WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results from the investigation on the measured system is presented.

Heller, Alfred

1996-01-01

2

Building a mass storage system for physics applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IEEE Mass Storage Reference Model and forthcoming standards based on it provide a standardized architecture to facilitate designing and building mass storage systems, and standard interfaces so that hardware and software from different vendors can interoperate in providing mass storage capabilities. A key concept of this architecture is the separation of control and data flows. This separation allows a smaller machine to provide control functions, while the data can flow directly between high-performance channels. Another key concept is the layering of the file system and the storage functions. This layering allows the designers of the mass storage system to focus on storage functions, which can support a variety of file systems, such as the Network File System, the Andrew File System, and others. The mass storage system provides location-independent file naming, essential if files are to be migrated to different storage devices without requiring changes in application programs. Physics data analysis applications are particularly challenging for mass storage systems because they stream vast amounts of data through analysis applications. Special mechanisms are required, to handle the high data rates and to avoid upsetting the caching mechanisms commonly used for smaller, repetitive-use files. High data rates are facilitated by direct channel connections, where, for example, a dual-ported drive will be positioned by the mass storage controller on one channel, then the data will flow on a second channel directly into the user machine, or directly to a high capacity network, greatly reducing the I/O capacity required in the mass storage control computer. Intelligent storage allocation can be used to bypass the cache devices entirely when large files are being moved.

Holmes, H.; Loken, S.

1991-03-01

3

Building a mass storage system for physics applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IEEE Mass Storage Reference Model and forthcoming standards based on it provide a standardized architecture to facilitate designing and building mass storage systems, and standard interfaces so that hardware and software from different vendors can interoperate in providing mass storage capabilities. A key concept of this architecture is the separation of control and data flows. This separation allows a smaller machine to provide control functions, while the data can flow directly between high-performance channels. Another key concept is the layering of the file system and the storage functions. This layering allows the designers of the mass storage system to focus on storage functions, which can support a variety of file systems, such as the Network File System, the Andrew File System, and others. The mass storage system provides location-independent file naming, essential if files are to be migrated to different storage devices without requiring changes in application programs. Physics data analysis applications are particularly challenging for mass storage systems because they stream vast amounts of data through analysis applications. Special mechanisms are required, to handle the high data rates and to avoid upsetting the caching mechanisms commonly used for smaller, repetitive-use files. High data rates are facilitated by direct channel connections, where, for example, a dual-ported drive will be positioned by the mass storage controller on one channel, then the data will flow on a second channel directly into the user machine, or directly to a high capacity network, greatly reducing the I/O capacity required in the mass storage control computer. Intelligent storage allocation can be used to bypass the cache devices entirely when large files are being moved

1991-03-11

4

Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research project performed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site

2009-06-01

5

Composite salt-hydrate concrete system for building energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heat storage capacity and structural stability at multiple thermal cycling of the composite PCM concrete system, that consists of sodium thiosulphate pentahydrate absorbed into porous concrete, are investigated. The experimental results obtained for thermophysical and structural behaviors of the PCM composite system specify its limitations and applicability to phase-change thermal storage wallboard. (author)

Hadjieva, M.; Stoykov, R. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Lab. of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources; Filipova, Tz. [University of Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria). Dept. of Organic Chemistry

2000-02-01

6

Trade-off between collector area, storage volume, and building conservation in annual-storage solar-heating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Annual storage is used with active solar heating systems to permit storage of summertime solar heat for winter use. The results of a comprehensive computer simulation study of the performance of active solar heating systems with long-term hot water storage are presented. A unique feature of this study is the investigation of systems used to supply backup heat to passive solar and energy-conserving buildings, as well as to meet standard heating and hot water loads. Findings show that system output increases linearly as storage volume increases, up to the point where the storage tank is large enough to store all heat collected in summer. This point, the point of unconstrained operation, is the likely economic optimum. Unlike diurnal storage systems, annual storage systems show only slightly diminished efficiency as system size increases. Annual storage systems providing nearly 100% solar space heat may cost the same or less per unit heat delivered as a 50% diurnal solar system. Also in contrast to diurnal systems, annual storage systems perform efficiently in meeting the load of a passive or energy-efficient building.

Sillman, S.

1981-04-01

7

Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits of operating heat pumps flexibly. This includes prioritising heat pump operation for hours with low marginal electricity production costs, and peak load shaving resulting in a reduced need for peak and reserve capacity investments.

Hedegaard, Karsten; Balyk, Olexandr

2013-01-01

8

Heat of fusion storage systems for combined solar systems in low energy buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Introduction Solar heating systems for combined domestic hot water and space heating has a large potential especially in low energy houses where it is possible to take full advantage of low temperature heating systems. If a building integrated heating system is used - e.g. floor heating - the supply temperature (and the the return temperature) would only be a few degrees above room temperature due to the very low heating demand and the large heat transfer surface area. One of the objectives in a newly started IEA Task 32 project is to investigate and develop improved thermal storages for combined solar systems through further improvement of water based storages and in parallel to investigate the potential of using storage designs with phase change materials, PCM. The advantage of phase change materials is that large amounts of energy can be stored without temperature increase when the material is going from solid to liquid form (Fig. 1). Keeping the temperature as low as possible is an efficient way to reduce the heat loss from the storage. Furthermore, the PCM storage might be smaller than the equivalent water storage as more energy can be stored per volume. If the PCM further has the possibility of a stable super cooling, i.e. the material is able to cool down below its freezing point (Tfusion) and still be liquid, the possibility exist for a storage with a very low heat loss. When energy is needed from the storage the solidification is activated and the temperature rises almost instantly to the melting point. The work within the IEA Task 32 project focuses on the phase change material Sodium Acetate with xanthan rubber. This material melts at 58 C, which means that low temperature heating systems could make full use of such a storage system. Energy to a large extent can be withdrawn even when the storage is in its super cooled phase without activation of the phase change. This paper presents an initial simulation model of a PCM storage for implementation in TRNSYS 15 [1] as well as the first test results achieved with the model. (orig.)

Schultz, J.M.; Furbo, S. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2004-07-01

9

Modeling and Optimization of Energy Generation and Storage Systems for Thermal Conditioning of Buildings Targeting Conceptual Building Design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The decisions made during conceptual building design irreversibly influence the selection and dimensions of thermal energy generation and storage components and systems. A method to quantify this influence is developed. It consists of the quasi-stationary simulation and the design optimization of the system. Demonstrated on seven preconfigured systems the method is used to propose a tool that, using data available at the conceptual design stage, provides dimensions, costs, energy consumption ...

Grahovac, Milica

2013-01-01

10

Performance evaluation of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with chilled water storage (CIESOL building)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We present a new solar-assisted air-conditioning system’s operation sequence. ? This mode considers the chilled water tanks action with variable-speed pump. ? It permits to save about 20% and 30% of energy and water consumption, respectively. ? It allows storing the excess cooling capacity of the absorption chiller. ? It prevents the sudden start/stop (on/off cycles) of the absorption chiller. - Abstract: This study presents the performance of solar-assisted air-conditioning system with two chilled water storage tanks installed in the Solar Energy Research Center building. The system consists mainly of solar collectors’ array, a hot-water driven absorption chiller, a cooling tower, two hot storage tanks, an auxiliary heater as well as two chilled storage tanks. The chilled water storage tank circuit was further investigated in order to find the optimum solar system’s operation sequence while providing the best energy performance. Firstly, we carried out a study about the dynamics of building’s cooling load and the necessity of the integration of chilled water storage tanks to solar system. Subsequently, the new system’s operation mode was proposed to reduce the energy consumption. The results demonstrate that we can save about 20% of the total energy consumption and about 30% of water consumption applying the new operation sequence, which takes into account the chilled water tanks action. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the integration of chilled water storage tanks allows to reduce the sudden absorption chiller on/off cycles, thereby improving the efficiency of the solar-assisted system.

2012-03-01

11

Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1) reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2) using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS softwar...

Alexandre Hugo; Radu Zmeureanu

2012-01-01

12

Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

Alexandre Hugo

2012-10-01

13

System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides configuration management for the Distributed Control System (DCS), the Gaseous Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS-100) System, the Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), the Canister Receiving Crane (CRC) CRN-001 PLC, and both North and South vestibule door interlock system PLCs at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This procedure identifies and defines software configuration items in the CSB control and monitoring systems, and defines configuration control throughout the system life cycle. Components of this control include: configuration status accounting; physical protection and control; and verification of the completeness and correctness of these items.

GARRISON, R.C.

2000-11-28

14

Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal conditioning systems are responsible for almost half of the energy consump-tion by commercial buildings. In many European countries and in the USA, buildings account for around 40% of primary energy consumption and it is therefore vital to explore further ways to reduce the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system energy consumption. This thesis investigates the relationship between the energy genera-tion and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings (shorter: primary HVAC systems) and the conceptual building design. Certain building design decisions irreversibly influence a building's energy performance and, conversely, many generation and storage components impose restrictions on building design and, by their nature, cannot be introduced at a later design stage. The objective is, firstly, to develop a method to quantify this influence, in terms of primary HVAC system dimensions, its cost, emissions and energy consumption and, secondly, to enable the use of the developed method by architects during the conceptual design. In order to account for the non-stationary effects of the intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), thermal storage and for the component part load efficiencies, a time domain system simulation is required. An abstract system simulation method is proposed based on seven pre-configured primary HVAC system models, including components such as boil-ers, chillers and cooling towers, thermal storage, solar thermal collectors, and photovoltaic modules. A control strategy is developed for each of the models and their annual quasi-stationary simulation is performed. The performance profiles obtained are then used to calculate the energy consumption, carbon emissions and costs. The annuity method has been employed to calculate the cost. Optimization is used to automatically size the HVAC systems, based on their simulation performance. Its purpose is to identify the system component dimensions that provide minimal costs, emissions or consumption, while maintaining the quality of the supply and, where specified, achieving the targeted annual solar ratio. Two optimization algorithms, the global bounded Nelder Mead and the Exhaustive search are implemented. Simulation and optimization performance has been evaluated using building and weather data for four cities situated in four different climates. Finally a tool, entitled PROBA, has been proposed by adding a user interface to the mod-els. The major characteristic of the interface is its suitability for non-expert users. This is achieved by, firstly, reducing amount of input data by implementing preset values and, secondly, providing information support. Making this tool available to the architects repre-sents an effective way to consider the primary HVAC during the preliminary design, with-out causing additional cost. Although such a tool can never replace an HVAC engineer, its use can heighten the awareness of architects regarding the significance of building energy consumption and inspire further education in this field.

Grahovac, Milica

2012-11-29

15

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01

16

Thermodynamic analyses and assessments of various thermal energy storage systems for buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Proposing a novel latent (PCM), thermochemical and sensible (aquifer) TES combination for building heating. ? Performing comprehensive environmental, energy, exergy and sustainability analyses. ? Investigating the effect of varying dead state temperatures on the TESs. - Abstract: In this study, energetic, exergetic, environmental and sustainability analyses and their assessments are carried out for latent, thermochemical and sensible thermal energy storage (TES) systems for phase change material (PCM) supported building applications under varying environment (surrounding) temperatures. The present system consists of a floor heating system, System-I, System-II and System-III. The floor heating system stays at the building floor supported with a floor heating unit and pump. The System-I includes a latent TES system and a fan. The latent TES system is comprised of a PCM supported building envelope, in which from outside to inside; glass, transparent insulation material, PCM, air channel and insulation material are placed, respectively. Furthermore, System-II mainly has a solar-thermochemical TES while there are an aquifer TES and a heat pump in System-III. Among the TESs, the hot and cold wells of the aquifer TES have maximum exergetic efficiency values of 88.782% and 69.607% at 8 °C dead state temperature, respectively. According to the energy efficiency aspects of TESs, the discharging processes of the latent TES and the hot well of the aquifer TES possess the minimum and maximum values of 5.782% and 94.118% at 8 °C dead state temperature, respectively. Also, the fan used with the latent TES is the most environmentally-benign system component among the devices. Furthermore, the most sustainable TES is found for the aquifer TES while the worst sustainable system is the latent TES.

2012-10-01

17

Airborne Effluent Monitoring System Certification for New Canister Storage Building Ventilation Exhaust Stack  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted three of the six tests needed to verify that the effluent monitoring system for the new Canister Storage Building ventilation exhaust stack meets applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the location for the air-sampling probe and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering the location for the air-sampling probe ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample-transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in this report. The tests reported here cover the contaminant tracer uniformity and particle delivery performance criteria. These criteria were successfully met. The other three tests were conducted by the start-up staff of Duke Engineering and Services Hanford Inc. (DESH) and reported elsewhere. The Canister Storage Building is located in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The new air-exhaust system was built under the W379 Project. The air sampling system features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and a filter holder to collect the sample

1999-01-01

18

Seasonal storage of solar energy for self-sufficient buildings with focus on hydrogen systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main topic of this dissertation is seasonal storage of solar energy for buildings. The dissertation focuses on solar hydrogen systems as stand-alone energy systems for low energy dwellings. This has been a simulation study, where the models have been developed for TRNSYS and used in simulations. A description of the models developed for the components used in solar hydrogen systems has been made. These models are of electrolyzers, fuel cells, pressurized tanks, metal hydride tanks, photovoltaic cells, batteries and converters. The models of the photovoltaic cells, the electrolyzer and the battery have been validated. The sizes of the loads for a low energy dwelling are discussed. A distribution of the loads over the year and day has been assumed. These assumptions and estimates are the basis for the simulations where the goal in this work is to cover all of these demands with the energy system. The possibilities and requirements for a solar hydrogen system for an energy self-sufficient dwelling are discussed mainly on a technical basis. Economic factors are also considered. Rules of thumb and simulation approach for estimating the sizes of the components for the solar hydrogen system have been suggested. A parameter study has been done to find the sizes of possible systems that could cover the energy demand of a low energy dwelling. If there is a reduced load, another climate, or a hybrid system with for example wind power or hydropower, the required size of the energy system could be reduced. 69 refs., 56 figs., 18 tabs.

Moerner, S.O.

1995-02-01

19

Advanced storage concepts for solar thermal systems in low energy buildings. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of Task 32 is to develop new and advanced heat storage systems which are economic and technical suitable as long-term heat storage systems for solar heating plants with a high degree of coverage. The project is international and Denmark's participation has focused on Subtask A, C, and D. In Subtask A Denmark has contributed to a status report about heat storage systems. In Subtask C Denmark has focused on liquid thermal storage tanks based on NaCH{sub 3}COO?3H{sub 2}O with a melting point of 58 deg. C. Theoretical and experimental tests have been conducted in order to establish optimum conditions for storage design. In Subtask D theoretical and experimental tests of optimum designs for advanced water tanks for solar heating plants for combined space heating and domestic hot water have been conducted. (BA)

Furbo, S.; Andersen, Elsa; Schultz, Joergen M.

2006-04-07

20

Investigation on Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating and due to storage. The storage affects the heat demand passively due to higher temperatures. Hence heat loss is reduced and passive heating is optioned. In theory, by running the system flow backwards, active heating can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations in detail. In another report R-007 the main results and recommendations aresummed up for non-technicians. The results of the project are among others: The system is rather simple. Much work can be self-made to keep the price down. The system is working, but heat exchange from plastic piping to sand is rather poor. The dimensioning of the volume is rather difficult based on common knowledge. Passive heating, hence reduction of heat demand, due to the storage and especially due to the oversized solar collector area of the system, was achieved. Active heating from the sand storage was not observed. The pay-back time for the system can be estimated to be similar to solar heated domestic hot water systems in general. A number of minor improvements on the system could be pointed out.

Heller, Alfred

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Report on seismic design of buildings incorporated with cool storage roof system. Quarterly report, January 1995--March 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report investigates the seismic design of buildings incorporated with Cool Storage Roof (CSR) system developed by the Davis Energy Group Inc. The CSR system is designed to provide a cost-effective cooling system for commercial buildings. The basic component of the CSR system consists of 3 to 4 inches of water stored over the roof area of the structure and thermally insulated with 3 inch thick polystyrene insulation panels. A schematic diagram of the CSR system is shown. The objectives of this investigation are: to determine the dynamic characteristics of the water in the CSR system; and to study the interaction of the water in the CSR system with the structure particularly for low-rise buildings.

Chai, Y.H.; Romstad, K.M.

1994-04-28

22

Initial findings: The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is one in a series of reports describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building System Integration Research Program. The goal of the program is to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving integrated decision-making during design and construction. Improved decision-making could significantly reduce buildings' energy use by the year 2010. The objectives of the Commercial Building System Integration Research Program are: to identify and quantify the most significant energy-related interactions among building subsystems; to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving energy related interactions in building subsystems; and to provide guidance to designers, owners, and builders for improving the integration of building subsystems for energy efficiency. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research, development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued. In this report, the interactions of a water loop heat pump system and building structural mass and their effect on whole-building energy performance is analyzed. 10 refs., 54 figs., 1 tab.

Marseille, T.J.; Johnson, B.K.; Wallin, R.P.; Chiu, S.A.; Crawley, D.B.

1989-01-01

23

Solar assisted heat pump system and in-ground energy storage in a school building.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experimental solar-assisted heat pump system with a hybrid ground-coupled storage at the F.U.L. in Arlon, Belgium, is described. It includes a 382 m2 solar roof, two types of water storages, heat storage in earth by horizontal exchangers, and heat pumps. One operating period (1984–1985) is analyzed. The data processed has shown that each of the subsystems has apparently performed adequately: annual collector efficiency is 0.41, heat pump C.O.P. range around 4. Despite important energy lo...

Nicolas, Jacques; Poncelet, Jean-pol

1988-01-01

24

Modelling of solar thermo-chemical system for energy storage in buildings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this paper is the demonstration of the methodological design principles within theoretical modelling of thermal heat storage apparatus and simulation of inter-seasonal heat storage system. The designing procedure starts from the modelling of thermal plant behaviour, based on the simplifications in the basic hypothesis. Afterwards, a more detailed modelling, involving dynamic aspects and additional features of plant components, is prese...

2012-01-01

25

High performance concrete applied to storage system buildings at low temperatures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english According to some estimates, world's population growth is expected about 50% over the next 50 years. Thus, one of the greatest challenges faced by Engineering is to find effective options to food storage and conservation. Some researchers have investigated how to design durable buildings for storing [...] and conserving food. Nowadays, developing concrete with mechanical resistance for room temperatures is a parameter that can be achieved easily. On the other hand, associating it to low temperature of approximately 35 °C negative requires less empiricism, being necessary a suitable dosage method and a careful selection of the material constituents. This ongoing study involves these parameters. The presented concrete was analyzed through non-destructive tests that examines the material properties periodically and verifies its physical integrity. Concrete with and without incorporated air were studied. The results demonstrated that both are resistant to freezing.

Sandra Maria de, Lima; Luiz Vicente, Vareda; Jefferson Benedicto Libardi, Liborio.

26

The Role of Energy Storage in Commercial Building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motivation and Background of Study This project was motivated by the need to understand the full value of energy storage (thermal and electric energy storage) in commercial buildings, the opportunity of benefits for building operations and the potential interactions between a building and a smart grid infrastructure. On-site or local energy storage systems are not new to the commercial building sector; they have been in place in US buildings for decades. Most building-scale storage technologies are based on thermal or electrochemical storage mechanisms. Energy storage technologies are not designed to conserve energy, and losses associated with energy conversion are inevitable. Instead, storage provides flexibility to manage load in a building or to balance load and generation in the power grid. From the building owner's perspective, storage enables load shifting to optimize energy costs while maintaining comfort. From a grid operations perspective, building storage at scale could provide additional flexibility to grid operators in managing the generation variability from intermittent renewable energy resources (wind and solar). To characterize the set of benefits, technical opportunities and challenges, and potential economic values of storage in a commercial building from both the building operation's and the grid operation's view-points is the key point of this project. The research effort was initiated in early 2010 involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify these opportunities from a commercial buildings perspective. This report summarizes the early discussions, literature reviews, stakeholder engagements, and initial results of analyses related to the overall role of energy storage in commercial buildings. Beyond the summary of roughly eight months of effort by the laboratories, the report attempts to substantiate the importance of active DOE/BTP R&D activities in this space.

Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.; Finley, C.; Koritarov, V. S.; Molburg, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Fuli; Brackney, L.; Florita, A. R.

2010-09-30

27

Example of introduction of `thermal storage system by ice` in remodeling work of heat source in a building; Korichikunetsu system no donyu jirei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes an outline and an example of ice thermal storage air conditioning system which can be easily introduced for general buildings by improving the conventional restriction. Since ice thermal storage uses lower temperature cool heat than water thermal storage, the energy efficiency is slightly reduced and the equipment constitution is a little bit expensive. Then, the heat transfer cooling part for ice making and the ice storage part were separated by utilizing the subcooling of water, to obtain constant ice making characteristics independent of the ice storage capacity. Subcooling water (-2degC) is continuously generated by the subcooler, and instantaneously converted into the ice phase at the ice generation part (subcooling release part). Since fine sherbet ice can be obtained, ice/water mixture can be transported through pipelines. The ice is stored in the water tank, and excellent thawing characteristics are provided. As the heat transfer cooling part and the ice storage part are separated, there is no reduction of heat transfer resistance and cooling efficiency due to the growth of ice differing from the solid ice system. Maintenance of the system is also easy. Since there are various ice thermal storage methods, it is significant to select the optimum configuration by considering the scale, space for setting, and air conditioning methods. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Okonogi, T. [Takasago Thermal Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-07-05

28

SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) PROJECT CANISTER STORAGE BUILDING (CSB) MULTI CANISTER OVERPACK (MCO) SAMPLING SYSTEM VALIDATION (OCRWM)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 400 Multi-canister overpacks (MCO) containing spent nuclear fuel are to be interim stored at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Several MCOs (monitored MCOs) are designated to be gas sampled periodically at the CSB sampling/weld station (Bader 2002a). The monitoring program includes pressure, temperature and gas composition measurements of monitored MCOs during their first two years of interim storage at the CSB. The MCO sample cart (CART-001) is used at the sampling/weld station to measure the monitored MCO gas temperature and pressure, obtain gas samples for laboratory analysis and refill the monitored MCO with high purity helium as needed. The sample cart and support equipment were functionally and operationally tested and validated before sampling of the first monitored MCO (H-036). This report documents the results of validation testing using training MCO (TR-003) at the CSB. Another report (Bader 2002b) documents the sample results from gas sampling of the first monitored MCO (H-036). Validation testing of the MCO gas sampling system showed the equipment and procedure as originally constituted will satisfactorily sample the first monitored MCO. Subsequent system and procedural improvements will provide increased flexibility and reliability for future MCO gas sampling. The physical operation of the sampling equipment during testing provided evidence that theoretical correlation factors for extrapolating MCO gas composition from sample results are unnecessarily conservative. Empirically derived correlation factors showed adequate conservatism and support use of the sample system for ongoing monitored MCO sampling.

BLACK, D.M.; KLEM, M.J.

2003-11-17

29

Design and simulation of a building integrated photovoltaic-thermal system and thermal storage for a solar house  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design of a building integrated photovoltaic-thermal (BIPV-T) system with a heat recovery and storage system was presented. The house will be built by a prefabricated home manufacturer as part of a Canadian housing demonstration initiative. A hollow core concrete thermal storage system was used in addition to hot water and direct gain thermal mass. Simulation results were presented from a transient finite difference model for the house. The BIPV-T was placed on the south-facing facade and roof of the house. A HOT2000 simulation program was used to optimize the envelope. Mathcad software was used to optimize heat recovery from the PV as well as to avoid overheating due to solar gains. Insulation was increased gradually and triple-glazed low-e argon windows were used as the most cost-effective measure to utilize passive solar gains on the south-facing facade. The BIPV-T system was designed to cover a continuous south-facing roof surface. Outdoor air was used as the heat transfer fluid in an open loop system. Hot outlet air was used for domestic hot water heating, clothes drying, and thermal mass heating. The heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system consisted of a 2.2 ton 2-stage water-to-air geothermal heat pump with an electronically commutated motor. The domestic hot water (DHW) system consisted of two 60 gallon tanks. Cold well water was first heated by a drain water heat recovery system, where it was heated using a desuperheater from the geothermal pump and hot air from the BIPV-T system. A transient explicit finite difference thermal network model was used to simulate the thermal performance of the entire house, including the BIPV-T system and the ventilated concrete slab in the basement. Simulations of the house design showed that incoming solar radiation through the windows needed to be controlled, as solar radiation caused overheating inside the living space. 17 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

Chen, Y.; Athienitis, A.K.; Galal, K.E. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering; Berneche, B. [Alouette Homes, St-Alphonse-de-Granby, PQ (Canada); Poissant, Y. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

2007-07-01

30

Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site.

Tallman, A.M.

1996-02-01

31

Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

1996-01-01

32

Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems  

CERN Document Server

In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

CERN. Geneva

2004-01-01

33

Spent nuclear fuel Canister Storage Building CDR Review Committee report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canister Storage Building (CSB) is a subproject under the Spent Nuclear Fuels Major System Acquisition. This subproject is necessary to design and construct a facility capable of providing dry storage of repackaged spent fuels received from K Basins. The CSB project completed a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) implementing current project requirements. A Design Review Committee was established to review the CDR. This document is the final report summarizing that review

1995-01-01

34

Ice storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design and operation of JCPenney`s ice storage system takes conversion and/or addition of future controls and equipment into consideration. JCPenney began the conceptualization for its new Home Office in December 1988. After the analysis of a myriad of building styles, configurations, accommodations, services, and population, the construction documents phase began in March 1989 and was completed in October 1990. During this time period, the industry was in a quandary regarding the future of refrigerants and indoor air quality. This article will discuss the provisions that were made for unforeseen legislation; however, the concepts and efficiencies of the central plant and VAV systems were maintained with flexibility for conversion and/or addition of future controls and equipment.

Bartlett, T.A.; Froebe, R. [JCPenney Co. Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-04-01

35

Canister storage building trade study. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ''Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report'' as the basis for development of the individual trade studies

1995-01-01

36

Fuel storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

1979-08-01

37

Building with integral solar-heat storage--Starkville, Mississippi  

Science.gov (United States)

Column supporting roof also houses rock-storage bin of solar-energy system supplying more than half building space heating load. Conventional heaters supply hot water. Since bin is deeper and narrower than normal, individual pebble size was increased to keep airflow resistance at minimum.

1981-01-01

38

Canister storage building hazard analysis report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the final CSB safety analysis report (SAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Report, and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

1997-01-01

39

Alternative design concept for the second Glass Waste Storage Building  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents an alternative design concept for storing canisters filled with vitrified waste produced at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) has the capacity to store 2,262 canisters and is projected to be completely filled by the year 2000. Current plans for glass waste storage are based on constructing a second Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB2) once the existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) is filled to capacity. The GWSB2 project (Project S-2045) is to provide additional storage capacity for 2,262 canisters. This project was initiated with the issue of a basic data report on March 6, 1989. In response to the basic data report Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) prepared a draft conceptual design report (CDR) for the GWSB2 project in April 1991. In May 1991 WSRC Systems Engineering issued a revised Functional Design Criteria (FDC), the Rev. I document has not yet been approved by DOE. This document proposes an alternative design for the conceptual design (CDR) completed in April 1991. In June 1992 Project Management Department authorized Systems Engineering to further develop the proposed alternative design. The proposed facility will have a storage capacity for 2,268 canisters and will meet DWPF interim storage requirements for a five-year period. This document contains: a description of the proposed facility; a cost estimate of the proposed design; a cost comparison between the proposed facility and the design outlined in the FDC/CDR; and an overall assessment of the alternative design as compared with the reference FDC/CDR design

1992-01-01

40

Canister storage building hazard analysis report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', and meets the intent of HNF-PRO-704, ''Hazard and Accident Analysis Process''. This hazard analysis implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Modular interim waste storage building for low-level radwaste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Near-term disposition of low-level radioactive waste is a significant concern in the successful start-up and continued operation of nuclear plants. In response to the perceived utility need for interim storage facilities for low-level nuclear waste, Cygna Energy Services has developed a Modular Interim Wast Storage Building (IWSB) design which emphasizes low cost, design simplicity, commercial construction techniques, rapid construction time and licensability. The IWSB is modular and easily expanded. The base module includes a truck bay, storage bay with vaults, remote-control over-head bridge crane and a separate control room. The facility design basis and features are described. Waste storage and shielding requirements are optimized through the use of a computerized inventory control system. Cost of the Cygna Modular IWSB is on the order of $4 million for a five year capacity facility and a construction period of about 12 to 14 months

1983-03-03

42

Building a Parallel Cloud Storage System using OpenStack’s Swift Object Store and Transformative Parallel I/O  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our project consists of bleeding-edge research into replacing the traditional storage archives with a parallel, cloud-based storage solution. It used OpenStack's Swift Object Store cloud software. It's Benchmarked Swift for write speed and scalability. Our project is unique because Swift is typically used for reads and we are mostly concerned with write speeds. Cloud Storage is a viable archive solution because: (1) Container management for larger parallel archives might ease the migration workload; (2) Many tools that are written for cloud storage could be utilized for local archive; and (3) Current large cloud storage practices in industry could be utilized to manage a scalable archive solution.

Burns, Andrew J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lora, Kaleb D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Esteban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shorter, Martel L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-30

43

Matching analysis for on-site building energy systems involving energy conversion, storage and hybrid grid connections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Under the background that all new buildings in EU should be nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) from the year of 2021, the energy and building industries are progressing towards the direction of decreased local building energy demand and enhanced on-site renewable energy production. This, on one hand, leads to the continuously decreased annual primary energy consumption/equivalent CO2 emission, whereas on the other hand it brings in the matching problem between the on-site generation and loca...

2014-01-01

44

Thermal energy storage for cooling of commercial buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The storage of coolness'' has been in use in limited applications for more than a half century. Recently, because of high electricity costs during utilities' peak power periods, thermal storage for cooling has become a prime target for load management strategies. Systems with cool storage shift all or part of the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak hours to take advantage of reduced demand charges and/or off-peak rates. Thermal storage technology applies equally to industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. In the industrial sector, because of the lack of economic incentives and the custom design required for each application, the penetration of this technology has been limited to a few industries. The penetration rate in the residential sector has been also very limited due to the absence of economic incentives, sizing problems, and the lack of compact packaged systems. To date, the most promising applications of these systems, therefore, appear to be for commercial cooling. In this report, the current and potential use of thermal energy storage systems for cooling commercial buildings is investigated. In addition, a general overview of the technology is presented and the applicability and cost-effectiveness of this technology for developed and developing countries are discussed. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Akbari, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Mertol, A. (Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (USA))

1988-07-01

45

Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

1999-01-01

46

Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

2000-03-23

47

Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

KOPELIC, S.D.

1999-02-25

48

Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

2000-01-01

49

Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report

1999-01-01

50

Seasonal storage of solar heat. An evaluation of the potential for Dutch residential buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a study on heat supply systems for residential buildings in the Netherlands, based on seasonal storage of solar heat, are presented. The results are answers to five questions: (1) what technologies are available for seasonal storage and which are the most promising for the Dutch market; (2) what is the energetic, environmental and economical performance of those technologies; (3) which are the positive and negative forces that influence the market introduction; (4) what market interventions are required, both for small and large storage systems; and (5) what is the potential of solar heat storage for residential buildings in the Netherlands? 35 refs

2000-01-01

51

ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper you will find an overview of systems and energy storage techniques and a comparison of the important characteristics of them. Delocalized electricity production and the introduction of variable, fluctuating sources (renewable energy: solar, wind turbines, etc. increase the difficulty of stabilizing the power network, mainly due to a supply-demand imbalance. It is therefore convenient to generate the energy, transmit it, convert it, and then store it if need be. More than ever then, the storage of electrical energy has become a necessity.

