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1

Thermal storage system cools office building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of its experience with ice thermal energy storage systems (ITES), the author's company was asked to review the design for the 34-story International Trade Building, which was to be the second of four major structures to be built as a part of the Taiwan World Trade Center Complex. The purpose was to see if the ITES concept could be incorporated in that building. The International Trade Building has a gross space of 1.05 million sq ft (98,000 m{sup 2}). The total conditioned space is 880,310 sq ft (82,000 m{sup 2}). The building's peak air-conditioning load is 2,527 tons. Due to the fact that space is probably more precious in Taipei than in most other major cities, the challenge was to design a system that would reduce the building demand, conserve energy and yet still fit within the limited space. This paper reports on the system of air conditioning envisioned, and subsequently installed in this building.

1991-03-01

2

Optimal design of energy production and storage systems in buildings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a comprehensive approach to manage energy resources in buildings connected to the electricity grid and equipped with energy production and storage systems. The aim of the work is to find interesting configurations that favour energy self-consumption while minimizing the negative ...

Chabaud, Aurélie; Eynard, Julien; Grieu, Stéphane

3

Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research project performed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

2009-01-01

4

Energy Management Strategy for Commercial Buildings Integrating PV and Storage Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an energy management strategy for a commercial building in supermarket application. Some objectives are established as load shedding, to reduce the electricity bill and the CO2 emissions of commercial building, such as supermarkets, in using PV and storage systems. An energy mana...

ZANG, He; DAVIGNY, Arnaud; Sprooten, Jonathan; ROBYNS, Benoit; Colas, Frédéric; POSTE, Yvan

5

Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits of operating heat pumps flexibly. This includes prioritising heat pump operation for hours with low marginal electricity production costs, and peak load shaving resulting in a reduced need for peak and reserve capacity investments.

Balyk, Olexandr; Hedegaard, Karsten

2013-01-01

6

Heat of fusion storage systems for combined solar systems in low energy buildings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Solar heating systems for combined domestic hot water and space heating has a large potential especially in low energy houses where it is possible to take full advantage of low temperature heating systems. If a building integrated heating system is used – e.g. floor heating - the supply temperature (and the the return temperature) would only be a few degrees above room temperature due to the very low heating demand and the large heat transfer surface area. One of the objectives in a newly started IEA Task 32 project is to investigate and develop improved thermal storages for combined solar systems through further improvement of water based storages and in parallel to investigate the potential of using storage designs with phase change materials, PCM. The advantage of phase change materials is that large amounts of energy can be stored without temperature increase when the material is going from solid to liquid form (Fig. 1). Keeping the temperature as low as possible is an efficient way to reduce the heat loss from the storage. Furthermore, the PCM storage might be smaller than the equivalent water storage as more energy can be stored per volume. If the PCM further has the possibility of a stable super cooling, i.e. the material is able to cool down below its freezing point (Tfusion) and still be liquid, the possibility exist for a storage with a very low heat loss. When energy is needed from the storage the solidification is activated and the temperature rises almost instantly to the melting point. The work within the IEA Task 32 project focuses on the phase change material Sodium Acetate with xanthan rubber. This material melts at 58 °C, which means that low temperature heating systems could make full use of such a storage system. Energy to a large extent can be withdrawn even when the storage is in its super cooled phase without activation of the phase change. This paper presents an initial simulation model of a PCM storage for implementation in TRNSYS 15 [1] as well as the first test results achieved with the model.

Schultz, JØrgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

2004-01-01

7

Performance evaluation of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with chilled water storage (CIESOL building)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We present a new solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s operation sequence. ? This mode considers the chilled water tanks action with variable-speed pump. ? It permits to save about 20% and 30% of energy and water consumption, respectively. ? It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. ? It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study presents the performance of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with two chilled water storage tanks installed in the Solar Energy Research Center building. The system consists mainly of solar collectors’ array, a hot-water driven absorption chiller, a cooling tower, two hot storage tanks, an auxiliary heater as well as two chilled storage tanks. The chilled water storage tank circuit was further investigated in order to find the optimum solar system’s operation sequence while providing the best energy performance. Firstly, we carried out a study about the dynamics of building’s cooling load and the necessity of the integration of chilled water storage tanks to solar system. Subsequently, the new system’s operation mode was proposed to reduce the energy consumption. The results demonstrate that we can save about 20% of the total energy consumption and about 30% of water consumption applying the new operation sequence, which takes into account the chilled water tanks action. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the integration of chilled water storage tanks allows to reduce the sudden absorption chiller on/off cycles, thereby improving the efficiency of the solar-assisted system.

2012-01-01

8

Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1) reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2) using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

Alexandre Hugo; Radu Zmeureanu

2012-01-01

9

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01

10

Thermodynamic analyses and assessments of various thermal energy storage systems for buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Proposing a novel latent (PCM), thermochemical and sensible (aquifer) TES combination for building heating. ? Performing comprehensive environmental, energy, exergy and sustainability analyses. ? Investigating the effect of varying dead state temperatures on the TESs. - Abstract: In this study, energetic, exergetic, environmental and sustainability analyses and their assessments are carried out for latent, thermochemical and sensible thermal energy storage (TES) systems for phase change material (PCM) supported building applications under varying environment (surrounding) temperatures. The present system consists of a floor heating system, System-I, System-II and System-III. The floor heating system stays at the building floor supported with a floor heating unit and pump. The System-I includes a latent TES system and a fan. The latent TES system is comprised of a PCM supported building envelope, in which from outside to inside; glass, transparent insulation material, PCM, air channel and insulation material are placed, respectively. Furthermore, System-II mainly has a solar-thermochemical TES while there are an aquifer TES and a heat pump in System-III. Among the TESs, the hot and cold wells of the aquifer TES have maximum exergetic efficiency values of 88.782% and 69.607% at 8 °C dead state temperature, respectively. According to the energy efficiency aspects of TESs, the discharging processes of the latent TES and the hot well of the aquifer TES possess the minimum and maximum values of 5.782% and 94.118% at 8 °C dead state temperature, respectively. Also, the fan used with the latent TES is the most environmentally-benign system component among the devices. Furthermore, the most sustainable TES is found for the aquifer TES while the worst sustainable system is the latent TES.

2012-01-01

11

Exergoeconomic analysis of glycol cold thermal energy storage systems for building applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presented an exergoeconomic analysis of glycol cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems. Exergoeconomics combines thermodynamics with the principles of economics. It was suggested that as a combination of thermodynamics and economics, an exergoeconomic analysis can provide more meaningful information than energy analysis about the efficiency and performance of glycol CTES. When glycol CTES is incorporated into a new or existing building, the low temperatures of the chilled-water supply allow the use of low-temperature air distribution, requiring smaller fans and ducts. Glycol systems cool water by circulating ethylene or propylene glycol through storage tanks. System components were presented. A daily load diagram was considered with data recorded between the hours of 8:00 and 18:00. Details of computerized simulations were presented. The methodology considered quantities of exergy, cost, energy and mass. It was observed that for glycol CTES, energy efficiency is around 65 per cent, and the corresponding exergy efficiency is 16 per cent, for a 25 degrees C ambient air temperature. Chiller values depended greatly on storage temperature, and varied between 2.6 and 8. Costs depend on exergy losses, and need to be increased when exergy losses increase to drive devices. It was concluded that the use of an exergoeconomic approach in designing and analyzing glycol CTES systems appears to have the potential to enable a more efficient energy use, in part by allowing the mismatch between supply and demand for cold thermal energy to be addressed. 12 refs., 14 figs.

Bakan, K. [School of Energy Conversion and Management, Offenburg (Germany); Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

2005-07-01

12

System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document implements the procedure for providing configuration control for the monitoring and control systems associated with the operation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). It identifies and defines the configuration items in the monitoring and control systems, provides configuration control of these items throughout the system life cycle, provides configuration status accounting, physical protection and control, and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items. It is written to comply with HNF-SD-SNF-CM-001, Spent Nuclear Fuel Configuration Management Plan (Forehand 1998), HNF-PRO-309, Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-2778, IRM Application Software System Life Cycle Standards, and applicable sections of administrative procedure AP-CM-6-037-00, SNF Project Process Automation Software and Equipment Configuration Management.

2000-01-01

13

Solar thermal storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives a review on solar thermal storage systems in buildings especially in the view of overcoming the mismatch between solar supply and energy demand. The storage question is not viewed only as a `device` as traditionally done but as a `whole system approach` in which the storage requirement may be effected by other non-storage technologies. The emphasis is on long-term storage. (orig.)

Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

1996-12-31

14

Thermal energy storage - A review of concepts and systems for heating and cooling applications in buildings : Part 1-Seasonal storage in the ground  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in buildings in combination with space heating and/or space cooling has recently received much attention. A variety of TES techniques have developed over the past decades. TES systems can provide short-term storage for peak-load shaving as well as long-term (seasonal) storage for the introduction of natural and renewable energy sources. TES systems for heating or cooling are utilized in applications where there is a time mismatch between the demand and the most economically favorable supply of energy. The selection of a TES system mainly depends on the storage period required, economic viability, and operating conditions. One of the main issues impeding the utilization of the full potential of natural and renewable energy sources, e.g., solar and geothermal, for space heating and space cooling applications is the development of economically competitive and reliable means for seasonal storage of thermal energy. This is particularly true at locations where seasonal variations of solar radiation are significant and/or in climates where seasonally varying space heating and cooling loads dominate energy consumption. This article conducts a literature review of different seasonal thermal energy storage concepts in the ground. The aim is to provide the basis for development of new intelligent TES possibilities in buildings.

Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

2012-01-01

15

Investigation on Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating and due to storage. The storage affects the heat demand passively due to higher temperatures. Hence heat loss is reduced and passive heating is optioned. In theory, by running the system flow backwards, active heating can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations in detail. In another report R-007 the main results and recommendations aresummed up for non-technicians. The results of the project are among others: The system is rather simple. Much work can be self-made to keep the price down. The system is working, but heat exchange from plastic piping to sand is rather poor. The dimensioning of the volume is rather difficult based on common knowledge. Passive heating, hence reduction of heat demand, due to the storage and especially due to the oversized solar collector area of the system, was achieved. Active heating from the sand storage was not observed. The pay-back time for the system can be estimated to be similar to solar heated domestic hot water systems in general. A number of minor improvements on the system could be pointed out.

Heller, Alfred

1996-01-01

16

Advanced storage concepts for solar thermal systems in low energy buildings. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of Task 32 is to develop new and advanced heat storage systems which are economic and technical suitable as long-term heat storage systems for solar heating plants with a high degree of coverage. The project is international and Denmark's participation has focused on Subtask A, C, and D. In Subtask A Denmark has contributed to a status report about heat storage systems. In Subtask C Denmark has focused on liquid thermal storage tanks based on NaCH{sub 3}COO?3H{sub 2}O with a melting point of 58 deg. C. Theoretical and experimental tests have been conducted in order to establish optimum conditions for storage design. In Subtask D theoretical and experimental tests of optimum designs for advanced water tanks for solar heating plants for combined space heating and domestic hot water have been conducted. (BA)

Furbo, S.; Andersen, Elsa; Schultz, Joergen M.

2006-04-07

17

Modelling of solar thermo-chemical system for energy storage in buildings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this paper is the demonstration of the methodological design principles within theoretical modelling of thermal heat storage apparatus and simulation of inter-seasonal heat storage system. The designing procedure starts from the modelling of thermal plant behaviou...

Skrylnyk, Alexandre; Courbon, Emilie; Frère, Marc; Hennaut, Samuel; Andre, Philippe; Sun, Philippe; Descy, Gilbert

18

Initial findings: The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is one in a series of reports describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building System Integration Research Program. The goal of the program is to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving integrated decision-making during design and construction. Improved decision-making could significantly reduce buildings' energy use by the year 2010. The objectives of the Commercial Building System Integration Research Program are: to identify and quantify the most significant energy-related interactions among building subsystems; to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving energy related interactions in building subsystems; and to provide guidance to designers, owners, and builders for improving the integration of building subsystems for energy efficiency. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research, development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued. In this report, the interactions of a water loop heat pump system and building structural mass and their effect on whole-building energy performance is analyzed. 10 refs., 54 figs., 1 tab.

Marseille, T.J.; Johnson, B.K.; Wallin, R.P.; Chiu, S.A.; Crawley, D.B.

1989-01-01

19

High performance concrete applied to storage system buildings at low temperatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to some estimates, world's population growth is expected about 50% over the next 50 years. Thus, one of the greatest challenges faced by Engineering is to find effective options to food storage and conservation. Some researchers have investigated how to design durable buildings for storing and conserving food. Nowadays, developing concrete with mechanical resistance for room temperatures is a parameter that can be achieved easily. On the other hand, associating it to low temperature of approximately 35 °C negative requires less empiricism, being necessary a suitable dosage method and a careful selection of the material constituents. This ongoing study involves these parameters. The presented concrete was analyzed through non-destructive tests that examines the material properties periodically and verifies its physical integrity. Concrete with and without incorporated air were studied. The results demonstrated that both are resistant to freezing.

Sandra Maria de Lima; Luiz Vicente Vareda; Jefferson Benedicto Libardi Liborio

2008-01-01

20

High performance concrete applied to storage system buildings at low temperatures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english According to some estimates, world's population growth is expected about 50% over the next 50 years. Thus, one of the greatest challenges faced by Engineering is to find effective options to food storage and conservation. Some researchers have investigated how to design durable buildings for storing and conserving food. Nowadays, developing concrete with mechanical resistance for room temperatures is a parameter that can be achieved easily. On the other hand, associating (more) it to low temperature of approximately 35 °C negative requires less empiricism, being necessary a suitable dosage method and a careful selection of the material constituents. This ongoing study involves these parameters. The presented concrete was analyzed through non-destructive tests that examines the material properties periodically and verifies its physical integrity. Concrete with and without incorporated air were studied. The results demonstrated that both are resistant to freezing.

Lima, Sandra Maria de; Vareda, Luiz Vicente; Liborio, Jefferson Benedicto Libardi

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
21

Dynamic Heat Storage and Cooling Capacity of a Concrete Deck with PCM and Thermally Activated Building System  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a heat storage and cooling concept that utilizes a phase change material (PCM) and a thermally activated building system (TABS) implemented in a hollow core concrete deck. Numerical calculations of the dynamic heat storage capacity of the hollow core concrete deck element with and without microencapsulated PCM are presented. The new concrete deck with microencapsulated PCM is the standard deck on which an additional layer of the PCM concrete was added and, at the same time, the latent heat storage was introduced to the construction. The challenge of numerically simulating the performance of the new deck with PCM concrete is the thermal properties of such a new material, as the PCM concrete is yet to be well defined. The results presented in the paper include models in which the PCM concrete material properties, such as thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity were first calculated theoretically and subsequently the models were updated with the experimentally determined thermal properties of the PCM concrete. Then, the heat storage of the decks with theoretically and experimentally determined thermal properties were compared with each other. Finally, the results presented in the article highlight the potential of using TABS and PCM in a prefabricated concrete deck element.

Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per

2012-01-01

22

Building mass used as short term heat storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Daily variations of the heat demand in a district heating system increase the heat generation cost due to the marginal use of more expensive fuels. The use of building masses as short term heat storage has been investigated by Goeteborg Energi. The possible heat storage and the prevailing conditions have been estimated. Field measurements have been performed for verification. The preliminary results show that the daily load variations at system level can be eliminated with building masses as active short term heat storage

Olsson Ingvarson, L.C. (Goeteborg Energi AB, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of District Heating Distribution); Werner, S. (Halmstad Univ., Halmstad (Sweden). School of Business and Engineering)

2008-09-15

23

Low energy solar buildings with seasonal storage-evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In low energy buildings energy demand for space heating is reduced significantly in comparison to the standard buildings. Thus solar energy utilization for space heating becomes economically suitable. This article presents three Slovenian solar heated low energy buildings with seasonal storage. Solar system configuration and experiences gained during operation are presented. Also some problems and results of measurements and simulations are shown. (orig.)

Novak, P.; Medved, S.; Arkar, C. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty for Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-31

24

SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) PROJECT CANISTER STORAGE BUILDING (CSB) MULTI CANISTER OVERPACK (MCO) SAMPLING SYSTEM VALIDATION (OCRWM)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximately 400 Multi-canister overpacks (MCO) containing spent nuclear fuel are to be interim stored at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Several MCOs (monitored MCOs) are designated to be gas sampled periodically at the CSB sampling/weld station (Bader 2002a). The monitoring program includes pressure, temperature and gas composition measurements of monitored MCOs during their first two years of interim storage at the CSB. The MCO sample cart (CART-001) is used at the sampling/weld station to measure the monitored MCO gas temperature and pressure, obtain gas samples for laboratory analysis and refill the monitored MCO with high purity helium as needed. The sample cart and support equipment were functionally and operationally tested and validated before sampling of the first monitored MCO (H-036). This report documents the results of validation testing using training MCO (TR-003) at the CSB. Another report (Bader 2002b) documents the sample results from gas sampling of the first monitored MCO (H-036). Validation testing of the MCO gas sampling system showed the equipment and procedure as originally constituted will satisfactorily sample the first monitored MCO. Subsequent system and procedural improvements will provide increased flexibility and reliability for future MCO gas sampling. The physical operation of the sampling equipment during testing provided evidence that theoretical correlation factors for extrapolating MCO gas composition from sample results are unnecessarily conservative. Empirically derived correlation factors showed adequate conservatism and support use of the sample system for ongoing monitored MCO sampling.

2003-01-01

25

SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) PROJECT CANISTER STORAGE BUILDING (CSB) MULTI CANISTER OVERPACK (MCO) SAMPLING SYSTEM VALIDATION (OCRWM)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 400 Multi-canister overpacks (MCO) containing spent nuclear fuel are to be interim stored at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Several MCOs (monitored MCOs) are designated to be gas sampled periodically at the CSB sampling/weld station (Bader 2002a). The monitoring program includes pressure, temperature and gas composition measurements of monitored MCOs during their first two years of interim storage at the CSB. The MCO sample cart (CART-001) is used at the sampling/weld station to measure the monitored MCO gas temperature and pressure, obtain gas samples for laboratory analysis and refill the monitored MCO with high purity helium as needed. The sample cart and support equipment were functionally and operationally tested and validated before sampling of the first monitored MCO (H-036). This report documents the results of validation testing using training MCO (TR-003) at the CSB. Another report (Bader 2002b) documents the sample results from gas sampling of the first monitored MCO (H-036). Validation testing of the MCO gas sampling system showed the equipment and procedure as originally constituted will satisfactorily sample the first monitored MCO. Subsequent system and procedural improvements will provide increased flexibility and reliability for future MCO gas sampling. The physical operation of the sampling equipment during testing provided evidence that theoretical correlation factors for extrapolating MCO gas composition from sample results are unnecessarily conservative. Empirically derived correlation factors showed adequate conservatism and support use of the sample system for ongoing monitored MCO sampling.

BLACK, D.M.; KLEM, M.J.

2003-11-17

26

Thermal-energy storage for process-heat building applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment is made of energy storage for agricultural and industrial process heat applications and for space heating and cooling and water heating for residential and commercial buildings. The purpose is to identify these storage technologies that have the greatest potential to enhance the commercialization of the most promising solar thermal technologies. In the agricultural and industrial process heat application, the three solar thermal systems investigated are parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and central receivers, and the storage systems are mixed-tank, thermocline, two-tank, and phase change. For buildings, phase-change storage in active solar heating and cooling systems were studied in detail for two cities.

Kriz, T.; Christensen, C.; Gaul, H.; Leach, J.; Rabl, A.; Sillman, S.; Swet, C.J.; Ullman, J.

1983-06-01

27

Heat transfer enhancement in latent heat thermal storage system for buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article a review of heat storage technologies with phase change materials (PCMs) is given. In addition, we present paraffin as phase change material in solar heat storage wall with proposals of heat transfer enhancement. The mathematical model for heat transport in heat storage is made. The results obtained with the simulation gives the time dynamics of heat accumulation in phase change material with fins as the media for heat transport enhancement. We found out that the most influential of the parameters is the distance between the fins. (Author)

Stritih, U. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

2003-12-01

28

Distributed Mass Storage System  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a trend in institutions with high performance computing and data management requirements to explore massstorage systems with peripherals directly attached to a high speed network. The Distributed Mass Storage System(DMSS) Project at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is building such a system and expects to put it intoproduction use by the end of 1993. This paper presents the design of the DMSS, some experiences in itsdevelopment and use, and a performance analysis of its capabilities. The special features of this system are: 1)workstation class file servers running UniTree software; 2) third party I/O; 3) HIPPI network; 4) HIPPI/IPI3 diskarray systems; 5) Storage Technology Corporation (STK) ACS 4400 automatic cartridge system; 6) CRAY ResearchIncorporated (CRI) CRAY Y-MP and CRAY-2 clients; 7) file server redundancy provision; and 8) a transitionmechanism from the existent mass storage system to the DMSS.1. IntroductionThe Distributed Mass Storage System (DMSS...

Juliet Z. Pao; D. Creig Humes

29

Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site.

1996-01-01

30

Study of a floor supply air conditioning system using granular phase change material to augment building mass thermal storage - heat response in small scale experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have proposed a new floor supply air conditioning system, using phase change material to augment building mass thermal storage. A scale model was constructed for such a system. Granules containing phase change material (PCM), with a phase change temperature of about 20{sup o}C, were made from foamed glass beads and paraffin waxes. Results from measurements simulating an air conditioning schedule in office buildings indicate that 89% of daily cooling load could be stored each night in a system that used a 30 mm thick packed bed of the granular PCM. (author)

Nagano, K.; Takeda, S.; Mochida, T.; Shimakura, K. [Hokkaido University (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Nakamura, T. [SHIMIZU Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Technology

2006-05-15

31

Modeling and Optimization of Energy Generation and Storage Systems for Thermal Conditioning of Buildings Targeting Conceptual Building Design Modellentwicklung und Optimierung der Anlagen der Wärme- und Kälteerzeugung und Speicherung für den Gebäudeentwurf  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The decisions made during conceptual building design irreversibly influence the selection and dimensions of thermal energy generation and storage components and systems. A method to quantify this influence is developed. It consists of the quasi-stationary simulation and the design optimization of th...

Grahovac, Milica

32

Hydrogen storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to use hydrogen as an energy carrier in modern energy-use systems, it is necessary to find compact, efficient means for storing hydrogen for mobile and (or) stationary applications. Performance evaluations coupled with cost analyses for four major alternatives for hydrogen storage show that storage on activated carbon compares quite favorably with the other three options: Storage in pressurized cylinder, storage on metal hydride, and storage as liquid. Gravimetric, volumetric, and modified volumetric laboratory experiments can be used to assess the storage properties of various activated carbons and ultimately identify which carbons and which pressure and temperature windows meet desired storage requirements. 21 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

Schwarz, J.A.; Amankwah, K.A.G. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States))

1993-01-01

33

The Effects of Different Storage Buildings on Wheat Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of storage is to preserve properties of products and their freshness. If suitable storage conditions are not supplied consistency product variety, quality and quantity losses increase. Decreasing this losses is possible with providing suitable storage condition and storage management. In this study, wheat storage buildings in the Thrace region were examined. Influences of storage condition on product losses were investigated. The study was conducted in one of the Soil Products Offices (TMO) reinforced concrete silo (RCSi) in Tekirdag, Reinforced Concrete Store (RCSt) and Masonry Stores (MS) in Hayrabolu district within the border of Tekirdag. Temperature of the wheat mass in the stores and moisture content as storage conditions, effective on quality parameters such as hectoliter, gluten, gluten index, sedimentation and sunn pest were monitored during the storage. According to the results of experiments in selected stores, the worst storage conditions and the most quality losses were determined in the MS, on the other hand the most suitable conditions and the least losses were determined in RCSi and RCSt. Consequently, the MS should be improved and aeration systems should be built in this store. This store can be used for shortage storage period. In the RCSi and RCSt stores, the aeration systems should be run properly.

Can Burak Sisman; A. Soner Ergin

2011-01-01

34

Isothermal storage of solar energy in building construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of advanced isothermal heat storage systems in buildings is discussed. A storage system encapsulated with phase change materials in which energy is absorbed in the hot period and released in the cold period is analyzed. The thermal behaviour of isothermal heat storage composites is examined using numerical techniques. Two methods of heat transfer with latent heat storage are described in the first part. Based on the initial results, the 'effective heat capacity' method was selected and implemented into ESP-r. Numerical studies on the effect of isothermal storage of solar energy in specific building material components are discussed in the second part. Numerical simulations were conducted for two cases of multi-zone, highly glazed and naturally ventilated passive solar buildings. PCM-impregnated gypsum plasterboard was used as an internal room lining in the first case study and transparent insulation material combined with PCM was applied for the external south-oriented wall in the second case study. The behaviour of a TIM-PCM wall and its influence on the internal surface temperature are estimated. Air, surface and resultant temperatures are compared with a 'no-PCM' case for both case studies and the diurnal and the seasonal latent heat storage effect is analyzed. (author)

Heim, Dariusz [Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Technical University of Lodz, Al. Politechniki 6, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

2010-04-15

35

Canister storage building trade study. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ``Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report`` as the basis for development of the individual trade studies.

Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-05-01

36

Canister storage building trade study. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ''Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report'' as the basis for development of the individual trade studies.

1995-01-01

37

Latent heat storage in cooling systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In building space conditioning applications where cooling is a major component, thermal energy storage can be used to shift the electrical cooling load imposed on a utility during peak cooling loads and small buildings located in summer peaking utility service areas are particularly attractive for application of this technology. Ice is the latent heat storage material most commonly used as the thermal storage medium for building cooling; however, new materials including clathrates, salt hydrates, and liquid-liquid systems are being explored. This paper discusses cool storage applications and provides an overview of research underway to develop these new latent heat materials.

Tomlinson, J.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA). Engineering Technology Div.); Lottner, V. (ed.)

1985-02-01

38

Canister storage building hazard analysis report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the final CSB safety analysis report (SAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Report, and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

1997-01-01

39

Canister storage building hazard analysis report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the final CSB safety analysis report (SAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Report, and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

Krahn, D.E.; Garvin, L.J.

1997-07-01

40

Study on a building air conditioning system of latent heat storage type; Sennetsu chikunetsugata biru kucho system no kenkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A proposition is made on a latent heat storing type air conditioning system suitable for use in cold districts, as a result of testing and analyzing thermal properties by using the difference in material and dimensions of room heating latent heat storing materials. A heat storing air conditioning system is a mechanism to shift electric power consumption during daytime to nighttime, largely contributing to load leveling. The latent heat storing system utilizes heat for melting associated with phase change of a material, can store larger amount of heat per unit weight than in the sensible heat storing system, making reduction in heat storing tank size possible. More than 120 kinds of latent heat storing materials have been devised, hence phase changes suitable for particular applications can be selected. Two kinds of latent heat storing capsules for warm heat were tested. As a result, a heat quantity of about 95% against the theoretic heat storing and dissipating quantity was verified. In the case of heat storing tank filling rate of 30% in the latent heat storing capsules, a heat quantity 2.0 to 2.4 times that of a water heat storing tank was obtained. Non-constant thermal response was analyzed on a heat storing tank. The analysis agreed well with the test result, and thermal response of a latent heat storing tank was reproduced. An evaluation method was presented on the latent heat storing tank by using a simulation program. (NEDO)

Honma, T.; Tamuraa, H. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Yanatori, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2000-03-24

 
 
 
 
41

Canister storage building hazard analysis report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', and meets the intent of HNF-PRO-704, ''Hazard and Accident Analysis Process''. This hazard analysis implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''.

POWERS, T.B.

1999-05-11

42

Canister storage building hazard analysis report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', and meets the intent of HNF-PRO-704, ''Hazard and Accident Analysis Process''. This hazard analysis implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''.

1999-01-01

43

Modular interim waste storage building for low-level radwaste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Near-term disposition of low-level radioactive waste is a significant concern in the successful start-up and continued operation of nuclear plants. In response to the perceived utility need for interim storage facilities for low-level nuclear waste, Cygna Energy Services has developed a Modular Interim Wast Storage Building (IWSB) design which emphasizes low cost, design simplicity, commercial construction techniques, rapid construction time and licensability. The IWSB is modular and easily expanded. The base module includes a truck bay, storage bay with vaults, remote-control over-head bridge crane and a separate control room. The facility design basis and features are described. Waste storage and shielding requirements are optimized through the use of a computerized inventory control system. Cost of the Cygna Modular IWSB is on the order of $4 million for a five year capacity facility and a construction period of about 12 to 14 months.

1983-03-03

44

Review of the aquifer seasonal thermal energy storage building HVAC system at the Melville, New York, Mid-Island Mail Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The successful widespread commercialization of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) in the United States will depend on the effectiveness with which the experiences gained from early full-scale systems are used as guides in the design, installation and operation of future projects. One such early system from which both anecdotal and quantitative information is available is the Mid-Island Postal Facility in Melville, New York. At this facility, built in the mid-1980s, an ATES system has been integrated with the building`s central heating and cooling plant. ``Cold`` wells are charged with water that is cooled during the winter by heat pump and closed circuit cooler operation. Water from these cold wells is then used to meet the facility`s cooling load during the summer, before being pumped back into the ground at ``Warm`` wells. Dehumidification during summer operation is accomplished by a liquid desiccant system that uses propane boilers to provide a heat source for desiccant regeneration. This system will also add water to the air during periods of low humidity. This paper provides an overview of the project, and describes the analysis being performed to assess energy and economic merits of this innovative system.

Marseille, T.J.; Wilke, D.A.

1992-08-01

45

Exergoeconomic analysis of glycol cold thermal energy storage systems for building applications. Paper no. IGEC-1-155  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exergoeconomic analysis is reported of glycol cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems. Exergoeconomics combines thermodynamic analysis (using both the first and second laws of thermodynamics) with principles of economics, mostly cost accounting. Exergy analysis provides more meaningful and useful information than energy analysis about the efficiency and performance of glycol CTES. The main reason is that traditional analyses are based on mass and energy balances and only external losses can be detected, while exergy analysis measures the quality of energy and includes irreversibility's that occur during any process. According to simulation results, the exergy efficiency of the glycol CTES is roughly 75% less than the energy efficiency due to irreversibility's, and the system efficiency is less than the tank efficiency. Irreversibility's for the overall system are higher than for the tank. Also, the reference ambient temperature has an effect on exergy destruction and efficiency. A 5oC change in ambient temperature causes a 25% change in exergy efficiency. This result implies that cold energy is more efficient at higher ambient temperatures. Heat losses from the tank depend on the ambient temperature; a 5oC increase in ambient temperature causes a heat loss increase of 6%. (author)

2005-01-01

46

Exergoeconomic analysis of glycol cold thermal energy storage systems for building applications. Paper no. IGEC-1-155  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An exergoeconomic analysis is reported of glycol cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems. Exergoeconomics combines thermodynamic analysis (using both the first and second laws of thermodynamics) with principles of economics, mostly cost accounting. Exergy analysis provides more meaningful and useful information than energy analysis about the efficiency and performance of glycol CTES. The main reason is that traditional analyses are based on mass and energy balances and only external losses can be detected, while exergy analysis measures the quality of energy and includes irreversibility's that occur during any process. According to simulation results, the exergy efficiency of the glycol CTES is roughly 75% less than the energy efficiency due to irreversibility's, and the system efficiency is less than the tank efficiency. Irreversibility's for the overall system are higher than for the tank. Also, the reference ambient temperature has an effect on exergy destruction and efficiency. A 5{sup o}C change in ambient temperature causes a 25% change in exergy efficiency. This result implies that cold energy is more efficient at higher ambient temperatures. Heat losses from the tank depend on the ambient temperature; a 5{sup o}C increase in ambient temperature causes a heat loss increase of 6%. (author)

Bakan, K. [Energy Conversion and Management, Fachhochschule Offenburg (Germany); Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Kurtulus.Bakan@uoit.ca; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca, Marc.Rosen@uoit.ca

2005-07-01

47

Metal Building Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last two decades, metal building systems have become an important part of the building construction industry. Today, almost 50% of the low-rise non-residential buildings under 150,000 square feet constructed in the United States, are metal buil...

