several design principles to remove heat from the spent fuel by free air convection are illustrated and described. The key safety considerations were felt to be: loss of coolant is impossible as the passive system uses air as a coolant; overheating is precluded because as the temperatures of the containers rises the coolant flow rate increases; mass of the storage building provides a large heat sink and therefore a rapid temperature rise is impossible; and lack of any active external support requirements makes the cooling process less likely to equipment or operator failures. An example of this type of storage already exists. The German HTGR is operated with spherical graphite fuel elements which are stored in canister and in storage cells. The concept is a double cooling system with free convection inside the cells and heat exchange via two side walls of the cell to the ambient air in the cooling ducts. Technical description of the TN 1300 cask is also presented

143

Data storage system for fusion experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An appropriate archiving and an effective using of experimental data are examined in the field of fusion research. Several computer systems in tokamak type fusion experimental devices are reviewed, and then, indispensable functions and optimum utilizing form of data storage system are discussed from the standpoint of computer technology. According to these considerations, the data storage system was made in the JFT-2M tokamak. (author)

144

Energy storage for power systems  

CERN Document Server

The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

2011-01-01

145

Thermo Active Building Systems Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany, Austria, Netherlands, etc.), this type of system has been installed in a significant number of new office buildings since the late 1990s. The trend is spreading to other parts of the world (the rest of Europe, North America and Asia).

Olesen, Bjarne W.

2012-01-01

146

Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

147

Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. The original version of this document was prepared by Vista Engineering for the SNF Project. The purpose of this revision is to document completion of verification actions that were pending at the time the initial report was prepared. Verification activities for the installed and operational SSCs have been completed. Verification of future additions to the CSB related to the canister cover cap and welding fixture system and MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment will be completed as appropriate for those components. The open items related to verification of those requirements are noted in section 3.1.5 and will be tracked as part of the CSB Facility action tracking system.

BAZINET, G.D.

2000-11-03

148

Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. The original version of this document was prepared by Vista Engineering for the SNF Project. The purpose of this revision is to document completion of verification actions that were pending at the time the initial report was prepared. Verification activities for the installed and operational SSCs have been completed. Verification of future additions to the CSB related to the canister cover cap and welding fixture system and MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment will be completed as appropriate for those components. The open items related to verification of those requirements are noted in section 3.1.5 and will be tracked as part of the CSB Facility action tracking system

149

Biodigester as an energy storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

2009-07-01

150

Status of electrical energy storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents an overview of the status of electrical storage systems in the light of the growing use of renewable energy sources and distributed generation (DG) in meeting emission targets and in the interest of the UK electricity supply industry. Examples of storage technologies, their applications and current status are examined along with technical issues and possible activities by UK industries. Details are given of development opportunities in the fields of flow cells, advanced batteries - lithium batteries, high temperature batteries, flywheels, and capacitors. Power conversion systems and system integration, the all-electric ship project, and compressed air energy storage are discussed. Opportunities for development and deployment, small scale systems, demonstration programmes, and research and development issues are considered. An outline of the US Department of Energy Storage programme is given in the Annex to the report.

NONE

2004-07-01

151

Water-storage-tube systems. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

Hemker, P.

1981-12-24

152

Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

Lata

1996-09-26

153

Energy storage in future power systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its ability to counteract fluctuations in renewable power generation and thereby allow for longer reaction times for any controllable generation units. Capture and storage of excess renewable power in order to fully exploit the natural recourses is likely to become relevant for high penetration levels of renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system. When identifying the most relevant storage solutions it is necessary to include considerations on many relevant parameters which should be evaluated against the potential drawbacks and benefits of adding storage. Here, the most relevant technologies in relation to power systems with high penetration of renewable sources are identified and considerations with regard to cost, sizing and operation scheme are made.

Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob

2011-01-01

154

Optimization of energy storage in power systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For more than a century, electric transmission and distribution systems have been developed assuming that electric energy was almost impossible to store. Technical progress, new environmental requirements and electrical industry reforms now lead us to believe that storage in the future will be one of the main challenges in the development of power systems. Storage would have potential applications to deal with current technical constraints such as the system load, peak-load value, faults in parts of the system, control issues, etc. and economic ones such as upgrades deferral, renewable energy deployment, etc. In this study, energy storage is considered in two strategic locations in the French power system: HT/MT substations and wind farms. Possible applications and economic flags are formulated and appropriate optimization methods (genetic algorithms, Pareto) are used to maximize the project net present value. This optimization results in defining optimal capacities and control strategies for the energy storage system, taken from a set of storage technologies suitable for this problem, and in assessing the technical-economic impact of energy storage as a solution in power systems. (author)

155

Sacramento Municipal Utility district's interim onsite storage building for low level radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to meet current and anticipated needs for the low level radwaste management program at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District has a design and construction program underway which will provide an onsite interim storage facility that can be expanded in two and one-half year increments. The design approach utilized allows capital investment to be minimized and still provides radwaste management flexibility in anticipation of delays in resolution of the nationwide long term radwaste disposal situation. The facility provides storage and material accountability for all low level radwastes generated by the plant. Wastes are segregated by radioactivity level and are stored in two separate storage areas located within one facility. Lower activity wastes are stored in a lightly shielded structure and handled by lift trucks, while the higher activity wastes are stored in a highly shielded structure and handled remotely by manual bridge crane. The layout of the structure provides for economy of operation and minimizes personnel radiation exposure. Design philosophy and criteria, building layout and systems, estimated costs and construction schedule are discussed

156

Spent Nuclear Fuel project stage and store K basin SNF in canister storage building functions and requirements. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the Canister Storage Building Subproject. The mission allocated to the Canister Storage Building Subproject is to provide safe, environmentally sound staging and storage of K Basin SNF until a decision on the final disposition is reached and implemented

157

APS storage ring vacuum system performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented.

Noonan, J.R.; Gagliano, J.; Goeppner, G.A. [and others

1997-06-01

158

Advances in information storage systems, v.6  

CERN Document Server

The series Advances in Information Storage Systems covers a wide range of interdisciplinary technical areas, related to magnetic or optical storage systems. The following nonexhaustive list is indicative of the scope of the topics: Friction, Adhesion, Wear and Lubrications, Coatings, Solid Mechanics, Air Flow, Contamination, Instrumentation, Dynamics, Shock and Vibration, Controls, Head and Suspension Design, Actuators, Spindle and Actuator Motors and Bearings, Structure of Thin Films, Corrosion, Long-Term Reliability, Materials and Processing, Manufacturing and Automation, Economics.This volu

Bhushan, Bharat

1995-01-01

159

Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-11-04

160

Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design

 
 
 
 
161

Test report : Princeton power systems prototype energy storage system.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Princeton Power Systems has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lithium ion phosphate batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Princeton Power Systems Prototype Energy Storage System.

Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

2013-08-01

162

Simulation of thermocline thermal energy storage system using C  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solar thermal power generation is a modern technology, which has already shown feasible results in the production of electricity. Thermal energy storage (TES is a crucial element in solar energy applications, which includes the increase of building thermal capacity, solar water heating systems for domestic use, and Concentrated Solar Thermal power plants for electricity generation. Economic, efficient and reliable thermal energy storage systems are a key need of solar thermal power plants, in order to smooth out the insolation changes during intermittent cloudy weather condition or during night period, to allow the operation. To address this goal, based on the parabolic trough power plants, sensible heat storage system with operation temperature between 300°C – 390°C can be used. The goal of this research is to design TES which can produce 1MWe. In this work simulation is performed to analyze the Liquid medium STES using C. In this case different liquid medium TESs is investigated and out of all mixed-media single-tank thermocline TES is selected and designed based on the Schumann equation. In particular, this equation is numerically solved, in order to determine energy storage, at different locations and time inside the storage tank. Finally, due to their feasibility, low cost of manufacturing and maintenance are designed and sized to the minimum possible volume.

Meseret Tesfay

2013-06-01

163

Toward Web Enhanced Building Automation Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emerging concept of Smart Building relies on an intensive use of sensors and actuators and therefore appears, at first glance, to be a domain of predilection for the IoT. However, technology providers of building automation systems have been functioning, for a long time, with dedicated networks, communication protocols and APIs. Eventually, a mix of different technologies can even be present in a given building. IoT principles are now appearing in buildings as a way to simplify and standa...

Bovet, Ge?ro?me; Ridi, Antonio; Hennebert, Jean

2014-01-01

164

40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.  

Science.gov (United States)

...storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to foreclosure. A holder, prior to...for the daily operation of the UST or UST system. (b) Operating an UST or UST system after...

2010-07-01

165

Security for cloud storage systems  

CERN Document Server

Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

Yang, Kan

2014-01-01

166

RTDS modelling of battery energy storage system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes the development of a simplified model of a battery energy storage. The battery energy storage is part of the ABB energy storage system DynaPeaQ®. The model has been built to be run in RTDS, a real time digital simulator. Batteries can be represented by equivalent electric circuits, built up of e.g voltage sources and resistances. The magnitude of the components in an equivalent circuit varies with a number of parameters, e.g. state of charge of the battery and current f...

Rydberg, Lova

2011-01-01

167

Force balanced magnetic energy storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel scheme of constructing coils suited for inductive storage system is described. By means of a force-compensating method, the reinforcement structure can be made considerably smaller than that needed for conventional coils. The economics of this system is shown to be capable of achieving savings of upwards of 40% when compared to a conventional system

168

Data Acquisition and Storage in Engineering Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data storage represents a sensitive subject when it comes to a software system or a software application. Referring to engineering systems, data storage becomes even more challenging, since multiple functions must be accomplished and various tasks need real time response and high accuracy. While gathering information through data acquisition is relatively simple, with hardware and software equipment providing wide and complex documentation, data storage raises a set of issues, mainly due to communication channels, storage devices or software algorithms. In this context, the paper will focus on presenting some of the mostly used hardware devices and data transmission protocols in engineering applications, creating an overview over data manipulation and providing an implementation method, together with proposed solutions and a model of implementation regarding the topic.

Cezar Liviu CERVINSCHI

2011-09-01

169

Injection Control System of HLS Storage Ring  

CERN Document Server

The injection control system of Hefei Light Source (HLS) storage ring is a subsystem of the upgraded HLS control system, which is based upon EPICS. Three programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are used as device controllers, which control one septum modulator and four kicker modulators of HLS storage ring. An Industrial PC is used as Input/Output Controller (IOC) and it connects the PLCs with serial communication (RS232 mode) over fibre. A PC with Linux is used as operator interface (OPI), operator application are running on it. The control system was completed in July 2000. The commissioning shows that the control system is reliable and easy operational.

Liu, G; Li, W; Li Chuan; Li, K; Shang, L; Liu, Gongfa; Li, Jingyi; Li, Weimin; Li, Chuan; Li, Kaihong; Shang, Lei

2001-01-01

170

Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

2011-04-01

171

Autonomic Management in a Distributed Storage System  

CERN Document Server

This thesis investigates the application of autonomic management to a distributed storage system. Effects on performance and resource consumption were measured in experiments, which were carried out in a local area test-bed. The experiments were conducted with components of one specific distributed storage system, but seek to be applicable to a wide range of such systems, in particular those exposed to varying conditions. The perceived characteristics of distributed storage systems depend on their configuration parameters and on various dynamic conditions. For a given set of conditions, one specific configuration may be better than another with respect to measures such as resource consumption and performance. Here, configuration parameter values were set dynamically and the results compared with a static configuration. It was hypothesised that under non-changing conditions this would allow the system to converge on a configuration that was more suitable than any that could be set a priori. Furthermore, the sy...

Tauber, Markus

2010-01-01

172

Radiation shield building element system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The building element consists of long bodies of rectangular crossection. Longitudinal grooves are made along two opposite long sides, which can be filled with a flat concrete grid. The building elements themselves are manufactured from a composite material made of cement, foamed styropor, sand, dolomite and boron carbide/aluminium mixture. Their surfaces can be coated by a lead coating. (DG)

173

Thermo Active Building Systems – Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany, Austria, Netherlands, etc.), this type of system has been installed in a significant number of new office buildings since the late 1990s. The trend is spreading to other parts of the world (the rest of Europe, North America and Asia). Thermo active building systems (TABS) are primarily used for cooling multistory buildings. By activating the building mass, there is a direct heating-cooling effect. Also, because of the thermal mass, the peak load will be reduced and some of the cooling load will be transferred beyond the time of occupancy. Because these systems for cooling operate at water temperatures close to room temperature, they increase the efficiency of heat pumps, ground heat exchangers and other systems using renewable energy sources.

Olesen, Bjarne W.

2014-01-01

174

10 CFR 434.403 - Building mechanical systems and equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Building mechanical systems and...HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Design Requirements-Electric...such as speculative buildings, the designer may...engineer certifies to the building official that...

2010-01-01

175

Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

REMAIZE, J.A.

2000-09-27

176

Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

177

The ALICE online data storage system  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) Data Acquisition (DAQ) system has the unprecedented requirement to ensure a very high volume, sustained data stream between the ALICE Detector and the Permanent Data Storage (PDS) system which is used as main data repository for Event processing and Offline Computing. The key component to accomplish this task is the Transient Data Storage System (TDS), a set of data storage elements with its associated hardware and software components, which supports raw data collection, its conversion into a format suitable for subsequent high-level analysis, the storage of the result using highly parallelized architectures, its access via a cluster file system capable of creating high-speed partitions via its affinity feature, and its transfer to the final destination via dedicated data links. We describe the methods and the components used to validate, test, implement, operate, and monitor the ALICE Online Data Storage system and the way it has been used in the early days of comm...

Divia, R; Makhlyueva, I; Vande Vyvre, P; Altini, V; Carena, F; Carena, W; Chapeland, S; Chibante Barroso, V; Costa, F; Roukoutakis, F; Schossmaier, K; Soos, S; von Haller, B; 10.1088/1742-6596/219/5/052002

2010-01-01

178

Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

179

Latent heat storage for solar energy systems - Transient simulation of refrigerant storage  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a brief review of the available latent heat storage systems for solar energy utilization. A new concept of latent heat storage of solar energy via the refrigerant-absorbent mass storage in absorption cycle heat pump systems used for solar space heating/cooling has been proposed and assessed thermodynamically. A computer modeling and numerical simulation study shows that the concept of refrigerant storage is fundamentally sound, technically feasible and yields the following advantages over other storage methods: (1) the storage capacity per unit volume is high as the latent heat of vaporization of the refrigerant is high; (2) the heat loss from the storage to the surroundings is minimum as the storage temperature is near the ambient; (3) prolonged energy storage is possible with no degradation in system performance and hence suitable for combined solar heating and air conditioning. The effects of operating parameters on the energy storage concentration and storage efficiency have been studied in detail.

Kaushik, S. C.

1982-09-01

180

Building Systems: Passing Fad or Basic Tool?  

Science.gov (United States)

Building systems can be traced back to a 1516 A.D. project by Leonardo da Vinci and to a variety of prefabrication projects in every succeeding century. When integrated into large and repetitive spatial units through careful design, building systems can produce an architecture of the first order, as evidenced in the award winning design of…

Rezab, Donald

 
 
 
 
181

Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

Alan C. Cooper

2012-05-02

182

Dry storage system for spent nuclear fuel DSS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DSS is a Dry Storage System manufactured by INVAP for spent nuclear fuel. Spent fuel removed from the reactor of nuclear plants is usually stored in water pools where water acts as radiological shielding and as coolant. Pool water and pool building air require regular monitoring and maintenance. The DSS offers a more economical and safe alternative to store spent fuel which has had partial decay of its activity in the plant storage pool. The DSS alternative uses above ground concrete silos. With the DSS system spent fuel is loaded in steel baskets before fuel is removed from the storage pool of the power plant. Each basket holds several fuel bundles. Each basket is taken from the pool and dried in a shielded transfer cell. The basket loaded with dry fuel is then covered and seal welded. Each basket is transported inside a shielded container to its storage place in the concrete silo. The silo is a steel cylinder with capacity to store several baskets and surrounded by a thick reinforced concrete shielding. Baskets are housed inside the steel cylinder on top of each other. The silos are closed with a plug made of steel-lined reinforced concrete. When a silo is full the steel lining of the plug is seal welded to the steel cylinder. The system has been designed for a minimum of 50 years

183

Changing Dashboard build system to Bamboo  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this project is to change Cosmic custom build system to an Automated build system used Bamboo CI System services. The goal is when a developer performs some changes on the source code, the system builds installation packages for different architectures and runs tests automatically on the software modules as soon as possible. The Bamboo build system polls the git repository which is a commonly used source code repository by the developers of the IT department. Bamboo CI System is a widely used system by the department. Thus the project uses widely accepted tools by the department which makes the Cosmic project even more standardized. Project also aims to create packages for every versions of Cosmic modules for different architectures (SLC5/SLC6) which can be accessed by different package repositories on AFS file system. The created package repositories can be used for automated deploy environment such as puppet.

Varga, Robert

2013-01-01

184

Design and operational experience of dry cask storage systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper (Power Point presentation) describes cask storage design features and available dry cask storage technology, cask types used for dry storage, design characteristics of CASTOR casks, the German licensing basis for cask storage systems, shielding requirements, thermal layout, mechanical design, criticality safety and containment, licensing procedure, operational experience of dry cask storage in Germany and worldwide

185

Design, building and testing of a latent heat thermal energy storage element  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Design, building and testing of a prototype latent heat energy storage system (LHTES) was discussed. The prototype is 3000 Wh latent heat storage element fully charged in just four hours. The phase change material (PCM) was P116 Sunoco Wax, arranged in thin layers; it was melted by the use of an electric heat mat. Thermocouples were installed in the layers to measure the effect of non-uniform heating during the melting process and to monitor the solidification of the PCM during discharging. Thermocouples were also used to monitor air temperature between inlet and outlet during heat recovery. Results indicated that the power released during latent heat recovery was 500 Watts, or half of the design value. The flow rate of the fan was 35 Pa, less than the manufacturer`s specifications, resulting in reduced power and longer discharge time. Larger air flow passages to reduce pressure drop and an increased length of air path to maintain sufficient outlet air temperature were recommended for improved results. .4 refs., 8 figs.

Millette, J.; Lacroix, M.; Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique

1996-10-01

186

Building management systems. Special issue; Gebouwbeheersystemen. Themanummer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In seven articles several aspects of building management systems are discussed: networks in businesses, wireless communication, renovation of installations in the buildings of a Dutch ministry by means of 1 intelligent system, the building of a new office building and the use of the newest technologies and a smart combined control system for the indoor climate and lighting, the use of a Building Automation Network (BACnet), remote control and maintenance of building installations, and finally a brief overview of the Congress Smart Buildings 2006 with respect to intelligent systems. [Dutch] In 7 artikelen worden verschillende aspecten van gebouwbeheersystemen behandeld: bedrijfsnetwerken, draadloze communicatie, renovatie van elektrotechnische en werktuigbouwkundige installaties in gebouwen van het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuurbeheer en Voedselkwaliteit (LNV) door middel van 1 intelligent systeem, de bouw van een kantoorpand met toepassing van de nieuwste technologieen en een slimme gecombineerde regeling voor het binnenklimaat en verlichting, toepassing van Building Automation Control netwerk (BACnet), besturing en onderhoud van gebouwsystemen op afstand via alarmmodem, en tenslotte een kort overzicht van het Congres Smart Buildings 2006 m.b.t. intelligente systemen.