ELENA RADUCAN

2011-02-01

52

Solar energy storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water tank storage, pebble bed heat storage, adsorbent beds, and thermochemical storage of solar energy are discussed. The thermodynamics of thermochemical heat storage and criteria for selection of thermochemical reaction are discussed. (WHK)

Mahajan, S.P.; Mudgal, A.G. (comp.)

1980-01-01

53

Dynamic simulation of residential buildings with seasonal sorption storage of solar energy - parametric analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work focuses on the evaluation of the performances of a solar combisystem coupled to seasonal thermochemical storage using SrBr2/H20 as adsorbent/adsorbate couple. The objective is to determine the characteristics required for solar system and storage reactor to reach a 100 % solar fraction for a building with a low heating load. The complete system, including the storage reactor, is simulated, using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. The influence of some components and p...

Hennaut, Samuel; Thomas, Se?bastien; Davin, Elisabeth; Andre, Philippe

2011-01-01

54

STANDALONE “GREEN” COMMUNITY-CENTER BUILDINGS: HYDROGEN GENERATION/STORAGE/DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR WHEN PRIMARY ENERGY STORAGE IS AT CAPACITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Overall, the implementation of a computer-controlled hydrogen generation system and subsequent conversion of small engine equipment for hydrogen use has been surprisingly straightforward from an engineering and technology standpoint. More testing is required to get a better gr...

55

Energy conservation and storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In response to increasing electrical energy costs and the desire for better land management, thermal storage technology has recently been developed. Storage of thermal energy in the form of sensible and latent heat has become an important aspect of energy management with the emphasis on efficient use and conservation of the waste heat and solar energy in industry and buildings. Thermal storage has been characterized as a kind of thermal battery. (author)

Demirbas, A.

2002-07-01

56

Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Conceptual Design Report provides the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project, Canister Storage Building, and as amended by letter (correspondence number 9555700, M.E. Witherspoon to E.B. Sellers, ''Technical Baseline and Updated Cost Estimate for the Canister Storage Building'', dated October 24, 1995), includes the project cost baseline and Criteria to be used as the basis for starting detailed design in fiscal year 1995

1996-01-01

57

Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

CROWE, R.D.

1999-09-09

58

Passive hygrothermal control of a museum storage building  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For optimal conservation of the stored objects, museum storage buildings require a very stable interior climate, with only minimal and slow variations in temperature and relative humidity. Often extensive HVAC is installed to provide such stable indoor conditions, which results in a great amout of C02 emission. The purpose for this paper is to show that it is possible to reach the goal of using renewable energy for museum storage buildings by rethinking the strategy for the dehumidification design and in this way contribute to a C02 neutral environment. The solution is to construct a very airtight building and use concentrated dehumidification.

Christensen, Jørgen Erik

2011-01-01

59

Building Web Reputation Systems  

CERN Document Server

What do Amazon's product reviews, eBay's feedback score system, Slashdot's Karma System, and Xbox Live's Achievements have in common? They're all examples of successful reputation systems that enable consumer websites to manage and present user contributions most effectively. This book shows you how to design and develop reputation systems for your own sites or web applications, written by experts who have designed web communities for Yahoo! and other prominent sites. Building Web Reputation Systems helps you ask the hard questions about these underlying mechanisms, and why they're critical

Farmer, Randy

2010-01-01

60

Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigates the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. This topical report describes the demonstration of the model-based predictive optimal control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory in a test facility in real-time using time-of-use differentiated electricity prices without demand charges. The laboratory testing findings presented in this topical report cover the second of three project phases. The novel supervisory controller successfully executed a three-step procedure consisting of (1) short-term weather prediction, (2) optimization of control strategy over the next planning horizon using a calibrated building model, and (3) post-processing of the optimal strategy to yield a control command for the current time step that can be executed in the test facility. The primary and secondary building mechanical systems were effectively orchestrated by the model-based predictive optimal controller in real-time while observing comfort and operational constraints. The findings reveal that when the optimal controller is given imperfect weather fore-casts and when the building model used for planning control strategies does not match the actual building perfectly, measured utility costs savings relative to conventional building operation can be substantial. This requires that the facility under control lends itself to passive storage utilization and the building model includes a realistic plant model. The savings associated with passive building thermal storage inventory proved to be small be-cause the test facility is not an ideal candidate for the investigated control technology. Moreover, the facility's central plant revealed the idiosyncratic behavior that the chiller operation in the ice-making mode was more energy efficient than in the chilled-water mode. Field experimentation (Phase III) is now required in a suitable commercial building with sufficient thermal mass, an active TES system, and a climate conducive to passive storage utilization over a longer testing period to support the laboratory findings presented in this topical report.

Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

2003-12-17

 
 
 
 
61

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12

62

Bulk storage of hydrogen systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A synopsis of some existing and potential methods of bulk hydrogen storage were presented, including liquid, salt cavern and depleted natural gas (NG) reservoir storage. These were examined within the context of a case study of a particular geographic and industrial region, namely southwestern Ontario. Reviews of some of the area`s geological features, apparently favourable for underground hydrogen storage systems development, and the hydrogen economy of the city of Sarnia, were featured. A cost model was developed to evaluate potential industrial hydrogen storage system scenarios within the region. 5 tabs., 4 figs.

Venter, R.D.; Pucher, G.; Boyes, A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1994-12-31

63

Energy storage system and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An energy storage system of increased conductivity for enhanced receipt, capture, storage, removal and release of energy is provided by dispersing finely divided filaments of highly conductive material throughout chemical energy storage media and causing the conductive filaments to establish a myriad network of highly conductive paths in contact with substantially the entirety of the media and energy exchangers devised to add energy to and remove energy from the media via the conductive paths.

Alspaugh, T.R.

1982-07-27

64

Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model-based predictive control (MPC) is designed for optimal thermal energy storage in building cooling systems. We focus on buildings equipped with a water tank used for actively storing cold water produced by a series of chillers. Typically the chillers are operated at night to recharge the storage tank in order to meet the building demands on the following day. In this paper, we build on our previous work, improve the building load model, and present experimental results. The experiments show that MPC can achieve reduction in the central plant electricity cost and improvement of its efficiency.

Ma, Yudong; Borrelli, Francesco; Hencey, Brandon; Coffey, Brian; Bengea, Sorin; Haves, Philip

2010-06-29

65

Measurement of Moisture Storage Parameters of Building Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The moisture storage parameters of three different building materials: calcium silicate, ceramic brick and autoclaved aerated concrete, are determined in the hygroscopic range and overhygroscopic range. Measured sorption isotherms and moisture retention curves are then combined into moisture storage functions using the Kelvin equation. A comparison of measured results with global characteristics of the pore space obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry shows a reasonable agreement; the median pore radii by volume are well within the interval given by the beginning and the end of the characteristic steep parts of the moisture retention curves.

M. Ji?i?ková

2003-01-01

66

Open pits as seasonal heat storage systems for heating systems of buildings. Climate protection by large-volume hot water stores; Gruben als saisonale Warmwasserspeicher fuer die Gebaeudeheizung. Klimaschutz durch Grosswarmwasserspeicher  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For efficient utilization of solar heat or process waste heat for building heating purposes, it will often be necessary to store summer heat until the winter season. The author presents a concept in which open pits of abandoned mines will be used for seasonal hot water storage. (orig.)

Morinaga, Haruhiko

2009-07-15

67

Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigated the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. To pursue the analysis, modeling, and simulation research of Phase 1, two separate simulation environments were developed. Based on the new dynamic building simulation program EnergyPlus, a utility rate module, two thermal energy storage models were added. Also, a sequential optimization approach to the cost minimization problem using direct search, gradient-based, and dynamic programming methods was incorporated. The objective function was the total utility bill including the cost of reheat and a time-of-use electricity rate either with or without demand charges. An alternative simulation environment based on TRNSYS and Matlab was developed to allow for comparison and cross-validation with EnergyPlus. The initial evaluation of the theoretical potential of the combined optimal control assumed perfect weather prediction and match between the building model and the actual building counterpart. The analysis showed that the combined utilization leads to cost savings that is significantly greater than either storage but less than the sum of the individual savings. The findings reveal that the cooling-related on-peak electrical demand of commercial buildings can be considerably reduced. A subsequent analysis of the impact of forecasting uncertainty in the required short-term weather forecasts determined that it takes only very simple short-term prediction models to realize almost all of the theoretical potential of this control strategy. Further work evaluated the impact of modeling accuracy on the model-based closed-loop predictive optimal controller to minimize utility cost. The following guidelines have been derived: For an internal heat gain dominated commercial building, reasonable geometry simplifications are acceptable without a loss of cost savings potential. In fact, zoning simplification may improve optimizer performance and save computation time. The mass of the internal structure did not show a strong effect on the optimization. Building construction characteristics were found to impact building passive thermal storage capacity. It is thus advisable to make sure the construction material is well modeled. Zone temperature setpoint profiles and TES performance are strongly affected by mismatches in internal heat gains, especially when they are underestimated. Since they are a key factor in determining the building cooling load, efforts should be made to keep the internal gain mismatch as small as possible. Efficiencies of the building energy systems affect both zone temperature setpoints and active TES operation because of the coupling of the base chiller for building precooling and the icemaking TES chiller. Relative efficiencies of the base and TES chillers will determine the balance of operation of the two chillers. The impact of mismatch in this category may be significant. Next, a parametric analysis was conducted to assess the effects of building mass, utility rate, building location and season, thermal comfort, central plant capacities, and an economizer on the cost saving performance of optimal control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory. The key findings are: (1) Heavy-mass buildings, strong-incentive time-of-use electrical utility rates, and large on-peak cooling loads will likely lead to attractive savings resulting from optimal combined thermal storage control. (2) By using economizer to take advantage of the cool fresh air during the night, t

Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

2005-09-30

68

Thermoeconomic optimal sizing for ice storage system in partial storage control strategies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes optimal sizing of ice storage and chiller system through parametric simulation for a commercial office building with peak cooling load of 600 tons. As an optimality criterion, the minimization of the annualized capital cost and fuel exergy costs on the basis of thermoeconomic analysis was chosen. This paper considers encapsulated ice storage system in chiller-downstream arrangement with chiller-priority control and storage-priority control strategies. Minimal required chiller sizes of the system for each control strategy are determined with storage fraction from 40% to 60%. The design condition, which has minimum cost, lies on the curve of the set of required chiller size and storage fraction. The optimal sizing is defined in this paper as the choice of size of chiller and storage tank, which leads to minimization of the annualized cost per exergy unit of product for the system.

Lee, K.H.; Joo, Y.J.; Choi, B.Y.; Kwon, S.C.

1999-07-01

69

Electrochemical storage systems; Elektrochemische Speichersysteme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrical energy has a decided disadvantage: Its storage is relatively complicated. As direct storage, eg: In superconducting coils and capacitors only occurs at a low energy density, one mainly uses the route of indirect storage. The indirect storage consists of a store and at least two converters. The energy is accumulated in a storable form, eg: - Pumped storage - potential energy; - vapour storage - thermal energy; - flywheel storage - kinetic energy; - electro-chemical batteries - chemical energy. However, electro-chemical storage systems are now almost exclusively used, above all because of the widely available capacity range. (orig.) [Deutsch] Elektroenergie hat einen entscheidenen Nachteil: Ihre Speicherung ist relativ kompliziert. Da eine direkte Speicherung, z.B. in supraleitenden Spulen und Kondensatoren nur mit einer geringen Energiedichte erfolgt, geht man hauptsaechlich den Weg der indirekten Speicherung. Die indirekten Speicher bestehen aus einem Speicher und mindestens zwei Wandlern. Die Energie wird in einer speicherbaren Form akkumuliert, z.B.: - Pumpspeicher - potentielle Energie; - Dampfspeicher - thermische Energie; - Schwungradspeicher - kinetische Energie; - elektrochemische Akkumulatoren - chemische Energie. Fast ausschliesslich setzt man jedoch heute, vor allem aufgrund des breiten verfuegbaren Kapazitaetsbereiches, elektrochemische Speichersysteme ein. (orig.)

Garche, J.

1994-12-31

70

Passive hygrothermal control of a museum storage building in Vejle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For optimal conservation of the stored objects, museum storage buildings require a very stable interior climate, with only minimal and slow variations in temperature and relative humidity. Often extensive HVAC is installed to provide such stable indoor conditions. The resultantly significant energy and maintenance costs are currently motivating a paradigm change toward passive control. Passive control, via the thermal and hygric inertia of the building, is gaining a foothold in the museum conservation and building physical community. In this report we document the hygrothermal performance optimisation of a museum storage building, related to an existing storage centre in Vejle (Denmark). The current building design already incorporates passive control concepts: thermal inertia is provided by the thick walls, the ground floor and its underlying soil volume, while hygric inertia is provided by the thick walls of light-weight concrete. The design promise stated that a few years of dehumidification would bring down the moisture contained in the fresh constructions to a level corresponding with the desired interior climate. After this initial stage, the passive control would eliminate all further need for dehumidification. Four years after completing the construction however, continuous dehumidification remains necessary to maintain acceptable humidity levels. Analysis of the current situation: A thorough investigation of the current building design and management shows that the original design promise of â??a fully passively conditioned storage buildingâ?? is an illusion. With the yearly average exterior temperature and vapour pressure in Denmark at 7.8 °C and 930 Pa, a fully passively conditioned building would reach a yearly average temperature and vapour pressure of 10.2 °C and 930 Pa. The interior temperature is somewhat higher than the exterior, due to interior heat sources (lights and humans); since no significant interior moisture sources are present, the interior vapour pressure is similar to the average exteriorvapour pressure. Such interior conditions translate to a yearly average relative humidity of 75 %, which is far above the desired levels. It should be finally stated that similar conclusions would be reached for many other European climates. Conservation heating or dehumidification are hence required, to maintain acceptable relative humidities in the storage. Conservation heating raises the temperature and lowers the relative humidity; dehumidification decreases the vapour pressure and thus the relative humidity. For the low air change rates of storage buildings, dehumidification is the most economical option. Moreover, it allows for lower temperature levels, beneficial to the conservation purposes. Reduction of dehumidification load: In an effort to reduce the necessary dehumidification, a number of thermal measures are investigated first. This primarily focuses on the influences of additional insulation in walls, roof and floor. Overall, the effects of extra insulation on the average temperature level arevery limited. The effects on the temperature variation differ for the floor and for the walls & roof: â?˘ walls & roof: more insulation gives less heat exchange with the exterior, and thus a lower interior temperature variation; â?˘ floor: more insulation in the floor breaks the connection with the thermal inertia of the ground and thus a higher temperature variation; For those reasons, more heavily insulated walls and roofs could be considered. Their effects on the interior climate and dehumidification load are however not that large. For the floor, no insulation should be added, and it could be considered to replace the leca layer with standard gravel. This will visibly reduce the temperature variations over the year. All in all however, none of these thermal measures have a great impact on the dehumidification load. To reduce the dehumidification load, only one strong solution exists: a more airtight building. The focus in the new design should therefore go to a construction method allo

Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Janssen, Hans

2010-01-01

71

D5.4 â?? Energy management system : Coordinating and dispatching of generation, consumption, and storage devices connected to the local microgrid or to the building network.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report will focus on strategies for energy management as well at the building level and at the microgrid level. The designed energy management controller will manage energy flow such that generated power in the microgrid is mainly consumed by local consumers and the power trade between the microgrid and the grid is shrunk to minimum. Buildingsâ?? role is to provide flexibility to the energy management controller so that this controller can use this flexibility to enhance the local use of the local produced energy and by that mean lower the energy bill for each house in the microgrid. The Optimization of building loads are based on electricity price signal and shedding, shifting or rescheduling the power consumption pattern. The main shiftable loads are the HVAC systems. This system will be the primary controllable load for the energy management controller but also curtailable load and non-controllable loads will be taken into account when designing the controller. The flexibility, with respect to the HVAC system, is based on the heat capacity of the house and a thermal tolerance that users give permission for. The wider the thermal tolerance is, the more flexibility will be provided to the energy management controller. Load management strategies will be devised such that thermal comfort and other user-predefined preferences will be satisfied.

Madsen, Per Printz; Andersen, Palle

2014-01-01

72

GPUs as Storage System Accelerators  

CERN Multimedia

Massively multicore processors, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), provide, at a comparable price, a one order of magnitude higher peak performance than traditional CPUs. This drop in the cost of computation, as any order-of-magnitude drop in the cost per unit of performance for a class of system components, triggers the opportunity to redesign systems and to explore new ways to engineer them to recalibrate the cost-to-performance relation. This project explores the feasibility of harnessing GPUs' computational power to improve the performance, reliability, or security of distributed storage systems. In this context, we present the design of a storage system prototype that uses GPU offloading to accelerate a number of computationally intensive primitives based on hashing, and introduce techniques to efficiently leverage the processing power of GPUs. We evaluate the performance of this prototype under two configurations: as a content addressable storage system that facilitates online similarity detectio...

Al-Kiswany, Samer; Ripeanu, Matei

2012-01-01

73

Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organotin halides back to th

2010-01-01

74

Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organoti

Dr. Digby Macdonald

2010-08-09

75

Analysis of ice cool thermal storage for a clinic building in Kuwait  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Kuwait, air conditioning (AC) systems consume 61% and 40% of the peak electrical load and total electrical energy, respectively. This is due to a very high ambient temperature for the long summer period extended from April to October and the low energy cost. This paper gives an overview of the electrical peak and energy consumption in Kuwait, and it has been found that the average increase in the annual peak electrical demand and energy consumption for the year 1998-2002 was 6.2% and 6.4%, respectively. One method of reducing the peak electrical demand of AC systems during the day period is by incorporating an ice cool thermal storage (ICTS) with the AC system. A clinic building has been selected to study the effects of using an ICTS with different operation strategies such as partial (load levelling), partial (demand limiting) and full storage operations on chiller and storage sizes, reduction of peak electrical demand and energy consumption of the chiller for selected charging and discharging hours. It has been found that the full storage operation has the largest chiller and storage capacities, energy consumption and peak electrical reduction. However, partial storage (load levelling) has the smallest chiller and storage capacities and peak electrical reduction. This paper also provides a detailed comparison of using ICTS operating strategies with AC and AC systems without ICTS

2006-11-01

76

Final Safety Analysis Document for Building 693 Chemical Waste Storage Building at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Safety Analysis Document (SAD) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 693, Chemical Waste Storage Building (desipated as Building 693 Container Storage Unit in the Laboratory's RCRA Part B permit application), provides the necessary information and analyses to conclude that Building 693 can be operated at low risk without unduly endangering the safety of the building operating personnel or adversely affecting the public or the environment. This Building 693 SAD consists of eight sections and supporting appendices. Section 1 presents a summary of the facility designs and operations and Section 2 summarizes the safety analysis method and results. Section 3 describes the site, the facility desip, operations and management structure. Sections 4 and 5 present the safety analysis and operational safety requirements (OSRs). Section 6 reviews Hazardous Waste Management's (HWM) Quality Assurance (QA) program. Section 7 lists the references and background material used in the preparation of this report Section 8 lists acronyms, abbreviations and symbols. Appendices contain supporting analyses, definitions, and descriptions that are referenced in the body of this report

1992-01-01

77

Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

Anita Lewis

2012-07-01

78

Intelligent building system for airport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Munich airport uses a state-of-the-art intelligent building management system to control systems such as HVAC, runway lights, baggage handling, etc. Planning the new Munich II international airport provided a unique opportunity to use the latest state-of-the-art technical systems, while integrating their control through a single intelligent building management system. Opened in 1992, the airport is Germany`s second-largest airport after Frankfurt. The airport is staffed by 16,000 employees and can handle 17 million passengers a year. The sprawling site encompasses more than 120 buildings. The airport`s distributed control system is specifically designed to optimize the complex`s unique range of functions, while providing a high degree of comfort, convenience and safety for airport visitors. With the capacity to control 200,000 points, this system controls more than 112,000 points and integrates 13 major subsystems from nine different vendors. It provides convenient, accessible control of everything including the complex`s power plant, HVAC Control, the terminal`s people-moving functions, interior lighting controls, runway lights, baggage forwarding systems, elevators, and boarding bridges. The airport was named 1993 intelligent building of the year by the Intelligent Buildings Institute Foundation. Its building management system is a striking example of the degree to which a building complex`s functions can be integrated for greater operational control and efficiency.

Ancevic, M.

1997-11-01

79

Safety evaluation of the Mixed Waste Storage Building (Building 643-43E)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A safety evaluation has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Storage Building (MWSB) at the Savannah River Site. The results of this evaluation are compared with those contained in the Burial Ground Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The MWSB will function as an interim storage facility for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated mixed waste. It will meet all applicable standards set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the South Carolina Department of Health and Environment Control (SCDHEC), and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders

1992-01-01

80

Building an organic block storage service at CERN with Ceph  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging storage requirements, such as the need for block storage for both OpenStack VMs and file services like AFS and NFS, have motivated the development of a generic backend storage service for CERN IT. The goals for such a service include (a) vendor neutrality, (b) horizontal scalability with commodity hardware, (c) fault tolerance at the disk, host, and network levels, and (d) support for geo-replication. Ceph is an attractive option due to its native block device layer RBD which is built upon its scalable, reliable, and performant object storage system, RADOS. It can be considered an "organic" storage solution because of its ability to balance and heal itself while living on an ever-changing set of heterogeneous disk servers. This work will present the outcome of a petabyte-scale test deployment of Ceph by CERN IT. We will first present the architecture and configuration of our cluster, including a summary of best practices learned from the community and discovered internally. Next the results of various functionality and performance tests will be shown: the cluster has been used as a backend block storage system for AFS and NFS servers as well as a large OpenStack cluster at CERN. Finally, we will discuss the next steps and future possibilities for Ceph at CERN.

van der Ster, Daniel; Wiebalck, Arne

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Hydrogen storage systems using borohydrides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boron and its compounds are very important for hydrogen economy concept. Boron containing chemical hydrides have obvious advantages over the non-containing ones in terms of performance. Hydrogen production reactions of selected hydrides will be given. Boron containing hydrides have advantages over the others in terms of hydrogen density and kinetics. This stands as an advantage for utilization these materials for on-board hydrogen storage systems. The method, will be studied, involves the hydrolysis of primary hydrides such as sodium and lithium borohydride. The more promising method of chemical hydrogen production is the thermolysis of mixes of hydrogen containing compounds. In this study, hydrogen storage systems will be introduced

2005-09-13

82

Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies

2008-08-17

83

Hydrogen Trailer Storage Facility (Building 878). Consequence analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This consequence analysis documents the impact that a hydrogen accident could have to employees, the general public, and nearby facilities. The computer model ARCHIE was utilized to determine discharge rates, toxic vapor dispersion analyses, flammable vapor cloud hazards, explosion hazards, and flame jets for the Hydrogen Trailer Storage Facility located at Building 878. To determine over pressurization effects, hand calculations derived from the Department of the Air Force Manual, ``Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions,`` were utilized. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce the Lower Flammability and the Lower Detonation Levels are 1,721 feet and 882 feet, respectively. The greatest distance at which 10.0 psi overpressure (i.e., total building destruction) is reached is 153 feet.

Banda, Z.; Wood, C.L.

1994-12-01

84

A Checkpoint Storage System for Desktop Grid Computing  

CERN Document Server

Checkpointing is an indispensable technique to provide fault tolerance for long-running high-throughput applications like those running on desktop grids. In these environments, a checkpoint storage system can offer multiple benefits: reduce the load on a traditional file system, offer high-performance through specialization, and, finally, optimize checkpoint data management by taking into account application semantics. Such a storage system can present a unifying abstraction to checkpoint operations, while hiding the fact that there are no dedicated resources to store the checkpoint data. This paper presents a dedicated checkpoint storage system for desktop grid environments. Our solution uses scavenged disk space from participating desktops to build an inexpensive storage space, offering a traditional file system interface for easy integration with checkpointing applications. This paper presents the architecture of our checkpoint storage system, key write optimizations for high-speed I/O, support for increme...

Kiswany, Samer Al; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

2007-01-01

85

Hydrogen storage and generation system  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA); Crowell, Jeffrey A. W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2010-08-24

86

Simulation of thermocline thermal energy storage system using C  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solar thermal power generation is a modern technology, which has already shown feasible results in the production of electricity. Thermal energy storage (TES) is a crucial element in solar energy applications, which includes the increase of building thermal capacity, solar water heating systems for domestic use, and Concentrated Solar Thermal power plants for electricity generation. Economic, efficient and reliable thermal energy storage systems are a key need of solar thermal power plants, i...

Meseret Tesfay; Meyyappan Venkatesan

2013-01-01

87

Memory Storage and Neural Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

Alkon, Daniel L.

1989-01-01

88

The CMU air-core passive hybrid heat storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses environmental engineering and practical application of the concrete masonry unit (CMU) based air-core thermal storage system, principally applied in climate responsive (passive and hybrid solar) building design. CMU's with their large core spaces can provide ample heat-transfer surface areas near low-velocity air-flows conducted through stacked masonry units where the cores are aligned as ducts. CMU air-core heat storage is ideally suited to the low-cost application of thermal storage in the structural envelope of buildings. The physical principals of designing, analyzing and predicting performance of these systems are reviewed. Sample building performance assessments are provided along with heat transfer properties information on such CMU systems, derived from both field measurements and engineering calculations. Generic design diagrams are provided based on actual built projects.

Howard, B.D.

1999-07-01

89

Weather-predicted control of building free cooling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the optimization of a weather-predicted free cooling system combined with heat storage is shown. The method of incorporating weather forecasts into the control system is presented. The regime of operation was selected and optimized based on free cooling energy and the required temperature parameters of a building's indoor environment, using variable flow rate control through the heat storage. The savings achieved by optimal operation compared to steady state operation were analyzed. The parametric analysis of optimal system operation was done for different outdoor and indoor environment parameters and for different heat storage construction parameters. The results showed a significant influence of system operation control on system performance.

2011-09-01

90

IMCOM LONWORKS Building Automation Systems Implementation Strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Army Installations often expand their use of digital control systems for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning and other mechanical and electrical building systems on a building-by-building basis. The control systems are installed under separate cont...

D. M. Schwenk J. Bush L. M. Hughes S. Briggs W. White

2007-01-01

91

Livermore Distributed Storage System: Requirements and overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines the requirements for a large-scale, distributed storage system, and describes how a system being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, called the LINCS Storage System (LSS), meets those requirements. The LSS provides...

C. Hogan L. Cassell J. Foglesong J. Kordas M. Nemanic

1990-01-01

92

System of automatic charging of storage batteries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The block diagram of the system is shown. It includes: transformer; safety device; diodes; resistors; thyristor; electrical lamp; transistors; Zener diodes; system of thyristor disconnection; storage battery. The system guarantees constant complete charging of the storage battery.

Sznajder, M.

1982-04-30

93

Storage systems for solar thermal power  

Science.gov (United States)

The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

1978-01-01

94

Storage monitoring system - 1997  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them

1997-10-13

95

Storage monitoring system -- 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them.

Mickelsen, B.; Nilsen, C.; Kinzel, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Davidson, B.; Pollock, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-11-01

96

D5.4 – Energy management system : Coordinating and dispatching of generation, consumption, and storage devices connected to the local microgrid or to the building network.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report will focus on strategies for energy management as well at the building level and at the microgrid level. The designed energy management controller will manage energy flow such that generated power in the microgrid is mainly consumed by local consumers and the power trade between the microgrid and the grid is shrunk to minimum. Buildings’ role is to provide flexibility to the energy management controller so that this controller can use this flexibility to enhance the local use of...

Madsen, Per Printz; Andersen, Palle

2014-01-01

97

ATLAS Nightly Build System Upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a facility for automatic production of software releases. Being the major component of ATLAS software infrastructure, it supports more than 50 multi-platform branches of nightly releases and provides ample opportunities for testing new packages, for verifying patches to existing software, and for migrating to new platforms and compilers. The Nightly System testing framework runs several hundred integration tests of different granularity and purpose. The nightly releases are distributed and validated, and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The first LHC long shutdown (2013-2015) activities will elicit increased load on the Nightly System as additional releases and builds are needed to exploit new programming techniques, languages, and profiling tools. This paper describes the plan of the ATLAS Nightly Build System Long Shutdown upgrade. It brings modern database and web technologies into the Nightly System, improves monitoring of nigh...

Dimitrov, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Simmons, B; Undrus, A

2013-01-01

98

NASA Langley Research Center's distributed mass storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a trend in institutions with high performance computing and data management requirements to explore mass storage systems with peripherals directly attached to a high speed network. The Distributed Mass Storage System (DMSS) Project at NASA LaRC is building such a system and expects to put it into production use by the end of 1993. This paper presents the design of the DMSS, some experiences in its development and use, and a performance analysis of its capabilities. The special features of this system are: (1) workstation class file servers running UniTree software; (2) third party I/O; (3) HIPPI network; (4) HIPPI/IPI3 disk array systems; (5) Storage Technology Corporation (STK) ACS 4400 automatic cartridge system; (6) CRAY Research Incorporated (CRI) CRAY Y-MP and CRAY-2 clients; (7) file server redundancy provision; and (8) a transition mechanism from the existent mass storage system to the DMSS.

Pao, Juliet Z.; Humes, D. Creig

1993-01-01

99

Combined solar collector and energy storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

Jensen, R. N. (inventor)

1980-01-01

100

A Video storage management system for soccer analytics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Video is dominating consumer internet traffic. Restless internet users expect smooth playback and low latency when watching video content and vendors risk losing customers if this cannot be provided. Distributed storage systems specialized for delivering video content and for handling the high traffic this lead to, have been developed over many years. This thesis look into building and deploying a distributed video storage to deliver video content to an enterprise sport analytics web interfac...

Hansen, Roger Bruun Asp

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid. Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be opt...

Trintis, Ionut

2011-01-01

102

Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid. Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be opt...

Trintis, Ionut

2012-01-01

103

Online mass storage system detailed requirements document  

Science.gov (United States)

The requirements for an online high density magnetic tape data storage system that can be implemented in a multipurpose, multihost environment is set forth. The objective of the mass storage system is to provide a facility for the compact storage of large quantities of data and to make this data accessible to computer systems with minimum operator handling. The results of a market survey and analysis of candidate vendor who presently market high density tape data storage systems are included.

1976-01-01

104

Work to begin on largest ice storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction has begun at Chicago's Merchandise Mart on what may be the world's largest ice building thermal storage system. The completed system will use water from the Chicago River to freeze 2.2 million pounds of ice each night for daytime air conditioning. Despite the large quantity of freon used, the project will not violate the city's building code because it uses an indirect refrigerant system. Another system in the State of Illinois Building does violate the code because it uses direct refrigeration. The new ice storage system should save $200,000 in its first year by shifting three MW of demand from day to night consumption and by lowering overall pump horsepower.

1986-03-10

105

Building for treatment or storage of toxic or radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to shield a building, in which toxic or radioactive material is stored, with relatively small effort there is proposed to place it in a water pool. According to the invention the roof shall be so far below the water surface that the water volume above is at least equal to the inner volume of the house. Other subclaims of the patent refer to the access to the building, the ventilation system, the cleaning of the water and the cover of the water surface. (UWI/RB)

1978-01-01

106

Advanced storage concepts for solar and low energy buildings, IEA-SHC Task 32. Slutrapport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reports on the results of the activities carried through in connection with the Danish part of the IEA SHC Task 32 project: Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar and Low Energy Buildings. The Danish involvement has focused on Subtask C: Storage Concepts Based on Phase Change Materials and Subtask D: Storage Concepts Based on Advanced Water Tanks and Special Devices. The report describes activities concerning heat-of-fusion storage and advanced water storage. (BA)

Schultz, J.M.; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, S.