K. E. Mikula

1988-01-01

48

Network file storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Common File System (CFS) is a large, online centralized storage system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's computer network. The CFS provides Los Alamos computer users a relatively simple set of primitives with which they can store and retrieve files. A tree-structured directory allows the users to organize their data in a logical and reasonable manner. Eighteen months of operational experience and statistics have provided considerable insight into the best methods of providing optimum service and response to CFS users. Automatically moving, or migrating, files between storage devices based on usage characteristics has provided a cost-effective storage system.

Christman, R.D.; Collins, M.W.; Devaney, M.A.; Willbanks, E.W.

1981-07-01

49

Building a Parallel Cloud Storage System using OpenStack’s Swift Object Store and Transformative Parallel I/O  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our project consists of bleeding-edge research into replacing the traditional storage archives with a parallel, cloud-based storage solution. It used OpenStack's Swift Object Store cloud software. It's Benchmarked Swift for write speed and scalability. Our project is unique because Swift is typically used for reads and we are mostly concerned with write speeds. Cloud Storage is a viable archive solution because: (1) Container management for larger parallel archives might ease the migration workload; (2) Many tools that are written for cloud storage could be utilized for local archive; and (3) Current large cloud storage practices in industry could be utilized to manage a scalable archive solution.

Burns, Andrew J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lora, Kaleb D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Esteban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shorter, Martel L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-30

50

Thermal energy storage for cooling of commercial buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The storage of coolness'' has been in use in limited applications for more than a half century. Recently, because of high electricity costs during utilities' peak power periods, thermal storage for cooling has become a prime target for load management strategies. Systems with cool storage shift all or part of the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak hours to take advantage of reduced demand charges and/or off-peak rates. Thermal storage technology applies equally to industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. In the industrial sector, because of the lack of economic incentives and the custom design required for each application, the penetration of this technology has been limited to a few industries. The penetration rate in the residential sector has been also very limited due to the absence of economic incentives, sizing problems, and the lack of compact packaged systems. To date, the most promising applications of these systems, therefore, appear to be for commercial cooling. In this report, the current and potential use of thermal energy storage systems for cooling commercial buildings is investigated. In addition, a general overview of the technology is presented and the applicability and cost-effectiveness of this technology for developed and developing countries are discussed. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Akbari, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Mertol, A. (Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (USA))

1988-07-01

51

Review of the aquifer seasonal thermal energy storage building HVAC system at the Melville, New York, Mid-Island Mail Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The successful widespread commercialization of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) in the United States will depend on the effectiveness with which the experiences gained from early full-scale systems are used as guides in the design, installation and operation of future projects. One such early system from which both anecdotal and quantitative information is available is the Mid-Island Postal Facility in Melville, New York. At this facility, built in the mid-1980s, an ATES system has been integrated with the building's central heating and cooling plant. Cold'' wells are charged with water that is cooled during the winter by heat pump and closed circuit cooler operation. Water from these cold wells is then used to meet the facility's cooling load during the summer, before being pumped back into the ground at Warm'' wells. Dehumidification during summer operation is accomplished by a liquid desiccant system that uses propane boilers to provide a heat source for desiccant regeneration. This system will also add water to the air during periods of low humidity. This paper provides an overview of the project, and describes the analysis being performed to assess energy and economic merits of this innovative system.

Marseille, T.J.; Wilke, D.A.

1992-08-01

52

Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

2000-03-23

53

Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

1999-01-01

54

Building information system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Lombardy (Italy) one has started a project on risk-assessment of buildings of historical-architectural importance. For this purpose a Building Information System (BIS) has to be created, based on archived and surveyed data: essentially a multi-sensor approach must be applied to archive the inside...

COLOMBO, LUIGI; MARANA, BARBARA

55

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR Site Layout, Safeguards and Security System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Site Electrical Power System, Site Compressed Air System, and Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System.

2000-01-01

56

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR Site Layout, Safeguards and Security System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Site Electrical Power System, Site Compressed Air System, and Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System.

F. Habashi

2000-06-22

57

ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper you will find an overview of systems and energy storage techniques and a comparison of the important characteristics of them. Delocalized electricity production and the introduction of variable, fluctuating sources (renewable energy: solar, wind turbines, etc.) increase the difficulty of stabilizing the power network, mainly due to a supply-demand imbalance. It is therefore convenient to generate the energy, transmit it, convert it, and then store it if need be. More than ever then, the storage of electrical energy has become a necessity.

ELENA RADUCAN; LUMINITA MORARU

2011-01-01

58

Supporting safety documentation for subsurface construction of the canister storage building below grade construction restart  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The supporting safety documentation for subsurface construction of the canister storage building provides the safety documentation to support Key Decision 3b for the Canister Storage Building project.

Garvin, L.J.

1996-02-27

59

Solar energy storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water tank storage, pebble bed heat storage, adsorbent beds, and thermochemical storage of solar energy are discussed. The thermodynamics of thermochemical heat storage and criteria for selection of thermochemical reaction are discussed. (WHK)

Mahajan, S.P.; Mudgal, A.G. (comp.)

1980-01-01

60

Energy conservation in honey storage building using Trombe wall  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates energy conservation, mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions and economics of retrofitting for a honey storage building with Trombe wall for winter heating application. The passive heating potential of Trombe wall for a honey storage building was estimated using TRNSYS building simulation software. This honey storage building is located at Gwalior (latitude: 26 14'N) in India. During winter months, the room air temperature of building falls below the required temperature range of 18-27 C which is suitable for honey storage. So, the room air temperature range is maintained in the building using a 2.3 kW capacity electrical oil filled radiator (or room air heater) which accounts for the major energy consumption of the building on an annual basis. On account of which there are significant CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere from the honey storage building. Hence, this case study was conducted to recommend the passive heating concept to the stakeholders of the building so as to conserve the energy requirement for room air heating. The investigation showed that the room air temperature can be easily maintained in the range suitable for honey storage using a vented Trombe wall. The experimental work was carried out for the existing building on a typical clear day of harsh winter month of January to validate the results of TRNSYS model of the present building. The statistical error analysis showed a good agreement between model and experimental results. This investigation concludes that there is potential of energy conservation up to 3312 kWh/year and associated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions ({proportional_to}33 tonne/year) using a Trombe wall. Also, the retrofitting of building is economically viable as the simple payback period is only about 7 months. (author)

Chel, Arvind [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Block-V, Hauzkhas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Energy Systems Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Nayak, J.K. [Energy Systems Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Kaushik, Geetanjali [Centre for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

STANDALONE “GREEN” COMMUNITY-CENTER BUILDINGS: HYDROGEN GENERATION/STORAGE/DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR WHEN PRIMARY ENERGY STORAGE IS AT CAPACITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Overall, the implementation of a computer-controlled hydrogen generation system and subsequent conversion of small engine equipment for hydrogen use has been surprisingly straightforward from an engineering and technology standpoint. More testing is required to get a better gr...

62

Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This Conceptual Design Report provides the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project, Canister Storage Building, and as amended by letter (correspondence number 9555700, M.E. Witherspoon to E.B. Sellers, ''Technical Baseline and Updated Cost Estimate for the Canister Storage Building'', dated October 24, 1995), includes the project cost baseline and Criteria to be used as the basis for starting detailed design in fiscal year 1995

1996-01-01

63

Network file-storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Central File System (CFS) is a file management and file storage system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's computer network. The CFS is organized as a hierarchical storage system: active files are stored on fast-access storage devices; larger, less active files are stored on slower, less expensive devices; and archival files are stored offline. Files are automatically moved between the various classes of storage by a file migration program that analyzes file activity, file size and storage device capabilties. This has resulted in a cost-effective system that provides both fast access and large data storage capability.

Collins, M.W.; Devaney, M.J.; Willbanks, E.W.

1983-01-01

64

Operation and performance of commercial cool storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of six cool storage installations was monitored and analyzed with participating electric utilities, under the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Commercial Cool Storage Field Performance Monitoring Project (RP 2732-05). The objective of this project is to provide information on the performance of cool storage systems to improve the system design and operation, and thereby the economics of such systems. In this report the cool storage system performance and impact of cool storage on the site electric demand and energy use is discussed. The performance of chilled water, electric salt, and ice storage systems is compared to each other and to the performance of non-storage, conventional air conditioning systems. Recommendations to improve system performance are made and fall into three areas: (1) integration of the cool storage system and building HVAC system, (2) system maintenance, and (3) storage tank design and operation. 2 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

Merten, G.P.; Shum, S.L.; Sterrett, R.H.; Racine, W.C. (Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (USA))

1989-09-01

65

Operation and performance of commercial cool storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EPRI initiated the Commercial Cool Storage Field Performance Monitoring Project (RP2732-05) to provide cool storage system performance data for use in improving system design, operation and economics. In cooperation with twelve participating utilities, cool storage systems were monitored and analyzed at six commercial buildings in 1987 and at seven buildings in 1988. This final report discusses the impacts of monitored cool storage systems on site electric demand and energy use patterns. The chiller and auxiliary equipment energy consumption and storage tank thermal performance are discussed for chilled water, eutectic salt and ice storage systems. A conventional air conditioning system is simulated for each site and its performance is compared with the cool storage system's monitored performance. Recommendations are made to utilities and system designers to help their customers improve system performance and operation. 3 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Merten, G.P.; Shum, S.L.; Sterrett, R.H.; Racine, W.C. (Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (USA))

1989-09-01

66

Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1998, a major change in the technical strategy for managing Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO) while stored within the Canister Storage Building (CSB) occurred. The technical strategy is documented in Baseline Change Request (BCR) No. SNF-98-006, Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing) (FDH 1998). This BCR deleted the hot conditioning process initially adopted for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) as documented in WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (WHC 199.5). In summary, MCOs containing Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from K Basins would be placed in interim storage following processing through the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility. With this change, the needs for the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) and inerting/pressure retaining capabilities of the CSB storage tubes and the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) were eliminated. Mechanical seals will be used on the MCOs prior to transport to the CSB. Covers will be welded on the MCOs for the final seal at the CSB. Approval of BCR No. SNF-98-006, imposed the need to review and update the CSB functions and requirements baseline documented herein including changing the document title to ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements.'' This revision aligns the functions and requirements baseline with the CSB Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing). This document represents the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Subproject technical baseline. It establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the CSB Subproject. The document is organized in eight sections. Sections 1.0 Introduction and 2.0 Overview provide brief introductions to the document and the CSB Subproject. Sections 3.0 Functions, 4.0 Requirements, 5.0 Architecture, and 6.0 Interfaces provide the data described by their titles. Section 7.0 Glossary lists the acronyms and defines the terms used in this document. Section 8.0 References lists the references used for this document.

KLEM, M.J.

2000-10-18

67

RCRA closure of the Building 3001 Storage Canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 3001 Storage Canal is located under portions of Buildings 3001 and 3019 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and has a capacity of approximately 62,000 gallons of water. The term canal has historically been used to identify this structure, however, the canal is an in-ground reinforced concrete structure satisfying the regulatory definition of a tank. From 1943 through 1963, the canal in Building 3001 was designed to be an integral part of the system for handling irradiated fuel from the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor. Because one of the main initial purposes of the reactor was to produce plutonium for the chemical processing pilot plant in Building 3019, the canal was designed to be the connecting link between the reactor and the pilot plant. During the war years, natural uranium slugs were irradiated in the reactor and then pushed out of the graphite matrix into the system of diversion plates and chutes which directed the fuel into the deep pit of the canal. After shutdown of the reactor, the canal was no longer needed for its designed purpose. Since 1964, the canal has only been used to store radioisotopes and irradiated samples under a water pool for radiation protection. This report describes closure alternatives

1992-01-01

68

TEXT Energy Storage System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

1977-01-01

69

Thermal storage case study: Combined building mass and cooling pond  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1994 a large U.K. credit card company decided to relocate and centralize its offices and operations from a number of city center sites to the outskirts on a green field site. The company decided that the concept for the new building should be environmentally friendly, i.e., naturally ventilated and cooled by openable windows. However, during initial studies there was concern over whether natural cooling and ventilation alone would be adequate to maintain thermal comfort during hot weather. The design solution was to provide a mix of passive and mechanical systems that could be switched in response to internal conditions and the prevailing weather. The object was to use passive features, i.e., the building thermal mass and storage and cooling effects of a pond, to maintain thermal comfort whenever possible and only switch to mechanical cooling under extreme conditions. The building was occupied progressively during the spring of 1997. The case study covers the period from the initial design concept to the end of the first 18 months of occupation.

Arnold, D.

2000-07-01

70

PCM thermal storage in buildings: A state of art  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive review of various possible methods for heating and cooling in buildings are discussed in this paper. The thermal performance of various types of systems like PCM trombe wall, PCM wallboards, PCM shutters, PCM building blocks, air-based heating systems, floor heating, ceiling boards, etc., is presented in this paper. All systems have good potential for heating and cooling in building through phase change materials and also very beneficial to reduce the energy demand of the buildings. (author)

Tyagi, Vineet Veer; Buddhi, D. [Thermal Energy Storage Laboratory, School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Engineering Science, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452017 (India)

2007-08-15

71

Translucent phase change material thermal storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new, modular, phase-change-material thermal storage system developed for use behind south-facing windows and roofs in passive or simple active applications is described. The translucent phase change material and container have a unique ability to provide compact thermal storage while transmitting and controlling natural daylignt within almost any new or existing building. Performance of the Thermal Energy Storage Pod System based on test room data and thermal network analysis is discussed. Performance of Pods in heating spaces is shown to be superior to using a 34 cm (13 in.) thick masonry wall for thermal storage. Accelerated and real-time testing demonstrates that Pod lifetime is in excess of ten years. A large scale commercial installation using 163 m/sup 2/ of Pods, which will be operated during the 1980-1981 heating season is also described.

Sedrick, A.V.

1980-01-01

72

Comparison of a light building having active heat storage with a heavy building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The calculations have been performed by computerized simulation and the computer code BRIS. Approximately 10 kWh per m/sup 2/ and year can possibly be saved by heat storage. The cost will be more than 1 SEK per kWh. A large thermal mass of the building construction will render energy conservation of the same magnitude as active heat storage.

Isaksson, P.; Kellner, J.

1984-01-01

73

Solar power at night. Linde subsidiary builds storage systems for solar heat; Solarstrom in der Nacht. Linde-Tochter baut Speicheranlagen fuer Sonnenwaerme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar thermal power stations play a decisive role in the future scenarios outlined by many energy experts. Storage systems will be required so that they are still capable of supplying electricity when the sun doesn't shine. A prime location for their design, supply and construction is at the premises of Swiss Linde subsidiary, Bertrams Heatec AG. (orig.)

Frick, Frank

2008-07-01

74

IMJ superconducting energy storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

IMJ superconducting energy storage system has been developed for research use at university on the power transfer efficiency of the energy storage system, and technology for producing high electrical power at low frequencies. This system comprises a pulsed superconducting coil, GFRP cryostat, and associated power supply equipment, and features easy operation, stable performance, complete safety and security, and a small quantity of coolant.

Horiuchi, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kawate, Yoshio; Hamada, Mamoru (Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan). Asada Fundamental Research Lab.); Ohtani, Shitoshi; Yamada, Kaneo

1984-07-01

75

Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigates the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. This topical report describes the demonstration of the model-based predictive optimal control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory in a test facility in real-time using time-of-use differentiated electricity prices without demand charges. The laboratory testing findings presented in this topical report cover the second of three project phases. The novel supervisory controller successfully executed a three-step procedure consisting of (1) short-term weather prediction, (2) optimization of control strategy over the next planning horizon using a calibrated building model, and (3) post-processing of the optimal strategy to yield a control command for the current time step that can be executed in the test facility. The primary and secondary building mechanical systems were effectively orchestrated by the model-based predictive optimal controller in real-time while observing comfort and operational constraints. The findings reveal that when the optimal controller is given imperfect weather fore-casts and when the building model used for planning control strategies does not match the actual building perfectly, measured utility costs savings relative to conventional building operation can be substantial. This requires that the facility under control lends itself to passive storage utilization and the building model includes a realistic plant model. The savings associated with passive building thermal storage inventory proved to be small be-cause the test facility is not an ideal candidate for the investigated control technology. Moreover, the facility's central plant revealed the idiosyncratic behavior that the chiller operation in the ice-making mode was more energy efficient than in the chilled-water mode. Field experimentation (Phase III) is now required in a suitable commercial building with sufficient thermal mass, an active TES system, and a climate conducive to passive storage utilization over a longer testing period to support the laboratory findings presented in this topical report.

Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

2003-12-17

76

Solar heat storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A spiral solar heat storage unit having air ducts radially spaced from the center to the rim of the spiral storage unit so the air from the solar collector can be delivered to the various ducts located radially along the spiral storage unit. By delivering the hottest air to the center of the spiral storage unit and the cooler air to the outer portion of the spiral, one provides a radial temperature gradient from the center of the spiral chamber to the rim of the spiral chamber.

Carlson, N.G.

1980-03-25

77

HLS storage ring control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] HLS (Hefei Light Source) storage ring control system is a distributed control system based on EPICS. At first, the hardware structure and software design are introduced. Then some tools software such as ramping control, closed orbit correction, machine status online query, data archiving and history data query are described in detail. The machine operation shows that HLS storage ring control system can satisfy the demands of HLS machine operation and machine study. (authors)

2004-01-01

78

2401-W Waste storage building closure plan; FINAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This plan describes the performance standards met and closure activities conducted to achieve clean closure of the 2401-W Waste Storage Building (2401-W) (Figure I). In August 1998, after the last waste container was removed from 2401-W, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) notified Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in writing that the 2401-W would no longer receive waste and would be closed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit (98-EAP-475). Pursuant to this notification, closure activities were conducted, as described in this plan, in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and completed on February 9, 1999. Ecology witnessed the closure activities. Consistent with clean closure, no postclosure activities will be necessary. Because 2401-W is a portion of the Central Waste Complex (CWC), these closure activities become the basis for removing this building from the CWC TSD unit boundary. The 2401-W is a pre-engineered steel building with a sealed concrete floor and a 15.2-centimeter concrete curb around the perimeter of the floor. This building operated from April 1988 until August 1998 storing non-liquid containerized mixed waste. All waste storage occurred indoors. No potential existed for 2401-W operations to have impacted soil. A review of operating records and interviews with cognizant operations personnel indicated that no waste spills occurred in this building (Appendix A). After all waste containers were removed, a radiation survey of the 2401-W floor for radiological release of the building was performed December 17, 1998, which identified no radiological contamination (Appendix B).

1999-01-01

79

Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigated the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. To pursue the analysis, modeling, and simulation research of Phase 1, two separate simulation environments were developed. Based on the new dynamic building simulation program EnergyPlus, a utility rate module, two thermal energy storage models were added. Also, a sequential optimization approach to the cost minimization problem using direct search, gradient-based, and dynamic programming methods was incorporated. The objective function was the total utility bill including the cost of reheat and a time-of-use electricity rate either with or without demand charges. An alternative simulation environment based on TRNSYS and Matlab was developed to allow for comparison and cross-validation with EnergyPlus. The initial evaluation of the theoretical potential of the combined optimal control assumed perfect weather prediction and match between the building model and the actual building counterpart. The analysis showed that the combined utilization leads to cost savings that is significantly greater than either storage but less than the sum of the individual savings. The findings reveal that the cooling-related on-peak electrical demand of commercial buildings can be considerably reduced. A subsequent analysis of the impact of forecasting uncertainty in the required short-term weather forecasts determined that it takes only very simple short-term prediction models to realize almost all of the theoretical potential of this control strategy. Further work evaluated the impact of modeling accuracy on the model-based closed-loop predictive optimal controller to minimize utility cost. The following guidelines have been derived: For an internal heat gain dominated commercial building, reasonable geometry simplifications are acceptable without a loss of cost savings potential. In fact, zoning simplification may improve optimizer performance and save computation time. The mass of the internal structure did not show a strong effect on the optimization. Building construction characteristics were found to impact building passive thermal storage capacity. It is thus advisable to make sure the construction material is well modeled. Zone temperature setpoint profiles and TES performance are strongly affected by mismatches in internal heat gains, especially when they are underestimated. Since they are a key factor in determining the building cooling load, efforts should be made to keep the internal gain mismatch as small as possible. Efficiencies of the building energy systems affect both zone temperature setpoints and active TES operation because of the coupling of the base chiller for building precooling and the icemaking TES chiller. Relative efficiencies of the base and TES chillers will determine the balance of operation of the two chillers. The impact of mismatch in this category may be significant. Next, a parametric analysis was conducted to assess the effects of building mass, utility rate, building location and season, thermal comfort, central plant capacities, and an economizer on the cost saving performance of optimal control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory. The key findings are: (1) Heavy-mass buildings, strong-incentive time-of-use electrical utility rates, and large on-peak cooling loads will likely lead to attractive savings resulting from optimal combined thermal storage control. (2) By using economizer to take advantage of the cool fresh air during the night, t

Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

2005-09-30

80

Thermoeconomic optimal sizing for ice storage system in partial storage control strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes optimal sizing of ice storage and chiller system through parametric simulation for a commercial office building with peak cooling load of 600 tons. As an optimality criterion, the minimization of the annualized capital cost and fuel exergy costs on the basis of thermoeconomic analysis was chosen. This paper considers encapsulated ice storage system in chiller-downstream arrangement with chiller-priority control and storage-priority control strategies. Minimal required chiller sizes of the system for each control strategy are determined with storage fraction from 40% to 60%. The design condition, which has minimum cost, lies on the curve of the set of required chiller size and storage fraction. The optimal sizing is defined in this paper as the choice of size of chiller and storage tank, which leads to minimization of the annualized cost per exergy unit of product for the system.

Lee, K.H.; Joo, Y.J.; Choi, B.Y.; Kwon, S.C.

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Evaluation of accident frequencies at the canister storage building; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using the fault tree logic, an evaluation of the design basis accident frequencies at the Canister Storage Building has been performed. The evaluation demonstrates that due to low frequency of occurrences, the following design basis accidents are considered not credible (annual frequency of less than 10(sup -6)): Rearrangement of multi-canister overpack (MCO) internals; Gaseous release from the MCO; MCO internal hydrogen explosion; MCO external hydrogen explosion; Thermal runaway reactions inside the MCO; and Violation of design temperature criteria.

1999-01-01

82

Evaluation of accident frequencies at the canister storage building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By using the fault tree logic, an evaluation of the design basis accident frequencies at the Canister Storage Building has been performed. The evaluation demonstrates that due to low frequency of occurrences, the following design basis accidents are considered not credible (annual frequency of less than 10{sup -6}): Rearrangement of multi-canister overpack (MCO) internals; Gaseous release from the MCO; MCO internal hydrogen explosion; MCO external hydrogen explosion; Thermal runaway reactions inside the MCO; and Violation of design temperature criteria.

LIU, Y.J.

1999-05-13

83

Passive hygrothermal control of a museum storage building in Vejle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For optimal conservation of the stored objects, museum storage buildings require a very stable interior climate, with only minimal and slow variations in temperature and relative humidity. Often extensive HVAC is installed to provide such stable indoor conditions. The resultantly significant energy and maintenance costs are currently motivating a paradigm change toward passive control. Passive control, via the thermal and hygric inertia of the building, is gaining a foothold in the museum conservation and building physical community. In this report we document the hygrothermal performance optimisation of a museum storage building, related to an existing storage centre in Vejle (Denmark). The current building design already incorporates passive control concepts: thermal inertia is provided by the thick walls, the ground floor and its underlying soil volume, while hygric inertia is provided by the thick walls of light-weight concrete. The design promise stated that a few years of dehumidification would bring down the moisture contained in the fresh constructions to a level corresponding with the desired interior climate. After this initial stage, the passive control would eliminate all further need for dehumidification. Four years after completing the construction however, continuous dehumidification remains necessary to maintain acceptable humidity levels. Analysis of the current situation: A thorough investigation of the current building design and management shows that the original design promise of ‘a fully passively conditioned storage building’ is an illusion. With the yearly average exterior temperature and vapour pressure in Denmark at 7.8 °C and 930 Pa, a fully passively conditioned building would reach a yearly average temperature and vapour pressure of 10.2 °C and 930 Pa. The interior temperature is somewhat higher than the exterior, due to interior heat sources (lights and humans); since no significant interior moisture sources are present, the interior vapour pressure is similar to the average exteriorvapour pressure. Such interior conditions translate to a yearly average relative humidity of 75 %, which is far above the desired levels. It should be finally stated that similar conclusions would be reached for many other European climates. Conservation heating or dehumidification are hence required, to maintain acceptable relative humidities in the storage. Conservation heating raises the temperature and lowers the relative humidity; dehumidification decreases the vapour pressure and thus the relative humidity. For the low air change rates of storage buildings, dehumidification is the most economical option. Moreover, it allows for lower temperature levels, beneficial to the conservation purposes. Reduction of dehumidification load: In an effort to reduce the necessary dehumidification, a number of thermal measures are investigated first. This primarily focuses on the influences of additional insulation in walls, roof and floor. Overall, the effects of extra insulation on the average temperature level arevery limited. The effects on the temperature variation differ for the floor and for the walls & roof: • walls & roof: more insulation gives less heat exchange with the exterior, and thus a lower interior temperature variation; • floor: more insulation in the floor breaks the connection with the thermal inertia of the ground and thus a higher temperature variation; For those reasons, more heavily insulated walls and roofs could be considered. Their effects on the interior climate and dehumidification load are however not that large. For the floor, no insulation should be added, and it could be considered to replace the leca layer with standard gravel. This will visibly reduce the temperature variations over the year. All in all however, none of these thermal measures have a great impact on the dehumidification load. To reduce the dehumidification load, only one strong solution exists: a more airtight building. The focus in the new design should therefore go to a construction method allowing for a very

Christensen, JØrgen Erik; Janssen, Hans

2010-01-01

84

Volatile liquid storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

1991-12-19

85

The High Performance Storage System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Storage Laboratory (NSL) was organized to develop, demonstrate and commercialize technology for the storage system that will be the future repositories for our national information assets. Within the NSL four Department of Energy laboratories and IBM Federal System Company have pooled their resources to develop an entirely new High Performance Storage System (HPSS). The HPSS project concentrates on scalable parallel storage system for highly parallel computers as well as traditional supercomputers and workstation clusters. Concentrating on meeting the high end of storage system and data management requirements, HPSS is designed using network-connected storage devices to transfer data at rates of 100 million bytes per second and beyond. The resulting products will be portable to many vendor`s platforms. The three year project is targeted to be complete in 1995. This paper provides an overview of the requirements, design issues, and architecture of HPSS, as well as a description of the distributed, multi-organization industry and national laboratory HPSS project.

Coyne, R.A.; Hulen, H. [IBM Federal Systems Co., Houston, TX (United States); Watson, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-09-01

86

Storage Area Networks and The High Performance Storage System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPSS is able to leverage today's Storage Area Network (SAN) infrastructures to provide cost effective, large-scale storage systems and high performance global file access for clients. Key attributes of SAN file systems are found in HPSS today, and more complete SAN file system capabilities are being added. This paper traces the HPSS storage network architecture from the original implementation using HIPPI and IPI-3 technology, through today's local area network (LAN) capabilities, and to SAN file system capabilities now in development. At each stage, HPSS capabilities are compared with capabilities generally accepted today as characteristic of storage area networks and SAN file systems.

Hulen, H; Graf, O; Fitzgerald, K; Watson, R W

2002-03-04

87

Experiences with building management systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phrase 'Building automation' has been recently replaced by 'Building management system'. This phrase suggests the use of computers to direct all the functions within, and out of a building. This indicates: control of the mechanical and electrical installations; maintenance scheduling for these systems; planning of building repair and maintenance; energy management; security control (technical failure, burglar alarm systems, building entrance monitoring); stock control; personnel daily registration; office automation. Similar extensive systems are generally used only in large office or other building complexes. The sole reason for using this type of system is to enable management to have all the information immediately available. The phrase 'building management system' is used mainly to describe the computer system which controls energy consuming installations. A more accurate name would be 'technical management system' or 'installation management system'. In this article the latter term is used. 5 figs.

Huiberts, J.C.

1987-11-01

88

GPUs as Storage System Accelerators  

CERN Document Server

Massively multicore processors, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), provide, at a comparable price, a one order of magnitude higher peak performance than traditional CPUs. This drop in the cost of computation, as any order-of-magnitude drop in the cost per unit of performance for a class of system components, triggers the opportunity to redesign systems and to explore new ways to engineer them to recalibrate the cost-to-performance relation. This project explores the feasibility of harnessing GPUs' computational power to improve the performance, reliability, or security of distributed storage systems. In this context, we present the design of a storage system prototype that uses GPU offloading to accelerate a number of computationally intensive primitives based on hashing, and introduce techniques to efficiently leverage the processing power of GPUs. We evaluate the performance of this prototype under two configurations: as a content addressable storage system that facilitates online similarity detectio...

Al-Kiswany, Samer; Ripeanu, Matei

2012-01-01

89

Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

Anita Lewis

2012-07-01

90

Building systems: selecting a system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The success of a building management system (BMS) depends on reliability, ease of use, and ability to perform. If one of these attributes is missing then there is every likelihood that it will cease to be a useful tool and will become an executive ornament. Achieving success depends on making the correct choices during the design process and basing them on available products. The difficult conceptual decisions need to be taken at detailed design stage, and at a time when the design requirements are not fully developed. The designer's problem is relating the needs of the services design to each attribute of the BMS and appreciating how the overall BMS performance will be affected. To understand the problem in more detail it must be recognised that a BMS is in itself a computer system. Fully developed it comprises three main elements, outstations (or field computers), a communications network and a central computer. Each of these is considered in turn, looking at the factors that influence the designer's choice. (author).