Rigter, L. [Siemens Nederland, Building Technologies, Den Haag (Netherlands); Peterse, A. [Regel Partners, Hoevelaken (Netherlands); Van Oosten, G. [Priva Computer Systems, Delft (Netherlands); Jansen, J. [Barcol-Air, Purmerend (Netherlands); Greitzke, S. [Wilo, Dortmund (Germany); Hoeffnagel, R.

2007-01-15

187

Kiinteistoen yllaepidon tiedonhallintajaerjestelmae. (Data processing system for building maintenance).  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial aim of the Information System for Building Maintenance project was to integrate the computer aided stage of building design into the computer system for building maintenance. Computer aided building design is represented in the research accord...

T. Lounela, J. Aengeslevae

1991-01-01

188

10 CFR 434.404 - Building service systems and equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Building service systems and equipment...MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Design Requirements-Electric...and Equipment § 434.404 Building service systems and...

2010-01-01

189

Suitability of building construction materials in short-term energy storage. Phase change materials in buildings. Situation report; Rakennusmateriaalien soveltuvuus lyhytaikaiseen laemmoenvarastointiin. Faasimuutosmateriaalit rakentamisessa. Tilannekatsaus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermophysical properties of the materials used in buildings have a strong effect on the energy consumption of buildings. The heat loads to rooms may result in overheating if the thermal mass and heat capacity in the structures of the buildings are inadequate. That, in turn, may increase ventilation needs to remove additional heat from the room space. By adding a special phase change material in the building material it is possible to increase substantially the heat capacity of the building construction material. Thus, in the daytime additional heat energy coming to the room space could be stored in inner walls or intermediate floors. In the night time this heat energy releases from the structures and it could be ventilated out in summer or used in heating the building in spring and autumn. In this report a summary is made of studies carried out and reported thus far concerning phase change materials based on the literature. Also clarification of phase change materials suitable for adding in the building materials is included in the report. Furthermore, companies manufacturing phase change materials and their products are briefly dealt with. Research concerning phase change materials in building materials has been carried out mainly in the University of Dayton and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the USA and in Concordia University in Canada. The emphasis of the research in the University of Dayton has been on parafins of phase change materials, and on gypsum board and hollow-core concrete blocks of building materials. In the Oak Ridge Laboratory, there has also been research on combining parafins to the gypsum boards. The research in Concordia University has been focused on parafins and fatty acids of phase change materials, and on PCM-gypsum board and PCM-concrete of building materials. According to the researches, the total heat energy consumption could be 45% smaller in solar buildings than in buildings where solar energy is not exploited. However, it was noticed that PCM-walls do not bring additional value to indoor comfort in residential buildings if passive solar energy is not taken into account. PCM-gypsum boards` latent heat is about 28-47 kJ/kg depending on the PCM-material used and on the amount of the material. Its storage capacity is 11 times higher than the capacity of a normal gypsum board. PCM-concrete`s latent heat is about 3-23 kJ/kg depending on the PCM-material used, the amount of the material and the quality of the concrete. The heat capacity of the concrete is 200-230 % higher than the capacity of normal concrete when the temperature difference is 6 deg C. IEA has a program called `Energy conversation through energy storage`. The program includes ANNEX 10 `Phase change materials and chemical reactions for thermal energy storage`, which deals with phase change materials and chemical reactions in thermal storage systems. Nine countries, including Finland, take part in the ANNEX 10 program. (orig.) 20 refs.

Lamberg, P.; Siren, K.

1998-12-31

190

Energy Storage System for a Pulsed DEMO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several designs have been proposed for DEMO, some of which will operate in pulsed mode. Since a fusion power plant will be required to deliver continuous output, this challenge must be solved. For the reference DEMO, energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWhe with a capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. Although DEMO is scheduled to be built in about 30 years, the design of the energy storage system must be based on current technology, focusing on commercially available products and on their expected future trends. From a thorough review of the different technologies available, thermal energy storage, compressed air energy storage, water pumping, fuel cells, batteries, flywheels and ultracapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage for a pulsed DEMO. An outline of each of these technologies is described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. Following this review, the most suitable methods capable of storing the required energy are examined. Fuel cells are not suitable due to the power requirement. Compressed air energy storage has a lower efficiency than the required one. Thermal energy storage, based on molten salts, so more energy can be stored with a better efficiency, and water pumping are shown as the main solutions, based on existing technology. However, those are not the only solutions capable of solving our challenge. Hydrogen production, using water electrolysis, hydrogen storage and combustion in a combined cycle can achieve our energy and power requirements with an acceptable efficiency. All these solutions are studied in detail and described, evaluating their current cost and efficiency in order to compare them all. (author)

191

Randomized load balancing in scalable storage systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Presently, IP-networked real-time streaming media storage has become increasingly common as an integral part of many applications. In recent years, a considerable amount of research has focused on the scalability issues in storage systems. Random placement of data blocks has been proven to be an effective approach to balance heterogeneous workload in a multi-disk environments. However, the main disadvantage of this technique is that statistical variations can still result in short term load imbalances in disk utilization, which in turn, cause large variances in latencies. In this paper, we propose a packet level randomization (PLR) technique to solve this challenge. We quantify the exact performance trade-off between our PLR approach and the traditional block level randomization (BLR) technique through analytical analysis. Our preliminary results show that the PLR technique outperforms the BLR approach and achieves much better load balancing in multi-disk storage systems.

Fu, Kun; Zimmermann, Roger

2005-01-01

192

Mass storage system by using broadcast technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many similarities between data recording systems for high energy physics and broadcast systems; the data flow is almost one-way, requires real-time recording; requires large-scale automated libraries for 24-hours operation, etc. In addition to these functional similarities, the required data-transfer and data-recording speeds are also close to those for near future experiments. For these reasons, we have collaborated with SONY Broadcast Company to study the usability of broadcast devices for our data storage system. Our new data storage system consists of high-speed data recorders and tape-robots which are originally based on the digital video-tape recorder and the tape-robot for broadcast systems. We are also studying the possibility to use these technologies for the online data-recording system for B-physics experiment at KEK. (author)

193

Mass Storage Performance Information System  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this task is to develop a data warehouse to enable system administrators and their managers to gather information by querying the data logs of the MDSDS. Currently detailed logs capture the activity of the MDSDS internal to the different systems. The elements to be included in the data warehouse are requirements analysis, data cleansing, database design, database population, hardware/software acquisition, data transformation, query and report generation, and data mining.

Scheuermann, Peter

2000-01-01

194

Generalized storage-reliability-yield relationships for rainwater harvesting systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Sizing storage for rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems is often a difficult design consideration, as the system must be designed specifically for the local rainfall pattern. We introduce a generally applicable method for estimating the required storage by using regional regression equations to account for climatic differences in the behavior of RWH systems across the entire continental United States. A series of simulations for 231 locations with continuous daily precipitation records enable the development of storage-reliability-yield (SRY) relations at four useful reliabilities, 0.8, 0.9, 0.95, and 0.98. Multivariate, log-linear regression results in storage equations that include demand, collection area and local precipitation statistics. The continental regression equations demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit (R2 0.96-0.99) using only two precipitation parameters, and fits improved when three geographic regions with more homogeneous rainfall characteristics were considered. The SRY models can be used to obtain a preliminary estimate of how large to build a storage tank almost anywhere in the United States based on desired yield and reliability, collection area, and local rainfall statistics. Our methodology could be extended to other regions of world, and the equations presented herein could be used to investigate how RWH systems would respond to changes in climatic variability. The resulting model may also prove useful in regional planning studies to evaluate the net benefits which result from the broad use of RWH to meet water supply requirements. We outline numerous other possible extensions to our work, which when taken together, illustrate the value of our initial generalized SRY model for RWH systems.

Hanson, L. S.; Vogel, R. M.

2014-07-01

195

Quality Assurance Program Plan for Project W-379: Spent Nuclear Fuels Canister Storage Building Projec  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Canister Storage Building (CSB) Project. The purpose of this QAPP is to control project activities ensuring achievement of the project mission in a safe, consistent and reliable manner

196

Evaluation of existing Hanford buildings for the storage of solid wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing storage space at the Hanford Site for solid low-level mixed waste (LLMW) will be filled up by 1997. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has initiated the project funding cycle for additional storage space to assure that new facilities are available when needed. In the course of considering the funding request, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked WHC to identify and review any existing Hanford Site facilities that could be modified and used as an alternative to constructing the proposed W-112 Project. This report documents the results of that review. In summary, no buildings exist at the Hanford Site that can be utilized for storage of solid LLMW on a cost-effective basis when compared to new construction. The nearest approach to an economically sensible conversion would involve upgrade of 100,000 ft2 of space in the 2101-M Building in the 200 East Area. Here, modified storage space is estimated to cost about $106 per ft2 while new construction will cost about $50 per ft2. Construction costs for the waste storage portion of the W-112 Project are comparable with W-016 Project actual costs, with escalation considered. Details of the cost evaluation for this building and for other selected candidate facilities are presented in this report. All comparisons presented address the potential decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) cost avoidances realized by using existing fa

197

Using Expert Systems To Build Cognitive Simulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive simulations are runnable computer programs for modeling human cognitive activities. A case study is reported where expert systems were used as a formalism for modeling metacognitive processes in a seminar. Building cognitive simulations engages intensive introspection, ownership and meaning making in learners who build them. (Author/AEF)

Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood

2003-01-01

198

Thermal performance of a two-phase thermosyphon energy storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents an energy storage system, which can be readily integrated with the building structure. It stores heat supplied by solar energy via the two-phase closed loop thermosyphon to storage tank and releases stored heat in energy storage material via two-phase closed thermosyphon to the heat exchanger through the flow of transport fluid. The functions of such energy storage system have three operating modes, i.e., heat charge, heat discharge, and simultaneous charge and discharge. The thermal performance of the system with alcohol and water as working fluid is experimentally investigated. The results show that the storage system employing alcohol as working fluid in the loop thermosyphon provides better performance; the system gives optimum heat charge and discharge performance under 35-40% fill ratio, regardless whether the working fluid is water or alcohol. The system displays optimum charge efficiency of 73% and optimum discharge efficiency of 85% with alcohol as working fluid. (author)

Mao-Ching Lin; Lin-Jye Chun; Sih-Li Chen [National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan). Department of Mechanical Engineering; Wen-Shing Lee [National Taipei University of Technology (Taiwan). Department of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering

2003-10-01

199

Flywheel energy storage for electromechanical actuation systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe a flywheel energy storage system designed specifically to provide load-leveling for a thrust vector control (TVC) system using electromechanical actuators (EMAs). One of the major advantages of an EMA system over a hydraulic system is the significant reduction in total energy consumed during the launch profile. Realization of this energy reduction will, however, require localized energy storage capable of delivering the peak power required by the EMAs. A combined flywheel-motor/generator unit which interfaces directly to the 20-kHz power bus represents an ideal candidate for this load leveling. The overall objective is the definition of a flywheel energy storage system for this application. The authors discuss progress on four technical objectives: (1) definition of the specifications for the flywheel-motor/generator system, including system-level trade-off analysis; (2) design of the flywheel rotor; (3) design of the motor/generator; and (4) determination of the configuration for the power management system.

Hockney, Richard L.; Goldie, James H.; Kirtley, James L.

1991-01-01

200

Flywheel energy storage for electromechanical actuation systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe a flywheel energy storage system designed specifically to provide load-leveling for a thrust vector control (TVC) system using electromechanical actuators (EMAs). One of the major advantages of an EMA system over a hydraulic system is the significant reduction in total energy consumed during the launch profile. Realization of this energy reduction will, however, require localized energy storage capable of delivering the peak power required by the EMAs. A combined flywheel-motor/generator unit which interfaces directly to the 20-kHz power bus represents an ideal candidate for this load leveling. The overall objective is the definition of a flywheel energy storage system for this application. The authors discuss progress on four technical objectives: (1) definition of the specifications for the flywheel-motor/generator system, including system-level trade-off analysis; (2) design of the flywheel rotor; (3) design of the motor/generator; and (4) determination of the configuration for the power management system.

Hockney, Richard L.; Goldie, James H.; Kirtley, James L.

 
 
 
 
201

Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: concrete storage casks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents design concepts and cost estimates for the Monitored Retrievable Storage facility which uses concrete silos for storage. Two separate scenarios are considered: the first is the storage of spent fuel assemblies and the second is the storage of wastes generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel and does not consider spent fuel storage. Two storage options for each scenario were evaluated. One is for maximum throughput of fuel or waste at 1800 MTU/y and a facility storage capacity of 15,000 MTU. The other option is for a maximum throughput of fuel or waste at 3000 MTU/y and a facility storage capacity of 72,000 MTU. The construction and operating costs, as well as the life-cycle costs for both scenarios and both the 1800 and 3000 MTU/y throughput rates are summarized. Drawings defining the facility and equipment that are unique to the silo storage concept are included. 26 figures, 34 tables

202

MOX storage containment/surveillance system (MSCS) for Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MSCS for MOX storage area in the large reprocessing plant was developed by using new containment/surveillance (C/S) technologies. The system consists of iPCAS, DCPD, canister ID camera. monitoring camera for transfer route and storage area, door monitor and optical fiber seal for ventilation duct or radiation detector (under consideration). Outline of building, construction of equipment, number of samples, methods, materials flow in the MOX storage area, setting point of ID camera and DCPD are reported. MSCS inspects the nuclear materials flow and keeps the data to the MOX storage area. MSCS is able to reduce the amount of inspection works at RRP. (S.Y.)

203

Building’s Refurbishment Computer Learning System with Augmented Reality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 1999 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University has already introduced three e-learning Master’s degree programmes. This paper proposes a way to integrate augmented reality and computer learning systems. In order to demonstrate the integration of the above systems in building refurbishment projects, the Building Refurbishment Computer Learning System with Augmented Reality (BR-CLS-AR has been developed. The authors of this paper participated in the project “Learning Augmented Reality Global Environment” (LARGE, part of the Lifelong Learning Programme. One of LARGE’s goals (on the part of Lithuania was to integrate augmented reality and computer learning systems (i.e. to develop the BR-CLS-AR. To check the accuracy of the system, its entire solution process was reproduced manually. The results of the manual calculations matched those produced by the computer. Moreover, each individual phase in the system and its subsystems was checked with experts in this field, i.e. the underlying calculations were found to be in conformity with the experts’ logical reasoning. Owing to the suggestions from these experts, some useful changes have been introduced in the system. The BR-CLS-AR consists of a computer learning subsystem and an augmented reality subsystem.

A. Kaklauskas

2013-10-01

204

Energy storage  

CERN Document Server

Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

Brunet, Yves

2013-01-01

205

Storage monitoring systems for the year 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In September 1993, President Clinton stated the US would ensure that its fissile material meet the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability. Frequent human inspection of the material could be used to ensure these standards. However, it may be more effective and less expensive to replace these manual inspections with virtual inspections via remote monitoring technologies. To prepare for this future, Sandia National Laboratories has developed several monitoring systems, including the Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) and Project Straight-Line. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Sandia effort that merges remote monitoring technologies into a comprehensive storage monitoring system that will meet the near-term as well as the long-term requirements for these types of systems. Topics discussed include: motivations for storage monitoring systems to include remote monitoring; an overview of the needs and challenges of providing a storage monitoring system for the year 2000; an overview of how the MIMS and Straight-Line can be enhanced so that together they create an integrated and synergistic information system by the end of 1997; and suggested milestones for 1998 and 1999 to assure steady progress in preparing for the needs of 2000

206

Atomic storage  

CERN Multimedia

IBM is supplying CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, with its Storage Tank file system virtualization software, 20 terabytes of storage capacity, and services under a three-year deal to build computer systems that will support the Large Hadron Collider accelerator (1 paragraph).

Ricadela, A

2003-01-01

207

Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

2014-07-01

208

CNAAA spent fuel complementary storage building (UFC) construction and licensing: an overview of current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reprocessing of nuclear fuel assemblies could be a valuable solution in order to make available additional energy resources and also to decrease the volume of discarded materials. After the burning of nuclear fuel assemblies to produce electrical energy, these components have to be stored in the spent fuel pools of each unit, for at least 10 years, in order to decrease their residual heat. Even after this initial 10 year-period, these spent fuel assemblies still have a great amount of energy, which can be reused. Nowadays, the spent fuel materials can be reprocessed in order to produce electrical energy, or be stored to provide, in the future, an opportunity to decide how these materials will be treated. At the present moment, Brazil does not plan to reprocess these spent fuels assemblies, as performed by some other countries. Thus, Brazil intends to build a spent fuel long term intermediate storage facility to allow the chance to make a decision in the future, taking into account the available technology at that time. Considering the three CNAAA units (Angra 1, 2 and 3 of Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto, the Brazilian nuclear power plant, located at Angra dos Reis county, Rio de Janeiro state) have a life time estimated in 60 years, and the intrinsical spent fuel pools storage capacity of these units, a Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building - UFC has to be foreseen in order to increase the storage capacity of CNAAA. Therefore, the Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building shall be in operation in 2018, capable to receive the first spent fuel assemblies from Angra 2 and, in the next year, from Angra 1. The same procedure will be applied for the spent fuel assemblies of Angra 3, currently in construction. The Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building will be constructed and operated by Eletrobras Eletronuclear - the CNAAA owner - and will be located at the same site of the plant. Conceptually, the UFC will be built as a wet storage modality, representing a similar solution used in all the three CNAAA units to store the spent fuel assemblies. Taking into account the above described aspects, this paper aims to compare the licensing requirements included in the safety analysis report prepared for external spent fuel wet storage facilities in USA (NRC Regulatory Guide) and Switzerland (ENSI - Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate), considering that the standard formats applied by CNEN - the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Authority - are based on USNRC recommendations and Eletrobras Eletronuclear plans, as a preliminary idea, to take the Goesgen NPP - KKG (Switzerland) spent fuel facility as a reference one for of the UFC. (author)

209

On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up induced by large-scale geologic storage of CO2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scale and magnitude of pressure perturbation and brine migration induced by geologic carbon sequestration is discussed assuming a full-scale deployment scenario in which enough CO{sub 2} is captured and stored to make relevant contributions to global climate change mitigation. In this scenario, the volumetric rates and cumulative volumes of CO{sub 2} injection would be comparable to or higher than those related to existing deep-subsurface injection and extraction activities, such as oil production. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic storage capacity of suitable formations, because over-pressurization may fracture the caprock, may drive CO{sub 2}/brine leakage through localized pathways, and may cause induced seismicity. On the other hand, laterally extensive sedimentary basins may be less affected by such limitations because (i) local pressure effects are moderated by pressure propagation and brine displacement into regions far away from the CO{sub 2} storage domain; and (ii) diffuse and/or localized brine migration into overlying and underlying formations allows for pressure bleed-off in the vertical direction. A quick analytical estimate of the extent of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage projects is presented. Also discussed are pressure perturbation and attenuation effects simulated for two representative sedimentary basins in the USA: the laterally extensive Illinois Basin and the partially compartmentalized southern San Joaquin Basin in California. These studies show that the limiting effect of pressure build-up on dynamic storage capacity is not as significant as suggested by Ehlig-Economides and Economides, who considered closed systems without any attenuation effects.

Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

2011-05-01

210

Hydrogen storage systems from waste Mg alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The production cost of materials for hydrogen storage is one of the major issues to be addressed in order to consider them suitable for large scale applications. In the last decades several authors reported on the hydrogen sorption properties of Mg and Mg-based systems. In this work magnesium industrial wastes of AZ91 alloy and Mg-10 wt.% Gd alloy are used for the production of hydrogen storage materials. The hydrogen sorption properties of the alloys were investigated by means of volumetric technique, in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) and calorimetric methods. The measured reversible hydrogen storage capacity for the alloys AZ91 and Mg-10 wt.% Gd are 4.2 and 5.8 wt.%, respectively. For the Mg-10 wt.% Gd alloy, the hydrogenated product was also successfully used as starting reactant for the synthesis of Mg(NH2)2 and as MgH2 substitute in the Reactive Hydride Composite (RHC) 2LiBH4 + MgH2. The results of this work demonstrate the concrete possibility to use Mg alloy wastes for hydrogen storage purposes.

Pistidda, C.; Bergemann, N.; Wurr, J.; Rzeszutek, A.; Møller, K. T.; Hansen, B. R. S.; Garroni, S.; Horstmann, C.; Milanese, C.; Girella, A.; Metz, O.; Taube, K.; Jensen, T. R.; Thomas, D.; Liermann, H. P.; Klassen, T.; Dornheim, M.

2014-12-01

211

Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

212

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Canister Storage Building (CSB) is the interim storage facility for the K-Basin SNF at the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SNF is packaged in multi-canister overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs are placed inside transport casks, then delivered to the service station inside the CSB. At the service station, the MCO handling machine (MHM) moves the MCO from the cask to a storage tube or one of two sample/weld stations. There are 220 standard storage tubes and six overpack storage tubes in a below grade reinforced concrete vault. Each storage tube can hold two MCOs.

HOLLENBECK, R.G.

2000-05-08

213

Resonance parameter storage and retrieval system REPSTOR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The resolved resonance parameter storage and retrieval system, REPSTOR, was developed to assist nuclear data evaluators in doing evaluation work of resonance parameters. By using REPSTOR, one can do compilation and comparison of experimental and/or evaluated data of resolved resonance parameters, making a data file in the ENDF format, and so on. REPSTOR was written in FORTRAN for main frame computers at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report provides a users' manual of REPSTOR. (author)

214

Energy storage in future power systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result ...

Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

2011-01-01

215

Semiconductor storage device in CAMAC system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A semiconductor storage device in CAMAC system of 256 16-bit words capacity is described. The access time does not exceed 1 m?s. The device contains 48 integral circuits and occupies two stations in the CAMAC crate. The current is: 300 mA; -12 V and 350 mA; +6V. It could be used either as main memory or as buffer memory for acquisition or smoothing of statistical data

216

Failure Analysis of Storage Data Magnetic Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows the conclusions about the corrosion mechanics in storage data magnetic systems (hard disk. It was done from the inspection of 198 units that were in service in nine different climatic regions characteristic for Mexico. The results allow to define trends about the failure forms and the factors that affect them. In turn, this study has analyzed the causes that led to mechanical failure and those due to deterioration by atmospheric corrosion. On the basis of the results obtained from the field sampling, demonstrates that the hard disk failure is fundamentally by mechanical effects. The deterioration by environmental effects were found in read-write heads, integrated circuits, printed circuit boards and in some of the electronic components of the controller card of the device, but not in magnetic storage surfaces. There fore, you can discard corrosion on the surface of the disk as the main kind of failure due to environmental deterioration. To avoid any inconvenience in the magnetic data storage system it is necessary to ensure sealing of the system.

Ortiz–Prado A.

2010-10-01

217

Site status monitoring report for Underground Storage Tank 0134-U at Building 9204-2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building 9204-2 is located within the central portion of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; it was previously the location of a gasoline underground storage tank used to fuel an emergency generator at the building. The tank was first suspected of leaking in 1988 and was excavated that year. Petroleum contamination of groundwater above applicable Tennessee Dept. of Environment and Conservation closure action levels was identified. This document presents potentiometric, grounwater quality, and vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring. It is divided into introductory information, water level measurement and sampling of monitoring wells, and vapor monitoring in subsurface utilities at the site.

NONE

1995-09-01

218

A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

219

10 CFR 434.404 - Building service systems and equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Design Requirements-Electric Systems and Equipment § 434.404 Building service systems and equipment...reduced energy costs (less increased maintenance costs) over the...

2010-01-01

220

On Building Secure Communication Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis presents the Guided System Development (GSD) framework, which aims at supporting the development of secure communication systems. A communication system is specified in a language similar to the Alice and Bob notation, a simple and intuitive language used to describe the global perspective of the communications between different principals. The notation used in the GSD framework extends that notation with constructs that allow the security requirements of the messages to be described. From that specification, the developer is guided through a semi-automatic translation that enables the verification and implementation of the system. The translation is semi-automatic because the developer has the option of choosing which implementation to use in order to achieve the specified security requirements. The implementation options are given by plugins defined in the framework. The framework’s flexibility allows for the addition of constructs that model new security properties as well as new plugins that implement the security properties. In order to provide higher security assurances, the system specification can be verified by formal methods tools such as the Beliefs and Knowledge (BAK) tool — developed specifically for the GSD framework —, LySatool and OFMC. The framework’s flexibility and the existence of the system model in different perspectives — an overall global perspective and an endpoint perspective —allow the connection to new formal methods tools. The modeled system is also translated into code that implements the communication skeleton of the system and can then be used by the system designer. New output languages can also easily be added to the GSD framework. Additionally, a prototype of the GSD framework was implemented and an ex-ample of using the GSD framework in a real world system is presented.

Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Applying IEEE storage system management standards at the National Storage Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since its inception in 1990, the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group has identified storage-system management as an area in need of further development The pressing need for standards in storage-system management arises from the requirement to exchange management information and to provide control in a consistent predictable manner between the components of a storage system. An appropriate set of management standards will allow multiple vendors to supply storage management subsystems or applications that are integral to or compatible with new storage systems conforming to future IEEE standards. An early, practical application of IEEE storage-system-management work is being pursued at the National Storage Laboratory (NSL), a recently-formed industrial collaboration at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NSL`s purpose is to develop advanced hardware and software technologies for high-performance, distributed storage systems. Since storage system management is of critical concern, it is being explored in depth at the NSL. Work was initiated to define basic management requirements and develop generalized graphical-user-interface tools using remote-procedure-call mechanisms to implement the NSL`s conceptual management framework. Several constraints were imposed on the development of early versions of this work to maintain compatibility with the NSL`s underlying UniTree-based software architecture and to provide timely prototypes and proof of concept. The project leverages the on-going standards work of the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group (SSSWG) and also explores some of the relationships and interactions between IEEE storage-system management and more well known management methods for distributed systems and networks. It will have long term benefits by providing ``real-life`` storage-system-management requirements to the IEEE SSSWG for validation of evolving standards.

Louis, S.; Hyer, S.W.

1992-12-04

222

Energy storage in electric power systems, what prospects?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The massive development of intermittent renewable energy sources is a disturbing factor for the stability of power grids. The time response of classical power balance stabilization systems, like hydraulic storage, compressed air storage and thermal storage systems, may be too slow in some situations. In this case fast response storage systems, like electrochemical systems, flywheels, super-capacitors or electromagnetic storage systems, can be the solution but their profitability depends on many technical and economical parameters. Tests of these systems with experimental facilities and demonstration projects are in progress in order to evaluate their technical and economical performances in real conditions of use. (J.S.)

223

Technology development of an ice heat storage type multi air conditioner for buildings. Korichikunetsushiki biruyo multi eakon no gijutsu kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Developmental research has been performed to provide a multi air conditioning system for building with heat storing function to suppress peak power load during summer. Two types of systems were developed: one is a coolant overcooling system intended mainly of cost reduction (hereinafter the system A) and another is a coolant gas pump system intended of improving heat utilizing efficiency (the system B). The system A makes ice by using nighttime electric power and utilizes cold heat of ice for air conditioning. Coolant liquid condensed in an outdoor compressor is passed through an ice heat storage tank to reduce the coolant temperature from 44[degree]C to 10[degree]C to raise the room cooling capability. This can reduce the daytime power consumption by about 25%. The system B operates the compressor side cycle and the heat storage tank side cycle in parallel, making single operation of the cycles possible respectively. This operation takes care of power demand corresponding to 50% of the peak hour load on the basis of utilizing the stored heat while the air conditioning system is in operation, and the remainder of the power demand is supplied from an inverter controlled compressor. Either system has provided performance that meets the predetermined specifications. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Hagiwara, T. (The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

1994-04-01

224

Ferroelectric barium titanate nanocubes as capacitive building blocks for energy storage applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly uniform polymer-ceramic nanocomposite films with high energy density values were fabricated by exploiting the unique ability of monodomain, nonaggregated BaTiO3 colloidal nanocrystals to function as capacitive building blocks when dispersed into a weakly interacting dielectric matrix. Monodisperse, surface-functionalized ferroelectric 15 nm BaTiO3 nanoparticles have been selectively incorporated with a high packing density into poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (P(VDF-HFP)) leading to the formation of biphasic BaTiO3-P(VDF-HFP) nanocomposite films. A systematic investigation of the electrical properties of the nanocomposites by electrostatic force microscopy and conventional dielectric measurements reveals that polymer-ceramic film capacitor structures exhibit a ferroelectric relaxor-type behavior with an increased intrinsic energy density. The composite containing 7% BaTiO3 nanocrystals displays a high permittivity (? = 21) and a relatively high energy density (E = 4.66 J/cm(3)) at 150 MV/m, which is 166% higher than that of the neat polymer and exceeds the values reported in the literature for polymer-ceramic nanocomposites containing a similar amount of nanoparticle fillers. The easy processing and electrical properties of the polymer-ceramic nanocomposites make them suitable for implementation in pulse power capacitors, high power systems and other energy storage applications. PMID:25255863

Parizi, Saman Salemizadeh; Mellinger, Axel; Caruntu, Gabriel

2014-10-22

225

Canister Storage Building (CSB) safety analysis report, phase 3: Safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy established the K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel Project to address safety and environmental concerns associated with deteriorating spent nuclear fuel presently stored under water in the Hanford Site's K Basins, which are located near the Columbia River. Recommendations for a series of aggressive projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to manage the safe removal of K Basins fuel were made in WHC-EP-0830, Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Recommended Path Forward, and its subsequent update, WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Fuel. The integrated process strategy recommendations include the following steps: Fuel preparation activities at the K Basins, including removing the fuel elements from their K Basin canisters, separating fuel particulate from fuel elements and fuel fragments greater than 0.6 cm (0.25 in.) in any dimension, removing excess sludge from the fuel and fuel fragments by means of flushing, as necessary, and packaging the fuel into multicanister overpacks (MCOs); Removal of free water by draining and vacuum drying at a cold vacuum drying facility ES-122; Dry shipment of fuel from the Cold Vacuum Drying to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), a new facility in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

226

HVAC control system for building automation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the project is to design and construction of the HVAC control system for building automation. The HVAC control system can accomplish the function which are the optimum operation condition and operation time, and the operation pattern analysis. Also, this control system can effectively manage energy saving, building environment control, facilities safety monitoring etc. The HVAC control system consisted of the central control and monitoring system (CCMS) and the direct digital controller (DDC). 1) CCMS: -Main Compute -Graphic Board -Printer -Console Desk -Intercom. 2) DDC : -IMC-M (System Control Unit Main Module) -IMC-1,2,3,4(System Control Unit Module). Following this report will be used important data for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the HVAC control system. 12 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

Park, J. S.; Song, I. T.; Cho, S. W.; Cho, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

1999-11-01

227

Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems  

CERN Document Server

Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

Glaize, Christian

2013-01-01

228

Eutectic mixtures of capric acid and lauric acid applied in building wallboards for heat energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Capric acid (CA) and lauric acid (LA), as phase change materials (PCM), can be applied for energy storage in low temperature. The phase transitions temperature and values of latent heat of eutectic mixtures of CA and LA are suitable for being incorporated with building materials to form phase change wallboards used for building energy storage. 120, 240 and 360 accelerated thermal cycle tests were conducted to study the changes in latent heat of fusion and melting temperature of phase change wallboards combined with the eutectic mixtures of CA and LA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tested the transition temperature and latent heat. The results showed that the melting temperature and latent heat of these phase change wallboards with eutectic mixtures have not obvious variations after repeated 360 thermal cycles, which proved that these phase change wallboards have good thermal stability for melting temperature and variations in latent heat of fusion for long time application. Therefore, they can be used for latent heat storage in the field of building energy conservation. (author)

Lv Shilei; Zhu Neng [Tianjin University (China). School of Environmental Science and Technology; Feng Guohui [Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang (China)

2006-06-15

229

Eutectic mixtures of capric acid and lauric acid applied in building wallboards for heat energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Capric acid (CA) and lauric acid (LA), as phase change materials (PCM), can be applied for energy storage in low temperature. The phase transition temperature and values of latent heat of eutectic mixtures of CA and LA are suitable for being incorporated with building materials to form phase change wallboards used for building energy storage. 120, 240 and 360 accelerated thermal cycle tests were conducted to study the changes in latent heat of fusion and melting temperature of phase change wallboards combined with the eutectic mixtures of CA and LA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tested the transition temperature and latent heat. The results showed that the melting temperature and latent heat of these phase change wallboards with eutectic mixtures have no obvious variations after repeated 360 thermal cycles, which proved that these phase change wallboards have good thermal stability for melting temperature and variations in latent heat of fusion for long time application. Therefore, they can be used for latent heat storage in the field of building energy conservation. (author)

Shilei, L.; Neng, Z. [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Guohui, F. [Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang (China)

2006-07-01

230

Nuclear power reactors and hydrogen storage systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among conclusions and results come by, a nuclear-electric-hydrogen integrated power system was suggested as a way to prevent the energy crisis. It was shown that the hydrogen power system using nuclear power as a leading energy resource would hold an advantage in the current international situation as well as for the long-term future. Results reported provide designers of integrated nuclear-electric-hydrogen systems with computation models and routines which will allow them to explore the optimal solution in coupling power reactors to hydrogen producing systems, taking into account the specific characters of hydrogen storage systems. The models were meant for average computers of a type easily available in developing countries. (author)

231

Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Understanding the limits imposed on information storage capacity of physical systems is a problem of fundamental and practical importance which bridges physics and information science. There is a well-known upper bound on the amount of information that can be stored reliably in a given volume of discrete spin systems which are supported by gapped local Hamiltonians. However, all the previously known systems were far below this theoretical bound, and it remained open whether there exists a gapped spin system that saturates this bound. Here, we present a construction of spin systems which saturate this theoretical limit asymptotically by borrowing an idea from fractal properties arising in the Sierpinski triangle. Our construction provides not only the best classical error-correcting code which is physically realizable as the energy ground space of gapped frustration-free Hamiltonians, but also a new research avenue for correlated spin phases with fractal spin configurations. -- Highlights: •We propose a spin model with fractal ground states and study its coding properties. •We show that the model asymptotically saturates a theoretical limit on information storage capacity. •We discuss its relations to various theoretical physics problems.

Yoshida, Beni, E-mail: rouge@caltech.edu

2013-11-15

232

Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Understanding the limits imposed on information storage capacity of physical systems is a problem of fundamental and practical importance which bridges physics and information science. There is a well-known upper bound on the amount of information that can be stored reliably in a given volume of discrete spin systems which are supported by gapped local Hamiltonians. However, all the previously known systems were far below this theoretical bound, and it remained open whether there exists a gapped spin system that saturates this bound. Here, we present a construction of spin systems which saturate this theoretical limit asymptotically by borrowing an idea from fractal properties arising in the Sierpinski triangle. Our construction provides not only the best classical error-correcting code which is physically realizable as the energy ground space of gapped frustration-free Hamiltonians, but also a new research avenue for correlated spin phases with fractal spin configurations. -- Highlights: •We propose a spin model with fractal ground states and study its coding properties. •We show that the model asymptotically saturates a theoretical limit on information storage capacity. •We discuss its relations to various theoretical physics problems

233

Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Builds and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, test...

Undrus, A

2012-01-01

234

Evaluation of battery/microturbine hybrid energy storage technologies at the University of Maryland :a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study describes the technical and economic benefits derived from adding an energy storage component to an existing building cooling, heating, and power system that uses microturbine generation to augment utility-provided power. Three different types of battery energy storage were evaluated: flooded lead-acid, valve-regulated lead-acid, and zinc/bromine. Additionally, the economic advantages of hybrid generation/storage systems were evaluated for a representative range of utility tariffs. The analysis was done using the Distributed Energy Technology Simulator developed for the Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories by Energetics, Inc. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Energy Engineering.

De Anda, Mindi Farber (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

2005-03-01

235

Building a Cooperative Communications System  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we present the results from over-the-air experiments of a complete implementation of an amplify and forward cooperative communications system. Our custom OFDM-based physical layer uses a distributed version of the Alamouti block code, where the relay sends one branch of Alamouti encoded symbols. First we show analytically and experimentally that amplify and forward protocols are unaffected by carrier frequency offsets at the relay. This result allows us to use a conventional Alamouti receiver without change for the distributed relay system. Our full system implementation shows gains up to 5.5dB in peak power constrained networks. Thus, we can conclusively state that even the simplest form of relaying can lead to significant gains in practical implementations.

Murphy, Patrick; Aazhang, Behnaam

2007-01-01

236

Re-Encryption Scheme to Provide Secure Data Forwarding in Cloud Storage System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cloud storage system is considered as a large scale distributed storage system which consists of several independent storage servers. In Cloud computing the resources on the Internet are considered and managed as a combined entity called cloud. Data stored in the third party cloud system might create serious concern on data confidentiality. To provide strong confidentiality for messages and information in storage servers, the user can encrypt messages by a cryptographic method. Most conventional encryption schemes protect data confidentiality but also limit the functionality of the storage system as only few operations are supported over encrypted data. In this paper, the authors discussed about the problem of forwarding data to another user by storage servers directly under the command of data owner. To provide a secured data forwarding, we propose a proxy re-encryption scheme and integrate it with a secured decentralized code to form secure distributed storage system. The constricted integration of encoding, encryption and data forwarding build the storage system efficiently and effectively meet the specifications of data robustness, data confidentiality, and data forwarding.