2008-01-15

107

Energy management system`s in building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the challenges building industry has in meeting increased demands for occupant comfort and access to information technology while at the same time increasing energy efficiency and resource conservation. The building energy management system is examined as a tool for occupant and operations personnel to use in attaining these goals.

Vakil, A. [School of Building Science and Technology, Maharashtra (India)

1999-11-01

108

Storage tanks and containment systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wide range of options which are currently available for storage tanks and containers was presented with a particular focus on the growing use of glass-fused-to-steel tanks for wastewater applications. This system makes use of a sectional steel panel with glass molecularly bound to the steel surface to provide an extremely durable and flexible surface with excellent corrosion resistance. The tanks are widely used in water and wastewater treatment industries. In potable water treatment, the tank systems are used as clarifiers, shells, filters, contact tanks, thickeners, reservoirs and standpipes. In the wastewater treatment industry, they are used as aeration tanks, clarifiers, shells, trickling filters, anaerobic digesters, gas holders, odour control units, biosolids storage and flow equalization. This type of storage tank has gained popularity due to its technical benefits which include expandability, ease of relocation or dismantling and the ability to use them as anaerobic digester tanks or covers. The technology has proven to have a thorough approach to life cycle costs. Even after 30 years of use, the tank could still have significant value. 3 figs.

Anon.

2001-05-01

109

Controlling storage/retrieval system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses the combination of a vertical carousel storage and retrieval system and computerized material requirements planning and inventory control which has resulted in a material handling system that is saving money and increasing productivity for Hewlett-Packard. The combination is also proving to be very versatile, with different plants opting for various levels of automation to suit their particular needs. This article reviews what Hewlett-Packard is doing and discusses why the company decided to purchase high-density vertical carousels. Three company divisions' needs and operations are outlined.

Conrad, S.J.

1984-11-15

110

Sustainability of Different Pakistani Building Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper building systems in different areas of Pakistan have been investigated with respect to sustainability. These include Mud houses, Hilly areas buildings/houses, different building techniques, and single and multi storey buildings. The details about the different construction techniques of all the building systems have been provided after visiting them. It has been concluded that building system of Pakistan construction is mostly dependent on the geographical and topographical cond...

2011-01-01

111

High Density Digital Data Storage System  

Science.gov (United States)

The High Density Digital Data Storage System was designed to provide a cost effective means for storing real-time data from the field-deployable digital acoustic measurement system. However, the high density data storage system is a standalone system that could provide a storage solution for many other real time data acquisition applications. The storage system has inputs for up to 20 channels of 16-bit digital data. The high density tape recorders presently being used in the storage system are capable of storing over 5 gigabytes of data at overall transfer rates of 500 kilobytes per second. However, through the use of data compression techniques the system storage capacity and transfer rate can be doubled. Two tape recorders have been incorporated into the storage system to produce a backup tape of data in real-time. An analog output is provided for each data channel as a means of monitoring the data as it is being recorded.

Wright, Kenneth D., II; Gray, David L.; Rowland, Wayne D.

1991-01-01

112

Pumped storage in systems with very high wind penetration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the operation of the Irish power system with very high levels of wind energy, with and without pumped storage. A unit commitment model which accounts for the uncertainty in wind power is used. It is shown that as wind penetration increases, the optimal operation of storage depends on wind output as well as load. The main benefit from storage is shown to be a decrease in wind curtailment. The economics of the system are examined to find the level at which storage justifies its capital costs and inefficiencies. It is shown that the uncertainty of wind makes the option of storage more attractive. The size of the energy store has an impact on results. At lower levels of installed wind (up to approximately 50% of energy from wind in Ireland), the reduction in curtailment is insufficient to justify building storage. At greater levels of wind, storage reduces curtailment sufficiently to justify the additional capital costs. It can be seen that if storage replaces OCGTs in the plant mix instead of CCGTs, then the level at which it justifies itself is lower. Storage increases the level of carbon emissions at wind penetration below 60%. - Research highlights: ? Examines operation of pumped storage unit in a system with levels of wind from 34%-68% of energy. ? High capital cost of storage is not justified until system has high (approx. 45%) wind penetration. ? Results are driven by the amount of wind curtailment avoided and plant mix of system. ? Other flexible options (e.g. interconnection) offer many of the same benefits as storage.

2011-04-01

113

Annual Collection and Storage of Solar Energy for the Heating of Buildings, Report No. 3. Semi-Annual Progress Report, August 1977 - January 1978.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is part of a series from the Department of Energy on the use of solar energy in heating buildings. Described here is a new system for year around collection and storage of solar energy. This system has been operated at the University of Virginia for over a year. Composed of an underground hot water storage system and solar collection,…

Beard, J. Taylor; And Others

114

Ventilation system for building  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A ventilation system comprises a rectangular window frame having a hollow interior constituing a flow passage for air, and a ventilator held in fluid communication with the hollow interior of the window frame. The ventilator has a built-in heat exchanging element which effects a heat exchange between fresh air and foul air during operation. The window frame has an integral pipeline disposed in the hollow interior of the window frame for the passage therethrough of a heat-transferring medium. The heat-transferring medium flowing through the pipeline gives up heat to, or extracts heat from, the air channeled through the flow passage in the window frame, prior to or after the introduction of the air into the ventilator. Thus, the efficiency of heat exchange is considerably increased.

Ikemura, A.; Kajiki, M.

1987-03-03

115

Vertical displacement of the storage ring floor due to building distortion in the Photon Factory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Light Source Building of the Photon Factory was found to distort so much as to induce the displacement of magnets in the storage ring. This resulted in drifting of the beam orbit. It was considered that the building was distorted by the variations of thermal stress, such as diurnal changes of the solar irradiation and atmospheric temperature. To reduce such thermal stress, the rooftop of the building was insulated with a layer of polyethylene foam. The building distortion was measured in terms of vertical floor displacements along the storage ring by using a hydrostatic level measuring system. Results of the measurement were compared with those of a model simulation based on the finite element method. Comparison between measured and simulated results showed good agreement before the insulation applied to the roof. After the insulation, the measured floor displacements reduced to about one half and were also comparable to the simulated results. A full description of the subject is given in T. Katsura, Ed., KEK Internal 90-32 (in Japanese) Jan. (1991)

1991-01-01

116

Technical and economic assessment of storage systems for spent fuel from commercial LWRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the study was to examine the technical and economic aspects of the cask storage system for storing spent fuel in transport/storage casks in Japan, and to compare them with those of the pool storage system. The scenarios for the transport and storage of spent fuel, and the main characteristics of spent fuel, were established as the basic conditions for the present study. On the basis of these conditions, conceptual designs, safety analyses and cost estimations of the spent fuel transport/storage casks and the storage facilities were carried out. Data were prepared for the pool storage system based on the same conditions. The cask storage system was then examined from the technical and economic viewpoint and a comparison made with the pool storage system. It was assumed that the transport/storage casks which had been developed and licensed in Europe and the United States of America would be applicable to Japan. In the present study, conceptual designs of the transport/storage casks were made on the basis of the capacity of the existing cranes at the reactor building. With regard to the safety (in particular, shielding) and economic aspects, conceptual designs of a trench system using truck cranes and an individual shielding type storage system were made for AR storage. For AFR storage, a conceptual design of a simple concrete building was made. The major results of a shielding analysis and seismic safety analyses are given. An economic assessment of the spent fuel management costs for the cask storage system and the pool storage system for AR storage of 500 t U and AFR storage of 3000 t U revealed that the costs for the cask storage system were lower than those for the pool storage system. (author). 3 figs, 3 tabs

1987-05-11

117

Criticality safety studies of Building 3019 Cell 4 and in-line storage wells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New fissile material load limits for storage facilities located in Building 3019 are derived in a manner consistent with currently applicable Martin Marietta Energy Systems requirements. The limits for "2"3"3U loading are 2.00, 1.80, 1.45, and 0.19 kg/ft for hydrogen-to-"2"3"3U atoms ratios of 3, 5, 10, and unrestricted, respectively. Limits were also found for "2"3"5U and "2"3"9Pu systems. The KENO-Va Monte Carlo Program and Hansen-Roach cross sections were used to derive these limits

1993-01-01

118

Proton Storage Ring control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When designing a control system for a new facility, one is faced with a bewildering array of electronic devices to use in the solution. There is, of course, no single correct solution because the constraints are Laboratory- and project-dependent. The major constraint applicable to the hardware choice for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) control system was the limited manpower available for the design, development, and documentation of custom hardware. As a result, wherever possible, commercial components have been used that are based on recognized standards. The array of choice on the hardware side contrasts markedly with the absence of suitable commercial software products, and it is unfortunate that here there seems to be little prospect of change. The analysis of the overall system that follows will lead to a suitable hardware choice and a description of the software's structure. This paper is an overview, but more information is available

1983-03-21

119

An application of conventional building technology in the storage of low level solid reactor wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ontario Hydro has been engaged in the interim storage of low and medium level solid reactor wastes since 1967. Over the past 14 years, engineered inground concrete trenches have provided safe, retrievable storage capacity for the bulk of the waste arising from Ontario Hydro's nuclear generation program. In addition to concrete trenches, inground concrete cylinders (tile holes) and above ground concrete vaults (Quadricells) have been designed and constructed to store disposable ion-exchange columns, spent filters and bulk ion-exchange resins. In 1978, Ontario Hydro initiated a conceptual design study on the future storage of solid reactor wastes. The objective of the study was to develop a bulk storage concept which would reduce both reactor waste storage costs and storage site land consumption. The study, completed in 1979, recommended a conventional pre-stressed, pre-fabricated, concrete storage building concept as Ontario Hydro's future bulk reactor waste storage facility. This new, low level storage building (LLSB) will be placed in service by September 1982, reducing bulk storage costs by a factor of three while reducing land consumption by a factor of 10 over present Ontario Hydro trench storage facilities. The storage building complements the capabilities of the other Ontario Hydro storage facility designs

1981-06-10

120

ABC crescent. Energy concept with active storage system for a Hamburg office building; ABC - Bogen. Energiekonzept mit Aktivspeichersystem fuer ein Buerohaus in Hamburg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This new multifunctional building will house a shopping mall and offices. Natural ventilation is favoured as far as possible. Technical facilities were minimised in order to save resources and reduce the operating cost. The architectural design was to be as functional as possible. [German] Mit dem ABC-Bogen in Hamburg entsteht in unmittelbarer Naehe zum Gaensemarkt ein multifunktionales Gebaeude mit Passagen, Laeden und Bueros - ein neuer Akzent in der Hamburger Innenstadt. Das grosszuegig verglaste Gebaeude sollte nach den Zielen der Hamburger Architekten BRT - Bothe, Richter, Teherani und der Projektentwicklung (SF-Bau Projektentwicklung GmbH, NL Hamburg) soweit wie moeglich natuerlich gelueftet werden. Die gebaeudetechnische Ausruestung der Bueros war zur Ressourcenschonung und Begrenzung der Betriebskosten auf ein Mindestmass zu beschraenken. Bei der Fassadengestaltung sollten funktionelle Aspekte absoluten Vorrang haben. (orig.)

Stoll, J. [HL-Technik AG, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Future Building Designs, Thermische Bauphysik-Bauklimatik

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Solar energy system using seasonal earth thermal storage (SETS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This investigation had several directions: 1) computer modeling of building performance using a solar energy system with a conventional short-term water energy storage, and using seasonal energy storage was carried out. A computer program for building energy analysis, DOE 2.1 made by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, was used for this purpose. The analysis predicted that a solar energy system using seasonal energy storage will out perform the system with conventional short-term energy storage by 10% in yearly energy savings. 2) Experimental investigation was carried out on a unique solar energy system designed and built for the Smith Academy Junior Senior High School in Hatfield, Massachusetts. The results showed that earth was able to accept energy well in the Summer and early Fall and retain it till late November, giving it off to the building when requested by the control system. 3) Economic analysis was carried out using simple payback and life cycle costing, assuming a discount rate of 9.1% and varying fuel inflation rates from 6% to 18%. The analysis showed that simple payback and a payback based on life cycle costing were approximately equal (13 and 12.5 years respectively), for fuel inflation rate assumed at 12%. 4) Simple guidelines for design of such solar energy systems in future projects are presented.

Brancic, A.B.

1984-01-01

122

Building a prototype expert systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past few years expert system technology has been gaining increasing respect within the world of computer science as it offers practical solutions to problems which have previously defied computerization. This paper is the culmination of a years investigation into how LBL can practically make use of this technology to solve some of the problems being faced by its scientists. To establish this and gain a greater understanding of expert system technology we attempted to build a prototype expert system using a commercially available expert system shell. The application we chose was to troubleshoot the hardware of the TPC particle detector (used by high energy physicists at LBL) using Neuron Data's expert system shell, Nexpert. This paper gives some brief overviews of the theoretical and practical work done by other people in fields relevant to this project. It includes: expert systems, their development, diagnostic expert systems, and examples of expert systems built to troubleshoot electronic devices. We describe how we selected our prototype expert system and then how we went about designing and building it. For this we have detailed the knowledge necessary to start troubleshooting the TPC and the methods used to represent that knowledge within the expert system shell. Finally we discuss the understanding of expert system technology which we have gained during this project and why we believe that this technology has a place in the future of problem solving at LBL. 31 refs.

Kalmus, D.; Hutchinson, M.; Hall, D.

1988-07-01

123

Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. Because this sub-project is still in the construction/start-up phase, all verification activities have not yet been performed (e.g., canister cover cap and welding fixture system verification, MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment verification, and As-built verification.). The verification activities identified in this report that still are to be performed will be added to the start-up punchlist and tracked to closure.

PICKETT, W.W.

2000-09-22

124

Advances in information storage systems, v.8  

CERN Document Server

This volume covers friction-induced vibration, the influence of actuator-bearing grease composition, wear measurements for proximity recording heads, characteristics of a suspension assembly, design and analysis of the HDD Servo System, reluctance torque reduction, etc. It is organized into three parts: Mechanics and Tribology for Data Storage Systems; Dynamics and Controls for Data Storage Systems; and Electric Motors for Data Storage Systems.

Bhushan, Bharat

1998-01-01

125

Simulation of the APS storage-ring rf system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simulation model for the APS storage ring rf system has been developed that includes the effects of cavity impedances, longitudinal beam dynamics, and generator klystrons. The model predicts multiple-bunch longitudinal beam behavior and is used for feedback system design and stability analysis

1997-05-12

126

Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

Raymond, Rick E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Frederickson, James R. [AREVA, Avignon (France); Criddle, James [AREVA, Avignon (France); Hamilton, Dennis [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Mike W. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

2012-10-18

127

Operating Experiences with an Advanced Fabric Energy Storage System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite their proven track record in the cold climate countries of northern Europe, there are no reports in the research literature of experiences using advanced fabric energy storage (FES) systems in countries where cooling rather than heating is the main priority. This paper reports some of the experiences with the first known advanced FES system in Australia made over the first full calendar year of operation. It is located in a three-storey building on a university campus in Victoria a...

Fuller, R. J.

2012-01-01

128

Categorization of hydrogen storage with reference to natural gas storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This poster session presentation proposes a categorization scheme of hydrogen storage systems based on energy content of the stored hydrogen. The presentation is based on data about various liquid and gaseous hydrogen storage installations and analogous data on storage systems for natural gas. The proposed system would serve to define and differentiate terms such as bulk storage, industrial storage and small storage systems, and would enable the comparison of existing and developing infrastructure requirements in the emerging context of hydrogen storage.

Venter, R. D.; Selim, M. A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

1997-05-01

129

Energy storage and wind energy conversion systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The demand imposed by the variability of wind power input have pushed the technical performance and cost requirements for energy storage to the forefront. In principle, wind turbine generators can be integrated with almost any kind of energy storage technology. However, the most appropriate energy storage system depends on the system size and the type of energy being delivered. Because most commercial wind turbines are designed to deliver electrical power, the vast majority of systems that do incorporate energy storage use batteries. Large systems using batteries have not been shown to be viable. Up to now, most efforts and success in reliably and economically integrating storage with wind turbine generators have been concerned with relatively small power plants, less than about 1 kW. Very small wind/storage systems, where the wind turbine is dedicated to charging conventional lead-acid batteries, currently dominate the market for wind power/energy storage hybrid power systems. These systems are well developed and proven. So-called 'village scale' hybrid power generating systems using energy storage (about 5 kW to 100 kW capacity) are now the subject of considerable product development and commercialization. The key technical problem for off-grid or stand-alone wind power systems of this size that must deliver well-regulated (i.e. high quality) AC power may well be to implement the most reliable and cost effective short term and highly responsive energy storage systems (on the scale of 1 second to 10 minutes). Such storage schemes must respond effectively to the wind power fluctuations and the load demand fluctuations to maintain network stability. Pumped hydro and underground compressed air storage will probably find some applications in larger scale wind power plants where they can work with the wind power plant to deliver baseload power to the grid, however the number of applications for these systems is limited. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

1997-01-01

130

Canister storage building (CSB) safety analysis report phase 3:safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) design criteria, the design's compliance with the applicable criteria, and the basis for authorization to proceed with construction of the CSB

1996-12-23

131

Design and licensing of the VSC dry fuel storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sierra Nuclear Corporation (SNC) has designed a 24 element PWR dry fuel storage system called the Ventilated Storage Cask (VSC-24). The VSC is a second generation fuel storage design that builds on previous experience and introduces simplified construction and handling features. The first cask of this type is going into service at the Palisades Nuclear Plant in the summer of 1992. A slightly smaller version of the cask, the VSC-17, was loaded with 17 consolidated fuel canisters (rods from 34 assemblies) and tested at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory in 1990. This paper discusses the design and licensing of the VSC-24 cask. Particular emphasis will be given to addressing activities required to implement a storage cask under the new cask certification rule

1992-04-12

132

Data storage and retrieval system  

Science.gov (United States)

The Data Storage and Retrieval System (DSRS) consists of off-the-shelf system components integrated as a file server supporting very large files. These files are on the order of one gigabyte of data per file, although smaller files on the order of one megabyte can be accommodated as well. For instance, one gigabyte of data occupies approximately six 9-track tape reels (recorded at 6250 bpi). Due to this large volume of media, it was desirable to 'shrink' the size of the proposed media to a single portable cassette. In addition to large size, a key requirement was that the data needs to be transferred to a (VME based) workstation at very high data rates. One gigabyte (GB) of data needed to be transferred from an archiveable media on a file server to a workstation in less than 5 minutes. Equivalent size, on-line data needed to be transferred in less than 3 minutes. These requirements imply effective transfer rates on the order of four to eight megabytes per second (4-8 MB/s). The DSRS also needed to be able to send and receive data from a variety of other sources accessible from an Ethernet local area network.

Nakamoto, Glen

1992-01-01

133

Ice storage for UK air conditioning systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technical developments and trends in the application of ice storage techniques are reviewed based on published information, primarily from the USA, and the case for the application of ice storage on the UK air conditioning scene is considered. There is case study information now available that indicates that ice storage systems can lower the overall costs of central station air conditioning systems by using lower operating temperatures when cooling. Not only does storage reduce the chiller system capacity requirement but the lower temperatures available can reduce the size of the air and water distribution systems. If lower capital costs can be confirmed for ice storage systems then this will be the stimulus to the adoption of these systems in the UK.

Stewart, L.J.

1987-09-01

134

Impact of drum storage on criticality accident alarm systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The changing mission from production to decommissioning that is taking place at many U.S. Department of Energy sites is producing an ever-increasing inventory of waste drums. These drums typically contain low-level radioactive waste and, in some cases, significant amounts of fissile materials. Such drums must be handled with all of the care necessary for radioactive materials and, where fissile materials are present, criticality safety controls. As the number of drums increases, the question inevitably arises as to where to store them. Old process buildings present one solution to that question. These buildings are typically large, designed to handle radioactive and fissile materials, and largely unused under the current mission and, as such, would seem ideal candidates for at least short-term storage of waste drums. When undergoing such a major change in mission, however, the building`s nuclear safety systems need to be reevaluated to ensure that they are appropriate for the new activity. One such system that must be evaluated is the building`s criticality accident alarm system (AAS). This system is designed to detect criticality accidents and is generally required anywhere that a criticality accident is credible. If drums are to be stored in a facility where a CAAS is required (either because of other activities in the building or because of the contents of the drums themselves), then those drums must be shown not to prevent the CAAS from functioning as designed.

Finfrock, S.; Watson, T. [Fluor Daniel Northwest, Richland, WA (United States); Byrd, J.; Miles, B.; Wilkinson, A. [Safe Sites of Colorado, Golden, CO (United States)

1997-12-01

135

Kerava Solar Village - A Solar Assisted Heat Pump System with Long-Term Heat Storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kerava solar village is the first regional building complex in Finland with a combined solar heating and heat pump system using seasonal storage. Besides the operational principles, we present the findings of a cost, performance and sensitivity analys...

R. Maekinen P. D. Lund

1983-01-01

136

Design of the POSTGRES Storage System.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the design of the storage system for the POSTGRES data base system under construction at Berkeley. It is novel in several ways. First, the storage manager supports transaction management but does so without using a conventional write a...

M. Stonebraker

1987-01-01

137

Modernization of the solid radwaste storage system at Beloyarsk NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently on Beloyarsk NPP works are carried out to bring up to date the solid radioactive waste (SRW) storage system: a facility is being created to enable the retrieval of SRW from compartments of the solid waste storage facility (SWSF) for the first stage of construction; a design package is being developed to arrange for containerized storage of SRW and to ensure that it is possible to place irrecoverable-shielding containers loaded with SRW into storage in the SWSF for the second stage of construction, improving the level of safety of temporary waste storage on the site and making the SRW available for handover to the national waste management operator; inside the internal circuit cleaning building a complex is being built for SRW management, including equipment for SRW processing and conditioning by incineration of combustible wastes, and decontamination and fragmentation of metallic SRW. The proposed design solutions will bring the SRW storage system at the plant up to date taking into account the regulatory requirements, extend operational lifetimes of storage facilities without any risks for personnel and the environment

2011-01-01

138

Hydrogen storage and delivery system development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

139

High-Density Digital Data Storage System  

Science.gov (United States)

High-density digital data storage system designed for cost-effective storage of large amounts of information acquired during experiments. System accepts up to 20 channels of 16-bit digital data with overall transfer rates of 500 kilobytes per second. Data recorded on 8-millimeter magnetic tape in cartridges, each capable of holding up to five gigabytes of data. Each cartridge mounted on one of two tape drives. Operator chooses to use either or both of drives. One drive used for primary storage of data while other can be used to make a duplicate record of data. Alternatively, other drive serves as backup data-storage drive when primary one fails.

Wright, Kenneth D.; Gray, David L.

1995-01-01

140

Redox storage systems for solar applications  

Science.gov (United States)

It is noted that the worldwide development of solar photovoltaic and wind turbine systems to meet a range of terrestrial electrical energy requirements has underscored the need for inexpensive and reliable electrical energy storage. The NASA Redox Energy Storage System, based on soluble aqueous iron and chromium chloride redox couples, has exhibited many system-related features which for the most part are unique to this storage system. The technology advances required in the two elements (electrodes and membranes), which are the key to its technological feasibility, have been attained and system development has begun. The design, construction, and testing of a 1-kW system integrated with a solar photovoltaic array is underway to provide early demonstration of the attractive system-related features of the NASA Redox Storage System. Also demonstrated will be its versatility and compatibility with a terrestrial solar photovoltaic electric power system.

Hagedorn, N. H.; Thaller, L. H.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

A life cycle cost analysis of large-scale thermal energy storage technologies for buildings using combined heat and power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: Buildings account for approximately 40% of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developed economies, of which approximately 55% of building energy is used for heating and cooling. The reduction of building-related GHG emissions is a high international policy priority. For this reason and because there are many technical solutions for this, these polices should involve significant improvements in the uptake of small-scale energy efficient (EE) systems. However the widespread deployment of many technologies, must overcome a number of barriers, one of which is a temporal (diurnal or seasonal) mismatch between supply and demand. For example, in office applications, peak combined heat and power (CHP) thermal output may coincide with peak electrical demand in the late morning or afternoon, whereas heating may be required early in the morning. For this reason, cost-effective thermal storage solutions have the potential to improve financial performance, while simultaneously reducing associated GHG emissions. The aim of this paper is to identify existing thermal energy storage (TES) technologies and to present and asses the economic and technical performance of each for a typical large scale mixed development. Technologies identified include: Borehole Thermal Energy Storage (BTES); Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES); Pitt Thermal Energy Storage (PTES) and Energy Piles. Of these the most appropriate for large scale storage in buildings were BTES and ATES because of they are relatively cheap and are installed under a building and do not use valuable floor area A Heat transfer analyses and system simulations of a variety of BTES systems are carried out using a Finite Element Analysis package (ANSYS) and energy balance simulation software (TRNSYS) is to determine the optimal system design. Financial models for each system are developed, including capital, installation, running and maintenance costs. Using this information the unit costs of energy recovered from the storage area are estimated. It was found that a deep BTES was the least economically attractive solution for daily storage and that a medium depth in the region of 50 meters was the most feasible with running costs of approximately Euro 0.055 per kWh. (Author)

Gaine, K.; Duffy, A.

2010-07-01

142

Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

1999-09-01

143

Effects of adding heat storage capacity in geothermal systems; Impact de reservoirs de stockage thermique sur les systemes geothermiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of geothermal energy to heat and air condition buildings is becoming more and more widespread throughout the world. However, the costs the drilling operations and heat pumps associated with geothermal systems are high. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of using thermal storage reservoirs in geothermal systems. The case of a 6000 m2 building in Montreal was studied using a basic system, without storage, and another system which had 2 buffer storage reservoirs; the system was modelled using TRNSYS. Results showed that adding two 120m3 storage reservoirs allowed the length of the wells and the capacity of the heat pumps to be reduced but did not achieve any reduction in energy consumption. The study demonstrated that the use of storage systems can lower the cost of geothermal installations; the possibility of using phase change materials for storage will be investigated in the future.

Langlois, Antoine; Bernier, Michel; Kummert, Michael [Departement de genie mecanique, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Lagace, Jacques [Bouthillette Parizeau et associes inc., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2010-07-01

144

Thermo Active Building Systems Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany, Austria, Netherlands, etc.), this type of system has been installed in a significant number of new office buildings since the late 1990s. The trend is spreading to other parts of the world (the rest of Europe, North America and Asia).

Olesen, Bjarne W.

2012-01-01

145

Design of Micro Flywheel Energy Storage System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flywheel energy storage systems have advantages over other types of energy storage devices in such aspects as unlimited charge/discharge cycles and environmental friendliness. In this paper, we propose a millimeter scale flywheel energy storage device. The flywheel is supported by a pair of passive magnetic bearings and rotated by a toroidally wound electric motor/generator. The geometry of the bearings is optimized for the maximum dynamic performance

2007-06-01

146

Search content via Cloud Storage System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With cloud computing growing in IT Enterprise. the importance of storing and searching files on the cloud increase. cloud storage is defined as a set of scalable data servers or chunk servers that provide computing and storage services to clients. Our research concern with searching in the file content throw cloud storage system Our research using ontology approach that can be store and retrieve files in the cloud based on its content to resolves the weaknesses that existed in Google File Sys...

Haytham Al-Feel; Mohamed Khafagy

2011-01-01

147

Cooperative Regenerating Codes for Distributed Storage Systems  

CERN Document Server

When there are multiple node failures in a distributed storage system, regenerating the failed storage nodes individually in a one-by-one manner is suboptimal as far as repair-bandwidth minimization is concerned. If data exchange among the newcomers is enabled, we can get a better tradeoff between repair bandwidth and the storage per node. An explicit and optimal construction of cooperative regenerating code is illustrated.

Shum, Kenneth W

2011-01-01

148

Informed about possible building-up of electric power plant. The Ipel Pumped Storage Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the locality of the Ipel Pumped Storage Power Plant (Ipel PSPP) in beginning of the October 2005 the presentation about prospectus of building-up of this hydroelectric power plant was held. In this paper the energetic development in the Slovak Republic and necessity as well as profitability of building-up of the Ipel PSPP are discussed. (author)

2005-11-01

149

Fuel assembly transfer and storage system for nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transfer and storage system on a site comprising several reactors and at least one building housing the installations common to all these reactors. The system includes: transfer and storage modules for the fuel assemblies comprising a containment capable of containing several assemblies carried on a transport vehicle, a set of tracks for the modules between the reactors and the common installations, handling facilities associated with each reactor for moving the irradiated assemblies from the reactor to a transfer module placed in loading position on a track serving the reactor and conversely to move the new assemblies from the transfer module to the reactor, and at least one handling facility located in the common installation building for loading the modules with new assemblies

1981-01-01

150

Development of vitrified waste storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have developed the radioactive waste vitrification technology and the vitrified waste storage technology. Regarding the vitrified waste storage system development, the authors have completed the design of two types of storage systems. One is a forced convection air cooling system, and the other is a natural convection air cooling system. They have carried out experiments and heat transfer analysis, seismic analysis, vitrified waste dropping and radiation shielding, etc. In this paper, the following three subjects, are discussed: the cooling air flow experiment, the wind effect experiment on the cooling air flow pattern, using a wind tunnel apparatus and the structural integrity evaluation on the dropping vitrified waste.

Namiki, S.; Tani, Y. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Engineering Dept.

1993-12-31

151

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01

152

Modelling of stationary bulk hydrogen storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The employment of bulk hydrogen storage systems within industry appears increasingly to be a near-term prospect given the steadily increasing levels of hydrogen production. The current study defines and outlines a cost model through which comparative and informative assessments of different stationary bulk hydrogen storage reservoir types can be made. The reservoir types investigated include: mined salt caverns, depleted natural gas reservoirs and liquid vessels. Using the model, cost of storage for these potential bulk hydrogen containment technologies is estimated and compared in qualitative terms. for similar storage applications. (Author)

Venter, R.D.; Pucher, G. [Centre for Hydrogen and Electrochemical Studies (CHES), University of Toronto (Canada)

1997-08-01

153

Search content via Cloud Storage System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With cloud computing growing in IT Enterprise. the importance of storing and searching files on the cloud increase. cloud storage is defined as a set of scalable data servers or chunk servers that provide computing and storage services to clients. Our research concern with searching in the file content throw cloud storage system Our research using ontology approach that can be store and retrieve files in the cloud based on its content to resolves the weaknesses that existed in Google File System that depends on metadata and searching only using file name Our new architecture was tested on Cloud Storage Simulator and the result shows that the new architecture has better scalability, fault tolerance and performance for searching for file content in cloud storage system.

Haytham Al-Feel

2011-11-01

154

Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. The original version of this document was prepared by Vista Engineering for the SNF Project. The purpose of this revision is to document completion of verification actions that were pending at the time the initial report was prepared. Verification activities for the installed and operational SSCs have been completed. Verification of future additions to the CSB related to the canister cover cap and welding fixture system and MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment will be completed as appropriate for those components. The open items related to verification of those requirements are noted in section 3.1.5 and will be tracked as part of the CSB Facility action tracking system.