Wilkie, Andrew (Oscar Faber Consulting Engineers (GB))

1989-09-01

91

The vibration measurements at the photon factory storage ring building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Photon Factory is a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring and has been operating since 1982 as a dedicated SR source. At the Photon Factory, we have been pursuing the various sources of the beam instabilities which deteriorated the SR beam quality in the wide frequency range. Some of the sources were the vibrations of magnets and floor of the ring tunnel, temperature change of the cooling water and the elongation of the storage ring building roof due to sunshine that induced the diurnal motion of the SR beam axis. This article presents the results of the vibration measurements that have been performed at the Photon Factory storage ring building. (1) The vibrations of the ring tunnel floor and the experimental hall floor, comparing with the vibration of the ground surrounding the storage ring building, are same order in the 1 {approx} 5 Hz range, and 1/3 {approx} 1/5 in the 5 {approx} 100 Hz range, in the vertical and the horizontal direction. (2) The effects of the vibration arising from the operating eight air-conditioners can be seen in the Fourier spectrum of the vibration of the ring tunnel floor, experimental floor, Q-magnets and BPM vacuum duct. (3) The vibrations of the Q-magnet and girder at frequencies near their fundamental resonant frequencies have been amplified 100 limes in the lateral direction comparing to the floor vibration. (4) Correlation between the vibration of the BPM vacuum duct and the vibration of the electron beam motion is unknown for the lack of the precise data. (authors)

Haga, K. [Photon Factory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakayama, M.; Masuda, K.; Ishizaki, H.; Kura, M.; Meng, L. [Technical Research Institute, Fujita Corp., Kanagawa (Japan); Oku, Y. [Kanto Technical Institute, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

1999-07-01

92

Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organoti

Dr. Digby Macdonald

2010-08-09

93

Intelligent building system for airport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Munich airport uses a state-of-the-art intelligent building management system to control systems such as HVAC, runway lights, baggage handling, etc. Planning the new Munich II international airport provided a unique opportunity to use the latest state-of-the-art technical systems, while integrating their control through a single intelligent building management system. Opened in 1992, the airport is Germany`s second-largest airport after Frankfurt. The airport is staffed by 16,000 employees and can handle 17 million passengers a year. The sprawling site encompasses more than 120 buildings. The airport`s distributed control system is specifically designed to optimize the complex`s unique range of functions, while providing a high degree of comfort, convenience and safety for airport visitors. With the capacity to control 200,000 points, this system controls more than 112,000 points and integrates 13 major subsystems from nine different vendors. It provides convenient, accessible control of everything including the complex`s power plant, HVAC Control, the terminal`s people-moving functions, interior lighting controls, runway lights, baggage forwarding systems, elevators, and boarding bridges. The airport was named 1993 intelligent building of the year by the Intelligent Buildings Institute Foundation. Its building management system is a striking example of the degree to which a building complex`s functions can be integrated for greater operational control and efficiency.

Ancevic, M.

1997-11-01

94

Final Safety Analysis Document for Building 693 Chemical Waste Storage Building at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Safety Analysis Document (SAD) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 693, Chemical Waste Storage Building (desipated as Building 693 Container Storage Unit in the Laboratory`s RCRA Part B permit application), provides the necessary information and analyses to conclude that Building 693 can be operated at low risk without unduly endangering the safety of the building operating personnel or adversely affecting the public or the environment. This Building 693 SAD consists of eight sections and supporting appendices. Section 1 presents a summary of the facility designs and operations and Section 2 summarizes the safety analysis method and results. Section 3 describes the site, the facility desip, operations and management structure. Sections 4 and 5 present the safety analysis and operational safety requirements (OSRs). Section 6 reviews Hazardous Waste Management`s (HWM) Quality Assurance (QA) program. Section 7 lists the references and background material used in the preparation of this report Section 8 lists acronyms, abbreviations and symbols. Appendices contain supporting analyses, definitions, and descriptions that are referenced in the body of this report.

Salazar, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lane, S. [Engineering-Science, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

1992-02-01

95

Final Safety Analysis Document for Building 693 Chemical Waste Storage Building at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Safety Analysis Document (SAD) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 693, Chemical Waste Storage Building (desipated as Building 693 Container Storage Unit in the Laboratory's RCRA Part B permit application), provides the necessary information and analyses to conclude that Building 693 can be operated at low risk without unduly endangering the safety of the building operating personnel or adversely affecting the public or the environment. This Building 693 SAD consists of eight sections and supporting appendices. Section 1 presents a summary of the facility designs and operations and Section 2 summarizes the safety analysis method and results. Section 3 describes the site, the facility desip, operations and management structure. Sections 4 and 5 present the safety analysis and operational safety requirements (OSRs). Section 6 reviews Hazardous Waste Management's (HWM) Quality Assurance (QA) program. Section 7 lists the references and background material used in the preparation of this report Section 8 lists acronyms, abbreviations and symbols. Appendices contain supporting analyses, definitions, and descriptions that are referenced in the body of this report.

Salazar, R.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Lane, S. (Engineering-Science, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States))

1992-02-01

96

Final Safety Analysis Document for Building 693 Chemical Waste Storage Building at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Safety Analysis Document (SAD) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 693, Chemical Waste Storage Building (desipated as Building 693 Container Storage Unit in the Laboratory's RCRA Part B permit application), provides the necessary information and analyses to conclude that Building 693 can be operated at low risk without unduly endangering the safety of the building operating personnel or adversely affecting the public or the environment. This Building 693 SAD consists of eight sections and supporting appendices. Section 1 presents a summary of the facility designs and operations and Section 2 summarizes the safety analysis method and results. Section 3 describes the site, the facility desip, operations and management structure. Sections 4 and 5 present the safety analysis and operational safety requirements (OSRs). Section 6 reviews Hazardous Waste Management's (HWM) Quality Assurance (QA) program. Section 7 lists the references and background material used in the preparation of this report Section 8 lists acronyms, abbreviations and symbols. Appendices contain supporting analyses, definitions, and descriptions that are referenced in the body of this report

1992-01-01

97

Scope of dynamic thermal storage. A systems and feasibility study within the research program 'Smart energy-efficient buildings' at NTNU and SINTEF 2002-2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dynamic thermal storage (DTS) allows heat (and cold) to be stored when available, for use when needed to control temperature in buildings to achieve this, the DTS must accommodate the dynamic nature of such control. Used in conjunction with heat pumps and with automatic planning and optimisation by computers (as is now generally available), this technology allows variation in outdoor temperature to serve as a genuine source of renewable energy. A major objective is for DTS to be economically and practically available in conjunction with existing buildings (that actually consumes the energy presently used in the building sector). The current report presents results from modelling and from evaluation of construction of dynamic thermal storage facilities. In order for these results to be meaningful, a fuller survey of the overall concept is included, presenting the broad technical background and principles of construction and operation of dynamic thermal storage facilities. For successful application, DTS requires efficient heat transfer, with temperature drops across heat exchangers of 2-3 deg. C. The present modelling indicates that in an Oslo climate, DTS will retrieve energy (i.e. replace current supply of electricity) at an investment per unit of energy of about NOK 8.-/kWh, which is two to three times that of renewable electric power from wind, and some four times that of fossil power generated from natural gas. The retrieved energy is, however, on end-user terms. It provides services valued at consumer prices (NOK 0.75-1.00/kWh at present in Norway), as compared with prices at new power plants of NOK 0.18-0.25/kWh. On a basis of return on investment to society (an investment of NOK 2.0-3.0 for each kWh paid for by the consumer), DTS technology as modelled for an Oslo climate appears as a potentially valuable alternative to other sources of renewable power. How practical it is depends on variation in outdoor temperature; in coastal climates it is less suitable, while in continental climates it will be better, compared to Oslo. The retrieved energy is as useful as (or actually better than) freshly generated energy. Buildings remain as comfortable, there are no losses in the supply and distribution system, and capacity is freed up in these. Supply is adapted to pattern of consumption, resulting in excellent load factors relative to base-load fossil-fuel based energy supplies. The solutions obtained are long-term, environmentally sound, and sustainable. In warm climates with appreciable night/day temperature differences, and where large amounts of electric power are now used for air conditioning, DTS-based systems may be commercially viable now (author) (ml)

Gether, Harald; Gether, Joergen; Stang, Jacob

2006-07-01

98

Performance evaluation of thermal energy storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage (TES) systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on design, installation, and operation of the TES system; and also metered data. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems. After the initial trouble-shooting period, in a typical summer week for Case 1, the TES system saved 640, 780, and 660 on-peak kW compared to the single chiller, split chiller, and two-chiller systems, respectively, at a cost of additional energy use of 20.5, 37.6, 47.2 MWh per week. For Case 2, the diurnal energy performance of the conventional single chiller system and the TES system were comparable; however, the TES system used less power than the conventional system. Once the performances of the TES with split and two chiller conventional systems were compared, the energy penalties increased substantially and the peak power savings diminished. (orig.)

Akbari, H. [Energy and Environment Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Univ. of California, CA (United States); Sezgen, O. [Energy and Environment Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Univ. of California, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

99

Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

2006-01-01

100

Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Optimal Control System Installed in New Energy Efficient Building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New head office building of Breton, Banville and Associates - an engineering consulting company -, was designed for energy efficiency and realized the advanced building control system. Improved HVAC system, energy saving lighting, and high levels of insulation are some of the features that do not just satisfy Model National Energy Code for Buildings (MNECB) but also exceeds the requirements of the Model National Energy Code for Buildings (MNECB) by more than 30 percent. This building is the first applying single computerized interface, in order to control a complete integrated system including weather control, lighting, fire prevention, and security. Heating system is located in the base of building, and heat is provided by a single circuit of piping, which has a large water tank-thermal storage reservoir. The wheel of latent thermal, having a sensor, provides fresh air for the building. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Editor [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

2002-05-01

102

Hydrogen storage systems using borohydrides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boron and its compounds are very important for hydrogen economy concept. Boron containing chemical hydrides have obvious advantages over the non-containing ones in terms of performance. Hydrogen production reactions of selected hydrides will be given. Boron containing hydrides have advantages over the others in terms of hydrogen density and kinetics. This stands as an advantage for utilization these materials for on-board hydrogen storage systems. The method, will be studied, involves the hydrolysis of primary hydrides such as sodium and lithium borohydride. The more promising method of chemical hydrogen production is the thermolysis of mixes of hydrogen containing compounds. In this study, hydrogen storage systems will be introduced.

2005-01-01

103

Analysis of heat storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The submitted publication is an abstract of a comprehensive analysis on heat storage methods. Starting with the physical and chemical principles and matter characteristics numerous operating substances for latent heat and capacitive heat accumulators with regard to their application in heat supply systems are being investigated and discussed. The main effort is put on the technical realisation of the individual system components. The investigation concludes with the evaluation of the criteria for the selection of the storage media and an economic analysis from present days viewpoint.

Graue, R.; Blumenberg, J.

1981-10-01

104

PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage  

CERN Multimedia

Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low cost PC cluster based storage server is configured to be activated for large amount of data to provide cloud users. Moreover, one of the contributions of this system is proposed an analytical model using M/M/1 queuing network model, which is modeled on intended architecture to provide better response time, utilization of storage as well as pending time when the system is running. According to the analytical result on experimental testing, the storage can be utilized more than 90% of storage space. In this paper, two parts...

Yee, Tin Tin

2011-01-01

105

Hydrogen Trailer Storage Facility (Building 878). Consequence analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This consequence analysis documents the impact that a hydrogen accident could have to employees, the general public, and nearby facilities. The computer model ARCHIE was utilized to determine discharge rates, toxic vapor dispersion analyses, flammable vapor cloud hazards, explosion hazards, and flame jets for the Hydrogen Trailer Storage Facility located at Building 878. To determine over pressurization effects, hand calculations derived from the Department of the Air Force Manual, ``Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions,`` were utilized. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce the Lower Flammability and the Lower Detonation Levels are 1,721 feet and 882 feet, respectively. The greatest distance at which 10.0 psi overpressure (i.e., total building destruction) is reached is 153 feet.

Banda, Z.; Wood, C.L.

1994-12-01

106

A Checkpoint Storage System for Desktop Grid Computing  

CERN Document Server

Checkpointing is an indispensable technique to provide fault tolerance for long-running high-throughput applications like those running on desktop grids. In these environments, a checkpoint storage system can offer multiple benefits: reduce the load on a traditional file system, offer high-performance through specialization, and, finally, optimize checkpoint data management by taking into account application semantics. Such a storage system can present a unifying abstraction to checkpoint operations, while hiding the fact that there are no dedicated resources to store the checkpoint data. This paper presents a dedicated checkpoint storage system for desktop grid environments. Our solution uses scavenged disk space from participating desktops to build an inexpensive storage space, offering a traditional file system interface for easy integration with checkpointing applications. This paper presents the architecture of our checkpoint storage system, key write optimizations for high-speed I/O, support for increme...

Kiswany, Samer Al; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

2007-01-01

107

Hydrogen storage and generation system  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA); Crowell, Jeffrey A. W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2010-08-24

108

The CMU air-core passive hybrid heat storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses environmental engineering and practical application of the concrete masonry unit (CMU) based air-core thermal storage system, principally applied in climate responsive (passive and hybrid solar) building design. CMU's with their large core spaces can provide ample heat-transfer surface areas near low-velocity air-flows conducted through stacked masonry units where the cores are aligned as ducts. CMU air-core heat storage is ideally suited to the low-cost application of thermal storage in the structural envelope of buildings. The physical principals of designing, analyzing and predicting performance of these systems are reviewed. Sample building performance assessments are provided along with heat transfer properties information on such CMU systems, derived from both field measurements and engineering calculations. Generic design diagrams are provided based on actual built projects.

Howard, B.D.

1999-07-01

109

Building Natural Language Generation Systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This book explains how to build Natural Language Generation (NLG) systems - computer software systems which use techniques from artificial intelligence and computational linguistics to automatically generate understandable texts in English or other human languages, either in isolation or as part of multimedia documents, Web pages, and speech output systems.

Ehud Reiter

110

Large energy storage systems handbook  

CERN Document Server

In the current push to convert to renewable sources of energy, many issues raised years ago on the economics and the difficulties of siting energy storage are once again being raised today. When large amounts of wind, solar, and other renewable energy sources are added to existing electrical grids, efficient and manageable energy storage becomes a crucial component to allowing a range of eco-friendly resources to play a significant role in our energy system. In order to fulfill our intended goal of diminishing dependence on non-renewable sources of energy and reducing our carbon footprint, we

Barnes, Frank S

2011-01-01

111

ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

2013-01-01

112

Storage monitoring system -- 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them.

Mickelsen, B.; Nilsen, C.; Kinzel, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Davidson, B.; Pollock, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-11-01

113

Storage monitoring system - 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them

1997-01-01

114

INTEGRATED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM MODEL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen storage is recognized as a key technical hurdle that must be overcome for the realization of hydrogen powered vehicles. Metal hydrides and their doped variants have shown great promise as a storage material and significant advances have been made with this technology. In any practical storage system the rate of H2 uptake will be governed by all processes that affect the rate of mass transport through the bed and into the particles. These coupled processes include heat and mass transfer as well as chemical kinetics and equilibrium. However, with few exceptions, studies of metal hydrides have focused primarily on fundamental properties associated with hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics. A full understanding of the complex interplay of physical processes that occur during the charging and discharging of a practical storage system requires models that integrate the salient phenomena. For example, in the case of sodium alanate, the size of NaAlH4 crystals is on the order of 300nm and the size of polycrystalline particles may be approximately 10 times larger ({approx}3,000nm). For the bed volume to be as small as possible, it is necessary to densely pack the hydride particles. Even so, in packed beds composed of NaAlH{sub 4} particles alone, it has been observed that the void fraction is still approximately 50-60%. Because of the large void fraction and particle to particle thermal contact resistance, the thermal conductivity of the hydride is very low, on the order of 0.2 W/m-{sup o}C, Gross, Majzoub, Thomas and Sandrock [2002]. The chemical reaction for hydrogen loading is exothermic. Based on the data in Gross [2003], on the order of 10{sup 8}J of heat of is released for the uptake of 5 kg of H{sub 2}2 and complete conversion of NaH to NaAlH{sub 4}. Since the hydride reaction transitions from hydrogen loading to discharge at elevated temperatures, it is essential to control the temperature of the bed. However, the low thermal conductivity of the hydride makes it difficult to remove the heat of reaction, especially in the relatively short target refueling times, see Attachment 3. This document describes a detailed numerical model for general metal hydride beds that couples reaction kinetics with heat and mass transfer, for both hydriding and dehydriding of the bed. The detailed model is part of a comprehensive methodology for the design, evaluation and modification of hydrogen storage systems. In Hardy [2007], scoping models for reaction kinetics, bed geometry and heat removal parameters are discussed. The scoping models are used to perform a quick assessment of storage systems and identify those which have the potential to meet DOE performance targets. The operational characteristics of successful candidate systems are then evaluated with the more detailed models discussed in this document. The detailed analysis for hydrogen storage systems is modeled in either 2 or 3-dimensions, via the general purpose finite element solver COMSOL Multiphysics{reg_sign}. The two-dimensional model serves to provide rapid evaluation of bed configurations and physical processes, while the three-dimensional model, which requires a much longer run time, is used to investigate detailed effects that do not readily lend themselves to two-dimensional representations. The model is general and can be adapted to any geometry or storage media. In this document, the model is applied to a modified cylindrical shell and tube geometry with radial fins perpendicular to the axis, see Figures 4.1-1 and 4.1-2. Sodium alanate, NaAlH{sub 4}, is used as the hydrogen storage medium. The model can be run on any DOS, LINUX or Unix based system.

Hardy, B

2007-11-16

115

Parametric Study on the Dynamic Heat Storage Capacity of Building Elements  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning systems are often used even in moderate and cold climates. Particularly in this case, passive cooling by night-time ventilation seems to offer considerable potential. However, because heat gains and night ventilation periods do not coincide in time, a sufficient amount of thermal mass is needed in the building to store the heat. Assuming a 24 h-period harmonic oscillation of the indoor air temperature within a range of thermal comfort, the analytical solution of onedimensional heat conduction in a slab with convective boundary condition was applied to quantify the dynamic heat storage capacity of a particular building element. The impact of different parameters, such as slab thickness, material properties and the heat transfer coefficient was investigated, as well as their interrelation. The potential of increasing thermal mass by using phase change materials (PCM) was estimated assuming increased thermal capacity. The results show a significant impact of the heat transfer coefficient on heat storage capacity, especially for thick, thermally heavy elements. The storage capacity of a 100 mm thick concrete slab was found to increase with increasing heat transfer coefficients as high as 30 W/m2K. In contrast the heat storage capacity of a thin gypsum plaster board was found to be constant when the heat transfer coefficient exceeded 3 W/m2K. Additionally, the optimal thickness of an element depended greatly on the heat transfer coefficient. For thin, light elements a significant increase in heat capacity due to the use of PCMs was found to be possible. The present study shows the impact and interrelation of geometrical and physical parameters which appreciably influence the heat storage capacity of building elements.

Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.

2007-01-01

116

Compressed gas fuel storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

2001-01-01

117

Building sustainable energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sustainable development requires a sustainable energy path. This volume provides insight into how Swedish energy systems have evolved. The issues discussed include the use of renewable resources, fuel switching, technologies and systems efficiency, restructuring of energy markets, and integration of environmental concerns in policy design and implementation. The major objective has been to extract lessons that can help us meet future challenges in the context of increasing globalisation, structural changes and environmental concerns.

Semida Silveira (ed.)

2001-07-01

118

Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the 'heart and soul' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems.

2010-01-01

119

APS storage ring vacuum system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

1990-01-01

120

APS storage ring vacuum system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

APS storage ring vacuum system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluninum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The detaileds of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States))

1991-08-20

122

Geant 4 nightly builds system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geant4 is a toolkit to simulate the passage of particles through matter, and is widely used in HEP, in medical physics and for space applications. Ongoing developments and improvements require regular testing for new or modified code. Geant4 is a world-wide collaboration and it is developed by many different organizations and people, so integration of new and modified code needs to be tested regularly. Geant4 integration testing has been migrated to the LCG Applications Area nightly builds system, a system which unifies building and testing of the Applications Area projects.

Diez, Victor; Folger, Gunter; Roiser, Stefan, E-mail: victor.diez.gonzalez@cern.c, E-mail: gunter.folger@cern.c, E-mail: stefan.roiser@cern.c

2010-04-01

123

Advanced storage concepts for solar and low energy buildings, IEA-SHC Task 32. Slutrapport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reports on the results of the activities carried through in connection with the Danish part of the IEA SHC Task 32 project: Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar and Low Energy Buildings. The Danish involvement has focused on Subtask C: Storage Concepts Based on Phase Change Materials and Subtask D: Storage Concepts Based on Advanced Water Tanks and Special Devices. The report describes activities concerning heat-of-fusion storage and advanced water storage. (BA)

Schultz, J.M.; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, S.

2008-01-15

124

Laboratory performance of a dynamic ice storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of a commercial 30-ton dynamic ice storage system was measured in a dedicated laboratory test facility and the results analyzed. The ice storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions to characterize the ice generating performance as a function of condensing conditions, ice build time, and defrost time. The overall efficiency of ice production was determined and the effect of refrigeration system component performance on the overall system efficiency was evaluated. The ability of the charged system -- a tank of ice slush -- to meet a simulated cooling load over was also evaluated. 18 refs., 9 figs.

Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

1991-06-01

125

Building energy storage device on a single nanowire.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hybrid electrochemical energy storage devices combine the advantages of battery and supercapacitors, resulting in systems of high energy and power density. Using LiPF(6) electrolyte, the Ni-Sn/PANI electrochemical system, free of Li-based electrodes, works on a hybrid mechanism based on Li intercalation at the anode and PF(6)(-) doping at the cathode. Here, we also demonstrate a composite nanostructure electrochemical device with the anode (Ni-Sn) and cathode (polyaniline, PANI) nanowires packaged within conformal polymer core-shell separator. Parallel array of these nanowire devices shows reversible areal capacity of ?3 ?Ah/cm(2) at a current rate of 0.03 mA/cm(2). The work shows the ultimate miniaturization possible for energy storage devices where all essential components can be engineered on a single nanowire. PMID:21755944

Gowda, Sanketh R; Leela Mohana Reddy, Arava; Zhan, Xiaobo; Ajayan, Pulickel M

2011-07-22

126

Characterization of the 309 building fuel transfer pit and storage basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document identifies radiological, chemical and physical conditions inside the Fuel Transfer Pit and Fuel Storage Basins. These spaces are located inside the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor structure (309 Building.) The fuel handling and storage feature of the PRTR were primarily located in these spaces. The conditions were assessed as part of overall 309 Building transition.

Hale, N.S.

1998-03-19

127

Heat storages for the energy supply of buildings; Waermespeicher fuer die Hausenergieversorgung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The time lag between supply and demand peaks makes thermal storages an indispensable item of equipment for increasing the contribution of renewable energies to the energy supply of buildings. Around one third of Germany's primary energy demand is accounted for by room temperature control and water heating. Thus, thermal storages also play an important role in efforts to meet climate policy goals. A wide variety of materials and concepts come into consideration for thermal storages, depending on the desired duration and temperature level of storage, for example classical warm water storages, stone, earth or aquifer storages or latent heat storages based on novel phase changing materials.

Schossig, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Doetsch, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Drueck, H. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik; Goettsche, J. [Solar-Institut Juelich (Germany); Huenges, E. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany); Kabus, F. [Geothermie Neubrandenburg GmbH (Germany); Tamme, R. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin (Germany)

2006-02-15

128

Building a prototype expert systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past few years expert system technology has been gaining increasing respect within the world of computer science as it offers practical solutions to problems which have previously defied computerization. This paper is the culmination of a years investigation into how LBL can practically make use of this technology to solve some of the problems being faced by its scientists. To establish this and gain a greater understanding of expert system technology we attempted to build a prototype expert system using a commercially available expert system shell. The application we chose was to troubleshoot the hardware of the TPC particle detector (used by high energy physicists at LBL) using Neuron Data's expert system shell, Nexpert. This paper gives some brief overviews of the theoretical and practical work done by other people in fields relevant to this project. It includes: expert systems, their development, diagnostic expert systems, and examples of expert systems built to troubleshoot electronic devices. We describe how we selected our prototype expert system and then how we went about designing and building it. For this we have detailed the knowledge necessary to start troubleshooting the TPC and the methods used to represent that knowledge within the expert system shell. Finally we discuss the understanding of expert system technology which we have gained during this project and why we believe that this technology has a place in the future of problem solving at LBL. 31 refs.

Kalmus, D.; Hutchinson, M.; Hall, D.

1988-07-01

129

Criticality safety studies of Building 3019 Cell 4 and in-line storage wells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New fissile material load limits for storage facilities located in Building 3019 are derived in a manner consistent with currently applicable Martin Marietta Energy Systems requirements. The limits for 233U loading are 2.00, 1.80, 1.45, and 0.19 kg/ft for hydrogen-to-233U atoms ratios of 3, 5, 10, and unrestricted, respectively. Limits were also found for 235U and 239Pu systems. The KENO-Va Monte Carlo Program and Hansen-Roach cross sections were used to derive these limits.

1993-01-01

130

Didactic model of the high storage system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The continuous progress in Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) field with automatic storing systems is broadening the range of education process for engineers in future. This document describes the newest didactic station integrated witch a Modular Production System (MPS) model [1, 2, 3]. It is a module of high storage. This arrangement is the perfect didactic item for students.Design/methodology/approach: The main reason, why the laboratory position, we have mentioned, has been created is brodening the students knowlegde’s range. To achive this task the warehouse has been made from really industrial elements. All manipulator’s axis were building from different types of transmissions. Findings: During the work with warehouse there has been prepared the new algorithm which controlls the linear drive. Besides that there has been created brand new standards in engineers education, which are based on the described warehouse. Research limitations/implications: The main target of the didactic activity of Institute of Engineering Processes Automation and Integrated Manufacturing Systems is broden the loboratory base. That’s the reason why now there already has been building another laboratory position, which is based on Fanuc manipulator.Practical implications: The algorithm of Pneu-Stat steering hasn’t been finished yet, but when it has been done it can be used in industrial aplicationsOriginality/value: This paper describes the new didactic station with innovational steering algorithm [4, 5].

J. ?wider; G. Wszo?ek; D. Recik

2006-01-01

131

Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. The original version of this document was prepared by Vista Engineering for the SNF Project. Revision 1 documented verification actions that were pending at the time the initial report was prepared. Verification activities for the installed and operational SSCs have been completed. Verification of future additions to the CSB related to the canister cover cap and welding fixture system and MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment will be completed as appropriate for those components. The open items related to verification of those requirements are noted in section 3.1.5 and will be tracked as part of the CSB Facility action tracking system.

2001-01-01

132

Proton Storage Ring control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When designing a control system for a new facility, one is faced with a bewildering array of electronic devices to use in the solution. There is, of course, no single correct solution because the constraints are Laboratory- and project-dependent. The major constraint applicable to the hardware choice for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) control system was the limited manpower available for the design, development, and documentation of custom hardware. As a result, wherever possible, commercial components have been used that are based on recognized standards. The array of choice on the hardware side contrasts markedly with the absence of suitable commercial software products, and it is unfortunate that here there seems to be little prospect of change. The analysis of the overall system that follows will lead to a suitable hardware choice and a description of the software's structure. This paper is an overview, but more information is available

1983-01-01

133

Proton Storage Ring control system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When designing a control system for a new facility, one is faced with a bewildering array of electronic devices to use in the solution. There is, of course, no single correct solution because the constraints are Laboratory- and project-dependent. The major constraint applicable to the hardware choice for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) control system was the limited manpower available for the design, development, and documentation of custom hardware. As a result, wherever possible, commercial components have been used that are based on recognized standards. The array of choice on the hardware side contrasts markedly with the absence of suitable commercial software products, and it is unfortunate that here there seems to be little prospect of change. The analysis of the overall system that follows will lead to a suitable hardware choice and a description of the software's structure. This paper is an overview, but more information is available.

Clout, P.; Bair, S.; Conley, A.; Ford, R.; Fuka, M.; Greene, N.

1983-01-01

134

Function distributive building control system; Kino bunsangata biru kanri system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a function distributive building control system delivered by Meidensha. The personal computer based system, MEISVY-BC/NT, was delivered to 8 places including Toyama Television and Ebetsu Citizens hospital. In this system, a control function and a data storage function are distributed to remote stations functionally and, in particular, the power control function of a building is strengthened. The main functions are represented by such programs that analyze the economical effect of a power co-generation equipment using actual operation data, that control the peak value of a power with a low tension load, or that manage set data of a protective coordination equipment, and these programs can be loaded in accordance with purposes. In the future, importance of energy management is expected to increase such as CO2 reduction in relation to global warming issue. (NEDO)

NONE

1999-03-10

135

Management of Data Replication for PC Cluster-based Cloud Storage System  

CERN Document Server

Storage systems are essential building blocks for cloud computing infrastructures. Although high performance storage servers are the ultimate solution for cloud storage, the implementation of inexpensive storage system remains an open issue. To address this problem, the efficient cloud storage system is implemented with inexpensive and commodity computer nodes that are organized into PC cluster based datacenter. Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is an open source cloud based storage platform and designed to be deployed in low-cost hardware. PC Cluster based Cloud Storage System is implemented with HDFS by enhancing replication management scheme. Data objects are distributed and replicated in a cluster of commodity nodes located in the cloud. This system provides optimum replica number as well as weighting and balancing among the storage server nodes. The experimental results show that storage can be balanced depending on the available disk space, expected availability and failure probability of each node ...

Myint, Julia

2011-01-01

136

Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. Because this sub-project is still in the construction/start-up phase, all verification activities have not yet been performed (e.g., canister cover cap and welding fixture system verification, MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment verification, and As-built verification.). The verification activities identified in this report that still are to be performed will be added to the start-up punchlist and tracked to closure

2000-01-01

137

Advances in information storage systems, v.8  

CERN Multimedia

This volume covers friction-induced vibration, the influence of actuator-bearing grease composition, wear measurements for proximity recording heads, characteristics of a suspension assembly, design and analysis of the HDD Servo System, reluctance torque reduction, etc. It is organized into three parts: Mechanics and Tribology for Data Storage Systems; Dynamics and Controls for Data Storage Systems; and Electric Motors for Data Storage Systems.

Bhushan, Bharat

1998-01-01

138

Building management systems: user experiences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

BRE has reviewed 42 building management system (bms) sites to assess users' reactions to their systems' performance. User experiences offer a valuable insight into the benefits and problems associated with bms. Lessons from the work can aid the selection, specification, installation and long-term operation of bms; and will be of interest to building managers and building services engineers. The work has illustrated: (1) the benefits attributed by users to the use of a bms, typically energy savings of between 10 and 20%, improved management (such as reduced maintenance/more efficient use of manpower), and an improvement in comfort; (2) the significant improvements that have occurred in the performance of bms systems between those studied in 1984 and those studied during 1987; (3) the problem areas most commonly encountered by users, eg the man-machine interface; and (4) the importance of carefully selecting and specifying the bms to match the operating environment and, in particular, the skills of bms users. (author).

John, R.W.; Fargus, R.S. (Building Research Establishment, Watford (UK)); Smith, G.P. (GK Salter and Associates Ltd., Swanley (GB))

1989-06-01

139

RTDS modelling of battery energy storage system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes the development of a simplified model of a battery energy storage. The battery energy storage is part of the ABB energy storage system DynaPeaQ®. The model has been built to be run in RTDS, a real time digital simulator. Batteries can be represented by equivalent electric circu...