D. Hema Latha*,

2014-11-01

237

Criticality safety control of planned UO3 storage building at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (1). Outline of criticality safety control method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Uranium Denitration Facility of Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (JNFL) Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, uranium trioxide (UO3) powder is produced, sealed in storage canisters and stored for a long term. Since the existing storage capacity covers approximately 5 years, there is a plan to build the new uranium oxide storage facility. As the water content of UO3 powder immediately after the production is very low, it is planned to adopt the neutron moderation management for the criticality safety control in the planned facility on the basis of the premise of maintaining this low content. In order to examine the application of this neutron moderation management, studies have been made with the following three points. 1) As an investigation for the variation of water content of UO3 in the long term storage, the water content of UO3 at Japan Atomic Energy Agency which has a lot of actual past result in UO3 has been measured, and it has been confirmed that there was no increase in the water content during the 16 year storage period. 2) Criticality safety analysis of UO3 with 1.6wt% U-235 isotope-ratio has been implemented for the purpose of calculating the value of water content which becomes the criticality-limits for the neutron moderation management, and it has been confirmed that the criticality safety is guaranteed at the water content of 3.0 wt% max. 3) It has been confirmed that the water content of UO3 produced in the uranium denitration facility has been measured continuously with an infrared moisture meter, therefore the consecutive measuring system of the water content has been established. From these results it has been confirmed that the neutron moderation management would be applicable for the criticality safety design for the planned uranium oxide storage facility. (author)

238

Corrective action baseline report for underground storage tank 2331-U Building 9201-1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide baseline geochemical and hydrogeologic data relative to corrective action for underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site. Progress in support of the Building 9201-1 Site has included monitoring well installation and baseline groundwater sampling and analysis. This document represents the baseline report for corrective action at the Building 9201-1 site and is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site, including the regulatory initiative, site description, and progress to date. Section 2 includes the summary of additional monitoring well installation activities and the results of baseline groundwater sampling. Section 3 presents the baseline hydrogeology and planned zone of influence for groundwater remediation

239

Development of thermal energy storage systems on the basis of the GALISOL latent heat storage method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper deals with latent heat storage systems whose storage material consists of four compatible media which within the 0 to 120/sup 0/C temperature and 200 to 350 MJ/m/sup 3/ storage density range are working in the solid, liquid and gaseous state of aggregation. Access is given to the system's advantages and mode of operation as well as to a practical example referring to hybrid systems for refrigeration and heating purposes.

Guenther, A.

1986-01-01

240

Placing Manuscript and Archival Collections into an Automated Storage and Retrieval System at the University of Nevada, Reno  

Science.gov (United States)

Academic libraries are turning to automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRS) as a long-term cost effective means of gaining additional space in their open stacks areas by removing lesser used books and other materials for storage and placement into ASRS bins. The new library building under construction at the University of Nevada-Reno will…

Sundstrand, Jacquelyn K.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

APS Storage Ring Vacuum System Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operate with 7-GeV, 100-mA beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. Currently, the beam lifetime for 100-mA beams is ~ 16 hours after > 110 A-hrs of beam. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented. For example, the vacuum chambers are aluminum with aluminum Conflat flanges mated with stainless steel flanges. Special assembly and bake-out procedures had to be developed to produce UHV base pressures. In addition, absorbers had to be designed to withstand over 12 kilowatts of x-ray beam power. This talk will describe the design criteria, present aspects of the fabrication process that have importance for oth! er aluminum systems, compare actual performance to design specifications, and discuss incremental improvements made in the vacuum system to improve the beam lifetime due to residual gas scattering.

Noonan, John

1997-05-01

242

Prototype thermochemical heat storage with open reactor system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermochemical (TC) heat storage is an interesting technology for future seasonal storage of solar heat in the built environment. This technology enables high thermal energy storage densities and low energy storage losses. A small-scale laboratory prototype TC storage system has been realized at ECN, applying an open sorption system concept. The packed bed contains 17 dm{sup 3} of sorption material and is capable of generating 150 W of thermal power. An effective energy storage density of approximately 0.5 GJ/m{sup 3} was obtained.

Zondag, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kikkert, B.; Smeding, S.; De Boer, R.; Bakker, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2013-09-15

243

Exergy analysis of building energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Germany, energy consumption for space heating represents about 25% of the total final energy consumption of the entire country. The concept of LowEx buildings, which have a low exergy demand, has been introduced; however, the associated pump devices have a high electrical energy consumption. The aim of this paper is to provide a novel approach for comparing the exergy efficiency of different buildings. A system was modeled and simulated using Modelica, and the exergy losses in heat generation, distribution and delivery were calculated for both a geothermal heat pump and a boiler system. Results showed that the heat pump system led to lower exergy losses for heat generation but higher exergy losses for heat distribution than the boiler system. This study provided a useful comparison of exergy performance of geothermal heat pump and boiler systems however the simulation model should be improved to fully describe both systems' behavior.

Badakhshani, Azadeh; Hoh, Alexander; Muller, Dirk [RWTH Aachen University, E.ON Energy Research Center (Germany)], email: abadakhshani@eonerc.rwth-aachen.de

2011-07-01

244

Monitoring Building Systems for Schedule Compliance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) initiated a Core Business Hours program, it became a challenge to ensure that the hundreds of systems campus wide were operating within their programmed schedules. Therefore, a collaborative exchange between PNNL operations and PNNL researchers developing the Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance (DSOM) software package was initiated to create a tool to solve this problem. This new DSOM tool verifies systems are operating within scheduled operation times by polling Building Automation and Control Network (BACnet) identifiers of systems’ on/off or command statuses. The tool records the time spent in operation state (ON) and totalizes each system over a rolling 7-day period, highlighting systems that are running over the scheduled hours. This snapshot view allows building management to look quickly at the entire campus to ensure that systems are not operating beyond their scheduled hours.

Jensen, Andrew M.; Belew, Shan T.

2013-02-19

245

Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid. Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be optimized for dierent kind of grid services. As an energy storage solution with timing for few seconds to hours, rated at MW and MWh, battery energy storage systems are suitable and ecient solutions. Grid connection of the storage system can be done at dierent voltage levels, depending on the location and application scenario. For high power and energy ratings, increase in the battery and converter voltage ratings can enhance the overall system eciency. This work is divided in two parts, "Control of DC-AC Grid Converters" and "Medium Voltage Grid Converters for Energy Storage". The rst part starts with a brief review of control strategies applied to grid connected DC-AC converters. A control implementation was realized for a 100 kW active rectier to be used in a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. In the second part, dierent solutions for power converters to interface energy storage units to medium voltage grid are given. A new modular multilevel converter concept is introduced, where the energy storage units are integrated in each converter cell. The control of DC-AC grid converters has been a research subject for more than a century, and there is still place for improvements. A review of the main control principles is given in the rst part. The stationary frame control was implemented for a low-voltage 100 kW bidirectional grid converter, to be used in a high voltage battery energy storage test bench. The control structure proved to be stable without damping. The converter was tested in the test bench and the experimental results are presented. Multilevel converters are replacing the classical two-level converters more and more, on a large variety of applications. For medium voltage applications, multilevel converters are a necessity. The second part presents a review of hard-switched and soft-switched multilevel converter topologies for medium voltage. Four converter topologies were chosen as potential solutions for direct connection of battery energy storage systems to the grid. An evaluation is done, in terms of semiconductors requirements and losses, output voltage quality and common mode voltage. The main advantage of batteries direct connection to the grid is the high efficiency potential. However, this solution is suitable only for battery technologies with low voltage variation. It is also necessary to build a battery system with high amount of serial connected cells, and the knowledge in this eld is still limited nowadays. Therefore, twostage converters solutions were introduced to overcome these disadvantages. Modular multilevel converters can make use of battery voltage technologies where the maturity and reliability is well proven in industry. Cascaded H-bridge topology with bidirectional boost converters is proposed to interface low voltage batteries to the medium voltage grid. A control structure based on single phase control is proposed. It balances the capacitor voltages and the state of charge of batteries from dierent cells. A semiconductor loss analysis is performed and it shows the loss distribution in the converter cell and the eciency over a wide battery voltage variation. A new modular multilevel converter structure with integrated energy storage is introduced. This converter structure is suitable to interface low and medium voltage energy storage units to medium and high voltage grids. It can also interconnect a DC and AC grid with bidirectional power ow, were both can be backed-up for the distributed energy storage units installed in each converter cell. The converter operation and control methods are pres

Trintis, Ionut

2011-01-01

246

Compartmentalized storage tank for electrochemical cell system  

Science.gov (United States)

A compartmentalized storage tank is disclosed. The compartmentalized storage tank includes a housing, a first fluid storage section disposed within the housing, a second fluid storage section disposed within the housing, the first and second fluid storage sections being separated by a movable divider, and a constant force spring. The constant force spring is disposed between the housing and the movable divider to exert a constant force on the movable divider to cause a pressure P1 in the first fluid storage section to be greater than a pressure P2 in the second fluid storage section, thereby defining a pressure differential.

Piecuch, Benjamin Michael (Inventor); Dalton, Luke Thomas (Inventor)

2010-01-01

247

Approaching Sentient Building Performance Simulation Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sentient BPS systems can combine one or more high precision BPS and provide near instantaneous performance feedback directly in the design tool, thus providing speed and precision of building performance in the early design stages. Sentient BPS systems are essentially combining: 1) design tools, 2) parametric tools, 3) BPS tools, 4) dynamic databases 5) interpolation techniques and 6) prediction techniques as a fast and valid simulation system, in the early design stage.

Negendahl, Kristoffer; Heller, Alfred

2014-01-01

248

Thermal energy storage systems and applications  

CERN Document Server

The ability of thermal energy storage (TES) systems to facilitate energy savings, renewable energy use and reduce environmental impact has led to a recent resurgence in their interest. The second edition of this book offers up-to-date coverage of recent energy efficient and sustainable technological methods and solutions, covering analysis, design and performance improvement as well as life-cycle costing and assessment. As well as having significantly revised the book for use as a graduate text, the authors address real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an un

Dincer, Ibrahim

2010-01-01

249

Advances in information storage systems, v.7  

CERN Document Server

Advances in Information Storage Systems (AISS) series was initiated by ASME Press. New York with a first issue published in April 1991. ASME Press published a total of five volumes in 1991-93. In 1994, World Scientific Publishing Co. Private Limited took over the highly respected series and published volume number 6 in 1995. This volume number 7 is the second volume published by the World Scientific Publishing. The aim of the series remains to report the latest results from around the world in all the electromechanical, materials science, design, and manufacturing problems of information stora

Bhushan, Bharat

1996-01-01

250

An energy storage and regeneration system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet the higher level of energy demand.

SchrØder, Niels Roskilde University,

251

Simulation of Flywheel Energy Storage System Controls  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the progress made in the controller design and operation of a flywheel energy storage system. The switching logic for the converter bridge circuit has been redefined to reduce line current harmonics, even at the highest operating speed of the permanent magnet motor-generator. An electromechanical machine model is utilized to simulate charge and discharge operation of the inertial energy in the flywheel. Controlling the magnitude of phase currents regulates the rate of charge and discharge. The resulting improvements are demonstrated by simulation.

Truong, Long V.; Wolff, Frederick J.; Dravid, Narayan

2001-01-01

252

Interim report on hydrogen storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen can be stored in the form of a metal hydride. The formation of the hydride is highly exothermic. Hence the rate at which hydrogen can be added to or removed from the storage system is limited by the rate of heat transfer. Heat transfer is facilitated by displaying the hydride on a metal support that conducts heat. The task was to find a binder to make hydride stay put on a metal support through at least 2500 cycles of hydriding-dehydriding and to measure the rate of hydrogen uptake. 1 tab

253

NCDC mass storage systems and technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) data management issues are discussed, such as nature of holdings, history of the site, popularity of data sets, media/technology used for storage, volume distributed per month, mode of distribution, most frequently encountered problems, type of media requested/used, and evolution of media. Current holdings at NCDC are 107.8 terabytes of digital data and about 0.3 terabytes of manuscript data. The nexrad radar system is expected to generate approximately 88 terabytes per year by 1996.

Davis, Dick

1993-01-01

254

10 CFR 434.403 - Building mechanical systems and equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Building mechanical systems and equipment. 434.403 Section 434.403 Energy...Design Requirements-Electric Systems and Equipment § 434.403 Building mechanical systems and equipment. Mechanical systems and...

2010-01-01

255

ADVANCEMENT FOR INVOLUNTARY RECONFIGURATION FOR AMPLE RESPONSIBLE STORAGE SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays we are more dependent on Internet services, which gives a significant functionality and store serious state. These services are often executed on a group of machines inhabit at several geographic locations such as a set of company data centers. Byzantine-fault-tolerant duplication gets better the accessibility and reliability of Internet services that build up significant state and defend it in spite of attacks or software errors. However, an inactive set of replica, or have restrictions in how they hold reconfigurations is assumed by the accessible Byzantine-fault-tolerant storage systems. During the system lifetime in long-lived and large-scale systems this can be problematic where system membership is likely to change. A large-scale Byzantine-fault-tolerant system is a complete solution for dynamically changing system membership which is presented here. A service that tracks system membership and periodically notifies other system nodes of membership changes is presented in this paper. To avoid human configuration errors the membership service runs mostly automatically and provides applications with a sequence of consistent views of the system membership is itself by Byzantine fault- tolerant and reconfigurable. By using it in a new dispersed hash table called dBQS that provides atomic semantics even across changes in imitation sets as the utility of this membership service is demonstrated. To handle changes in the replica set dBQS is interesting in its own right because its storage algorithms extend existing Byzantine quorum protocols, and because it differs from previous distributed hash tables (DHTs by providing Byzantine fault tolerance and offering strong semantics.

Velikanti Kiran Kumar

2013-08-01

256

Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. ? It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. ? The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. ? The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO2 neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial bg and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

257

Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. {yields} It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. {yields} The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. {yields} The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO{sub 2} neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

Huang, Y., E-mail: y.huang@ulster.ac.u [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Wang, Y.D. [The Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Rezvani, S.; McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Anderson, M.; Hewitt, N.J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

2011-06-15

258

System Improvement through Collective Capacity Building  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline how collective capacity building is supporting system-wide reform in one country. It seeks to outline the way in which professional learning communities within, between and across schools are creating an infrastructure for improving professional practice and raising standards.…

Harris, Alma

2011-01-01

259

Annual collection and storage of solar energy for the heating of buildings. Report No. 3. Semiannual progress report, August 1977--January 1978  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new system for year-round collection and storage of solar heated water for heating of buildings has been operated over the past year at the University of Virginia. The system is composed of an energy storage sub-system, which stores hot water in an underground pool, and of a solar collector sub-system which acts not only to collect solar energy throughout the year but also to limit the evaporative and convective heat losses from the storage system. Results are presented to illustrate the transient heat transfer from the pool which occurs during the energy collection mode of operation. Thermal performance results are presented illustrating the efficiency of the solar collector under summer conditions (without a reflector) and winter conditions (with assistance from a vertical reflector). Results also show the transient behavior of energy storage in the water and in the earth which surrounds the storage pool. An analog computer model and a digital computer model have been used to analyze the transient energy phenomena which occur within the earth surrounding the pool. Results of the models are confirmed by an exact mathematical solution and by experimental results. Analog and digital models were used to determine the influence of various design modifications for improved collection and storage system performance. The experimental system has been modified to provide for energy extraction through a heat exchanger, to simulate the heat input required for a solar-assisted heat pump for a residential heating application.

Beard, J. T.; Iachetta, F. A.; Lilleleht, L. U.; Dickey, J. W.

1978-01-01

260

Energy study of heat pumps and energy storage at Cisco Systems International; Energiestudie warmtepompen en energieopslag Cisco Systems International  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cisco Systems International considers the use of energy storage in combination with heat pumps for the new office building in Amsterdam South-East, Netherlands. This office building has a floor space of 35,000 m{sup 2}. In a later phase this can be enlarged to 45,000 m{sup 2} (phase 1b) or 90,000 m{sup 2} (phase 2). This study is based on phase 1b. The mounting heat capacity is 2,760 kW and the cooling capacity is 7,045 kW. The annually cooling demand is estimated to be 30,400 MWh/a. The computer cooling forms a greater part of the cooling request (28,300 MWh/a). This study is a pilot study to the applicability of subsurface energy storage where heat pumps in the new office building are involved. However, nearby the Cisco location IKEA (furniture warehouse) has also planned an energy storage system. Therefore, the interaction between the two storage systems was examined. Cost effectiveness was analysed by comparison of the storage system with an energy system using conventional cooling machines and gas boilers. 5 refs.

NONE

2000-05-23

 
 
 
 
261

10 CFR 434.403 - Building mechanical systems and equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...recognized certification program or...slightly positive building pressure...fan system energy demand...and cooling energy to the zone...approved by the building official or...increase the building heating energy use...

2010-01-01

262

Final Hazard Classification and Auditable Safety Analysis for the 105-F Building Interim Safe Storage Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The auditable safety analysis (ASA) documents the authorization basis for the partial decommissioning and facility modifications to place the 105-F Building into interim safe storage (ISS). Placement into the ISS is consistent with the preferred alternative identified in the Record of Decision (58 FR). Modifications will reduce the potential for release and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials, as well as lower surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) costs. This analysis includes the following: A description of the activities to be performed in the course of the 105-F Building ISS Project. An assessment of the inventory of radioactive and other hazardous materials within the 105-F Building. Identification of the hazards associated with the activities of the 105-F Building ISS Project. Identification of internally and externally initiated accident scenarios with the potential to produce significant local or offsite consequences during the 105-F Building ISS Project. Bounding evaluation of the consequences of the potentially significant accident scenarios. Hazard classification based on the bounding consequence evaluation. Associated safety function and controls, including commitments. Radiological and other employee safety and health considerations

263

Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

1997-10-15

264

Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design. ? The configuration of buildings systems operation is facilitated and automated. ? Building energy consumption is reduced compared to more conventional control systems. ? Thermal comfort for building occupants is improved. -- Abstract: A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual reconfiguration when making parametric analysis. A test case featuring an office located in Copenhagen, Denmark, indicates that the method has a potential to save energy and improve thermal comfort compared to more conventional systems control. Further investigations of this potential and the general performance of the method are, however, needed before implementing it in a real building design.

265

The electricity system, energy storage and hydropower: an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the electricity system, energy storage and hydropower. Typically, electricity is consumed as it is needed and generated to match consumption. Interest and development work in energy storage are increasingly driven by its contributions in several areas of concern: reliability and the rise of renewables. A full range of energy storage technologies is needed and with its many advantages hydropower will continue to fill a need for large scale bulk storage

266

Energetic and Exergy Efficiency of a Heat Storage Unit for Building Heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with a numerical and experimental investigation of a daily solar storage system conceived and built in Laboratoire de Maitrise des Technologies de l Energie (LMTE, Borj Cedria). This system consists mainly of the storage unit connected to a solar collector unit. The storage unit consists of a wooden case with dimension of 5 m3 (5 m x 1m x 1m) filed with fin sand. Inside the wooden case was buried a network of a polypropylene capillary heat exchanger with an aperture area equal to 5 m2. The heat collection unit consisted of 5 m2 of south-facing solar collector mounted at a 37 degree tilt angle. In order to evaluate the system efficiency during the charging period (during the day) and discharging period (during the night) an energy and exergy analyses were applied. Outdoor experiments were also carried out under varied environmental conditions for several consecutive days. Results showed that during the charging period, the average daily rates of thermal energy and exergy stored in the heat storage unit were 400 and 2.6 W, respectively. It was found that the net energy and exergy efficiencies in the charging period were 32 pour cent and 22 pour cent, respectively. During the discharging period, the average daily rates of the thermal energy and exergy recovered from the heat storage unit were 2 kW and 2.5 kW, respectively. The recovered heat from the heat storage unit was used for the air-heating of a tested room (4 m x 3 m x 3 m). The results showed that 30 pour cent of the total heating requirement of the tested room was obtained from the heat storage system during the whole night in cold seasons

267

10 CFR 434.404 - Building service systems and equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Building service systems and equipment. 434.404 Section 434.404 Energy...Design Requirements-Electric Systems and Equipment § 434.404 Building service systems and equipment. 404.1Service Water Heating...