BAZINET, G.D.

2000-11-03

155

Redox flow cell energy storage systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The redox flow cell energy storage system being developed by NASA for use in remote power systems and distributed storage installations for electric utilities is presented. The system under consideration is an electrochemical storage device which utilizes the oxidation and reduction of two fully soluble redox couples (acidified chloride solutions of chromium and iron) as active electrode materials separated by a highly selective ion exchange membrane. The reactants are contained in large storage tanks and pumped through a stack of redox flow cells where the electrochemical reactions take place at porous carbon felt electrodes. Redox equipment has allowed the incorporation of state of charge readout, stack voltage control and system capacity maintenance (rebalance) devices to regulate cells in a stack jointly. A 200 W, 12 V system with a capacity of about 400 Wh has been constructed, and a 2 kW, 10kWh system is planned.

Thaller, L. H.

1979-01-01

156

Heat pumps in underground seasonal energy storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) systems are designed for building heating and cooling, and heat pumps are often an essential part of these systems. Successful examples and future potential of UTES in combination with heat pumps were described. The size of existing plants range from 10 kW to a few MW. UTES can play an important role in building cooling and in storing waste heat, e.g. from cogeneration plants in summer time. Some large aquifer storage projects are of particular interest. The number of cold storage UTES is rapidly increasing in the Netherlands and southern Sweden. One of the best examples of UTES for heating and cooling is the head office of Scandinavian Airline System (SAS), north of Stockholm. Three heat pumps use the aquifer as heat source, extracting groundwater from two wells and re-injecting the cooled water through three wells. During the summer, the direction of pumping is reversed. Heat storage with higher temperatures (60 to 80 degrees C), still in the pilot plant phase, offers a high potential for applications in storing cheap (e.g. waste) heat. 21 refs., 3 figs.

Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Justus-Liebing University, Giessen (Germany)

1996-12-01

157

Sacramento Municipal Utility district's interim onsite storage building for low level radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to meet current and anticipated needs for the low level radwaste management program at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District has a design and construction program underway which will provide an onsite interim storage facility that can be expanded in two and one-half year increments. The design approach utilized allows capital investment to be minimized and still provides radwaste management flexibility in anticipation of delays in resolution of the nationwide long term radwaste disposal situation. The facility provides storage and material accountability for all low level radwastes generated by the plant. Wastes are segregated by radioactivity level and are stored in two separate storage areas located within one facility. Lower activity wastes are stored in a lightly shielded structure and handled by lift trucks, while the higher activity wastes are stored in a highly shielded structure and handled remotely by manual bridge crane. The layout of the structure provides for economy of operation and minimizes personnel radiation exposure. Design philosophy and criteria, building layout and systems, estimated costs and construction schedule are discussed

1986-01-01

158

Thermal storage system using metal hydrides  

Science.gov (United States)

A chemical thermal energy storage system employing CaNi5 and LaNi5 hydrides is described. Experiments were conducted to determine the performance of the hydrides individually and as elements of the system, and energy balances were estimated. It is shown that the methods described are better suited to long-term storage than the conventional, chemically non-active ones, and that they are well suited to solar energy systems.

Sakai, T.; Honda, N.

159

Data storage system for fusion experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An appropriate archiving and an effective using of experimental data are examined in the field of fusion research. Several computer systems in tokamak type fusion experimental devices are reviewed, and then, indispensable functions and optimum utilizing form of data storage system are discussed from the standpoint of computer technology. According to these considerations, the data storage system was made in the JFT-2M tokamak. (author)

1987-01-01

160

Energy storage for power systems  

CERN Document Server

The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

162

Toward Web Enhanced Building Automation Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emerging concept of Smart Building relies on an intensive use of sensors and actuators and therefore appears, at first glance, to be a domain of predilection for the IoT. However, technology providers of building automation systems have been functioning, for a long time, with dedicated networks, communication protocols and APIs. Eventually, a mix of different technologies can even be present in a given building. IoT principles are now appearing in buildings as a way to simplify and standa...

Bovet, Ge?ro?me; Ridi, Antonio; Hennebert, Jean

2014-01-01

163

Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

164

Design and implementation of iSCSI technology in the volume holographic storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

iSCSI builds on SCSI command for storage and TCP/IP protocols for networking. As a new storage technology, VHS has advantage of huge capability and fast data transfer rate. This paper presents a detailed design, based on Intel's network processor and embedded Linux OS, to implement embedded VHS system in which unites iSCSI and VHS technologies.

Wu, Ming; Xie, Chang Sheng

2003-09-01

165

Debut delayed: [hydropower pumped storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The future hydropower will include distributed pumped storage systems to tackle local demand peaks and provide grid balancing services. However, US electricity market conditions have delayed their debut, though they could be a useful tool for economic salmon protection. (author)

Reynolds, Patrick

1995-06-01

166

Radiation Monitoring System For Technical Storage Complex  

CERN Multimedia

In the report the characteristics of ALARM radiation monitoring systems and feature of their use at the Technical Storage Complex of F.V. Lukin State Research Institute of Physical Problems are presented.

Alexeev, A G; Kirayakova, N V; Kosiaynenko, E V; Liashenko, O A; Lukanin, V S; Pikalov, V A; Spinko, N V

2004-01-01

167

Status of electrical energy storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents an overview of the status of electrical storage systems in the light of the growing use of renewable energy sources and distributed generation (DG) in meeting emission targets and in the interest of the UK electricity supply industry. Examples of storage technologies, their applications and current status are examined along with technical issues and possible activities by UK industries. Details are given of development opportunities in the fields of flow cells, advanced batteries - lithium batteries, high temperature batteries, flywheels, and capacitors. Power conversion systems and system integration, the all-electric ship project, and compressed air energy storage are discussed. Opportunities for development and deployment, small scale systems, demonstration programmes, and research and development issues are considered. An outline of the US Department of Energy Storage programme is given in the Annex to the report.

NONE

2004-07-01

168

Livermore distributed storage system: Implementation and experiences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The LINCS Storage System (LSS) has been in production at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since January, 1988. In the development of the LSS, the designers made key architectural decisions which included the separation of data and control messages, ...

J. Foglesong G. Richmond L. Cassell C. Hogan J. Kordas

1990-01-01

169

Analysis of a heat pump system and a thermal energy storage in bedrock for heating and cooling of buildings; Analyse av varmepumpesystem tilknyttet termisk energilager i fjell for oppvarming og kjoeling av bygninger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indirect ground-source heat pump systems (GSHP) in vertical rock in Norway are usually energy efficient, and the heat pump can cover 80 - 90 percent of yearly heat demand. A large part of the cooling demand is covered by free cooling. The available potential from GSHP systems in Norway is mainly used for low temperature systems; heating, ventilation air and tap water. At the new Hoegskolebygget in Bergen a borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) system consisting of 80 boreholes is planned, to cover the base heating and cooling demand. The additional heating required is supplied from the district heating plant of BKK fjernvarme in Raadalen. Free cooling and an additional power source will cover the resisting cooling demand for the 52 000 m2 building. The total power and energy demand for room heating and ventilation is 3.0 MW and 2.3 GWh, but the actual power demand will be approximately 1.7 MW in daytime and 1.4 MW in nighttime. The total power and energy demand for cooling is 1.9 MW and 0.9 GWh. The designed condenser power is 1 135 kW. With a COP of 4, this results in 1 419 kW has to be returned to the BTES. A cooling load of 90 W/m requires 79 boreholes. Using 80 boreholes, the BTES can supply 480 kW to the evaporator and receive 1 440 kW from the condenser. The heat extraction from the BTES is using a lower temperature difference than the heat supply. The BTES system should consist of 80 boreholes connected in parallel using headers and manhole for the headers. A compact configuration of the boreholes will help to avoid heat loss, square shape is recommended. The BTES should be used for free cooling as much as possible. It is recommended to use the ice accumulation system Cristopia STL to cover the power top load. The STL is composed of a tank(s) filled with nodules (balls) and heat transfer fluid. Approximately 60 percent of the volume of the tank is occupied by the nodules and the remaining 40 percent is fluid. The number of nodules in a system determines both the heat exchange rate between the nodules and the heat transfer fluid and also the total energy stored in the STL. The heat transfer between the nodules and the system occurs when the heat transfer fluid circulates trough the tank. This system has satisfactory thermal characteristics, volume and price. Compared with ice accumulation systems such as binary ice and TSU-M internal melt, Cristopia has the lowest charging temperature (-5 to -6 degrees C) and maximum storage of ice (60 kWh/m3) By increasing the temperature level in the main distribution system for cooling from 7/12 degrees C or 8/13 degrees C to 10/16 degrees C, a greater part of the cooling load can be done by free cooling. Increased temperature level can give larger heat exchanger areas in the cooling battery, and consequently increased investment costs. Reduced circulated fluid leads to smaller dimensions of pipes and valves, and will lower the price. A problem, however, is that the demand for a SFP factor of 2, which requires an increase of ventilation work on approximately 5 percent, which again results in additional 30 000 kWh energy use, due to increased pressure loss in the cooling battery. If the profit from higher temperature level doesn't exceed increased energy use, increasing the temperature level is not profitable. Another possible solution is to use the same battery for both heating and cooling. Results from calculations using the program Earth Energy Designer (BED) shows that only returning excess heat from the cooling system in the BTES system, will give a temperature level decrease in the ground on 5 K, over a period of eleven years. This shows that it is important that a greater amount of energy is used to charge the BTES. Results from the thermal response test in Nittedal shows that there is a clear connection between the thermal resistance in the borehole and circulated fluid. Depending on the temperature level in collector pipes, turbulent flow can occur at flow speeds as low as 0.2 1/s. But this gives increased average temperature, and increased temperature difference i

Topdal, Anita

2006-07-15

170

Energy storage in future power systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its ability to counteract fluctuations in renewable power generation and thereby allow for longer reaction times for any controllable generation units. Capture and storage of excess renewable power in order to fully exploit the natural recourses is likely to become relevant for high penetration levels of renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system. When identifying the most relevant storage solutions it is necessary to include considerations on many relevant parameters which should be evaluated against the potential drawbacks and benefits of adding storage. Here, the most relevant technologies in relation to power systems with high penetration of renewable sources are identified and considerations with regard to cost, sizing and operation scheme are made.

Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Ă?stergaard, Jacob

2011-01-01

171

Heat storage systems. 2. ed. Waermespeicher  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat storage systems have a key role in energy conservation and in the use of renewable energy sources, e.g. solar energy. Heat storage is a wide field with many aspects. This information brochure is to give interested laymen an outline of what types of heat storage systems are available today, and what technologies may help to use energy more rationally on a long-term and medium-term basis. The presentation and explanation of the physical fundamentals gets special attention. (BWI)

Fisch, N.; Kuebler, R.

1992-01-01

172

ALARA Analysis for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Fuel Storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The addition of Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assembly storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) will increase the total cumulative CSB personnel exposure from receipt and handling activities. The loaded Shippingport Spent Fuel Canisters (SSFCs) used for the Shippingport fuel have a higher external dose rate. Assuming an MCO handling rate of 170 per year (K East and K West concurrent operation), 24-hr CSB operation, and nominal SSFC loading, all work crew personnel will have a cumulative annual exposure of less than the 1,000 mrem limit

2000-01-01

173

APS storage ring vacuum system performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented.

Noonan, J.R.; Gagliano, J.; Goeppner, G.A. [and others

1997-06-01

174

APS storage ring vacuum system performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented

1997-05-12

175

Simulation of thermocline thermal energy storage system using C  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solar thermal power generation is a modern technology, which has already shown feasible results in the production of electricity. Thermal energy storage (TES is a crucial element in solar energy applications, which includes the increase of building thermal capacity, solar water heating systems for domestic use, and Concentrated Solar Thermal power plants for electricity generation. Economic, efficient and reliable thermal energy storage systems are a key need of solar thermal power plants, in order to smooth out the insolation changes during intermittent cloudy weather condition or during night period, to allow the operation. To address this goal, based on the parabolic trough power plants, sensible heat storage system with operation temperature between 300°C – 390°C can be used. The goal of this research is to design TES which can produce 1MWe. In this work simulation is performed to analyze the Liquid medium STES using C. In this case different liquid medium TESs is investigated and out of all mixed-media single-tank thermocline TES is selected and designed based on the Schumann equation. In particular, this equation is numerically solved, in order to determine energy storage, at different locations and time inside the storage tank. Finally, due to their feasibility, low cost of manufacturing and maintenance are designed and sized to the minimum possible volume.

Meseret Tesfay

2013-06-01

176

Building blocks for modular data acquisition systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles of building blocks for modular data acquisition systems by means of the VIC bus are discussed. Real time operating systems based on the VME environment for program development drastically reducing the time needed to develop a working system

1994-09-12

177

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

Ternes, Mark P. (Knoxville, TN); Kedl, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1985-01-01

178

Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design

1994-01-01

179

ITER fuel storage system conceptual design description  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel, in the form of hydrogen isotopes Q2 (where Q is H, D, or T), is required to be stored and assayed in a safe manner at the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Two subsystems are proposed for this task: Fuel Storage (FS) and Fuel Management (FM). The combined system, Fuel Storage and Management System (FSMS), will provide fuel storage, tritium inventory, gas analysis, transfer pumping, and flow measurements. Presented is a Conceptual Design Description (CDD) of only the FS portion of the FSMS. The proposed FS system permits tritium and its associated isotopes to be stored within ZrCo storage beds, as a solid metal-hydride, or as a gas stored in tanks. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

1990-10-07

180

The effect of pumped storage and battery energy storage systems on hydrothermal generation coordination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper applies the multi-pass dynamic programming to the solution of the short term hydrothermal coordination problem considering pumped storage and battery energy storage systems. The algorithm can quickly converge to an optimal generation schedule while achieving the minimum production cost of power systems. Therefore, the effect of pumped storage and battery energy storage system can be studied

1992-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Impact of drum storage on criticality accident alarm systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The changing mission from production to decommissioning that is taking place at many U.S. Department of Energy sites is producing an ever-increasing inventory of waste drums. These drums typically contain low-level radioactive waste and, in some cases, significant amounts of fissile materials. Such drums must be handled with all of the care necessary for radioactive materials and, where fissile materials are present, criticality safety controls. As the number of drums increases, the question inevitably arises as to where to store them. Old process buildings present one solution to that question. These buildings are typically large, designed to handle radioactive and fissile materials, and largely unused under the current mission and, as such, would seem ideal candidates for at least short-term storage of waste drums. When undergoing such a major change in mission, however, the building's nuclear safety systems need to be reevaluated to ensure that they are appropriate for the new activity. One such system that must be evaluated is the building's criticality accident alarm system (AAS). This system is designed to detect criticality accidents and is generally required anywhere that a criticality accident is credible. If drums are to be stored in a facility where a CAAS is required (either because of other activities in the building or because of the contents of the drums themselves), then those drums must be shown not to prevent the CAAS from functioning as designed

1997-11-16

182

Combined solar collector and storage systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses reasons why fossil-fuelled water heating systems are included in new houses but solar systems are not. The technology and market potential for evacuated tube systems and integral collector storage systems (ICSS) are explained. The challenge for the designers of ICSSWH has been how to reduce heat loss without compromising solar energy collection. A new concept for enhanced energy storage is described in detail and input/output data are given for two versions of ICSSWH units. A table compares the costs of ICSSWH in houses compared with other (i.e. fossil fuel) water heating systems

2000-10-19

183

Background Storage Management in Operating Systems for Communications Computers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A background storage management system adapted to the special purposes of communication computers is developed. The architecture of the background storage management system is described by a model consisting of three parts: storage management, data manage...

M. Melnikow

1979-01-01

184

Operating Experiences with an Advanced Fabric Energy Storage System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite their proven track record in the cold climate countries of northern Europe, there are no reports in the research literature of experiences using advanced fabric energy storage (FES systems in countries where cooling rather than heating is the main priority. This paper reports some of the experiences with the first known advanced FES system in Australia made over the first full calendar year of operation. It is located in a three-storey building on a university campus in Victoria and has been in operation since mid-2002. Temperature, energy use and operational mode data were recorded during 2003. Airflow measurements through the FES system have been made in five areas of the building. On-going operating problems still exist with the system and this has prevented a conclusive evaluation of its suitability for the southern Australian climate.

R.J Fuller

2012-11-01

185

Annual collection and storage of solar energy for the heating of buildings. Report No. 2. Annual progress report, May 1976--July 1977  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new system for year-round collection and storage of solar heated water for heating of buildings has been designed and constructed at the University of Virginia. The system is composed of an energy storage sub-system which stores hot water in an underground pool and of a solar collector sub-system which acts not only to collect solar energy throughout the year but also to limit the evaporative and convective heat losses from the storage system. The annual collection and storage system began operation in late February 1977. Data are presented which illustrates the transient heat transfer which occurs during the start-up phase of operation. Thermal performance results are presented illustrating the efficiency of the solar collector and the variation of solar energy input to storage during a typical day's operation in May. Data are also presented which show the transient build-up of energy storage in the earth which surrounds the storage pool. An analog model has been developed to analyze the transient energy phenomena which occur within the earth surrounding the pool. These include transient heat losses from the pool to the earth and energy storage within the earth. Results of the analog model for idealized conditions are confirmed by exact mathematical solutions and by numerical analysis using a digital computer.

Beard, J. T.; Iachetta, F. A.; Lilleleht, L. U.; Dickey, J. W.

1977-07-01

186

Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

REMAIZE, J.A.

2000-09-27

187

Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility

2000-01-01

188

RTDS modelling of battery energy storage system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes the development of a simplified model of a battery energy storage. The battery energy storage is part of the ABB energy storage system DynaPeaQ®. The model has been built to be run in RTDS, a real time digital simulator. Batteries can be represented by equivalent electric circuits, built up of e.g voltage sources and resistances. The magnitude of the components in an equivalent circuit varies with a number of parameters, e.g. state of charge of the battery and current f...

Rydberg, Lova

2011-01-01

189

The high performance storage system (HPSS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ever more powerful computers and rapidly enlarging data sets require unprecedented levels of data storage and access capabilities. To help meet these requirements, the scalable, network-centered, parallel storage system HPSS was designed and is now being developed. The parallel I/O architecture, mechanisms, strategies and capabilities are described. The current development status and the broad applicability are illustrated through a discussion of the sites at which HPSS is now being implemented, representing a spectrum of computing environments. Planned capabilities and time scales will be provided. Some of the remarkable developments in storage media data density looming on the horizon will also be noted. (author)

1995-09-18

190

Security for cloud storage systems  

CERN Document Server

Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

Yang, Kan

2014-01-01

191

Force balanced magnetic energy storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel scheme of constructing coils suited for inductive storage system is described. By means of a force-compensating method, the reinforcement structure can be made considerably smaller than that needed for conventional coils. The economics of this system is shown to be capable of achieving savings of upwards of 40% when compared to a conventional system

1979-12-01

192

Data Acquisition and Storage in Engineering Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data storage represents a sensitive subject when it comes to a software system or a software application. Referring to engineering systems, data storage becomes even more challenging, since multiple functions must be accomplished and various tasks need real time response and high accuracy. While gathering information through data acquisition is relatively simple, with hardware and software equipment providing wide and complex documentation, data storage raises a set of issues, mainly due to communication channels, storage devices or software algorithms. In this context, the paper will focus on presenting some of the mostly used hardware devices and data transmission protocols in engineering applications, creating an overview over data manipulation and providing an implementation method, together with proposed solutions and a model of implementation regarding the topic.

Cezar Liviu CERVINSCHI

2011-09-01

193

Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

2011-04-01

194

Energy storage in residential and commercial buildings via Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This contribution proposes the usage of Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC) for the establishment of a decentralised energy storage network. Due to the continually increasing amount of renewable energy within the power grid, in particular in countries of the European Union, a huge demand for storage capacities develops that can hardly be met by large-scale systems alone. Because of their high storage density and good manageability LOHC substances permit the local storage of excess energy ...

2012-01-01

195

Injection Control System of HLS Storage Ring  

CERN Multimedia

The injection control system of Hefei Light Source (HLS) storage ring is a subsystem of the upgraded HLS control system, which is based upon EPICS. Three programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are used as device controllers, which control one septum modulator and four kicker modulators of HLS storage ring. An Industrial PC is used as Input/Output Controller (IOC) and it connects the PLCs with serial communication (RS232 mode) over fibre. A PC with Linux is used as operator interface (OPI), operator application are running on it. The control system was completed in July 2000. The commissioning shows that the control system is reliable and easy operational.

Liu, G; Li, W; Li Chuan; Li, K; Shang, L; Liu, Gongfa; Li, Jingyi; Li, Weimin; Li, Chuan; Li, Kaihong; Shang, Lei

2001-01-01

196

Application of heated water storage system in local area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the viewpoint of effective use of local energy and regional economic build-up, the authors proposed the `underground heated water storage system`, in which heated water is produced by utilizing the waste heat at the garbage burning plant, etc., and the heat is stored in the rock cavern and supplied to various facilities. This article describes the case study which has been carried out to evaluate the `energy saving effect` and the `degree of easing environmental burdens` when this system is applied to local area. In the model examined, 1. a local area, which has the waste processing function of 100 tons per day was selected as the heat source of the system, 2. heated water was supplied to an office building, sports center, condominium and green houses. Through these evaluations, the energy saving effect was found to be: 1. the warm heat supply system can save energy to 1/10 of the fuel consumption by the conventional system. On the other hand, it became clear that 1. the warm heat supply system reduced the generate quantity of CO{sub 2} to about 1/10 of that by the conventional system, and also reduced the generated quantity of NO{sub x} to about 1/20. From the above, the underground heated water storage system has been found out to be excellent in both the `energy saving effect` and the `degrees of easing environmental burdens`. (orig.)

Ueda, T. [Takenaka Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Inada, Y. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan)

1994-12-31

197

Electrochemical storage systems; Elektrochemische Speicheranlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrochemical storages can be used centrally as well as on the periphery of electric networks. They largely meet the requirements resulting from their multifunctional application range. Modern lead accumulators especially designed for the purpose have proven their value worldwide in extensive practical trials and commercial applications. In many of their present-day applications they are found to work cost-effectively. New electrochemical energy storages are being developed at present, some of them to far more demanding specifications than have been common until now. However it will take years to bring them to technical and market maturity. Until then lead batteries will continue to dominate this application area. (orig.) [Deutsch] Elektrochemische Energiespeicher stehen fuer den zentralen und dezentralen Einsatz in elektrischen Netzen zur Verfuegung. Sie erfuellen weitgehend die Anforderungen, die aus einem multifunktionalen Einsatz resultieren. Moderne Bleibatterien, speziell fuer dieses Einsatzgebiet entwickelt, haben sich in umfangreichen Praxisuntersuchungen und im kommerziellen Einsatz weltweit bewaehrt. Unter vielen in der Praxis vorkommenden Einsatzbedingungen sind sie wirtschaftlich. Neue elektrochemische Energiespeicher mit zum Teil weit hoeheren Spezifikationen stehen in der Entwicklung. Es wird jedoch noch Jahre dauern, bis sie technisch einwandfrei produziert und wirtschaftlich eingesetzt werden koennen. Bis dahin werden Bleibatterien dieses Anwendungsgebiet beherrschen. (orig.)

Brinkmann, J. [EBV GmbH, Feistriz i.R. (Austria)

1996-12-31

198

OPTIMUM HEAT STORAGE DESIGN FOR SDHW SYSTEMS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage designâ??s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral. The other model is especially designed for low flow SDHW systems based on a mantle tank.The tank designâ??s influence on the thermal performance of the SDHW systems has been investigated in a way where only one tank parameter has been changed at a time in the calculations. In this way a direct analysis of the tank designâ??s influence on the thermal performance of the systems is possible. By means of the calculations design rules for the two heat storage types are proposed.

Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

1997-01-01

199

Autonomic Management in a Distributed Storage System  

CERN Document Server

This thesis investigates the application of autonomic management to a distributed storage system. Effects on performance and resource consumption were measured in experiments, which were carried out in a local area test-bed. The experiments were conducted with components of one specific distributed storage system, but seek to be applicable to a wide range of such systems, in particular those exposed to varying conditions. The perceived characteristics of distributed storage systems depend on their configuration parameters and on various dynamic conditions. For a given set of conditions, one specific configuration may be better than another with respect to measures such as resource consumption and performance. Here, configuration parameter values were set dynamically and the results compared with a static configuration. It was hypothesised that under non-changing conditions this would allow the system to converge on a configuration that was more suitable than any that could be set a priori. Furthermore, the sy...

Tauber, Markus

2010-01-01

200

Bioclimatic design for building components and systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study presented is concerned with bioclimatic architecture, considered as a building system using current building production technologies. This represents an evolution beyond the past energy-bound concept of passive solar systems, restricted to specific devices and components. Demonstration of this thesis is pursued by an articulated method which entails the elaboration of the series of projects presented at the performance level, the analysis and verification of their energy efficiency using a computer simulation program, and finally, a technological formulation of the building systems. This method contains the following. Topics: 1. Performance system design, 2. Energy simulation and analysis, 3. Technological system design.

Zaccaria, G.; Los, S.; Pulitzer, N.; Tresca, A.; Zambelli, E.; Raitieri, R.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

A New Nightly Build System for LHCb  

Science.gov (United States)

The nightly build system used so far by LHCb has been implemented as an extension of the system developed by CERN PH/SFT group (as presented at CHEP2010). Although this version has been working for many years, it has several limitations in terms of extensibility, management and ease of use, so that it was decided to develop a new version based on a continuous integration system. In this paper we describe a new implementation of the LHCb Nightly Build System based on the open source continuous integration system Jenkins and report on the experience of configuring a complex build workflow in Jenkins.

Clemencic, M.; Couturier, B.

2014-06-01

202

Technology for national asset storage systems  

Science.gov (United States)

An industry-led collaborative project, called the National Storage Laboratory, was organized to investigate technology for storage systems that will be the future repositories for our national information assets. Industry participants are IBM Federal Systems Company, Ampex Recording Systems Corporation, General Atomics DISCOS Division, IBM ADSTAR, Maximum Strategy Corporation, Network Systems Corporation, and Zitel Corporation. Industry members of the collaborative project are funding their own participation. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through its National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) will participate in the project as the operational site and the provider of applications. The expected result is an evaluation of a high performance storage architecture assembled from commercially available hardware and software, with some software enhancements to meet the project's goals. It is anticipated that the integrated testbed system will represent a significant advance in the technology for distributed storage systems capable of handling gigabyte class files at gigabit-per-second data rates. The National Storage Laboratory was officially launched on 27 May 1992.

Coyne, Robert A.; Hulen, Harry; Watson, Richard

1993-01-01

203

The ALICE online data storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) Data Acquisition (DAQ) system has the unprecedented requirement to ensure a very high volume, sustained data stream between the ALICE Detector and the Permanent Data Storage (PDS) system which is used as main data repository for Event processing and Offline Computing. The key component to accomplish this task is the Transient Data Storage System (TDS), a set of data storage elements with its associated hardware and software components, which supports raw data collection, its conversion into a format suitable for subsequent high-level analysis, the storage of the result using highly parallelized architectures, its access via a cluster file system capable of creating high-speed partitions via its affinity feature, and its transfer to the final destination via dedicated data links. We describe the methods and the components used to validate, test, implement, operate, and monitor the ALICE Online Data Storage system and the way it has been used in the early days of commissioning and operation for the ALICE Detector. We will also introduce the future developments needed from next year, when the ALICE Data Acquisition System will shift its requirements from those associated to the test and commissioning phase to those imposed by long-duration data taking periods alternated by shorter validation and maintenance tasks which will be needed to adequately operate the ALICE Experiment.

Divia, R; Fuchs, U; Makhlyueva, I; Vyvre, P Vande; Carena, F; Carena, W; Chapeland, S; Barroso, V Chibante; Costa, F; Roukoutakis, F; Schossmaier, K; Soos, C; Haller, B von [CERN, Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Altini, V, E-mail: Roberto.Divia@cern.c [INFN, Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Sezione INFN Bary (Italy)

2010-04-01

204

Supervisory control for intelligent building systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of an office building is to provide optimum comfort that enables the occupants to attain maximum productivity. To meet this objective, a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system provides climate control; however, with an energy cost to the building owner. From an economic point of view it is important to minimize energy consumption while maximizing comfort. A three-level hierarchical control system composed of a supervisor, coordinators, and local controllers was formulated to meet this objective such that the building control system learns the characteristics of the building and determines the best control strategy. This intelligent building system (IBS) contains local controllers that control the equipment, a supervisor that monitors predicted disturbances to anticipate control actions, and coordinators that modify the supervisor's decisions to compensate for unexpected real-time disturbances. The supervisor provides an optimistic plant to operate the building using past information to predict the performance of the building. This level can learn the building dynamics and formulate a model from generic units or [open quotes]building blocks.[close quotes] These generic units are simple models that can be identified with data from the building and its HVAC system. Since comfort is needed only when the building is occupied, a technique was developed to predict occupancy using motion sensors. This technique requires no prior knowledge and with sufficient data can create a probability of occupancy. To minimize energy cost while maintaining comfort, a cost function was formulated. This functional relates comfort and energy costs into a unified performance index. An experimental test bed, composed of three offices, was used to verify portions of the supervisory control. Motion data was converted into probability of occupancy profiles, weather forecasts were collected, and the building model was identified.

Torcellini, P.A.

1992-01-01

205

Electron trapping data storage system and applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The advent of digital information storage and retrieval has led to explosive growth in data transmission techniques, data compression alternatives, and the need for high capacity random access data storage. Advances in data storage technologies are limiting the utilization of digitally based systems. New storage technologies will be required which can provide higher data capacities and faster transfer rates in a more compact format. Magnetic disk/tape and current optical data storage technologies do not provide these higher performance requirements for all digital data applications. A new technology developed at the Optex Corporation out-performs all other existing data storage technologies. The Electron Trapping Optical Memory (ETOM) media is capable of storing as much as 14 gigabytes of uncompressed data on a single, double-sided 54 inch disk with a data transfer rate of up to 12 megabits per second. The disk is removable, compact, lightweight, environmentally stable, and robust. Since the Write/Read/Erase (W/R/E) processes are carried out 100 percent photonically, no heating of the recording media is required. Therefore, the storage media suffers no deleterious effects from repeated Write/Read/Erase cycling.

Brower, Daniel; Earman, Allen; Chaffin, M. H.

1993-01-01

206

Changing Dashboard build system to Bamboo  

CERN Multimedia

The aim of this project is to change Cosmic custom build system to an Automated build system used Bamboo CI System services. The goal is when a developer performs some changes on the source code, the system builds installation packages for different architectures and runs tests automatically on the software modules as soon as possible. The Bamboo build system polls the git repository which is a commonly used source code repository by the developers of the IT department. Bamboo CI System is a widely used system by the department. Thus the project uses widely accepted tools by the department which makes the Cosmic project even more standardized. Project also aims to create packages for every versions of Cosmic modules for different architectures (SLC5/SLC6) which can be accessed by different package repositories on AFS file system. The created package repositories can be used for automated deploy environment such as puppet.