Rydberg, Lova

140

Recombination system for storage batteries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A recombination system for catalytic oxidation of hydrogen in storage battery gases includes a gas supply duct which makes it possible for the combustible gas flowing through it to aspirate from the ambient the necessary combustion air, following the principle of a bunsen burner, and to entrain it to the recombination catalyst. In case of over-supply of gas, an acid separator positioned in the gas supply pipe counteracts the gas aspiration by means of its flow impedance and thereby makes the recombination system safe from overload. It can also be connected following a conventional recombiner, thereby increasing its effectiveness, by receiving the excess hydrogen from same and reacting it with the aid of the air aspiration.

Bopp, B.; Ledjeff, K.; Winsel, A.

1983-03-29

 
 
 
 
141

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Canister Storage Building (CSB) is the interim storage facility for the K-Basin SNF at the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SNF is packaged in multi-canister overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs are placed inside transport casks, then delivered to the service station inside the CSB. At the service station, the MCO handling machine (MHM) moves the MCO from the cask to a storage tube or one of two sample/weld stations. There are 220 standard storage tubes and six overpack storage tubes in a below grade reinforced concrete vault. Each storage tube can hold two MCOs

2000-01-01

142

REMOTE HANDLED TRANSURANIC SLUDGE RETRIEVAL TRANSFER AND STORAGE SYSTEM AT HANFORD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

RAYMOND RE; FREDERICKSON JR

2012-10-18

143

Integrated engineering system for nuclear facilities building  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the construction of buildings for nuclear facilities in Japan, construction companies are generally in charge of the building engineering work, coordinating with plant engineering. An integrated system for buildings (PROMOTE: PROductive MOdeling system for Total nuclear Engineering) described here is a building engineering system including the entire life cycle of buildings for nuclear facilities. A Three-dimensional (3D) building model (PRO-model) is to be in the core of the system (PROMOTE). Data sharing in the PROMOTE is also done with plant engineering systems. By providing these basic technical foundations, PROMOTE is oriented toward offering rational, highquality engineering for the projects. The aim of the system is to provide a technical foundation in building engineering. This paper discusses the characteristics of buildings for nuclear facilities and the outline of the PROMOTE. (author)

1995-01-01

144

Simulation of the APS storage-ring rf system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simulation model for the APS storage ring rf system has been developed that includes the effects of cavity impedances, longitudinal beam dynamics, and generator klystrons. The model predicts multiple-bunch longitudinal beam behavior and is used for feedback system design and stability analysis.

Schwartz, C.; Nassiri, A.; Kang, Y.; Kustom, R.L.

1997-08-01

145

Investigation into building management systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following a request from NEOM B.V. an investigation into building management systems (BMS) has been carried out. The aim is to determine the extent of energy saving through use of BMS and the approach taken by NEOM B.V. This company carried out investigation into the full energy saving potential, the current situation, the penetration opportunities and their future role in this area. During this investigation manufacturers, installers, consultants and users were all consulted along with two hundred potential users. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

1987-11-01

146

Energy storage and wind energy conversion systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The demand imposed by the variability of wind power input have pushed the technical performance and cost requirements for energy storage to the forefront. In principle, wind turbine generators can be integrated with almost any kind of energy storage technology. However, the most appropriate energy storage system depends on the system size and the type of energy being delivered. Because most commercial wind turbines are designed to deliver electrical power, the vast majority of systems that do incorporate energy storage use batteries. Large systems using batteries have not been shown to be viable. Up to now, most efforts and success in reliably and economically integrating storage with wind turbine generators have been concerned with relatively small power plants, less than about 1 kW. Very small wind/storage systems, where the wind turbine is dedicated to charging conventional lead-acid batteries, currently dominate the market for wind power/energy storage hybrid power systems. These systems are well developed and proven. So-called 'village scale' hybrid power generating systems using energy storage (about 5 kW to 100 kW capacity) are now the subject of considerable product development and commercialization. The key technical problem for off-grid or stand-alone wind power systems of this size that must deliver well-regulated (i.e. high quality) AC power may well be to implement the most reliable and cost effective short term and highly responsive energy storage systems (on the scale of 1 second to 10 minutes). Such storage schemes must respond effectively to the wind power fluctuations and the load demand fluctuations to maintain network stability. Pumped hydro and underground compressed air storage will probably find some applications in larger scale wind power plants where they can work with the wind power plant to deliver baseload power to the grid, however the number of applications for these systems is limited. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

1997-01-01

147

Design and licensing of the VSC dry fuel storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Sierra Nuclear Corporation (SNC) has designed a 24 element PWR dry fuel storage system called the Ventilated Storage Cask (VSC-24). The VSC is a second generation fuel storage design that builds on previous experience and introduces simplified construction and handling features. The first cask of this type is going into service at the Palisades Nuclear Plant in the summer of 1992. A slightly smaller version of the cask, the VSC-17, was loaded with 17 consolidated fuel canisters (rods from 34 assemblies) and tested at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory in 1990. This paper discusses the design and licensing of the VSC-24 cask. Particular emphasis will be given to addressing activities required to implement a storage cask under the new cask certification rule

1992-01-01

148

Management issues for high performance storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01

149

Modernization of the solid radwaste storage system at Beloyarsk NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Currently on Beloyarsk NPP works are carried out to bring up to date the solid radioactive waste (SRW) storage system: a facility is being created to enable the retrieval of SRW from compartments of the solid waste storage facility (SWSF) for the first stage of construction; a design package is being developed to arrange for containerized storage of SRW and to ensure that it is possible to place irrecoverable-shielding containers loaded with SRW into storage in the SWSF for the second stage of construction, improving the level of safety of temporary waste storage on the site and making the SRW available for handover to the national waste management operator; inside the internal circuit cleaning building a complex is being built for SRW management, including equipment for SRW processing and conditioning by incineration of combustible wastes, and decontamination and fragmentation of metallic SRW. The proposed design solutions will bring the SRW storage system at the plant up to date taking into account the regulatory requirements, extend operational lifetimes of storage facilities without any risks for personnel and the environment[ru] ? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? (???): ????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????? (???) ?????? ???????; ??????????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????-???????? ??????????? ? ??? ? ??? ?????? ???????, ??? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????; ? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ???, ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ? ????????????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ? ???????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???. ???????????? ????????? ?????

2011-01-01

150

Hydrogen storage and delivery system development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

151

Designing and building bunkers for storage of stowing materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper evaluates hoppers for storage of stowing materials in coal mines of the Prokop'evskugol' association. Hoppers for stowing materials used until 1975 were built like a short mine shaft. A cylindrical section was from 16 to 25 m high and had a diameter from 8 to 12 m. The conic shaped bottom had walls inclined at an angle of 45 degrees. Due to a high proportion of clays in stowing materials hopper jamming often disrupted operation of mine stowing systems. The modified hopper design developed jointly by the IGD im. A.A. Skochinski Institute and the KuzNIUI Institute is evaluated. Design improvements are aimed at preventing hopper jamming and preventing deformation of the hopper bottom by rocks falling from a large height during feeding of stowing material to a hopper. The modified hoppers are characterized by an improved outlet system and steel walls of the conic shaped bottom section. Section walls are inclined at an angle of 70 degrees. Number of outlets ranges from 2 to 8 depending on hopper capacity which ranges from 500 to 2000 m/SUP/3. Stowing material is fed to the hoppers from trucks or railroad cars with a capacity to 100 t. Material leaving a hopper is hauled by conveyor systems. The modified hoppers are characterized by reliable operation and low failure rate.

Zolotarev, G.M.; Poturilov, A.M.; Kattsin, A.G.

1983-03-01

152

Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

1999-09-01

153

Integrated collector and storage systems for mild climates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary types of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems that can effectively meet hot water needs include flat plate thermosiphonic units (FPTU) and integrated collector storage (ICS) systems. The advantage of efficient heat preservation in thermosyphon systems has resulted in their widespread application. Although ICS systems are less expensive, they are not widely used as solar water heaters because of higher thermal losses in the storage tank during the night. Because a majority of residential and industrial building hot water requirements are around 50 degrees Celsius, an ICS solar water heater could provide a bulk source that blends collection and storage into one unit. In most commercial ICS systems, cylindrical type storage tanks are needed to resist the pressure of water mains. This paper discussed the design of an ICS solar thermal system with eight cylindrical horizontally layed water storage tanks. Outdoor tests of the experimental model were conducted in a mild climate of north of Iran. The paper presented and discussed the experimental results for this model with particular reference to water temperature profiles, mean daily efficiency, water temperature stratification and thermal losses during the night. The experimental results showed acceptable thermal performance of the model of the ICS system. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

Fouladi, F.; Taherian, H.; Gorji, M. [Babol Noshirvani Univ. of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2009-06-15

154

A review on energy conservation in building applications with thermal storage by latent heat using phase change materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Energy storage in the walls, ceiling and floor of buildings may be enhanced by encapsulating suitable phase change materials (PCMs) within these surfaces to capture solar energy directly and increase human comfort by decreasing the frequency of internal air temperature swings and maintaining the temperature closer to the desired temperature for a longer period of time. This paper summarizes the investigation and analysis of thermal energy storage systems incorporating PCMs for use in building applications. Researches on thermal storage in which the PCM is encapsulated in concrete, gypsum wallboard, ceiling and floor have been ongoing for some time and are discussed. The problems associated with the application of PCMs with regard to the selection of materials and the methods used to contain them are also discussed

2004-01-01

155

Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

1997-01-01

156

Compressed air energy storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1981-01-01

157

Separate low pressure gas storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a gas storage system. It comprises: a floor; anchor means surround the floor; a flexible floor membrane positioned upon the floor and having a periphery being substantially co-extensive with the anchor means; a flexible gas storage membrane overlying the flexible floor membrane and having a periphery sealingly secured to the periphery of the flexible floor membrane. The flexible gas storage membrane and the floor membrane forming a flexible gas storage chamber therebetween; gas inlet and outlet means connecting the gas storage chamber to a supply of gas; a flexible air membrane having an exterior and encompassing the gas storage membrane and having a periphery sealingly secured to the periphery of the flexible gas storage membrane. The flexible air membrane overlying the flexible gas storage membrane to form a flexible cover over the flexible gas storage membrane and to form an air chamber over the gas storage chamber; air supply means; air inlet means connecting the air chamber with the air supply means; air outlet means for venting air from the air chamber; and a plurality of flexible restraining members extending over the flexible air membrane for restraining the inflated flexible air membrane.

Hallen, W.R.

1990-02-20

158

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01

159

Spent Nuclear Fuel project stage and store K basin SNF in canister storage building functions and requirements. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the Canister Storage Building Subproject. The mission allocated to the Canister Storage Building Subproject is to provide safe, environmentally sound staging and storage of K Basin SNF until a decision on the final disposition is reached and implemented.

1995-01-01

160

Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

Lata

1996-09-26

 
 
 
 
161

Heat pumps in underground seasonal energy storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) systems are designed for building heating and cooling, and heat pumps are often an essential part of these systems. Successful examples and future potential of UTES in combination with heat pumps were described. The size of existing plants range from 10 kW to a few MW. UTES can play an important role in building cooling and in storing waste heat, e.g. from cogeneration plants in summer time. Some large aquifer storage projects are of particular interest. The number of cold storage UTES is rapidly increasing in the Netherlands and southern Sweden. One of the best examples of UTES for heating and cooling is the head office of Scandinavian Airline System (SAS), north of Stockholm. Three heat pumps use the aquifer as heat source, extracting groundwater from two wells and re-injecting the cooled water through three wells. During the summer, the direction of pumping is reversed. Heat storage with higher temperatures (60 to 80 degrees C), still in the pilot plant phase, offers a high potential for applications in storing cheap (e.g. waste) heat. 21 refs., 3 figs.

Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Justus-Liebing University, Giessen (Germany)

1996-12-01

162

Data storage system for fusion experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An appropriate archiving and an effective using of experimental data are examined in the field of fusion research. Several computer systems in tokamak type fusion experimental devices are reviewed, and then, indispensable functions and optimum utilizing form of data storage system are discussed from the standpoint of computer technology. According to these considerations, the data storage system was made in the JFT-2M tokamak. (author)

1987-01-01

163

Energy storage for power systems  

CERN Multimedia

The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

2011-01-01

164

Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

165

Interaction of a solar space heating system with the thermal behavior of a building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal behavior of a building in response to heat input from an active solar space heating system is analyzed to determine the effect of the variable storage tank temperature on the cycling rate, on-time, and off-time of a heating cycle and on the comfort characteristics of room air temperature swing and of offset of the average air temperature from the setpoint (droop). A simple model of a residential building, a fan coil heat-delivery system, and a bimetal thermostat are used to describe the system. A computer simulation of the system behavior has been developed and verified by comparisons with predictions from previous studies. The system model and simulation are then applied to determine the building response to a typical hydronic solar heating system for different solar storage temperatures, outdoor temperatures, and fan coil sizes. The simulations were run only for those cases where there was sufficient energy from storage to meet the building load requirements.

Vilmer, C.; Warren, M.L.; Auslander, D.

1980-12-01

166

Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

167

The recycling of automotive hydrogen storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers the recycling of hydrogen storage systems for use in automotive applications and describes work that is being undertaken in the 6th Framework Integrated Project StorHy (Hydrogen storage Systems for Automotive Application). Recycling is necessary to reduce the environmental impact of the storage systems at the end of their useful life and also to meet recycling legislation, specifically the End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV) Directive. Materials used in hydrogen storage systems The most likely hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications in the near future are either high pressure storage, at pressures up to 700 bar, or liquid hydrogen storage, in which cryogenic vessels are used at more modest pressures. The pressure vessel structure is usually made from a carbon fibre composite material. Carbon fibre is used as it gives the best specific strength and therefore the lowest vessel weight. Besides the vessel, some other materials are encountered. They are mainly metals, especially aluminium, and some polymers. The following table shows the material breakdown for three different concepts of Pressure Vessel storage system. The need for recycling Materials are recycled to reduce the environmental burden of their use. To encourage recycling in the automotive industry, the End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV) Directive (2000/53/EC) has been introduced. It requires that all cars disposed of from the year 2015 must be 85% recyclable with a further 10% energy recovery. Only 5% of the vehicle weight may be disposed of in landfill. The ELV Directive requires overall recycle and recovery rates for a vehicle based on average weight per vehicle and year but does not specify the requirements for individual components. Vehicle concepts must therefore be investigated to identify the influence of the storage system on the overall recycling or recovery rate needed. The focus in this paper will be on pressure vessels. (Author)

Pickering, S. J.; Magnani, M.

2005-07-01

168

Analysis of a heat pump system and a thermal energy storage in bedrock for heating and cooling of buildings; Analyse av varmepumpesystem tilknyttet termisk energilager i fjell for oppvarming og kjoeling av bygninger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indirect ground-source heat pump systems (GSHP) in vertical rock in Norway are usually energy efficient, and the heat pump can cover 80 - 90 percent of yearly heat demand. A large part of the cooling demand is covered by free cooling. The available potential from GSHP systems in Norway is mainly used for low temperature systems; heating, ventilation air and tap water. At the new Hoegskolebygget in Bergen a borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) system consisting of 80 boreholes is planned, to cover the base heating and cooling demand. The additional heating required is supplied from the district heating plant of BKK fjernvarme in Raadalen. Free cooling and an additional power source will cover the resisting cooling demand for the 52 000 m2 building. The total power and energy demand for room heating and ventilation is 3.0 MW and 2.3 GWh, but the actual power demand will be approximately 1.7 MW in daytime and 1.4 MW in nighttime. The total power and energy demand for cooling is 1.9 MW and 0.9 GWh. The designed condenser power is 1 135 kW. With a COP of 4, this results in 1 419 kW has to be returned to the BTES. A cooling load of 90 W/m requires 79 boreholes. Using 80 boreholes, the BTES can supply 480 kW to the evaporator and receive 1 440 kW from the condenser. The heat extraction from the BTES is using a lower temperature difference than the heat supply. The BTES system should consist of 80 boreholes connected in parallel using headers and manhole for the headers. A compact configuration of the boreholes will help to avoid heat loss, square shape is recommended. The BTES should be used for free cooling as much as possible. It is recommended to use the ice accumulation system Cristopia STL to cover the power top load. The STL is composed of a tank(s) filled with nodules (balls) and heat transfer fluid. Approximately 60 percent of the volume of the tank is occupied by the nodules and the remaining 40 percent is fluid. The number of nodules in a system determines both the heat exchange rate between the nodules and the heat transfer fluid and also the total energy stored in the STL. The heat transfer between the nodules and the system occurs when the heat transfer fluid circulates trough the tank. This system has satisfactory thermal characteristics, volume and price. Compared with ice accumulation systems such as binary ice and TSU-M internal melt, Cristopia has the lowest charging temperature (-5 to -6 degrees C) and maximum storage of ice (60 kWh/m3) By increasing the temperature level in the main distribution system for cooling from 7/12 degrees C or 8/13 degrees C to 10/16 degrees C, a greater part of the cooling load can be done by free cooling. Increased temperature level can give larger heat exchanger areas in the cooling battery, and consequently increased investment costs. Reduced circulated fluid leads to smaller dimensions of pipes and valves, and will lower the price. A problem, however, is that the demand for a SFP factor of 2, which requires an increase of ventilation work on approximately 5 percent, which again results in additional 30 000 kWh energy use, due to increased pressure loss in the cooling battery. If the profit from higher temperature level doesn't exceed increased energy use, increasing the temperature level is not profitable. Another possible solution is to use the same battery for both heating and cooling. Results from calculations using the program Earth Energy Designer (BED) shows that only returning excess heat from the cooling system in the BTES system, will give a temperature level decrease in the ground on 5 K, over a period of eleven years. This shows that it is important that a greater amount of energy is used to charge the BTES. Results from the thermal response test in Nittedal shows that there is a clear connection between the thermal resistance in the borehole and circulated fluid. Depending on the temperature level in collector pipes, turbulent flow can occur at flow speeds as low as 0.2 1/s. But this gives increased average temperature, and increased temperature difference i

Topdal, Anita

2006-07-15

169

Radiation Monitoring System For Technical Storage Complex  

CERN Document Server

In the report the characteristics of ALARM radiation monitoring systems and feature of their use at the Technical Storage Complex of F.V. Lukin State Research Institute of Physical Problems are presented.

Alexeev, A G; Kirayakova, N V; Kosiaynenko, E V; Liashenko, O A; Lukanin, V S; Pikalov, V A; Spinko, N V

2004-01-01

170

Biodigester as an energy storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

2009-07-01

171

Water-storage-tube systems. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

Hemker, P.

1981-12-24

172

Status of electrical energy storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents an overview of the status of electrical storage systems in the light of the growing use of renewable energy sources and distributed generation (DG) in meeting emission targets and in the interest of the UK electricity supply industry. Examples of storage technologies, their applications and current status are examined along with technical issues and possible activities by UK industries. Details are given of development opportunities in the fields of flow cells, advanced batteries - lithium batteries, high temperature batteries, flywheels, and capacitors. Power conversion systems and system integration, the all-electric ship project, and compressed air energy storage are discussed. Opportunities for development and deployment, small scale systems, demonstration programmes, and research and development issues are considered. An outline of the US Department of Energy Storage programme is given in the Annex to the report.

NONE

2004-07-01

173

Energy storage in future power systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its ability to counteract fluctuations in renewable power generation and thereby allow for longer reaction times for any controllable generation units. Capture and storage of excess renewable power in order to fully exploit the natural recourses is likely to become relevant for high penetration levels of renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system. When identifying the most relevant storage solutions it is necessary to include considerations on many relevant parameters which should be evaluated against the potential drawbacks and benefits of adding storage. Here, the most relevant technologies in relation to power systems with high penetration of renewable sources are identified and considerations with regard to cost, sizing and operation scheme are made.

Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob

2011-01-01

174

Energy storage for nuclear burst power systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy can be stored in a thermal energy storage (TES) medium and integrated into the heat rejection system to reduce the radiator size. This occurs by placing all or a significant fraction of the sprint reject heat into storage during burst operation. The stored heat is then rejected during the longer non-operational period of the orbit. Down-sizing of the radiator occurs because it is designed for an orbital average heat flux condition rather than the sprint peak. Alternatively, energy can be stored in regenerable electrical storage (RES) modules. In contrast to TES, these devices store input electrical energy produced by the primary power cycle, and later discharge electricity to the user. Since charging occurs over a time period much longer than discharging, the required primary power (and system mass) is significantly reduced. Assessment were performed for several nuclear sprint power concepts to determine if storage was of value in meeting burst power needs. Rankine power cycles and thermionic conversion systems were studied with various storage options. The value of energy storage was judged using total system mass as the criterion. These closed power systems (i.e. no effluents are discharged to space) were then compared to a nuclear, liquid hydrogen, open cycle, turboalternator system to determine the mass penalty for closing the primary power system.

Morris, D.G.; Olszewski, M.

1987-12-01

175

Simulation of thermocline thermal energy storage system using C  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solar thermal power generation is a modern technology, which has already shown feasible results in the production of electricity. Thermal energy storage (TES) is a crucial element in solar energy applications, which includes the increase of building thermal capacity, solar water heating systems for domestic use, and Concentrated Solar Thermal power plants for electricity generation. Economic, efficient and reliable thermal energy storage systems are a key need of solar thermal power plants, in order to smooth out the insolation changes during intermittent cloudy weather condition or during night period, to allow the operation. To address this goal, based on the parabolic trough power plants, sensible heat storage system with operation temperature between 300°C – 390°C can be used. The goal of this research is to design TES which can produce 1MWe. In this work simulation is performed to analyze the Liquid medium STES using C. In this case different liquid medium TESs is investigated and out of all mixed-media single-tank thermocline TES is selected and designed based on the Schumann equation. In particular, this equation is numerically solved, in order to determine energy storage, at different locations and time inside the storage tank. Finally, due to their feasibility, low cost of manufacturing and maintenance are designed and sized to the minimum possible volume.

Meseret Tesfay; Meyyappan Venkatesan

2013-01-01

176

APS storage ring vacuum system performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented.

Noonan, J.R.; Gagliano, J.; Goeppner, G.A. [and others

1997-06-01

177

Advances in information storage systems, v.6  

CERN Multimedia

The series Advances in Information Storage Systems covers a wide range of interdisciplinary technical areas, related to magnetic or optical storage systems. The following nonexhaustive list is indicative of the scope of the topics: Friction, Adhesion, Wear and Lubrications, Coatings, Solid Mechanics, Air Flow, Contamination, Instrumentation, Dynamics, Shock and Vibration, Controls, Head and Suspension Design, Actuators, Spindle and Actuator Motors and Bearings, Structure of Thin Films, Corrosion, Long-Term Reliability, Materials and Processing, Manufacturing and Automation, Economics.This volu

Bhushan, Bharat

1995-01-01

178

ALARA Analysis for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Fuel Storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

CERN Multimedia

The addition of Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assembly storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) will increase the total cumulative CSB personnel exposure from receipt and handling activities. The loaded Shippingport Spent Fuel Canisters (SSFCs) used for the Shippingport fuel have a higher external dose rate. Assuming an MCO handling rate of 170 per year (K East and K West concurrent operation), 24-hr CSB operation, and nominal SSFC loading, all work crew personnel will have a cumulative annual exposure of less than the 1,000 mrem limit.

Lewis, M E

2000-01-01

179

Study on commercialization of latent heat storage system; Sennetsu chikunetsu system jitsuyoka kenkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of buildings suffering shortage of air conditioning capacity is increasing as a result of the expanded use of OA devices. Use of a latent heat storage agent showing the phase changes at around 7degC is an effective means to level power load for a building equipped with a water-circulating heat-storage tank system, because it can increase a quantity of heat-storage without modifying heat source devices. A latent heat storage agent is developed, and demonstrated in existing water-circulating heat-storage tanks for air conditioning. These tests have produced promising results for commercial application of the agent. The latent heat storage capsule is provided with a gravity-adjusting weight at the bottom, to allow it to support itself in water. Its phase changes occur at 8.0 to 9.6degC, and the gap between the 4.9mm wide capsules provides a water passage. In the tests, a total of 4528 capsules are arranged zigzag in two adjacent tanks out of 18 water-circulating heat-storage tanks (effective water quantity: 219m{sup 3}). These capsules occupy 67% of water space, and heat in the latent heat tanks accounts for approximately 30% of total heat stored. It is found that use of the latent heat-storage agent increases stored heat by 236Mcal (28%). 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Fujise, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

1997-10-10

180

ITER fuel storage system conceptual design description  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel, in the form of hydrogen isotopes Q{sub 2} (where Q is H, D, or T), is required to be stored and assayed in a safe manner at the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Two subsystems are proposed for this task: Fuel Storage (FS) and Fuel Management (FM). The combined system, Fuel Storage and Management System (FSMS), will provide fuel storage, tritium inventory, gas analysis, transfer pumping, and flow measurements. Presented is a Conceptual Design Description (CDD) of only the FS portion of the FSMS. The proposed FS system permits tritium and its associated isotopes to be stored within ZrCo storage beds, as a solid metal-hydride, or as a gas stored in tanks. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Nasise, J.E.; Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.; Muller, M.E.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

ITER fuel storage system conceptual design description  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel, in the form of hydrogen isotopes Q2 (where Q is H, D, or T), is required to be stored and assayed in a safe manner at the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Two subsystems are proposed for this task: Fuel Storage (FS) and Fuel Management (FM). The combined system, Fuel Storage and Management System (FSMS), will provide fuel storage, tritium inventory, gas analysis, transfer pumping, and flow measurements. Presented is a Conceptual Design Description (CDD) of only the FS portion of the FSMS. The proposed FS system permits tritium and its associated isotopes to be stored within ZrCo storage beds, as a solid metal-hydride, or as a gas stored in tanks. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

1990-01-01

182

Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

2001-01-01

183

Latent Heat Storage for Solar Steam Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar thermal systems including direct steam generation in the absorbers require isothermal energy storage systems. One option to fulfil this requirement is the application of phase change materials (PCMs) to absorb or release energy. The implementation of cost effective storage systems demands the compensation of the low thermal heat conductivity that is characteristic for the candidate materials for PCM. The aim of the DISTOR project is the identification of the most promising latent heat storage concept for a temperature range between 200 degree celsius and 320 degree celsius and the elaboration of the fundamentals needed for the design. This paper describes the basic storage concepts investigated in DISTOR and the results of the initial project phase. (Author)

Steinmann, W. D.; Tamme, R.

2006-07-01

184

Operating Experiences with an Advanced Fabric Energy Storage System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite their proven track record in the cold climate countries of northern Europe, there are no reports in the research literature of experiences using advanced fabric energy storage (FES) systems in countries where cooling rather than heating is the main priority. This paper reports some of the experiences with the first known advanced FES system in Australia made over the first full calendar year of operation. It is located in a three-storey building on a university campus in Victoria and has been in operation since mid-2002. Temperature, energy use and operational mode data were recorded during 2003. Airflow measurements through the FES system have been made in five areas of the building. On-going operating problems still exist with the system and this has prevented a conclusive evaluation of its suitability for the southern Australian climate.

R.J Fuller

2012-01-01

185

Latent heat thermal energy storage tanks for space heating of buildings: Comparison between calculations and experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Latent heat thermal energy storage tanks, where carbon fiber brushes are inserted to improve the heat transfer rates in the phase change materials, are installed in an air conditioning system of a building as a space heating resource. The measured outlet fluid temperatures are compared with the numerical ones predicted by a previously developed three dimensional heat transfer model. The preliminary numerical results had unallowable prediction errors, which probably resulted from poor contact between the brushes and the heat transfer tubes due to an installation problem of the brushes. However, the numerical results predicted by a corrected model agree well with the experimental ones under various operating conditions. The effect of the brushes on the thermal outputs of the tanks is then investigated using the corrected model. The result shows that the brushes contribute to saving space and reducing the cost of the tanks.

2005-01-01

186

Latent heat thermal energy storage tanks for space heating of buildings: comparison between calculations and experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Latent heat thermal energy storage tanks, where carbon fiber brushes are inserted to improve the heat transfer rates in the phase change materials, are installed in an air conditioning system of a building as a space heating resource. The measured outlet fluid temperatures are compared with the numerical ones predicted by a previously developed three dimensional heat transfer model. The preliminary numerical results had unallowable prediction errors, which probably resulted from poor contact between the brushes and the heat transfer tubes due to an installation problem of the brushes. However, the numerical results predicted by a corrected model agree well with the experimental ones under various operating conditions. The effect of the brushes on the thermal outputs of the tanks is then investigated using the corrected model. The result shows that the brushes contribute to saving space and reducing the cost of the tanks. (author)

Hamada, Yuichi; Fukai, Jun [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2005-12-01

187

Combined solar collector and storage systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses reasons why fossil-fuelled water heating systems are included in new houses but solar systems are not. The technology and market potential for evacuated tube systems and integral collector storage systems (ICSS) are explained. The challenge for the designers of ICSSWH has been how to reduce heat loss without compromising solar energy collection. A new concept for enhanced energy storage is described in detail and input/output data are given for two versions of ICSSWH units. A table compares the costs of ICSSWH in houses compared with other (i.e. fossil fuel) water heating systems.

2000-01-01

188

Changing Dashboard build system to Bamboo  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this project is to change Cosmic custom build system to an Automated build system used Bamboo CI System services. The goal is when a developer performs some changes on the source code, the system builds installation packages for different architectures and runs tests automatically on the software modules as soon as possible. The Bamboo build system polls the git repository which is a commonly used source code repository by the developers of the IT department. Bamboo CI System is a widely used system by the department. Thus the project uses widely accepted tools by the department which makes the Cosmic project even more standardized. Project also aims to create packages for every versions of Cosmic modules for different architectures (SLC5/SLC6) which can be accessed by different package repositories on AFS file system. The created package repositories can be used for automated deploy environment such as puppet.

Varga, Robert

2013-01-01

189

Application of heated water storage system in local area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the viewpoint of effective use of local energy and regional economic build-up, the authors proposed the `underground heated water storage system`, in which heated water is produced by utilizing the waste heat at the garbage burning plant, etc., and the heat is stored in the rock cavern and supplied to various facilities. This article describes the case study which has been carried out to evaluate the `energy saving effect` and the `degree of easing environmental burdens` when this system is applied to local area. In the model examined, 1. a local area, which has the waste processing function of 100 tons per day was selected as the heat source of the system, 2. heated water was supplied to an office building, sports center, condominium and green houses. Through these evaluations, the energy saving effect was found to be: 1. the warm heat supply system can save energy to 1/10 of the fuel consumption by the conventional system. On the other hand, it became clear that 1. the warm heat supply system reduced the generate quantity of CO{sub 2} to about 1/10 of that by the conventional system, and also reduced the generated quantity of NO{sub x} to about 1/20. From the above, the underground heated water storage system has been found out to be excellent in both the `energy saving effect` and the `degrees of easing environmental burdens`. (orig.)