2010-01-01

268

A BES cluster storage system based on Lustre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The huge storage requirement of BES computing calls for advanced storage architecture and reasonable configuration. It describes a BES storage system based on Lustre. The components of Lustre and its advantages as a PetaScale storage architecture are introduced. The implementation of target system and the characteristic of workload are described. It analysis performance factors on hardware level, operation system level and file system level, provides test results for different performance parameters, and at last put forward solutions to optimize I/O performance on the target system. (authors)

269

Design and building of a new experimental setup for testing hydrogen storage materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For hydrogen to become the future energy carrier a suitable way of storing hydrogen is needed, especially if hydrogen is to be used in mobile applications such as cars. To test potential hydrogen storage materials with respect to capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics the Materials Research Department has a high pressure balance. However, the drawback of this equipment is, that in order to load samples, exposure towards air is inevitable. This has prompted the design and building of a new experimental setup with a detachable reactor allowing samples to be loaded under protective atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to serve as documentation of the new setup. (au)

Andreasen, Anders

2005-09-01

270

Canister storage building (CSB) safety analysis report phase 3: Safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canister Storage Building (CSB) will be constructed in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The CSB will be used to stage and store spent nuclear fuel (SNF) removed from the Hanford Site K Basins. The objective of this chapter is to describe the characteristics of the site on which the CSB will be located. This description will support the hazard analysis and accident analyses in Chapter 3.0. The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the CSB design criteria, the design's compliance with the applicable criteria, and the basis for authorization to proceed with construction of the CSB

271

Design and building of a new experimental setup for testing hydrogen storage materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For hydrogen to become the future energy carrier a suitable way of storing hydrogen is needed, especially if hydrogen is to be used in mobile applications such as cars. To test potential hydrogen storage materials with respect to capacity, kinetics andthermodynamics the Materials Research Department has a high pressure balance. However, the drawback of this equipment is, that in order to load samples, exposure towards air is inevitable. This has prompted the design and building of a new experimentalsetup with a detachable reactor allowing samples to be loaded under protective atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to serve as documentation of the new setup.

Andreasen, A.

2005-01-01

272

NASA Redox Storage System Development Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The Redox Storage System Technology Project was jointly supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and NASA. The objectives of the project were to develop the Redox flow battery concept and to probe its technical and economic viability. The iron and chromium redox couples were selected as the reactants. Membranes and electrodes were developed for the original mode of operating at 25 C with the reactants separated by an ion-exchange membrane. Analytical capabilities and system-level operating concepts were developed and verified in a 1-kW, 13-kWh preprototype system. A subsequent change was made in operating mode, going to 65 C and using mixed reactants. New membranes and a new electrode catalyst were developed, resulting in single cell operation as high as 80 mA/sq cm with energy efficiencies greater than 80 percent. Studies indicate a likely system cost of about $75/kWh. Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio) has undertaken further development of the Redox system. An exclusive patent license was obtained from NASA by Sohio. Transfer of Redox technology to Sohio is supported by the NASA Technology Utilization Office.

Hagedorn, N. H.

1984-10-01

273

Impact of energy storage in buildings on electricity demand side management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Phase change material (PCM) application for space heating has been implemented and assessed for built environment. ? Real-Time Pricing (RTP) is assessed as tool to implement Demand Side Management programs effectively. ? Two buildings, with and without PCM, have been compared for space heating using RTP in functional electricity market. ? PCM found to offer peak load shifting, energy conservation, and reduction in price of electricity. -- Abstract: This paper assesses impact of using phase change materials (PCM) in buildings to leverage its thermal energy storage capability. The emphasis is from an electricity demand side perspective with case studies that incorporates wholesale electricity market data of New Zealand. The results presented in this paper show that for space heating application significant advantages could be obtained using PCM built structures. These positive impacts include peak load shifting, energy conservation and reduction in peak demand for network line companies and potential reduction in electricity consumption and savings for residential customers. This paper uses a testing facility that consists of two identically designed and shaped offices built at Tamaki Campus location of the University of Auckland, New Zealand. The walls and ceilings of one office are finished with ordinary gypsum boards while the interior of the other office is finished with PCM impregnated gypsum boards. Controlled heating facility is proControlled heating facility is provided in both the offices for maintaining temperature within the range of human comfort. This facility is equipped with advanced data acquisition equipment for data monitoring and archiving both locally within the offices and also remotely. Through actual observations and analysis this paper demonstrates two major impacts of DSM. First, the application of phase change material (PCM) in building environment enabling efficient thermal storage to achieve some reduction in the overall electrical energy consumption. Second, assessment of peak load shifting achieved for space heating in a PCM building during a typical winter period in New Zealand.

274

Cost Analysis of Redundancy Schemes for Distributed Storage Systems  

CERN Document Server

Distributed storage infrastructures are a key component of nowadays distributed systems. Due to its distributed nature, these storage systems require the use of data redundancy to achieve high data reliability. Unfortunately, the use of redundancy introduces storage and communication overheads, which can either reduce the overall capacity of the system, or increase its costs. To mitigate these storage and communication overheads, different redundancy schemes have been proposed. However, due to the great variety of underlaying storage infrastructures and different application needs, optimizing these redundancy schemes for each different infrastructure is highly cumbersome. The lack of rules to determine the optimal redundancy configuration for each storage infrastructure leads developers in the industry to choice simpler redundancy schemes, which are not usually the optimal ones. In this paper we analyze the costs of different redundancy schemes under different storage infrastructures. Through our cost analysi...

Pamies-Juarez, Lluis

2011-01-01

275

Recent air conditioning systems of shopping buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the air conditioning system in the shopping building, both the distributed air conditioning and DDC control methods have been increasingly adopted. The distributed air conditioning method, with a microcomputer mounted thereon, has attained the level sufficiently corresponding to the large scale building. While, the DDC control method, like the distributed air conditioning method, is considerably effective on the system having many surveillance control items. To engineer the energy conservation of air conditioning system in the shopping building, the utilization of atmospheric air as natural energy and control method for the ambient room condition reexamined must be studied. For the former, the atmospheric air intake quantity control to dilute CO and CO/sub 2/, and atmospheric air purge system prior to the air cooling are useful. While for the latter, the control method aiming at the comfort range, so called zero energy band control method is recommendable. Further for the temperature and humidity control, the DDC control by local controller is useful. 6 figures, 1 table.

Nagashima, Hironori

1988-11-05

276

Energy storage systems program report for FY1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

Butler, P.C.

1997-05-01

277

Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1997-02-01

278

Pulsed rf systems for large storage rings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility is considered that by using a pulsed rf system a substantial reduction can be made in the rf power requirement for the next generation of large storage rings. For a ring with a sufficiently large circumference, the time between bunch passages, T/sub b/, can exceed the cavity filling time, T/sub f/. As the ratio T/sub b//T/sub f/ increases, it is clear that at some point the average power requirement can be reduced by pulsing the rf to the cavities. In this mode of operation, the rf power is turned on a filling time or so before the arrival of a bunch and is switched off again at the time of bunch passage. There is no rf energy in the accelerating structure, and hence no power dissipation, for most of the period between bunches

279

A Case for Optimistic Coordination in HPC Storage Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-performance computing (HPC) storage systems rely on access coordination to ensure that concurrent updates do not produce incoherent results. HPC storage systems typically employ pessimistic distributed locking to provide this functionality in cases where applications cannot perform their own coordination. This approach, however, introduces significant performance overhead and complicates fault handling. In this work we evaluate the viability of optimistic conditional storage operations as an alternative to distributed locking in HPC storage systems. We investigate design strategies and compare the two approaches in a prototype object storage system using a parallel read/modify/write benchmark. Our prototype illustrates that conditional operations can be easily integrated into distributed object storage systems and can outperform standard coordination primitives for simple update workloads. Our experiments show that conditional updates can achieve over two orders of magnitude higher performance than pessimistic locking for some parallel read/modify/write workloads.

Carns, Philip [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Harms, Kevin [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Kimpe, Dries [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wozniak, Justin [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ross, Robert [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ward, Lee [Sandia National Laboratory (SNL); Curry, Matthew [Sandia National Laboratory (SNL); Klundt, Ruth [Sandia National Laboratory (SNL); Danielson, Geoff [Sandia National Laboratory (SNL); Karakoyunlu, Cengiz [University of Connecticut; Chandy, John [University of Connecticut; Gropp, William D [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL

2012-01-01

280

A strategy for load balancing in distributed storage systems  

CERN Document Server

Distributed storage systems are critical to the operation of the WLCG. These systems are not limited to fulfilling the long term storage requirements. They also serve data for computational analysis and other computational jobs. Distributed storage systems provide the ability to aggregate the storage and IO capacity of disks and tapes, but at the end of the day IO rate is still bound by the capabilities of the hardware, in particular the hard drives. Throughput of hard drives has increased dramatically over the decades, however for computational analysis IOPS is typically the limiting factor. To maximize return of investment, balancing IO load over available hardware is crucial. The task is made complicated by the common use of heterogeneous hardware and software environments that results from combining new and old hardware into a single storage system. This paper describes recent advances made in load balancing in the dCache distributed storage system. We describe a set of common requirements for load balan...

CERN. Geneva

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Test report : Raytheon / KTech RK30 energy storage system.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

2013-10-01

282

Key-value Storage Systems (and Beyond with Python  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web application developers often use RDBMS systems such as MySql or PostgreSql but there are many other types of databases out there. Key-value storage, schema and schema-less document storage, and column-oriented DBMS systems abound. These kind of database systems are becoming more popular when developing scalable web applications but many developers are unsure how to integrate them into their projects. This talk will focus on the key-value class of data storage systems, weigh the strengths and drawbacks of each and discuss typical use cases for key value storage.

2010-09-01

283

Battery energy storage technology for power systems - An overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The penetration of renewable sources (particularly wind power) in to the power system network has been increasing in the recent years. As a result of this, there have been serious concerns over reliable and satisfactory operation of the power systems. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage devices into the power system network. Further, in the present deregulated markets these storage devices could also be used to increase the profit margins of wind farm owners and even provide arbitrage. This paper discusses the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications. (author)

284

Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The penetration of renewable sources (particularly wind power) in to the power system network has been increasing in the recent years. As a result of this, there have been serious concerns over reliable and satisfactory operation of the power systems. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage devices into the power system network. Further, in the present deregulated markets these storage devices could also be used to increase the profit margins of wind farm owners and even provide arbitrage. This paper discusses the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications.

Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

2009-01-01

285

The relation of collector and storage tank size in solar heating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A storage tank is used in many solar water heating systems for the storage of hot water. ? Using larger storage tanks decrease the efficiency and increases the cost of the system. ? The optimum tank size for the collector area is very important for economic solar heating systems. ? The optimum sizes of the collectors and the storage tank are determined. - Abstract: The most popular method to benefit from the solar energy is to use solar water heating systems since it is one of the cheapest way to benefit from the solar energy. The investment cost of a solar water heating system is very low, and the maintenance costs are nearly zero. Using the solar energy for solar water heating (SWH) technology has been greatly improved during the past century. A storage tank is used in many solar water heating systems for the conservation of heat energy or hot water for use when some need it. In addition, domestic hot water consumption is strongly variable in many buildings. It depends on the geographical situation, also on the country customs, and of course on the type of building usage. Above all, it depends on the inhabitants’ specific lifestyle. For that reason, to provide the hot water for consumption at the desirable temperature whenever inhabitants require it, there must be a good relevance between the collectors and storage tank. In this paper, the optimum sizes of the collectors and the storage tank are determined to design more economic and efficienesign more economic and efficient solar water heating systems. A program has been developed and validated with the experimental study and environmental data. The environmental data were obtained through a whole year of operation for Erzurum, Turkey.

286

Two well storage systems for combined heating and airconditioning by groundwater heatpumps in shallow aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of soil and ground water as an energy source and heat storage systems for heat pumps in order to conserve energy in heating and air conditioning buildings is discussed. Information is included on heat pump operation and performance, aquifer characteristics, soil and ground water temperatures, and cooling and heating demands. Mathematical models are used to calculate flow and temperature fields in the aquifer. It is concluded that two well storage systems with ground water heat pumps are desirable, particularly in northern climates.

Pelka, W.

1980-07-01

287

System Redesign for System Capacity Building  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: A recent development in England is the emergence, under various names, of groups of schools working together in a variety of collaborative ways. Such diversification enjoys broad political support. In this paper, the author aims to argue that the trend is potentially a radical transformation of the school system as a whole. The concepts…

Hargreaves, David H.

2011-01-01

288

Buildings  

... Wolfgang Kastner Automation Systems Group, Institute of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna, Austria Tel. +43 1 58801-18320; Fax: +43 1 58801-18391 Website: https://www.auto.tuwien.ac.at/people/view/Wolfgang_Kastner Interests: building automation systems; smart homes; building automation networks (wired/wireless); security/safety; information modeling; integration Contribution: In other journals: Special Issue: Toward people aware IoT Prof. Dr. Arto Kiviniemi School ...

289

Toxicity of systems for energy generation and storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section contains summaries of research on assessment of health and environmental effects of electric storage systems, and the metabolism and toxicity of metal compounds associated with energy production and storage. The first project relates to the production and use of electric storage battery systems. The second project deals with the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the gastrointestinal absorption, tissue distribution, and toxic effects of metals (Cd). Also included in this study is work on the absorption of actinides (239Pu)

290

Optimization of a seasonal storage solar system using Genetic Algorithms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seasonal storage solar systems are capable of storing thermal energy, from one season to another (typically a few months). In the present paper solar thermal energy generated during summer time, is stored for use in winter time (typically 120 days). The analyzed system consists of solar thermal collectors and a sensible heat storage device using water as storing media. The area of solar collector and the capacity of the storage tank are the basic sizing parameters, which have to meet the requ...

Dura?o, Bruno; Joyce, Anto?nio; Mendes, J. Farinha

2014-01-01

291

Thermal processes in sodium borohydride hydrogen storage systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Depleting fossil fuel supplies, environmental pollution, and global warming demand a new energy carrier for future transportation systems, and hydrogen has been recognized as a promising candidate. On-board hydrogen storage, among other challenges, must be addressed before a hydrogen economy could be realized. Sodium borohydride hydrogen storage systems have been identified as a potential candidate to meet the storage challenge. ^ Calorimetery measurements have been conducted to clarify the...

Zhang, Jinsong

2006-01-01

292

Content Sharing Graphs for Deduplication-Enabled Storage Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deduplication in storage systems has gained momentum recently for its capability in reducing data footprint. However, deduplication introduces challenges to storage management as storage objects (e.g., files are no longer independent from each other due to content sharing between these storage objects. In this paper, we present a graph-based framework to address the challenges of storage management due to deduplication. Specifically, we model content sharing among storage objects by content sharing graphs (CSG, and apply graph-based algorithms to two real-world storage management use cases for deduplication-enabled storage systems. First, a quasi-linear algorithm was developed to partition deduplication domains with a minimal amount of deduplication loss (i.e., data replicated across partitioned domains in commercial deduplication-enabled storage systems, whereas in general the partitioning problem is NP-complete. For a real-world trace of 3 TB data with 978 GB of removable duplicates, the proposed algorithm can partition the data into 15 balanced partitions with only 54 GB of deduplication loss, that is, a 5% deduplication loss. Second, a quick and accurate method to query the deduplicated size for a subset of objects in deduplicated storage systems was developed. For the same trace of 3 TB data, the optimized graph-based algorithm can complete the query in 2.6 s, which is less than 1% of that of the traditional algorithm based on the deduplication metadata.

Prasenjit Sarkar

2012-04-01

293

Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

Undrus, A.

2012-12-01

294

The Role of Thermal Storage and Natural Gas in a Smart Energy System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Smart grids are considered important building blocks of a future energy system that facilitates integration of massive distributed energy resources like gas-fired cogeneration (CHP). The latter produces thermal and electric power together and as such reinforces the interaction between the gas and electricity-distribution systems. Thermal storage makes up the key-source of flexibility that allows decoupling the electricity production from the heat demand. However, smart grids focus on electric...

Vandewalle, Jeroen; Keyaerts, Nico; D Haeseleer, William

2012-01-01

295

Intelligent systems for conveyance and storage infrastructure  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this research project are to identify, demonstrate, and validate intelligent systems for conveyance and storage infrastructure that will enable effective, affordable, real-time, remote measurement, analysis, and reporting of their structural health. Specifically, the project involves testing and validating smart pipes, which could indicate locations of structurally weak areas, i.e., where leaks are likely to occur, and the location of existing leaks for corrective action. During the initial phase of this project an extensive literature search was conducted to identify technologies that could potentially be used in intelligent systems. Although the search was primarily focused on new emerging smart technologies, consideration was also given to innovative uses of established structural monitoring or testing technologies. Four emerging technologies that can potentially locate structurally weak areas and predict incipient leaks were identified: electrically conducting composite pipes, electrochemistry-based corrosion sensors, instrumented cathodic protection, and distributed piezoelectric sensors. Also identified was an innovative use of acoustic emission techniques to track deterioration in pre-stressed concrete pipes by monitoring energy releases from breaking corroded pre-stressing wires. A review of each of these technologies is presented. During the next phase of the program one or more of these technologies will be tested and evaluated further.

Juliano, Thomas M.; Meegoda, Jay N.

2002-02-01

296

Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is designed to be used on Class 8 trucks with CWI ISX G HPDI engines. Extensive test cart and engineering truck tests of the pump demonstrated good durability and the high-pressure performance needed for HPDI application. The LNG tanks manufactured by Taylor-Wharton passed SAE J2343 Recommended Practice drop tests and accelerated road-load vibration tests. NER and hold-time tests produced highly consistent results. Additional tests confirmed the design adequacy of the liquid level sensor, vaporizer, ullage volume, and other fuel system components. While the testing work performed under this program focused on a high-pressure pumped LNG fuel system design, the results also validate the feasibility of a low-pressure pumped fuel system. A low-pressure pumped fuel system could incorporate various design refinements including a simpler and lighter-weight pump, which would decrease costs somewhat relative to a high-pressure system.

Greg Harper; Charles Powars

2003-10-31

297

Storage Optimization of Educational System Data  

Science.gov (United States)

There are described methods used to minimize data files dimension. There are defined indicators for measuring size of files and databases. The storage optimization process is based on selecting from a multitude of data storage models the one that satisfies the propose problem objective, maximization or minimization of the optimum criterion that is…

Boja, Catalin

2006-01-01

298

Scalable constructions of fractional repetition codes in distributed storage systems  

CERN Document Server

In distributed storage systems built using commodity hardware, it is necessary to store multiple replicas of every data chunk in order to ensure system reliability. In such systems, it is also often desirable for storage nodes that fail to be repaired quickly. We consider a scheme--introduced by El Rouayheb and Ramchandran--which uses combinatorial block design in order to design storage systems that enable efficient (and exact) node repair. In this work, we investigate systems where node sizes may be much larger than replication degrees, and explicitly provide algorithms for constructing these storage designs. Our designs, which are related to projective geometries, are based on the construction of bipartite cage graphs (with girth 6) and the concept of mutually-orthogonal Latin squares. We guarantee that the resulting designs require the fewest number of storage nodes for the given parameters, and further show that these systems can be easily expanded without need for frequent reconfiguration.

Koo, Joseph C

2011-01-01

299

Storage in residential solar total-energy systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential role of energy storage devices in solar total energy systems operating in a stand alone mode is examined. High temperature thermal storage is examined in the context of systems employing parabolic trough collectors and Rankine cycle conversion while batteries are evaluated in systems based on parabolic dish concentrators with Stirling cycle conversion or on nonconcentrating photovoltaic systems. In all three systems, storage was found to be advantageous in cases involving high future fuel prices and collectors meeting current cost goals, while storage was not found to be viable at fuel prices remaining near current levels and collector costs exceeding current expectations by substantial margins. Factors making storage more or less desirable are discussed. Throughout, analyses based on minimum cost (optimal) systems are employed.