Varga, Robert

2013-01-01

207

Building management systems. Special issue; Gebouwbeheersystemen. Themanummer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In seven articles several aspects of building management systems are discussed: networks in businesses, wireless communication, renovation of installations in the buildings of a Dutch ministry by means of 1 intelligent system, the building of a new office building and the use of the newest technologies and a smart combined control system for the indoor climate and lighting, the use of a Building Automation Network (BACnet), remote control and maintenance of building installations, and finally a brief overview of the Congress Smart Buildings 2006 with respect to intelligent systems. [Dutch] In 7 artikelen worden verschillende aspecten van gebouwbeheersystemen behandeld: bedrijfsnetwerken, draadloze communicatie, renovatie van elektrotechnische en werktuigbouwkundige installaties in gebouwen van het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuurbeheer en Voedselkwaliteit (LNV) door middel van 1 intelligent systeem, de bouw van een kantoorpand met toepassing van de nieuwste technologieen en een slimme gecombineerde regeling voor het binnenklimaat en verlichting, toepassing van Building Automation Control netwerk (BACnet), besturing en onderhoud van gebouwsystemen op afstand via alarmmodem, en tenslotte een kort overzicht van het Congres Smart Buildings 2006 m.b.t. intelligente systemen.

Rigter, L. [Siemens Nederland, Building Technologies, Den Haag (Netherlands); Peterse, A. [Regel Partners, Hoevelaken (Netherlands); Van Oosten, G. [Priva Computer Systems, Delft (Netherlands); Jansen, J. [Barcol-Air, Purmerend (Netherlands); Greitzke, S. [Wilo, Dortmund (Germany); Hoeffnagel, R.

2007-01-15

208

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Handling Building (WHB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WHB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement areas ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination within the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WHB. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System is designed to perform its safety functions under accident conditions and other Design Basis Events (DBEs) (such as earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and loss of the primary electric power). Additional system design features (such as compartmentalization with independent subsystems) limit the potential for cross-contamination within the WHB. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits. The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System by being located within the WHB and by maintaining specific pressures, temperatures, and humidity within the building. The system also depends on the WHB for water supply. The system interfaces with the Site Radiological Monitoring System for continuous monitoring of the exhaust air; the Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System for detection of fire and smoke; the Waste Handling Building Electrical System for normal, emergency, and standby power; and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control of the system.

P.A. Kumar

2000-06-21

209

Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

Alan C. Cooper

2012-05-02

210

Evaluation of existing Hanford buildings for the storage of solid wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing storage space at the Hanford Site for solid low-level mixed waste (LLMW) will be filled up by 1997. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has initiated the project funding cycle for additional storage space to assure that new facilities are available when needed. In the course of considering the funding request, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked WHC to identify and review any existing Hanford Site facilities that could be modified and used as an alternative to constructing the proposed W-112 Project. This report documents the results of that review. In summary, no buildings exist at the Hanford Site that can be utilized for storage of solid LLMW on a cost-effective basis when compared to new construction. The nearest approach to an economically sensible conversion would involve upgrade of 100,000 ft"2 of space in the 2101-M Building in the 200 East Area. Here, modified storage space is estimated to cost about $106 per ft"2 while new construction will cost about $50 per ft"2. Construction costs for the waste storage portion of the W-112 Project are comparable with W-016 Project actual costs, with escalation considered. Details of the cost evaluation for this building and for other selected candidate facilities are presented in this report. All comparisons presented address the potential decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) cost avoidances realized by using existing facilities

1993-01-01

211

Proposal for massively parallel data storage system  

Science.gov (United States)

An architecture for integrating large numbers of data storage units (drives) to form a distributed mass storage system is proposed. The network of interconnected units consists of nodes and links. At each node there resides a controller board, a data storage unit and, possibly, a local/remote user-terminal. The links (twisted-pair wires, coax cables, or fiber-optic channels) provide the communications backbone of the network. There is no central controller for the system as a whole; all decisions regarding allocation of resources, routing of messages and data-blocks, creation and distribution of redundant data-blocks throughout the system (for protection against possible failures), frequency of backup operations, etc., are made locally at individual nodes. The system can handle as many user-terminals as there are nodes in the network. Various users compete for resources by sending their requests to the local controller-board and receiving allocations of time and storage space. In principle, each user can have access to the entire system, and all drives can be running in parallel to service the requests for one or more users. The system is expandable up to a maximum number of nodes, determined by the number of routing-buffers built into the controller boards. Additional drives, controller-boards, user-terminals, and links can be simply plugged into an existing system in order to expand its capacity.

Mansuripur, M.

1992-01-01

212

77 FR 14007 - Environmental Assessment for a Radiological Work and Storage Building at the Knolls Atomic Power...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Radiological Work and Storage Building at the Knolls Atomic...Program, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of...and the Department of Energy (DOE) implementing...radiological work and storage building at the Knolls Atomic...cooling towers and a boiler house. The EA evaluates...

2012-03-08

213

Design and operational experience of dry cask storage systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper (Power Point presentation) describes cask storage design features and available dry cask storage technology, cask types used for dry storage, design characteristics of CASTOR casks, the German licensing basis for cask storage systems, shielding requirements, thermal layout, mechanical design, criticality safety and containment, licensing procedure, operational experience of dry cask storage in Germany and worldwide

1998-04-16

214

Energy Storage System for a Pulsed DEMO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several designs have been proposed for DEMO, some of which will operate in pulsed mode. Since a fusion power plant will be required to deliver continuous output, this challenge must be solved. For the reference DEMO, energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWhe with a capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. Although DEMO is scheduled to be built in about 30 years, the design of the energy storage system must be based on current technology, focusing on commercially available products and on their expected future trends. From a thorough review of the different technologies available, thermal energy storage, compressed air energy storage, water pumping, fuel cells, batteries, flywheels and ultracapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage for a pulsed DEMO. An outline of each of these technologies is described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. Following this review, the most suitable methods capable of storing the required energy are examined. Fuel cells are not suitable due to the power requirement. Compressed air energy storage has a lower efficiency than the required one. Thermal energy storage, based on molten salts, so more energy can be stored with a better efficiency, and water pumping are shown as the main solutions, based on existing technology. However, those are not the only solutions capable of solving our challenge. Hydrogen production, using water electrolysis, hydrogen storage and combustion in a combined cycle can achieve our energy and power requirements with an acceptable efficiency. All these solutions are studied in detail and described, evaluating their current cost and efficiency in order to compare them all. (author)

2006-09-11

215

Prototype thermochemical heat storage with open reactor system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermochemical (TC) heat storage is an interesting technology for future seasonal storage of solar heat in the built environment. This technology enables high thermal energy storage densities and low energy storage losses. A small-scale laboratory prototype TC storage system has been realized at ECN, applying an open sorption system concept. The packed bed contains 17 dm(3) of sorption material and is capable of generating 150 W of thermal power. An effective energy storage density of approxi...

2013-01-01

216

Randomized load balancing in scalable storage systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Presently, IP-networked real-time streaming media storage has become increasingly common as an integral part of many applications. In recent years, a considerable amount of research has focused on the scalability issues in storage systems. Random placement of data blocks has been proven to be an effective approach to balance heterogeneous workload in a multi-disk environments. However, the main disadvantage of this technique is that statistical variations can still result in short term load imbalances in disk utilization, which in turn, cause large variances in latencies. In this paper, we propose a packet level randomization (PLR) technique to solve this challenge. We quantify the exact performance trade-off between our PLR approach and the traditional block level randomization (BLR) technique through analytical analysis. Our preliminary results show that the PLR technique outperforms the BLR approach and achieves much better load balancing in multi-disk storage systems.

Fu, Kun; Zimmermann, Roger

2005-01-01

217

Mass storage system by using broadcast technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are many similarities between data recording systems for high energy physics and broadcast systems; the data flow is almost one-way, requires real-time recording; requires large-scale automated libraries for 24-hours operation, etc. In addition to these functional similarities, the required data-transfer and data-recording speeds are also close to those for near future experiments. For these reasons, we have collaborated with SONY Broadcast Company to study the usability of broadcast devices for our data storage system. Our new data storage system consists of high-speed data recorders and tape-robots which are originally based on the digital video-tape recorder and the tape-robot for broadcast systems. We are also studying the possibility to use these technologies for the online data-recording system for B-physics experiment at KEK. (author)

Fujii, Hirofumi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Manabe, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Morita, Youhei; Nozaki, Tadao; Sasaki, Takashi; Watase, Yoshiyuko [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamasaki, Tokuyuki [Sony Corp. (Japan). Broadcast Products Company

1996-07-01

218

Mass storage system by using broadcast technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many similarities between data recording systems for high energy physics and broadcast systems; the data flow is almost one-way, requires real-time recording; requires large-scale automated libraries for 24-hours operation, etc. In addition to these functional similarities, the required data-transfer and data-recording speeds are also close to those for near future experiments. For these reasons, we have collaborated with SONY Broadcast Company to study the usability of broadcast devices for our data storage system. Our new data storage system consists of high-speed data recorders and tape-robots which are originally based on the digital video-tape recorder and the tape-robot for broadcast systems. We are also studying the possibility to use these technologies for the online data-recording system for B-physics experiment at KEK. (author)

1995-09-18

219

Management information systems - storage security  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This bachelor work is a research based document. It elaborates briefly on management information systems, their establishment and implementation. It later focuses on their security measures using the support of IS/IT.

El Hallag, Ahmed Yousef

2008-01-01

220

Mass Storage Performance Information System  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this task is to develop a data warehouse to enable system administrators and their managers to gather information by querying the data logs of the MDSDS. Currently detailed logs capture the activity of the MDSDS internal to the different systems. The elements to be included in the data warehouse are requirements analysis, data cleansing, database design, database population, hardware/software acquisition, data transformation, query and report generation, and data mining.

Scheuermann, Peter

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Energy storage  

CERN Document Server

Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

Brunet, Yves

2013-01-01

222

Norwegian low cost building integrated solar air heating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presentation of several low cost solar energy projects in Norway based on air heating from building integrated systems. Several types of solar storage systems have been tried out, both salt, water and river stone. Some of the projects are finally reported after several years of continous monitoring. The results show that the total investment/energy output ratio pr. year have resulted in solar energy prices of under 0,30 Norwegian Krona (NOK)/kWh. (1 US$ = 7 NOK). (Long term limit cost.) As a comparison, new Hydro-power from Norwegian waterfalls are planned at 0,35 - 0,60 NOK/kWh.

Roestvik, H.N.

1986-01-01

223

Energy Efficiency through Thermal Energy Storage - Evaluation of the Possibilities for the Swedish Building Stock, Phase 1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As a first step in assessing the potential of thermal energy storage in Swedish buildings, the current situation of the Swedish building stock and different storage methods are discussed in this paper. Overall, many buildings are from the 1960’s or earlier having a relatively high energy demand, creating opportunities for large energy savings. The major means of heating are electricity for detached houses and district heating for multi dwelling houses and premises. Cooling needs are relativ...

2010-01-01

224

Solar heating system with annual storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A heating system is described for a one-family house in Trento, Italy, using solar collectors with buried long-term storage water tanks, made of reinforced concrete and internally water-proofed, assisted by an electrical water-water type heat pump. 4 refs.

Lazzari, F.; Raffellini, G.

1981-07-01

225

Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

2009-05-03

226

Flywheel energy storage for electromechanical actuation systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe a flywheel energy storage system designed specifically to provide load-leveling for a thrust vector control (TVC) system using electromechanical actuators (EMAs). One of the major advantages of an EMA system over a hydraulic system is the significant reduction in total energy consumed during the launch profile. Realization of this energy reduction will, however, require localized energy storage capable of delivering the peak power required by the EMAs. A combined flywheel-motor/generator unit which interfaces directly to the 20-kHz power bus represents an ideal candidate for this load leveling. The overall objective is the definition of a flywheel energy storage system for this application. The authors discuss progress on four technical objectives: (1) definition of the specifications for the flywheel-motor/generator system, including system-level trade-off analysis; (2) design of the flywheel rotor; (3) design of the motor/generator; and (4) determination of the configuration for the power management system.

Hockney, Richard L.; Goldie, James H.; Kirtley, James L.

227

Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: concrete storage casks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents design concepts and cost estimates for the Monitored Retrievable Storage facility which uses concrete silos for storage. Two separate scenarios are considered: the first is the storage of spent fuel assemblies and the second is the storage of wastes generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel and does not consider spent fuel storage. Two storage options for each scenario were evaluated. One is for maximum throughput of fuel or waste at 1800 MTU/y and a facility storage capacity of 15,000 MTU. The other option is for a maximum throughput of fuel or waste at 3000 MTU/y and a facility storage capacity of 72,000 MTU. The construction and operating costs, as well as the life-cycle costs for both scenarios and both the 1800 and 3000 MTU/y throughput rates are summarized. Drawings defining the facility and equipment that are unique to the silo storage concept are included. 26 figures, 34 tables

1983-01-01

228

Experimental investigation on performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study on operation performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is conducted in this paper. The experimental system of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe is set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure and the condensation pressure of refrigeration system, the refrigeration capacity and the COP (coefficient of performance) of the system, the IPF (ice packing factor) and the cool storage capacity in the cool storage tank during charging period, and the cool discharge rate and the cool discharge capacity in the cool storage tank, the outlet water temperature in the cool storage tank and the outlet air temperature in room unit during discharging period are investigated. The experimental results show that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe can stably work during charging and discharging period. This indicates that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is well adapted to cool storage air-conditioning systems in building. (author)

Fang, Guiyin; Liu, Xu; Wu, Shuangmao [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2009-11-15

229

Nonlinear model for building-soil systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A finite-element based, numerical analysis methodology has been developed for the nonlinear analysis of building-soil systems. The methodology utilizes a reduced-order, nonlinear continuum model to represent the building, and the soil is represented with a simple nonlinear two-dimensional plane strain finite element. The foundation of the building is idealized as a rigid block and the interface between the soil and the foundation is modeled with an interface contract element. The objectives of the current paper are to provide the theoretical development of the system model, with particular emphasis on the modeling of the foundation-soil contact, and to demonstrate the special-purpose finite-element program that has been developed for nonlinear analysis of the building-soil system. Examples are included that compare the results obtained with the special-purpose program with the results of a general-purpose nonlinear finite-element program.

McCallen, D.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Romstad, K.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1994-05-01

230

Storage monitoring systems for the year 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In September 1993, President Clinton stated the US would ensure that its fissile material meet the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability. Frequent human inspection of the material could be used to ensure these standards. However, it may be more effective and less expensive to replace these manual inspections with virtual inspections via remote monitoring technologies. To prepare for this future, Sandia National Laboratories has developed several monitoring systems, including the Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) and Project Straight-Line. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Sandia effort that merges remote monitoring technologies into a comprehensive storage monitoring system that will meet the near-term as well as the long-term requirements for these types of systems. Topics discussed include: motivations for storage monitoring systems to include remote monitoring; an overview of the needs and challenges of providing a storage monitoring system for the year 2000; an overview of how the MIMS and Straight-Line can be enhanced so that together they create an integrated and synergistic information system by the end of 1997; and suggested milestones for 1998 and 1999 to assure steady progress in preparing for the needs of 2000

1997-04-09

231

Modeling of vehicular storage and supply systems for hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order for fuel cells to reach widespread commercial use to power vehicles, improvements need to be made in the area of hydrogen storage because of the low energy density of hydrogen. Several options exist for storing hydrogen, each being at a different stage of development. The main challenge, however, lies in the required infrastructure to supply the fuel. This paper defines the groundwork for the development of a complete model that defines the characteristics in vehicles and in various stages in the supply of fuel. This model considers the consequences involved when making the choice of a hydrogen storage method for on-board storage applications with particular attention to issues of safety. The model tabulates the parameters that are considered to be critical to both the vehicle and necessary support systems depending on the choice of hydrogen storage technology. The overall requirements are analyzed in a separate subsystem, and the model can then build a relationship between those subsystems. Interpretations are performed both quantitatively and qualitatively. 6 refs., 5 figs.

Viola, J.; Venter, R. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Bose, T.; Benard, P. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Institut de recherche sur l' hydrogene

2002-07-01

232

Energy storage system using superconductor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a result of continuous efforts, high critical current density exceeding 104 A/cm{sup 2} at 77K and strong levitation capacity has been achieved in Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor which is fabricated by melting technique. Various applications using the levitation properties of high-Tc superconductor is expected to come true in near future. Especially, by utilizing the levitation force between a permanent magnet and the superconductor, a flywheel system which store electrical energy as mechanical energy can be designed. (Author) 11 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Kim, Chan Joong; Kim, Ki Baek; Park, Hae Woong; Hong, Kye Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1995-03-01

233

APS storage ring vacuum system development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs

1991-05-06

234

Multi-purpose canister storage of spent nuclear fuel in modular vault system. Technology development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The original Modular Vault Dry Storage (MVDS) technology was developed in the early 1980s leading on from the experience gained with the magnox fuel dry storage facilities at the Wylfa power station in Wales (UK). The Wylfa dry fuel stores were commissioned in 1969 and the MVDS can, therefore, rightly claim to be the only dry fuel storage technology that has an operational and technological background of over thirty years. The MVDS system was originally designed to store individual fuel assemblies within a Storage Canister. This system ensures minimum fuel storage temperatures and provides maximum flexibility for future off-site transportation. Individual fuel assemblies can be removed from their storage locations and placed into a transportation cask for either road or rail off-site shipment. However, this requires each fuel assembly to be re-handled and transferred into the transportation cask. A vault storage system based on the proven MVDS technology using a large Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC), is now being developed to provide a cost-effective interim spent fuel storage system. Integrating the MVDS technology with a MPC and adapting the cooling, shielding and handling systems, allows the new vault storage system to provide high storage efficiency in compact storage buildings suitable for a large spent fuel interim storage facility. It has been possible to reconfigure the vault storage array from individual fuel assembly storage canisters to large diameter canisters, and to re-configure the handling equipment to transfer large canisters. By modifying the design of the MVDS to accept large, multiple fuel assembly, multi-purpose canisters, it has been possible to maintain the technical and operational benefits of the original MVDS design, with the additional benefits of multi-purpose canisters. (author)

2003-10-01

235

On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up induced by large-scale geologic storage of CO2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scale and magnitude of pressure perturbation and brine migration induced by geologic carbon sequestration is discussed assuming a full-scale deployment scenario in which enough CO{sub 2} is captured and stored to make relevant contributions to global climate change mitigation. In this scenario, the volumetric rates and cumulative volumes of CO{sub 2} injection would be comparable to or higher than those related to existing deep-subsurface injection and extraction activities, such as oil production. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic storage capacity of suitable formations, because over-pressurization may fracture the caprock, may drive CO{sub 2}/brine leakage through localized pathways, and may cause induced seismicity. On the other hand, laterally extensive sedimentary basins may be less affected by such limitations because (i) local pressure effects are moderated by pressure propagation and brine displacement into regions far away from the CO{sub 2} storage domain; and (ii) diffuse and/or localized brine migration into overlying and underlying formations allows for pressure bleed-off in the vertical direction. A quick analytical estimate of the extent of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage projects is presented. Also discussed are pressure perturbation and attenuation effects simulated for two representative sedimentary basins in the USA: the laterally extensive Illinois Basin and the partially compartmentalized southern San Joaquin Basin in California. These studies show that the limiting effect of pressure build-up on dynamic storage capacity is not as significant as suggested by Ehlig-Economides and Economides, who considered closed systems without any attenuation effects.

Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

2011-05-01

236

Site status monitoring report for Underground Storage Tank 0134-U at Building 9204-2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents potentiometric, groundwater quality,a nd vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring of underground storage tank (UST) 0134-U at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Building 9204-2 Site. The monitoring was conducted as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by Tennessee Dept. of Environment and Conservation. Results are given of the second semiannual site status monitoring performed in March 1996. Site ranking was also performed using the March 1996 groundwater data. The site was the location of a gasoline UST used to fuel an emergency generator at Building 9204-2; the tank was excavated and removed from the site.

NONE

1996-03-01

237

Site status monitoring report for Underground Storage Tank 0134-U at Building 9204-2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building 9204-2 is located within the central portion of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; it was previously the location of a gasoline underground storage tank used to fuel an emergency generator at the building. The tank was first suspected of leaking in 1988 and was excavated that year. Petroleum contamination of groundwater above applicable Tennessee Dept. of Environment and Conservation closure action levels was identified. This document presents potentiometric, grounwater quality, and vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring. It is divided into introductory information, water level measurement and sampling of monitoring wells, and vapor monitoring in subsurface utilities at the site.

NONE

1995-09-01

238

A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

2013-08-01

239

Novel evaporative cooling systems for building applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The technology and applications of evaporative cooling to provide human comfort in buildings is not new and has been used in different places based on different methods and materials. Conventional air conditioning systems overshadowed the application of evaporative cooling for buildings despite their ozone layer depletion. Evaporative cooling using porous ceramic evaporators were experimentally investigated. Encouraging results in terms of temperature reduction and cooling effectiveness were ...

Musa, Mu Azu

2009-01-01

240

Ventilation system in the RA reactor building - design specifications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protective role of the ventilation system of nuclear facilities involve construction of ventilation barriers which prevent release of radioactive particulates or gases, elimination od radioactive particulates and gases from the air which is released from contaminated zones into the reactor environment. Ventilation barriers are created by dividing the building into a number of ventilation zones with different sub pressure compared to the atmospheric pressure. The RA reactor building is divided into four ventilation zones. First zone is the zone of highest risk. It includes reactor core with horizontal experimental channels, underground rooms of the primary coolant system (D2O), helium system, hot cells and the space above the the reactor core. Second zone is the reactor hall and the room for irradiated fuel storage. The third zone includes corridors in the basement, ground floor and first floor where the probability of contamination is small. The fourth zone includes the annex where the contamination risk is low. There is no have natural air circulation in the reactor building. Ventilators for air input and outlet maintain the sub pressure in the building (pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure). This prevents release of radioactivity into the atmosphere

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Building restriction for the enclosure of the Gorleben intermediate storage plant cancelled  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The OVG Lueneburg has cancelled the building restriction decreed by the VG Stade. The decision is mainly based on the statement that the rights of the applicants are not infringed by the permission of the enclosure. In this context the court stated that the valid law fundamentally admits the construction and operation of private intermediate storage plants for spent fuels and low-level radioactive wastes.

1982-02-01

242

Building restriction for the enclosure of the Gorleben intermediate storage plant cancelled  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The OVG Lueneburg has cancelled the building restriction decreed by the VG Stade. The decision is mainly based on the statement that the rights of the applicants are not infringed by the permission of the enclosure. In this context the court stated that the valid law fundamentally admits the construction and operation of private intermediate storage plants for spent fuels and low-level radioactive wastes. (orig./HP)

1982-01-01

243

Spent fuel consolidation in the 105KW Building fuel storage basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study is one element of a larger engineering study effort by WHC to examine the feasibility of irradiated fuel and sludge consolidation in the KW Basin in response to TPA Milestone (target date) M-34-00-T03. The study concludes that up to 11,500 fuel storage canisters could be accommodated in the KW Basin with modifications. These modifications would include provisions for multi-tiered canister storage involving the fabrication and installation of new storage racks and installation of additional decay heat removal systems for control of basin water temperature. The ability of existing systems to control radionuclide concentrations in the basin water is examined. The study discusses requirements for spent nuclear fuel inventory given the proposed multi-tiered storage arrangement, the impact of the consolidated mass on the KW Basin structure, and criticality issues associated with multi-tiered storage

1994-01-01

244

Transport system for AR and AFR spent fuel storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study is to develop concepts of transport system of spent fuel of which results are necessary to propose an optimum storage method in Japan. Conceptual designs of the transport system from reactor to reprocessing plant were made for cask storage method, vault storage method and pool storage method in cases of AR and AFR storage conditions. In addition, costs for the transport system were estimated. As the results, economy of transport systems of those methods are good in the following orders vault storage approximately equal to pool storage > cask storage. However, the above results are for the case that costs for casks are included in the transport cost. Unless otherwise, economy of the transport system of the cask storage is the best. (author)

1985-01-01

245

Operation and maintenance of the SOL-DANCE building solar system. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sol-Dance building solar heating system consists of 136 flat plate solar collectors divided evenly into two separate building systems, each providing its total output to a common thermal storage tank. An aromatic base transformer oil is circulated through a closed loop consisting of the collectors and a heat exchanger. Water from the thermal storage tank is passed through the same heat exchanger where heat from the oil is given up to the thermal storage. Back-up heat is provided by air source heat pumps. Heat is transferred from the thermal storage to the living space by liquid-to-air coils in the distribution ducts. Separate domestic hot water systems are provided for each building. The system consists of 2 flat plate collectors with a single 66 gallon storage tank with oil circulated in a closed loop through an external tube and shell heat exchanger. Some problems encountered and lessons learned during the project construction are listed as well as beneficial aspects and a project description. As-built drawings are provided as well as system photographs. An acceptance test plan is provided that checks the collection, thermal storage, and space and water heating subsystems and the total system installation. Predicted performance data are tabulated. Details are discussed regarding operation, maintenance, and repair, and manufacturers data are provided. (LEW)

1980-07-29

246

Canister Storage Building (CSB) safety analysis report, phase 3: Safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy established the K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel Project to address safety and environmental concerns associated with deteriorating spent nuclear fuel presently stored under water in the Hanford Site's K Basins, which are located near the Columbia River. Recommendations for a series of aggressive projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to manage the safe removal of K Basins fuel were made in WHC-EP-0830, Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Recommended Path Forward, and its subsequent update, WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Fuel. The integrated process strategy recommendations include the following steps: Fuel preparation activities at the K Basins, including removing the fuel elements from their K Basin canisters, separating fuel particulate from fuel elements and fuel fragments greater than 0.6 cm (0.25 in.) in any dimension, removing excess sludge from the fuel and fuel fragments by means of flushing, as necessary, and packaging the fuel into multicanister overpacks (MCOs); Removal of free water by draining and vacuum drying at a cold vacuum drying facility ES-122; Dry shipment of fuel from the Cold Vacuum Drying to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), a new facility in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

1997-01-01

247

Eutectic mixtures of capric acid and lauric acid applied in building wallboards for heat energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Capric acid (CA) and lauric acid (LA), as phase change materials (PCM), can be applied for energy storage in low temperature. The phase transitions temperature and values of latent heat of eutectic mixtures of CA and LA are suitable for being incorporated with building materials to form phase change wallboards used for building energy storage. 120, 240 and 360 accelerated thermal cycle tests were conducted to study the changes in latent heat of fusion and melting temperature of phase change wallboards combined with the eutectic mixtures of CA and LA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tested the transition temperature and latent heat. The results showed that the melting temperature and latent heat of these phase change wallboards with eutectic mixtures have not obvious variations after repeated 360 thermal cycles, which proved that these phase change wallboards have good thermal stability for melting temperature and variations in latent heat of fusion for long time application. Therefore, they can be used for latent heat storage in the field of building energy conservation. (author)

Lv Shilei; Zhu Neng [Tianjin University (China). School of Environmental Science and Technology; Feng Guohui [Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang (China)

2006-06-15

248

Eutectic mixtures of capric acid and lauric acid applied in building wallboards for heat energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Capric acid (CA) and lauric acid (LA), as phase change materials (PCM), can be applied for energy storage in low temperature. The phase transition temperature and values of latent heat of eutectic mixtures of CA and LA are suitable for being incorporated with building materials to form phase change wallboards used for building energy storage. 120, 240 and 360 accelerated thermal cycle tests were conducted to study the changes in latent heat of fusion and melting temperature of phase change wallboards combined with the eutectic mixtures of CA and LA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tested the transition temperature and latent heat. The results showed that the melting temperature and latent heat of these phase change wallboards with eutectic mixtures have no obvious variations after repeated 360 thermal cycles, which proved that these phase change wallboards have good thermal stability for melting temperature and variations in latent heat of fusion for long time application. Therefore, they can be used for latent heat storage in the field of building energy conservation. (author)

Shilei, L.; Neng, Z. [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Guohui, F. [Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang (China)

2006-07-01

249

HVAC control system for building automation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the project is to design and construction of the HVAC control system for building automation. The HVAC control system can accomplish the function which are the optimum operation condition and operation time, and the operation pattern analysis. Also, this control system can effectively manage energy saving, building environment control, facilities safety monitoring etc. The HVAC control system consisted of the central control and monitoring system (CCMS) and the direct digital controller (DDC). 1) CCMS: -Main Compute -Graphic Board -Printer -Console Desk -Intercom. 2) DDC : -IMC-M (System Control Unit Main Module) -IMC-1,2,3,4(System Control Unit Module). Following this report will be used important data for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the HVAC control system. 12 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

Park, J. S.; Song, I. T.; Cho, S. W.; Cho, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

1999-11-01

250

On Building Secure Communication Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis presents the Guided System Development (GSD) framework, which aims at supporting the development of secure communication systems. A communication system is specified in a language similar to the Alice and Bob notation, a simple and intuitive language used to describe the global perspective of the communications between different principals. The notation used in the GSD framework extends that notation with constructs that allow the security requirements of the messages to be described. From that specification, the developer is guided through a semi-automatic translation that enables the verification and implementation of the system. The translation is semi-automatic because the developer has the option of choosing which implementation to use in order to achieve the specified security requirements. The implementation options are given by plugins defined in the framework. The frameworkâ??s flexibility allows for the addition of constructs that model new security properties as well as new plugins that implement the security properties. In order to provide higher security assurances, the system specification can be verified by formal methods tools such as the Beliefs and Knowledge (BAK) tool â?? developed specifically for the GSD framework â??, LySatool and OFMC. The frameworkâ??s flexibility and the existence of the system model in different perspectives â?? an overall global perspective and an endpoint perspective â??allow the connection to new formal methods tools. The modeled system is also translated into code that implements the communication skeleton of the system and can then be used by the system designer. New output languages can also easily be added to the GSD framework. Additionally, a prototype of the GSD framework was implemented and an ex-ample of using the GSD framework in a real world system is presented.

Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno

2013-01-01

251

Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

1985-01-01

252

DCCT system design for SSRF storage ring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A precise DC current transformer (DCCT) system is a must for commissioning and operation of the storage ring of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Hardware of the system to be completed consists of a Bergoz NPCT sensor, a NI PXI digital voltage meter and a PXI controller. The software was developed on LabVIEW platform to communicate with accelerator control system via EPICS Shared Memory IOCcore interface. Bench test and simulation results of the DCCT showed that 2 ?A resolution for DC current measurement and 0.5% relative accuracy for beam lifetime measurement could be achieved. (authors)

2007-06-01

253

Ultra Capacitor: Alternative Energy Storage Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today, ultracapacitors are a viable component for production aim designs in the power electronics world. The need for highly reliable back-up and emergency power are creating significant markets for energy storage and power delivery. Electrical wind turbine pitch systems, uninterruptible power supplies and electronic products such as wireless communication devices and digital cameras are some of the many applications where ultracapacitors have been designed in. Ultracapacitors are components ...

2013-01-01

254

Lightweigth Adaptive fault-tolerant data storage system (AFTSYS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research group ARCOS of Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain) have been working on flexible and adaptive data storage systems for several years. The storage systems developed are featured by software governance, making them portable across different hardware storage resources, and their dynamic adaptativy to the different circumstances of computer systems following the autonomic system paradigm. They also allow getting high performance storage by using data distribution or striping across ...

2008-01-01

255

Failure Analysis of Storage Data Magnetic Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows the conclusions about the corrosion mechanics in storage data magnetic systems (hard disk. It was done from the inspection of 198 units that were in service in nine different climatic regions characteristic for Mexico. The results allow to define trends about the failure forms and the factors that affect them. In turn, this study has analyzed the causes that led to mechanical failure and those due to deterioration by atmospheric corrosion. On the basis of the results obtained from the field sampling, demonstrates that the hard disk failure is fundamentally by mechanical effects. The deterioration by environmental effects were found in read-write heads, integrated circuits, printed circuit boards and in some of the electronic components of the controller card of the device, but not in magnetic storage surfaces. There fore, you can discard corrosion on the surface of the disk as the main kind of failure due to environmental deterioration. To avoid any inconvenience in the magnetic data storage system it is necessary to ensure sealing of the system.