Ueda, T. [Takenaka Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Inada, Y. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan)

1994-12-31

190

Economic analysis of air-conditioning systems with off-peak chilled-water storage. Master's thesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis investigates current methods of chilled-water storage for air conditioning applications and the economics of chilled-water storage with time-of-use electric utility rates. Current methods of chilled-water storage are investigated by comparing costs of construction materials for storage tanks and effectiveness and costs of anti-blending systems. The economics of chilled-water storage are analyzed by computing total life cycle costs of alternative air conditioning systems for two different sized buildings. Computer simulation is used to determine electric consumption for the buildings. The simulation of each building contains three options: no chilled-water storage, chiller operated only at night, and a small chiller supplemented by stored chilled-water. A gunite or Styrofoam tank with a moving partition anti-blending system is the least expensive and most effective storage system. The economics of chilled-water storage are sensitive to the size of the building analyzed. Operating the small chiller with supplemental chilled-water is economical in the smaller building. No chilled-water storage is the most economical option in the larger building. Operation of the chiller only at night was never economical.

McMullen, B.J.; Papaprokopiou, N.D.

1981-09-01

191

Data Acquisition and Storage in Engineering Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data storage represents a sensitive subject when it comes to a software system or a software application. Referring to engineering systems, data storage becomes even more challenging, since multiple functions must be accomplished and various tasks need real time response and high accuracy. While gathering information through data acquisition is relatively simple, with hardware and software equipment providing wide and complex documentation, data storage raises a set of issues, mainly due to communication channels, storage devices or software algorithms. In this context, the paper will focus on presenting some of the mostly used hardware devices and data transmission protocols in engineering applications, creating an overview over data manipulation and providing an implementation method, together with proposed solutions and a model of implementation regarding the topic.

Cezar Liviu CERVINSCHI

2011-01-01

192

Security for cloud storage systems  

CERN Multimedia

Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

Yang, Kan

2014-01-01

193

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Handling Building (WHB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WHB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement areas ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination within the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WHB. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System is designed to perform its safety functions under accident conditions and other Design Basis Events (DBEs) (such as earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and loss of the primary electric power). Additional system design features (such as compartmentalization with independent subsystems) limit the potential for cross-contamination within the WHB. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits. The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System by being located within the WHB and by maintaining specific pressures, temperatures, and humidity within the building. The system also depends on the WHB for water supply. The system interfaces with the Site Radiological Monitoring System for continuous monitoring of the exhaust air; the Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System for detection of fire and smoke; the Waste Handling Building Electrical System for normal, emergency, and standby power; and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control of the system.

P.A. Kumar

2000-06-21

194

Injection Control System of HLS Storage Ring  

CERN Multimedia

The injection control system of Hefei Light Source (HLS) storage ring is a subsystem of the upgraded HLS control system, which is based upon EPICS. Three programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are used as device controllers, which control one septum modulator and four kicker modulators of HLS storage ring. An Industrial PC is used as Input/Output Controller (IOC) and it connects the PLCs with serial communication (RS232 mode) over fibre. A PC with Linux is used as operator interface (OPI), operator application are running on it. The control system was completed in July 2000. The commissioning shows that the control system is reliable and easy operational.

Liu, G; Li, W; Li Chuan; Li, K; Shang, L; Liu, Gongfa; Li, Jingyi; Li, Weimin; Li, Chuan; Li, Kaihong; Shang, Lei

2001-01-01

195

Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

2000-01-01

196

Autonomic Management in a Distributed Storage System  

CERN Document Server

This thesis investigates the application of autonomic management to a distributed storage system. Effects on performance and resource consumption were measured in experiments, which were carried out in a local area test-bed. The experiments were conducted with components of one specific distributed storage system, but seek to be applicable to a wide range of such systems, in particular those exposed to varying conditions. The perceived characteristics of distributed storage systems depend on their configuration parameters and on various dynamic conditions. For a given set of conditions, one specific configuration may be better than another with respect to measures such as resource consumption and performance. Here, configuration parameter values were set dynamically and the results compared with a static configuration. It was hypothesised that under non-changing conditions this would allow the system to converge on a configuration that was more suitable than any that could be set a priori. Furthermore, the sy...

Tauber, Markus

2010-01-01

197

Systemic capacity building: a hierarchy of needs.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Capacity building' is the objective of many development programmes and a component of most others. However, satisfactory definitions continue to elude us, and it is widely suspected of being too broad a concept to be useful. Too often it becomes merely a euphemism referring to little more than training. This paper argues that it is more important to address systemic capacity building, identifying a pyramid of nine separate but interdependent components. These form a four-tier hierarchy of capacity building needs: (1) structures, systems and roles, (2) staff and facilities, (3) skills, and (4) tools. Emphasizing systemic capacity building would improve diagnosis of sectoral shortcomings in specific locations, improve project/programme design and monitoring, and lead to more effective use of resources. Based on extensive action research in 25 States, experience from India is presented to illustrate how the concept of the capacity building pyramid has been put to practical use. PMID:15310668

Potter, Christopher; Brough, Richard

2004-09-01

198

Systemic capacity building: a hierarchy of needs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

'Capacity building' is the objective of many development programmes and a component of most others. However, satisfactory definitions continue to elude us, and it is widely suspected of being too broad a concept to be useful. Too often it becomes merely a euphemism referring to little more than training. This paper argues that it is more important to address systemic capacity building, identifying a pyramid of nine separate but interdependent components. These form a four-tier hierarchy of capacity building needs: (1) structures, systems and roles, (2) staff and facilities, (3) skills, and (4) tools. Emphasizing systemic capacity building would improve diagnosis of sectoral shortcomings in specific locations, improve project/programme design and monitoring, and lead to more effective use of resources. Based on extensive action research in 25 States, experience from India is presented to illustrate how the concept of the capacity building pyramid has been put to practical use.

Potter C; Brough R

2004-09-01

199

Three Dimensional Analysis of Building Systems - TABS.  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure and a computer program are developed for the linear structural analysis of frame and shear wall buildings subjected to both static and earthquake loadings. The building is idealized by a system of independent frame and shear wall elements inte...

E. L. Wilson H. H. Dovey

1972-01-01

200

A simulation study on a solar heat pump heating system with seasonal latent heat storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar heating systems with seasonal energy storage have attracted an increasing attention over the past decades. However, studies of such systems using a phase change material (PCM) as seasonal storage medium have not been found in the open literature. In this paper a solar heat pump heating system with seasonal latent heat thermal storage (SHPH-SLHTS) is firstly described. This is followed by reporting the development of a simplified mathematical model for a SHPH-SLHTS system. Using the model developed, the operational performances of a SHPH-SLHTS system which provided space heating to a villa building have been investigated by simulation, and simulation results are reported in this paper. (author)

Qi, Qi; Deng, Shiming [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Jiang, Yiqiang [Institute of Heap pump and Air conditioning Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

2008-08-15

 
 
 
 
201

Assessing thermal storage systems using exergy methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper illustrates the usefulness of exergy analysis in providing insights into the behaviour and performance of TES (Thermal energy storage) systems, by providing an overview of many investigations by the authors on this topic. Several topics are covered. First, exergy analysis is described and thermodynamic considerations in TES evaluation are discussed. Then, the exergy analysis of a closed TES system is detailed, highlighting two critical factors: appropriate TES efficiency measures and the importance of temperature in TES evaluations. Next, applications of exergy to several TESs are discussed, including aquifer systems, stratified storages and cold TES. Finally, uses of exergy methods in optimization and design are illustrated by determining optimal discharge periods. (authors)

Rosen, M.A. [Ryerson Polytechnic University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Dincer, I. [King Fahg Universtiy of Petroleum and Minerals, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2000-07-01

202

Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

203

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Treatment Building (WTB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for personnel comfort and equipment operation, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WTB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement area ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination with the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WTB. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits, The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Treatment Building System by being located in the WTB, and by maintaining specific pressure, temperature, and humidity environments within the building. The system also depends on the WTB for normal electric power supply and the required supply of water for heating, cooling, and humidification. Interface with the Waste Treatment Building System includes the WTB fire protection subsystem for detection of fire and smoke. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Site Radiological Monitoring System for continuous monitoring of the exhaust air and key areas within the WTB, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control of system operations, and the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System and Site Generated Hazardous, Non-Hazardous & Sanitary Waste Disposal System for routing of pretreated toxic, corrosive, and radiologically contaminated effluent from process equipment to the HEPA filter exhaust ductwork and air-cleaning unit.

P.A. Kumar

2000-06-22

204

Structural systems for highrise buildings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The report was written in the United States under the first Fazlur R. Khan Fellowship in 1984 and it was completed in Germany afterwards. "Highrise Buildings" was selected by the author as the draft-title for the activities during the fellowship. Under this theme the author studied the single aspect...

Sobek, Werner

205

Dry storage system for spent nuclear fuel DSS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DSS is a Dry Storage System manufactured by INVAP for spent nuclear fuel. Spent fuel removed from the reactor of nuclear plants is usually stored in water pools where water acts as radiological shielding and as coolant. Pool water and pool building air require regular monitoring and maintenance. The DSS offers a more economical and safe alternative to store spent fuel which has had partial decay of its activity in the plant storage pool. The DSS alternative uses above ground concrete silos. With the DSS system spent fuel is loaded in steel baskets before fuel is removed from the storage pool of the power plant. Each basket holds several fuel bundles. Each basket is taken from the pool and dried in a shielded transfer cell. The basket loaded with dry fuel is then covered and seal welded. Each basket is transported inside a shielded container to its storage place in the concrete silo. The silo is a steel cylinder with capacity to store several baskets and surrounded by a thick reinforced concrete shielding. Baskets are housed inside the steel cylinder on top of each other. The silos are closed with a plug made of steel-lined reinforced concrete. When a silo is full the steel lining of the plug is seal welded to the steel cylinder. The system has been designed for a minimum of 50 years

1992-01-01

206

Upgrading plumbing vent systems in rehab buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rehabilitation of existing buildings can be a viable alternative to their demolition. However, rehab work must be done within specific economic boundaries if the cost is to be justified. The renovated building may have a different use and type of occupancy than was originally intended. The effects of changes in usage frequently cause increased plumbing loads due to upgrading with new water usage appliances, devices, and fixtures that were not contemplated for the original building's purposes. Existing building systems may have to be considerably altered or even replaced as a result. A modification to existing vent systems is discussed in this article. This circulation loop modification greatly expands venting capacity. The system also provides supplementary drainage capacity as an integral part of the loop. The loop may be installed remotely from the existing vent and drain system as long as a horizontal tie to the existing vent system can be made.

Galowin, L.S.; Winter, F.

1984-12-01

207

The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program Overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utility battery energy storage allows a utility or customer to store electrical energy for dispatch at a time when its use is more economical, strategic, or efficient. The UBS program sponsors systems analyses, technology development of subsystems and systems integration, laboratory and field evaluation, and industry outreach. Achievements and planned activities in each area are discussed.

1994-11-01

208

Hybrid energy storage systems using superconducting coils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Hybrid energy storage systems are a technically interesting variant, that permits to combine various energy storage devices according to their optimum application profile into one system, as e.g. a superconducting magnetic energy storage device and a battery system with Na/S batteries. Current research work is devoted to optimization analyses in terms of cost and technical requirements, and a pilot plant is being built for investigation of the technical problems. (orig./MM)[de] Hybridspeicher sind eine technisch interessante Moeglichkeit, verschiedene Energiespeichersysteme ihrem optimalen Einsatzprofil entsprechend zusammenzufassen (supraleitender magnetischer Energiespeicher und Batteriespeicheranlage mit z.B. Na/S-Batterien). Eine Optimierung nach Kosten und technischen Anforderungen wird diese Frage klaeren. In einer Pilotanlage sollen die technischen Probleme untersucht werden. (orig./MM)

1989-01-01

209

Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

Alan C. Cooper

2012-05-02

210

Energy storage systems for MPD thrusters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of its high thrust density, the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster is a promising candidate for many advanced space missions. Its high power requirements lead to operation in a pulsed mode using an intermediate energy storage device. The characteristics of a system consisting of a solar array, energy storage capacitor, and MPD thruster are studied for array powers in the range 25-375 kw. Assuming simple analytic models for the circuit components, the circuit charge and discharge equations are solved numerically, resulting in the system efficiency and capacitance. The system efficiency is inversely proportional to array power and decreases with circuit resistance. Alternative methods of energy storage such as a pulse forming network and a homopolar generator, are presented, and an overall comparison between all of the methods is given.

Gabriel, S.B.

1981-01-01

211

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869.

KLEM, M.J.

2000-05-11

212

Quality Assurance Program Plan for Project W-379: Spent Nuclear Fuels Canister Storage Building Projec  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document describes the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Canister Storage Building (CSB) Project. The purpose of this QAPP is to control project activities ensuring achievement of the project mission in a safe, consistent and reliable manner

1995-01-01

213

Evaluation of existing Hanford buildings for the storage of solid wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Existing storage space at the Hanford Site for solid low-level mixed waste (LLMW) will be filled up by 1997. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has initiated the project funding cycle for additional storage space to assure that new facilities are available when needed. In the course of considering the funding request, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked WHC to identify and review any existing Hanford Site facilities that could be modified and used as an alternative to constructing the proposed W-112 Project. This report documents the results of that review. In summary, no buildings exist at the Hanford Site that can be utilized for storage of solid LLMW on a cost-effective basis when compared to new construction. The nearest approach to an economically sensible conversion would involve upgrade of 100,000 ft{sup 2} of space in the 2101-M Building in the 200 East Area. Here, modified storage space is estimated to cost about $106 per ft{sup 2} while new construction will cost about $50 per ft{sup 2}. Construction costs for the waste storage portion of the W-112 Project are comparable with W-016 Project actual costs, with escalation considered. Details of the cost evaluation for this building and for other selected candidate facilities are presented in this report. All comparisons presented address the potential decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) cost avoidances realized by using existing facilities.

Carlson, M.C.; Hodgson, R.D.; Sabin, J.C.

1993-05-01

214

Magnetic Energy Storage System: Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage System with Direct Power Electronics Interface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GRIDS Project: ABB is developing an advanced energy storage system using superconducting magnets that could store significantly more energy than today’s best magnetic storage technologies at a fraction of the cost. This system could provide enough storage capacity to encourage more widespread use of renewable power like wind and solar. Superconducting magnetic energy storage systems have been in development for almost 3 decades; however, past devices were designed to supply power only for short durations—generally less than a few minutes. ABB’s system would deliver the stored energy at very low cost, making it ideal for eventual use in the electricity grid as a costeffective competitor to batteries and other energy storage technologies. The device could potentially cost even less, on a per kilowatt basis, than traditional lead-acid batteries.

None

2010-10-01

215

APS storage ring vacuum system performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented

1997-01-01

216

CPC type integrated collector storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Integrated collector storage (ICS) solar water heaters with stationary compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) reflectors are designed and test results are presented. The systems consist of single and double cylindrical horizontal tanks properly placed in truncated symmetric and asymmetric CPC reflector troughs. The suggested designs aim to achieve low cost systems with improved performance by the reduction of their thermal losses and the increase of water temperature rise by using the non-uniform distribution of solar radiation on the absorber surface. Four experimental models were constructed and tested outdoors to determine their mean daily efficiency and thermal losses during the night. Test results showed that asymmetric CPC reflectors contribute to lower thermal losses and the two connected in series cylindrical storage tanks result in effective water temperature stratification. The system with the single cylindrical storage tank and the symmetric CPC reflector performs satisfactorily during the day as well as during the night and regarding its simpler design it could be considered cost effective among the studied ICS systems. A typical thermosiphonic system with flat plate collector was tested for performance comparison, by which the improved daily efficiency of ICS systems and also their moderate water storage heat preservation during the night were confirmed. (Author)

Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Nousia, Th. [Patras Univ., Physics Dept., Patra (Greece)

2002-04-01

217

Energy Storage System for a Pulsed DEMO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Several designs have been proposed for DEMO, some of which will operate in pulsed mode. Since a fusion power plant will be required to deliver continuous output, this challenge must be solved. For the reference DEMO, energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWhe with a capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. Although DEMO is scheduled to be built in about 30 years, the design of the energy storage system must be based on current technology, focusing on commercially available products and on their expected future trends. From a thorough review of the different technologies available, thermal energy storage, compressed air energy storage, water pumping, fuel cells, batteries, flywheels and ultracapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage for a pulsed DEMO. An outline of each of these technologies is described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. Following this review, the most suitable methods capable of storing the required energy are examined. Fuel cells are not suitable due to the power requirement. Compressed air energy storage has a lower efficiency than the required one. Thermal energy storage, based on molten salts, so more energy can be stored with a better efficiency, and water pumping are shown as the main solutions, based on existing technology. However, those are not the only solutions capable of solving our challenge. Hydrogen production, using water electrolysis, hydrogen storage and combustion in a combined cycle can achieve our energy and power requirements with an acceptable efficiency. All these solutions are studied in detail and described, evaluating their current cost and efficiency in order to compare them all. (author)

2006-01-01

218

Pulse power systems using inductive energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the last 10-15 years Efremov Institute has been involved in research and development activities in the field of pulse power inductive storages (IS). The wide range of problems associated with IS-systems (Inductor Storage System) has been investigated: storage system, magnets energy transfer network, etc. Different charging sources have been designed using synchronous generators, high-power thyristor converters, homopolar generators. Magnet systems were optimized for different requirements. As a result of these studies inductive storages up to 9 {center dot} 10{sup 8} J have been designed and constructed. Different options of energy transfer networks are investigated and realized. The wide range of single-shot and multi-shot switches (breakers and closers) with peak currents up to 300 kA and voltage up to 40 kV have been tested, some of them are working on different installations. In this paper three types of pulse power systems using IS and their main performances are given. Besides the design features of different switches are described.

Druzhinin, A.S.; Kuchinsky, V.G.; Larionov, B.A.; Roshal, A.G.; Silin, V.P.; Soikin, V.F. (D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, Leningrad (SU))

1992-01-01

219

MOX storage containment/surveillance system (MSCS) for Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MSCS for MOX storage area in the large reprocessing plant was developed by using new containment/surveillance (C/S) technologies. The system consists of iPCAS, DCPD, canister ID camera. monitoring camera for transfer route and storage area, door monitor and optical fiber seal for ventilation duct or radiation detector (under consideration). Outline of building, construction of equipment, number of samples, methods, materials flow in the MOX storage area, setting point of ID camera and DCPD are reported. MSCS inspects the nuclear materials flow and keeps the data to the MOX storage area. MSCS is able to reduce the amount of inspection works at RRP. (S.Y.)

2004-11-11

220

An investigation of different variants of connection at modular storage systems; Untersuchung verschiedener Verschaltungsvarianten bei modularen Speichersystemen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the installation of solar systems especially in the building stock the possibilities of setting up and addition possibilities for large hot water storages often are limited by the already existing buildings. When using several individual storages or storage modules the question of a hydraulic connectivity of the individual storages raises. In principle, these can be connected hydraulically parallel, serial, or by a combination of both variants. In order to determine the influence of the various connectivity options on the heat loss and the proportional energy savings, various connectivity options were investigated on the basis of simulation calculations with the program EES (Engineering Equation Solver) and TRNSYS (Transient System Simulation Program).

Ullmann, J.; Bachmann, S.; Drueck, H.; Mueller-Steinhagen, H. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (ITW); Leibfried, U.; Sitzmann, B. [Consolar Solare Energiesysteme GmbH, Loerrach (Germany)

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Energy storage  

CERN Multimedia

Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

Brunet, Yves

2013-01-01

222

Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P. [Dept. of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Univ. of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)], E-mail: gabriele.zini@unimore.it, paolo.tartarini@unimore.it

2009-07-01

223

Hybrid ventilation systems and high performance buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper described hybrid ventilation design strategies and their impact on 3 high performance buildings located in southern Wisconsin. The Hybrid ventilation systems combined occupant controlled natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation systems. Natural ventilation was shown to provide adequate ventilation when appropriately designed. Proper control integration of natural ventilation into hybrid systems was shown to reduce energy consumption in high performance buildings. This paper also described the lessons learned from the 3 buildings. The author served as energy consultant on all three projects and had the responsibility of designing and integrating the natural ventilation systems into the HVAC control strategy. A post occupancy evaluation of building energy performance has provided learning material for architecture students. The 3 buildings included the Schlitz Audubon Nature Center completed in 2003; the Urban Ecology Center completed in 2004; and the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center completed in 2007. This paper included the size, measured energy utilization intensity and percentage of energy supplied by renewable solar power and bio-fuels on site for each building. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

Utzinger, D.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). School of Architecture and Urban Planning

2009-07-01

224

Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: concrete storage casks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents design concepts and cost estimates for the Monitored Retrievable Storage facility which uses concrete silos for storage. Two separate scenarios are considered: the first is the storage of spent fuel assemblies and the second is the storage of wastes generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel and does not consider spent fuel storage. Two storage options for each scenario were evaluated. One is for maximum throughput of fuel or waste at 1800 MTU/y and a facility storage capacity of 15,000 MTU. The other option is for a maximum throughput of fuel or waste at 3000 MTU/y and a facility storage capacity of 72,000 MTU. The construction and operating costs, as well as the life-cycle costs for both scenarios and both the 1800 and 3000 MTU/y throughput rates are summarized. Drawings defining the facility and equipment that are unique to the silo storage concept are included. 26 figures, 34 tables

1983-01-01

225

Monitoring a petabyte scale storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermilab operates a petabyte scale storage system, Enstore, which is the primary data store for experiments' large data sets. The Enstore system regularly transfers greater than 15 Terabytes of data each day. It is designed using a client-server architecture providing sufficient modularity to allow easy addition and replacement of hardware and software components. Monitoring of this system is essential to insure the integrity of the data that is stored in it and to maintain the high volume access that this system supports. The monitoring of this distributed system is accomplished using a variety of tools and techniques that present information for use by a variety of roles (operator, storage system administrator, storage software developer, user). Essential elements of the system are monitored: performance, hardware, firmware, software, network, data integrity. We will present details of the deployed monitoring tools with an emphasis on the different techniques that have proved useful to each role. Experience with the monitoring tools and techniques, what worked and what did not will be presented.

Bakken, Jon; Berman, Eileen; Huang, Chih-Hao; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; Zalokar, Michael; /Fermilab

2004-12-01

226

Storage monitoring systems for the year 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In September 1993, President Clinton stated the US would ensure that its fissile material meet the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability. Frequent human inspection of the material could be used to ensure these standards. However, it may be more effective and less expensive to replace these manual inspections with virtual inspections via remote monitoring technologies. To prepare for this future, Sandia National Laboratories has developed several monitoring systems, including the Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) and Project Straight-Line. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Sandia effort that merges remote monitoring technologies into a comprehensive storage monitoring system that will meet the near-term as well as the long-term requirements for these types of systems. Topics discussed include: motivations for storage monitoring systems to include remote monitoring; an overview of the needs and challenges of providing a storage monitoring system for the year 2000; an overview of how the MIMS and Straight-Line can be enhanced so that together they create an integrated and synergistic information system by the end of 1997; and suggested milestones for 1998 and 1999 to assure steady progress in preparing for the needs of 2000

1997-01-01

227

APS storage ring vacuum system development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Ferry, R.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.D.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

1991-01-01

228

APS storage ring vacuum system development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs.

1991-01-01

229

Build Your Own Solar System  

Science.gov (United States)

This Java applet creates a model of a solar system with user-defined data. Users can create a solar system with up to four planets, choosing the star type at the center of the solar system, planet name, size, eccentricity of orbit and distance from the star. This site then calculates these factors to produce a graphic of the solar system with details about each planet such as its atmosphere, temperature, and whether life could exist on its surface.

Asbury, Mike; Hamilton, Douglas

230

Energy storage system using superconductor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of continuous efforts, high critical current density exceeding 104 A/cm2 at 77K and strong levitation capacity has been achieved in Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor which is fabricated by melting technique. Various applications using the levitation properties of high-Tc superconductor is expected to come true in near future. Especially, by utilizing the levitation force between a permanent magnet and the superconductor, a flywheel system which store electrical energy as mechanical energy can be designed. (Author) 11 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

1995-01-01

231

Energy storage system using superconductor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a result of continuous efforts, high critical current density exceeding 104 A/cm{sup 2} at 77K and strong levitation capacity has been achieved in Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor which is fabricated by melting technique. Various applications using the levitation properties of high-Tc superconductor is expected to come true in near future. Especially, by utilizing the levitation force between a permanent magnet and the superconductor, a flywheel system which store electrical energy as mechanical energy can be designed. (Author) 11 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Kim, Chan Joong; Kim, Ki Baek; Park, Hae Woong; Hong, Kye Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1995-03-01

232

Building structures illustrated patterns, systems, and design  

CERN Multimedia

Francis D.K.Ching brings his trademark presentation to the structural design studio with this major new work co-authored by Barry Onouye and Douglas Zuberbuhler. Taking a new approach to strucural design, Ching and his co-authors show how structural systems of a building -- as an integrated assembly of elements with pattern, proportions, and scale -- are related to the essential aspects of architectural design: formal and spatial composition, program fit, coordination with other building systems such as enclosure and mechanical systems, code compliance, etc. No other work by Francis D.K. C

Ching, Francis D K; Zuberbuhler, Douglas

2011-01-01

233

High-performance commercial building systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to building owners and health and performance benefits to occupants. At the same time this program can strengthen the growing energy efficiency industry in California by providing new jobs and growth opportunities for companies providing the technology, systems, software, design, and building services to the commercial sector. The broad objectives across all five program elements were: (1) To develop and deploy an integrated set of tools and techniques to support the design and operation of energy-efficient commercial buildings; (2) To develop open software specifications for a building data model that will support the interoperability of these tools throughout the building life-cycle; (3) To create new technology options (hardware and controls) for substantially reducing controllable lighting, envelope, and cooling loads in buildings; (4) To create and implement a new generation of diagnostic techniques so that commissioning and efficient building operations can be accomplished reliably and cost effectively and provide sustained energy savings; (5) To enhance the health, comfort and performance of building occupants. (6) To provide the information technology infrastructure for owners to minimize their energy costs and manage their energy information in a manner that creates added value for their buildings as the commercial sector transitions to an era of deregulated utility markets, distributed generation, and changing business practices. Our ultimate goal is for our R&D effort to have measurable market impact. This requires that the research tasks be carried out with a variety of connections to key market actors or trends so that they are recognized as relevant and useful and can be adopted by expected users. While some of this activity is directly integrated into our research tasks, the handoff from ''market-connected R&D'' to ''field deployment'' is still an art as well as a science and in many areas requires resources and a timeframe well beyond the scope of this PIER research program. The TAGs, PAC

Selkowitz, Stephen

2003-10-01

234

HVAC control system for building automation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the project is to design and construction of the HVAC control system for building automation. The HVAC control system can accomplish the function which are the optimum operation condition and operation time, and the operation pattern analysis. Also, this control system can effectively manage energy saving, building environment control, facilities safety monitoring etc. The HVAC control system consisted of the central control and monitoring system (CCMS) and the direct digital controller (DDC). 1) CCMS: -Main Compute -Graphic Board -Printer -Console Desk -Intercom. 2) DDC : -IMC-M (System Control Unit Main Module) -IMC-1,2,3,4(System Control Unit Module). Following this report will be used important data for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the HVAC control system. 12 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

Park, J. S.; Song, I. T.; Cho, S. W.; Cho, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

1999-11-01

235

Site status monitoring report for Underground Storage Tank 0134-U at Building 9204-2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building 9204-2 is located within the central portion of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; it was previously the location of a gasoline underground storage tank used to fuel an emergency generator at the building. The tank was first suspected of leaking in 1988 and was excavated that year. Petroleum contamination of groundwater above applicable Tennessee Dept. of Environment and Conservation closure action levels was identified. This document presents potentiometric, grounwater quality, and vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring. It is divided into introductory information, water level measurement and sampling of monitoring wells, and vapor monitoring in subsurface utilities at the site.

NONE

1995-09-01

236

On Building Secure Communication Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis presents the Guided System Development (GSD) framework, which aims at supporting the development of secure communication systems. A communication system is specified in a language similar to the Alice and Bob notation, a simple and intuitive language used to describe the global perspective of the communications between different principals. The notation used in the GSD framework extends that notation with constructs that allow the security requirements of the messages to be described. From that specification, the developer is guided through a semi-automatic translation that enables the verification and implementation of the system. The translation is semi-automatic because the developer has the option of choosing which implementation to use in order to achieve the specified security requirements. The implementation options are given by plugins defined in the framework. The framework’s flexibility allows for the addition of constructs that model new security properties as well as new plugins that implement the security properties. In order to provide higher security assurances, the system specification can be verified by formal methods tools such as the Beliefs and Knowledge (BAK) tool — developed specifically for the GSD framework —, LySatool and OFMC. The framework’s flexibility and the existence of the system model in different perspectives — an overall global perspective and an endpoint perspective —allow the connection to new formal methods tools. The modeled system is also translated into code that implements the communication skeleton of the system and can then be used by the system designer. New output languages can also easily be added to the GSD framework. Additionally, a prototype of the GSD framework was implemented and an ex-ample of using the GSD framework in a real world system is presented.

Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno

2013-01-01

237

Building expert systems: Cognitive emulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work explores the questions and issues surrounding the capacity of expert systems to emulate human thinking and problem-solving abilities, the extent to which this is possible, and the desirability and limitations involved in applying this new technology. Maintaining a balance between theoretical and practical issues, it reviews psychological research into human expert cognition and discusses the formal arguments for and against cognitive emulation in expert system design. Also analyzes in detail the factors likely to promote or constrain this strategy. Includes a critical survey of expert systems research which outlines the implications of the emulation approach to knowledge acquisition and representation.

Slatter, P.E.

1987-01-01

238

Pickering NGS-B used fuel dry storage building foundation. Report No. 92-294-K  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Pickering Nuclear Generating Station B, Stage 1 of a used fuel dry storage facility is being built. The results of a geotechnical investigation suggested that a very dense basil till encountered at a depth of 13-15 m was competent to carry the heavy column loads of the building. This report summarizes the findings of the field supervision and engineering evaluation of plate load test and inspection of the augured holes for caisson construction.

Radhakrishna, H.S.

1992-01-01

239

Phase-change wallboard and mechanical night ventilation in commercial buildings: Potential for HVAC system downsizing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As thermal storage media, phase-change materials (PCMs) such as paraffin, eutectic salts, etc. offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity, and their discharge is almost isothermal. By embedding PCMs in dypsum board, plaster, or other wall-covering materials, the building structure acquires latent storage properties. Structural elements containing PCMs can store large amounts of energy while maintaining the indoor temperature within a relatively narrow range. As heat storage takes place inside the building where the loads occur, rather than at a central exterior location, the internal loads are removed without the need for additional transport energy. Distributed latent storage can thus be used to reduce the peak power demand of a building, downsize the cooling system, and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. The authors used RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach, to numerically evaluate the thermal performance of PCM wallboard coupled with mechanical night ventilation in office buildings offers the opportunity for system downsizing in climates where the outside air temperature drops below 18 C at night. In climates where the outside air temperature remains above 19 C at night, the use of PCM wallboard should be coupled with discharge mechanisms other than mechanical night ventilation with outside air.

Stetiu, C.; Feustel, H.E.