Leigh, R. W.

1980-12-01

300

Reliability-oriented energy storage sizing in wind power systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Energy storage can be used to suppress the power fluctuations in wind power systems, and thereby reduce the thermal excursion and improve the reliability. Since the cost of the energy storage in large power application is high, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the relationship between the size of the energy storage and the reliability benefit it can generate. Therefore, a reliability-oriented energy storage sizing approach is proposed for the wind power systems, where the power, energy, cost and the control strategy of the energy storage are all taken into account. With the proposed approach, the computational effort is reduced and the impact of the energy storage system on the reliability of the wind power converter can be quantified.

Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Heat storage systems. 5. rev. ed.; Waermespeicher  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat storages provide a means of adapting heat supply to demand both over time and in terms of quantity. Efficient heat storages are a prerequisite for making cost-effective use of waste and solar heat. The BINE reference book presents different storage technologies, offering planners, consultants and real estate professionals an overview of different storage media, capacity categories and types, these including long-term as well as high-temperature storages, along with information on economic efficiency. [German] Waermespeicher ermoeglichen es, das Waermeangebot im Zeitverlauf und in der Leistung dem Bedarf anzupassen. Erst durch effiziente Waermespeicher lassen sich Abwaerme oder solare Waerme wirtschaftlich nutzen. Das BINE-Fachbuch stellt die verschiedenen Speichertechnologien vor und bietet Planern, Beratern und der Immobilienwirtschaft einen Ueberblick ueber unterschiedliche Speichermedien, -groessen und -typen, Langzeit- und Hochtemperaturspeicher und die Wirtschaftlichkeit.

Hauer, Andreas [ZAE Bayern, Garching (Germany); Hiebler, Stefan [ZAE Bayern, Garching (Germany). Gruppe Waermespeichersysteme; Reuss, Manfred [ZAE Bayern (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Solarthermie/Oberflaechennahe Geothermie

2013-11-01

302

Electromechanical Storage Systems for Application to Isolated Wind Energy Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Substantial technology advances have occurred during the last decade that have had and appreciated impact on performance and feasibility of the Electromechanical Storage Systems. Improvements in magnetic bearings, composite materials, power conversion systems, microelectronic control systems and computer simulation models have increased flywheel reliability, and energy storage capacity, while decreasing overall system size, weight and cost. These improvements have brought flywheels to the forefront in the quest for alternate systems. The result of the study carried out under the scope of the SEDUCTOR, about the state of art of the Electromechanical Storage Systems is presented in this report. (Author) 15 refs

303

Fuel cell systems for first lunar outpost: Reactant storage options  

Science.gov (United States)

A Lunar Surface Power Working Group was formed to review candidate systems for providing power to the First Lunar Outpost habitat. The working group met for five days in the fall of 1992 and concluded that the most attractive candidate included a photovoltaic unit, a fuel cell, a regenerator to recycle the reactants, and storage of oxygen and hydrogen gases. Most of the volume (97%) and weight (64%) are taken up by the reactants and their storage tanks. The large volume is difficult to accommodate, and therefore, the working group explored ways of reducing the volume. An alternative approach to providing separate high pressure storage tanks is to use two of the descent stage propellant storage tanks, which would have to be wrapped with graphite fibers to increase their pressure capability. This saves 90% of the volume required for storage of fuel cell reactants. Another approach is to use the descent storage propellant tanks for storage of the fuel cell reactants as cryogenic liquids, but this requires a gas liquefaction system, increases the solar array by 40%, and increases the heat rejection rate by 170% compared with storage of reactants as high pressure gases. For a high power system (greater than 20 kW) the larger energy storage requirement would probably favor the cryogenic storage option.

Nelson, P. A.

304

Observations made while running a multi-petabyte storage system  

CERN Document Server

We take an overview of the CERN Advanced Storage (CASTOR) version 2 system and its usage at CERN while serving the High Energy Physics community. We further explore some of the observations made between 2005 and 2010 while managing this multi-petabyte distributed storage system.

dos Santos, Miguel Coelho

2010-01-01

305

Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

Butler, P.C.

1994-02-01

306

System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

307

System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository.

CALMUS, R.B.

2000-12-27

308

Performance of a large building rainwater harvesting system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rainwater harvesting is increasingly becoming an integral part of the sustainable water management toolkit. Despite a plethora of studies modelling the feasibility of the utilisation of rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in particular contexts, there remains a significant gap in knowledge in relation to detailed empirical assessments of performance. Domestic systems have been investigated to a limited degree in the literature, including in the UK, but there are few recent longitudinal studies of larger non-domestic systems. Additionally, there are few studies comparing estimated and actual performance. This paper presents the results of a longitudinal empirical performance assessment of a non-domestic RWH system located in an office building in the UK. Furthermore, it compares actual performance with the estimated performance based on two methods recommended by the British Standards Institute - the Intermediate (simple calculations) and Detailed (simulation-based) Approaches. Results highlight that the average measured water saving efficiency (amount of mains water saved) of the office-based RWH system was 87% across an 8-month period, due to the system being over-sized for the actual occupancy level. Consequently, a similar level of performance could have been achieved using a smaller-sized tank. Estimated cost savings resulted in capital payback periods of 11 and 6 years for the actual over-sized tank and the smaller optimised tank, respectively. However, more detailed cost data on maintenance and operation is required to perform whole life cost analyses. These findings indicate that office-scale RWH systems potentially offer significant water and cost savings. They also emphasise the importance of monitoring data and that a transition to the use of Detailed Approaches (particularly in the UK) is required to (a) minimise over-sizing of storage tanks and (b) build confidence in RWH system performance. PMID:22840659

Ward, S; Memon, F A; Butler, D

2012-10-15

309

An Overview of Video Allocation Algorithms for Flash-based SSD Storage Systems  

CERN Document Server

Despite the fact that Solid State Disk (SSD) data storage media had offered a revolutionary property storages community, but the unavailability of a comprehensive allocation strategy in SSDs storage media, leads to consuming the available space, random writing processes, time-consuming reading processes, and system resources consumption. In order to overcome these challenges, an efficient allocation algorithm is a desirable option. In this paper, we had executed an intensive investigation on the SSD-based allocation algorithms that had been proposed by the knowledge community. An explanatory comparison had been made between these algorithms. We reviewed these algorithms in order to building advanced knowledge armature that would help in inventing new allocation algorithms for this type of storage media.

Al-Sabateen, Jaafer; Sumari, Putra

2012-01-01

310

An Overview of Video Allocation Algorithms for Flash-based SSD Storage Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the fact that Solid State Disk (SSD data storage media had offered a revolutionary property storages community, but the unavailability of a comprehensive allocation strategy in SSDs storage media, leads to consuming the available space, random writing processes, time-consuming reading processes, and system resources consumption. In order to overcome these challenges, an efficient allocation algorithm is a desirable option. In this paper, we had executed an intensive investigation on the SSD-based allocation algorithms that had been proposed by the knowledge community. An explanatory comparison had been made between these algorithms. We reviewed these algorithms in order to building advanced knowledge armature that would help in inventing new allocation algorithms for this type of storage media

Jaafer Al-Sabateen

2012-03-01

311

Southern company energy storage study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL; Jenkins, Kip [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL

2013-03-01

312

Heat transfer study on dry vault storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Japan, spent fuel from commercial light water reactors is stored in storage pools or storage facilities. A high level vitrified waste storage facility was constructed. It is a dry vault type with natural convection air cooling system. This is one of the interim dry storage facilities which is expected in the future because natural convection air cooling needs no active system and generates very little radioactive waste. Experimental and analytical studies were carried out using the test canister and the computational finite element code. Comparison of the temperature distribution values obtained by experiment and calculations showed good agreement

313

Macstor dry spent fuel storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AECL, a Canadian Grown Corporation established since 1952, is unique among the world's nuclear organizations. It is both supplier of research reactors and heavy water moderated CANDU power reactors as well as operator of extensive nuclear research facilities. As part of its mandate, AECL has developed products and conceptual designs for the short, intermediate and long term storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. AECL has also assumed leadership in the area of dry storage of spent fuel. This Canadian Crown Corporation first started to look into dry storage for the management of its spent nuclear fuel in the early 1970's. After developing silo-like structures called concrete canisters for the storage of its research reactor enriched uranium fuel, AECL went on to perfect that technology for spent CANDU natural uranium fuel. In 1989 AECL teamed up with Trans nuclear, Inc.,(TN), a US based member of the international Trans nuclear Group, to extend its dry storage technology to LWR spent fuel. This association combines AECL's expertise and many years experience in the design of spent fuel storage facilities with TN's proven capabilities of processing, transportation, storage and handling of LWR spent fuel. From the early AECL-designed unventilated concrete canisters to the advanced MACSTOR concept - Modular Air-Cooled Canister Storage - now available also for LWR fuel - dry storage is proving to be safe, economical, practical and, most of all, well accepted by the genend, most of all, well accepted by the general public. AECL's experience with different fuels and circumstances has been conclusive

314

Macstor dry spent fuel storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AECL, a Canadian Grown Corporation established since 1952, is unique among the world's nuclear organizations. It is both supplier of research reactors and heavy water moderated CANDU power reactors as well as operator of extensive nuclear research facilities. As part of its mandate, AECL has developed products and conceptual designs for the short, intermediate and long term storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. AECL has also assumed leadership in the area of dry storage of spent fuel. This Canadian Crown Corporation first started to look into dry storage for the management of its spent nuclear fuel in the early 1970's. After developing silo-like structures called concrete canisters for the storage of its research reactor enriched uranium fuel, AECL went on to perfect that technology for spent CANDU natural uranium fuel. In 1989 AECL teamed up with Trans nuclear, Inc.,(TN), a US based member of the international Trans nuclear Group, to extend its dry storage technology to LWR spent fuel. This association combines AECL's expertise and many years experience in the design of spent fuel storage facilities with TN's proven capabilities of processing, transportation, storage and handling of LWR spent fuel. From the early AECL-designed unventilated concrete canisters to the advanced MACSTOR concept - Modular Air-Cooled Canister Storage - now available also for LWR fuel - dry storage is proving to be safe, economical, practical and, most of all, well accepted by the general public. AECL's experience with different fuels and circumstances has been conclusive.

Pare, F. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal (Canada)

1996-04-15

315

WEB-GIS Decision Support System for CO2 storage  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental decision support systems (DSS) paradigm evolves and changes as more knowledge and technology become available to the environmental community. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to extract, assess and disseminate some types of information, which are otherwise difficult to access by traditional methods. In the same time, with the help of the Internet and accompanying tools, creating and publishing online interactive maps has become easier and rich with options. The Decision Support System (MDSS) developed for the MUSTANG (A MUltiple Space and Time scale Approach for the quaNtification of deep saline formations for CO2 storaGe) project is a user friendly web based application that uses the GIS capabilities. MDSS can be exploited by the experts for CO2 injection and storage in deep saline aquifers. The main objective of the MDSS is to help the experts to take decisions based large structured types of data and information. In order to achieve this objective the MDSS has a geospatial objected-orientated database structure for a wide variety of data and information. The entire application is based on several principles leading to a series of capabilities and specific characteristics: (i) Open-Source - the entire platform (MDSS) is based on open-source technologies - (1) database engine, (2) application server, (3) geospatial server, (4) user interfaces, (5) add-ons, etc. (ii) Multiple database connections - MDSS is capable to connect to different databases that are located on different server machines. (iii)Desktop user experience - MDSS architecture and design follows the structure of a desktop software. (iv)Communication - the server side and the desktop are bound together by series functions that allows the user to upload, use, modify and download data within the application. The architecture of the system involves one database and a modular application composed by: (1) a visualization module, (2) an analysis module, (3) a guidelines module, and (4) a risk assessment module. The Database component is build by using the PostgreSQL and PostGIS open source technology. The visualization module allows the user to view data of CO2 injection sites in different ways: (1) geospatial visualization, (2) table view, (3) 3D visualization. The analysis module will allow the user to perform certain analysis like Injectivity, Containment and Capacity analysis. The Risk Assessment module focus on the site risk matrix approach. The Guidelines module contains the methodologies of CO2 injection and storage into deep saline aquifers guidelines.

Gaitanaru, Dragos; Leonard, Anghel; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Le Guen, Yvi; Scradeanu, Daniel; Pagnejer, Mihaela

2013-04-01

316

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be routinely handled at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) during fuel movement operations in the SNF Project. This analysis was performed to investigate the potential for damage from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack tube, service station, or sample/weld station. Appendix D was added to the FDNW document to include the peer Review Comment Record & transmittal record.

TU, K.C.

1999-10-08

317

The CMS event builder and storage system  

CERN Document Server

The CMS event builder assembles events accepted by the first level trigger and makes them available to the high-level trigger. The event builder needs to handle a maximum input rate of 100\\,kHz and an aggregated throughput of 100\\,GB/s originating from approximately 500 sources. This paper presents the chosen hardware and software architecture. The system consists of 2 stages: an initial pre-assembly reducing the number of fragments by one order of magnitude and a final assembly by several independent readout builder (RU-builder) slices. The RU-builder is based on 3 separate services: the buffering of event fragments during the assembly, the event assembly, and the data flow manager. A further component is responsible for handling events accepted by the high-level trigger: the storage manager (SM) temporarily stores the events on disk at a peak rate of 2\\,GB/s until they are permanently archived offline. In addition, events and data-quality histograms are served by the SM to online monitoring clients. We disc...

Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Biery, Kurt; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Fortes Rodrigues, Fabiana; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Klute, Markus; Laurens, Jean-François; Loizides, Constantin; Lopez Perez, Juan Antonio; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Zanetti, Marco

2010-01-01

318

Rod gripper, changer, and storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

A rod changer and storage design is presented for the lunar deep drill apparatus to be used in conjunction with the Skitter walking platform. The design must take into account all of the lunar environment and working conditions. Some of these are: (1) the moon has one sixth the gravity of earth; (2) temperature gradients can range from about -170 to 265 C; (3) because of the high transportation costs, the design must be as light as possible; and (4) the process must be remotely operated (from earth or satellite) and must be automated. Because of Skitter's multiple degree of freedom movement, the design will utilize Skitter's movement to locate an implement and transport it from the rack to the drill string. The implement will be gripped by a thumb and two finger device, identified through an electronic sensing device on the thumb, and transported from the rack to the footplate and back from the footplate to the rack. The major designs discussed in this report have been broken down into three major areas: (1) gripper design (linear transport mechanism); (2) indexing system; and (3) rack design.

Benson, Mark; Demi, Todd; Mcneill, Robert; Waldo, Keith; Afghan, Alex; Oliver, Jim

1989-01-01

319

Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1998-08-01

320

Carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This effort presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions through the use of large-scale grid-energy-storage (GES systems. The specific questions under investigation herein are as follows: Is it economically sound to invest in a GES system and is the system at least carbon footprint neutral? This research will show the answer to both questions is in the affirmative. Scilicet, when utilized judiciously, grid energy storage systems can be both net present value positive as well as be total carbon footprint negative. The significant contribution herein is a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems.

Trevor S. Hale, Kelly Weeks, Coleman Tucker

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Building Canadian strength in hydrogen systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogenics' contribution in Building Canadian Strength in Hydrogen Systems was demonstrated with a brief summary on 'commercial electrolysers'. The industrial market for electrolysis and the characteristics of the most frequent industrial applications was discussed. The advantages and benefits of electrolysis were examined and examples of success stories for the IMET technology were presented. HYG's approach to the new hydrogen energy segment was illustrated with realizations in different parts of the world. Current trends in Onsite Generation were examined and an outlook of future developments at Hydrogenics concluded the presentation. (author)

322

Building machine learning systems with Python  

CERN Document Server

This is a tutorial-driven and practical, but well-grounded book showcasing good Machine Learning practices. There will be an emphasis on using existing technologies instead of showing how to write your own implementations of algorithms. This book is a scenario-based, example-driven tutorial. By the end of the book you will have learnt critical aspects of Machine Learning Python projects and experienced the power of ML-based systems by actually working on them.This book primarily targets Python developers who want to learn about and build Machine Learning into their projects, or who want to pro

Richert, Willi

2013-01-01

323

Field testing of a high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The University of Minnesota Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) System has been operated as a field test facility for the past six years. Four short-term and two long-term cycles have been completed to data providing a greatly increased understanding of the efficiency and geochemical effects of high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage. A third long-term cycle is currently being planned to operate the ATES system in conjunction with a real heating load and to further study the geochemical impact on the aquifer from heated waste storage cycles. The most critical activities in the preparation for the next cycle have proved to be the applications for the various permits and variances necessary to conduct the third cycle and the matching of the characteristics of the ATES system during heat recovery with a suitable adjacent building thermal load.

Sterling, R.L.; Hoyer, M.C. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1989-03-01

324

The Assured Storage Integrated Management System: What is it and what will it cost?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Assured Storage Integrated Management System for low-level radioactive waste as an alternative to traditional disposal is attracting favorable attention from many states, regulators, processors, and low-level radioactive waste generators. open-quotes Assured storageclose quotes is defined as a management system for safely isolating waste, while preserving options for its long-term management, through: robust, accessible facilities; planned preventive maintenance; and sureties adequate to address contingencies or implement future alternatives. Following introduction of the concept in RADWASTE Magazine, the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service (among several others) requested a briefing on the idea. The Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service then requested that the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory evaluate the life cycle costs of the Assured Storage Integrated Management System versus traditional disposal. Building on some of that work, this paper discusses the concept of an Assured Storage Integrated Management System for low-level radioactive waste as well as examines cost elements of the Assured Storage Integrated Management System in comparison to traditional disposal facilities. Further analyses conducted for the Connecticut study will more clearly define and quantify potential differences in life-cycle costs between the Assured Storage Integrated Management System and traditional disposa Management System and traditional disposal

325

Space Station Freedom electric power system evolutionary energy storage  

Science.gov (United States)

Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom electric power system evolutionary energy storage are presented. Topics covered include: system requirements evolution; Space Station Freedom timeline; development of technologies selection criteria; and candidate technologies.

Domeniconi, Mike

1990-01-01

326

Distributed Energy Systems with Wind Power and Energy Storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how loca...

Korpa?s, Magnus

2004-01-01

327

Circular storage systems in mining operations and coal stockyards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are two types of circular storage systems which are in their features very different from each other. Depending on the application and the desired results, the circular stacker / reclaimer is either built with a cantilever reclaimer or a bridge-type reclaimer. While the cantilever scraper reclaimer is used for buffer storage, the circular stacker with bridge-type reclaimer is meant for storage and homogenization. (orig.)

Anon.