Ortiz–Prado A.

2010-10-01

256

General considerations on thermal energy storage with closed adsorption systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heat supply for buildings accounts for about 40% of primary energy consumption in Europe. The main obstacle to a sustainable energy supply for buildings is the time gap between energy availability (solar heat in summer) and heating demand in winter. Storage of thermal energy may allow to bridge this gap and to reach high solar coverage rates for the heating supply of buildings. Within a study of a reference house in three climatic regions, with three insulation standards, two collector types,...

Fu?ldner, G.; Henning, H. -m; Schossig, P.; Schmidt, F. P.

2011-01-01

257

Building a sustainable energy system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The essential ingredients of a sustainable energy system are described. These are: (1) Renewable sources, i.e. the rate of consumption does not exceed the rate of renewal, (2) Sustainability, i.e. sufficient supply that a negligible amount of the total reserves is consumed in any practical time frame, (3) Economics. i.e. no requirement for capital outlays for infrastructure or operating costs that exceed the costs of delivering similar services today, (4) Environmental Gentility, or minimal disruption to global, continental, regional and local communities, (5) Waste Product Disposal and Hardware Decommissioning, i.e. an efficient and operating waste disposal/recycling system and provision for energy system hardware to be efficiently disposed or recycled at the end of its life cycle. Particular attention is paid to environmental gentility, emphasizing the need to consider material flow into, within and out of the environment, and evaluation of how this material modifies other aspects of nature equilibria.

Scott, S. [Victoria Univ., Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, BC (Canada)

1999-12-01

258

Viability of thermal storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Just as energy storage increases the efficiency of power-generation and -distribution systems, thermal storage in buildings can maintain a more-constant temperature while using less energy and allowing the use of renewable energy sources. Heavy building structures, increased convection area through hollow slabs, and separate storage facilities using water, stone, or water as ice, water of crystallization, or in reservoirs are common ways to store energy in buildings. 4 figures. (DCK)

Svennberg, S.A.

1982-01-01

259

Real-time supervision of building HVAC system performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis presents techniques for improving building HVAC system performance in existing buildings generated using simulation-based tools and real data. Therefore, one of the aims has been to research the needs and possibilities to assess and improve building HVAC system performance. In addition, this thesis aims at an advanced utilization of building energy management system (BEMS) and the provision of useful information to building operators using simulation tools. Buildings are becoming ...

Djuric, Natasa

2008-01-01

260

Flywheel energy storage systems in public transportation systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of energy storage units for the power supply of electrical regional light rail systems allows the optimised regeneration of the braking energy thus reducing the total energy consumption. The system offers additional advantages for the layout and operation of the power supply, as peak levelling and voltage stabilisation. In a demonstration project, supported by the EU-LIFE program, the flywheel storage system ``Magnetodynamic Storage`` (MDS) is under construction and will be implemented in a substation of the Cologne public transport. The data of the MDS-system are 9kWh and 0.9MW. The paper demonstrates the energy saving potential and other resulting system benefits. It discusses the specific requirements of the complete system on the MDS and aspects of its integration. (author)

Reiner, G. [Magnet-Motor GmbH, Starnberg (Germany); Gunselmann, W. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

1998-12-31

 
 
 
 
261

Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.

2004-06-01

262

Hot water storage tank heat exchanger system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A heat storage system is described comprising an intermittently operating fuel-fired heat engine, a coolant fluid for absorbing the rejected heat of the engine, a path for circulating the coolant fluid between the heat engine where it absorbs heat and a heat transfer zone where it gives up heat, means for forcibly circulating the coolant fluid through its associated path, a storage type potable hot water heater including a tank containing a volume of potable water, a path for circulating potable water between the tank and a heat transfer zone where it absorbs heat given up by the coolant fluid at its respective heat transfer zone, means responsive to the circulation of the coolant fluid to forcibly circulate the potable water through its associated path between the tank and its respective heat transfer zone to produce efficient heat transfer between the heat coolant fluid and the potable water at their respective heat transfer zones.

Swenson, P.F.

1993-07-13

263

Monitoring Building Systems for Schedule Compliance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) initiated a Core Business Hours program, it became a challenge to ensure that the hundreds of systems campus wide were operating within their programmed schedules. Therefore, a collaborative exchange between PNNL operations and PNNL researchers developing the Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance (DSOM) software package was initiated to create a tool to solve this problem. This new DSOM tool verifies systems are operating within scheduled operation times by polling Building Automation and Control Network (BACnet) identifiers of systems’ on/off or command statuses. The tool records the time spent in operation state (ON) and totalizes each system over a rolling 7-day period, highlighting systems that are running over the scheduled hours. This snapshot view allows building management to look quickly at the entire campus to ensure that systems are not operating beyond their scheduled hours.

Jensen, Andrew M.; Belew, Shan T.

2013-02-19

264

Exergy analysis of building energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Germany, energy consumption for space heating represents about 25% of the total final energy consumption of the entire country. The concept of LowEx buildings, which have a low exergy demand, has been introduced; however, the associated pump devices have a high electrical energy consumption. The aim of this paper is to provide a novel approach for comparing the exergy efficiency of different buildings. A system was modeled and simulated using Modelica, and the exergy losses in heat generation, distribution and delivery were calculated for both a geothermal heat pump and a boiler system. Results showed that the heat pump system led to lower exergy losses for heat generation but higher exergy losses for heat distribution than the boiler system. This study provided a useful comparison of exergy performance of geothermal heat pump and boiler systems however the simulation model should be improved to fully describe both systems' behavior.

Badakhshani, Azadeh; Hoh, Alexander; Muller, Dirk [RWTH Aachen University, E.ON Energy Research Center (Germany)], email: abadakhshani@eonerc.rwth-aachen.de

2011-07-01

265

Development of a remote building monitoring system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors describe the design, development and initial operation of a prototype system which permits remote monitoring of multiple heterogeneous commercial buildings across the Internet from a single control center. Their system is distinguished by its ability to interface to multiple heterogeneous legacy building Energy Management Control Systems (EMCSs), its use of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) standard communication protocols, development of a standardized naming system for monitoring points, the use of a relational DBMS to store time series data, automatic unit conversion, and a scripted time series visualization system. The authors discuss design decisions related to the selection of CORBA and a relational DBMS implementation. They also discuss related standards efforts such as BACnet and the International Alliance for Interoperability. They conclude with discussions of the HVAC system data and future work.

Olken, F.; Jacobsen, H.A.; McParland, C.; Piette, M.A.; Anderson, M.F.

1998-07-01

266

Ultra Capacitor: Alternative Energy Storage Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, ultracapacitors are a viable component for production aim designs in the power electronics world. The need for highly reliable back-up and emergency power are creating significant markets for energy storage and power delivery. Electrical wind turbine pitch systems, uninterruptible power supplies and electronic products such as wireless communication devices and digital cameras are some of the many applications where ultracapacitors have been designed in. Ultracapacitors are components which have properties of a complexe capacitor system which is sensitive to voltage, temperature and frequency. The understanding of their behavior is primordial to characterize and operate them.

Ashish Kumar, Kriti Singh, Dr. Debmalya Bhattacharya

2013-12-01

267

The RDM silo coal storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mitsui Group has recently developed a coal storage system that uses a rotary discharge machine (RDM). The RDM is well-proven in the handling of highly adherent powders. It consists of a cutting out wheel, wheel driving gear, and driving gear for travelling. The advantage of the RDM is that discharge of powder is made easy by the large depth of cut of the cutting out wheel. In the system as a whole, packing phenomena are avoided by the discharge ports being slit-shaped.

Kuwabara, T.; Mihara, J.; Yamaguchi, Y.

1982-01-01

268

Investigation of heat of fusion storage for solar low energy buildings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes a theoretical investigation by means of TRNSYS simulations of a partly heat loss free phase change material (PCM) storage solution for solar heating systems. The partly heat loss free storage is obtained by controlled used of super cooling in a mixture of sodium acetate and xanthane rubber. The storage can cool down to surrounding temperature preserving the latent heat in form of the heat of fusion energy. The basis for the calculations is a super low energy house with a space heating demand of 2010 kWh/year and a domestic hot water demand of 2530 kWh/year. For storage volumes in the range of 500 â?? 3000 litres the heat loss free state is seldom reached and the effect of super cooling is limited. For larger volumes the heat loss free state may be reached. The benefit of using a PCM storage compared to a traditional water storage is limited with respect to energy savings for storage sizes up to 1 m3, but if the same amount of net utilised solar energy should be reached it would require a water storage that is 2 â?? 3 times larger.

Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

2005-01-01

269

Approaching Sentient Building Performance Simulation Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sentient BPS systems can combine one or more high precision BPS and provide near instantaneous performance feedback directly in the design tool, thus providing speed and precision of building performance in the early design stages. Sentient BPS systems are essentially combining: 1) design tools, 2) parametric tools, 3) BPS tools, 4) dynamic databases 5) interpolation techniques and 6) prediction techniques as a fast and valid simulation system, in the early design stage.

Negendahl, Kristoffer; Heller, Alfred

2014-01-01

270

On Heterogeneous Regenerating Codes and Capacity of Distributed Storage Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heterogeneous Distributed Storage Systems (DSS) are close to real world applications for data storage. Internet caching system and peer-to-peer storage clouds are the examples of such DSS. In this work, we calculate the capacity formula for such systems where each node store different number of packets and each having a different repair bandwidth (node can be repaired by contacting a specific set of nodes). The tradeoff curve between storage and repair bandwidth is studied f...

Benerjee, Krishna Gopal; Gupta, Manish Kumar

2014-01-01

271

Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the limits imposed on information storage capacity of physical systems is a problem of fundamental and practical importance which bridges physics and information science. There is a well-known upper bound on the amount of information that can be stored reliably in a given volume of discrete spin systems which are supported by gapped local Hamiltonians. However, all the previously known systems were far below this theoretical bound, and it remained open whether there exists a gapped spin system that saturates this bound. Here, we present a construction of spin systems which saturate this theoretical limit asymptotically by borrowing an idea from fractal properties arising in the Sierpinski triangle. Our construction provides not only the best classical error-correcting code which is physically realizable as the energy ground space of gapped frustration-free Hamiltonians, but also a new research avenue for correlated spin phases with fractal spin configurations.

Yoshida, Beni

2013-11-01

272

Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Understanding the limits imposed on information storage capacity of physical systems is a problem of fundamental and practical importance which bridges physics and information science. There is a well-known upper bound on the amount of information that can be stored reliably in a given volume of discrete spin systems which are supported by gapped local Hamiltonians. However, all the previously known systems were far below this theoretical bound, and it remained open whether there exists a gapped spin system that saturates this bound. Here, we present a construction of spin systems which saturate this theoretical limit asymptotically by borrowing an idea from fractal properties arising in the Sierpinski triangle. Our construction provides not only the best classical error-correcting code which is physically realizable as the energy ground space of gapped frustration-free Hamiltonians, but also a new research avenue for correlated spin phases with fractal spin configurations. -- Highlights: •We propose a spin model with fractal ground states and study its coding properties. •We show that the model asymptotically saturates a theoretical limit on information storage capacity. •We discuss its relations to various theoretical physics problems.

Yoshida, Beni, E-mail: rouge@caltech.edu

2013-11-15

273

Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. {yields} It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. {yields} The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. {yields} The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO{sub 2} neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

Huang, Y., E-mail: y.huang@ulster.ac.u [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Wang, Y.D. [The Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Rezvani, S.; McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Anderson, M.; Hewitt, N.J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

2011-06-15

274

Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. ? It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. ? The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. ? The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO2 neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

2011-06-01

275

PV systems on listed buildings; Fingerzeig Gottes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Germany has about 440,000 listed buildings and many others that are subject to specific preservation rules. However, a recent court ruling stated that PV systems may still be installed, as conservation should not be given priority over climate protection.

Doemen, Rainer

2012-11-01

276

Performance of Ventilation Systems in Residential Buildings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to gather information on the performance of ventilation systems in residential buildings. The effect of the ventilation on health, comfort and satisfaction was also studied. Data was also collected of the fullfilment of National B...

R. Roennberg R. Ruotsalainen A. Majanen

1989-01-01

277

Heat of Fusion Storage with High Solar Fraction for Solar Low Energy Buildings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper presents the results of a theoretical investigation of use of phase change materials (PCMâ??s) with active use of super cooling as a measure for obtaining partly heat loss free seasonal storages for solar combi-systems with 100% coverage of the energy demand of both space heating and domestic hot water. The work is part of the IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme Task 32 â??Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar Buildingsâ?ť. The investigations are based on a newly developed TRNSYS type for simulation of a PCM-storage with controlled super-cooling. The super-cooling makes it possible to let storage parts already melted to cool down to surrounding temperature without solidification in which state that part of the storage will be heat loss free but still will hold the latent heat in form of the heat of fusion. At the time of energy demand the solidification of the super-cooled storage part is activated and the temperature rises to the melting point. In order to maximise the thermal performance of the storageit can be subdivided into several subsections individually controllable. A mixture of sodium acetate and xanthane rubber has been chosen for the PCM-storage. Sodium acetate has a melting point of 58°C and a heat of fusion capacity of 265 kJ/kg. The added xanthane rubber (approx. 2 weight-%) makes the sodium acetate super-cool in a stable way. The starting point for the investigations is an ideal heat storage with perfect heat transfer between charge/discharge fluid and PCM as well as a perfect control system resulting in the best possible energy utilisation. Solidification of the super cooled PCM can be activated on demand. The results of the ideal situation will form the background for further work towards a physical system. The paper will present the PCM-storage model as well as the theoretical results obtained for a solar combi system with the PCM-storage installed in a low energy house in a Danish climate. Parametric studies of collector area, storage volume and solar fraction for the PCM-system willbe presented as well as an outline for a system with 100% coverage of the space heating and domestic hot water demand.

Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

278

Annual collection and storage of solar energy for the heating of buildings. Report No. 3. Semiannual progress report, August 1977--January 1978  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new system for year-round collection and storage of solar heated water for heating of buildings has been operated over the past year at the University of Virginia. The system is composed of an energy storage sub-system, which stores hot water in an underground pool, and of a solar collector sub-system which acts not only to collect solar energy throughout the year but also to limit the evaporative and convective heat losses from the storage system. Results are presented to illustrate the transient heat transfer from the pool which occurs during the energy collection mode of operation. Thermal performance results are presented illustrating the efficiency of the solar collector under summer conditions (without a reflector) and winter conditions (with assistance from a vertical reflector). Results also show the transient behavior of energy storage in the water and in the earth which surrounds the storage pool. An analog computer model and a digital computer model have been used to analyze the transient energy phenomena which occur within the earth surrounding the pool. Results of the models are confirmed by an exact mathematical solution and by experimental results. Analog and digital models were used to determine the influence of various design modifications for improved collection and storage system performance. The experimental system has been modified to provide for energy extraction through a heat exchanger, to simulate the heat input required for a solar-assisted heat pump for a residential heating application.

Beard, J. T.; Iachetta, F. A.; Lilleleht, L. U.; Dickey, J. W.

1978-01-01

279

Prototype thermochemical heat storage with open reactor system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermochemical (TC) heat storage is an interesting technology for future seasonal storage of solar heat in the built environment. This technology enables high thermal energy storage densities and low energy storage losses. A small-scale laboratory prototype TC storage system has been realized at ECN, applying an open sorption system concept. The packed bed contains 17 dm{sup 3} of sorption material and is capable of generating 150 W of thermal power. An effective energy storage density of approximately 0.5 GJ/m{sup 3} was obtained.

Zondag, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kikkert, B.; Smeding, S.; De Boer, R.; Bakker, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2013-09-15

280

Final Hazard Classification and Auditable Safety Analysis for the 105-F Building Interim Safe Storage Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The auditable safety analysis (ASA) documents the authorization basis for the partial decommissioning and facility modifications to place the 105-F Building into interim safe storage (ISS). Placement into the ISS is consistent with the preferred alternative identified in the Record of Decision (58 FR). Modifications will reduce the potential for release and worker exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials, as well as lower surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) costs. This analysis includes the following: A description of the activities to be performed in the course of the 105-F Building ISS Project. An assessment of the inventory of radioactive and other hazardous materials within the 105-F Building. Identification of the hazards associated with the activities of the 105-F Building ISS Project. Identification of internally and externally initiated accident scenarios with the potential to produce significant local or offsite consequences during the 105-F Building ISS Project. Bounding evaluation of the consequences of the potentially significant accident scenarios. Hazard classification based on the bounding consequence evaluation. Associated safety function and controls, including commitments. Radiological and other employee safety and health considerations

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Background Storage Management in Operating Systems for Communication Computers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a background storage management system adapted to special purposes of communications computers is presented. Starting from the different possibilities of using background storage in communications computer problems, the architecture of ...

M. Melnikow

1977-01-01

282

Seismic upgrading of the spent fuel storage building at Kozloduy NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Spent Fuel Storage Building at Kozloduy NPP site has been analysed for new review level earthquake with 0.2 g peak ground acceleration (compared to the initial design basis earthquake with 0.1 g PGA). The preliminary seismic analysis of the existing building structure using the 5% site specific response spectrum showed the need of seismic structural upgrading. Two upgrading concepts were evaluated on the basis of several factors. The main factor considered was preventing the collapse of the hall structure and the travelling cranes on the fuel storage area during and after a SSE. A three dimensional finite element model was created for the investigation of the seismic response of the existing structure and for the design of the building upgrading. The modelling of the heavy travelling crane and its sub-crane structure was one of the key points. Different configurations of the new upgrading and strengthening structures were investigated. Some interesting conclusions have been drawn from the experience in analysing and upgrading of such a complex industrial structure, comprised of elements with substantial differences in material, rigidity, construction and general behaviour. (author)

2001-03-01

283

Whole-building systems integration laboratory survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was prepared for the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as a subcontracted activity by the Research Management Foundation of the American Consulting Engineers Council. The objective of the survey reported herein was to independently assess the need for a Building System Integration Laboratory from the viewpoint of academicians in the field of building science. The subcontractor-developed questionnaire was sent to 200 professors of architecture and engineering at US universities. In view of this diverse population, the 10% rate of return on the questionnaire was considered acceptable. Although the responses probably do not reflect an unbiased summary of the collective perceptions of the original population surveyed, they do provide a valid insight into the interests and concerns of the academic community with respect to building sciences issues.

Crawley, D.B. (American Consulting Engineers Council, Washington, DC (USA). Research and Management Foundation)

1989-09-01

284

Design Space Exploration for Building Automation Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the building automation domain, there are gaps among various tasks related to design engineering. As a result created system designs must be adapted to the given requirements on system functionality, which is related to increased costs and engineering effort than planned. For this reason standards are prepared to enable a coordination among these tasks by providing guidelines and unified artifacts for the design. Moreover, a huge variety of prefabricated devices offered from different manu...

O?zlu?k, Ali Cemal

2013-01-01

285

Buildings Definition as Product-Service Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Product-Service System is one way toward sustainable system development. One issue of PSS concerns the function allocation between the product part and the service part. In Architecture-Engineering-Construction,function assignment to either the building or the service offered is also a strong issue. The contracting owner (i.e. paying client) has to deal with this issue during the requirements definition. This paper proposes to tackle it through an adaptation and application of Gero's Function...

2013-01-01

286

A Cloud Storage System with Data Confidentiality and Data Forwarding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cloud storage is a model of networked online storage where data is stored in virtualized pools of storage which are generally hosted by third parties. Organizations cite data confidentiality as their serious concern for cloud computing, with uncrypted data stored on third party’s cloud system, The functionality of the storage system is limited when general encryption schemes are used for data confidentiality. With this consideration, we propose a new threshold proxy re-encryption scheme to ...

2013-01-01

287

Interim report on hydrogen storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen can be stored in the form of a metal hydride. The formation of the hydride is highly exothermic. Hence the rate at which hydrogen can be added to or removed from the storage system is limited by the rate of heat transfer. Heat transfer is facilitated by displaying the hydride on a metal support that conducts heat. The task was to find a binder to make hydride stay put on a metal support through at least 250"0 cycles of hydriding-dehydriding and to measure the rate of hydrogen uptake. 1 tab

1986-01-01

288

Advances in information storage systems, v.7  

CERN Document Server

Advances in Information Storage Systems (AISS) series was initiated by ASME Press. New York with a first issue published in April 1991. ASME Press published a total of five volumes in 1991-93. In 1994, World Scientific Publishing Co. Private Limited took over the highly respected series and published volume number 6 in 1995. This volume number 7 is the second volume published by the World Scientific Publishing. The aim of the series remains to report the latest results from around the world in all the electromechanical, materials science, design, and manufacturing problems of information stora

Bhushan, Bharat

1996-01-01

289

RF system for the PFP storage ring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main parameters of the rf system for the PEP storage ring are given. A total of 6 MW will be provided by twelve klystrons, each capable of delivering 500 kW of continuous rf power. Each klystron feeds two accelerating cavity sections, each 2.1 meters in length. The general layout is shown. The klystrons are housed in shelters above ground. The waveguides run through vertical penetrations to connect the klystrons to the accelerating cavities in the tunnel. The shelters are placed at three symmetrical regions around the ring. Low level circuits are described, and parasitic mode losses are discussed

1977-03-18

290

New design for a hydrogen storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Existing hydrogen storage systems using metal hydrides in the form of powder and appropriate heat exchange arrangements suffer many drawbacks such as long charge-discharge times, poor heat exchange arrangements, high weights, short lives and cumbersome design. A new design is suggested in which the hydrides are in the form of thin layers supported on a suitable base material and a protective catalytic surface layer. A comparative study of base materials in the form of foils, wires and pipes is discussed. It is found that the tubular form is preferable.

Vijay, Y.K.; Jain, I.P.

1985-04-01

291

Simulation of Flywheel Energy Storage System Controls  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the progress made in the controller design and operation of a flywheel energy storage system. The switching logic for the converter bridge circuit has been redefined to reduce line current harmonics, even at the highest operating speed of the permanent magnet motor-generator. An electromechanical machine model is utilized to simulate charge and discharge operation of the inertial energy in the flywheel. Controlling the magnitude of phase currents regulates the rate of charge and discharge. The resulting improvements are demonstrated by simulation.

Truong, Long V.; Wolff, Frederick J.; Dravid, Narayan

2001-01-01

292

Energy study of heat pumps and energy storage at Cisco Systems International; Energiestudie warmtepompen en energieopslag Cisco Systems International  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cisco Systems International considers the use of energy storage in combination with heat pumps for the new office building in Amsterdam South-East, Netherlands. This office building has a floor space of 35,000 m{sup 2}. In a later phase this can be enlarged to 45,000 m{sup 2} (phase 1b) or 90,000 m{sup 2} (phase 2). This study is based on phase 1b. The mounting heat capacity is 2,760 kW and the cooling capacity is 7,045 kW. The annually cooling demand is estimated to be 30,400 MWh/a. The computer cooling forms a greater part of the cooling request (28,300 MWh/a). This study is a pilot study to the applicability of subsurface energy storage where heat pumps in the new office building are involved. However, nearby the Cisco location IKEA (furniture warehouse) has also planned an energy storage system. Therefore, the interaction between the two storage systems was examined. Cost effectiveness was analysed by comparison of the storage system with an energy system using conventional cooling machines and gas boilers. 5 refs.

NONE

2000-05-23

293

Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design. ? The configuration of buildings systems operation is facilitated and automated. ? Building energy consumption is reduced compared to more conventional control systems. ? Thermal comfort for building occupants is improved. -- Abstract: A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual reconfiguration when making parametric analysis. A test case featuring an office located in Copenhagen, Denmark, indicates that the method has a potential to save energy and improve thermal comfort compared to more conventional systems control. Further investigations of this potential and the general performance of the method are, however, needed before implementing it in a real building design.

2011-12-01

294

Data storage and retrieval system abstract  

Science.gov (United States)

The STX mass storage system design is intended for environments requiring high speed access to large volumes of data (terabyte and greater). Prior to commitment to a product design plan, STX conducted an exhaustive study of the commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and software. STX also conducted research into the area of emerging technologies in networks and storage media so that the design could easily accommodate new interfaces and peripherals as they came on the market. All the selected system elements were brought together in a demo suite sponsored jointly by STX and ALLIANT where the system elements were evaluated based on actual operation using a client-server mirror image configuration. Testing was conducted to assess the various component overheads and results were compared against vendor data claims. The resultant system, while adequate to meet our capacity requirements, fell short of transfer speed expectations. A product team lead by STX was assembled and chartered with solving the bottleneck issues. Optimization efforts yielded a 60 percent improvement in throughput performance. The ALLIANT computer platform provided the I/O flexibility needed to accommodate a multitude of peripheral interfaces including the following: up to twelve 25MB/s VME I/O channels; up to five HiPPI I/O full duplex channels; IPI-s, SCSI, SMD, and RAID disk array support; standard networking software support for TCP/IP, NFS, and FTP; open architecture based on standard RISC processors; and V.4/POSIX-based operating system (Concentrix). All components including the software are modular in design and can be reconfigured as needs and system uses change. Users can begin with a small system and add modules as needed in the field. Most add-ons can be accomplished seamlessly without revision, recompilation or re-linking of software.

Matheson, Barbara

1992-01-01

295

Data storage and retrieval system abstract  

Science.gov (United States)

The STX mass storage system design is intended for environments requiring high speed access to large volumes of data (terabyte and greater). Prior to commitment to a product design plan, STX conducted an exhaustive study of the commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and software. STX also conducted research into the area of emerging technologies in networks and storage media so that the design could easily accommodate new interfaces and peripherals as they came on the market. All the selected system elements were brought together in a demo suite sponsored jointly by STX and ALLIANT where the system elements were evaluated based on actual operation using a client-server mirror image configuration. Testing was conducted to assess the various component overheads and results were compared against vendor data claims. The resultant system, while adequate to meet our capacity requirements, fell short of transfer speed expectations. A product team lead by STX was assembled and chartered with solving the bottleneck issues. Optimization efforts yielded a 60 percent improvement in throughput performance. The ALLIANT computer platform provided the I/O flexibility needed to accommodate a multitude of peripheral interfaces including the following: up to twelve 25MB/s VME I/O channels; up to five HiPPI I/O full duplex channels; IPI-s, SCSI, SMD, and RAID disk array support; standard networking software support for TCP/IP, NFS, and FTP; open architecture based on standard RISC processors; and V.4/POSIX-based operating system (Concentrix). All components including the software are modular in design and can be reconfigured as needs and system uses change. Users can begin with a small system and add modules as needed in the field. Most add-ons can be accomplished seamlessly without revision, recompilation or re-linking of software.

Matheson, Barbara

1992-09-01

296

ADVANCEMENT FOR INVOLUNTARY RECONFIGURATION FOR AMPLE RESPONSIBLE STORAGE SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays we are more dependent on Internet services, which gives a significant functionality and store serious state. These services are often executed on a group of machines inhabit at several geographic locations such as a set of company data centers. Byzantine-fault-tolerant duplication gets better the accessibility and reliability of Internet services that build up significant state and defend it in spite of attacks or software errors. However, an inactive set of replica, or have restrictions in how they hold reconfigurations is assumed by the accessible Byzantine-fault-tolerant storage systems. During the system lifetime in long-lived and large-scale systems this can be problematic where system membership is likely to change. A large-scale Byzantine-fault-tolerant system is a complete solution for dynamically changing system membership which is presented here. A service that tracks system membership and periodically notifies other system nodes of membership changes is presented in this paper. To avoid human configuration errors the membership service runs mostly automatically and provides applications with a sequence of consistent views of the system membership is itself by Byzantine fault- tolerant and reconfigurable. By using it in a new dispersed hash table called dBQS that provides atomic semantics even across changes in imitation sets as the utility of this membership service is demonstrated. To handle changes in the replica set dBQS is interesting in its own right because its storage algorithms extend existing Byzantine quorum protocols, and because it differs from previous distributed hash tables (DHTs by providing Byzantine fault tolerance and offering strong semantics.

Velikanti Kiran Kumar

2013-08-01

297

Integration of trigeneration system and thermal storage under demand uncertainties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a commercial building, a large portion of electricity is usually consumed in air conditioning to control indoor-air temperature and humidity. Energy savings or efficient production in air conditioning system is, therefore, crucial. In recent years, trigeneration systems, which provide electricity, heating and cooling, and thermal storage systems, which temporarily store cooling energy to smooth its production pattern, are attracting more attentions. These systems with different operating principles are usually designed based on nominal or peak loadings. With altering seasonal or day/night cooling demands, the performance and overall economics of the design may deprive. This work focuses on the design of a flexible and economical thermal energy production system by integrating trigeneration and cold storage techniques. The capacity determination of the main equipment units, their interconnections and operating conditions during different demand periods and electricity costs are discussed. A case study is used to demonstrate the system's merits to improve the air conditioning efficiency with overall investment and operating cost reductions under demand uncertainties. As demonstrated, the economic attractiveness of a thermal energy production system is sensitive to the electricity tariff used. Although a high degree of flexibility in meeting demand changes is usually introduced with a trigeneration system, its expensive investment cost makes it less economically attractive under the discounted electricity tariff. A hybrid system which produces thermal energy via both electricity and town gas is introduced. This hybrid allows operation mode switching according to the energy cost variations and ensures the best economic return. The sole dependence on network electricity can also be avoided and the process's operability can be enhanced. (author)

Lai, Sau Man; Hui, Chi Wai [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong (China)

2010-09-15

298

Energy Storage Systems as a Compliment to Wind Power  

Science.gov (United States)

As Gustavus Adolphus College prepares to install two wind turbines on campus, we are faced with the question of what to do with the excess electricity that is generated. Since the College pays a substantial demand charge, it would seem fiscally responsible to store the energy and use it for peak shaving, instead of selling it to the power company at their avoided cost. We analyzed six currently available systems: hydrogen energy storage, flywheels, pumped hydroelectric storage, battery storage, compressed air storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, for energy and financial suitability. Potential wind turbine production is compared to consumption to determine the energy deficit or excess, which is fed into a model for each of the storage systems. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of the storage systems and their suitability for energy storage and peak shaving in this situation.

Sieling, Jared D.; Niederriter, C. F.; Berg, D. A.