1998-07-01

240

High Performance Storage System Scalability: Architecture, Implementation, and Experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) provides scalable hierarchical storage management (HSM), archive, and file system services. Its design, implementation and current dominant use are focused on HSM and archive services. It is also a general-purpos...

R. W. Watson

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Developments in building-management systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rise and complexity of modern buildings requires efficient and economic supervision and control. The chief role of the new Building Management system (BMS) is to provide this. This article traces the evolution of BMS over a 25 year period. Prior to highlighting developed computer technology, it examines in detail the earlier Satchwell Autoscan System. After this the developments in minicomputer-based systems with resultant energy conservation are set out to be followed by micro-processing and the distributed intelligence systems dependent on these. Applications and cost savings for the new BMS are exemplified in the London store of Harrods. Bureau systems-maintenance is used for smaller buildings. Costs and savings with the latest BMS (Building Automation systems (BAS)) developments are detailed. The communication requirements for BMS, its implementation and the use of multiple sub-Local Area Networks (LANs) are discussed. Further communication requirements of BMS include developments at the user interface. Finally, the practical problems of managing a modern BMS are followed by a look at possible future trends. (UK).

Clapp, M.D. (Satchwell Control Systems Ltd. (GB))

1989-01-01

242

Spent fuel consolidation in the 105KW Building fuel storage basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study is one element of a larger engineering study effort by WHC to examine the feasibility of irradiated fuel and sludge consolidation in the KW Basin in response to TPA Milestone (target date) M-34-00-T03. The study concludes that up to 11,500 fuel storage canisters could be accommodated in the KW Basin with modifications. These modifications would include provisions for multi-tiered canister storage involving the fabrication and installation of new storage racks and installation of additional decay heat removal systems for control of basin water temperature. The ability of existing systems to control radionuclide concentrations in the basin water is examined. The study discusses requirements for spent nuclear fuel inventory given the proposed multi-tiered storage arrangement, the impact of the consolidated mass on the KW Basin structure, and criticality issues associated with multi-tiered storage

1994-01-01

243

Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

1985-01-01

244

The ALS Storage Ring RF System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ALS Storage Ring RF System is characterized by the use of the following features: (1) High power loading of two single cell cavities. (2) The use of a tubular ceramic input window employing aperture coupling. (3) The use of waveguide filters and matchers designed for HOM absorption. (4) A comprehensive HOM monitoring system. (5) The use of waveguide water-wedge loads for the magic tee and circulator loads. The results of cavity measurements and high power tests are reported together with the performance of the system during the commissioning and operation phases of the ALS project. Plans for future window development are discussed.

Taylor, B.; Lo, C.C.; Baptiste, K.; Guigli, J.; Julian, J.

1993-05-01

245

The ALS Storage Ring RF System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALS Storage Ring RF System is characterized by the use of the following features: (1) High power loading of two single cell cavities. (2) The use of a tubular ceramic input window employing aperture coupling. (3) The use of waveguide filters and matchers designed for HOM absorption. (4) A comprehensive HOM monitoring system. (5) The use of waveguide water-wedge loads for the magic tee and circulator loads. The results of cavity measurements and high power tests are reported together with the performance of the system during the commissioning and operation phases of the ALS project. Plans for future window development are discussed

1993-01-01

246

Development of a remote building monitoring system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors describe the design, development and initial operation of a prototype system which permits remote monitoring of multiple heterogeneous commercial buildings across the Internet from a single control center. Their system is distinguished by its ability to interface to multiple heterogeneous legacy building Energy Management Control Systems (EMCSs), its use of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) standard communication protocols, development of a standardized naming system for monitoring points, the use of a relational DBMS to store time series data, automatic unit conversion, and a scripted time series visualization system. The authors discuss design decisions related to the selection of CORBA and a relational DBMS implementation. They also discuss related standards efforts such as BACnet and the International Alliance for Interoperability. They conclude with discussions of the HVAC system data and future work.

Olken, F.; Jacobsen, H.A.; McParland, C.; Piette, M.A.; Anderson, M.F.

1998-07-01

247

Monitoring Building Systems for Schedule Compliance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) initiated a Core Business Hours program, it became a challenge to ensure that the hundreds of systems campus wide were operating within their programmed schedules. Therefore, a collaborative exchange between PNNL operations and PNNL researchers developing the Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance (DSOM) software package was initiated to create a tool to solve this problem. This new DSOM tool verifies systems are operating within scheduled operation times by polling Building Automation and Control Network (BACnet) identifiers of systems’ on/off or command statuses. The tool records the time spent in operation state (ON) and totalizes each system over a rolling 7-day period, highlighting systems that are running over the scheduled hours. This snapshot view allows building management to look quickly at the entire campus to ensure that systems are not operating beyond their scheduled hours.

Jensen, Andrew M.; Belew, Shan T.

2013-02-19

248

Failure Analysis of Storage Data Magnetic Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows the conclusions about the corrosion mechanics in storage data magnetic systems (hard disk). It was done from the inspection of 198 units that were in service in nine different climatic regions characteristic for Mexico. The results allow to define trends about the failure forms and the factors that affect them. In turn, this study has analyzed the causes that led to mechanical failure and those due to deterioration by atmospheric corrosion. On the basis of the results obtained from the field sampling, demonstrates that the hard disk failure is fundamentally by mechanical effects. The deterioration by environmental effects were found in read-write heads, integrated circuits, printed circuit boards and in some of the electronic components of the controller card of the device, but not in magnetic storage surfaces. There fore, you can discard corrosion on the surface of the disk as the main kind of failure due to environmental deterioration. To avoid any inconvenience in the magnetic data storage system it is necessary to ensure sealing of the system.

Ortiz–Prado A.; Schouwenaars–Franssens R.; Jacobo–Armendáriz V.H.; Sánchez–Pérez F.

2010-01-01

249

Network Coding for Distributed Storage Systems  

CERN Document Server

Distributed storage systems provide reliable access to data through redundancy spread over individually unreliable nodes. Application scenarios include data centers, peer-to-peer storage systems, and storage in wireless networks. Storing data using an erasure code, in fragments spread across nodes, requires less redundancy than simple replication for the same level of reliability. However, since fragments must be periodically replaced as nodes fail, a key question is how to generate encoded fragments in a distributed way while transferring as little data as possible across the network. For an erasure coded system, a common practice to repair from a node failure is for a new node to download subsets of data stored at a number of surviving nodes, reconstruct a lost coded block using the downloaded data, and store it at the new node. We show that this procedure is sub-optimal. We introduce the notion of regenerating codes, which allow a new node to download \\emph{functions} of the stored data from the surviving ...

Dimakis, Alexandros G; Wu, Yunnan; Wainwright, Martin J; Ramchandran, Kannan

2008-01-01

250

Spent Nuclear Fuel [SNF] Project Canister Storage Building [CSB] Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] Volume 1 [Section 1-3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project to address safety and environmental concerns associated with deteriorating SNF presently stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins, which are located in the 100 K Area near the Columbia River. Recommendations for a series of projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to manage the safe removal and storage of K Basins fuel were made in WHC-EP-0830, Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Recommended Path Forward, and its subsequent update, WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel. The integrated process strategy recommendations include the following steps: (1) Fuel preparation activities at the K Basins, including removing the fuel elements from their K Basins canisters; separating fuel particulate from fuel elements and fuel fragments greater than 0.25 in. in any dimension; removing excess sludge from the fuel fragments by means of flushing, as necessary; and packaging the fuel into multi-canister overpacks (MCOs); (2) Transportation of MCOs loaded with SNF from K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF); (3) Removal of free water by draining and vacuum drying at the CVDF in the 100 K Area; (4) Dry shipment of fuel from the CVDF to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), a new facility in the 200 East Area; and (5) Interim storage of the MCOs in the CSB until a suitable long-term repository is established. In addition, the CSB can also store Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies in a modified MCO container called the Shippingport spent fuel canister. The Interim Storage Area has been established adjacent to the CSB for storage of other non-defense SNF in above-ground dry cask storage containers.

2002-01-01

251

Construction system for building with hypocaustic heating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a structural system for a building particularly adapted for use as a dwelling which may enable extensive use of biological construction materials. In this system, a framework structure operating as the basic support system for the building has mounted thereon hollow brick plates attached to the frame-work structure by tie-rods in an articulated and resilient manner. The hollow brick plate serves as the inner and outer facings for the open spaces of the open spaces of the framework and operate to define internal air ducts through which heating air may be circulated, thereby forming a hypocaustic heating system for the building.

Tetkov, E.; Pohlert-Tetkov, R.

1987-05-26

252

Energy storage in electric power systems, what prospects?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The massive development of intermittent renewable energy sources is a disturbing factor for the stability of power grids. The time response of classical power balance stabilization systems, like hydraulic storage, compressed air storage and thermal storage systems, may be too slow in some situations. In this case fast response storage systems, like electrochemical systems, flywheels, super-capacitors or electromagnetic storage systems, can be the solution but their profitability depends on many technical and economical parameters. Tests of these systems with experimental facilities and demonstration projects are in progress in order to evaluate their technical and economical performances in real conditions of use. (J.S.)

2011-01-01

253

Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. {yields} It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. {yields} The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. {yields} The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO{sub 2} neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

Huang, Y., E-mail: y.huang@ulster.ac.u [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Wang, Y.D. [The Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Rezvani, S.; McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Anderson, M.; Hewitt, N.J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

2011-06-15

254

Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. ? It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. ? The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. ? The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO2 neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

2011-01-01

255

Harvesting system for harvested crop e.g. bamboo, has storage position determination device sends storage position data to navigation system that determines storage route from storage position data, where route leads to storage place  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The system has a collecting machine i.e. wood forwarder (11), for collecting stored harvested crop. A storage position determination device (12) attached at a harvesting machine i.e. wood harvester (10), determines a position and produced appropriate storage position data. A navigation system (14) is connected with a data transmission system (13), where the determination device sends the storage position data through the transmission system to the navigation system. The navigation system determines a storage route from storage position data, where the route leads to a storage place. The storage position determination device, the navigation system and the collecting positioning equipment utilize a satellite navigation system such as NAVSTAR Global positioning system (GPS), Galileo, and Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS).

BENDER RAINER; SCHMIDT-ELLINGER HARDY

256

A model and framework for reliable build systems  

CERN Multimedia

Reliable and fast builds are essential for rapid turnaround during development and testing. Popular existing build systems rely on correct manual specification of build dependencies, which can lead to invalid build outputs and nondeterminism. We outline the challenges of developing reliable build systems and explore the design space for their implementation, with a focus on non-distributed, incremental, parallel build systems. We define a general model for resources accessed by build tasks and show its correspondence to the implementation technique of minimum information libraries, APIs that return no information that the application doesn't plan to use. We also summarize preliminary experimental results from several prototype build managers.

Coetzee, Derrick; Necula, George

2012-01-01

257

Applying IEEE storage system management standards at the National Storage Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since its inception in 1990, the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group has identified storage-system management as an area in need of further development The pressing need for standards in storage-system management arises from the requirement to exchange management information and to provide control in a consistent predictable manner between the components of a storage system. An appropriate set of management standards will allow multiple vendors to supply storage management subsystems or applications that are integral to or compatible with new storage systems conforming to future IEEE standards. An early, practical application of IEEE storage-system-management work is being pursued at the National Storage Laboratory (NSL), a recently-formed industrial collaboration at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NSL`s purpose is to develop advanced hardware and software technologies for high-performance, distributed storage systems. Since storage system management is of critical concern, it is being explored in depth at the NSL. Work was initiated to define basic management requirements and develop generalized graphical-user-interface tools using remote-procedure-call mechanisms to implement the NSL`s conceptual management framework. Several constraints were imposed on the development of early versions of this work to maintain compatibility with the NSL`s underlying UniTree-based software architecture and to provide timely prototypes and proof of concept. The project leverages the on-going standards work of the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group (SSSWG) and also explores some of the relationships and interactions between IEEE storage-system management and more well known management methods for distributed systems and networks. It will have long term benefits by providing ``real-life`` storage-system-management requirements to the IEEE SSSWG for validation of evolving standards.

Louis, S.; Hyer, S.W.

1992-12-04

258

Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.

2004-06-01

259

Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems  

CERN Document Server

Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

Glaize, Christian

2013-01-01

260

Removal Action Work Plan for 105-DR and 105-F Building Interim Safe Storage Projects and Ancillary Buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document contains the removal action work plan for the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor buildings and ancillary facilities. These buildings and facilities are located in the 100-D/DR and 100-F Areas of the Hanford Site, which is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), in Benton County, Washington. The 100 Areas (including the 100-D/DR and 100-F Areas) of the Hanford Site were placed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List under the ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980'' (CERCLA). The DOE has determined that hazardous substances in the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor buildings and four ancillary facilities present a potential threat to human health or the environment. The DOE has also determined that a non-time critical removal action is warranted at these facilities. Alternatives for conducting a non-time critical removal action were evaluated in the ''Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the 105-DR and 105-F Reactor Facilities and Ancillary Facilities'' (DOE-RL 1998a). The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) resulted in the recommendation to decontaminate and demolish the contaminated reactor buildings (except for the reactor blocks) and the ancillary facilities and to construct a safe storage enclosure (SSE) over the reactor blocks. The recommendation was approved in an action memorandum (Ecology et al. 1998) signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and DOE. The DOE is the agency responsible for implementing the removal actions in the 105-D/DR and 105-F Areas. Ecology is the lead regulatory agency for facilities in the 100-D/DR Area, and EPA is the lead regulatory agency for facilities in the 100-F Area. The term ''lead regulator agency'' hereinafter, refers to these authorities. This removal action work plan supports implementation of the non-time critical removal action

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with conventional'' HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

1992-01-01

262

Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with ``conventional`` HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

1992-01-01

263

Investigation of heat of fusion storage for solar low energy buildings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes a theoretical investigation by means of TRNSYS simulations of a partly heat loss free phase change material (PCM) storage solution for solar heating systems. The partly heat loss free storage is obtained by controlled used of super cooling in a mixture of sodium acetate and xanthane rubber. The storage can cool down to surrounding temperature preserving the latent heat in form of the heat of fusion energy. The basis for the calculations is a super low energy house with a space heating demand of 2010 kWh/year and a domestic hot water demand of 2530 kWh/year. For storage volumes in the range of 500 – 3000 litres the heat loss free state is seldom reached and the effect of super cooling is limited. For larger volumes the heat loss free state may be reached. The benefit of using a PCM storage compared to a traditional water storage is limited with respect to energy savings for storage sizes up to 1 m3, but if the same amount of net utilised solar energy should be reached it would require a water storage that is 2 – 3 times larger.

Schultz, JØrgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

2005-01-01

264

Nuclear power reactors and hydrogen storage systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among conclusions and results come by, a nuclear-electric-hydrogen integrated power system was suggested as a way to prevent the energy crisis. It was shown that the hydrogen power system using nuclear power as a leading energy resource would hold an advantage in the current international situation as well as for the long-term future. Results reported provide designers of integrated nuclear-electric-hydrogen systems with computation models and routines which will allow them to explore the optimal solution in coupling power reactors to hydrogen producing systems, taking into account the specific characters of hydrogen storage systems. The models were meant for average computers of a type easily available in developing countries. (author).

1980-01-01

265

Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid. Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be optimized for dierent kind of grid services. As an energy storage solution with timing for few seconds to hours, rated at MW and MWh, battery energy storage systems are suitable and ecient solutions. Grid connection of the storage system can be done at dierent voltage levels, depending on the location and application scenario. For high power and energy ratings, increase in the battery and converter voltage ratings can enhance the overall system eciency. This work is divided in two parts, "Control of DC-AC Grid Converters" and "Medium Voltage Grid Converters for Energy Storage". The rst part starts with a brief review of control strategies applied to grid connected DC-AC converters. A control implementation was realized for a 100 kW active rectier to be used in a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. In the second part, dierent solutions for power converters to interface energy storage units to medium voltage grid are given. A new modular multilevel converter concept is introduced, where the energy storage units are integrated in each converter cell. The control of DC-AC grid converters has been a research subject for more than a century, and there is still place for improvements. A review of the main control principles is given in the rst part. The stationary frame control was implemented for a low-voltage 100 kW bidirectional grid converter, to be used in a high voltage battery energy storage test bench. The control structure proved to be stable without damping. The converter was tested in the test bench and the experimental results are presented. Multilevel converters are replacing the classical two-level converters more and more, on a large variety of applications. For medium voltage applications, multilevel converters are a necessity. The second part presents a review of hard-switched and soft-switched multilevel converter topologies for medium voltage. Four converter topologies were chosen as potential solutions for direct connection of battery energy storage systems to the grid. An evaluation is done, in terms of semiconductors requirements and losses, output voltage quality and common mode voltage. The main advantage of batteries direct connection to the grid is the high efficiency potential. However, this solution is suitable only for battery technologies with low voltage variation. It is also necessary to build a battery system with high amount of serial connected cells, and the knowledge in this eld is still limited nowadays. Therefore, twostage converters solutions were introduced to overcome these disadvantages. Modular multilevel converters can make use of battery voltage technologies where the maturity and reliability is well proven in industry. Cascaded H-bridge topology with bidirectional boost converters is proposed to interface low voltage batteries to the medium voltage grid. A control structure based on single phase control is proposed. It balances the capacitor voltages and the state of charge of batteries from dierent cells. A semiconductor loss analysis is performed and it shows the loss distribution in the converter cell and the eciency over a wide battery voltage variation. A new modular multilevel converter structure with integrated energy storage is introduced. This converter structure is suitable to interface low and medium voltage energy storage units to medium and high voltage grids. It can also interconnect a DC and AC grid with bidirectional power ow, were both can be backed-up for the distributed energy storage units installed in each converter cell. The converter operation and control methods are pres

Trintis, Ionut

2011-01-01

266

Multifunctional stratification storage for solar space heating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feasibility tests with a model storage were performed in order to modify the successful Luebeck dual-storage heat pump assisted solar space heating system by using a single stratification storage and design criteria were inferred for the realisation of the system in a one-family home. (orig.)

Weik, H.; Plagge, J. [Ing. Buero fuer Regenerative Energienutzung, Luebeck (Germany)

1996-12-31

267

Energy study of heat pumps and energy storage at Cisco Systems International; Energiestudie warmtepompen en energieopslag Cisco Systems International  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cisco Systems International considers the use of energy storage in combination with heat pumps for the new office building in Amsterdam South-East, Netherlands. This office building has a floor space of 35,000 m{sup 2}. In a later phase this can be enlarged to 45,000 m{sup 2} (phase 1b) or 90,000 m{sup 2} (phase 2). This study is based on phase 1b. The mounting heat capacity is 2,760 kW and the cooling capacity is 7,045 kW. The annually cooling demand is estimated to be 30,400 MWh/a. The computer cooling forms a greater part of the cooling request (28,300 MWh/a). This study is a pilot study to the applicability of subsurface energy storage where heat pumps in the new office building are involved. However, nearby the Cisco location IKEA (furniture warehouse) has also planned an energy storage system. Therefore, the interaction between the two storage systems was examined. Cost effectiveness was analysed by comparison of the storage system with an energy system using conventional cooling machines and gas boilers. 5 refs.

NONE

2000-05-23

268

Design of Storage Systems Using Multiple Storage Technologies in Renewable Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy systems that rely on intermittent renewable sources typically use storage devices to improve their reliability. Large scale systems can be expected to cycle the storage capacity on cycles ranging from a day to a year. It can be cost effective to use several storage technologies as a system. A very efficient technology can be used for the smaller daily cycles even if it has a high capital cost. Conversely, a technology having a low efficiency but a low capital cost can be used for the larger longer period cycles. This paper presents a method for determining the optimal capacities for a set of storage technologies. It is analogous to techniques used in electric generation capacity planning that use a load duration curve along with the capital and operating costs of various generations technologies. Here we derive a function that describes throughput as a function of capacity and use it along with the capital and operating costs (including efficiencies) of the storage technologies to derive the optimal capacities.

Lamont, A.

2001-01-17

269

ADVANCEMENT FOR INVOLUNTARY RECONFIGURATION FOR AMPLE RESPONSIBLE STORAGE SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays we are more dependent on Internet services, which gives a significant functionality and store serious state. These services are often executed on a group of machines inhabit at several geographic locations such as a set of company data centers. Byzantine-fault-tolerant duplication gets better the accessibility and reliability of Internet services that build up significant state and defend it in spite of attacks or software errors. However, an inactive set of replica, or have restrictions in how they hold reconfigurations is assumed by the accessible Byzantine-fault-tolerant storage systems. During the system lifetime in long-lived and large-scale systems this can be problematic where system membership is likely to change. A large-scale Byzantine-fault-tolerant system is a complete solution for dynamically changing system membership which is presented here. A service that tracks system membership and periodically notifies other system nodes of membership changes is presented in this paper. To avoid human configuration errors the membership service runs mostly automatically and provides applications with a sequence of consistent views of the system membership is itself by Byzantine fault- tolerant and reconfigurable. By using it in a new dispersed hash table called dBQS that provides atomic semantics even across changes in imitation sets as the utility of this membership service is demonstrated. To handle changes in the replica set dBQS is interesting in its own right because its storage algorithms extend existing Byzantine quorum protocols, and because it differs from previous distributed hash tables (DHTs) by providing Byzantine fault tolerance and offering strong semantics.

Velikanti Kiran Kumar; A. Satchidanandam

2013-01-01

270

Integration of trigeneration system and thermal storage under demand uncertainties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a commercial building, a large portion of electricity is usually consumed in air conditioning to control indoor-air temperature and humidity. Energy savings or efficient production in air conditioning system is, therefore, crucial. In recent years, trigeneration systems, which provide electricity, heating and cooling, and thermal storage systems, which temporarily store cooling energy to smooth its production pattern, are attracting more attentions. These systems with different operating principles are usually designed based on nominal or peak loadings. With altering seasonal or day/night cooling demands, the performance and overall economics of the design may deprive. This work focuses on the design of a flexible and economical thermal energy production system by integrating trigeneration and cold storage techniques. The capacity determination of the main equipment units, their interconnections and operating conditions during different demand periods and electricity costs are discussed. A case study is used to demonstrate the system's merits to improve the air conditioning efficiency with overall investment and operating cost reductions under demand uncertainties. As demonstrated, the economic attractiveness of a thermal energy production system is sensitive to the electricity tariff used. Although a high degree of flexibility in meeting demand changes is usually introduced with a trigeneration system, its expensive investment cost makes it less economically attractive under the discounted electricity tariff. A hybrid system which produces thermal energy via both electricity and town gas is introduced. This hybrid allows operation mode switching according to the energy cost variations and ensures the best economic return. The sole dependence on network electricity can also be avoided and the process's operability can be enhanced. (author)

Lai, Sau Man; Hui, Chi Wai [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong (China)

2010-09-15

271

Advances in information storage systems, v.7  

CERN Multimedia

Advances in Information Storage Systems (AISS) series was initiated by ASME Press. New York with a first issue published in April 1991. ASME Press published a total of five volumes in 1991-93. In 1994, World Scientific Publishing Co. Private Limited took over the highly respected series and published volume number 6 in 1995. This volume number 7 is the second volume published by the World Scientific Publishing. The aim of the series remains to report the latest results from around the world in all the electromechanical, materials science, design, and manufacturing problems of information stora

Bhushan, Bharat

1996-01-01

272

An energy storage and regeneration system  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet the higher level of energy demand.

SchrØder, Niels Roskilde University,

273

Thermal energy storage systems and applications  

CERN Document Server

The ability of thermal energy storage (TES) systems to facilitate energy savings, renewable energy use and reduce environmental impact has led to a recent resurgence in their interest. The second edition of this book offers up-to-date coverage of recent energy efficient and sustainable technological methods and solutions, covering analysis, design and performance improvement as well as life-cycle costing and assessment. As well as having significantly revised the book for use as a graduate text, the authors address real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an un

Dincer, Ibrahim

2010-01-01

274

Interim report on hydrogen storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen can be stored in the form of a metal hydride. The formation of the hydride is highly exothermic. Hence the rate at which hydrogen can be added to or removed from the storage system is limited by the rate of heat transfer. Heat transfer is facilitated by displaying the hydride on a metal support that conducts heat. The task was to find a binder to make hydride stay put on a metal support through at least 250/sup 0/ cycles of hydriding-dehydriding and to measure the rate of hydrogen uptake. 1 tab.

Retallick, W.B.

1986-02-18

275

Interim report on hydrogen storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen can be stored in the form of a metal hydride. The formation of the hydride is highly exothermic. Hence the rate at which hydrogen can be added to or removed from the storage system is limited by the rate of heat transfer. Heat transfer is facilitated by displaying the hydride on a metal support that conducts heat. The task was to find a binder to make hydride stay put on a metal support through at least 2500 cycles of hydriding-dehydriding and to measure the rate of hydrogen uptake. 1 tab.

1986-01-01

276

Recent air conditioning systems of shopping buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the air conditioning system in the shopping building, both the distributed air conditioning and DDC control methods have been increasingly adopted. The distributed air conditioning method, with a microcomputer mounted thereon, has attained the level sufficiently corresponding to the large scale building. While, the DDC control method, like the distributed air conditioning method, is considerably effective on the system having many surveillance control items. To engineer the energy conservation of air conditioning system in the shopping building, the utilization of atmospheric air as natural energy and control method for the ambient room condition reexamined must be studied. For the former, the atmospheric air intake quantity control to dilute CO and CO/sub 2/, and atmospheric air purge system prior to the air cooling are useful. While for the latter, the control method aiming at the comfort range, so called zero energy band control method is recommendable. Further for the temperature and humidity control, the DDC control by local controller is useful. 6 figures, 1 table.

Nagashima, Hironori

1988-11-05

277

The proton storage ring control system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When designing a control system for a new facility, one is faced with a bewildering array of electronic devices to use in the solution. There is, of course, no single correct solution because the constraints are Laboratory and project dependent. The major constraint applicable to the hardware choice for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) control system was the limited manpower available for the design, development, and documentation of custom hardware. As a result, wherever possible, commercial components have been used that are based on recognized standards. The array of choice on the hardware side contrasts markedly with the absence of suitable commercial software products, and it is unfortunate that here there seems to be little prospect of change. This analysis of the overall system leads to a suitable hardware choice and a description of the software's structure.

Clout, P.; Bair, S.; Conley, A.; Ford, R.; Fuka, M.; Greene, N.

1983-08-01

278

The proton storage ring control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When designing a control system for a new facility, one is faced with a bewildering array of electronic devices to use in the solution. There is, of course, no single correct solution because the constraints are Laboratory and project dependent. The major constraint applicable to the hardware choice for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) control system was the limited manpower available for the design, development, and documentation of custom hardware. As a result, wherever possible, commercial components have been used that are based on recognized standards. The array of choice on the hardware side contrasts markedly with the absence of suitable commercial software products, and it is unfortunate that here there seems to be little prospect of change. This analysis of the overall system leads to a suitable hardware choice and a description of the software's structure

1983-01-01

279

Generation of building energy system models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a methodology whereby a computer program module that models a building's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system is automatically generated from a network description of the physical system. This generation is done in a pre-execution step that provides complete generality within a class of network definitions allowed by a set of equipment modules. Graph theory is employed to select a suitable set of equations and develop an algorithm for their solution. This is followed by generation of high-level language instructions directly acceptable to a compiler. The compiled module is downloaded to a microcomputer on which it becomes part of a tool for building energy analysis. Network concepts, program generation, and the microcomputer program are described in the paper.

Sowell, E.F.; Taghavi, K.; Levy, H.; Low, D.W.

1984-01-01

280

IGNATIUS - A Tool to Build Supervisory Systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

: In this work we address the design and implementation ofa tool to build Real-Time Supervisory Systems calledIGNATIUS. An architectural decomposition of all theSupervisory Systems in three service levels has beenproposed: Interface Service Level, Particular Service Leveland Basic Service Level. The ISL and PSL vary with eachparticular implementation, but the BSL is common for allof them. IGNATIUS encapsulates the BSL. Thisdecomposition reduces the development cycle, letting theuser to concentrate on high level design aspects. Thisapproach allows to build complex SCADA applicationsreducing development and maintenance cost.To obtain a copy of this report please fill in your name and address and return this page to:InfotecaDepartamento de Computación - FCENPabellón 1 - Planta Baja - Ciudad Universitaria(1428) Buenos Aires - ArgentinaTEL/FAX: (54)(1)783-0729e-mail: infoteca@dc.uba.arYou can also get a copy by anonymous ftp to: zorzal.dc.uba.ar/pub/tror visiting our ...

Silvia V. Benítez; Baja Ciudad Universitaria; Juan J. Seoane; Gabriel A. Wainer; Roberto J. G. Bevilacqua

 
 
 
 
281

Floor radiant system with heat storage by a solid-solid phase transition material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat storage by means of solid-solid phase transition has been used in a floor radiant system. Tests have been performed in order to establish a comparison between a system storing energy as latent heat with another one using sensible heat. The first system is much more efficient in temperature regulation, allowing an adequate utilization of the off-peak electricity for the charge period. Results obtained in this show the promising perspectives of the solid-solid phase transition for thermal storage in building materials. (orig.)

Barrio, M. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica e Ingenieria Nuclear); Font, J. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica e Ingenieria Nuclear); Lopez, D.O. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica e Ingenieria Nuclear); Muntasell, J. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica e Ingenieria Nuclear); Tamarit, J.Ll. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica e Ingenieria Nuclear)

1992-07-01

282

As-Built Verification Plan Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building MCO Handling Machine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This as-built verification plan outlines the methodology and responsibilities that will be implemented during the as-built field verification activity for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) MCO HANDLING MACHINE (MHM). This as-built verification plan covers THE ELECTRICAL PORTION of the CONSTRUCTION PERFORMED BY POWER CITY UNDER CONTRACT TO MOWAT. The as-built verifications will be performed in accordance Administrative Procedure AP 6-012-00, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project As-Built Verification Plan Development Process, revision I. The results of the verification walkdown will be documented in a verification walkdown completion package, approved by the Design Authority (DA), and maintained in the CSB project files.

SWENSON, C.E.

2000-10-19

283

Design and building of a new experimental setup for testing hydrogen storage materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For hydrogen to become the future energy carrier a suitable way of storing hydrogen is needed, especially if hydrogen is to be used in mobile applications such as cars. To test potential hydrogen storage materials with respect to capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics the Materials Research Department has a high pressure balance. However, the drawback of this equipment is, that in order to load samples, exposure towards air is inevitable. This has prompted the design and building of a new experimental setup with a detachable reactor allowing samples to be loaded under protective atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to serve as documentation of the new setup. (au)

Andreasen, Anders

2005-09-01

284

Criticality safety analysis of the fissile material storage arrays in the east end of building 6592  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A criticality safety analysis of nine concrete storage holes that have been formed in the floor of the Materials Balance Area (MBA) in Building 6592 is reported. Unit cell dimensions and unit mass limits are defined for the most likely plutonium and uranium fuel types that will be stored there. Two tables of mass limits are derived. The first table is to be used for short units that can be stacked with fixed separation in the same hole. The second table will permit units greater than one foot in length providing that the appropriate linear mass density limit (in kg/ft) is not exceeded

1981-01-01

285

Design and building of a new experimental setup for testing hydrogen storage materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For hydrogen to become the future energy carrier a suitable way of storing hydrogen is needed, especially if hydrogen is to be used in mobile applications such as cars. To test potential hydrogen storage materials with respect to capacity, kinetics andthermodynamics the Materials Research Department has a high pressure balance. However, the drawback of this equipment is, that in order to load samples, exposure towards air is inevitable. This has prompted the design and building of a new experimentalsetup with a detachable reactor allowing samples to be loaded under protective atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to serve as documentation of the new setup.