2004-07-01

328

Spent fuel shipping and storage system for Atucha Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argentina's Atucha Nuclear Power Station is on the HWR type with pressure vessel. Its natural UO2-zircaloy fuel assemblies are bundles of 36 fuel rods, 620 cm in length and 11 cm in diameter. The fuel elements are irradiated up to 7000 MWD/MTU and stored in a conventional decaying pool adjacent to the reactor building. A project was developed to design and build a shipping cask and a dry storage place for interim storage of spent Atucha's fuel. This paper describes the cask and storage design, as well as the special container (basket) for the fuel elements. The operation of the whole system is described, with emphasis on safety aspects, and a brief reference is made to heat transfer, corrosion and costs. Safety analysis shows that even in accident conditions the radiation dose on workers in the area will be under the maximum allowed levels. Cask and storage design allows for refrigeration by air convection without surpassing a temperature of 2500C in the hottest fuel rod. Estimate unit costs for the storage system are under 0.1 mills/kWh

329

Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

2009-01-01

330

Tritrophic Interactions in Maize Storage Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interaction and compatibility of natural enemies with two currently used strategies of integrated pest management to lower post-harvest losses in maize were investigated, namely insect resistance, and storage practice. In a first study, insect resistance of a large number of maize genotypes was tested against five common storage pests in tropical maize stores. A large range of resistance was found to the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus and ...

Savidan-niederer, Anita; Rahier, Martine

2004-01-01

331

Solar combisystems and thermochemical storage. Different systems configurations and performance criteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The laboratory of Thermal systems at CEA-INES works on seasonal storage of solar thermal energy for household applications. Thennochemical storage has been adopted and hydration/dehydration reactions of inorganic salts are being used. The objective of this work is to design and evaluate various aeraulic processes in attempt to building installation. Performance criteria have been defined, energy balance of the reaction is presented, combination of components for aeraulic process design are presented and compared, and some parametric studies have been carried out.

Tanguy, Gwennyn; Marias, Foivos; Rouge, Sylvie; Wyttenbach, Joeel; Papillon, Philippe [INES - CEA/LITEN, Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2011-07-01

332

Canister storage building (CSB) safety analysis report phase 3: Safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Canister Storage Building (CSB) will be constructed in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The CSB will be used to stage and store spent nuclear fuel (SNF) removed from the Hanford Site K Basins. The objective of this chapter is to describe the characteristics of the site on which the CSB will be located. This description will support the hazard analysis and accident analyses in Chapter 3.0. The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the CSB design criteria, the design's compliance with the applicable criteria, and the basis for authorization to proceed with construction of the CSB.

Garvin, L.J.

1997-04-28

333

Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage and Photovoltaic Power Systems for Demand Charge Mitigation (Poster)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Commercial facility utility bills are often a strong function of demand charges -- a fee proportional to peak power demand rather than total energy consumed. In some instances, demand charges can constitute more than 50% of a commercial customer's monthly electricity cost. While installation of behind-the-meter solar power generation decreases energy costs, its variability makes it likely to leave the peak load -- and thereby demand charges -- unaffected. This then makes demand charges an even larger fraction of remaining electricity costs. Adding controllable behind-the-meter energy storage can more predictably affect building peak demand, thus reducing electricity costs. Due to the high cost of energy storage technology, the size and operation of an energy storage system providing demand charge management (DCM) service must be optimized to yield a positive return on investment (ROI). The peak demand reduction achievable with an energy storage system depends heavily on a facility's load profile, so the optimal configuration will be specific to both the customer and the amount of installed solar power capacity. We explore the sensitivity of DCM value to the power and energy levels of installed solar power and energy storage systems. An optimal peak load reduction control algorithm for energy storage systems will be introduced and applied to historic solar power data and meter load data from multiple facilities for a broad range of energy storage system configurations. For each scenario, the peak load reduction and electricity cost savings will be computed. From this, we will identify a favorable energy storage system configuration that maximizes ROI.

Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

2013-10-01

334

Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The penetration of renewable sources (particularly wind power) in to the power system network has been increasing in the recent years. As a result of this, there have been serious concerns over reliable and satisfactory operation of the power systems. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage devices into the power system network. Further, in the present deregulated markets these storage devices could also be...

Chandrashekhara, Divya K.; Østergaard, Jacob

2008-01-01

335

Development of a direct contact ice storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program described involves the design, construction, and performance testing of a Direct Freeze Thermal Energy Storage System. Task 1 (Design) has been completed; and Task 2 (construction) is in progress, with equipment procurements presently underway. Once constructed, the system will undergo extensive laboratory performance testing and analysis, followed by an assessment of the system`s cost effectiveness. This study will advance the understanding and development of the direct freeze concept, which offers inherent benefits for thermal energy storage.

Poirier, R. [Chicago Bridge & Iron Company, Plainfield, IL (United States)

1989-03-01

336

Prototype of a magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe recent progress in the development of a 500-Wh magnetically suspended flywheel stack energy storage system. The design of the system and a critical study of the noncontacting displacement transducers and their placement in the stack system are discussed. The storage system has been designed and constructed and is currently undergoing experimental analysis. The results acquired from the noncontacting displacement transducer study show that currently available transducers will not function as desired and that further research is essential.

Plant, David P.; Kirk, J. A.; Anand, D. K.

1989-01-01

337

A SECURE CLOUD STORAGE SYSTEM WITH SECURE DATA FORWARDING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cloud storage system, consisting of a collection of storage servers, provides long-term storage services over the Internet. Storing data in a third party?s cloud system causes serious concern over data confidentiality and to reduce data management costs. However, we must provide security guarantees for the outsourced data. We design and implement a secure cloud storage system that provides robustness, confidentiality, functionality for the services it provides. File access policies are includes in the design for secure access to the data stored. To achieve such security goals, a set of cryptographic key operations that are maintained by a separate key server(s or manager(s. We propose a threshold proxy re-encryption scheme and integrate it with a decentralized erasure code such that a secure distributed storage system is formulated. The distributed storage system not only supports secure and robust data storage and retrieval, but also lets a user forward his data in the storage servers to another user without retrieving the data back

P.Raja Kaushik

2014-08-01

338

Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

2010-03-22

339

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status

340

Security framework for networked storage system based on artificial immune system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposed a theoretical framework for the networked storage system addressing the storage security. The immune system is an adaptive learning system, which can recognize, classify and eliminate 'non-self' such as foreign pathogens. Thus, we introduced the artificial immune technique to the storage security research, and proposed a full theoretical framework for storage security system. Under this framework, it is possible to carry out the quantitative evaluation for the storage security system using modeling language of artificial immune system (AIS), and the evaluation can offer security consideration for the deployment of networked storage system. Meanwhile, it is potential to obtain the active defense technique suitable for networked storage system via exploring the principle of AIS and achieve a highly secure storage system with immune characteristic.

Huang, Jianzhong; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Chengfeng; Zhan, Ling

2007-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Storage of heat as an important prerequisite for real industrialization of the heating of buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increased automation of conventional industry has led to increased concentration of production and consequently to increased importance of storage between demand and production. Due to rapid rise in the cost of the ''raw materials'' of the district heating systems, more attention is today being given to the operation strategies, while the major attention before the energy crisis was centered on the cost of the plant. increased application of co-generation has promoted the ''industrial'' heat production. The inclusion of storage in large heating systems increases the number of applicable operational strategies. This paper mentions some of these based on short term stor

Ussing, V.

1984-05-01

342

Fatty acid esters-based composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage in buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, fatty acid esters-based composite phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage were prepared by blending erythritol tetrapalmitate (ETP) and erythritol tetrastearate (ETS) with diatomite and expanded perlite (EP). The maximum incorporation percentage for ETP and ETS into diatomite and EP was found to be 57 wt% and 62 wt%, respectively without melted PCM seepage from the composites. The morphologies and compatibilities of the composite PCMs were structurally characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT–IR) analysis techniques. Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The DSC analyses results indicated that the composite PCMs were good candidates for building applications in terms of their large latent heat values and suitable phase change temperatures. The thermal cycling test including 1000 melting and freezing cycling showed that composite PCMs had good thermal reliability and chemical stability. TG analysis revealed that the composite PCMs had good thermal durability above their working temperature ranges. Moreover, in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the composite PCMs, the expanded graphite (EG) was added to them at different mass fractions (2%, 5%, and 10%). The best results were obtained for the composite PCMs including 5wt% EG content in terms of the increase in thermal conductivity values and the decrease amount in latent heat capacity. The improvement in thermal conductivity values of ETP/Diatomite, ETS/Diatomite, ETP/EP and ETS/EP were found to be about 68%, 57%, 73% and 75%, respectively. Highlights: ? Fatty acid esters-based composite PCMs were prepared by blending ETP and ETS with diatomite and expanded perlite. ? The composite PCMs were characterized by using SEM, FT–IR, DSC and TG analysis methods. ? The DSC results indicated that the composites PCMs had good thermal energy storage properties. ? TG analysis revealed that they had good thermal durability above their working temperature ranges.

343

An Overview on Energy Storage Options for Renewable Energy Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing technology to store electrical energy so it can be available to meet demand whenever needed would represent a major breakthrough in electricity distribution. Helping to try and meet this goal, electricity storage devices can manage the amount of power required to supply customers at times when need is greatest, which is during peak load. This paper focuses on four storage technologies that can be used as storage for wind energy conversion system. For each storage technology, the advantages and disadvantages, costs involved, the efficiency, the energy density and some major break-through in technology are discussed.

Ajay Sharma1

2014-08-01

344

Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated the potential feasibility of using chemical energy storage at the Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) power plants developed by Luz International. Like sensible or latent heat energy storage systems, chemical energy storage can be beneficially applied to solar thermal power plants to dampen the impact of cloud transients, extend the daily operating period, and/or allow a higher fraction of power production to occur during high-valued peak demand periods. Higher energy storage densities make chemical energy storage a potentially attractive option. The results of the evaluation indicated that a system based on the reversible reaction, CaO + H2O = Ca(OH)2, could be technically and economically feasible for this application, but many technical and economic issues must be resolved.

Brown, D. R.; Lamarche, J. L.; Spanner, G. E.

1992-04-01

345

Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated the potential feasibility of using chemical energy storage at the Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) power plants developed by Luz International. Like sensible or latent heat energy storage systems, chemical energy storage can be beneficially applied to solar thermal power plants to dampen the impact of cloud transients, extend the daily operating period, and/or allow a higher fraction of power production to occur during high-valued peak demand periods. Higher energy storage densities make chemical energy storage a potentially attractive option. The results of the evaluation indicated that a system based on the reversible reaction, CaO + H{sub 2}O = Ca(OH){sub 2}, could be technically and economically feasible for this application, but many technical and economic issues must be resolved.

Brown, D.R.; LaMarche, J.L.; Spanner, G.E.

1992-04-01

346

Wind Energy to Thermal and Cold Storage – A Systems Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper wind energy to thermal and cold storage scenarios were examined to enable high wind integration through converting renewable electricity excess into thermal or cooling energy, saving part of the energy used in an area and eliminating the need to possibly build a new coal fired plant. Case studies in Crete Island (not interconnected to the power grid of Greek mainland) with onshore wind power installed were investigated. The aim of this work was to review the options for greater integration of renewables into the grid and the main idea was to analyze the wind to thermal and to cold storage according to the needs of two small municipalities.

Xydis, George

2013-01-01

347

WATSTORE: NATIONAL WATER DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) consists of several files in which water data are grouped and stored by common characteristics and data-collection frequencies. Files are maintained for the storage of (1) surface-water, q...

348

Distributed mass storage and management systems at DESY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DESY is on the way of massive change in connecting and accessing Mass Storage systems. The main goal is to have full network connected storage devices combined with central network services which should be connected in case of store or retrieve of data

349

Solar heating and cooling system for an office building at Reedy Creek Utilities  

Science.gov (United States)

The solar energy system installed in a two story office building at a utilities company, which provides utility service to Walt Disney World, is described. The solar energy system application is 100 percent heating, 80 percent cooling, and 100 percent hot water. The storage medium is water with a capacity of 10,000 gallons hot and 10,000 gallons chilled water. Performance to date has equaled or exceeded design criteria.

1978-01-01

350

Evaluation of thermal-energy storage media for advanced compressed-air energy-storage systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposed designs of adiabatic and hybrid compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants have utilized sensible heat storage systems to store the heat developed during the air compression phase of the operation cycle for subsequent use during the power generation phase. The performance and durability of several heat storage materials proposed for these systems were evaluated. Materials considered were: (1) 3/8 in. sintered iron oxide pellets; (2) 1/2-in. Denstone spheres; (3) 1 in. cast iron alloy balls; and (4) crushed rock. The results indicated that, from the standpoint of performance and durability, Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, or crushed rock (Dresser basalt) would be satisfactory. However, considering material costs in addition to performance and durability, crushed rock would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for these types of CAES plants.

Zaloudek, F. R.; Wheeler, K. R.; Marksberry, L.

351

Evaluation of thermal-energy storage media for advanced compressed-air energy-storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proposed designs of adiabatic and hybrid compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants have utilized sensible heat storage systems to store the heat developed during the air compression phase of the operation cycle for subsequent use during the power generation phase. This study was performed to experimentally evaluate the performance and durability of several heat storage materials proposed for these systems. Materials considered were: (1) 3/8 in. sintered iron oxide pellets; (2) 1/2-in. Denstone spheres; (3) 1-in. cast iron alloy balls; and (4) crushed rock. The results indicated that, from the standpoint of performance and durability, Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, or crushed rock (Dresser basalt) would be satisfactory. However, considering material costs in addition to performance and durability, crushed rock would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for these types of CAES plants.

Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

1982-01-01

352

Enabling data-intensive science with Tactical Storage Systems  

CERN Document Server

Large scale scientific computing requires the ability to share and consume data and storage in complex ways across multiple systems. However, conventional systems constrain users to the fixed abstractions selected by the local system administrator. The result is that users must either move data manually over the wide area or simply be satisfied with the resources of a single cluster. To remedy this situation, we introduce the concept of a tactical storage system (TSS) that allows users to create, reconfigure, and destroy distributed storage systems without special privileges or complex configuration. We have deployed a prototype TSS of 200 disks and 8 TB of storage at the University of Notre Dame and applied it to several problems in astrophysics, high energy physics, and bioinformatics. This talk will focus on novel system structures that support data-intensive science. About the speaker: Douglas Thain is an Assistant Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Notre Dame. He received ...

CERN. Geneva; Marquina, Miguel Angel

2006-01-01

353

Fabrication and properties of microencapsulated-paraffin/gypsum-matrix building materials for thermal energy storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: DSC curves of microPCMs/gypsum composite samples before and after a thermal cycling treatment. Highlights: ? Microcapsules containing paraffin was fabricated by in-situ polymerization. ? Methanol-modified melamine–formaldehyde (MMF) was used as shell material. ? MicroPCMs/gypsum-matrix building materials were applied for solar energy storage. ? The structure and thermal conductivity of composites had been investigated. - Abstract: Microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) have been widely applied in solid matrix as thermal-storage or temperature-controlling functional composites. The aim of this work was to prepare and investigate the properties of microPCMs/gypsum-matrix building materials for thermal energy storage. MicroPCMs contain paraffin was fabricated by in situ polymerization using methanol-modified melamine–formaldehyde (MMF) as shell material. A series of microPCMs samples were prepared under emulsion stirring rates in range of 1000–3000 r min?1 with core/shell weight ratios of 3/1, 2/1, 1/1, 1/2 and 1/3, respectively. The shell of microPCMs was smooth and compact with global shape, its thickness was not greatly affected by the core/shell ratio and emulsion stirring rate. DSC tests showed that the shell of microPCMs did not influence the phase change behavior of pure paraffin. It was found from TGA analysis that microPCMs samples containing paraffin lost their weight at the temperature of nearly 250 °C, which indicated that the PCM had been protected by shell. More shell material in microPCMs could enhance the thermal stability and provide higher compact condition for core material. After a 100-times thermal cycling treatment, the microPCMs contain paraffin also nearly did not change the phase change behaviors of PCM. With the increasing of weight contents of microPCMs in gypsum board, the thermal conductivity (?) values of composites had decreased. The simulation of temperature tests proved that the microPCMs/gypsum composite could store the time-dependent and intermittent solar energy, which did not necessarily meet the energy needs for space heating at all times.

354

Small scale seasonal storage of solar energy for domestic heating : Simulation of solar fraction and storage design for low energy buildings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sun is a huge energy source with great potential of providing energy to the heating of homes and other buildings in an environmentally sustainable manner. In order to provide buildings with energy from the sun it is necessary to transfer the energy supply over time to when the demand arises. By storing the heat in a seasonal storage, solar energy from the summer can be used in the winter when the demand for heating is greatest. Today's existing plants are mainly in Europe and particularly...

Norberg, Anna

2011-01-01

355

New applications of energy storage in electric heating and cooling systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Electricity, in combination with appropriate load management techniques, is a cost effective method of providing building heating and cooling services. Storage systems that enable the use of nighttime, off peak, energy to meet the following day's load are among the most promising load management techniques. Studies evaluated the total cost of providing space heating and cooling services with electricity and then compared these costs with oil and gas based systems. Detailed cost allocation models were used to compute gas and electric utility costs of supply. A number of different electric technologies were evaluated including electric storage heating, storage air conditioning, dual fuel heating, and solar heating with electric backup. An important finding is that several electric based heating technologies are cost competitive with oil and natural gas heating.

Asbury, J. G.

1980-06-01

356

Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

1993-08-01

357

Energy management system of hybrid microgrid with energy storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic scheduling of the generation units is playing a significant role in the energy management of the hybrid stand alone microgrid. Energy storage is an increasingly important part of the renewable energy sector because of the need to store power during peak production times for use in off-peak periods. This paper describes an energy management system (EMS) for an islanded microgrid (MG) comprising wind energy conversion system (WECS),photovoltaic (PV), energy storage (ES) system, ...

Marzband, Mousa; Sumper, Andreas; Chindris, Mircea; Tomoiaga, Bogdan

2012-01-01

358

A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).

Wetter, Michael

2011-04-01

359

Energy storage systems program report for FY97  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1997. 46 figs., 20 tabs.

Butler, P.C.

1998-08-01

360

Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY98  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1998.

Butler, P.C.

1999-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY99  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to develop cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications in collaboration with academia and industry. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1999.

BOYES,JOHN D.

2000-06-01

362

10 CFR 434.404 - Building service systems and equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS...Heating storage oil Btuh c all 430...When testing an oil-fired water...All measurements of oil consumption shall...than 1 and the fuel pump pressure within ±1% of...

2010-01-01

363

Building thermal envelope systems and materials (BTESM) progress report for DOE Office of Buildings Energy Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

Burn, G. (comp.)

1990-10-01

364

Hybrid solar/wind (PVT/WT) building integrated systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering the application of photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbine (WT) systems on buildings, the use of small size wind turbines of horizontal (HAWT) or vertical (VAWT) axis is necessary. PV panels are more flexible than WTs and convert a small part of the incoming solar radiation to electricity, with the greater part being converted into heat. The combination of the PV module with a water or an air heat extraction unit constitutes the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) system, by which electrical and thermal output is simultaneously provided. The extracted heat from the photovoltaics can be stored in water storage tank for liquid type PVT systems and in stones (or other material) for air type PVT systems. In countries where there is no special electricity buy-back tariff as well as in stand-alone applications (provided that the battery storage unit is charged), when there is surplus of electricity, then the electricity can be transformed to thermal energy and stored by the PVT system. These multiple energy conversion systems that combine PVT and WT subsystems are the hybrid solar (electric and thermal)/wind (electric) systems (PVT/WT). In this paper we present the concept of the hybrid PVT/WT systems, where the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. We calculated the monthly energy output of a hybrid PVT/WT system, based on PVT results from two tested models and also on the performance data of a small HAWT, for a site at Athens, Greece. We also performed an economic analysis of the PVT/WT systems, based on the market prices of all subsystems. The results showed that the systems have a payback period of 7-9 years, while the application of VAWT is not yet cost effective, as the pay back period of a PVT/VAWT system is about 18 years. (orig.)