2006-12-01

299

Design and building of a new experimental setup for testing hydrogen storage materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For hydrogen to become the future energy carrier a suitable way of storing hydrogen is needed, especially if hydrogen is to be used in mobile applications such as cars. To test potential hydrogen storage materials with respect to capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics the Materials Research Department has a high pressure balance. However, the drawback of this equipment is, that in order to load samples, exposure towards air is inevitable. This has prompted the design and building of a new experimental setup with a detachable reactor allowing samples to be loaded under protective atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to serve as documentation of the new setup. (au)

Andreasen, Anders

2005-09-01

300

As-Built Verification Plan Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building MCO Handling Machine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This as-built verification plan outlines the methodology and responsibilities that will be implemented during the as-built field verification activity for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) MCO HANDLING MACHINE (MHM). This as-built verification plan covers THE ELECTRICAL PORTION of the CONSTRUCTION PERFORMED BY POWER CITY UNDER CONTRACT TO MOWAT. The as-built verifications will be performed in accordance Administrative Procedure AP 6-012-00, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project As-Built Verification Plan Development Process, revision I. The results of the verification walkdown will be documented in a verification walkdown completion package, approved by the Design Authority (DA), and maintained in the CSB project files

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Drop Accidents in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Addressed by Design Features and or Design Calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A variety of drop shear or impact scenarios have been identified for the Canister Storage Building. Some of these are being addressed by new calculations or require no specific action. This document describes five of them which are addressed by design features and/or existing design calculations. For each of the five a position is stated indicating the reason for assurance that the safety functions of the MCO will not be jeopardized by the accident. Following the position is a description of the basis for that position

2000-01-01

302

Design and building of a new experimental setup for testing hydrogen storage materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

For hydrogen to become the future energy carrier a suitable way of storing hydrogen is needed, especially if hydrogen is to be used in mobile applications such as cars. To test potential hydrogen storage materials with respect to capacity, kinetics andthermodynamics the Materials Research Department has a high pressure balance. However, the drawback of this equipment is, that in order to load samples, exposure towards air is inevitable. This has prompted the design and building of a new experimentalsetup with a detachable reactor allowing samples to be loaded under protective atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to serve as documentation of the new setup.

Andreasen, A.

2005-01-01

303

Canister storage building (CSB) safety analysis report phase 3: Safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canister Storage Building (CSB) will be constructed in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The CSB will be used to stage and store spent nuclear fuel (SNF) removed from the Hanford Site K Basins. The objective of this chapter is to describe the characteristics of the site on which the CSB will be located. This description will support the hazard analysis and accident analyses in Chapter 3.0. The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the CSB design criteria, the design's compliance with the applicable criteria, and the basis for authorization to proceed with construction of the CSB

1997-04-28

304

Real-time supervision of building HVAC system performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis presents techniques for improving building HVAC system performance in existing buildings generated using simulation-based tools and real data. Therefore, one of the aims has been to research the needs and possibilities to assess and improve building HVAC system performance. In addition, this thesis aims at an advanced utilization of building energy management system (BEMS) and the provision of useful information to building operators using simulation tools.

&am...

Djuric, Natasa

2008-01-01

305

Experimental analysis of simulated reinforcement learning control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is the first part of a two-part investigation of a novel approach to optimally control commercial building passive and active thermal storage inventory. The proposed building control approach is based on simulated reinforcement learning, which is a hybrid control scheme that combines features of model-based optimal control and model-free learning control. An experimental study was carried out to analyze the performance of a hybrid controller installed in a full-scale laboratory facility. The first part presents an overview of the project with an emphasis on the theoretical foundation. The motivation of the research will be introduced first, followed by a review of past work. A brief introduction of the theory is provided including classic reinforcement learning and its variation, so-called simulated reinforcement learning, which constitutes the basic architecture of the hybrid learning controller. A detailed discussion of the experimental results will be presented in the companion paper. (author)

Liu, S. [Architectural Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PKI 243, Omaha, NE (United States); Henze, G. P. [Architectural Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PKI 203D, Omaha, NE (United States)

2006-07-01

306

Energetic and Exergy Efficiency of a Heat Storage Unit for Building Heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with a numerical and experimental investigation of a daily solar storage system conceived and built in Laboratoire de Maitrise des Technologies de l Energie (LMTE, Borj Cedria). This system consists mainly of the storage unit connected to a solar collector unit. The storage unit consists of a wooden case with dimension of 5 m3 (5 m x 1m x 1m) filed with fin sand. Inside the wooden case was buried a network of a polypropylene capillary heat exchanger with an aperture area equal to 5 m2. The heat collection unit consisted of 5 m2 of south-facing solar collector mounted at a 37 degree tilt angle. In order to evaluate the system efficiency during the charging period (during the day) and discharging period (during the night) an energy and exergy analyses were applied. Outdoor experiments were also carried out under varied environmental conditions for several consecutive days. Results showed that during the charging period, the average daily rates of thermal energy and exergy stored in the heat storage unit were 400 and 2.6 W, respectively. It was found that the net energy and exergy efficiencies in the charging period were 32 pour cent and 22 pour cent, respectively. During the discharging period, the average daily rates of the thermal energy and exergy recovered from the heat storage unit were 2 kW and 2.5 kW, respectively. The recovered heat from the heat storage unit was used for the air-heating of a tested room (4 m x 3 m x 3 m). The results showed that 30 pour cent of the total heating requirement of the tested room was obtained from the heat storage system during the whole night in cold seasons

2009-05-01

307

Experimental analysis of simulated reinforcement learning control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is the second part of a two-part investigation of a novel approach to optimally control commercial building passive and active thermal storage inventory. The proposed building control approach is based on simulated reinforcement learning, which is a hybrid control scheme that combines features of model-based optimal control and model-free learning control. An experimental study was carried out to analyze the performance of a hybrid controller installed in a full-scale laboratory facility. The first paper introduced the theoretical foundation of this investigation including the fundamental theory of reinforcement learning control. This companion paper presents a discussion and analysis of the experimental results. The results confirm the feasibility of the proposed control approach. Operating cost savings were attained with the proposed control approach compared with conventional building control; however, the savings are lower than for the case of model-based predictive optimal control. As for the case of model-based predictive control, the performance of the hybrid controller is largely affected by the quality of the training model, and extensive real-time learning is required for the learning controller to eliminate any false cues it receives during the initial training period. Nevertheless, compared with standard reinforcement learning, the proposed hybrid controller is much more readily implemented in a commercial building. (author)

Liu, S. [Architectural Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PKI 243, Omaha, NE (United States); Henze, G. P. [Architectural Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, PKI 203D, Omaha, NE (United States)

2006-07-01

308

Research on Reliability Design of Data Storage for Embedded System  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increasing development and extensive application of embedded technology, the reliability of data storage for embedded systems increasingly become issues of concern for developers and users. Many methods to ensure the reliability of data storage in all aspects of the system design process based on the characteristics of embedded systems will be proposed In this paper and have certain significance on the reliability design of data storage in embedded system design.

Chao, Liu; Fang, Hu

309

Pressure release system for electric storage batteries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a recombinant, multi-cell, lead-acid electric storage battery comprising a container, a cover assembly, one or more partition walls dividing the space within the container and cover assembly into two or more cells, and a pressure release system. The pressure release system comprises: one or more manifolding apertures in one or more of the partition walls, which apertures are of a size which allows passage of gases and minimizes passage of electrolyte and which define one or more sets of manifolded cells; a single trapping chamber associated with each set of manifolded cells; a pressure release valve between each set of manifolded cells and its respective trapping chamber; and a single exhaust port associated with each of the trapping chambers, which exhaust ports allows passage of gas from the trapping chambers to the ambient.

Jergl, J.J.; Kump, W.H.

1990-01-02

310

Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Spent Fuel Storage Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) computer code, which is designed to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent nuclear fuel storage and transportation systems. The decay heat generated by spent fuel in a dry storage cask i...

D. R. Rector C. L. Wheeler N. J. Lombardo

1987-01-01

311

Life cycle optimization of building energy systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A life cycle optimization model intended to potentially reduce the environmental impacts of energy use in commercial buildings is presented. A combination of energy simulation, life cycle assessment, and operations research techniques are used to develop the model. In addition to conventional energy systems, such as the electric grid and a gas boiler, cogeneration systems which concurrently generate power and heat are investigated as an alternative source of energy. Cogeneration systems appeared to be an attractive alternative to conventional systems when considering life cycle environmental criteria. Internal combustion engine and microturbine (MT) cogeneration systems resulted in a reduction of up to 38% in global warming potential compared with conventional systems, while solid oxide fuel cell and MT cogeneration systems resulted in a reduction of up to 94% in tropospheric ozone precursor potential (TOPP). Results include a Pareto-optimal frontier between reducing costs and reducing the selected environmental indicators.

Osman, Ayat; Norman, Bryan; Ries, Robert

2008-02-01

312

Parametric Study on the Dynamic Heat Storage Capacity of Building Elements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning systems are often used even in moderate and cold climates. Particularly in this case, passive cooling by night-time ventilation seems to offer considerable potential. However, because heat gains and night ventilation periods do not coincide in time, a sufficient amount of thermal mass is needed in the building to store the heat. Assuming a 24 h-period harmo...

2008-01-01

313

Parametric Study on the Dynamic Heat Storage Capacity of Building Elements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In modern, extensively glazed office buildings, due to high solar and internal loads and increased comfort expectations, air conditioning systems are often used even in moderate and cold climates. Particularly in this case, passive cooling by night-time ventilation seems to offer considerable potential. However, because heat gains and night ventilation periods do not coincide in time, a sufficient amount of thermal mass is needed in the building to store the heat. Assuming a 24 h-period harmo...

2007-01-01

314

Novel heat recovery systems for building applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work presented in this thesis will explore the development of novel heat recovery systems coupled with low carbon technologies, and its integration to become one device with multifunction (building integrated heat recovery/cooling/air dehumidifier. In the first part of this thesis, an experimental performance of an individual heat recovery unit using Micro Heat and Mass Cycle Core (MHM3C) made of fibre papers with cross flow arrangement has been carried out. The unit was tested in an env...

Ahmad, Mardiana Idayu

2011-01-01

315

Fundamentals of energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book describes the various forms of energy storage, the principles used in storage devices, and state-of-the-art systems aspects of applications of energy storage. It covers mechanical, electromagnetic, organic and hydrogen fuels, electrochemical, chemical and physical aspects of the subject. The applications include utilities, transport, industry and buildings. It views energy storage for load-leveling, for use with renewable energy sources, resource handling system optimization, and more. Total systems on small and large scales are covered.

Jensen, J.; Sorensen, B.

1984-01-01

316

Electrochemical energy storage systems for solar thermal applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing and advanced electrochemical storage and inversion/conversion systems that may be used with terrestrial solar-thermal power systems are evaluated. The status, cost and performance of existing storage systems are assessed, and the cost, performance, and availability of advanced systems are projected. A prime consideration is the cost of delivered energy from plants utilizing electrochemical storage. Results indicate that the five most attractive electrochemical storage systems are the: iron-chromium redox (NASA LeRC), zinc-bromine (Exxon), sodium-sulfur (Ford), sodium-sulfur (Dow), and zinc-chlorine (EDA).

Krauthamer, S.; Frank, H.

1980-01-01

317

NASA Redox Storage System Development Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The Redox Storage System Technology Project was jointly supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and NASA. The objectives of the project were to develop the Redox flow battery concept and to probe its technical and economic viability. The iron and chromium redox couples were selected as the reactants. Membranes and electrodes were developed for the original mode of operating at 25 C with the reactants separated by an ion-exchange membrane. Analytical capabilities and system-level operating concepts were developed and verified in a 1-kW, 13-kWh preprototype system. A subsequent change was made in operating mode, going to 65 C and using mixed reactants. New membranes and a new electrode catalyst were developed, resulting in single cell operation as high as 80 mA/sq cm with energy efficiencies greater than 80 percent. Studies indicate a likely system cost of about $75/kWh. Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio) has undertaken further development of the Redox system. An exclusive patent license was obtained from NASA by Sohio. Transfer of Redox technology to Sohio is supported by the NASA Technology Utilization Office.

Hagedorn, N. H.

1984-10-01

318

Improving Throughput in Cloud Storage System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because the cloud serves many workloads concurrently, its disk access pattern is highly random and heterogeneous. In addition, because various virtual machines access to files respectively, meta data utilization and small write requests are increased. In order to build a system for these patters, we should analyze the modern techniques used at cloud system. First, we show that a SATA controller hasenough processing capability to serve six disks without performance degradation. Motivated by this experiment, we compare three disk configurations by executing benchmark applications. From the result,we observe that accessing independent disks directly provides better performance than RAID-0 and RAID-5. Lastly, we performed experiment about comparing frequently used protocols (NFS, iSCSI[8]and got the result that iSCSI[10] showed better performance than NFS[11

Chanho Choi

2012-06-01

319

Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1997-02-01

320

Energy storage systems program report for FY1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

Butler, P.C.

1997-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

A building heating system using solar energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system combines the advantages of the air and water solar heating which increases the energy efficiency of the building. The system includes first air space which is positioned between the southern wall of the building and vertical transparent coating. Above the southern pitched roof of the building, first and second transparent coating are fitted, under which second and third air spaces are found. The air spaces are connected to an air canal, formed above the northern pitched roof of the roofing, and they are parts of a common recirculation circuit. The air canal, by means of holes made in the inclined wall is connected to a short vertical tube connected, on its part, to horizontal tube to a second and a third holes. The holes are found in the lefts space under the roofing, and holes - in the right space under the roofing. Two water accumulators are envisaged. The southern and the northern pitched roofs includes an element with a step-like part on which an absorption coating is applied. In the step-like parts of the southern pitched roof air grooves are made which house tubes connected to the first parallel tubes in a common recirculation circuit by means of recirculation pumps. Similarly, second air canals are made in the step-like parts of the northern pitched roof in which second tubes are housed, connected to second parallel tubes in a common recirculation circuit by means of recirculation pumps. (authors)

2002-06-14

322

Test report : Raytheon / KTech RK30 energy storage system.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

2013-10-01

323

A Case for Optimistic Coordination in HPC Storage Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-performance computing (HPC) storage systems rely on access coordination to ensure that concurrent updates do not produce incoherent results. HPC storage systems typically employ pessimistic distributed locking to provide this functionality in cases where applications cannot perform their own coordination. This approach, however, introduces significant performance overhead and complicates fault handling. In this work we evaluate the viability of optimistic conditional storage operations as an alternative to distributed locking in HPC storage systems. We investigate design strategies and compare the two approaches in a prototype object storage system using a parallel read/modify/write benchmark. Our prototype illustrates that conditional operations can be easily integrated into distributed object storage systems and can outperform standard coordination primitives for simple update workloads. Our experiments show that conditional updates can achieve over two orders of magnitude higher performance than pessimistic locking for some parallel read/modify/write workloads.

Carns, Philip [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Harms, Kevin [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Kimpe, Dries [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wozniak, Justin [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ross, Robert [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ward, Lee [Sandia National Laboratory (SNL); Curry, Matthew [Sandia National Laboratory (SNL); Klundt, Ruth [Sandia National Laboratory (SNL); Danielson, Geoff [Sandia National Laboratory (SNL); Karakoyunlu, Cengiz [University of Connecticut; Chandy, John [University of Connecticut; Gropp, William D [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL

2012-01-01

324

Design of the POSTGRES storage system. Technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the design of the storage system for the POSTGRES data base system under construction at Berkeley. It is novel in several ways. First, the storage manager supports transaction management but does so without using a conventional write-ahead log (WAL). In fact, there is no code to run at recovery time and, consequently, recovery from crashes is essentially instantaneous. Second, the storage manager allows a user to optionally keep the entire past history of data-base objects by closely integrating an archival storage system to which historical records are spooled. Lastly, the storage manager is consciously constructed as a collection of asynchronous processes. Hence, a large monolithic body of code is avoided and opportunities for parallelism can be exploited. The paper concludes with a analysis of the storage system which suggests that it is performance competitive with WAL systems in many situations.

Stonebraker, M.

1987-02-04

325

Key-value Storage Systems (and Beyond with Python  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web application developers often use RDBMS systems such as MySql or PostgreSql but there are many other types of databases out there. Key-value storage, schema and schema-less document storage, and column-oriented DBMS systems abound. These kind of database systems are becoming more popular when developing scalable web applications but many developers are unsure how to integrate them into their projects. This talk will focus on the key-value class of data storage systems, weigh the strengths and drawbacks of each and discuss typical use cases for key value storage.

2010-09-01

326

The relation of collector and storage tank size in solar heating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A storage tank is used in many solar water heating systems for the storage of hot water. ? Using larger storage tanks decrease the efficiency and increases the cost of the system. ? The optimum tank size for the collector area is very important for economic solar heating systems. ? The optimum sizes of the collectors and the storage tank are determined. - Abstract: The most popular method to benefit from the solar energy is to use solar water heating systems since it is one of the cheapest way to benefit from the solar energy. The investment cost of a solar water heating system is very low, and the maintenance costs are nearly zero. Using the solar energy for solar water heating (SWH) technology has been greatly improved during the past century. A storage tank is used in many solar water heating systems for the conservation of heat energy or hot water for use when some need it. In addition, domestic hot water consumption is strongly variable in many buildings. It depends on the geographical situation, also on the country customs, and of course on the type of building usage. Above all, it depends on the inhabitants’ specific lifestyle. For that reason, to provide the hot water for consumption at the desirable temperature whenever inhabitants require it, there must be a good relevance between the collectors and storage tank. In this paper, the optimum sizes of the collectors and the storage tank are determined to design more economic and efficient solar water heating systems. A program has been developed and validated with the experimental study and environmental data. The environmental data were obtained through a whole year of operation for Erzurum, Turkey.

2012-11-01

327

Preliminary Study of Passive Cooling Strategy Using a Combination of PCM and Copper Foam to Increase Thermal Heat Storage in Building Facade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The innovation of phase change material (PCM) for thermal heat storage is one sustainable passive strategy that can be integrated into building designs. This research was conducted to study and evaluate the performance of the existing materials integrated with PCM and to propose a design strategy that would improve the system. This research suggested copper foam as a medium to be integrated with microencapsulated PCM. Applications of these combined materials will benefit the industry by impro...

Mohd Hafizal Mohd Isa; Xudong Zhao; Hiroshi Yoshino

2010-01-01

328

Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

2012-12-13

329

Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The penetration of renewable sources (particularly wind power) in to the power system network has been increasing in the recent years. As a result of this, there have been serious concerns over reliable and satisfactory operation of the power systems. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage devices into the power system network. Further, in the present deregulated markets these storage devices could also be used to increase the profit margins of wind farm owners and even provide arbitrage. This paper discusses the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications.

Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Ă?stergaard, Jacob

2009-01-01

330

Decommissioning of final product storage buildings at the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the final results of a pilot decommissioning project, carried out at the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Dessel, Belgium. The pilot project consisted of the dismantling of two, rather small, storage buildings for final products form the reprocessing process. The aims of the project were: the verification of the assumptions made in a previous paper study on decommissioning, the demonstration and development of dismantling techniques and the training of personnel. Both buildings have been emptied and decontaminated to background levels. Monitoring for de-restriction has been carried out by the Belgoprocess Health Physics Department and has been confirmed by an independent control organization for radiation protection. Consequently, the buildings have been withdrawn from the controlled are and were demolished. Concrete debris from demolition has been removed to an industrial dumping around for inert wastes and green field conditions restored. The report deals with techniques used in the decommissioning operations, with radioactive decommissioning waste and secondary waste generation, required manpower resources and total costs of the dismantling project. (author). 10 refs, 1 tab

1995-07-01

331

Robo-line storage: Low latency, high capacity storage systems over geographically distributed networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid advances in high performance computing are making possible more complete and accurate computer-based modeling of complex physical phenomena, such as weather front interactions, dynamics of chemical reactions, numerical aerodynamic analysis of airframes, and ocean-land-atmosphere interactions. Many of these 'grand challenge' applications are as demanding of the underlying storage system, in terms of their capacity and bandwidth requirements, as they are on the computational power of the processor. A global view of the Earth's ocean chlorophyll and land vegetation requires over 2 terabytes of raw satellite image data. In this paper, we describe our planned research program in high capacity, high bandwidth storage systems. The project has four overall goals. First, we will examine new methods for high capacity storage systems, made possible by low cost, small form factor magnetic and optical tape systems. Second, access to the storage system will be low latency and high bandwidth. To achieve this, we must interleave data transfer at all levels of the storage system, including devices, controllers, servers, and communications links. Latency will be reduced by extensive caching throughout the storage hierarchy. Third, we will provide effective management of a storage hierarchy, extending the techniques already developed for the Log Structured File System. Finally, we will construct a protototype high capacity file server, suitable for use on the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Such research must be a Cornerstone of any coherent program in high performance computing and communications.

Katz, Randy H.; Anderson, Thomas E.; Ousterhout, John K.; Patterson, David A.

1991-01-01

332

A Cloud Storage System with Data Confidentiality and Data Forwarding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud storage is a model of networked online storage where data is stored in virtualized pools of storage which are generally hosted by third parties. Organizations cite data confidentiality as their serious concern for cloud computing, with uncrypted data stored on third party’s cloud system, The functionality of the storage system is limited when general encryption schemes are used for data confidentiality. With this consideration, we propose a new threshold proxy re-encryption scheme to form a secure distributed storage system. This distributed storage system also lets a user forward his data in the storage servers to another user without retrieving the data back The distributed storage system not only supports secure and robust data storage and retrieval, but also lets a user forward his data in the storage servers to another user without retrieving the data back. The main technical contribution is that the proxy re-encryption scheme supports encoding operations over encrypted messages as well as forwarding operations over encoded and encrypted messages.

N.Jenefa

2013-03-01

333

Hot water system design for multi-residential buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monitoring of hot water consumption was done for five Ontario muli-residential buildings. The hot water consumption was analyzed with the purpose of developing a design criterion for future domestic hot water systems. It was found that hot water consumption during weekends, especially winter weekends, was significantly heavier than during other times. Two methods, involving the Cumulative and the Spielvogel design curves, were used to arrive at an optimal storage capacity and recovery rate combination. The computations were based on the winter weekend consumption. It was found that in most cases, the results derived from both methods were the same, and because of its simplicity, the use of the Cumulative design curve is recommended. The computer program used to calculate the design curves is provided in an appendix. 4 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

Olivares, T.C.

1987-12-16

334

The Role of Thermal Storage and Natural Gas in a Smart Energy System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Smart grids are considered important building blocks of a future energy system that facilitates integration of massive distributed energy resources like gas-fired cogeneration (CHP). The latter produces thermal and electric power together and as such reinforces the interaction between the gas and electricity-distribution systems. Thermal storage makes up the key-source of flexibility that allows decoupling the electricity production from the heat demand. However, smart grids focus on electric...

2012-01-01

335

Numerical analysis of a medium scale latent energy storage unit for districtheating systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper describes the application of computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) to the design and characterization of a medium scale energy storage unit for district heating systems. The shell-and-tube LHTES unit contains a technical grade paraffin (RT100) as phase change material (PCM) and uses water as heat transfer fluid (HTF). The system has been designed to transfer heat from the district to the building heating networks. After an initial description of the LHTES unit and a wide litera...

Colella, Francesco; Sciacovelli, Adriano; Verda, Vittorio

2012-01-01

336

Solar thermal energy systems for building integration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar thermal energy has the potential to make a significant contribution to the energy supply for space heating and hot water production, even in locations at higher latitudes, and in this way to reduce the use of fossil fuels. It is therefore very important to increase the use of this technology. By integrating solar collectors into building envelopes, the cost effectiveness of the collectors can be increased, as building material and labour costs can be reduced. By also using concentrating reflectors the cost effectiveness can be further increased. The aim of this work is to identify cost effective design criteria for building integrated solar collectors and solar thermal systems. It is hoped that the outcome will give guidance and inspiration to product developers, architects, designers and constructors and thereby help boost the solar thermal market and increase the use of solar thermal systems. The presented work includes an investigation of solar thermal systems for highly insulated buildings, performed for the International Energy Agency, Solar Heating and Cooling Programme, Task 28, in which solar thermal systems are designed for apartment buildings at high latitudes. Design advice is given based on Polysun simulations and parametric studies of various design parameters. Special attention was paid to dimensioning of the collector area to avoid overheating. The thermal performance of three designs of collectors for non-insulated roofs with cold attics underneath has been evaluated from measurements. The idea is to produce a thin, cheep and flexible roof-integrated collector for easy installation. The results show that the annual thermal energy yield would be 320, 330 and 280 kWh/m2 respectively for the three collectors A, B and C, at 50 deg C operating temperature. The corresponding yield per absorber area is 360, 680 and 1140 kWh/m2 respectively. As the material costs should be low, there is a potential for the production of these solar collectors, Collector B in particular, as cost effective building elements. However, further investigations for improved efficiency are suggested. The characteristics of a solar simulator have been investigated in order to show how suitable it is for use as a light source for indoor measurements of concentrating collectors for evaluation of their incidence angle dependence. It is here concluded that accurate results can be achieved for lower angles of incidence but for higher angles, above 35-40 deg, outdoor measurements are more reliable. A large solar thermal system, with facade-integrated collectors in several directions, connected to the flow side of the district heating grid in Malmoe, Sweden, has been studied, e.g. from measured data, and described. WINSUN simulations were performed to validate that the plant works as expected, which was confirmed by the results. The simulated annual output of 174 kWh/m2a from the system agreed well with the measured output, 180 kWh/m2a. The results from each of the collectors are also described and a small parametric study is given. The good accuracy of these results implies that WINSUN and Meteonorm data can be used for relatively good estimations of a complex system design when climate data is unavailable. The geometrical design of a concentrating PV/thermal hybrid collector for integration in a wall element is optimised for maximal energy output by short circuit current measurements of thin film photovoltaic cells and MINSUN simulations. The results show that the annual energy output could increase from 70 kWh/m2 for a vertical reference cell to 120 kWh/m2 absorber area. Results for a number of geometries are presented. (author)

Gajbert, Helena

2008-07-01

337

Macstor dry spent fuel storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AECL, a Canadian Grown Corporation established since 1952, is unique among the world's nuclear organizations. It is both supplier of research reactors and heavy water moderated CANDU power reactors as well as operator of extensive nuclear research facilities. As part of its mandate, AECL has developed products and conceptual designs for the short, intermediate and long term storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. AECL has also assumed leadership in the area of dry storage of spent fuel. This Canadian Crown Corporation first started to look into dry storage for the management of its spent nuclear fuel in the early 1970's. After developing silo-like structures called concrete canisters for the storage of its research reactor enriched uranium fuel, AECL went on to perfect that technology for spent CANDU natural uranium fuel. In 1989 AECL teamed up with Trans nuclear, Inc.,(TN), a US based member of the international Trans nuclear Group, to extend its dry storage technology to LWR spent fuel. This association combines AECL's expertise and many years experience in the design of spent fuel storage facilities with TN's proven capabilities of processing, transportation, storage and handling of LWR spent fuel. From the early AECL-designed unventilated concrete canisters to the advanced MACSTOR concept - Modular Air-Cooled Canister Storage - now available also for LWR fuel - dry storage is proving to be safe, economical, practical and, most of all, well accepted by the general public. AECL's experience with different fuels and circumstances has been conclusive

1996-04-01

338

Residential Photovoltaic Flywheel Storage System Performance and Cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

A subscale prototype of a flywheel energy storage and conversion system for use with photovoltaic power systems of residential and intermediate load-center size has been designed, built and tested by MIT Lincoln Laboratory. System design, including detail...

R. D. Hay A. R. Millner P. O. Jarvinen

1980-01-01

339

Requirements on seasonal storage systems; Anforderungen an Jahresspeicher  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PV or PV hybrid systems are the most efficient solution in most cases for electric power supply to autonomous systems. They range from battery systems to combined systems with integrated wind power or diesel engines. The contribution discusses the economic efficiency of seasonal heat storage with such systems. The results of economic efficiency studies as a rule depend on the reference system investigated. The contribution presents three different reference systems in an attempt to provide general information on the economic efficiency of seasonal storage. After this, three currently discussed solutions for seasonal energy storage are assessed with a view to their potential. (orig.)

Holz, F.; Steinhueser, A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

2005-07-01

340

Optimization of a seasonal storage solar system using Genetic Algorithms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seasonal storage solar systems are capable of storing thermal energy, from one season to another (typically a few months). In the present paper solar thermal energy generated during summer time, is stored for use in winter time (typically 120 days). The analyzed system consists of solar thermal collectors and a sensible heat storage device using water as storing media. The area of solar collector and the capacity of the storage tank are the basic sizing parameters, which have to meet the requ...

Dura?o, Bruno; Joyce, Anto?nio; Mendes, J. Farinha

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Energy-saving building at Kinki Nippon Railway Co. 's technology research laboratory (Part 4). Solar thermal conversion for absorption chiller and heat storage in soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar thermal conversion can be applied for the absorption chiller in summer season, and for heat storage in soil in winter time. These systems were applied to the above-mentioned building to carry out various experiments, and the result is reported. The capacity of the heat storage tank must be determined so as to make the chiller's operating rate maximum, for the purpose of which an overall system simulation is required. Equations of the calculation were introduced. Fairly satisfactory optimum capacity of the heat storage tank can be determined if it is adjusted in accordance with the sunshine ratio at the installation location. To find out the optimum operation conditions for the heat storage in soil, storage and collection of heat must be actually performed to provide data required for the simulation. Through actual heat storage and collection, the thermal properties of the soil were studied. The result well agreed with the measured values. Heat dissipation even from the soil becomes larger in a long period of time, with the result of losing 50% of the effective stored thermal energy in about 15 days, the energy becoming 30% in 25 to 35 days. (14 figs, 6 refs)

Saito, Sadao; Nakao, Hiroshi

1987-12-01

342

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be routinely handled at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) during fuel movement operations in the SNF Project. This analysis was performed to investigate the potential for damage from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack tube, service station, or sample/weld station. Appendix D was added to the FDNW document to include the peer Review Comment Record and transmittal record

1999-01-01

343

Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be routinely handled at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) during fuel movement operations in the SNF Project. This analysis was performed to investigate the potential for damage from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack tube, service station, or sample/weld station. Appendix D was added to the FDNW document to include the peer Review Comment Record & transmittal record.

TU, K.C.

1999-10-08

344

Thermochemical energy storage. Basis of the program plan of the Council for Building Research, 1984-1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermochemical energy storage and absorption heat pumps are included in a subsection of building research having a grant of about 5 MSEK for the years 1981 to 1984. The report presents the state of the art and recommends some lines of research and development such as application of large adsorption heat pumps and energy storage of short duration. There are no recommendations to accelerate the present efforts.

1983-01-01

345

DNA and microfluidics: Building molecular electronics systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of molecular electronics using DNA molecules as the building blocks and using microfluidics to build nanowire arrays is reviewed. Applications of DNA conductivity to build sensors and nanowire arrays, and DNA conjugation with other nanostructures, offers an exciting opportunity to build extremely small analytical devices that are suitable for single-molecule detection and also target screening

2006-05-24

346

A Cloud Storage System with Information Confidentiality and Forwarding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud storage suggests that the storage of information on-line within the cloud,wherein a company's knowledge is keep in and accessible from multiple distributed and connected resources that comprise a cloud.Cloud storage will offer the advantages of larger accessibility and reliability; speedy deployment; robust protection for knowledge backup,archival and disaster recovery purposes; and lower overall storage prices as a results of not having to buy, manage and maintain overpriced hardware. However, cloud storage will have the potential for security and compliance issues.Third party’s cloud system doesn't offer knowledge confidentiality. Constructing centralized storage system for the cloud system makes hackers scarf knowledge simply. General cryptography schemes shield knowledge confidentiality. within the projected system a secure distributed storage system is developed by desegregation a threshold proxy re-encryption theme with a suburbanised erasure code. The distributed storage system not solely supports secure and strong knowledge storage and retrieval, however conjointly lets a user forward knowledge from one user to a different while not retrieving the info back. the most technical involvement is that the proxy re-encryption theme supports coding operations over encrypted messages still as forwarding operations over encoded and encrypted messages. the strategy totally integrates encrypting, encoding, and forwarding.