Andreasen, A.

2005-01-01

286

Site status monitoring report for Underground Storage Tank 2331-U at Building 9201-1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building 9201-1 Site is located within the south central portion of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; it was previously the location of a 560-gallon gasoline underground storage tank, which was excavated and removed after being suspected of leaking in 1988. This document presents potentiometric, groundwater quality and vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring which was conducted as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by the Tennessee Dept. of Environment and Conservation. The document is divided into: introductory information, results of measurement and sampling of monitoring wells, and vapor monitoring data from subsurface utilities at the site.

NONE

1995-10-01

287

Thermal performance of buildings and building envelope systems: an annotated bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A bibliography of 181 published papers describing models, measurement techniques, apparatus, and data for the thermal performance of whole buildings and building envelope systems has been collected. Summary descriptions of the content of each citation are provided.

Carroll, W.L.

1980-01-01

288

Generating system adequacy evaluation considering wind and storage operating strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The power fluctuations that occur which the integration of large scale wind power into an electric grid can be reduced by storing energy and using it during periods of low wind. New battery technologies, such as the Vanadium Redox Battery (VRB) are being tested for large scale on-grid applications of wind energy. It is important to determine the potential impacts of energy storage on the reliability of relatively large systems that include significant amounts of wind power capacity. The benefits of energy storage depend on the operating strategies associated with wind and storage in a power system. In this study, the following 4 different operating strategies were compared: (1) the system operator maintains the storage facility and uses the stored energy to avoid load curtailment, (2) the stored energy is used to supply the system load when the sum of the wind power and the conventional power is not enough to supply the system load, (3) the wind farm owner operates the wind and storage combination to meet part of the system load, and (4) the wind farm owner operates the wind and storage combination and the stored energy is used support the conventional units to avoid load curtailment while meeting the stability criterion. This study considered a minimum energy storage capacity of 20 per cent of its maximum capacity. The four operating strategies for the wind farm and energy storage were compared in terms of the effects of wind penetration level, energy storage operating constraints, energy storage capacity, and wind energy dispatch restrictions on the reliability benefit from energy storage. The study showed that energy storage in strategies 1 and 2 can greatly improved the system reliability, whereas the energy storage in strategies 3 and 4 improved the system reliability only slightly. It was concluded that these results may provide useful information to wind farm and system operators planning to operate storage facilities in power systems with large wind penetration. 9 refs., 6 figs.

Hu, P.; Karki, R.; Billinton, R. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Power Systems Research Group

2008-07-01

289

Ultrasonic identity data storage and archival system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ultrasonic seal signature information is being used to determine if an underwater stored spent fuel container has been compromised and can be used to determine if a nuclear material container has been compromised. The Seal PAttern Reader (SPAR) is a microprocessor controlled instrument which interrogates an ultrasonic seal to obtain its identity. The SPAR can compare the present identity with a previous identity, which it obtains from a magnetic bubble cassette memory. A system has been developed which allows an IAEA inspector to transfer seal signature information obtained at a facility by the SPAR to an IAEA-based data storage and retrieval system, using the bubble cassette memory. Likewise, magnetic bubbles can be loaded at the IAEA with seal signature data needed at a facility for comparison purposes. The archived signatures can be retrieved from the data base for relevant statistical manipulation and for plotting. 5 refs.

McKenzie, J.M.; Self, B.G.; Walker, J.E.

1987-01-01

290

Ultrasonic identity data storage and archival system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ultrasonic seals are being used to determine if an underwater stored spent fuel container has been compromised and can be used to determine if a nuclear material container has been compromised. The Seal Pattern Reader (SPAR) is a microprocessor controlled instrument which interrogates an ultrasonic seal to obtain its identity. The SPAR can compare the present identity with a previous identity, which it obtains from a magnetic bubble cassette memory. A system has been developed which allows an IAEA inspector to transfer seal information obtained at a facility by the SPAR to an IAEA-based data storage and retrieval system, using the bubble cassette memory. Likewise, magnetic bubbles can be loaded at the IAEA with seal signature data needed at a facility for comparison purposes. The archived signatures can be retrieved from the data base for relevant statistical manipulation and for plotting.

Mc Kenzie, J.M.; Self, B.G.; Walker, J.E.

1987-07-01

291

Ultrasonic identity data storage and archival system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Ultrasonic seals are being used to determine if an underwater stored spent fuel container has been compromised and can be used to determine if a nuclear material container has been compromised. The Seal Pattern Reader (SPAR) is a microprocessor controlled instrument which interrogates an ultrasonic seal to obtain its identity. The SPAR can compare the present identity with a previous identity, which it obtains from a magnetic bubble cassette memory. A system has been developed which allows an IAEA inspector to transfer seal information obtained at a facility by the SPAR to an IAEA-based data storage and retrieval system, using the bubble cassette memory. Likewise, magnetic bubbles can be loaded at the IAEA with seal signature data needed at a facility for comparison purposes. The archived signatures can be retrieved from the data base for relevant statistical manipulation and for plotting

1987-01-01

292

Spent fuel storage system for LMFBR fuel experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fuel that had been irradiated in the Argonne National Laboratory Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) at Idaho Falls, Idaho, and examined at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory at Richland, Washington, was placed in long term retrievable storage utilizing a system designed at Hanford. The Spent Fuel Storage Cask system was designed for transport and storage of a large quantity of spent fuel at the Hanford 200 Area transuranic (TRU) asphalt storage pad. The entire system is designed for long term retrievable storage to allow future reprocessing of the fuel. The system was designed to meet the criticality, shielding, and thermal requirements for a maximum fuel load of four kilograms fissile. The Spent Fuel Storage Cask was built to transport and store the fuel from EBR-II on the TRU asphalt storage pad

1983-01-01

293

Value and cost analyses for solar thermal-storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Value and cost data for thermal energy storage are presented for solar thermal central receiver systems for which thermal energy storage appears to be attractive. Both solar thermal electric power and industrial process heat applications are evaluated. The value of storage is based on the cost for fossil fuel and solar thermal collector systems in 1990. The costing uses a standard lifetime methodology with the storage capacity as a parameter. Both value and costs are functions of storage capacity. However, the value function depends on the application. Value/cost analyses for first-generation storage concepts for five central receiver systems (molten salt, water/steam, organic fluid, air, and liquid metal) established the reference against which new systems were compared. Some promising second-generation energy storage concepts have been identified, and some more advanced concepts have also been evaluated.

Luft, W.; Copeland, R.J.

1983-04-01

294

Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

None

2011-12-05

295

Solar energy collector/storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

1983-05-24

296

The electricity system, energy storage and hydropower: an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper discusses the electricity system, energy storage and hydropower. Typically, electricity is consumed as it is needed and generated to match consumption. Interest and development work in energy storage are increasingly driven by its contributions in several areas of concern: reliability and the rise of renewables. A full range of energy storage technologies is needed and with its many advantages hydropower will continue to fill a need for large scale bulk storage

2006-01-01

297

Interaction of lighting, heating, and cooling systems in buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of interactions between building lighting, heating and cooling systems on the energy performance of the lighting system and cooling loads, is examined, based on detailed full-scale measurements and supporting computer simulations. A test facility was designed, constructed, and operated to emulate an office space with recessed fluorescent lighting. Special design features simulated adjacent building areas, providing realistic thermal boundary conditions for the test room. The test facility was extensively instrumented to monitor lighting power, cooling load, surface and air temperatures, heat flows and light levels. 398 measured parameters were averaged and recorded every two minutes during testing. Both transient and steady-state tests were performed for various room air temperatures, airflow rates and return air configurations. The transient tests consisted of monitoring room-cooling load response to a step change in lighting power. Peak cooling loads are moderated through heat storage in room components. The results showed that the lighting system can be constrained to operate at its most efficient level, if the fluorescent lamps are cooled sufficiently.

Treado, S.J.

1987-01-01

298

Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

Undrus, A.

2012-12-01

299

Solar heat transfer and storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a heat transfer and storage system comprising: (a) a heat storage chamber having a phase change material contained therein; (b) water heater means for containing potable water, and including first conduit means through which the water flows, the first conduit means having a portion thereof extending through the phase change material in the chamber; (c) means for collecting heat energy, and including second conduit means through which a heat transfer liquid flows. The second conduit has a portion thereof extending through the phase change material in the chamber in adjacent parallel relation to the portion of the first conduit means; (d) fin means extending outwardly from the portion of the first and second conduit means to transfer heat between the conduit portions and the phase change material; and (e) connecting means simultaneously holding the portions of the first and second conduit means in adjacent heat conducting relationship to one another and holding the fin means interposed between the portions of the first and second conduit means in a heat conducting relationship therewith.

McCall, D.

1986-11-25

300

HTS energy storage techniques for use in distributed generation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Distributed generation is expected to play an important role in the future with growth in electric load, enhancing economical efficiency and protection of the environment. Energy storage technology is one of the effective methods to ensure the quality of the electrical power supply and the effective operation of the distributed generation systems. In this paper, several main energy storage technologies are compared with regard to their performances. Especially the use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) energy storages, i.e. in forms of superconducting magnetic energy storage and flywheel energy storage, will be analyzed with regard to the device performances in distributed generation systems

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems  

CERN Multimedia

What is the limit of information storage capacity of discrete spin systems? To answer this question, we study classical error-correcting codes which can be physically realized as the energy ground space of gapped local Hamiltonians. For discrete spin systems on a D-dimensional lattice governed by local frustration-free Hamiltonians, the following bound is known to hold; $kd^{1/D}\\leq O(n)$ where k is the number of encodable logical bits, d is the code distance, and n is the total number of spins in the system. Yet, previously found codes were far below this bound and it remained open whether there exists an error-correcting code which saturates the bound or not. Here, we give a construction of local spin systems which saturate the bound asymptotically with $k \\sim O(L^{D-1})$ and $d \\sim O(L^{D-\\epsilon})$ for an arbitrary small $\\epsilon> 0$ where L is the linear length of the system. Our model borrows an idea from a fractal geometry arising in Sierpinski triangle.

Yoshida, Beni

2011-01-01

302

Energy storage systems program report for FY1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

Butler, P.C.

1997-05-01

303

Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1997-02-01

304

Geotechnical investigations of closing systems in a final storage mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the Asse saltmine of the GFS Research Centre for the Environment and Health GmbH, which is now being used as a research mine, two large underground experiments on closing systems are at present being carried out. In the first large experiment ('Dam building in rock salt'), the mechanical and hydraulic functioning of a dam construction as final storage of waste materials is being explored. In the second of these large experiments 'Thermal simulation of underground roadway storage - TSS', the mechanical and hydraulic reaction of a roadway made of fine salt with roadway convergence accelerated by heating of the stored substance is the object of the exploration programme. (orig./HS)[de] In dem Salzbergwerk Asse der GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, GmbH, welches heute als Forschungsbergwerk genutzt wird, werden z.Z. zwei untertaegige Grossversuche an Verschlusssystemen durchgefuehrt. In dem ersten Grossversuch - 'Dammbau im Salzgebirge' - wird die mechanische und hydraulische Funktion eines Dammbauwerks fuer ein Endlager fuer Abfallstoffe erkundet. Im zweiten dieser Grossversuche 'Thermische Simulation der Streckenlagerung - TTS', ist die mechanische und hydraulische Reaktion eines Streckenversatzes aus trockenem Salzgrus bei der Aufheizung des Versatzkoerpers beschleunigter Streckenkonvergenz Gegenstand des Erkundungsprogramms. (orig./HS)

1992-01-01

305

Vacuum system for SPring-8 storage ring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

8GeV synchrotron radiation facility (SPring-8: Super Photon ring 8GeV) is now under construction by the Science and Technology Agency (RIKEN-JAERI Joint Team) in Harima Science Garden City in Hyogo Prefecture, and is scheduled to begin operation in 1997. SPring-8 is a high brilliant synchrotron radiation source, so special emphasis is placed on the vacuum system components of the storage ring. IHI has carried out joint research with RIKEN on the vacuum components since 1987 to develop manufacturing techniques. In experimental tests of the prototype vacuum chamber, a pressure of 10[sup -9] Pa could be attained, much lower than the required valve 10[sup -7] Pa. (author).

1992-11-01

306

Pulsed rf systems for large storage rings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility is considered that by using a pulsed rf system a substantial reduction can be made in the rf power requirement for the next generation of large storage rings. For a ring with a sufficiently large circumference, the time between bunch passages, T/sub b/, can exceed the cavity filling time, T/sub f/. As the ratio T/sub b//T/sub f/ increases, it is clear that at some point the average power requirement can be reduced by pulsing the rf to the cavities. In this mode of operation, the rf power is turned on a filling time or so before the arrival of a bunch and is switched off again at the time of bunch passage. There is no rf energy in the accelerating structure, and hence no power dissipation, for most of the period between bunches

1979-03-14

307

Optimisation and simulation of building energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) technique is a useful tool for the optimisation of energy systems. However, the introduction of integers in linear models results in a severe drawback because the ranging process is no longer available. Therefore, it is not possible to study what happens to the solution if input data are changed. In this paper, we compare a MILP model of a building with a simulation model of an identical case. Both models describe a building with a number of possible retrofits. Using the MILP technique, the optimal retrofit strategy is calculated, after which certain input data are changed. The optimisation results in the lowest possible Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) of the building, and the paper describes how much the LCC will change if the property owner chooses other solutions. An increase in a particular data value may cause the LCC to increase or decrease. It may also be unchanged. Only a few data reduce the LCC when their values are increased. (author)

Gustafsson, S.-I. [Institute of Technology, Linkoeping (Sweden). IKP Energy Systems

2000-12-01

308

Key-value storage systems (and beyond) with Python  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web application developers often use RDBMS systems such as MySql or PostgreSql but there are many other types of databases out there. Key-value storage, schema/schema-less document storage, and column-oriented DBMS systems abound. These kind of database systems are becoming more popular when developing scalable web applications but many developers are unsure how to integrate them into their projects. This talk will focus on the key-value class of data storage systems, weigh the strengths and drawbacks of each and discuss typical use cases for key value storage.

2010-01-01

309

Class of service in the high performance storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quality of service capabilities are commonly deployed in archival mass storage systems as one or more client-specified parameters to influence physical location of data in multi-level device hierarchies for performance or cost reasons. The capabilities of new high-performance storage architectures and the needs of data-intensive applications require better quality of service models for modern storage systems. HPSS, a new distributed, high-performance, scalable, storage system, uses a Class of Service (COS) structure to influence system behavior. The authors summarize the design objectives and functionality of HPSS and describes how COS defines a set of performance, media, and residency attributes assigned to storage objects managed by HPSS servers. COS definitions are used to provide appropriate behavior and service levels as requested (or demanded) by storage system clients. They compare the HPSS COS approach with other quality of service concepts and discuss alignment possibilities.

Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Teaff, D. [IBM US Federal, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-01-10

310

A strategy for load balancing in distributed storage systems  

CERN Document Server

Distributed storage systems are critical to the operation of the WLCG. These systems are not limited to fulfilling the long term storage requirements. They also serve data for computational analysis and other computational jobs. Distributed storage systems provide the ability to aggregate the storage and IO capacity of disks and tapes, but at the end of the day IO rate is still bound by the capabilities of the hardware, in particular the hard drives. Throughput of hard drives has increased dramatically over the decades, however for computational analysis IOPS is typically the limiting factor. To maximize return of investment, balancing IO load over available hardware is crucial. The task is made complicated by the common use of heterogeneous hardware and software environments that results from combining new and old hardware into a single storage system. This paper describes recent advances made in load balancing in the dCache distributed storage system. We describe a set of common requirements for load balan...

CERN. Geneva

2012-01-01

311

ANL computer controlled target storage system: Status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Design and operation of an isotopic target storage system is described. Due to the cost and effort associated with nuclear target production, it is necessary to protect them. The storage system described was designed to protect up to 90 hydroscopic and readily oxidizing targets under vacuum of 10/sup -6/ torr. The computer controller maintains system integrity during normal use and emergency situations. (JDH)

Klimczak, G.W.; Nardi, B.G.; Travis, D.J.

1986-01-01

312

Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The penetration of renewable sources (particularly wind power) in to the power system network has been increasing in the recent years. As a result of this, there have been serious concerns over reliable and satisfactory operation of the power systems. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage devices into the power system network. Further, in the present deregulated markets these storage devices could also be used to increase the profit margins of wind farm owners and even provide arbitrage. This paper discusses the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications.

Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

2009-01-01

313

DNA and microfluidics: Building molecular electronics systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of molecular electronics using DNA molecules as the building blocks and using microfluidics to build nanowire arrays is reviewed. Applications of DNA conductivity to build sensors and nanowire arrays, and DNA conjugation with other nanostructures, offers an exciting opportunity to build extremely small analytical devices that are suitable for single-molecule detection and also target screening.

Ye Yun [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Ont., L5L 1C6 (Canada); Chen Lu [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Ont., L5L 1C6 (Canada); Liu Xuezhu [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Ont., L5L 1C6 (Canada); Krull, Ulrich J. [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Ont., L5L 1C6 (Canada)]. E-mail: ukrull@utm.utoronto.ca

2006-05-24

314

Building machine learning systems with Python  

CERN Multimedia

This is a tutorial-driven and practical, but well-grounded book showcasing good Machine Learning practices. There will be an emphasis on using existing technologies instead of showing how to write your own implementations of algorithms. This book is a scenario-based, example-driven tutorial. By the end of the book you will have learnt critical aspects of Machine Learning Python projects and experienced the power of ML-based systems by actually working on them.This book primarily targets Python developers who want to learn about and build Machine Learning into their projects, or who want to pro

Richert, Willi

2013-01-01

315

Energy storage size of wind energy conversion systems with energy storage in reduced load duration cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of load duration on the energy storage size of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) with energy storage is examined in view of cases where load demand is not continuous. The objective is to establish if WECS with smaller energy storage size, and therefore lower energy production costs, are feasible in suitable applications. Using an already developed model, with the loss of power supply probability as the performance criterion, it is found that load duration has a considerable effect on WECS energy storage size. (author)

Kehayas, Nikolaos [Democritus Univ. of Thrace, Xanthi (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1996-10-01

316

SERI solar energy storage program  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal energy storage technologies are identified for specific solar thermal applications. The capabilities and limitations of direct-contact thermal storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport are examined. Storage of energy from active solar thermal systems for industrial process heat and the heating of buildings is analyzed and seasonal energy storage is covered. The coordination of numerous thermal energy storage research and development activities is described.

Baylin, F.; Copeland, R. J.; Kotch, A.; Kriz, T.; Luft, W.; Nix, R. G.; Wright, J. O.

1982-05-01

317

Robo-line storage: Low latency, high capacity storage systems over geographically distributed networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rapid advances in high performance computing are making possible more complete and accurate computer-based modeling of complex physical phenomena, such as weather front interactions, dynamics of chemical reactions, numerical aerodynamic analysis of airframes, and ocean-land-atmosphere interactions. Many of these 'grand challenge' applications are as demanding of the underlying storage system, in terms of their capacity and bandwidth requirements, as they are on the computational power of the processor. A global view of the Earth's ocean chlorophyll and land vegetation requires over 2 terabytes of raw satellite image data. In this paper, the authors describe their planned research program in high capacity, high bandwidth storage systems. The project has four overall goals. First, examination of new methods for high capacity storage systems, made possible by low cost, small form factor magnetic and optical tape systems. Second, access to the storage system will be low latency and high bandwidth. To achieve this, data transfer must interleave at all levels of the storage system, including devices, controllers, servers, and communications links. Latency will be reduced by extensive caching throughout the storage hierarchy. Third, the authors will provide effective management of a storage hierarchy, extending the techniques already developed for the Log Structured File System. Finally, they will construct a protototype high capacity file server, suitable for use on the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Such research must be a Cornerstone of any coherent program in high performance computing and communications.

Katz, R.H.; Anderson, T.E.; Ousterhout, J.K.; Patterson, D.A.

1991-09-01

318

Ignatius: A Tool To Build Scada Systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

monitor and service system components. Theyhandle input and output of messages and data,schedule the execution flow, assess prioritiesbetween application programs and carry outhousekeeping functions. They also processinterrupts and deal with error and emergencyconditions. They must be designed to coordinatethe functions of the system under varying loads.They also must provide the managers and plantengineers with a snapshot of the process status.In this work we address the design andimplementation of a tool to build SCADASystems called IGNATIUS. An architecturaldecomposition of all the Supervisory Systems inthree service levels is proposed: Interface ServiceLevel, Particular Service Level and Basic ServiceLevel. The ISL and PSL may vary with eachparticular implementation, but the BSL iscommon for all of them. IGNATIUS encapsulatesthe BSL, reducing the development cycle ofSCADA tools. IGNATIUS provides the user witha complete development environment that can beeasil...

Facultad Ciencias; Exactas Naturales; Pabellón I Ciudad Universitaria

319

Hydraulic issues in the design of chilled water storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydraulic aspects of chilled water thermal storage system design are discussed. Both energy consumption and control issues are addressed. Thermal storage transfer pumping energy should be a small fraction of chilled water production and distribution energy consumption but may be significant under adverse circumstances, some of which are within the designer`s control. The energy consumption consequences of design decisions regarding system pressurization, location of thermal storage points of connection, and storage siting location are discussed and strategies for reducing energy consumption are described. The variable flow typical of chilled water storage systems coupled with large static pressure differences creates stability and pressure surge hazards infrequently encountered in non-storage systems. Conditions that tend to promote control instability and excessive pressure transients are discussed and measures to mitigate them are suggested.

Bahnfleth, W.P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., PA (United States)

1995-09-01

320

Programs in energy conservation: Buildings and community systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS) is to lead a national effort to achieve maximum, cost-effective energy production in the buildings sector. The energy efficiency of buildings, building equipment and community systems impacts our economic productivity and national security. Therefore, OBCS is working to achieve greater energy savings in the buildings sector while maintaining healthy indoor environments minimizing the cost of energy services to consumers, and enhancing the international competitiveness of our construction and building equipment industries. This report contains an overview of research programs in energy conservation.

1988-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Tamper-resistant storage techniques for multimedia systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Tamper-resistant storage techniques provide varying degrees of authenticity and integrity for data. This paper surveys five implemented tamper-resistant storage systems that use encryption, cryptographic hashes, digital signatures and error-correction primitives to provide varying levels of data protection. Five key evaluation points for such systems are: (1) authenticity guarantees, (2) integrity guarantees, (3) confidentiality guarantees, (4) performance overhead attributed to security, and (5) scalability concerns. Immutable storage techniques can enhance tamper-resistant techniques. Digital watermarking is not appropriate for tamper-resistance implemented in the storage system rather than at the application level.

Haubert, Elizabeth; Tucek, Joseph; Brumbaugh, Larry; Yurcik, William

2004-12-01

322

Toxicity of systems for energy generation and storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section contains summaries of research on assessment of health and environmental effects of electric storage systems, and the metabolism and toxicity of metal compounds associated with energy production and storage. The first project relates to the production and use of electric storage battery systems. The second project deals with the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the gastrointestinal absorption, tissue distribution, and toxic effects of metals (Cd). Also included in this study is work on the absorption of actinides (239Pu)

1979-01-01

323

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

J. D. Bigbee

2000-06-21

324

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

2000-01-01

325

Study on the simulation of heat pump heating and cooling systems to hospital building  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Korea, air source heat pump system is less efficient than conventional heat source facilities, because the air temperature in winter season is so low that COP of air source heat pump system drops below 3.0. Therefore, the study on the application of heat pump heating and cooling systems is crucial for the efficient popularization of heat pump. In this work, we present the dynamic analysis of energy consumption for the large hospital building by heat resistance-capacitance method. The system simulation of water storage air source heat pump is additionally performed by changing sizes and locations of the hospital building. The computed results show that energy cost of water storage air source heat pump is low, so it is more economical than absorption chiller and heater.

2008-01-01

326

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be routinely handled at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) during fuel movement operations in the SNF Project. This analysis was performed to investigate the potential for damage from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack tube, service station, or sample/weld station. Appendix D was added to the FDNW document to include the peer Review Comment Record and transmittal record

1999-01-01

327

An Overview of Video Allocation Algorithms for Flash-based SSD Storage Systems  

CERN Multimedia

Despite the fact that Solid State Disk (SSD) data storage media had offered a revolutionary property storages community, but the unavailability of a comprehensive allocation strategy in SSDs storage media, leads to consuming the available space, random writing processes, time-consuming reading processes, and system resources consumption. In order to overcome these challenges, an efficient allocation algorithm is a desirable option. In this paper, we had executed an intensive investigation on the SSD-based allocation algorithms that had been proposed by the knowledge community. An explanatory comparison had been made between these algorithms. We reviewed these algorithms in order to building advanced knowledge armature that would help in inventing new allocation algorithms for this type of storage media.

Al-Sabateen, Jaafer; Sumari, Putra

2012-01-01

328

Building automation: Promising expert systems. Gebaeudeautomation: Vielversprechende Expertensysteme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In large buildings the cost fraction rate for services and technical equipment amounts to 20-40%. The increasing complexity of these installations results in a more and more unfathomable operation and in mutual dependences. Therefore building automation gains more and more importance. The development of building automation is to a great extent determined by computer and communication engineering. The building automation system can be extended into regional systems since communication via public telephone networks is possible - an important step towards centralization. (BWI).

Troxler, H.R. (Zentralschweizerisches Technikum, Luzern (Switzerland))

1990-04-01

329

Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is designed to be used on Class 8 trucks with CWI ISX G HPDI engines. Extensive test cart and engineering truck tests of the pump demonstrated good durability and the high-pressure performance needed for HPDI application. The LNG tanks manufactured by Taylor-Wharton passed SAE J2343 Recommended Practice drop tests and accelerated road-load vibration tests. NER and hold-time tests produced highly consistent results. Additional tests confirmed the design adequacy of the liquid level sensor, vaporizer, ullage volume, and other fuel system components. While the testing work performed under this program focused on a high-pressure pumped LNG fuel system design, the results also validate the feasibility of a low-pressure pumped fuel system. A low-pressure pumped fuel system could incorporate various design refinements including a simpler and lighter-weight pump, which would decrease costs somewhat relative to a high-pressure system.

Greg Harper; Charles Powars

2003-10-31

330

Electromechanical Storage Systems for Application to Isolated Wind Energy Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Substantial technology advances have occurred during the last decade that have had and appreciated impact on performance and feasibility of the Electromechanical Storage Systems. Improvements in magnetic bearings, composite materials, power conversion systems, microelectronic control systems and computer simulation models have increased flywheel reliability, and energy storage capacity, while decreasing overall system size, weight and cost. These improvements have brought flywheels to the forefront in the quest for alternate systems. The result of the study carried out under the scope of the SEDUCTOR, about the state of art of the Electromechanical Storage Systems is presented in this report. (Author) 15 refs.

1999-01-01

331

Fuel cell systems for first lunar outpost -- Reactant storage options  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Lunar Surface Power Working Group was formed to review candidate systems for providing power to the First Lunar Outpost habitat. The working group met for five days in the fall of 1992 and concluded that the most attractive candidate included a photovoltaic unit, a fuel cell, a regenerator to recycle the reactants, and storage of oxygen and hydrogen gases. Most of the volume (97%) and weight (64%) are taken up by the reactants and their storage tanks. The large volume is difficult to accommodate, and therefore, the working group explored ways of reducing the volume. An alternative approach to providing separate high pressure storage tanks is to use two of the descent stage propellant storage tanks, which would have to be wrapped with graphite fibers to increase their pressure capability. This saves 90% of the volume required for storage of fuel cell reactants. Another approach is to use the descent storage propellant tanks for storage of the fuel cell reactants as cryogenic liquids, but this requires a gas liquefaction system, increases the solar array by 40%, and increases the heat rejection rate by 170% compared with storage of reactants as high pressure gases. For a high power system (>20 kW) the larger energy storage requirement would probably favor the cryogenic storage option.

Nelson, P.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1995-06-01

332

System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository.

CALMUS, R.B.

2000-12-27

333

Power control system of the Markersbach pumped storage plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design of pumped storage plants depends on the geological and morphological site conditions. This applies also to the electricity supply system which, in addition, must be adapted to the design of the power house. The rock cavern design of the Markersbach pumps storage power station sets the boundary conditions for the design of the power supply system.

Gillner, W.; Hoehne, E.

1981-07-01

334

Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

Butler, P.C.

1994-02-01

335

Observations made while running a multi-petabyte storage system  

CERN Document Server

We take an overview of the CERN Advanced Storage (CASTOR) version 2 system and its usage at CERN while serving the High Energy Physics community. We further explore some of the observations made between 2005 and 2010 while managing this multi-petabyte distributed storage system.

dos Santos, Miguel Coelho

2010-01-01

336

System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

2000-01-01

337

Detergents in drainage systems for buildings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current soil waste vent (SWV) system design guides aim to produce ventilated drainage networks for buildings which protect attached water trap seals from unwanted air pressure effects. Such effects may cause trap seal failure that are caused by airflow induction during discharge. The ventilation design guides are based on steady-state experiments utilising cold clean water as a test media. However, most 'grey' and 'black' water sources are dosed with detergent, and are often warm, which significantly alters the behaviour when compared to clean water. Thus, current design standards provide only approximations of SWV system response. Results indicate that induced airflows in warm detergent-dosed water can be significantly higher than those measured in clean water systems, by a factor of more than 2. This paper quantifies the effect of detergents in SWV systems in terms of observed air entrainment rates and previously published research on the factors that contribute to air entrainment. Results of previous work are cast into dimensionless groupings suitable for inclusion into a mathematical simulation model based on a finite difference scheme. It utilises the method of characteristics as a solution technique to simulate drainage system operation via the equations that define unsteady partially filled or full bore pipe flows and the boundary conditions represented by water traps and other common system components.

Campbell DP; MacLeod KD

2001-03-01

338

A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).

Wetter, Michael

2011-04-01

339

Field testing of a high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The University of Minnesota Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) System has been operated as a field test facility for the past six years. Four short-term and two long-term cycles have been completed to data providing a greatly increased understanding of the efficiency and geochemical effects of high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage. A third long-term cycle is currently being planned to operate the ATES system in conjunction with a real heating load and to further study the geochemical impact on the aquifer from heated waste storage cycles. The most critical activities in the preparation for the next cycle have proved to be the applications for the various permits and variances necessary to conduct the third cycle and the matching of the characteristics of the ATES system during heat recovery with a suitable adjacent building thermal load.