Tripanagnostopoulos, Y. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Patras, Patra (Greece); Tselepis, S. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Athens (Greece)

2003-07-01

365

Thermally activated building systems in context of increasing building energy efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the possible ways to provide heating to the building is to use thermally activated building systems. This type of heating, besides providing significant increase in building energy efficiency, allows using low-temperature heating sources. In this paper, special attention is given to opaque part of the building façade with integrated thermally activated building systems. Due to fact that this type of system strongly depends on temperature of this construction-thermal element and type and thickness of other materials of the façade, influence of these parameters on energy efficiency was analyzed in this paper. Since the simplest and most promising way of using geothermal energy is to use it directly, for our analysis this source of energy was selected. Building energy needs for heating were obtained for real residential multi-family building in Serbia by using EnergyPlus software. The building with all necessary input for simulation was modeled in Google SketchUp with aid of Open Studio Plug-in. Obtained results were compared with measured heating energy consumption. The results show that thermally activated building systems represent good way to increase building energy efficiency and that applying certain temperatures within this element, low-energy house standard can be achieved.

Stojanovi? Branislav V.

2014-01-01

366

Criticality safety studies for the storage of waste from nuclear fuel service in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides computational evaluation results demonstrating that mixed oxide waste can be safely stored in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Existing, verified computational techniques are validated with applicable critical experiments and tolerance limits for safety analyses are derived. Multiplication factors for normal and credible abnormal configurations are calculated and found to be far subcritical when compared to derived safety limits.

Primm, R.T. III; Hopper, C.M.; Smolen, G.R.

1992-11-01

367

Criticality safety studies for the storage of waste from nuclear fuel service in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides computational evaluation results demonstrating that mixed oxide waste can be safely stored in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Existing, verified computational techniques are validated with applicable critical experiments and tolerance limits for safety analyses are derived. Multiplication factors for normal and credible abnormal configurations are calculated and found to be far subcritical when compared to derived safety limits

368

Adapting the NUHOMS Interim Storage System for international spent fuel storage needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NUHOMS systems are well established in USA and Europe as a reliable, safe and well proven option for dry storage of spent fuel. These systems can be used for either on-site storage or away from reactor storage because the canisters cab be transported in a B9U0 packaging. The proven NUHOMS flexibility can readily be adapted to meet new consumer needs in terms of handling limitations (size and weight), fuel characteristics, local regulation ect. As a licensee for the NUHOMS technology, Framatome - ANP has supplied a NUHOMS systems for storing WWER fuel assemblies at Metzamor in Armenia and also for storing RBMK fuel at Chernobyl in Ukraine. Discussion with potential clients are in progress and new design concepts are in preparation, including a vertical version of the NUHOMS system. (authors)

369

Two Hybrid Control Systems for Building Structures under Strong Earthquakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two aseismic hybrid control systems are proposed for protecting building structures against strong earthquakes. The hybrid control system consists of a base isolation system connected to either a passive or active mass damper. The base isolation system, s...

A. Danielians, J. N. Yang

1990-01-01

370

Analysis of Geothermal Heating System for Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One-third of the world energy utilization is for space heating and cooling. Steady increase in the prices of sources of energy and electricity has resulted in more and more use of alternate sources of energy such as geothermal energy for heating and cooling. Maximum heat loss from the building and water flow rate are for the month of January. The value of maximum heat loss is 3.41 kW and that for water flow rate is 0.84 m3/hrespectively. The maximum savings in terms of value and energy by using the geothermal heating system are again for the month of January in terms of energy 1038 units of electricity and in terms of value Rs. 5191 respectively. Total savings for the winter season in terms of energy are 2983 units of electricity and in terms of value are Rs. 14915.

R K Pal

2013-08-01

371

System Realization Using Associative Memory Building Blocks  

Science.gov (United States)

A data-based model of associative memory is described which uses statistical inference techniques to estimate an output response from a set of inputs and a database of previously stored patterns. The model is easily scaled in terms of the number of patterns that can be stored in the database as well as the number of fields in a pattern. Other features include the ability to change the input and output fields, to adjust the amount of generalization performed by the associative memory, and to control the size of the database by pruning redundant or conflicting patterns. Applications of associative memories to a wide variety of problems are illustrated to motivate their use as general system building blocks. Implementations in hardware and software are discussed.

Carlotto, Mark J.; Izraelevitz, David

1990-03-01

372

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS AND BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A bibliography of published papers describing models, measurement techniques, apparatus, and data for the thermal performance of whole buildings and building envelope systems has been collected (aggregate energy consumption of whole buildings, performance of HVAC equipment, and solar technologies are not included). Summary descriptions of the content of each citation are provided. Measurements on whole buildings or on systems other than walls are sparse. However, new and recently completed measurement facilities are increasing these capabilities. Measurements under dynamic conditions are difficult to accomplish and few reliable data exist. Some analogs have been explored experimentally and analytically. Citations on analytical models are selective and concentrate on methodology that forms the basis of computer programs for whole-building energy analysis. Interesting future directions include new approaches to dynamic measurements, both in the laboratory and in the field, for envelope systems and for whole buildings.

Carroll, William L.

1979-04-01

373

The economics of utilizing wind power in apple cold-storage systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A computer model for the economics of a wind turbine powered apple cold storage facility is described, based on the performance of a pilot installation. The facility consisted of an 8 kW windmill, storage batteries, a rectifier to convert the windmill ac power to dc for storage, a dc vapor compression refrigeration system, a 1000 bu apple storage building, and an ice-tank thermal storage system. The performance of the pilot plant was monitored for 2 yr, and the model was devised to include the variations of power and wind, the demand for power, and the quantity of auxiliary power required. Important features of an after-tax analysis of the wind turbine economics are outlined, with attention given to the annual cost equivalence for systems with and without a windmill and with consideration for tax write-offs. It was found that the windpowered system was not economical for a 1000 bu facility, but may be applicable in commercial sized operations.

Tanchoco, J. M. A.; Wysk, R. A.; Norris, W. E.

1982-02-01

374

HybridPlan: A Capacity Planning Technique for Projecting Storage Requirements in Hybrid Storage Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic forces, driven by the desire to introduce flash into the high-end storage market without changing existing software-base, have resulted in the emergence of solid-state drives (SSDs), flash packaged in HDD form factors and capable of working with device drivers and I/O buses designed for HDDs. Unlike the use of DRAM for caching or buffering, however, certain idiosyncrasies of NAND Flash-based solid-state drives (SSDs) make their integration into hard disk drive (HDD)-based storage systems nontrivial. Flash memory suffers from limits on its reliability, is an order of magnitude more expensive than the magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs), and can sometimes be as slow as the HDD (due to excessive garbage collection (GC) induced by high intensity of random writes). Given the complementary properties of HDDs and SSDs in terms of cost, performance, and lifetime, the current consensus among several storage experts is to view SSDs not as a replacement for HDD, but rather as a complementary device within the high-performance storage hierarchy. Thus, we design and evaluate such a hybrid storage system with HybridPlan that is an improved capacity planning technique to administrators with the overall goal of operating within cost-budgets. HybridPlan is able to find the most cost-effective hybrid storage configuration with different types of SSDs and HDDs

Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gupta, Aayush [IBM Corporation, Almaden Research Center; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan [Pennsylvania State University; Piotr, Berman [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Sivasubramaniam, Anand [Pennsylvania State University

2014-01-01

375

Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

2004-12-01

376

Rebuilding for Array Codes in Distributed Storage Systems  

CERN Document Server

In distributed storage systems that use coding, the issue of minimizing the communication required to rebuild a storage node after a failure arises. We consider the problem of repairing an erased node in a distributed storage system that uses an EVENODD code. EVENODD codes are maximum distance separable (MDS) array codes that are used to protect against erasures, and only require XOR operations for encoding and decoding. We show that when there are two redundancy nodes, to rebuild one erased systematic node, only 3/4 of the information needs to be transmitted. Interestingly, in many cases, the required disk I/O is also minimized.

Wang, Zhiying; Bruck, Jehoshua

2010-01-01

377

Securing Dynamic Distributed Storage Systems against Eavesdropping and Adversarial Attacks  

CERN Document Server

We address the problem of securing distributed storage systems against eavesdropping and adversarial attacks. An important aspect of these systems is node failures over time, necessitating, thus, a repair mechanism in order to maintain a desired high system reliability. In such dynamic settings, an important security problem is to safeguard the system from an intruder who may come at different time instances during the lifetime of the storage system to observe, and possibly alter, the data stored on some nodes. In this scenario, we give upper bounds on the maximum amount of information that can be stored safely on the system. For an important operating regime of the distributed storage system, which we call the `bandwidth-limited regime', we show that our upper bounds are tight and provide explicit code constructions. Moreover, we provide a way to shortlist the malicious nodes and expurgate the system.

Pawar, Sameer; Ramchandran, Kannan

2010-01-01

378

A new compressed air energy storage refrigeration system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a new compressed air energy storage (CAES) refrigeration system is proposed for electrical power load shifting application. It is a combination of a gas refrigeration cycle and a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Thermodynamic calculations are conducted to investigate the performance of this system. Economic analysis is performed to study the operating cost of the system, and comparison is made with a vapor compression refrigeration system and an ice storage refrigeration system. The results indicate that the CAES refrigeration system has the advantages of simple structure, high efficiency and low operating cost

379

Optimization of Experimental Model Parameter Identification for Energy Storage Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The smart grid approach is envisioned to take advantage of all available modern technologies in transforming the current power system to provide benefits to all stakeholders in the fields of efficient energy utilisation and of wide integration of renewable sources. Energy storage systems could help to solve some issues that stem from renewable energy usage in terms of stabilizing the intermittent energy production, power quality and power peak mitigation. With the integration of energy storag...

Rosario Morello; Mario Luiso; Daniele Gallo; Carmine Landi

2013-01-01

380

<90 day storage training plan for the 103-B, 1701-BA, AND 1714-C buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 103-B, 1701-BA, and 1714C < 90 Day Storage Area stores characteristic wastes generated in the demolition of the 103-B, 1701-BA, and 1714-C Complex. Wastes (lead-based painted components) are packaged and stored in vendor shipment containers. This is the Environmental Restoration Contractor team training plan for the 103-B, 1701-BA, and 1714-C subgrade demolition < 90 Day Storage of Hazardous Waste. This document is intended to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-303-330 and the Hanford Dangerous Waste Permit. Training unrelated to compliance with WAC 173-303-330 is not addressed in this training plan. WAC 173-303-330(1)(d)(2, 5, 6) requires that personnel be familiarized, where applicable, with waste feed cut-off systems, response to ground-water contamination incidents, and shutdown of operations. These are not applicable to 103-B, 1701-BA, and 1714-C Subgrade Demolition < 90 Day Storage, and therefore are not covered in this training plan

 
 
 
 
381

CFD Simulation of Spent Fuel in a Dry Storage System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spent fuel pool is expected to be full in few years. It is a serious problem one should not ignore. The dry storage type is considered as the interim storage system in Korea. The system stores spent fuel in a storage canister filled with an inert gas and the canister is cooled by a natural convection system using air or helium, radiation, and conduction. The spent fuel is heated by decay heat. The spent fuel is allowed to cool under a limiting temperature to avoid a fuel failure. Recently, the thermal hydraulic characteristics for a single bundle of the spent fuel were investigated through a CFD simulation. It would be of great interest to investigate the maximum fuel temperature in a dry storage system. The present paper deals with the thermal hydraulic characteristics of spent fuel for a dry storage system using the CFD method. A 3-D thermal flow simulation was carried out to predict the temperature of spent fuel. A dry storage system composed of 32 fuel bundles was modeled. The inlet temperature of the outer bundle is higher and that of inner bundle, however, is higher at the outlet. In a single fuel assembly, a center temperature of the fuel assembly was higher than elsewhere

382

Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual reconfiguration when making parametric analysis. A test case featuring an office located in Copenhagen, Denmark, indicates that the method has a potential to save energy and improve thermal comfort compared to more conventional systems control. Further investigations of this potential and the general performance of the method are, however, needed before implementing it in a real building design.

Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

2011-01-01

383

Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

384

High-performance mass storage system for workstations  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations and Personnel Computers (PC) are very popular tools for office automation, command and control, scientific analysis, database management, and many other applications. However, when using Input/Output (I/O) intensive applications, the RISC workstations and PC's are often overburdened with the tasks of collecting, staging, storing, and distributing data. Also, by using standard high-performance peripherals and storage devices, the I/O function can still be a common bottleneck process. Therefore, the high-performance mass storage system, developed by Loral AeroSys' Independent Research and Development (IR&D) engineers, can offload a RISC workstation of I/O related functions and provide high-performance I/O functions and external interfaces. The high-performance mass storage system has the capabilities to ingest high-speed real-time data, perform signal or image processing, and stage, archive, and distribute the data. This mass storage system uses a hierarchical storage structure, thus reducing the total data storage cost, while maintaining high-I/O performance. The high-performance mass storage system is a network of low-cost parallel processors and storage devices. The nodes in the network have special I/O functions such as: SCSI controller, Ethernet controller, gateway controller, RS232 controller, IEEE488 controller, and digital/analog converter. The nodes are interconnected through high-speed direct memory access links to form a network. The topology of the network is easily reconfigurable to maximize system throughput for various applications. This high-performance mass storage system takes advantage of a 'busless' architecture for maximum expandability. The mass storage system consists of magnetic disks, a WORM optical disk jukebox, and an 8mm helical scan tape to form a hierarchical storage structure. Commonly used files are kept in the magnetic disk for fast retrieval. The optical disks are used as archive media, and the tapes are used as backup media. The storage system is managed by the IEEE mass storage reference model-based UniTree software package. UniTree software will keep track of all files in the system, will automatically migrate the lesser used files to archive media, and will stage the files when needed by the system. The user can access the files without knowledge of their physical location. The high-performance mass storage system developed by Loral AeroSys will significantly boost the system I/O performance and reduce the overall data storage cost. This storage system provides a highly flexible and cost-effective architecture for a variety of applications (e.g., realtime data acquisition with a signal and image processing requirement, long-term data archiving and distribution, and image analysis and enhancement).

Chiang, T.; Tang, Y.; Gupta, L.; Cooperman, S.

1993-01-01

385

Diagrid structural systems for tall buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses the use of diagonal mesh support structure on the example of a high-rise building. High-rise buildings are the difficult construction object representing unique constructions which have height over 100 meters. One of the most dangerous factors influencing high-rise buildings is the wind which can to break integrity of protecting designs and to lead to impossibility to operate the building. Also at design of high-rise buildings is necessary to consider seismic stability of a construction and pressure which puts upon soil. As well as any unique construction the high-rise building is very expensive construction object including besides project and construction works as well scientific researches. Therefore, at design always try to reduce the cost of construction by application of the advanced construction technologies. Diagonal and mesh bearing designs - "Diagrid" belong to one of front lines and construction technologies gathering popularity.

Olga Vyacheslavovna Iakuba

2014-07-01

386

Use of compressed-air storage systems; Einsatz von Druckluftspeichersystemen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) looks at the use of compressed air as a means of storing energy. Historical aspects are listed and compressed-air storage as an alternative to current ideas that use electrolysis and hydrogen storage is discussed. The storage efficiency advantages of compressed-air storage is stressed and the possibilities it offers for compensating the stochastic nature of electricity production from renewable energy sources are discussed. The so-called BOP (Battery with Oil-hydraulics and Pneumatics) principle for the storage of electricity is discussed and its function is described. The advantages offered by such a system are listed and the development focus necessary is discussed.

Cyphely, I.; Rufer, A.; Brueckmann, Ph.; Menhardt, W.; Reller, A.

2004-07-01

387

Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a pricing scheme for the enhancement of macroeconomic performance of pumped-storage systems, based on the statistical properties of both geophysical and economic variables. The main argument consists in the need of a context of economic values concerning the hub energy resource; defined as the resource that comprises the reference energy currency for all involved renewable energy sources (RES) and discounts all related uncertainty. In the case of pumped-storage systems the hub resource is the reservoir's water, as a benchmark for all connected intermittent RES. The uncertainty of all involved natural and economic processes is statistically quantifiable by entropy. It is the relation between the entropies of all involved RES that shapes the macroeconomic state of the integrated pumped-storage system. Consequently, there must be consideration on the entropy of wind, solar and precipitation patterns, as well as on the entropy of economic processes -such as demand preferences on either current energy use or storage for future availability. For pumped-storage macroeconomics, a price on the reservoir's capacity scarcity should also be imposed in order to shape a pricing field with upper and lower limits for the long-term stability of the pricing range and positive net energy benefits, which is the primary issue of the generalized deployment of pumped-storage technology. Keywords: Entropy, uncertainty, pricing, hub energy resource, RES, energy storage, capacity scarcity, macroeconomics

Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

2014-05-01

388

Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design.

1994-03-01

389

Flywheel energy storage systems with magnetic bearings; Magnetgelagerte Schwungmassenspeicher  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present paper development and status of new conceptions of flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) are presented. Carbon and glass fiber materials provide a high energy density while magnetic bearings are capable to reduce the rotational losses and increase the storage efficiency substantially. Flywheel storage systems with magnetic stabilization of the rotor can provide UPS functions after electric power fault till diesel generator are started and deliver electricity. Due to the fast flywheel reaction in milliseconds power quality functions (load levelling) are provided as well. A 250 kW / 5 kWh engineering prototype Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) was designed and assembled For the first time a heavy - load 0.6 ton rotor is suspended total magnetically by an HTS magnetic bearing. Potential FESS applications are described and discussed. (orig.)

Werfel, Frank N. [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

2009-07-01

390

Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

1998-10-01

391

Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

2003-04-16

392

CISBAT 2007 - Advanced building control systems (environmental optimisation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the seventh part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of Advanced building control systems the following oral contributions are summarised: 'A biomimetic structure', and 'Hierarchical fuzzy rule-based control of renewable energy building systems'. Poster contributions include 'Monitoring system to evaluate building energetic responses and comparison with simulated data' and 'Efficient building control systems: comparative analysis'. Further groups of presentations at the conference are reported on in separate database records. An index of authors completes the proceedings.

NONE

2007-07-01

393

NV energy electricity storage valuation : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benefit the operations of NV Energy, and assesses whether those benefits are likely to justify the cost of the storage system. To determine the impact of grid-level storage, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (%22BA%22) as projected for 2020 was created. Storage was found to add value primarily through the provision of regulating reserve. Certain storage resources were found likely to be cost-effective even without considering their capacity value, as long as their effectiveness in providing regulating reserve was taken into account. Giving fast resources credit for their ability to provide regulating reserve is reasonable, given the adoption of FERC Order 755 (%22Pay-for-performance%22). Using a traditional five-minute test to determine how much a resource can contribute to regulating reserve does not adequately value fast-ramping resources, as the regulating reserve these resources can provide is constrained by their installed capacity. While an approximation was made to consider the additional value provided by a fast-ramping resource, a more precise valuation requires an alternate regulating reserve methodology. Developing and modeling a new regulating reserve methodology for NV Energy was beyond the scope of this study, as was assessing the incremental value of distributed storage.

Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA; Jin, Chunlian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA

2013-06-01

394