Dr. M.V.Siva Prasad

2014-06-01

347

Building machine learning systems with Python  

CERN Document Server

This is a tutorial-driven and practical, but well-grounded book showcasing good Machine Learning practices. There will be an emphasis on using existing technologies instead of showing how to write your own implementations of algorithms. This book is a scenario-based, example-driven tutorial. By the end of the book you will have learnt critical aspects of Machine Learning Python projects and experienced the power of ML-based systems by actually working on them.This book primarily targets Python developers who want to learn about and build Machine Learning into their projects, or who want to pro

Richert, Willi

2013-01-01

348

An Overview of Video Allocation Algorithms for Flash-based SSD Storage Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the fact that Solid State Disk (SSD data storage media had offered a revolutionary property storages community, but the unavailability of a comprehensive allocation strategy in SSDs storage media, leads to consuming the available space, random writing processes, time-consuming reading processes, and system resources consumption. In order to overcome these challenges, an efficient allocation algorithm is a desirable option. In this paper, we had executed an intensive investigation on the SSD-based allocation algorithms that had been proposed by the knowledge community. An explanatory comparison had been made between these algorithms. We reviewed these algorithms in order to building advanced knowledge armature that would help in inventing new allocation algorithms for this type of storage media

Jaafer Al-Sabateen

2012-03-01

349

An Overview of Video Allocation Algorithms for Flash-based SSD Storage Systems  

CERN Document Server

Despite the fact that Solid State Disk (SSD) data storage media had offered a revolutionary property storages community, but the unavailability of a comprehensive allocation strategy in SSDs storage media, leads to consuming the available space, random writing processes, time-consuming reading processes, and system resources consumption. In order to overcome these challenges, an efficient allocation algorithm is a desirable option. In this paper, we had executed an intensive investigation on the SSD-based allocation algorithms that had been proposed by the knowledge community. An explanatory comparison had been made between these algorithms. We reviewed these algorithms in order to building advanced knowledge armature that would help in inventing new allocation algorithms for this type of storage media.

Al-Sabateen, Jaafer; Sumari, Putra

2012-01-01

350

Intelligent systems for conveyance and storage infrastructure  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this research project are to identify, demonstrate, and validate intelligent systems for conveyance and storage infrastructure that will enable effective, affordable, real-time, remote measurement, analysis, and reporting of their structural health. Specifically, the project involves testing and validating smart pipes, which could indicate locations of structurally weak areas, i.e., where leaks are likely to occur, and the location of existing leaks for corrective action. During the initial phase of this project an extensive literature search was conducted to identify technologies that could potentially be used in intelligent systems. Although the search was primarily focused on new emerging smart technologies, consideration was also given to innovative uses of established structural monitoring or testing technologies. Four emerging technologies that can potentially locate structurally weak areas and predict incipient leaks were identified: electrically conducting composite pipes, electrochemistry-based corrosion sensors, instrumented cathodic protection, and distributed piezoelectric sensors. Also identified was an innovative use of acoustic emission techniques to track deterioration in pre-stressed concrete pipes by monitoring energy releases from breaking corroded pre-stressing wires. A review of each of these technologies is presented. During the next phase of the program one or more of these technologies will be tested and evaluated further.

Juliano, Thomas M.; Meegoda, Jay N.

2002-02-01

351

Jamestown College sports building solar system SHAC No. 1150. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jamestown College is a small private college located in central North Dakota. High fuel prices combined with severe winter conditions make inexpensive alternate fuel sources attractive. The selection of Jamestown College as the site for a Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project was therefore met with a great heat of enthusiasm. The system consists of 198 ground-mounted, liquid, flat plate collectors and a 10,000 gallon storage tank for heat storage. Heat is collected by circulating a 50% water, 50% ethylene-glycol solution through the solar panels. A heat exchanger transfers the heat from the ethylene-glycol solution to water stored in the 10,000 gallon underground storage tank. The water in the storage tank is used throughout the building for heating purposes. This system can store heat in excess of building demands for use during nonsolar conditions. The system supplies supplementary building heat, domestic hot water preheat and supplementary swimming pool heat. Included in this report are: general system description; acceptance testing; acceptance test plan; operation and maintenance manual; maintenance and inspection schedule; and manufacturers literature.

Dekrey, D.

1983-11-08

352

Electromechanical Storage Systems for Application to Isolated Wind Energy Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Substantial technology advances have occurred during the last decade that have had and appreciated impact on performance and feasibility of the Electromechanical Storage Systems. Improvements in magnetic bearings, composite materials, power conversion systems, microelectronic control systems and computer simulation models have increased flywheel reliability, and energy storage capacity, while decreasing overall system size, weight and cost. These improvements have brought flywheels to the forefront in the quest for alternate systems. The result of the study carried out under the scope of the SEDUCTOR, about the state of art of the Electromechanical Storage Systems is presented in this report. (Author) 15 refs

1999-01-01

353

Heat storage systems. 5. rev. ed.; Waermespeicher  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat storages provide a means of adapting heat supply to demand both over time and in terms of quantity. Efficient heat storages are a prerequisite for making cost-effective use of waste and solar heat. The BINE reference book presents different storage technologies, offering planners, consultants and real estate professionals an overview of different storage media, capacity categories and types, these including long-term as well as high-temperature storages, along with information on economic efficiency. [German] Waermespeicher ermoeglichen es, das Waermeangebot im Zeitverlauf und in der Leistung dem Bedarf anzupassen. Erst durch effiziente Waermespeicher lassen sich Abwaerme oder solare Waerme wirtschaftlich nutzen. Das BINE-Fachbuch stellt die verschiedenen Speichertechnologien vor und bietet Planern, Beratern und der Immobilienwirtschaft einen Ueberblick ueber unterschiedliche Speichermedien, -groessen und -typen, Langzeit- und Hochtemperaturspeicher und die Wirtschaftlichkeit.

Hauer, Andreas [ZAE Bayern, Garching (Germany); Hiebler, Stefan [ZAE Bayern, Garching (Germany). Gruppe Waermespeichersysteme; Reuss, Manfred [ZAE Bayern (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Solarthermie/Oberflaechennahe Geothermie

2013-11-01

354

Observations made while running a multi-petabyte storage system  

CERN Document Server

We take an overview of the CERN Advanced Storage (CASTOR) version 2 system and its usage at CERN while serving the High Energy Physics community. We further explore some of the observations made between 2005 and 2010 while managing this multi-petabyte distributed storage system.

dos Santos, Miguel Coelho

2010-01-01

355

System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository.

CALMUS, R.B.

2000-12-27

356

Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

Butler, P.C.

1994-02-01

357

Superconducting magnetic energy storage for asynchronous electrical systems  

Science.gov (United States)

It is an object of the present invention to provide superconducting magnetic energy storage for a plurality of asynchronous electrical systems. It is a further object of the present invention to provide load leveling and stability improvement in a plurality of independent ac systems using a single superconducting magnetic energy storage coil.

Boenig, H.J.

1984-05-16

358

Canister storage building (CSB) safety analysis report phase 3: Safety analysis documentation supporting CSB construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Canister Storage Building (CSB) will be constructed in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The CSB will be used to stage and store spent nuclear fuel (SNF) removed from the Hanford Site K Basins. The objective of this chapter is to describe the characteristics of the site on which the CSB will be located. This description will support the hazard analysis and accident analyses in Chapter 3.0. The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the CSB design criteria, the design's compliance with the applicable criteria, and the basis for authorization to proceed with construction of the CSB.

Garvin, L.J.

1997-04-28

359

Southern company energy storage study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL; Jenkins, Kip [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL

2013-03-01

360

Casks (computer analysis of storage casks): A microcomputer based analysis system for storage cask review.  

Science.gov (United States)

CASKS is a microcomputer based computer system developed by LLNL to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in performing confirmatory analyses for licensing review of radioactive-material storage cask designs. The analysis programs of the CASKS computer...

T. F. Chen G. C. Mok R. W. Carlson

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Pumped storage in systems with very high wind penetration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the operation of the Irish power system with very high levels of wind energy, with and without pumped storage. A unit commitment model which accounts for the uncertainty in wind power is used. It is shown that as wind penetration increases, the optimal operation of storage depends on wind output as well as load. The main benefit from storage is shown to be a decrease in wind curtailment. The economics of the system are examined to find the level at which storage justifies ...

Tuohy, Aidan; O Malley, Mark

2011-01-01

362

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status

2000-01-01

363

Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

2010-03-22

364

Design of reactor building foundation mat system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of the reactor building foundation mat system represents a great challenge to industry, since the design codes are not written specifically for such large and complicated interfacing configurations. The experimental data are also not available for such mats. It relies heavily upon the designer to decide the appropriate analysis techniques and code applications. The large number of loading combinations in design and the complexity of detailing and construction demonstrate the difficulty of the task. A case study of a BWR 6, Mark III containment vessel reactor building foundation mat system is presented here to describe a complete design. Code jurisdictional boundaries for each component are attempted. The design of the mat has to comply with all the loading combinations required by the regulatory agencies. However, this results in a very large number of combinations to be considered. By inspection, the large number of loading combinations is reduced to a smaller number of controlling combinations, which is analyzed using computer programs. A finite elements model is used for analysis. The soil is represented as elastic springs at the nodes. Using a process of trial and error, the springs that produce tensile stresses are eliminated from subsequent analysis, and only compression springs are retained. This process should give a true picture of the stress conditionn under the mat, and also the stresses within the mat. An acceptance is discussed for the residual local tension forces. (orig./HP)

1981-08-21

365

Field testing of a high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The University of Minnesota Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) System has been operated as a field test facility for the past six years. Four short-term and two long-term cycles have been completed to data providing a greatly increased understanding of the efficiency and geochemical effects of high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage. A third long-term cycle is currently being planned to operate the ATES system in conjunction with a real heating load and to further study the geochemical impact on the aquifer from heated waste storage cycles. The most critical activities in the preparation for the next cycle have proved to be the applications for the various permits and variances necessary to conduct the third cycle and the matching of the characteristics of the ATES system during heat recovery with a suitable adjacent building thermal load.

Sterling, R.L.; Hoyer, M.C. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1989-03-01

366

Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

1997-05-01

367

Building load analysis of dispatchable peak-shaving photovoltaic systems: A regional analysis of technical and economic potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Roof-mounted photovoltaic (PV) systems, including a modest amount of battery storage, can provide firm peak-demand reductions for commercial buildings. The cost-effectiveness of a dispatchable peak-shaving PV system is determined by the demand reduction, which is a function of the solar resource and the building`s load profile, and electric utility rates. The analysis presented in this paper identifies building types and regions, from a database of eleven electric utility service territories distributed throughout the country, for which the economics of dispatchable peak-shaving PV are most favorable.

Byrne, J.; Letendre, S.; Wang, Y.D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Policy; Nigro, R. [Applied Energy Group, Hockessin, DE (United States); Ferguson, B. [Delmarva Power and Light, Wilmington, DE (United States)

1997-12-31

368

Fatty acid esters-based composite phase change materials for thermal energy storage in buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, fatty acid esters-based composite phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage were prepared by blending erythritol tetrapalmitate (ETP) and erythritol tetrastearate (ETS) with diatomite and expanded perlite (EP). The maximum incorporation percentage for ETP and ETS into diatomite and EP was found to be 57 wt% and 62 wt%, respectively without melted PCM seepage from the composites. The morphologies and compatibilities of the composite PCMs were structurally characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT–IR) analysis techniques. Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The DSC analyses results indicated that the composite PCMs were good candidates for building applications in terms of their large latent heat values and suitable phase change temperatures. The thermal cycling test including 1000 melting and freezing cycling showed that composite PCMs had good thermal reliability and chemical stability. TG analysis revealed that the composite PCMs had good thermal durability above their working temperature ranges. Moreover, in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the composite PCMs, the expanded graphite (EG) was added to them at different mass fractions (2%, 5%, and 10%). The best results were obtained for the composite PCMs including 5wt% EG content in terms of the increase in thermal conductivity values and the decrease amount in latent heat capacity. The improvement in thermal conductivity values of ETP/Diatomite, ETS/Diatomite, ETP/EP and ETS/EP were found to be about 68%, 57%, 73% and 75%, respectively. Highlights: ? Fatty acid esters-based composite PCMs were prepared by blending ETP and ETS with diatomite and expanded perlite. ? The composite PCMs were characterized by using SEM, FT–IR, DSC and TG analysis methods. ? The DSC results indicated that the composites PCMs had good thermal energy storage properties. ? TG analysis revealed that they had good thermal durability above their working temperature ranges.

2012-05-01

369

The CMS event builder and storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CMS event builder assembles events accepted by the first level trigger and makes them available to the high-level trigger. The event builder needs to handle a maximum input rate of 100 kHz and an aggregated throughput of 100 GB/s originating from approximately 500 sources. This paper presents the chosen hardware and software architecture. The system consists of 2 stages: an initial pre-assembly reducing the number of fragments by one order of magnitude and a final assembly by several independent readout builder (RU-builder) slices. The RU-builder is based on 3 separate services: the buffering of event fragments during the assembly, the event assembly, and the data flow manager. A further component is responsible for handling events accepted by the high-level trigger: the storage manager (SM) temporarily stores the events on disk at a peak rate of 2 GB/s until they are permanently archived offline. In addition, events and data-quality histograms are served by the SM to online monitoring clients. We discuss the operational experience from the first months of reading out cosmic ray data with the complete CMS detector.

Bauer, G [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Beccati, B; Cano, E; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, C; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino, R; Gutleber, J [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Behrens, U; Hatton, D [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Biery, K; Brett, A; Cheung, H [FNAL, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Branson, J; Dusinberre, E [University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Erhan, S [University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Rodrigues, F F, E-mail: remigius.mommsen@cern.c [Centro Federal de Educaiio Tecnolugica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2010-04-01

370

Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage and Photovoltaic Power Systems for Demand Charge Mitigation (Poster)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Commercial facility utility bills are often a strong function of demand charges -- a fee proportional to peak power demand rather than total energy consumed. In some instances, demand charges can constitute more than 50% of a commercial customer's monthly electricity cost. While installation of behind-the-meter solar power generation decreases energy costs, its variability makes it likely to leave the peak load -- and thereby demand charges -- unaffected. This then makes demand charges an even larger fraction of remaining electricity costs. Adding controllable behind-the-meter energy storage can more predictably affect building peak demand, thus reducing electricity costs. Due to the high cost of energy storage technology, the size and operation of an energy storage system providing demand charge management (DCM) service must be optimized to yield a positive return on investment (ROI). The peak demand reduction achievable with an energy storage system depends heavily on a facility's load profile, so the optimal configuration will be specific to both the customer and the amount of installed solar power capacity. We explore the sensitivity of DCM value to the power and energy levels of installed solar power and energy storage systems. An optimal peak load reduction control algorithm for energy storage systems will be introduced and applied to historic solar power data and meter load data from multiple facilities for a broad range of energy storage system configurations. For each scenario, the peak load reduction and electricity cost savings will be computed. From this, we will identify a favorable energy storage system configuration that maximizes ROI.

Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

2013-10-01

371

Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system.

Hsiao, M.-J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nan-Kai University of Technology, No. 568, Chung Cheng Road, Tsao Tun, Nan Tou 54243, Taiwan (China); Cheng, C.-H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Huang, M.-C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nan-Kai University of Technology, No. 568, Chung Cheng Road, Tsao Tun, Nan Tou 54243, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-L., E-mail: slchen01@ntu.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2009-12-15

372

Distributed Energy Systems with Wind Power and Energy Storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how loca...

Korpa?s, Magnus

2004-01-01

373

Storage of cold and heat in the Kunstcluster buildings, Tilburg, Netherlands. Final report; Koude Warmte Opslag Kunstcluster Tilburg. Eindrapportage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the project on the title subject is to invest in, realize and exploit cold and heat storage systems as part of a sustainable environmental and energy policy. The Kunstcluster buildings is a complex of buildings for artistic training, education and performances. By means of clusters and upscaling of such projects the risk of unwanted environmental effects can be limited. Also energy can be saved, the emission of CO2 and NOx can be reduced, acoustic annoyance avoided and the use of coolants pushed back. [Dutch] Het titel project richt zich op het investeren, realiseren en exploiteren van Koude Warmte Opslagsystemen in de context van een duurzaam milieu- en energieperspectief. Brabant Water wil als partij, deskundig op het gebied van bodembeheer in het kader van grondwaterbescherming, voorkomen dat er allemaal aparte boringen (kleinschalig) in de bodem worden geconstrueerd waardoor er 1 grote gatenkaas ontstaat met alle risico's op bodemverontreiniging van dien. Door clustervorming probeert Brabant Water opschaling van het project te realiseren en zo ook de beheersbaarheid van risico's te vergroten. Daarnaast leidt het uitvoeren van dergelijke projecten tot twee grote voordelen: minder snelle uitputting van fossiele energie en vermindering van de uitstoot van CO2 en NOx. Ook wordt de akoestische overlast verminderd en de inzet van koelmiddelen teruggedrongen. Dit levert een bijdrage aan het streven van de rijksoverheid om in 2020 10% van het totale Nederlandse energieverbruik via duurzame bronnen te dekken.

Kanters, K.; Kerstens, A.

2006-01-15

374

Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed.

Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

1978-01-01

375

Fabrication and properties of microencapsulated-paraffin/gypsum-matrix building materials for thermal energy storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: DSC curves of microPCMs/gypsum composite samples before and after a thermal cycling treatment. Highlights: ? Microcapsules containing paraffin was fabricated by in-situ polymerization. ? Methanol-modified melamine–formaldehyde (MMF) was used as shell material. ? MicroPCMs/gypsum-matrix building materials were applied for solar energy storage. ? The structure and thermal conductivity of composites had been investigated. - Abstract: Microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) have been widely applied in solid matrix as thermal-storage or temperature-controlling functional composites. The aim of this work was to prepare and investigate the properties of microPCMs/gypsum-matrix building materials for thermal energy storage. MicroPCMs contain paraffin was fabricated by in situ polymerization using methanol-modified melamine–formaldehyde (MMF) as shell material. A series of microPCMs samples were prepared under emulsion stirring rates in range of 1000–3000 r min?1 with core/shell weight ratios of 3/1, 2/1, 1/1, 1/2 and 1/3, respectively. The shell of microPCMs was smooth and compact with global shape, its thickness was not greatly affected by the core/shell ratio and emulsion stirring rate. DSC tests showed that the shell of microPCMs did not influence the phase change behavior of pure paraffin. It was found from TGA analysis that microPCMs samples containing paraffin lost their weight at the temperature of nearly 250 °C, which indicated that the PCM had been protected by shell. More shell material in microPCMs could enhance the thermal stability and provide higher compact condition for core material. After a 100-times thermal cycling treatment, the microPCMs contain paraffin also nearly did not change the phase change behaviors of PCM. With the increasing of weight contents of microPCMs in gypsum board, the thermal conductivity (?) values of composites had decreased. The simulation of temperature tests proved that the microPCMs/gypsum composite could store the time-dependent and intermittent solar energy, which did not necessarily meet the energy needs for space heating at all times.

2012-03-01

376

Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

2009-01-01

377

Small scale seasonal storage of solar energy for domestic heating : Simulation of solar fraction and storage design for low energy buildings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sun is a huge energy source with great potential of providing energy to the heating of homes and other buildings in an environmentally sustainable manner. In order to provide buildings with energy from the sun it is necessary to transfer the energy supply over time to when the demand arises. By storing the heat in a seasonal storage, solar energy from the summer can be used in the winter when the demand for heating is greatest. Today's existing plants are mainly in Europe and particularly...

2011-01-01

378

Control system design for robotic underground storage tank inspection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control and data acquisition systems for robotic inspection and surveillance systems used in nuclear waste applications must be capable, versatile, and adaptable to changing conditions. The nuclear waste remediation application is dynamic -- requirements change as public policy is constantly re-examined and refocused, and as technology in this area advances. Control and data acquisition systems must adapt to these changing conditions and be able to accommodate future missions, both predictable and unexpected. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System that is being developed for remote surveillance and inspection of underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. It is a high-performance system which has been designed for future growth. The priority mission at the Hanford site is to retrieve the waste generated by 50 years of production from its present storage and process it for final disposal. The LDUA will help to gather information about the waste and the tanks it is stored in to better plan and execute the cleanup mission

1995-02-05

379

Building thermal envelope systems and materials (BTESM) monthly progress report for DOE Office Buildings Energy Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

Burn, G. (comp.)

1990-11-01

380

Research of the hydrogen storage system with photovoltaic panels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fuel cells laboratory at the VSB-Technical University of Ostrava have recently finished the realisation of the laboratory energetic system for storage of electric power from renewable energy source (RES). This system comprises of two parts. The first part of the system consists of hydrogen production using the electric power from photovoltaic panels and its storage in vessels. The other part of the system uses hydrogen fuel cells to transform the energy from hydrogen into electric power. ...

Moldr?i?k, Petr; Hradi?lek, Zdene?k

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Development of a direct contact ice storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program described involves the design, construction, and performance testing of a Direct Freeze Thermal Energy Storage System. Task 1 (Design) has been completed; and Task 2 (construction) is in progress, with equipment procurements presently underway. Once constructed, the system will undergo extensive laboratory performance testing and analysis, followed by an assessment of the system`s cost effectiveness. This study will advance the understanding and development of the direct freeze concept, which offers inherent benefits for thermal energy storage.

Poirier, R. [Chicago Bridge & Iron Company, Plainfield, IL (United States)

1989-03-01

382

Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The penetration of renewable sources (particularly wind power) in to the power system network has been increasing in the recent years. As a result of this, there have been serious concerns over reliable and satisfactory operation of the power systems. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage devices into the power system network. Further, in the present deregulated markets these storage devices could also be...

Chandrashekhara, Divya K.; Řstergaard, Jacob

2008-01-01

383

The Assured Storage Integrated Management System: What is it and what will it cost?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Assured Storage Integrated Management System for low-level radioactive waste as an alternative to traditional disposal is attracting favorable attention from many states, regulators, processors, and low-level radioactive waste generators. open-quotes Assured storageclose quotes is defined as a management system for safely isolating waste, while preserving options for its long-term management, through: robust, accessible facilities; planned preventive maintenance; and sureties adequate to address contingencies or implement future alternatives. Following introduction of the concept in RADWASTE Magazine, the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service (among several others) requested a briefing on the idea. The Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service then requested that the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory evaluate the life cycle costs of the Assured Storage Integrated Management System versus traditional disposal. Building on some of that work, this paper discusses the concept of an Assured Storage Integrated Management System for low-level radioactive waste as well as examines cost elements of the Assured Storage Integrated Management System in comparison to traditional disposal facilities. Further analyses conducted for the Connecticut study will more clearly define and quantify potential differences in life-cycle costs between the Assured Storage Integrated Management System and traditional disposal

1996-10-01

384

New data storage and retrieval systems for JET data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the start of the Joint European Torus (JET), an IBM mainframe has been the main platform for data analysis and storage (J. Comput. Phys. 73 (1987) 85). The mainframe was removed in June 2001 and Solaris and Linux are now the main data storage and analysis platforms. New data storage and retrieval systems have therefore been developed: the Data Warehouse, the JET pulse file server, and the processed pulse file system. In this paper, the new systems will be described, and the design decisions that led to the final systems will be outlined.

Layne, Richard E-mail: richard.layne@ukaea.org.uk; Wheatley, Martin E-mail: martin.wheatley@ukaea.org.uk

2002-06-01

385

Performance Analysis and Improvement of Storage Virtualization in an OS-Online System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An OS-online system called TransCom is based on a virtual storage system that supports heterogeneous services of the operating system and applications online. In TransCom, OS and software which run in the client are stored on the centralized servers, while computing tasks are carried out by the clients, so the server is the bottleneck of the system performance. This paper firstly analyzes the characteristics of its real usage workload and builds a queuing model to locate the system bottleneck...

Yuan Gao; Yaoxue Zhang; Yuezhi Zhou

2012-01-01

386

Performance evaluation of mass storage systems for scientific databases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mass storage systems for computers are the solution to economic storage of vast volumes of data. These systems evolved from the traditional tape libraries manned by operating personnel and the automation of the storage and retrieval function has led to significant improvement in performance. But in contrast to traditional computer systems, little work has been done to characterize performance in terms of the design parameters. The design and performance analysis of mass storage systems is complicated due to several reasons. A major reason for the complexity is the time lags that may occur in retrieving parts of the information meant for the same query. The usual queuing models used for analyzing disk performance are not directly applicable, because there is greater scope for working in parallel in mass storage systems such as robotic libraries, which help mitigate these shortcomings. In this note, robotic libraries are modeled as queueing systems and explicit results related to performance are obtained. The physical model corresponds to a mass storage system, where the information is stored in cassettes, which are retrieved by robots to be read using one or two read heads. The results pertain to the effect of file splitting on cassettes, and optimal configuration and control of robots that perform the retrieval and storage functions.

Segev, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Haas School of Business]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Information and Computing Sciences Div.; Seshadri, S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Haas School of Business; Rotem, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Information and Computing Sciences Div.

1994-09-01

387

WATSTORE: NATIONAL WATER DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) consists of several files in which water data are grouped and stored by common characteristics and data-collection frequencies. Files are maintained for the storage of (1) surface-water, q...

388

Distributed mass storage and management systems at DESY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DESY is on the way of massive change in connecting and accessing Mass Storage systems. The main goal is to have full network connected storage devices combined with central network services which should be connected in case of store or retrieve of data

1994-04-21

389

Analysis of Geothermal Heating System for Buildings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One-third of the world energy utilization is for space heating and cooling. Steady increase in the prices of sources of energy and electricity has resulted in more and more use of alternate sources of energy such as geothermal energy for heating and cooling. Maximum heat loss from the building and water flow rate are for the month of January. The value of maximum heat loss is 3.41 kW and that for water flow rate is 0.84 m3/hrespectively. The maximum savings in terms of value and energy by using the geothermal heating system are again for the month of January in terms of energy 1038 units of electricity and in terms of value Rs. 5191 respectively. Total savings for the winter season in terms of energy are 2983 units of electricity and in terms of value are Rs. 14915.

R K Pal

2013-08-01

390

Principles and Solutions of the New System Building Technology (TAT).  

Science.gov (United States)

The TAT-building system is aimed to work as a basis in the development of new generation of industrialized building technology in Finland. Original title 'TAT' means the product development of apartment and office buildings. As English title 'TAT' could b...

A. Sarja

1989-01-01

391

A VRLA battery energy storage system for Metlakatla, Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emergence of new power electronics and improved battery technology has created renewed interest in Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS). These new systems provide electric utilities with alternatives to conventional storage technologies, such as pumped hydro. BESs has the potential to provide substantial benefits in terms of energy management, improved voltage, spinning reserve and protection from interruptions when compared to large centralized storage. This paper describes a commercial, economically justified, application of the new Battery Energy Storage Systems which is presently under construction in the Metlakatla Power and Light system. The paper outlines the system performance requirements which lead to consideration of BESS as an option; the economic factors which provided the justification for BESS as an economic alternative; and the overall BES system design and performance.

Miller, N.W.; Zrebiec, R.S.; Delmerico, R.W. [GE Power Systems Engineering, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hunt, G. [GNB Industrial Battery, Lombard, IL (United States); Achenbach, H.A. [Metlakatla Power and Light, AK (United States)

1996-11-01

392

Metal hydride material requirements for automotive hydrogen storage systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has published a progression of technical targets to be satisfied by on-board rechargeable hydrogen storage systems in light-duty vehicles. By combining simplified storage system and vehicle models with interpolated data from metal hydride databases, we obtain material-level requirements for metal hydrides that can be assembled into systems that satisfy the DOE targets for 2017. We assume minimal balance-of-plant components for sys...

Pasini, Jose Miguel; Corgnale, Claudio; Hassel, Bart A.; Motyka, Theodore; Kumar, Sudarshan; Simmons, Kevin L.

2013-01-01

393

Analysis of the Repair Time in Distributed Storage Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Distributed or peer-to-peer storage systems introduce redundancy to preserve the data in case of peer failures or departures. To ensure long-term fault tolerance, the storage system must have a self-repair service that continuously reconstructs lost fragments of redundancy. The speed of this reconstruction process is crucial for the data survival. This speed is mainly determined by available bandwidth, a critical resource of such systems. We propose a new analytical framework that takes into ...

2011-01-01

394

Integrating Building Automation Systems based on Web Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is of great advantage to integrate building automation systems (BAS) in intelligent buildings using networks (LAN or WAN).This paper addresses three technical issues in the integration of BASs. One is the integration between BASs and existing enterprise applications. The second is the integration of BASs which adopt different international standardized protocols. The third is the integration of building automation subsystems. The “intelligence” of intelligent buildings is still...

Jianbo Bai; Yuzhe Hao; Guochang Miao

2011-01-01

395

Fire endurance of multicellular panels in an FRP building system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fiber-reinforced synthetic polymers (FRP) are the building materials that may permit both the improvement of long-term building performance and the simplification of the construction process. Thanks to their high specific strength, low thermal conductivity, good environmental resistance, and their ability to be formed into complex shapes, FRP materials are well-suited to fulfilling many building functions. By integrating traditionally separate building systems and layers into single function-...

Tracy, Craig D.

2005-01-01

396

Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY98  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1998.

Butler, P.C.

1999-04-01

397

Development of a transportable storage system for spent nuclear fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rancho Seco shut down permanently in June 1989. An integral part of the decommissioning strategy is what to do with the spent fuel. It was concluded that dry storage was the best option. Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) contracted with VECTRA to develop a transportable storage system. The licensing status and impact limiter testing program are described here. Also DOE`s demonstration programs for the transportable storage system and dry transfer system are discussed. Finally, the author addresses melt refining as a viable means of volume reduction for low-level wastes.

Jones, B. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

398

Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY99  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to develop cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications in collaboration with academia and industry. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1999.

BOYES,JOHN D.

2000-06-01

399

Energy storage systems program report for FY97  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1997. 46 figs., 20 tabs.

Butler, P.C.

1998-08-01

400

Energy storage in power system with wind power farms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the problems with balance of energy in power system with wind power farms. The operation of wind power farms is possible only during proper wind. Therefore there must be in power system some energy ''bunkers'', which ensure the balance of energy. Such the bunkers should work reversibly. They create the possibility of energy storage, when there is excess of power and utilization, when there is deficiency of power. The paper contains analysis of cooperation of wind power farms with different systems of energy storage. The exact analysis is done for wind power farm and pumped storage power plant. (orig.)

Malyszko, O.; Zenczak, M. [West Pomeranian Univ. of Technology, Szczecin (Poland)

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
401

A vacuum data retrieval system for SSRF storage ting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we report the design and implementation of a Web-based database system for the SSRF storage ring vacuum status. A vacuum data acquisition system based on EPICS was developed for implementation of the system. By storing the vacuum gauge readings, the average pressure,beam lifetime and beam current to the historical database using Channel Archiver, the data can be retrieved from any online computers. A proper and effective platform for sharing the SSRF storage ring vacuum data has been built. It offers usable and reliable vacuum data of the storage ring for operators and the users. (authors)

2010-09-01

402

The status of the Fermilab data storage system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the Fermilab Data Storage System Enstore, its design concepts, structure, and current status. Enstore provides storage of the data in robotic tape libraries according to requirements of the experiments. High fault tolerance and availability, as well as multilevel priority based request processing allows experiments to effectively store and access data in the Enstore. Amount of data stored in the system currently approaches 2 PBytes. The Enstore system includes 5 robotic tape libraries, more than 100 PC nodes, and 90 tape drives. The distributed structure and modularity of Enstore allows scaling of the system and adding of more storage equipment as the requirements and needs grow. Users access data in Enstore directly using a special command. They can also use ftp, GridFtp, and SRM interfaces to the dCache c