Sterling, R.L.; Hoyer, M.C. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1989-03-01

340

WEB-GIS Decision Support System for CO2 storage  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental decision support systems (DSS) paradigm evolves and changes as more knowledge and technology become available to the environmental community. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to extract, assess and disseminate some types of information, which are otherwise difficult to access by traditional methods. In the same time, with the help of the Internet and accompanying tools, creating and publishing online interactive maps has become easier and rich with options. The Decision Support System (MDSS) developed for the MUSTANG (A MUltiple Space and Time scale Approach for the quaNtification of deep saline formations for CO2 storaGe) project is a user friendly web based application that uses the GIS capabilities. MDSS can be exploited by the experts for CO2 injection and storage in deep saline aquifers. The main objective of the MDSS is to help the experts to take decisions based large structured types of data and information. In order to achieve this objective the MDSS has a geospatial objected-orientated database structure for a wide variety of data and information. The entire application is based on several principles leading to a series of capabilities and specific characteristics: (i) Open-Source - the entire platform (MDSS) is based on open-source technologies - (1) database engine, (2) application server, (3) geospatial server, (4) user interfaces, (5) add-ons, etc. (ii) Multiple database connections - MDSS is capable to connect to different databases that are located on different server machines. (iii)Desktop user experience - MDSS architecture and design follows the structure of a desktop software. (iv)Communication - the server side and the desktop are bound together by series functions that allows the user to upload, use, modify and download data within the application. The architecture of the system involves one database and a modular application composed by: (1) a visualization module, (2) an analysis module, (3) a guidelines module, and (4) a risk assessment module. The Database component is build by using the PostgreSQL and PostGIS open source technology. The visualization module allows the user to view data of CO2 injection sites in different ways: (1) geospatial visualization, (2) table view, (3) 3D visualization. The analysis module will allow the user to perform certain analysis like Injectivity, Containment and Capacity analysis. The Risk Assessment module focus on the site risk matrix approach. The Guidelines module contains the methodologies of CO2 injection and storage into deep saline aquifers guidelines.

Gaitanaru, Dragos; Leonard, Anghel; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Le Guen, Yvi; Scradeanu, Daniel; Pagnejer, Mihaela

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Building thermal envelope systems and materials (BTESM) monthly progress report for DOE Office Buildings Energy Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

Burn, G. (comp.)

1990-11-01

342

Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) progress report for DOE Office of Buildings Energy Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

Burn, G. (comp.)

1990-12-01

343

Carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This effort presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions through the use of large-scale grid-energy-storage (GES) systems. The specific questions under investigation herein are as follows: Is it economically sound to invest in a GES system and is the system at least carbon footprint neutral? This research will show the answer to both questions is in the affirmative. Scilicet, when utilized judiciously, grid energy storage systems can be both net present value positive as well as be total carbon footprint negative. The significant contribution herein is a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems.

Hale, Trevor S. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, 1100 23rd Avenue, Port Huenem, CA 93043 (United States); Department of Management, Marketing, and Business Administration, University of Houston - Downtown, Houston, Texas (United States); Weeks, Kelly [Department of Maritime Administration, Texas A and M University at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Tucker, Coleman [Department of Management, Marketing, and Business Administration, University of Houston - Downtown, Houston, Texas 77002 (United States)

2011-07-01

344

Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1998-08-01

345

Direct-coupled microcomputer-based building emulator for building energy management and control systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the development and implementation of a direct-coupled building emulator for a building energy management and control system (EMCS) is presented. The building emulator consists of a microcomputer and a computer model of an air-conditioning system implemented in a modular dynamic simulation software package for direct-coupling to an EMCS, without using analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. The building emulator can be used to simulate in real time the behavior of the air-conditioning system under a given operating environment and subject to a given usage pattern. Software modules for data communication, graphical display, dynamic data exchange, and synchronization of simulation outputs with real time have been developed to achieve direct digital data transfer between the building emulator and a commercial EMCS. Based on the tests conducted, the validity of the building emulator has been established and the proportional-plus-integral control function of the EMCS assessed.

Lam, H.N.

1999-07-01

346

Hybrid solar/wind (PVT/WT) building integrated systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering the application of photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbine (WT) systems on buildings, the use of small size wind turbines of horizontal (HAWT) or vertical (VAWT) axis is necessary. PV panels are more flexible than WTs and convert a small part of the incoming solar radiation to electricity, with the greater part being converted into heat. The combination of the PV module with a water or an air heat extraction unit constitutes the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) system, by which electrical and thermal output is simultaneously provided. The extracted heat from the photovoltaics can be stored in water storage tank for liquid type PVT systems and in stones (or other material) for air type PVT systems. In countries where there is no special electricity buy-back tariff as well as in stand-alone applications (provided that the battery storage unit is charged), when there is surplus of electricity, then the electricity can be transformed to thermal energy and stored by the PVT system. These multiple energy conversion systems that combine PVT and WT subsystems are the hybrid solar (electric and thermal)/wind (electric) systems (PVT/WT). In this paper we present the concept of the hybrid PVT/WT systems, where the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. We calculated the monthly energy output of a hybrid PVT/WT system, based on PVT results from two tested models and also on the performance data of a small HAWT, for a site at Athens, Greece. We also performed an economic analysis of the PVT/WT systems, based on the market prices of all subsystems. The results showed that the systems have a payback period of 7-9 years, while the application of VAWT is not yet cost effective, as the pay back period of a PVT/VAWT system is about 18 years. (orig.)

Tripanagnostopoulos, Y. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Patras, Patra (Greece); Tselepis, S. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Athens (Greece)

2003-07-01

347

Fatty acid esters-based composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage in buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, fatty acid esters-based composite phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage were prepared by blending erythritol tetrapalmitate (ETP) and erythritol tetrastearate (ETS) with diatomite and expanded perlite (EP). The maximum incorporation percentage for ETP and ETS into diatomite and EP was found to be 57 wt% and 62 wt%, respectively without melted PCM seepage from the composites. The morphologies and compatibilities of the composite PCMs were structurally characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT–IR) analysis techniques. Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The DSC analyses results indicated that the composite PCMs were good candidates for building applications in terms of their large latent heat values and suitable phase change temperatures. The thermal cycling test including 1000 melting and freezing cycling showed that composite PCMs had good thermal reliability and chemical stability. TG analysis revealed that the composite PCMs had good thermal durability above their working temperature ranges. Moreover, in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the composite PCMs, the expanded graphite (EG) was added to them at different mass fractions (2%, 5%, and 10%). The best results were obtained for the composite PCMs including 5wt% EG content in terms of the increase in thermal conductivity values and the decrease amount in latent heat capacity. The improvement in thermal conductivity values of ETP/Diatomite, ETS/Diatomite, ETP/EP and ETS/EP were found to be about 68%, 57%, 73% and 75%, respectively. Highlights: ? Fatty acid esters-based composite PCMs were prepared by blending ETP and ETS with diatomite and expanded perlite. ? The composite PCMs were characterized by using SEM, FT–IR, DSC and TG analysis methods. ? The DSC results indicated that the composites PCMs had good thermal energy storage properties. ? TG analysis revealed that they had good thermal durability above their working temperature ranges.

2012-01-01

348

Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system.

Hsiao, M.-J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nan-Kai University of Technology, No. 568, Chung Cheng Road, Tsao Tun, Nan Tou 54243, Taiwan (China); Cheng, C.-H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Huang, M.-C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nan-Kai University of Technology, No. 568, Chung Cheng Road, Tsao Tun, Nan Tou 54243, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-L., E-mail: slchen01@ntu.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2009-12-15

349

Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system. (author)

Ming-Jer Hsiao; Chiao-Hung Cheng [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Nan-Kai Univ. of Technology, No. 568, Chung Cheng Road, Tsao Tun, Nan Tou 54243 (China); Ming-Chao Huang; Sih-Li Chen [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan Univ., No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617 (China)

2009-12-15

350

Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system.

2009-01-01

351

Control system design for robotic underground storage tank inspection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control and data acquisition systems for robotic inspection and surveillance systems used in nuclear waste applications must be capable, versatile, and adaptable to changing conditions. The nuclear waste remediation application is dynamic -- requirements change as public policy is constantly re-examined and refocused, and as technology in this area advances. Control and data acquisition systems must adapt to these changing conditions and be able to accommodate future missions, both predictable and unexpected. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System that is being developed for remote surveillance and inspection of underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. It is a high-performance system which has been designed for future growth. The priority mission at the Hanford site is to retrieve the waste generated by 50 years of production from its present storage and process it for final disposal. The LDUA will help to gather information about the waste and the tanks it is stored in to better plan and execute the cleanup mission

1994-01-01

352

Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed

1978-10-18

353

Modular vault dry storage systems for interim storage of irradiated fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Foster Wheeler Energy Application (FWEA) Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) is a dry storage concept for the storage of all types of irradiated reactor fuel. For applications in the US, FWEA submitted an MVDS Topical Report to the US NRC during 1986. Following NRC approval of the MVDS Topical Report concept for unconsolidated LWR fuel, US utilities have available a new, compact, economic and flexible system for the storage of irradiated fuel at the reactor site for time periods of at least 20 years (the period of the first license). The MVDS concept jointly developed by FWEA and GEC in the U.K., has other applications for large central away from reactor storage facilities such as a Monitorable Retrievable Storage installation. The licensed MVDS design is described, aspects of performance are discussed and capital costs compared with alternative concepts. Alternative configurations of MVDS are outlined. (author). 16 figs., 6 tabs., 3 refs

1989-01-01

354

Glycol cold thermal energy storage systems : performance and the effect of varying environment temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examined the effect of varying ambient temperatures on glycol cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems. When glycol thermal storage is incorporated into a new or existing building, a low temperature chilled-water supply allows the use of low-temperature air distribution and smaller fans and ducts. A reduction and shift in peak electric power demand can be realized through the use of glycol CTES as it permits the storage of night-time electric power. This study investigated the thermodynamic system parameters of: storage temperature; storage heat load; exergy destructions; and energy and exergy efficiencies. A storage tank with a capacity of 150,000 kg was used in the investigation. The air-conditioning cycle was simulated using the commercial software package Engineering Equation Solver (EES). Exergy analyses considered quantities of exergy, energy and mass. It was concluded that the exergy efficiency of the system was approximately 46 per cent less than energy efficiency due to irreversibilities. Results indicated that maximum energy efficiency was 75 per cent, and the corresponding exergy efficiency was 40 per cent for a 50 degrees C ambient air temperature. 13 refs., 5 figs.

Bakan, K.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

2006-07-01

355

Analysis of Geothermal Heating System for Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One-third of the world energy utilization is for space heating and cooling. Steady increase in the prices of sources of energy and electricity has resulted in more and more use of alternate sources of energy such as geothermal energy for heating and cooling. Maximum heat loss from the building and water flow rate are for the month of January. The value of maximum heat loss is 3.41 kW and that for water flow rate is 0.84 m3/hrespectively. The maximum savings in terms of value and energy by using the geothermal heating system are again for the month of January in terms of energy 1038 units of electricity and in terms of value Rs. 5191 respectively. Total savings for the winter season in terms of energy are 2983 units of electricity and in terms of value are Rs. 14915.

R K Pal

2013-01-01

356

Development of a direct contact ice storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program described involves the design, construction, and performance testing of a Direct Freeze Thermal Energy Storage System. Task 1 (Design) has been completed; and Task 2 (construction) is in progress, with equipment procurements presently underway. Once constructed, the system will undergo extensive laboratory performance testing and analysis, followed by an assessment of the system`s cost effectiveness. This study will advance the understanding and development of the direct freeze concept, which offers inherent benefits for thermal energy storage.

Poirier, R. [Chicago Bridge & Iron Company, Plainfield, IL (United States)

1989-03-01

357

Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

2009-01-01

358

Fabrication and properties of microencapsulated-paraffin/gypsum-matrix building materials for thermal energy storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: DSC curves of microPCMs/gypsum composite samples before and after a thermal cycling treatment. Highlights: ? Microcapsules containing paraffin was fabricated by in-situ polymerization. ? Methanol-modified melamine–formaldehyde (MMF) was used as shell material. ? MicroPCMs/gypsum-matrix building materials were applied for solar energy storage. ? The structure and thermal conductivity of composites had been investigated. - Abstract: Microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) have been widely applied in solid matrix as thermal-storage or temperature-controlling functional composites. The aim of this work was to prepare and investigate the properties of microPCMs/gypsum-matrix building materials for thermal energy storage. MicroPCMs contain paraffin was fabricated by in situ polymerization using methanol-modified melamine–formaldehyde (MMF) as shell material. A series of microPCMs samples were prepared under emulsion stirring rates in range of 1000–3000 r min?1 with core/shell weight ratios of 3/1, 2/1, 1/1, 1/2 and 1/3, respectively. The shell of microPCMs was smooth and compact with global shape, its thickness was not greatly affected by the core/shell ratio and emulsion stirring rate. DSC tests showed that the shell of microPCMs did not influence the phase change behavior of pure paraffin. It was found from TGA analysis that microPCMs samples containing paraffin lost their weight at the temperature of nearly 250 °C, which indicated that the PCM had been protected by shell. More shell material in microPCMs could enhance the thermal stability and provide higher compact condition for core material. After a 100-times thermal cycling treatment, the microPCMs contain paraffin also nearly did not change the phase change behaviors of PCM. With the increasing of weight contents of microPCMs in gypsum board, the thermal conductivity (?) values of composites had decreased. The simulation of temperature tests proved that the microPCMs/gypsum composite could store the time-dependent and intermittent solar energy, which did not necessarily meet the energy needs for space heating at all times.

2012-01-01

359

Efficiency improvement for wind energy pumped storage systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Integrating wind energy into the grid may raise stability problems. Solutions for avoiding these situations are studied and energy storage methods are suitable for balancing the energy between the wind turbine and grid. In this paper, an autonomous wind turbine pumped storage system is presented. The focus of this paper is to improve the efficiency of this system, which is small at low power levels. The driving motorpump group of the storage system is the key point presented in this paper for efficiency improving. Two control methods, experimentally implemented for induction machine are presented, and the comparison of the system efficiencies highlights the improvement of the proposed control method.

Forcos, A.; Marinescu, C.

2011-01-01

360

Building systems. Applications - technologies - demands; Vernetzte Gebaeudesysteme. Anwendungen - Technologien - Forderungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dream of the 'Smart Home' or 'Intelligent Building' seems to become reality. Building users can operate their building systems from anywhere inside and outside the building based upon proven technologies. Service providers have the opportunity to take partial or full responsibility for building systems, facility management and even care taking in an effective way. Besides all the success, there are still many hurdles that need to be managed during planning, installation and operation. This paper provides inside information on above-mentioned subject and possible areas of concern. (orig.)

Moehl, U. [JOHNSON CONTROLS JCI Regelungstechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany)

2003-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Wind Energy to Thermal and Cold Storage – A Systems Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper wind energy to thermal and cold storage scenarios were examined to enable high wind integration through converting renewable electricity excess into thermal or cooling energy, saving part of the energy used in an area and eliminating the need to possibly build a new coal fired plant. Case studies in Crete Island (not interconnected to the power grid of Greek mainland) with onshore wind power installed were investigated. The aim of this work was to review the options for greater integration of renewables into the grid and the main idea was to analyze the wind to thermal and to cold storage according to the needs of two small municipalities.

Xydis, George

2013-01-01

362

A building life-cycle information system for tracking building performance metrics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Buildings often do not perform as well in practice as expected during pre-design planning, nor as intended at the design stage. While this statement is generally considered to be true, it is difficult to quantify the impacts and long-term economic implications of a building in which performance does not meet expectations. This leads to a building process that is devoid of quantitative feedback that could be used to detect and correct problems both in an individual building and in the building process itself. One key element in this situation is the lack of a standardized method for documenting and communicating information about the intended performance of a building. This paper describes the Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS); designed to manage a wide range of building related information across the life cycle of a building project. BLISS is based on the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) developed by the International Alliance for Interoperability. A BLISS extension to th e IFC that adds classes for building performance metrics is described. Metracker, a prototype tool for tracking performance metrics across the building life cycle, is presented.

Hitchcock, R.J.; Piette, M.A.; Selkowitz, S.E.

1999-04-01

363

Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated the potential feasibility of using chemical energy storage at the Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) power plants developed by Luz International. Like sensible or latent heat energy storage systems, chemical energy storage can be beneficially applied to solar thermal power plants to dampen the impact of cloud transients, extend the daily operating period, and/or allow a higher fraction of power production to occur during high-valued peak demand periods. Higher energy storage densities make chemical energy storage a potentially attractive option. The results of the evaluation indicated that a system based on the reversible reaction, CaO + H{sub 2}O = Ca(OH){sub 2}, could be technically and economically feasible for this application, but many technical and economic issues must be resolved.

Brown, D.R.; LaMarche, J.L.; Spanner, G.E.

1992-04-01

364

Criticality safety studies for the storage of waste from nuclear fuel service in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides computational evaluation results demonstrating that mixed oxide waste can be safely stored in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Existing, verified computational techniques are validated with applicable critical experiments and tolerance limits for safety analyses are derived. Multiplication factors for normal and credible abnormal configurations are calculated and found to be far subcritical when compared to derived safety limits.

Primm, R.T. III; Hopper, C.M.; Smolen, G.R.

1992-11-01

365

Criticality safety studies for the storage of waste from nuclear fuel service in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides computational evaluation results demonstrating that mixed oxide waste can be safely stored in Intercell Storage Wells 2 and 3 of Building 3019 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Existing, verified computational techniques are validated with applicable critical experiments and tolerance limits for safety analyses are derived. Multiplication factors for normal and credible abnormal configurations are calculated and found to be far subcritical when compared to derived safety limits.

1992-01-01

366

Latent heat storage solar heat pump system. Sennetsu chikunetsu sora hito pump system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most important matter to uitilize solar energy on a full scale, is the development of the energy storage technique. As a form of energy storage is a sensible heat storage where heat is stored as the temperature rise of rocks or concrete but this type storage has a disadvantage to enlarge the system. On the other hand, another system is to utilize the latent heat storage system which uses absorption and release of large latent heat accompanied by the thawing and freezing at phase change of PCM (phase change material). As an energy storage technique utilizing this latent heat, the spherical capsule latent heat storage process is used but has a disadvantage of supercooling. A total solar system combining heat pump with this spherical capsule latent heat storage vessel was devised to solve this problem. It was found that this system is promising as the future heat storage technique through the theoretical and experimental studies. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

Hirose, Koichi; Saito, Takeo (Yonezawa High School, Yamagata, (Japan) Tohoku Univ., Sendai, (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

1989-09-30

367

Chrome-halogen energy storage device and system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hybrid redox-halogen energy storage device and system has a housing divided into two chambers by an anionic membrane. One chamber has an inert negative electrode in an electrolyte solution containing chromium ions. The remaining chamber has an inert positive electrode containing chlorine gas dissolved therein. Each electrolyte is circulated to a separate storage tank after passing through its respective chamber.

Liu, C.; Savinell, R.F.

1983-01-25

368

A VRLA battery energy storage system for Metlakatla, Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emergence of new power electronics and improved battery technology has created renewed interest in Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS). These new systems provide electric utilities with alternatives to conventional storage technologies, such as pumped hydro. BESs has the potential to provide substantial benefits in terms of energy management, improved voltage, spinning reserve and protection from interruptions when compared to large centralized storage. This paper describes a commercial, economically justified, application of the new Battery Energy Storage Systems which is presently under construction in the Metlakatla Power and Light system. The paper outlines the system performance requirements which lead to consideration of BESS as an option; the economic factors which provided the justification for BESS as an economic alternative; and the overall BES system design and performance.

Miller, N.W.; Zrebiec, R.S.; Delmerico, R.W. [GE Power Systems Engineering, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hunt, G. [GNB Industrial Battery, Lombard, IL (United States); Achenbach, H.A. [Metlakatla Power and Light, AK (United States)

1996-11-01

369

Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

1993-08-01

370

Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

Butler, P.C.

1995-03-01

371

ANL computer controlled target storage system: Status report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Design and operation of an isotopic target storage system is described. Due to the cost and effort associated with nuclear target production, it is necessary to protect them. The storage system described was designed to protect up to 90 hydroscopic and readily oxidizing targets under vacuum of 10-6 torr. The computer controller maintains system integrity during normal use and emergency situations

1986-01-01

372

A vacuum data retrieval system for SSRF storage ting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we report the design and implementation of a Web-based database system for the SSRF storage ring vacuum status. A vacuum data acquisition system based on EPICS was developed for implementation of the system. By storing the vacuum gauge readings, the average pressure,beam lifetime and beam current to the historical database using Channel Archiver, the data can be retrieved from any online computers. A proper and effective platform for sharing the SSRF storage ring vacuum data has been built. It offers usable and reliable vacuum data of the storage ring for operators and the users. (authors)

2010-01-01

373

Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. These are the math service, navigational service, naming and location service and the storage service in addition to two communication protocols (TCP/IP and JAVA RMI).

Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

2005-01-01

374

Development and evaluation of a rule-based control strategy for ice storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the development and evaluation of a near-optimal control strategy for ice storage systems. The strategy is based upon simple heuristics that were developed from daily and monthly simulations of cooling systems with internal melt, area-constrained ice storage tanks. Dynamic programming was used to obtain the optimal control trajectories which minimized an integrated energy and demand cost function for both the daily and monthly simulations. In addition to leading to simple heuristics, the monthly optimal control results were used as benchmarks to evaluate the performance of both conventional and the new control strategy. For a range of partial-storage systems, load profiles, and utility rate structures, the monthly electrical costs for the rule-based control strategy were, on average, within about 3% of the optimal costs. In contrast, the monthly electrical costs associated with the most common conventional control strategy, chiller-priority control, were as much as 20% greater than optimal, whereas a simple storage-priority strategy yielded costs that were within about 6% of optimal. The rule-based strategy can be easily implemented within a small micro-processor controller and only requires measurements of the system cooling requirement, building electrical usage, and state-of-charge of storage.

Drees, K.H. [Johnson Controls, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Braun, J.E. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Mechanical Engineering

1997-12-31

375

The status of the Fermilab data storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the Fermilab Data Storage System Enstore, its design concepts, structure, and current status. Enstore provides storage of the data in robotic tape libraries according to requirements of the experiments. High fault tolerance and availability, as well as multilevel priority based request processing allows experiments to effectively store and access data in the Enstore. Amount of data stored in the system currently approaches 2 PBytes. The Enstore system includes 5 robotic tape libraries, more than 100 PC nodes, and 90 tape drives. The distributed structure and modularity of Enstore allows scaling of the system and adding of more storage equipment as the requirements and needs grow. Users access data in Enstore directly using a special command. They can also use ftp, GridFtp, and SRM interfaces to the dCache caching and buffering system [1], which uses Enstore as its lower layer storage.

Bakken, J.; Berman, E.; Huang, Chi-Hao; Moibenko, A.; Petravick, D.; Zalokar, M.; /Fermilab

2004-12-01

376

The architecture of the High Performance Storage System (HPSS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rapid growth in the size of datasets has caused a serious imbalance in I/O and storage system performance and functionality relative to application requirements and the capabilities of other system components. The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a scalable, next-generation storage system that will meet the functionality and performance requirements of large-scale scientific and commercial computing environments. Our goal is to improve the performance and capacity of storage systems by two orders of magnitude or more over what is available in the general or mass marketplace today. We are also providing corresponding improvements in architecture and functionality. This paper describes the architecture and functionality of HPSS.

Teaff, D.; Coyne, B. [IBM Federal, Houston, TX (United States); Watson, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-01-01

377

Demand and user controlled ventilation system in two apartment buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes built two similar blocks of flats for people with respiratory illnesses. The buildings have clean and effective ventilation system and low emitting building materials. The buildings have centralized supply and exhaust air system, either demand or user controlled. The aim of this study was to follow up the performance of these ventilation solutions. The results show the benefit of the demand controlled ventilation compared with user controlled because in the latter case occupants do not adjust ventilation as much as expected. Half of the habitants were active users of ventilation control. The average air flow rate was 25% lower in building with demand controlled ventilation system. (orig.)

Palonen, J.; Jokiranta, K.; Kurnitski, J.; Seppaenen, O. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Laboratory of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning; Tuomainen, M.; Pirinen, J. [Pulmonary Association Heli (Finland)

2004-07-01

378

Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: FY 2012  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

Gestwick, M.

2013-05-01

379

Air core systems for passive and hybrid energy-conserving buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews generic hollow-core-masonry heat storage system (air-core) designs and discusses an analysis of the measured performance and calculated heat transfer coefficients in one such system. An overview of seasonal performance of the monitored building containing the system is provided. ''Air-core'' is a generic term for energy storage systems employing the core voids of concrete masonry units as integral ductwork and heat transfer surface area to store energy indirectly via fan forcing of air. Common energy sources/sinks are collected solar heat, recycled internal generated heat, wood heat, naturally cooled outdoor air, and/or evaporatively cooled outdoor air, supplied under appropriately controlled conditions. Heat transfer rates in a block masonry air-core system were calculated from field-measured data using two methods. The reviewed literature was not extensive, indicating need for further computer simulation and field monitoring of these systems to develop simplified design aids.

Howard, B.D.

1986-01-01

380

Adapting the NUHOMS Interim Storage System for international spent fuel storage needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NUHOMS systems are well established in USA and Europe as a reliable, safe and well proven option for dry storage of spent fuel. These systems can be used for either on-site storage or away from reactor storage because the canisters cab be transported in a B9U0 packaging. The proven NUHOMS flexibility can readily be adapted to meet new consumer needs in terms of handling limitations (size and weight), fuel characteristics, local regulation ect. As a licensee for the NUHOMS technology, Framatome - ANP has supplied a NUHOMS systems for storing WWER fuel assemblies at Metzamor in Armenia and also for storing RBMK fuel at Chernobyl in Ukraine. Discussion with potential clients are in progress and new design concepts are in preparation, including a vertical version of the NUHOMS system. (authors)

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Pumped Storage Plants in ENEL'S (Italian Electricity Board) System: Planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main static design characteristics of pumped storage plants (total generating capacity, total pumping capacity, maximum stored energy in the upper reservoir) have to be defined by taking into account the overall behaviour of the generating system into...

G. Manzoni L. Salvaderi

1986-01-01

382

High Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants (HELSOLAR).  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop a high temperature Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system based on graphite which is able to provide both economic and technical advantages with respect to existing solutions. This solutions aims to increase Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) market s...

E. Villarroel

2012-01-01

383

Energy storage systems: a strategic road-book  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dealing with the development and deployment of thermal and electric energy storage systems, this report first identifies four main challenges: to take environmental challenges into account during all the storage system life (design, production, use, end of life), to integrate the issue of economic valorization of the device into its design phase, to promote the development of standards, to make an institutional and legal framework emerge. It defines the geographical scope and the time horizon for the development of these systems. It evokes research and development programs in the United States, Japan, China, Germany and the European Union. These programs concern: mobile electric storage systems, electric storage systems in support of energy networks and renewable energies, heat storage systems. The authors outline that business models are now favourable to the deployment of storage systems. They discuss some key technological and economical parameters. They propose some prospective visions by 2050 with different possible orientations for this sector. They also identify and discuss the possible technological and socio-economical obstacles, research priorities, and stress the importance of implementing experimental platforms and research demonstrators

2011-01-01

384

Reverse cycle heating system for a building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a reverse cycle heating system for a building structure including a compressor acting on a ground heated vaporizable medium, a medium-to-air heat exchanger, means moving an air flow past the heat exchanger, and an expansion valve receiving the medium from the heat exchanger. The improvement described here consists of: a distributor having a multitude of outlets, a collector into which the medium subsequently flows, and a plurality of conduit loops for buried placement, each of the loops being in receiving and discharge communication respectively with the distributor and the collector, the conduit loops extending downwardly in an inclined manner from the distributor and the collector, each of the conduit loops being in a diverging relationship with adjacent conduit loops, each of the conduit loops comprising an inwardly and an outwardly directed parallel tube member adapted for endwise installation within a ground bore, each of the conduit loops being inclined downwardly from a horizontal ground surface at approximately twenty-five to thirty degrees.

Jungwirth, C.A.

1987-08-25

385

Heat storage systems in heat and power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In view of the current structural changes in the power supply facilities in Germany and in Europe, the question arises of how energy can be stored. The paper will sum up the various possibilities of heat storage in heat and power generation plants. It will describe the physical or chemical principles applied and the associated plant concepts, and will go into the current state of the related technological developments and applications, with special focus on the storage systems already implemented in power plants and in CHP plants. Furthermore, the intention is to take a look at recent developments and possible solutions for future storage systems.

Meierer, Matthias [Gaskraftwerk Mannheim AG, Mannheim (Germany)

2013-02-01

386

Securing Dynamic Distributed Storage Systems against Eavesdropping and Adversarial Attacks  

CERN Multimedia

We address the problem of securing distributed storage systems against eavesdropping and adversarial attacks. An important aspect of these systems is node failures over time, necessitating, thus, a repair mechanism in order to maintain a desired high system reliability. In such dynamic settings, an important security problem is to safeguard the system from an intruder who may come at different time instances during the lifetime of the storage system to observe, and possibly alter, the data stored on some nodes. In this scenario, we give upper bounds on the maximum amount of information that can be stored safely on the system. For an important operating regime of the distributed storage system, which we call the `bandwidth-limited regime', we show that our upper bounds are tight and provide explicit code constructions. Moreover, we provide a way to shortlist the malicious nodes and expurgate the system.

Pawar, Sameer; Ramchandran, Kannan

2010-01-01

387

A new compressed air energy storage refrigeration system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, a new compressed air energy storage (CAES) refrigeration system is proposed for electrical power load shifting application. It is a combination of a gas refrigeration cycle and a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Thermodynamic calculations are conducted to investigate the performance of this system. Economic analysis is performed to study the operating cost of the system, and comparison is made with a vapor compression refrigeration system and an ice storage refrigeration system. The results indicate that the CAES refrigeration system has the advantages of simple structure, high efficiency and low operating cost.

Wang Shenglong [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, College of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen Guangming [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, College of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: gmchen@zju.edu.cn; Fang Ming [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, College of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang Qin [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, College of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

2006-11-15

388

A new compressed air energy storage refrigeration system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, a new compressed air energy storage (CAES) refrigeration system is proposed for electrical power load shifting application. It is a combination of a gas refrigeration cycle and a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Thermodynamic calculations are conducted to investigate the performance of this system. Economic analysis is performed to study the operating cost of the system, and comparison is made with a vapor compression refrigeration system and an ice storage refrigeration system. The results indicate that the CAES refrigeration system has the advantages of simple structure, high efficiency and low operating cost. (author)

Wang, Shenglong; Chen, Guangming; Fang, Ming; Wang, Qin [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, College of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

2006-11-15

389

A new compressed air energy storage refrigeration system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this study, a new compressed air energy storage (CAES) refrigeration system is proposed for electrical power load shifting application. It is a combination of a gas refrigeration cycle and a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Thermodynamic calculations are conducted to investigate the performance of this system. Economic analysis is performed to study the operating cost of the system, and comparison is made with a vapor compression refrigeration system and an ice storage refrigeration system. The results indicate that the CAES refrigeration system has the advantages of simple structure, high efficiency and low operating cost

2006-01-01